Overheads

to

The Basics of Biblical Greek

By
Dr. William D. Mounce
© 1993-1999 All Rights Reserved
page 2

Preface

Included is what I hope will become a growing body of visual teaching aids. So much of our edu-
cational theory is designed for auditory learners, not visual learners. Hopefully these overheads
will help all students.
We are starting with very basic overheads. If you have some ideas that you would like me to do
and include in this packets in future years (with due credit given to you), please send your sam-
ples to Bill Mounce, Teknia, PO Box 337, Wenham, MA 01984, or email me at lbbg@teknia.com.
Teachers using

The Basics of Biblical Greek

may copy these overheads, both for overheads and stu-
dent handouts, provided that the copies are distributed at cost.
First printing . . . . . . . Fall, 1993
Second printing . . . . . . Fall, 1999
Chapter 3 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Chapter 3

Alphabet

(

§

3.3.2)
e 3 v é
. n 0 t
ì a v :
a 5 o .
u e ¿ u
Chapter 3 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Vowels

(

§

3.4)
e s n
c t
u
æ
Chapter 3 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Breathings (

§§§ §

3.4-5)

1. eacotcìc.
2. uas5
3. 5ucaet
4. ettsæ
5. Attsæ
6. ∆Inocu.
Chapter 3 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Diphthong

(

§

3.5)
Chapter 4 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Chapter 4

Accents

(

§

4.2)

Acute:

uas5

Grave:

uas5

Circumßex:

avsuae
Chapter 4 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Co-Elision

(

§

4.2)
Chapter 4 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Vocabulary
5,437 different words
138,162 total occurrences
79.92 % of all occurrences
Words occurring 50 times and more account
for 110,425 of the total word occurrences, or
almost 80%.
Chapter 4 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Nominative and Genitive Paradigm

2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg

ìcvc. v5een s5vcv
æ5e

acc sg

ìcvcv v5eenv s5vcv
æ5ev

nom pl

ìcvct v5eeet s5ve
æ5et

acc pl

ìcvcu. v5eee. s5ve
æ5e.
Chapter 5 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Chapter 5

Terminology

(

§

5.3-5)

Case:

Nominative (subject)
Accusative (direct object)

Number:

Singular
Plural

Gender:

Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Chapter 6 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Chapter 6

Nominative and Accusative

(

§

6.3)
ÒThe apostle sends the apostle.Ó
. nominative subject
v accusative direct object
c eacotcìc. asaast tcv eacotcìcv.
Chapter 6 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

From Case to Function to Meaning

1. Case
2. Function
3. Meaning
your translation
nominative
subject predicate
nominative
Instead of thinking about word order, you should Þrst look at the wordÕs case, from
the case determine the wordÕs function, and from the function determine the wordÕs
meaning. Do not try to determine function on the basis of word order.
Chapter 6 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Parsing Made Simple
Step #1: Case ending
Step #2: Declension
Step #3: Gender
Step #4: Parsing
nom sing fem
t 1st nom plural fem
v 1st acc sing fem
2nd masc acc sing masc
neut nom/acc sing
The goal is to move from the case ending to the parsing. There are several scenarios. Sometimes you
can see the case ending and know automatically what it must be (e.g., no ending). In this case you can
skip steps #2 nd #3. Other times you have to see the declension. For example, iota can be found several
places, but if it is a Þrst declension noun then it must be nom plural fem. A third scenario requires you
to move through the declension all the way to gender, as in the ending nu.
Chapter 6 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce

Paradigm

(

§

6.13,15)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg . v
acc sg v v v
nom pl t t e
acc pl u. . e
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg ìcvc. v5een s5vcv
æ5e
acc sg ìcvcv v5eenv s5vcv
æ5ev
nom pl ìcvct v5eeet s5ve
æ5et
acc pl ìcvcu. v5eee. s5ve
æ5e.
Chapter 6 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Alternate Paradigm (#6.13,15)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg c. n cv
acc sg cv nv cv
nom pl ct et e
acc pl cu. e. e
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg ìcvc. v5een s5vcv
æ5e
acc sg ìcvcv v5eenv s5vcv
æ5ev
nom pl ìcvct v5eeet s5ve
æ5et
acc pl ìcvcu. v5eee. s5ve
æ5e.
For teachers preferring to show the Þnal stem vowel with the case ending, we have included sev-
eral alternate paradigms.
Chapter 6 page 6
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Nouns Rules 1-3 (§§§ §6.20)
e/n à 1st declension
neuter nom = neuter acc
neuter nom/acc plural = e
Chapter 6 page 7
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Noun Rule §§§ §2
Chapter 6 page 8
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
The Fog
The only way is through!
Chapter 6 page 9
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Nominative and Accusative
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg . v
acc sg v v v
nom pl t t e
acc pl u. . e
nom sg c ìcvc. n v5een tc s5vcv
n æ5e
acc sg tcv ìcvcv tnv v5eenv tc s5vcv
tnv æ5ev
nom pl ct ìcvct et v5eeet te s5ve
et æ5et
acc pl tcu. ìcvcu. te. v5eee. te s5ve
te. æ5e.
Chapter 6 page 10
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Nominative and Accusative
(alternate)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg c. n cv
acc sg cv nv cv
nom pl ct et e
acc pl cu. e. e
nom sg c ìcvc. n v5een tc s5vcv
n æ5e
acc sg tcv ìcvcv tnv v5eenv tc s5vcv
tnv æ5ev
nom pl ct ìcvct et v5eeet te s5ve
et æ5et
acc pl tcu. ìcvcu. te. v5eee. te s5ve
te. æ5e.
Chapter 7 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 7
Indirect vs. Direct Object (§7.2)
Karin threw Brad a ball.
Karin threw Brad .
Chapter 7 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Case Endings
(First and Second Declension)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg . v
gen sg u . u
dat sg t t t
acc sg v v v
nom pl t t e
gen pl æv æv æv
dat pl t. t. t.
acc pl u. . e
Chapter 7 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Case Endings (§7.6)
(First and Second Declension)
(alternate)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg c. n cv
gen sg cu n. cu
dat sg æ n æ
acc sg cv nv cv
nom pl ct et e
gen pl æv æv æv
dat pl ct. et. ct.
acc pl cu. e. e
Chapter 7 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
DeÞnite Article (§7.7)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg c n tc
gen sg tcu tn. tcu
dat sg tæ tn tæ
acc sg tcv tnv tc
nom pl ct et te
gen pl tæv tæv tæv
dat pl tct. tet. tct.
acc pl tcu. te. te
Chapter 7 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Full Paradigm (§7.8)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg c ìcvc. n v5een tc s5vcv
n æ5e
gen sg tcu ìcvcu tn. v5een. tcu s5vcu
tn. æ5e.
dat sg tæ ìcvæ tn v5een tæ s5væ
tn æ5e
acc sg tcv ìcvcv tnv v5eenv tc s5vcv
tnv æ5ev
nom pl ct ìcvct et v5eeet te s5ve
gen pl tæv ìcvæv tæv v5eeæv tæv s5væv
dat pl tct. ìcvct. tet. v5eeet. tct. s5vct.
acc pl tcu. ìcvcu. te. v5eee. te s5ve
Chapter 7 page 6
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Noun Rules 4-6 (§7.10)
Dative singular?
Iota subscripts (if possible)
Ablaut
Genitive & Dative?
Masculine = neuter
Chapter 7 page 7
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Noun Rule §§§ §6 (§7.10)
Chapter 8 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 8
A Preposition and its Object (§8.2)
The object follows its preposition.
The object governs the meaning of the preposition.
Object
Preposition
Chapter 8 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Movable Nu (§8.10)
Chapter 8 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Dependent Clauses (§8.11)
Subject
Main Verb
Chapter 8 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Prepositions
uac
sk
éte
eac
a5c.
st.
a
e
5
e

