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EXPERIMENT NO: 1

STUDY OF OP-AMPS

AIM: To study the pin configurations, specifications & functioning of different integrated

circuits used in the practical applications.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

a). IC µA 741 OP-Am

b). LM 311N Voltage Comparator

c). NE ISE 555/SE 555C

d). VCO IC 566

e). Phase Locked Loop NE/SE 565

f). IC 723 Voltage Regulator

g). Three Terminal Voltage Regulators

a) µA 741 OP-AMP

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Supply voltage:

µA 741A, µA 741, µA 741E ---------------- ±22V

µA 741C ---------------- ±18 V

2. Internal power dissipation

DIP package ----------------- 310 mw.

3. Differential input voltage ---------------- ±30 V.

4. Operating temperature range

Military (µA 741A, µA 741) --------------- -55

0

to +125

0

C.

Commercial (µA 741E, µA 741C) --------- 0

0

C to +70

0

C.

5. Input offset voltage ------------ 1.0 mV.

6. Input Bias current ------------ 80 nA.

7. PSSR --------------30µV/V.

8. Input resistance -------------2MΩ.

9. CMMR --------------90dB.

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10. Output resistance ---------------75Ω.

11. Bandwidth --------------1.0 MHz.

12. Slew rate ---------------0.5 V/µ sec.

b) LM 311N VOLTAGE COMPARATOR

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Total supply voltage ------------ 36 V

2. Input Voltage ------------ ±15V

3. Power dissipation ------------ 500mW

4. Operating temperature ------------ 0

0

C to 70

0

C

5. Input offset voltage ------------- 2.0 mV

6. Input Bias current ------------ 100nA

7. Voltage gain ------------- 200V/mv

c) NE / SE 555 TIMER

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Supply voltage ------------ 4.5 V to 18 V

2. Supply current ------------ 3mA

3. Output voltage (low) ------------- 0.1 V

4. Output voltage (high) ------------- 12.5 V (15 V Vcc) & 3.3 V (5V Vcc)

5. Maximum operating frequency -------------- 500 KHz

6. Timing -------------- µsec to hours

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d) IC 566 VCO

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Operating supply voltage (Vcc) --------- 12V (on less otherwise specified 24V).

2. Operating Supply current --------- 12.5mA

3. Input Voltage (Vc) --------- 3Vp-p.

4. Operating Temperature --------- 0 to 70

0

C.

5. Power dissipation --------- 300mw.

e) NE / SE 565 PHASE LOCKED LOOP

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Maximum supply voltage ----------- 26 V

2. Input Voltage ---------------- 3 V(P-P)

3. Power dissipation ------------- 300mw

4. Operating temperature ----- NE 565- 00 C to 700C (SE 565—55 to +1250 C

5. Supply voltage ----------- 12 V

6. Supply current ------------ 8mA

7. Output current- sink ------- 1mA

Output current- Source ----------10 mA

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f) IC 723 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Input voltage ----------- 40V max.

2. Output voltage ----------- 2V to 37V.

3. Output current ----------- 150mA.

(With out external pass txt)

4. Output current ------------- 10A.

(With external pass txt)

5. Input regulation --------------- 0.02%.

6. Load regulation --------------- 0.03%.

7. Operating temperature ------ 55

0

C to 125

0

C.

g) THREE TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS

i) IC 78XX (Positive Voltage Regulators)

Pin configuration

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Specifications

1.Input voltage

For 5V to 18V regulated output ---------- 35V.

Upto 24V regulated output ---------- 40V.

2.Internal power dissipation ---------- Internally limited.

3.Storage temperature range -------- -65

0

C to 150

0

C.

4.Operating junction Temperature range

µA7800 --------- -55

0

C to 150

0

C.

µA7800C -------- 0

0

C to 125

0

C.

ii) IC 79XX ( Negative Voltage Regulators )

Pin configuration

Specifications

1. Input voltage

For -5V to -18V regulated output ---------- -35V.

For -24V regulated output ---------- -40V.

2. Internal power dissipation ------- Internally limited.

3. Storage temperature range -------- -65

0

C to 150

0

C.

4. Operating junction Temperature range

µA7800 --------- -55

0

C to 150

0

C.

µA7800C -------- 0

0

C to 125

0

C.

RESULT:

The pin configurations. specifications & functioning of different integrated circuits used in

the practical applications have been studied.

WORKSPACE

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EXPERIMENT NO: 2

APPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (IC 741)

AIM: To design and study the operation of IC 741 Operational amplifier as

a) Adder

b) Subtractor

c) Comparator

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. CDS Board with in-built power supply / Bread Board.

2. Function Generator

3. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope.

4. Digital Multimeter.

5. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

6. Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 :1No

2. Decade Resistance Box (DRB) :1No

3. Resistor ------1KΩ :4No

10KΩ :3No

100KΩ :1No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

a) ADDER

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Fig.1

b) SUBTRACTOR

Fig.2

c) COMPARATOR

i. Non-Inverting Comparator

Fig.3

ii. Inverting Comparator

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Fig.4

THEORY:

Adder:

A typical summing amplifier (Inverting Adder) with three inputs Va ,Vb & Vc applied at the

inverting terminal of IC741 is shown in fig(1). The following analysis is carried out assuming

that the Op-Amp is an ideal one, that is AOL = ∞, Ri = ∞ & R0=0; since the input bias

current is assumed to be zero, there is no voltage drop across the resistor Rcomp and hence

the non inverting input terminal is at ground potential.

The voltage at node ‘A’ is zero as the non- inverting input terminal is grounded.

The nodal equation by KCL at node ‘a’ is given as

0

a b c o

a b c f

f f f

o a b c

a b c

V V V V

R R R R

R R R

V V V V

R R R

+ + + ·

¸ _

¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _

· − + +

¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,

¸ ,

Case (1):- Ra=Rb=Rc=Rf

V0 = - (Va + Vb+ Vc)

Case (2):- Ra=Rb=Rc=3Rf

V0 = - (Va + Vb+ Vc)/3

Subtractor

A typical subtractor with two inputs Va & Vb applied at the non-inverting terminal &

Inverting terminal of IC741 respectively is shown in fig(2). The following analysis is carried

out assuming that the Op-Amp is an ideal one, that is AOL = ∞, Ri = ∞ & R0=0;

Let Ra = Rb= Rf = R,

Vo= Va - Vb

PROCEDURE:

Part-I

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Adder

1. Connect the Adder circuit as shown in fig.1 with Ra = Rb = Rc = Rf = 1KΩ, RL =100KΩ

and R = 250Ω on the CDS board.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply the input voltages from the regulated supplies to the corresponding inputs at the

inverting input terminal of IC741 (pin no.2).

3. Connect the Digital Multimeter at the Out put terminals (pin no.6), and note down the

output voltage and verify with theoretical values.

4. Repeat the above steps for different input voltages.

Subtractor

1. Connect the subtractor circuit as shown in fig.2 with Ra = Rb = Rf = R = 1KΩ and RL

=100KΩ on the CDS board.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply the input voltages from the regulated supplies to the corresponding inputs at the

inverting & non-inverting input terminals of IC741 (pin no.2 & 3 respectively).

3. Connect the Digital Multimeter at the Out put terminals (pin no.6), and note down the

output voltage and verify with theoretical values.

4. Repeat the above steps for different input voltages.

Part-II

Comparator

1. Connect the comparator circuit as shown in fig.3.

2. Connect the 1MHz function generator to the input terminals. Apply 1V signal at non-

inverting terminals of the op-amp IC741.

