3Ŧ4 A2 unlL l214ť CommunlcaLlonţ PomeosLasls and Lnergy

Module 1: Communication and Homeostasis

4.1.1 Communication

a) ouLllne Lhe need for communlcaLlon sysLems wlLhln mulLlcellular organlsmsţ wlLh reference
Lo Lhe need Lo respond Lo changes ln Lhe lnLernal and exLernal envlronmenL and Lo coŴ
ordlnaLe Lhe acLlvlLles of dlfferenL organsŤ



b) sLaLe LhaL cells need Lo communlcaLe wlLh each oLher by a process called cell slgnalllngŤ
c) sLaLe LhaL neuronal and hormonal sysLems are examples of cell slgnalllngŤ

O Cell slgnalllng
4 hormonal Ŷ eŦgŦ adrenallne
4 neuronal Ŷ eŦgŦ pupll consLrlcLlon

d) deflne Lhe Lerms negaLlve feedbackţ poslLlve feedback and homeosLaslsŤ

O PomeosLasls
4 1he malnLenance of a consLanL lnLernal envlronmenLţ desplLe exLernal changes
O negaLlve feedback
4 Lhe reversal of any change ln condlLlons Lo brlng back Lo opLlmum condlLlonsŦ
LssenLlal for homeosLasls
O ÞoslLlve feedback
4 1he lncrease of any change ln condlLlonsţ Lo move condlLlons furLher away from
opLlmum condlLlons

e) explaln Lhe prlnclples of homeosLasls ln Lerms of recepLorsţ effecLors and negaLlve feedbackŤ

O change ln sLlmull deLecLed (recepLors)
O reversal of any lncrease/decrease (negaLlve feedback)
O response produced (effecLors)

f) descrlbe Lhe physlologlcal and behavloural responses LhaL malnLaln a consLanL core body
LemperaLure ln ecLoLherms and endoLhermsţ wlLh reference Lo perlpheral LemperaLure
recepLorsţ Lhe hypoLhalamus and effecLors ln skln and musclesŦ

LndoLherms (can generaLe lnLernal heaL) LcLoLherms (dependenL on exLernal Lemp)
1emp NJ 1emp Nj 1emp NJ 1emp Nj
O lncŦ SweaLlng
O lncŦ venLllaLlon raLe
O LrecLor plll relax
O vasodllaLlon
O uecŦ sweaLlng
O lncŦ Shlverlng
O LrecLor plll
conLracL
O vasoconsLrlcLlon

O Move Lo shade
O Less SA exposed Lo
llghL

O Move Lo sunllghL
O More SA exposed
Lo llghL


4.1.2 Nerves

a) ouLllne Lhe roles of sensory recepLors ln mammals ln converLlng dlfferenL forms of energy
lnLo nerve lmpulsesŤ


O Sensory recepLors converL dlfferenL forms of energy lnLo elecLrlcal energy/nerve lmpulses
O ÞhoLorecepLor Ŷ cones and rodsţ deLecL llghL lnLenslLy and wavelengLh
O ChemorecepLor Ŷ aorLa and caroLld arLerlesţ deLecL pP
O 8arorecepLor Ŷ caroLld slnusţ deLecL blood pressure
O 1hermorecepLor Ŷ sklnţ deLecL LemperaLure
O ClfacLory cells Ŷ nasal cavlLyţ deLecL smell
O ÞroprlocepLor Ŷ musclesţ deLecL sLreLch
O Sound recepLors Ŷ cochleaţ deLecL sound

b) descrlbeţ wlLh Lhe ald of dlagramsţ Lhe sLrucLure and funcLlons of sensory and moLor
neuronesŤ



c) descrlbe and explaln how Lhe resLlng poLenLlal ls esLabllshed and malnLalnedŤ


O na
+
/k
+
pump helps Lo malnLaln resLlng poLenLlal
O 3 na
+
ouL/2 k
+
ln
O CyLoplasm conLalns negaLlve lons (chlorlde lons)
O lnslde of cell more negaLlve relaLlve Lo ouLslde of cell Ŷ polarlsed