sv
Chapter 9 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 9
Functions of an Adjective (§9.1)
ÒGoodÓ
Adjectivally Substantivally
(regular adjective) (noun)
ÒHe is a good boy.Ó ÒThe good, the
bad, and the ugly
are welcome
here.Ó
Chapter 9 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Types of Adjectives (§9.2)
ÒTallÓ
Attributive Predicate
(gives an attribute) (predicates)
ÒThe girl is tall.Ó ÒThe tall girl plays
basketball.Ó
Chapter 9 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Adjectival Use of the Adjective (§9.11-13)
Attributive: immediately preceded by the
article.
c eve0c. ev05æac. ÒThe good man.Ó
c eve0c. c ev05æac. ÒThe good man.Ó
Predicate: not preceded by the article.
c ev05æac. eve0c. ÒThe man is good.Ó
eve0c. c ev05æac. ÒThe man is good.Ó
No article: see context
eve0c. ev05æac. ÒGood man.Ó
ÒMan is good.Ó
eve0c. ev05æac. ÒGood man.Ó
ÒMan is good.Ó
Chapter 9 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Adjective (§9.6)
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg eve0c. eve0n eve0cv
gen sg eve0cu eve0n. eve0cu
dat sg eve0æ eve0n eve0æ
acc sg eve0cv eve0nv eve0cv
nom pl eve0ct eve0et eve0e
gen pl eve0æv eve0æv eve0æv
dat pl eve0ct. eve0et. eve0ct.
acc pl eve0cu. eve0e. eve0e
Chapter 9 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Adjective Positions (§9.11-13)
Chapter 10 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 10
A Walk Through (§10.7)
nom sg oe5k + . ≥ oe5:
gen sg oe5k + c. ≥ oe5kc.
dat sg oe5k + t ≥ oe5kt√
acc sg oe5k + e ≥ oe5ke
nom pl oe5k + s. ≥ oe5ks.
gen pl oe5k + æv ≥ oe5kæv
dat pl oe5k + ot'v| ≥ oe5:t√'v|
acc pl oe5k + e. ≥ oe5ke.
Chapter 10 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Case Ending Chart (§10.10)
1st/2nd declension 3rd declension
masc fem neut masc/
fem
neut
nom sg
. v .
gen sg
u . u c. c.
dat sg
t t t t t
acc sg
v v v e/v
nom pl
t t e s. e
gen pl
æv æv æv æv æv
dat pl
t. t. t. ot'v| ot'v|
acc pl
u. . e e. e
Chapter 10 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule 7: Square of Stops (§10.13, 16)
Labial a 3 e
Velar k v ¿
Dental t é 0
Labial + o ≥ u
Velar + o ≥ :
Dental + o ≥ o
Chapter 10 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule 8 (§10.18)
A tau cannot stand at the end of
a word and will drop off.
cvcae
t
Chapter 10 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Please!
No More Quizzes!
Chapter 11 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 11
First and Second Person
Personal Pronouns (§11.6)
Þrst second translation
nom sg svæ ou I you
gen sg acu ocu my your
dat sg act oct to me to you
acc sg as os me you
nom pl nast. uast. we you
gen pl naæv uaæv our your
dat pl natv uatv us you
acc pl nae. uae. us you
Chapter 12 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 12
Third Person Personal Pronoun (§12.3)
2 1 2
masc fem neut translation
nom sg eutc. eutn eutc he she it
gen sg eutcu eutn. eutcu his her its
dat sg eutæ eutn eutæ to him to her to it
acc sg eutcv eutnv eutc him her it
nom pl eutct eutet eute they
gen pl eutæv eutæv eutæv their
dat pl eutct. eutet. eutct. to them
acc pl eutcu. eute. eute them
Chapter 12 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Three Uses of eutc. (§12.12)
use comment translation
1. Pronoun Non-intensive. Òhe, she , itÓ
2. Adj. intensive Usually predicate position. Òhim/her/itselfÓ
Normally in the nominative.
3. Identical adj. Usually attributive position. ÒsameÓ
1. eutc. ìsvst ...
2. tcv ∆Inocuv eutcv
∆Inocu. eutc. ....
3. c eutc. ∆Inocu. ...
Chapter 13 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 13
cutc. (§13.4)
masc fem neut
nom sg cutc. eutn tcutc
gen sg tcutcu teutn. tcutcu
dat sg tcutæ teutn tcutæ
acc sg tcutcv teutnv tcutc
nom pl cutct eutet teute
gen pl tcutæv tcutæv tcutæv
dat pl tcutct. teutet. tcutct.
acc pl tcutcu. teute. teute
Chapter 13 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
sss s kkk ksss sttt t vvv vccc c... . (§13.5)
masc fem neut
nom sg skstvc. skst√vn skstvc
gen sg skst√vcu skst√vn. skst√vcu
dat sg skst√væ skst√vn skst√væ
acc sg skstvcv skst√vnv skstvc
nom pl skstvct skstvet skstve
gen pl skst√væv skst√væv skst√væv
dat pl skst√vct. skst√vet. skst√vct.
acc pl skst√vcu. skst√ve. skstve
Chapter 14 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 14
Relative Pronoun (§14.7)
2 1 2
masc fem neut translation
nom sg c. n c who/which/that
gen sg cu n. cu of whom/which
dat sg æ n æ to whom/which
acc sg cv nv c whom/which/that
nom pl ct et e who/which/that
gen pl æv æv æv of whom/which
dat pl ct. et. ct. to whom/which
acc pl cu. e. e whom/which/that
Chapter 15 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 15
Agreement (§15.3) Subject and verb must
ÒagreeÓ in person and
number.
Person (§15.4) First: ÒIÓ, ÒWeÓ
Second: ÒYouÓ
Third: ÒHe/She/It, They
Number (§15.5) Singular
Plural
Chapter 15 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Aspect (§15.6-7) Continuous
UndeÞned
Perfect
UndeÞned vs. Punctiliar
Tense (§15.11) Present
Future
Past
Time (§15.11)
Voice (§15.12) Active