3. Connect the 20MHz C.R.O at the output terminals.

4. Keep 1V reference voltage at the Inverting terminal of the Op-amp. When Vin is less than

the Vref, then output voltage is at –Vsat because of the higher input voltage at negative

terminal. Therefore the output voltage is at logic low level

5. Now, Keep –1V reference voltage. When Vref is less than the Vin, then the output voltage

is at +Vsat because of the higher input voltage at positive terminal. Hence, the output

voltage is at logic high level.

6. Observe and record the output voltage and waveforms.

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

i) If Vref is Positive in the Inverting comparator

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ii) If Vref is Negative in the Inverting comparator

If Vref is Positive in the Non-inverting comparator

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If Vref is Negative in the Non-inverting comparator

RESULT:

Adder and Subtractor are designed using 741 Op – Amp and the experimental results were

compared with the theoretical values.

Applied input signal is compared with reference voltages in a comparator using 741 Op –

Amp and the corresponding waveforms were noted.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Draw an Op- amp circuit whose output VO = V1+ V2 – V3 –V4.

3. Show that the o/p of an n-input inverting adder is V0 = - (Va +Vb + … + Vn)

4. Draw the circuit of non-inverting adder with 3 inputs and find the o/p Voltage V0

5. What is a mixed adder and how do you construct it using IC 741 Op- amp.

6. Design a mixed adder for V0=V1+2V2-V3-5V4.

7. Design a subtractor for V0 = Va - 5Vb -2Vc

8. Mention the other mathematical operations obtained using Op-Amps.

9. Why are the diodes D1 & D2 used in the circuit?

10. What is the difference between a basic comparator and the Schmitt trigger?

11. List the important characteristics of the comparator.

12. List out different applications of comparator.

13. What is the difference between Inverting and Non – Inverting Comparator?

14. Show the outputs for Inverting comparator with negative bias and non-inverting

comparator with positive bias.

15. Show the output waveform for Inverting comparator with positive bias of 2V and supply

voltage ±12V.

16. Briefly explain the features of comparator IC LM311.

17. Calculate VO in the circuit shown below for V1 = 5V, V2 = 2V.

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WORKSPACE

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WORKSPACE

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EXPERIMENT NO: 3

INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

AIM: To design, construct and verify the response of

a) Integrator using Op-amp IC741 for sine and square wave inputs at 1 KHz frequency.

b) Differentiator using Op-amp IC741 for sine and square wave inputs at 1 KHz frequency.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread Board / CDS Board.

2. Function Generator (1MHz).

3. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (20MHz/30 MHz)

4. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

5. Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 :1No

2. Resistor ----- 10KΩ :2No

3. 100KΩ POT/ Decade Resistance Box (DRB) :1No

4. 10KΩ POT/ Decade Resistance Box (DRB) :1No

5. Capacitor ---- 0.1µF :2No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

INTEGRATOR:

Fig.1

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DIFFERENTIATOR:

Fig.2

THEORY:

The integrator

A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integration of the input is called

integrator.

1. The equation (1) indicates that the output voltage is directly proportional to the negative

integral of the input voltage and inversely proportional to the time constant R1CF. For

Example if the input is a sine wave, the output will be a cosine wave or if the input is a

square wave, the output will be a triangular wave.

2. When the input signal frequency is ZERO, the integrator works as an open – loop

amplifier. This is because of the capacitor CF acts as an open circuit (XCF =1/ωCF = infinite

for f=0).

3. Therefore the ideal integrator becomes unstable & suffers with low frequency noise. To

overcome this problem RF is connected across the feed back capacitor CF. Thus RF limits the

low-frequency gain and hence minimizes the variations in the output voltage.

3. Frequency fb at which the gain of the integrator is 0 dB, is given by

fb =1/2∏R1CF ----------- (2)

4. Both the stability and the low – frequency roll-off problems can be corrected by the

addition of a resistors RF in the feed back path. The frequency response of practical

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integrator is as shown in fig (3). In this ‘f’ is relative operating frequency and for f < fa gain

of the integrator is constant and is equal to RF / R1. However after fa the gain decreases at a

rate of 20dB/decade. In other words, between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. The

gain-Limiting frequency fa is given by

fa =1/2∏RFCF ---------- (3)

NOTE: The input signal will be integrated properly if the time period T of the input signal is

greater than or equal to RFCF.

The Differentiator

The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation. That is the

output waveform is the derivative of the input waveform. Therefore

V

O

= RFC1 dVin / dt -------------- (4)

1. The above equation (4) indicates that the output voltage is directly proportional to the

derivative of the input voltage and also proportional to the time constant RFC1.

For Example if the input is a sine wave, the output will be a cosine wave or if the input is a

square wave, the output will be spikes.

2. The reactance of the circuit increases with increase in frequency at a rate of 20dB/

decade. This makes the circuit unstable. In other words the gain of an ideal differentiator

circuit is direct dependent on input signal frequency. Therefore at high frequencies (f=∞),

the gain of the circuit becomes infinite making the system unstable.

3. The input impedance XC1 decreases with increase in frequency, which makes the circuit

very susceptible to high frequency noise.

4. The frequency response of the basic differentiator is shown in fig.4 In this fig fa is the

frequency at which the gain is 0 dB.

fa =1/2∏RFC1 ----------- (5)

5. Both the stability and the high – frequency noise problem can be corrected by the

addition of two components R1 and CF as shown in fig.2.The frequency response of which is

shown in fig.4. From f to fa the gain decreases at 40dB/decade.This 40 dB/decade change in

gain is caused by the R1C1 and RFCF combinations. The gain limiting frequency fb is given by

fb =1/2∏R1C1 ---------- (6) Where R1 C1 = RF CF.

R1C1 and RFCF help to reduce significantly the effect of high frequency input, amplifier noise,

and offsets. Above all, it makes the circuit more stable by preventing the increase in gain

with frequency. In general, the value of f1, and in turn R1C1 and RFCF should be selected

such that fa <fb < fc, Where fc is the unity gain- bandwidth of an open-loop Op-Amp.

NOTE: The input signal will be differentiated properly if the time period T of the input signal

is greater than or equal to RF C1.

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PROCEDURE:

Integrator

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator (at pin no.2 of the IC741).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Observe and plot the input & output voltage waveforms.

6. Measure the output voltage (Vo) from the experimental results.

7. Calculate the output voltage of the inverting Amplifier theoretically using the formula

8. Apply a square wave input signal of 2V P-P amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator and repeat the above steps.

9. Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

Differentiator

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.2 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator (at pin no.2 of the IC741).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Observe and plot the input & output voltage waveforms.

6. Measure the output voltage (Vo) from the experimental results.

7. Calculate the output voltage of the inverting Amplifier theoretically using the formula

V

O

= RFC1 dVin / dt

8. Apply a square wave input signal of 2V P-P amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator and repeat the above steps.

9. Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values.

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EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

Fig.3. Frequency Response of Integrator

Fig.4. Frequency Response of Differentiator

Fig.5a: Output waveform of Integrator for Sine wave input

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Fig.5b: Output waveform of Integrator for Square wave input

Fig.6a: Output waveform of Differentiator for Sine wave input

Fig.6b: Output waveform of Differentiator for Square wave input

RESULT: The Integrator & Differentiator circuits were constructed using IC 741 and verified

their response for sine & square wave inputs.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Show that the output of a differentiator is differential of input.