d) descrlbe and explaln how an acLlon poLenLlal ls generaLedŤ


O SLlmulus acLlvaLes recepLors near generaLor reglonţ opens na
+
channels
O na
+
lons dlffuse lnLo cell
O 8esLlng ÞoLenLlal lncreases Lo 1hreshold ÞoLenLlal
O volLageŴgaLed na
+
channels open
O Large lnflux of na
+
Ŵ uepolarlsaLlon
O na
+
channels closeţ k
+
channels open
O Lfflux of k
+
from cyLoplasm Lo ouLslde of cell
O Cell become Pyperpolarlsed Ŷ k
+
channels slow Lo close
O AcLlon of na
+
/k
+
pump brlngs poLenLlal dlfference back Lo 8esLlng ÞoLenLlal

e) descrlbe and explaln how an acLlon poLenLlal ls LransmlLLed ln a myellnaLed neuroneţ wlLh
reference Lo Lhe roles of volLageŴgaLed sodlum lon and poLasslum lon channelsŤ




f) lnLerpreL graphs of Lhe volLage changes Laklng place durlng Lhe generaLlon and Lransmlsslon
of an acLlon poLenLlalŤ




g) ouLllne Lhe slgnlflcance of Lhe frequency of lmpulse LransmlsslonŤ


O SLrong sLlmull lncreased frequency of AÞ's 8raln deLecLs lncreased frequency
O Jeak sLlmull uecreased frequency of AÞ's 8raln deLecLs decreased frequency

h) compare and conLrasL Lhe sLrucLure and funcLlon of myellnaLed and nonŴmyellnaLed
neuronesŤ




l) descrlbeţ wlLh Lhe ald of dlagramsţ Lhe sLrucLure of a chollnerglc synapseŤ


O ÞreŴsynapLlc membrane
4 volLageŴgaLed Ca2+ channels
4 veslcles (conLalng AceLylchollne)
4 Many mlLochondrla
O ÞosLŴsynapLlc membrane
4 LlgandŴgaLed na+ channels
4 AceLylchollnesLerase











[) ouLllne Lhe role of neuroLransmlLLers ln Lhe Lransmlsslon of acLlon poLenLlalsŤ




k) ouLllne Lhe roles of synapses ln Lhe nervous sysLemŦ




4.1.3 Hormones

a) deflne Lhe Lerms eoJoctloe qlooJţ exoctloe qlooJţ botmooe and totqet tlssoeŤ




b) explaln Lhe meanlng of Lhe Lerms €ltst messeoqet and secooJ messeoqetţ wlLh reference Lo
adrenallne and cycllc AMÞ (cAMÞ)Ť




c) descrlbe Lhe funcLlons of Lhe adrenal glandsŤ




d) descrlbeţ wlLh Lhe ald of dlagrams and phoLographsţ Lhe hlsLology of Lhe pancreasţ and
ouLllne lLs role as an endocrlne and exocrlne glandŤ




e) explaln how blood glucose concenLraLlon ls regulaLedţ wlLh reference Lo lnsullnţ glucagon
and Lhe llverŤ




f) ouLllne how lnsulln secreLlon ls conLrolledţ wlLh reference Lo poLasslum channels and
calclum channels ln beLa cellsŤ




g) compare and conLrasL Lhe causes of 1ype 1 (lnsullnŴdependenL) and 1ype 2 (nonŴlnsullnŴ
dependenL) dlabeLes melllLusŤ




h) dlscuss Lhe use of lnsulln produced by geneLlcally modlfled bacLerlaţ and Lhe poLenLlal use of
sLem cellsţ Lo LreaL dlabeLes melllLus (PSJaţ 7b)Ť




l) ouLllne Lhe hormonal and nervous mechanlsms lnvolved ln Lhe conLrol of hearL raLe ln
humansŦ




Module 2: Excretion

4.2.1 Excretion

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