Middle
Passive
Mood (§15.13) Indicative
Chapter 15 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Parts of the Verb (§15.16-18)
ìu c asv
Stem (§15.16)
Personal ending (§15.18)
Connecting vowel (§15.17)
Chapter 16 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 16
Present Active Indicative (§16.3,10)
Present Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Primary Active Personal Endings
ìu + c + asv ≥ ìucasv
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg ìu æ I am loosing c
2 sg ìu st. You are loosing s .
3 sg ìu st He/she/it is loosing s t
1 pl ìu casv We are loosing c asv
2 pl ìu sts You are loosing s ts
3 pl ìu cuot'v| They are loosing c vot
Chapter 16 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
First of Four Endings (§16.12)
ìuæ '|
ìust. '.|
ìust 't|
ìucasv 'asv|
ìusts 'ts|
ìucuot'v| 'vot|
secondary tenses
a
c
t
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
m
i
d
d
l
e
/
p
a
s
s
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
primary tenses
Chapter 16 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Chapter 16 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Do You Feel Like You Are Sinking?
Hang In There!
DANGER!
Greek Quicksand
Chapter 17 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 17
Five Rules of Contraction (§17.4)
1. cu is formed by sc, cs, and cc.
2. st is formed by ss.
3. æ is formed from almost any
combination of omicron or
omega with any other vowel,
except for rule #1.
4. e is formed from es
5. n is formed from se.
Chapter 17 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Alternate Rules of Contraction (§§§ §17.8)
1. Two like vowels form their common long
vowel.
2. Exception: When e and e contract they
form st. and when c and c contract they
form cu.
3. An c or æ will overcome an e. s. or n
regardless of their order, and form æ.
4. Exception: When an s and c contract
they form cu. regardless of their order.
5. If an e comes before an s or an n. they
will contract to an e.
If an s or an n comes before an e. they
will contract to an n.
Chapter 17 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Contractions (§17.10-11)
eee e sss s nnn n ttt t uuu u ccc c æææ æ
eee e e e e et eu æ æ
sss s n sss sttt t n st su ccc cuuu u æ
ccc c æ ccc cuuu u æ ct cu ccc cuuu u æ
eee ettt t/eee e sss sttt t sss sttt t nnn n ccc cttt t ccc cuuu u æææ æ
eee e e e e e æ æ æ
sss s n st st n ct cu æ
ccc c æ ct cu ct ct cu æ
Chapter 18 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 18
Present Passive Indicative (§18.4)
Present Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
ìu + c + aet ≥ ìucaet
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg ìu c aet I am being loosed c aet
2 sg ìu n You are being loosed s oet
3 sg ìu s tet He/she/it is being loosed s tet
1 pl ìu c as0e We are being loosed c as0e
2 pl ìu s o0s You are being loosed s o0s
3 pl ìu c vtet They are being loosed c vtet
Chapter 18 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second of Four Endings (§18.6)
ìuæ '|
ìust. '.|
ìust 't|
ìucasv 'asv|
ìusts 'ts|
ìucuot'v| 'vot|
secondary tenses
a
c
t
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
ìucaet 'aet|
ìun 'oet|
ìustet 'tet|
ìucas0e 'as0e|
ìuso0s 'o0s|
ìucvtet 'vtet|
m
i
d
d
l
e
/
p
a
s
s
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
primary tenses
Chapter 18 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Present Middle Indicative (§18.10-11)
Present Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
s5¿ + c + aet ≥ s5¿caet
form deÞnition c.v. p.e.
1 sg s5¿ c aet I come c aet
2 sg s5¿ n You come s oet
3 sg s5¿ s tet He/she/it come s tet
1 pl s5¿ c as0e We come c as0e
2 pl s5¿ s o0s You come s o0s
3 pl s5¿ c vtet They come c vtet
Chapter 18 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Chapter 19 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 19
Future Active Indicative (§19.4,9)
Future Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (o) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Active Personal Endings
ìu + o + c + asv ≥ ìuocasv
form deÞnition c.v. p.e.
1 sg ìu o æ I will loose c
2 sg ìu o st. You will loose s .
3 sg ìu o st He/she/it will loose s t
1 pl ìu o casv We will loose c asv
2 pl ìu o sts You will loose s ts
3 pl ìu c uot'v| They will loose c vot
Chapter 19 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Future Middle Indicative (§19.14,15)
Future Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (o) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
ac5su + o + c + aet ≥ ac5suocaet
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg ac5su o c aet I will go c aet
2 sg ac5su o n You will go s oet
3 sg ac5su o s tet He/she/it will go s tet
1 pl ac5su o c as0e We will go c as0e
2 pl ac5su o s o0s You will go s o0s
3 pl ac5su o c vtet They will go c vtet
Chapter 19 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
Chapter 20 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 20
Verbal Root and Stem (§20.2-3)
Verbal Root
P
r
e
s
e
n
t