2. Show that the output of a integrator is integral of input.

3. Mention the difference between practical integrator and ideal Integrator.

4. Sketch the Input and Output waveforms when we apply a 1Khz Triangle wave with peak

to peak value of 5V to the Differentiator circuit.

5. Explain the frequency response of an integrator.

6. What type of output waveform is obtained when a triangular wave is applied to integrator

circuit and also to Differentiator circuit?

7. A low frequency differentiator is desired for a particular application to Perform the

operation Vo (t) =-0.001 dvi(t)/dt . Determine the suitable design of differentiator circuit for

the periodic signal with a frequency of 1 KHz.

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WORKSPACE

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WORKSPACE

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EXPERIMENT NO: 4

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF LOW PASS AND HIGH PASS

ACTIVE FILTERS

AIM: To design, construct and plot the frequency response of

a) First order low pass filter with cut-off frequency of 5 KHz

b) First order high pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 1 KHz.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread Board / CDC Board.

2. Function Generator (1MHz).

3. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (20MHz/30 MHz)

4. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

5. Connecting Wires.

6. Decade Resistance Box.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 :1No

2. 1KΩ Potentiometer / DRB :1No

3. Resistor ------- 10KΩ :2No

100KΩ :1No

4. Capacitor ----- 0.1µF :1No

0.01µF :1No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

a) LOW PASS FILTER

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Fig .1. Circuit diagram of 1

st

Order LPF

b) HIGH PASS FILTER

Fig .2. Circuit diagram of 1

st

Order HPF

THEORY:

A first order filter consists of a single RC network connected to the non-inverting input

terminal of the op-Amp as shown in the figure. Resistors R1 & Rf determine the gain of the

filter in the pass band. Components R & C determine the cutoff frequency of the filter.

Low-Pass filter: The circuit of 1

st

order low-pas filter is shown in fig.1 & its frequency

response is as shown in the fig3. The dashed curve in the fig.3 indicates the ideal response

& solid curve indicates practical filter response. It is not possible to achieve ideal

characteristics. However with special design techniques (Higher order filters) it is possible to

closely approximate the ideal response. Active filters are typically specified by the voltage

transfer function,

H(s) = V0 (s)/ Vi(s) ___________(1) (under steady state conditions)

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i.e s=jω => H (jω) = │H(jω) │ e

J Φ(w)

_________(2),

Where │ H (jω) │ is the magnitude

function and e

J Φ(w)

is the phase function. Magnitude function is 20 log │H(jω) │dB & phase

function is -Φ(ω) * 57.296 degrees.

High Pass Filter: The circuit of 1

st

order high pass filter is shown in fig.2 & its frequency

response is as shown in the fig4. The dashed curve in the fig.4 indicates the ideal response

& solid curve indicates practical filter response. When an input signal is applied to High pass

filter, the signals at high frequencies are passed through circuit and signals at low

frequencies are rejected. That is the signal which are having frequencies less than the lower

cutoff frequency fL are rejected and the signal with frequency greater the lower cut off

frequency fL are passed through the circuit. That is

1. For f > fL, Vo(s) /Vi(s) = Maximum and is called as pass band.

2. For f < fL, Vo(s) /vi(s) = 0 and is called as the stop band

DESIGN:

Pass band gain of the active filter VO/Vin = AF = 1 + RF/R1 __________(3)

Higher cut-off frequency of the low pass filter, fH =1/2ПRC ____________(4)

Lower cut-off frequency of the High pass filter, fL =1/2ПRC ____________(5)

First order LPF

1. The higher cut-off frequency is given as, fH = 5 KHz.

2. Choose the value of C such that the value of C ≤1µF (Typically C= 0.1µF)

3. Calculate the value of R, using the formula

R =1/2ПCfH ___________ (6)

= 318.47Ω (320 Ω Approx.)

4. Get the value of damping factor, α from the Butterworth polynomials

Note: For a 1

st

order Butterworth active filter, the value of damping factor α=1 (from

Butterworth polynomials)

5. Calculate the value of pass-band gain, AF using the formula, α =3-Af _________ (7)

=> AF = 3- α = 3-1= 2 _________ (8)

6. Using the formula AF = 1 + RF/R1, get a relation between RF & R1.

=> RF/R1= AF -1 = 1

=> RF= R1 _______________(9)

7. Choose the value of R1=10 KΩ => RF=10 KΩ ___________ (10)

First order HPF

1. The lower cut-off frequency is given as, fL = 1 KHz.

2. Choose the value of C such that the value of C ≤1µF (Typically C= 0.01µF)

3. Calculate the value of R, using the formula

R =1/2ПCfL

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= 15.9 KΩ __________ (11)

4. Get the value of damping factor, α from the Butterworth polynomials

Note: For a 1

st

order Butterworth active filter, the value of damping factor α=1 (from

Butterworth polynomials)

5. Calculate the value of pass-band gain, AF using the formula, α =3-Af _________ (12)

=> AF = 3- α = 3-1= 2 ___________ (13)

6. Using the formula AF = 1 + RF/R1, get a relation between RF & R1.

=> RF/R1= AF -1 = 1

=> RF= R1 __________ (14)

7. Choose the value of R1=10 KΩ => RF=10 KΩ ___________ (15)

PROCEDURE:

Low pass Filter

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude from the function generator

(at pin no.3 of the IC741 via RC Low pass network).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Increase the input signal frequency in steps from 10Hz to 1MHz & Observe the

corresponding output voltage of the filter and tabulate the results.

6. Calculate the gain of the filter from the experimental results.

7. Plot the frequency response curve of the low pass filter with the experimental results

obtained & compare it with the expected waveform shown in Fig.3.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

VIN = 2V p-p

Input

Frequency(Fin)

in Hz

Vin

Input volatage

in volts

Vout

Output Voltage

in volts

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB

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High pass Filter

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.2 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude from the function generator

(at pin no.3 of the IC741 via RC High pass network).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Increase the input signal frequency in steps from 10Hz to 1MHz & Observe the

corresponding output voltage of the filter and the results.

6. Calculate the gain of the filter from the experimental results.

7. Plot the frequency response curve of the high pass filter with the experimental results

obtained & compare it with the expected waveform shown in Fig.4.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

VIN = 2V P-P

Input

Frequency(Fin)

in Hz

Vin

Input volatage

in volts

Vout

Output Voltage

in volts

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB

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EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

Fig. 3 Frequency response of 1

st

Order LPF

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Fig. 4 Frequency response of 1

st

Order HPF

RESULT: The first order LPF & HPF are designed for a chosen cutoff frequency and the

frequency response curves were plotted between voltage gain (dB) and frequency (Hz).

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. List the advantages of active filters over passive filter.

2. Derive fH of second order LPF.

3. Draw the frequency response for ideal and practical of all types of filters.

4. What are the three design techniques used for design of filters.

5. Compare the Butter worth and Chebyshev design.

6. Design a first order low pass filter for 2 KHz frequency.

7. Design a five pole low pass active Butter worth filter with 3dB cut off frequency of 2 KHz.

8. Show that the amplitude response of low pass Butter worth filter well above cutoff

decreases by 20dB per decade.

9. Draw the ideal and practical frequency response characteristics of high pass filter.

10. Mention the advantages of active filters over passive filters.

11. Draw the fourth order High pass filter for cut off frequency fL=10 KHz.

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12. Design a two pole high pass active Butter worth filter with a 3dB cutoff frequency of 1

KHz.

13. Find the transfer function of first order HPF and show its frequency response.

14. What happens to filter response if the number of filter poles is increased?

15. Show the characteristics of Butter worth, Chebyshev and maximally flat time delay

filter.

16. Design 4th order butter worth high pass filter with 3dB cutoff frequency of 5 KHz.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 5

FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF BAND PASS AND BAND REJECT

ACTIVE FILTERS

AIM: To design, construct and study the frequency response of

a) Band pass filter

b) Band reject filter

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread Board / CDS Board.

2. Function Generator

3. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

4. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

5. Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 :1No

2. Resistor ----- 1KΩ :3No

10KΩ :4No

100KΩ :1No

3. Decade Resistance Box (DRB) :3No

4. Capacitor ----- 0.01µF :1No

0.1 µF :1No

THEORY:

BAND PASS FILTER:

A Band Pass Filter (BPF) has a pass band between the lower cut-off frequency, fL & the

higher cut-off frequency fH, such that fH > fL. When the input frequency is zero, the gain of

the filter will be zero. As the input signal frequency increases from zero to fL, the gain will

increase at a rate 20dB/decade up to 3dB less than its maximum value. If the input signal

frequency increases beyond fL, the gain will reach its maximum value and remains constant

up to high frequencies as shown in the Fig.3. When the input signal frequency reaches the

higher cut-off frequency, fH, the gain will fall 3dB less from its maximum value. If the input

signal frequency increases beyond fH, the gain will decreases to zero at rate of 20dB/decade.

After reaching the total pass band region, the gain of the filter is constant up to its designed

fH (high cut off frequency).

There is a phase shift between input and output voltages of BPF as a function of

frequency in its Pass Band region. This filter passes all frequencies equally well i.e. the

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output and input voltages are equal in amplitude for all frequencies. This highest frequency

up to which the input and output amplitudes remain equal is dependent of the unity gain

bandwidth of Op – Amp. At this frequency, the phase shift between input and output

becomes maximum.

BAND REJECT FILTER:

A Band Reject Filter (BRF) has a stop band between the cutoff frequencies fH & fL

such that fH < fL. When the input signal frequency is zero, the gain of the BPF will be

maximum and will remains constant as the input signal frequency increases. At the higher

cut off frequency fH, the gain becomes 3dB less than its maximum value. As the input signal

frequency increases beyond fH, the gain of the filter decreases & becomes zero at the central

(fC) or operating frequency (fO). After this center frequency fC, the gain increases to 3dB less

than its maximum value at the lower cut-off frequency, fL. As the input signal frequency

increases beyond fL the gain increases to the maximum value and becomes constant.

There is a phase shift between input and output voltages of BPF in its “Pass band region”.

This filter passes all the frequencies equally well i.e. output and input voltages are equal in

(magnitude) amplitude for all frequencies. This highest frequency up to which the input and

output amplitude remains equal is dependent on the unity gain bandwidth of the Op- Amp.

However at this frequency, the phase shift between the input and output is maximum.

DESIGN:

a) BAND PASS FILTER

1. Select the cutoff frequencies, fH = 5KHz & fL =1KHz of BPF.

Where fH = Higher cutoff frequency & fL = Lower cutoff frequency

2. The central or operating frequency, fC =

H L

f f

3. i) For Low Pass Section

Using the formula

1

2 '

H

f

R C π

·

1

'

2

H

R

f C π

·

, estimate the value of R

’

.

ii) For high pass section

Using the formula

1

2

L

f

RC π

·

1

2

L

R

f C π

·

, estimate the value of R.

If the band pass gain is 4 the gain of the high pass as well as low pass section could be set

to 2 i.e. input and feed back resistors must be equal in value. The magnitude of voltage

gain is given by

Where AFT = Total Pass band gain

f = Signal input frequency (Hz)

fL= Low cutoff frequency

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fH= High Cutoff frequency

b) BAND REJECT FILTER

Select the cutoff frequencies of BPF fH =200Hz & fL = 1KHz

fh = Higher cutoff frequency

fL = Lower cutoff frequency

fC =

H L

f f

and

1

1

R

F

A

f

R

· +

If Af = 2 RF = R1. and Let Rf = R1 = 10 KΩ

i) For Low Pass Section

1

2 ' '

H

f

R C π

·

1

'

2 '

H

R

f C π

·

ii) For high pass section

1

2

L

f

RC π

·

1

2

L

R

f C π

·

There is no restriction on the pass band gain. Use a gain of 2 for each section.

Hence R1 = RF the gain of the summing amplifier is set at 1, therefore

Ra = Rb = Rc =1KΩ and the value of RCM = Ra|| Rb || Rc= 333Ω.

The complete circuit is shown in figure. The voltage gain changes at the rate of 20

dB/decade above fH and below fL. With a maximum attenuation occurring at fC, where fC =

center frequency.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

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BAND PASS FILTER:

Fig.1 Circuit Diagram of Wide Band-Pass Filter

BAND REJECT FILTER:

Fig.2 Circuit Diagram for Wide Band-Reject Filter

PROCEDURE:

1. Make the circuit connection as shown in figure.

2. Connect the signal generator to input terminals. And connect the C.R.O at output

terminals of the trainer & switch on the trainer.

3. Apply the input signal frequency from 100Hz to 10 KHz.

4. Record the input frequency, Input voltage and Output voltage. Find the gain of the

B.P.F using the formula. The gain magnitude in dB is equal to 20 Log (Vo/Vi).

OBSERVATION TABLES:

Band Pass Filter:

Input

Frequency(Fin)

Vin

Input volatage

Vout

Output Voltage

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB’s

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Band Reject Filter:

Input

Frequency(Fin)

Vin

Input volatage

Vout

Output Voltage

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB’s

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

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Fig.3 Frequency response of Band-Pass Filter

Fig.4 Frequency response of Band-Reject filter

RESULT: The band pass & band reject filters have been designed for chosen fL, fH and

frequency responses were plotted between voltage gain (in dB) and input frequency.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Mention the applications of Band pass filters.

2. Mention the differences between wide band and narrow band filters.

3. What is all pass filters.

4. Design a band pass filter using a single op-amp to meet the following specifications.

Center frequency f0 = 2 KHz, 3db Bandwidth = 400Hz & Q=5

5. A two-pole band pass filter has a center frequency of 800Hz and a Q of 20.

Determine

i) 3db bandwidth ii) 3db frequencies f1 and f2

6. Explain why the band pass filter is called multiple feed back filter.

7. Define pass band, stop band attenuation band with respect to filter response.

8. Define a filter and discuss its general characteristics.

9. Explain the difference between active and passive filters.

10. What is the difference between narrow band reject filter and wide band reject filter?

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11. Draw the frequency response of a notch filter and wide band reject filter.

12. Mention an application of notch filter.

13. Design a wide band reject filter having FH = 400Hz and FL=2KHz having pass band

gain as 2. (Let C= C’ = 0.1 µF & R1 ≅ Rf)

14. Define a filter and discuss its general characteristics.

15. Explain the difference between active and passive filters.

16. Difference between a band pass filter and band reject filter.

17. Derive the gain of the band reject filter.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 6

WIEN-BRIDGE OSCILLATOR USING IC 741 OP-AMP

AIM: To study the Operation of Wein – Bridge Oscillator using IC 741 Op-Amp and to

determine the frequency of Oscillations.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. CDS Board/ Bread Board

2. Regulated DC power Supply

3. C.R.O

4. Connecting patch chords

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 : 1No.

2. Decade Resistance Box : 1No.

3. Resistors----- 15KΩ : 1No.

1.5KΩ : 2No.