s
t
e
m
F
u
t
u
r
e

s
t
e
m
I
m
p
e
r
f
e
c
t

s
t
e
m
A
o
r
i
s
t

s
t
e
m
P
e
r
f
e
c
t

s
t
e
m
Chapter 20 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Liquid Future Active (§20.16-17)
Future Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (so) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Active Personal Endings
k5tv + so + c + asv ≥ k5tvcuasv
form translation
1 sg k5tvæ I will judge soc
2 sg k5tvst. You will judge sos .
3 sg k5tvst He/she/it will judge sos t
1 pl k5tvcuasv We will judge soc asv
2 pl k5tvstts You will judge sos ts
3 pl k5tvcuot'v| They will judge soc vot
Chapter 20 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Liquid Future Middle (§20.18-19)
Future Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (so) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
k5tv + so + c + as0e ≥ k5tvcuas0e
form translation
1 sg k5tvcuaet I will judge soc aet
2 sg k5tvn You will judge sos oet
3 sg k5tvsttet He/she/it will judge sos tet
1 pl k5tvcuas0e We will judge soc as0e
2 pl k5tvsto0s You will judge sos o0s
3 pl k5tvcuvtet They will judge soc vtet
Chapter 20 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
Chapter 21 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 21
Imperfect Active (§21.6-7)
Augment + Present Active Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + ìu + c + asv ≥ sìucasv
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg s ìu c v I was loosing c v
2 sg s ìu s . You were loosing s .
3 sg s ìu s'v| He/she/it was loosing s 'v|
1 pl s ìu c asvWe were loosing c asv
2 pl s ìu s ts You were loosing s ts
3 pl s ìu c v They were loosing c v
Chapter 21 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Imperfect Middle/Passive (§21.8-9)
Augment + Present Passive Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Secondary Passive Personal Endings
s + ìu + c + anv ≥ sìucanv
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg s ìu c anv I was being loosing c anv
2 sg s ìu c u You were loosing s oc
3 sg s ìu s tc He/she/it was loosing s tc
1 pl s ìu c as0e We were loosing c
as0e
2 pl s ìu s o0s You were loosing s o0s
Chapter 21 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Final Four Endings (§21.14)
ìuæ '|
ìust. '.|
ìust 't|
ìucasv 'asv|
ìusts 'ts|
ìucuot'v| 'vot|
secondary tenses
a
c
t
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
ìucaet 'aet|
ìun 'oet|
ìustet 'tet|
ìucas0e 'as0e|
ìuso0s 'o0s|
ìucvtet 'vtet|
m
i
d
d
l
e
/
p
a
s
s
i
v
e