4. Capacitors ---- 0.1µF : 2No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1

THEORY:

The most commonly used audio frequency oscillator is wienbridge oscillator. From the figure

shown above it may be noted that the feedback signal in the circuit is connected to the

positive terminal so that the Op-Amp is working as a non-inverting amplifier. Therefore the

feed back network need not to provide any phase shift. The circuit can be viewed as a

wienbridge with a series RC network in one arm and a parallel RC network in the adjoining

arm. The addition of zero phase around the circuit is achieved by balancing the bridge.

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The frequency of the oscillations in Wein Bridge is given by

FO = 1/ 2∏RC

At FO, The feedback factor β is equal to 1/3. Therefore for sustained oscillation, the

amplifier must have a gain of precisely 3. However from practical point of view, AV may be

slightly less or greater than 3. For AV <3 the oscillations will either die down or fail to start

when power is first applied and for AV >3, the oscillations will be growing.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure1.

2. Connect the C.R.O at the output terminals and observe the output waveform.

3. Record the output waveform and measure the practical frequency from the waveform.

4. For different values of R, calculate theoretical frequency using the formula FO = 1/ 2∏RC

and also measure the frequency of output signal from the waveform.

5. Compare the theoretical and practical frequencies of the output signal.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.NO R (in Ohms) C ( in µF)

f theoretical = 1/2∏RC

(in Hz)

f practical

(in Hz)

EXPECTED WAVEFORM:

Fig. 2

RESULT: Operation of Wein –Bridge Oscillator using IC 741 Op-Amp is studied and

frequency of the oscillations is determined.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. State Barkhausen criterion for oscillations.

2. Derive the frequency of oscillations and gain of wein bridge oscillator.

3. List out different types of oscillators.

4. What is the function of Pot R3 in the wein bridge oscillator circuit?

5. What is the advantage by using IC 741 op-amp in the oscillator circuit?

6. Why RC oscillators are called low frequency oscillators.

7. What is the frequency range you can get from the oscillator circuit?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 7

RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR USING IC 741 OP-AMP

AIM: To study the Operation of RC Phase shift Oscillator using IC 741 Op-Amp and

determine the frequency of Oscillations.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread Board/ CDS Board

2. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

3. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

4. Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. Resistors ----- 1KΩ : 4No.

------ 33KΩ : 1No.

2. Capacitors ---- 0.1µF : 3No.

3. IC 741 :1 No.

4. Decade Resistance Box : 1 No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1

THOERY:

Phase shift oscillator which consists of an Op-Amp as the amplifying stage & three RC

cascaded networks as the feed back circuit that provides feedback voltage from the output

back to the input of the amplifier. The output is used in inverting mode. Therefore any

signal that appears at the inverting terminal is shifted by 180

0

phase shift required for

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oscillation is provided by the cascaded RC networks. Thus the total phase shift of the

cascaded RC networks is exactly 360

0

or 0

0

. At some specific frequency when the phase shift

of the cascaded RC network is exactly 180

0

and the gain of the amplifier is sufficiently large

and circuit oscillates at that frequency.

The frequency of oscillations f0 is given by

π

· ·

0

1 0.065

2 6

F

RC

RC

At this frequency the gain Av must be at least be 29. That is

·

1

29

f

R

R

=> Rf= 29 R1

Thus the circuit will produce a sinusoidal waveform of frequency fo if the gain is 29 and the

total phase shift around the circuit is exactly 360

0

.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure1.

2. Connect Oscilloscope at output terminals V0 observe the output sine wave.

3. Record the output waveform and measure the practical frequency of the output

waveform.

4. From the given values of R & C calculate theoretical frequency using the formula

f=1/2∏RC√6.

5. Compare the theoretical and practical frequencies.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.NO R (in Ohms) C ( in µF)

f theoretical =

1/2∏RC√6

(in Hz)

f practical

(in Hz)

EXPECTED WAVEFORM:

Fig.2

RESULT: Operation of RC Phase shift Oscillator is studied and frequency of oscillations is

determined.

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REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is the phase shift provided by each RC section at the frequency of oscillation?

2. On what factors does the oscillator frequency depend on?

3. What range of frequencies is obtained by this oscillator?

4. What is Barkhusen’s criteria for oscillations?

5. What type of feedback does the phase shift RC network provide?

6. What is the function of variable pot Rf in the oscillator circuit?

7. What change do you find by changing different R-C networks in the circuit?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 8

FUNCTION GENERATOR USING IC 741 OP – AMP

AIM: Study of op-Amp as function generator that produces various specific waveforms for

test purpose over a wide range of frequencies.

APPARATUS:

1. Function Generator Trainer kit.

2. C. R.O.

3. Digital Multimeter.

4. Connecting Wires.

THEORY:

Function generator is a signal generator that produces various specific waveforms for test

purposes over a wide range of frequencies. In laboratory type function generator generally

one of the functions (sine, square & triangle) is generated using dedicated chips or standard

circuits and converts it in to required signal.

This consists of

1. Sine wave generator Using IC 741.

2. Square wave generator (Astable Multivibrator using IC 741)

3. Active integrator using IC 741

SINE WAVE GENERATOR:

Fig.1. Sine wave generator

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The sine wave generator circuit is shown in fig.1. The operational amplifier (IC 741) used in

the circuit is provided with a positive feed back through two 47KΩ resistors and a 0.047µF

capacitor. This positive feed back provides a fraction of output signal in phase(0

0

or 360

0

)

with the input at the non-inverting terminal (pin No.3) of Op-Amp 741. Once the loop gain

(Aβ) of the circuit equals to 1 the circuit produce oscillates. The frequency of the oscillations

can be controlled by varying the feed back network components. However a negative feed

back is also provided to the Op-Amp 741 to improve the stability of the circuit.

SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR (ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)

In comparison to sine wave oscillations, square wave signals are generated when the Op-

Amp is forced to operate in saturated region. That is the output of the Op-Amp is forced to

swing between +Vsat & -Vsat, resulting in square wave output. The circuit arrangement of a

square wave generator using IC 741 is shown in fig.2.

Figure .2 Square & Triangular Wave Generators

TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR:

The circuit arrangement of a triangular wave generator is shown in Fig.2. A square wave

from the square wave generator is fed to the integrator. The RC time constant of the

integrator has been chosen in such a way that it is very small value compared to the time

period of the incoming square wave. For the basic operation of integrator, it is known that

the output of the integrator for a given square wave input is a triangle wave.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect trainer kit to the 230V AC mains and switch on the supply.

2. Observe the output of the sine wave generator. If signal is not coming or distorted in

shape adjust the gain trim pot provided on the kit until a good signal is obtained. Measure

the signal frequency using Oscilloscope.

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3. Observe the output of the square wave generator and measure the output signal

frequency.

4. Observe the output of the Integrator (triangular wave generator) by varying the input

signal frequency (square wave is internally connected to the circuit).

5. Measure the frequency of the triangular wave using CRO.

RESULT: Hence studied op-Amp as function generator that produces Sine, square and

triangular waveforms for test purpose over a wide range of frequencies.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the internal block diagram of function generator IC 8038.

2. What are the different types of function generators IC’s?

3. What type of output waveforms is obtained from function generator?

4. What type of oscillator is used in the sine wave generator and what is the frequency

range?

5. What is the function of diodes across the feedback resistor in the sine wave generator?

6. What is the advantage of using OP-AMP as an oscillator?

7. Why do we call sine to square wave converter as zero crossing detector?

8. What happens when a negative reference voltage is applied at the non-inverting terminal

of a square wave generator?

9. Why the RC time constant kept very small compared to incoming square wave time

period to generate triangular waveforms?

10. How do you vary the frequency and amplitude of different waveforms obtained from

function generator

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EXPERIMENT NO: 9

MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMER

AIM: To design a Monostable Multivibrator using 555 timer to get 10msec. pulse output.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. C.R.O

2. Regulated DC power Supply

3. Function generator

4. CDS Board/ Bread Board.

5. Connecting patch chords.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC 555 Timer :1 No.

2. Resistors ---- 100 KΩ :1 No.

3. Capacitor ---- 1µF :1 No.

0.01µF :1 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1

Fig.2. Trigger Circuit

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THEORY:

The 555 Timer is used in number of applications; it can be used as monostable, astable

multivibrators, DC to DC converters, digital logic probes, analog frequency meters, voltage

regulators and time delay circuits.

The IC 555 timer is 8-pin IC and it can operate in free- running (Astable) mode or in

one-shot (Monostable) mode. It can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or

oscillations. Monostable can also called as One-shot Multivibarator. Fig (1) shows the Pin

configuration of Monostable Multivibrator. When the output is low, the circuit is in stable

state, Transistor Q1 is ON and capacitor C is shorted out to ground. However, upon

application of a negative trigger pulse to pin-2, transistor Q1 is turned OFF, which releases

short circuit across the external capacitor and drives the output High. The capacitor C now

starts charging up toward Vcc through R. However, when the voltage across the external

capacitor equals 2/3 Vcc, the output of comparator1 switches from low to high, which in

turn drives the output to its low state. The output, Q of the flip flop turns transistor Q1 ON,

and hence, capacitor C rapidly discharges through the transistor. The output of the

Monostable remains low until a trigger pulse is again applied. Then the cycle repeats. Fig (2)

shows the trigger circuit & Fig.3 shows trigger input, output voltage and capacitor voltage

waveforms.

Pulse width of the trigger input must be smaller than the expected pulse width of the output

waveforms. Trigger pulse must be a negative going input signal with amplitude larger than

1/3 Vcc. The time during which the output remains high is given by

tp =1.1RC -------------(1)

Once triggered, the circuit’s output will remain in the high state until the set time tp

elapses. The output will not change its state even if an input trigger is applied again during

this time interval tp.

DESIGN:

Step 1: Choose C=1µF.

Step 2: Since in monostable multivibrator, tp=1.1RC. Therefore R= tp / 1.1C ---- (2)

Step 3: Using equation (2), design the value of R.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the 555 timer in Monostable mode as shown in fig.1.

2. Connect the C.R.O at the output terminals & observe the output.

3. Apply external trigger at the trigger input terminal (PIN 2) and observe the output of

Monostable Multivibrator.

4. Record the trigger input, voltage across the capacitor & output waveforms and measure

the output pulse width.

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5. Verify results with the sample output waveforms as shown in fig (3)

6. Calculate the time period of pulse (tp =1.1RC) theoretically & compare it with practical

values.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No Theoretical value of o/p pulse width (in m.sec)

(tp =1.1RC)

Practical value of the o/p

pulse width (in m.sec)

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

Fig.3

RESULT: Hence designed & studied 555 timer as a Monostable multivibrator and also

theoretical & Practical of time period values of the output waveform are compared.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. List the important features of the 555 Timer.

2. Define Duty cycle.

3. What are the modes of operation of Timer and explain the differences between two

operating modes of the 555 Timer.

4. The Monostable multivibrator circuit is to be used as a divided by 2 network. The

frequency of the input trigger signal is 2 KHz. If the value of C=0.01 µF, what should be the

value of RA (Let tp =1.2T)

5. Consider the Monostable multivibrator with R=3KΩ and C=0.0068µF.

Determine the pulse width.

6. Design a Monostable multivibrator to produce an output pulse 2 msec wide.

7. What is the function of control input (pin5) of 555 timers?

8. List the applications of 555 timers in Monostable mode.

9. Why do we use negative trigger for Monostable operation?

10. Explain the trigger circuit used for Monostable multivibrator?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 10

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555 TIMER

AIM: To design an Astable Multivibrator using IC 555 timer to generate a square wave of

6.9 KHz with 52.38 % Duty Cycle.

APPARATUS:

1. C.R.O

2. Function generator

3. Regulated DC power Supply

4. CDS Board/ Bread Board.

5. Connecting patch chords.

COMPONENTS:

1. IC 555 Timer : 1 No.

2. Resistors ------ 10 KΩ : 1 No.

1KΩ : 1 No.

3. Capacitor ---- 0.01 µF : 1 No.

0.1 µF : 1 No.

PIN CONFIGURATION OF 555 TIMER:

Fig. 1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

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Fig. 2

THEORY:

The 555 Timer is used in number of applications; it can be used as monostable, astable

multivibrators, DC to DC converters, digital logic probes, analogy frequency meters, voltage

regulators and time delay circuits. The IC 555 timer is 8-pin IC and it can operate in free-

running (Astable) mode or in one-shot (Monostable) mode. The pin configuration of NE 555

Timer is as shown fig (1). It can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or

oscillations.

Astable Multivibrator often called a free-running Multivibrator. External Trigger input

is not required to operate the 555 as an Astable Configuration. However, the time during

which the output is either high or low is determined by two external components Resistor &

Capacitor. Fig (2) shows the 555 as Astable Multivibrator. Initially, when the output is high,

capacitor C starts charging towards Vcc through resistor Ra and Rb. As soon as voltage

across the capacitor equals to 2/3 Vcc, comparator-1 triggers the flip-flop, and the output is

low. Now capacitor discharges through Rb and transistor Q1. When the voltage across

capacitor C equals to 1/3Vcc, comparator-2’s output triggers the flip-flop, and the output

goes high. Then the cycle repeats. The output voltage waveforms are as shown in fig (3).In

this way capacitor periodically charges and discharges between 2/3Vcc and 1/3Vcc

respectively.

The time during which the capacitor charges from 1/3Vcc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to the

ON time of the timer (i.e. the output is HIGH) and is given by

tc =0.69(R1+R2)C ---- (1)

The time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 Vcc to 1/3Vcc is equal to the OFF

time of the timer, during which the output is LOW and is given by

td =0.69(R2)C --- (2)

The total time period of the output is the sum of charging time( tc )and discharging time(td)

and is given by

T = tc + td = 0.69(R1 + 2R2) C --- (3)

Therefore the frequency of oscillations of Astable multivibrator is given by

F = 1/T = 1.45/ (R

1

+ 2R2) C --- (4)

DUTY CYCLE:

This term is in conjunction with Astable Multivibrator. The duty cycle is the ratio of the ON

time, tc during which the output is high to the total time period T. It is generally expressed

as a percentage.

Duty cycle,D = (TON /TON+ TOFF) = tc /T = (R

1

+ R2) / (R

1

+ 2R2) --- (5)

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DESIGN:

Step1: Choose C=0.01 µF

Step2: using the formula, F = 1.45/ (R

1

+ 2R2) C, Get a relation between R1 & R2.

Step3: Consider the expression for duty cycle, D= (TON /TON+ TOFF) = (R

1

+ R2) / (R

1

+2R2)

& obtain a relation between R1 & R2.