v
o
i
c
e
sìucv 'v|
sìus. '.|
sìus'v| '|
sìucasv 'asv|
sìusts 'ts|
sìucv 'v|
primary tenses
sìucanv 'anv|
sìucu 'oc|
sìustc 'tc|
sìucas0e 'as0e|
sìuso0s 'o0s|
sìucvtc 'vtc|
Chapter 21 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Imperfect act s pres c/s sec act sìucv
Imperfect mid/pas s pres c/s sec mid/pas sìucanv
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
Chapter 22 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 22
Second Aorist Active (§22.4)
Augment + Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + ìe3 + c + asv ≥ sìe3casv
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg s ìe3 c v I took c v
2 sg s ìe3 s . You took s .
3 sg s ìe3 s'v| He/she/it took s 'v|
1 pl s ìe3 c asv We took c asv
2 pl s ìe3 s ts You took s ts
3 pl s ìe3 c v They took c v
Chapter 22 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Aorist Middle (§22.13)
Augment + Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Secondary Passive Personal Endings
s + vsv + c + anv ≥ svsvcanv
form translation c.v. p.e.
1 sg s vsv c anv I became c anv
2 sg s vsv c u You became s oc
3 sg s vsv s tc He/she/it became s tc
1 pl s vsv c as0e We became c as0e
2 pl s vsv s o0s You became s o0s
3 pl s vsv c vtc They became c vtc
Chapter 22 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Imperfect act s pres c/s sec act sìucv
Imperfect mid/pas s pres c/s sec mid/pas sìucanv
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
2nd aorist act s aor act c/s sec act sìe3cv
2nd aorist mid s aor act c/s sec mid/pas svsvcanv
Chapter 23 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 23
First Aorist Active (§23.3)
Augment + Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (oe) +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + ìu + oe + asv ≥ sìuoeasv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg s ìu oe I loosed oe
2 sg s ìu oe . You loosed oe .
3 sg s ìu os'v| He/she/it loosed os 'v|
1 pl s ìu oe asv We loosed oe asv
2 pl s ìu oe ts You loosed oe ts
3 pl s ìu oe v They loosed oe v
Chapter 23 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Liquid Aorists (§23.12-13)
Augment + Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (e) +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + astv + e + asv ≥ sast√veasv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg s astv e I remained e
2 sg s astv e . You remained e .
3 sg s astv s 'v| He/she/it remained s 'v|
1 pl s ast√v e asv We remained e asv
2 pl s ast√v e ts You remained e ts
3 pl s astv e v They remained e v
Chapter 23 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
First Aorist Middle (§23.15-16)
Augment + Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (oe) +
Secondary Passive Personal Endings
s + ìu + oe + anv ≥ sìuoeanv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg s ìu oe anv I loosed oe anv
2 sg s ìu o æ You loosed oe oc
3 sg s ìu oe tc He/she/it loosed oe tc
1 pl s ìu oe as0e We loosed oe as0e
2 pl s ìu oe o0s You loosed oe o0s
3 pl s ìu oe vtc They loosed oe vtc
Chapter 23 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Imperfect act s pres c/s sec act sìucv
Imperfect mid/pas s pres c/s sec mid/pas sìucanv
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
1st aorist act s aor act oe sec act sìuoe
Liquid aorist act s aor act e sec act sastve
2nd aorist act s aor act c/s sec act sìe3cv
1st aorist mid s aor act oe sec mid/pas sìuoeanv
2nd aorist mid s aor act c/s sec mid/pas svsvcanv
Chapter 24 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 24
First Aorist Passive (§24.3)
Augment + Aorist Passive Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (0n) +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + ìu + 0n + v ≥ sìu0nv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg s ìu 0n v I was loosed 0n v
2 sg s ìu 0n . You were loosed 0n .
3 sg s ìu 0n He/she/it was loosed0n
1 pl s ìu 0n asv We were loosed 0n asv
2 pl s ìu 0n ts You were loosed 0n ts
3 pl s ìu 0n oev They were loosed 0n oev
Chapter 24 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Aorist Passive (§24.10)
Augment + Aorist Passive Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (n) +
Secondary Active Personal Endings
s + v5ee + n + asv ≥ sv5eenasv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg s v5ee n v I was written n anv
2 sg s v5ee n . You were written n oc
3 sg s v5ee n He/she/it was writtenn tc
1 pl s v5ee n asv We were written n as0e
2 pl s v5ee n ts You were written n o0s
3 pl s v5ee n oev They were written n vtc
Chapter 24 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
First Future Passive (§24.12)
Aorist Passive Tense Stem (without augment) +
Tense Formative (0no) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
ìu + 0no + c + aet ≥ ìu0nocaet
form translation t.f.+c.v. p.e.
1 sg ìu 0no c aet I will be loosed 0noc aet
2 sg ìu 0no n You will be loosed 0nos oet
3 sg ìu 0no s tet He/she/it will be loosed 0nos tet
1 pl ìu 0no c as0eWe will be loosed 0noc as0e
2 pl ìu 0no so0s You will be loosed 0nos o0s
3 pl ìu 0no c vtet They will be loosed 0noc vtet
Chapter 24 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Future Passive (§24.15)
Aorist Passive Tense Stem (without augment) +
Tense Formative (no) + Connecting Vowel +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
eacoteì + no + c + aet ≥ eacoteìnocaet
form translation p.e.
1 sg eacoteì no c aet I will be sent aet
2 sg eacoteì no n You will be sent oet
3 sg eacoteì no s tet He/she/it will be sent tet
1 pl eacoteì no c as0e We were written as0e
2 pl eacoteì no s o0s You were written o0s
3 pl eacoteì no c vtet They were written vtet
Chapter 24 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Imperfect act s pres c/s sec act sìucv
Imperfect mid/pas s pres c/s sec mid/pas sìucanv
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
1st future pas aor pas 0no c/s prim mid/pas ìu0nocaet
2nd future pas aor pas no c/s prim mid/pas eacoteìnocaet
1st aorist act s aor act oe sec act sìuoe
Liquid aorist act s aor act e sec act sastve
2nd aorist act s aor act c/s sec act sìe3cv
1st aorist mid s aor act oe sec mid/pas sìuoeanv
2nd aorist mid s aor act c/s sec mid/pas svsvcanv
1st aorist pas s aor pas 0n sec act sìu0nv
2nd aorist pas s aor pas n sec act sv5eenv
Chapter 25 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 25
Perfect Active (§25.4)
Reduplication + Perfect Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (ke) +
Primary Active Personal Endings
ì + s + ìu + ke + asv ≥ ìsìukeasv
form translation t.f. p.e.
1 sg ìs ìu ke I have loosed ke
2 sg ìs ìu ke . You have loosed ke .
3 sg ìs ìu ks 'v| He/she/it have loosed ks 'v|
1 pl ìs ìu ke asv We have loosed ke asv
2 pl ìs ìu ke ts You have loosed ke ts
3 pl ìs ìu ke ot'v| They have loosed ke ot'v|
Chapter 25 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Perfect (Middle/Passive) (§25.5)
Reduplication +
Perfect Middle/Passive Tense Stem +
Primary Passive Personal Endings
ì + s + ìu + aet ≥ ìsìuaet
form translation p.e.
1 sg ìs ìu aet I have been loosed aet
2 sg ìs ìu oet You have been loosed oet
3 sg ìs ìu tet He/she/it have been loosed tet
1 pl ìs ìu as0e We have been loosed as0e
2 pl ìs ìu o0s You have been loosed o0s
3 pl ìs ìu vtet They have been loosed vtet
Chapter 25 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Reduplication of Stops (§25.6)
a 3 e ≥ as
k v ¿ ≥ ks
t é 0 ≥ ts
Chapter 25 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Master Verb Chart (§25.19)
Tense Aug/ Tense Tense Conn. Personal 1st sing
Redup stem form. vowel endings paradigm
Present act pres c/s prim act ìuæ
Present mid/pas pres c/s prim mid/pas ìucaet
Imperfect act s pres c/s sec act sìucv
Imperfect mid/pas s pres c/s sec mid/pas sìucanv
Future act fut act o c/s prim act ìuoæ
Liquid fut act fut act so c/s prim act k5tvæ
Future mid fut act o c/s prim mid/pas sìsuocaet
1st future pas aor pas 0no c/s prim mid/pas ìu0nocaet
2nd future pas aor pas no c/s prim mid/pas eacoteìnocaet
1st aorist act s aor act oe sec act sìuoe
Liquid aorist act s aor act e sec act sastve
2nd aorist act s aor act c/s sec act sìe3cv
1st aorist mid s aor act oe sec mid/pas sìuoeanv
2nd aorist mid s aor act c/s sec mid/pas svsvcanv
1st aorist pas s aor pas 0n sec act sìu0nv
2nd aorist pas s aor pas n sec act sv5eenv
1st perfect act ìs perf act ke prim act ìsìuke
2nd perfect act ìs perf act e prim act vsvcve
Perfect mid/pas ìs perf pas prim mid/pas ìsìuaet
Chapter 26 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 26
Participles
Verbal Adjective
Tense: present; aorist; perfect
Voice: active; middle; passive
Verbal modifiers
Case: nom; gen; dat; acc
Number: singular; plural
Gender: masc; fem; neut
Chapter 26 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Your Guess
ìucuon
ìuoevtæv
ìsìukctc.
Chapter 27 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 27
Summary of Participles (§27.1,3)
Guidelines for Present Adverbial
1. Present tense verbal stem
2. Continuous action
3. Related to verb (ÒwhileÓ + ÒingÓ)
Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
atotsu + c + vt + s. ≥ atotsucvts.
masc fem neut
act vt cuoe vt
mid/pas asvc asvn asvc
Chapter 27 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Present (Continuous) Active (§27.5)
Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel +
Active Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìu + c + asvc + . ≥ ìucasvc.
3 1 3
masc fem neut
nom sg ìuæv ìucuoe ìucv
gen sg ìucvtc. ìucuon. ìucvtc.
dat sg ìucvtt ìucuon ìucvtt
acc sg ìucvte ìucuoev ìucv
nom pl ìucvts. ìucuoet ìucvte
gen pl ìucvtæv ìucuoæv ìucvtæv
dat pl ìucuot'v| ìucuoet. ìucuot'v|
acc pl ìucvte. ìucuoe. ìucvte
masc fem neut
act vt cuoe vt
mid/pas asvc asvn asvc
Chapter 27 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Present (Continuous) Mid/Pas (§27.7)
Present Tense Stem + Connecting Vowel +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
atotsu + c + vt + s. ≥ atotsucvts.
2 1 2
masc fem neut
nom sg ìucasvc. ìucasvn ìucasvcv
gen sg ìucasvcu ìucasvn. ìucasvcu
dat sg ìucasvæ ìucasvn ìucasvæ
acc sg ìucasvcv ìucasvnv ìucasvcv
nom pl ìucasvct ìucasvet ìucasve
gen pl ìucasvæv ìucasvæv ìucasvæv
dat pl ìucasvct. ìucasvet. ìucasvct.
acc pl ìucasvcu. ìucasve. ìucasve
masc fem neut
act vt cuoe vt
mid/pas asvc asvn asvc
Chapter 27 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Forms You Should Know
Present active: cvt. cuoe æv cuoe cv
cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Present middle/passive: casvc/n casvc. casvn casvcv
casvcu casvn. casvcu
Participle Morphemes