Step4: Using the relations between R1 & R2., obtained in step2 & step3, solve for R1 & R2.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the IC 555 timer in Astable mode as shown in fig.2

2. Connect the C.R.O at the output terminal (pin 3) and observe the output.

3. Record the waveforms at pin3, across the capacitor & compare them with the

sample output waveforms as shown in fig (3)

4. Measure the charging time (tc), discharging time (td) and total time period/ Frequency

from the output waveform.

5. Calculate tc, td, time period (T), frequency (f) of the square wave output and percentage

duty cycle theoretically.

6. Compare the theoretical values charging time (tc), discharging time (td) ,total time

period/ Frequency & % Duty cycle with the practical values.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.NO Theoretical Values Practical Values

tc

(m.sec)

td

(m.sec)

T

(m.sec)

f

(in Hz)

D tc

(m.sec)

td

(m.sec)

T

(m.sec)

F

(inHz)

D

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

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Fig.3

RESULT: Hence designed & studied IC 555 timer as an Astable multivibrator and also

calculated the frequency of oscillations & time period of output waveform.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. List the important features of the IC555 Timer. 2. Define Duty cycle.

3. What are the modes of operation of Timer and explain the difference between two

operating modes of the 555 Timer.

4. Consider the Astable multivibrator with R1=10KΩ,R2=200KΩ and C=0.1µF. Determine

a) High state interval b) Low state interval c) Period d) Frequency e) Duty cycle.

5. Design an Astable 555 timer circuit to produce a 2kHz square wave with a duty cycle of

70%. 6. What is the function of control input (pin5) of 555 timer?

7. Compare the time period ‘T’ of the Astable multivibrator using IC555 timer& op-amp

IC741.

8. Why do we connect pin 4 of IC 555 timer to supply pin when it is not used.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 11 (a)

SCHMITT TRIGGER USING IC 741 OP-AMP

AIM: To construct and study the Schmitt Trigger using IC741 Operational Amplifier

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Function Generator

2. Regulated DC power Supply

3. Dual Channel Oscilloscope(CRO)

4. Digital Multimeter

5. CDS Board / Bread Board

6. Connecting wires

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC 741 : 1 No.

2. Resistors -------- 1KΩ : 2 No.

3. Decade Resistance Box (DRB) : 1 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1

THEORY:

Circuit diagram of Schmitt trigger is shown in Fig 1. It’s also called regenerative

comparator. The input Voltage is applied to the inverting terminal & feed back voltage to the

non-inverting terminal. The input voltage vi triggers the output Vo every time it exceeds

certain voltage levels. These voltage levels are called upper threshold & lower threshold.

The hysteresis width is difference between these two values.

These voltages are calculated as follows

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Suppose the output voltage Vo= +Vsat. The voltage at inverting terminal will be

2

1 2

ref sat ref ut

R

V V V V

R R

1 + − ·

¸ ]

+

----- (1)

For Vo= -Vsat then

2

1 2

ref sat ref lt

R

V V V V

R R

1 − + ·

¸ ]

+

---- (2)

The input voltage Vi must become lesser than VL in order to cause Vo to switch from -Vsat to

+ Vsat.

The hysterisis width VH can be written as

2

1 2

2

H ut lt sat

R

V V V V

V V

· − ·

+

---- (3)

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown Fig.1.

2. Set Function Generator output for sine wave signal of Amplitude at 1V(p-p) & frequency

1KHz.

3. Set R1 and R2 values at fixed positions and note down the values in tabular column.

Calculate theoretical values of Vut and Vlt and note down the values in tabular column.

(+Vsat = 14V,- Vsat = -14V).

4. Apply Function Generator output at input terminals Vi, connect C.R.O- CH2 at output

terminals Vo, C.R.O-CH1 at input terminals Vi.

5. Observe square wave output on C.R.O for the given input sine wave & compare them

with the sample waveform as shown in fig.2.

6. Note down the practical Vut , Vlt and VH values in tabular column.

7. Compare the theoretical and practical values of Vut,Vlt and VH

OBSERVATION TABLE:

S.No

Theoretical Values Practical Values

R1 R2

( ) · +

+

1

1 2

ut sat

R

V V

R R

in Volts

( )

· −

+

1

1 2

lt sat

R

V V

R R

in Volts

VH

in

volts

Vlt

(Volts)

Vut

(Volts)

VH

in

volts

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INPUT AND OUTPUT WAVE FORMS OF SCHMITTH TRIGGER:

Fig.2

RESULT: Hence constructed and studied Schmitt trigger using IC 741.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. How can a comparator be converted to Schmitt trigger

2. What do you mean by the Phenomenon hysteresis or backlash.

3. In the circuit shown R2 = 100Ω, R1 = 50KΩ ,Vref = 0V, Vi = 1VPP(Peak to Peak) sine

wave and saturation Voltage = ± 14V. Determine threshold voltages VUT and VLT

4. Define upper trigger point (UTP) and lower trigger point (LTP).

5. Find UTP and LTP values when R1=20 KΩ, R2=5KΩ, Vref=0V and Vcc=±12v

6. When the op amp is operated with Vcc=± 12 V then what will be the saturated output

voltages.

7 How do you change the trigger levels of the Schmitt trigger?

8. Define the Hysteresis voltage VH and how can we reduce VH.

9. Calculate the threshold voltage and sketch the input-output characteristics curve with

R1 = 10Kohms, R2 = 16Kohms & V = ± 13V for Inverting Schmitt trigger.

10. Sketch the output waveform, when a triangular wave of 5V p-p is applied to non-

inverting Schmitt trigger.

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EXPERIMENT NO.11 (b)

SCHMITT TRIGGER USING IC555 TIMER

AIM: To construct and study of the Schmitt Trigger using IC 555 timer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. C.R.O

2. Function Generator

3. Regulated DC power Supply

4. CDS Board / Bread Board

5. Connecting Patch Chords

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC 555 timer : 1No.

2. Resistors --- 10KΩ : 2No.

3. Capacitors --- 0.01µF : 1No.

--- 0.1 µF : 1No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1

THEORY:

In Schmitt Trigger two internal comparators are tied together and externally biased at

VCC/2 through R1 & R2. Since the upper comparator will trip at (2/3) VCC and lower

comparator at (2/3) VCC the bias provided by R1 & R2 is centered within these two

thresholds. Thus a sine wave of sufficient amplitude (>VCC/6 = 2/3 VCC – VCC/2) to

exceed the reference levels causes the internal flip –flop to alternately set and reset

providing a square wave output.

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PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig (1).

2. Apply the input sine wave 5V (P-P) using function generator at 1KHZ frequency.

3. Observe the output waveform at Pin No: 3.

4. Calculate the duty cycle using formula.

2

1 2

R

D

R R

1

·

+ 1

¸ ]

=

10

10 10

K

K K

1

+ ¸ ]

=0.5 or 50%

INPUT AND OUTPUT WAVEFORMS:

Fig. 2

RESULT: Constructed and studied the Schmitt Trigger using IC 555 timer.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Explain how a square wave is obtained at the output of timer when sine wave input is

given.

2. What type of waveform is obtained when triangular or ramp waveforms are applied to

Schmitt trigger circuit?

3. Explain how upper trigger and lower trigger levels are obtained in the Schmitt trigger

circuit.