vt (active)
asvc/n (middle/passive)
Chapter 28 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 28
First Aorist (UndeÞned) Active (§28.7-8)
Unaugmented Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (oe) +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìu + oe + vt + c. ≥ ìuoevtc.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìuoe. ìuoeoe ìuoev
gen sg ìuoevtc. ìuoeon. ìuoevtc.
dat sg ìuoevtt ìuoeon ìuoevtt
acc sg ìuoevte ìuoeoev ìuoev
nom pl ìuoevts. ìuoeoet ìuoevte
gen pl ìuoevtæv ìuoeoæv ìuoevtæv
dat pl ìuoeot'v| ìuoeoet. ìuoeot'v|
acc pl ìuoevte. ìuoeoe. ìuoevte
masc fem neut
nom sg oe. oeoe oev
gen sg oevtc. oeon. oevtc.
Chapter 28 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
First Aorist (UndeÞned) Middle (§28.9)
Unaugmented Aorist Middle Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (oe) +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìu + oe + asvc + . ≥ ìuoeasvc.
2 1 2
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìuoeasvc. ìuoeasvn ìuoeasvcv
gen sg ìuoeasvcu ìuoeasvn. ìuoeasvcu
dat sg ìuoeasvæ ìuoeasvn ìuoeasvæ
acc sg ìuoeasvcv ìuoeasvnv ìuoeasvcv
nom pl ìuoeasvct ìuoeasvet ìuoeasve
gen pl ìuoeasvæv ìuoeasvæv ìuoeasvæv
dat pl ìuoeasvct. ìuoeasvet. ìuoeasvct.
acc pl ìuoeasvcu. ìuoeasve. ìuoeasve
masc fem neut
nom sg oeasvc. oeasvn oeasvcv
gen sg oeasvcu oeasvn. oeasvcu
Chapter 28 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
First Aorist (UndeÞned) Passive (§28.10)
Unaugmented Aorist Passive Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (0n) +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìu + 0s + vt + c. ≥ ìu0svtc.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìu0st√. ìu0stoe ìu0sv
gen sg ìu0svtc. ìu0st√on. ìu0svtc.
dat sg ìu0svtt ìu0st√on ìu0svtt
acc sg ìu0svte ìu0stoev ìu0sv
nom pl ìu0svts. ìu0stoet ìu0svte
gen pl ìu0svtæv ìu0stoæv ìu0svtæv
dat pl ìu0stot'v| ìu0st√oet. ìu0stot'v|
acc pl ìu0svte. ìu0st√oe. ìu0svte
masc fem neut
nom sg 0st. 0stoe 0sv
gen sg 0svtc. 0ston. 0svtc.
Chapter 28 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Aorist (UndeÞned) Active (§28.12)
Unaugmented Aorist Active Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìta + c + vt + c. ≥ ìtacvts.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìtaæv ìtacuoe ìtacv
gen sg ìtacvtc. ìtacuon. ìtacvtc.
dat sg ìtacvtt ìtacuon ìtacvtt
acc sg ìtacvte ìtacuoev ìtacv
nom pl ìtacvts. ìt√acuoet ìtacvte
gen pl ìtacvtæv ìtacuoæv ìtacvtæv
dat pl ìtacuot'v| ìtacuoet. ìtacuot'v|
acc pl ìtacvtcu. ìtacuoe. ìtacvte
masc fem neut
nom sg æv cuoe cv
gen sg cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Chapter 28 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Aorist (UndeÞned) Middle (§28.13)
Unaugmented Aorist Middle Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìta + c + asvc + . ≥ ìtacasvc.
2 1 2
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìtacasvc. ìtacasvn ìtacasvcv
gen sg ìtacasvcu ìtacasvn. ìtacasvcu
dat sg ìtacasvæ ìtacasvn ìtacasvæ
acc sg ìtacasvcv ìtacasvnv ìtacasvcv
nom pl ìtacasvct ìtacasvet ìtacasve
gen pl ìtacasvæv ìtacasvæv ìtacasvæv
dat pl ìtacasvct. ìtacasvet.
ìtacasvct.
masc fem neut
nom sg casvc. casvn casvcv
gen sg casvcu casvn. casvcu
Chapter 28 page 6
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Second Aorist (UndeÞned) Passive (§28.13)
Unaugmented Aorist Passive Tense Stem +
Connecting Vowel +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
v5ee + s + vt + s. ≥ v5eesvts.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg v5eest√. v5eestoe v5eesv
gen sg v5eesvtc. v5eest√on. v5eesvtc.
dat sg v5eesvtt v5eest√on v5eesvtt
acc sg v5eesvte v5eestoev v5eesv
nom pl v5eesvts. v5eestoet v5eesvte
gen pl v5eesvtæv v5eestoæv v5eesvtæv
dat pl v5eestot'v| v5eest√oet. v5eestot'v|
acc pl v5eesvte. v5eest√oe. v5eesvte
masc fem neut
nom sg st. stoe sv
gen sg svtc. ston. svtc.
Chapter 28 page 7
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Forms You Should Know
Present active: cvt. cuoe æv cuoe cv
cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Present middle/passive: casvc/n casvc. casvn casvcv
casvcu casvn. casvcu
First aorist active: oevt. oeoe oe. oeoe oev
oevtc. oeon. oevtc.
First aorist middle: oeasvc/n oeasvc. oeasvn oeasvcv
oeasvcu oeasvn. oeasvcu
First aorist passive: 0svt. 0stoe 0st. 0stoe 0sv
0svtc. 0ston. 0svtc.
Second aorist active: cvt. cuoe æv cuoe cv
cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Second aorist middle: casvc/n casvc. casvn casvcv
casvcu casvn. casvcu
Second aorist passive: stoe. svt st. stoe sv
svtc. ston. svtc.
Participle Morphemes
vt (active)
asvc/n (middle/passive)
Chapter 30 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 30
Perfect Active (§30.3)
Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem +
Tense Formative (k) +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìs + ìu + k + ct + s. ≥ ìsìukcts.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìsìukæ. ìsìukute ìsìukc.
gen sg ìsìukctc. ìsìukute. ìsìukctc.
dat sg ìsìukctt ìsìukute ìsìukctt
acc sg ìsìukcte ìsìukutev ìsìukc.
nom pl ìsìukcts. ìsìukutet ìsìukcte
gen pl ìsìukctæv ìsìukutæv ìsìukctæv
dat pl ìsìukcot'v| ìsìukutet. ìsìukcot'v|
acc pl ìsìukcte. ìsìukute. ìsìukcte
masc fem neut
nom sg kæ. kute kc.
gen sg kctc. kute. kctc.
Chapter 30 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Perfect Middle/Passive (§30.4)
Reduplication + Perfect Tense Stem +
Participle Morpheme + Case Endings
ìs + ìu + asvc + . ≥ ìsìuasvc.
3 1 3
masc fem neuter
nom sg ìsìuasvc. ìsìuasvn ìsìuasvcv
gen sg ìsìuasvcu ìsìuasvn. ìsìuasvcu
dat sg ìsìuasvæ ìsìuasvn ìsìuasvæ
acc sg ìsìuasvcv ìsìuasvnv ìsìuasvcv
nom pl ìsìuasvct ìsìuasvet ìsìuasve
gen pl ìsìuasvæv ìsìuasvæv ìsìuasvæv
dat pl ìsìuasvct. ìsìuasvet. ìsìuasvct.
acc pl ìsìuasvcu. ìsìuasve. ìsìuasve
masc fem neut
nom sg asvc. asvn asvcv
gen sg asvcu asvn. asvcu
Chapter 30 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Forms You Should Know
Present active: cvt. cuoe æv cuoe cv
cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Present middle/passive: casvc/n casvc. casvn casvcv
casvcu casvn. casvcu
First aorist active: oevt. oeoe oe. oeoe oev
oevtc. oeon. oevtc.
First aorist middle: oeasvc/n oeasvc. oeasvn oeasvcv
oeasvcu oeasvn. oeasvcu
First aorist passive: 0svt. 0stoe 0st. 0stoe 0sv
0svtc. 0ston. 0svtc.
Second aorist active: cvt. cuoe æv cuoe cv
cvtc. cuon. cvtc.
Second aorist middle: casvc/n casvc. casvn casvcv
casvcu casvn. casvcu
Second aorist passive: stoe. svt st. stoe sv
svtc. ston. svtc.
First perfect active: kct. kute kæ. kute kc.
kctc. kute. kctc.
First perfect middle/passive: asvc/n asvc. asvn asvcv
asvcu asvn. asvcu
Participle Morphemes
vt (active)
asvc/n (middle/passive)
ct (perfect active)
Chapter 32 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 32
InÞnitive (§32.4)
present 1st aorist 2nd aorist perfect
active stv oet stv vet
middle so0et oeo0et so0et o0et
passive so0et 0nvet nvet o0et
present 1st aorist 2nd aorist perfect
active ìustv ìuoet ìtastv ìsìuksvet
middle ìuso0et ìuoeo0et ìtaso0et ìsìuo0et
passive ìuso0et ìu0nvet v5eenvet ìsìuo0et
Chapter 32 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Uses of the InÞnitive (#32.9-13)
1. Substantive
2. Complementary inÞnitive
3. Articular inÞntive with preposition
a. éte because
b. st. in order that
c. sv when/while
d. aste after
e. a5c before
f. a5c. in order that
4. Purpose
a. articular inÞnitive with st. or a5c.
b. articular inÞnitive with article in the genitive
c. inÞnitive
5. Result
Chapter 33 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 33
Imperative (§33.6)
active and aorist passive middle/passive
2 sg v
3 sg tæ o0æ
2 pl ts o0s
3 pl tæoev o0æoev
present Þrst aorist translation
active
2 sg ìus ìuocv (You) Loose!
3 sg ìustæ ìuoetæ Let him loose!
2 pl ìusts ìuoets (You) loose!
3 pl ìustæoev ìuoetæoev Let them loose!
middle
2 sg ìucu ìuoet (You) loose for yourself!
3 sg ìuso0æ ìuoeo0æ Let him loose for himself!
2 pl ìuso0s ìuoeo0s (You) loose!
3 pl ìuso0æoev ìuoeo0æoev Let them loose!
passive
2 sg ìucu ìu0ntt (You) be loosed!
3 sg ìuso0æ ìu0ntæ Let him be loosed!
2 pl ìuso0s ìu0nts (You) be loosed!
3 pl ìuso0æoev ìu0ntæoev Let them be loosed!
Chapter 34 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 34
Rule #1 (§34.6)
Rule One: at verbs reduplicate
their initial stem letter to form the
present, and separate the
reduplicated consonant with an
iota.
t
æ
é
é
éæ
étéæ
æ
t
é
é
Chapter 34 page 2
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule #2 (§34.7)
Rule Two: at verbs do not
ordinarily use a connecting (i.e.,
ÒthematicÓ) vowel in the
indicative. The personal ending is
added directly to the stem.
ét + øéc + asv
≥ ét√éæasv
Chapter 34 page 3
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule #3 (§34.8)
Rule 3: at verbs employ three
different personal endings in the
present active.
at verbs thematic conjugation
1 sg ét√éæat at ìuæ
2 sg ét√éæ. . ìust. .
3 sg ét√éæot'v| ot ìust t
1 pl ét√écasv asv ìucasv asv
2 pl ét√écts ts ìusts ts
3 pl étéceot'v| eot ìucuot'v| vot
Chapter 34 page 4
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule #4 (§34.9)
Rule Four: the stem vowel of at
verbs can lengthen, shorten, or
drop out (ablaut).
ét√éæat
ét√écasv
Chapter 34 page 5
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Rule #5 (§34.10)
Rule Five: Most of the at verbs
use ke as their tense formative in
the aorist.
at verbs thematic conjugation
1 sg séæke sìuoe
2 sg séæke. sìuoe.
3 sg séæks'v| sìuos'v|
1 pl séækeasv sìuoeasv
2 pl séækets sìuoets
3 pl séækev sìuoev
Chapter 34 page 6
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
ééé éttt t√ √ √ √ ééé éæææ æaaa attt t in the Indicative (§34.11)
present imperfect future aorist perfect
1 sg ét√éæat sét√écuv éæoæ séæke éséæke
2 sg ét√éæ. sét√écu. éæost. séæke. éséæke.
3 sg ét√éæot'v| sét√écu éæost séæks'v| éséæks'v|
1 pl ét√écasv sét√écasv éæocasv séækeasv éséækeasv
2 pl ét√écts sét√écts éæosts séækets éséækets
3 pl étéceot'v| sét√écoev éæocuot'v| séækev éséækev
Chapter 34 page 7
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
LetÕs Practive
1. éæosts
2. sét√écu.
3. séæke
4. ét√éæotv
5. éséæks
Chapter 35 page 1
© 1993 Dr. William D. Mounce
Chapter 35
Present Active Indicative (§35.2)
*ote *0s *éc *éstkvu
1 sg totnat tt√0nat ét√éæat ést√kvuat
2 sg totn. tt√0n. ét√éæ. éstkvust.
3 sg totnot'v| tt√0not'v| ét√éæot'v| ést√kvuot 'v|
1 pl toteasv tt√0sasv ét√écasv ést√kvuasv
2 pl totets tt√0sts ét√écts ést√kvuts
3 pl toteot'v| tt0seot'v| étéceot'v| éstkvueot'v|

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