4. Why do we short pin 2 and pin 6 of IC 555 timer for Schmitt trigger operation.

5. Why do we connect pin 4 of 555 timer to Vcc.

6. What is the function of pull up resistor RL in the Schmitt trigger circuit?

7. Why do we call Schmitt trigger as square wave generator.

8. How do you vary the duty cycle of the output waveform?

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EXPERIMENT NO.12

PHASE LOCKED LOOP (PLL) USING IC 565

AIM: To calculate free running frequency, capture range and lock range of PLL System.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. C.R.O

2. Function Generator

3. DC power supply

4. CDS board / Bread Board

5. Connecting wires

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. LM 565 IC : 1No

2. Resistors 10K : 1No

680Ω : 2No

3. Capacitors 0.1µ F : 1No

1µ F : 1No

0.01µ F : 1No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1

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PIN DIAGRAM:

Fig.2.Pin configuration of IC 565

THEORY:

The fig.1 shows the phase-locked loop (PLL) in its basic form. The PLL consists of i)

a phase detector ii) a low pass filter and iii) a voltage controlled oscillator as shown.

The phase detector, or comparator compares the input frequency fIN with the

feedback frequency fOUT. The output of the phase detector is proportional to the phase

difference between fIN and fout. The output voltage of a phase detector is a dc voltage and

therefore is often referred to as the error voltage. The output of the phase detector is then

applied to the low-pass filter, which removes the high-frequency noise and produces a dc

level. This dc level, in turn, is the input to the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The filter

also helps in establishing the dynamic characteristics of the PLL circuit. The output

frequency of the VCO is directly proportional to the input dc level. The VCO frequency is

compared with the input frequencies and adjusted until it is equal to the input frequencies.

In short, the phase-locked loop goes through three states: free running, capture, and phase

lock.

Before the input is applied, the phase-locked loop is in the free-running state.

Once the input frequency is applied, the VCO frequency starts to change and the phase-

locked loop is said to be in the capture mode. The VCO frequency continues to change until

it equals the input frequency, and the phase-locked state. When phase locked, the loop

tracks any change in the input frequency through its repetitive action.

Lock Range: The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with

incoming signal is called the “ Lock Range” or “Track Range”

FL= 8f0/V-------(1) where V= + V –(–V), where f0 is free running frequency.

Capture range: The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an

input signal is called the capture range.

FC = [FL / 2Π (3.6 Χ 10

3

)C2 ]

½

---------(2)

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PROCEDURE:

1. Apply +5v to pin 10 and –5v to pin 1 of LM565

2. Connect R1= 10KΩ resistor from pin 8 to10 and C1 =0.01µ F capacitor from pin 9 to

1.

3. Connect 680Ω resistor from pin 2 & pin 3 to ground.

4. Connect pin 4(VCO o/p) to CRO and measure its frequency. This frequency is called

the free running frequency, fo.

5. Calculate f0 theoretically using the formula f0 = 1.2 /4R1C1 and compare it with

practical value.

6. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.

7. Apply square wave at the input with an amplitude of 2Vpp and also connect it to

channel 1 of CRO.

8. Connect pin 4(VCO o/p) to channel 2 of CRO.

9. Vary the input signal frequency in steps and measure its corresponding o/p

frequency.

10. Find the lock range and capture range from the obtained data.

11. Calculate lock range, fL and capture range, fC theoretically using formula

FL = 8 f0/V Hz where V = +V- (-V)

and FC = [ fL/(2Π Χ 3.6 Χ 10

3

Χ C2 ) ]

1/2

12. Compare theoretical and practical values.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No.

Input

frequency, Hz

Output

frequency, Hz

FC in Hz FL in Hz

RESULT: Free running frequency, lock range and capture range of PLL are measured

practically and compared with theoretical values.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 13

VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR (IC 566)

AIM: To construct and study the voltage controlled oscillator-using IC 566.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Function Generator.

2. C.R.O.

3. CDS Board/ Bread Board

4. Connecting Patch chords.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC 566 : 1 No.

2. Resistors --- 1.5KΩ : 1 No.

10KΩ : 1 No

20KΩ : 1No

3. Capacitors --- 0.001µF :1 No

0.1µF :1 No

1µF :1 No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1

THOERY:

Fig.1 shows the circuit diagram of VCO. This arrangement R1C1 combination determines the

free running frequency and the control voltage Vc at terminal 5 is sent by the voltage divider

formed with R2 and R3. The initial voltage Vc at terminal is

( ) ( )

+ < < +

3

4

cc cc

V V V

c

------- (1)

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Where +V is the total supply voltage.

The modulating signal is ac coupled with the capacitor c and must be less than

3Vp-p.The frequency of the output waveform is given by

( )

( )

+ −

·

+

2

0

1 1

cc

cc

V V

c

f

RC V

------ (2) Where R1=R2+R3

Fig.2 shows square wave & triangular wave outputs of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (IC

566) measured at pin no3 & pin no.4 respectively.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1.

2. Switch on the power supply of 12V DC & observe square wave output at pin no.3 &

triangular wave output at pin no.4.

3. Keep the product of R1 C1 as constant.

4. By varying the control voltage Vc, between ¾(Vcc) and Vcc observe the output frequency.

WAVEFORMS:

Fig.2

RESULT: Voltage controlled oscillator-using IC 566 is constructed and the frequency of

oscillations is estimated. Also observed the variations in the output signal frequency in

accordance with the modulating or control valtage, Vc.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Mention the applications of voltage-controlled oscillator.

2. How do you vary the VCO frequency?

3. Why it is called as Voltage controlled oscillator.

4. Draw the internal block diagram of IC 566 and explain.

5. Derive f0 of the voltage-controlled oscillator.

6. What is the voltage to frequency conversion factor Kv of IC 566?

7. Give the pin configuration of IC 566 and explain each pin.

8. What are the output voltage levels of square wave and triangular wave output?

9. Why do we use buffer amplifiers before the output?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 14

VOLTAGE REGULATOR USING IC 723

AIM: a) To construct and study low and high voltage regulators using IC 723.

b) To find the %regulation of low and high voltage regulators.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Oscilloscope.

2. Digital Multimeter.

3. Connecting patch chords.

4. CDS Board / Bread Board

5. Regulated Power Supply

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC 723 : 1No.

2. 10K POT : 1No.

3. Resistors ---- 2.2KΩ : 2No.

1 KΩ : 1No.

4. Capacitors ---- 100 pF : 1No.

0.1 µF : 1No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Low voltage Regulator

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Fig.2 High Voltage Regulator

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION:

The IC 723 is a monolithic integrated circuit voltage regulator featuring high ripple rejection,

excellent input and load regulation & excellent temperature stability etc. It consists of a

temperature compensating reference voltage amplifier, an error amplifier, 150mA output

transistor and an adjustable output current limiter.

The basic low voltage regulator type 723 circuit is shown in figure.1.The unregulated

input voltage is 24V and the regulated output voltage is varied from 0.2V to 7.5V by varying

the value of R2. A stabilizing capacitor (C1) of 100pF is connected between frequency

compensation terminal and inverting (INV) terminal. External NPN pass transistor is added

to the basic 723-regulator circuit to increase its load current capability. For intermediate

output voltages the following formula can be used

Vout = (R2/R1+R2) V

ref

----------(1)

The basic high voltage regulator type 723 circuit is shown in figure.2.The output voltage

can be regulated from 7 to 37Volts for an input voltage range from 9.5 to 40Volts. For

intermediate output voltages the following formula can be used

1 2

*

2

R R

V V

out ref

R

+

·

----------(2)

PROCEDURE:

LOW VOLTAGE REGULATOR

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.1.

2. Apply the unregulated voltage to the 723 IC and note down the regulator output voltage.

3.Calculate the line regulation of the regulator using the formula

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔV

i

------------- (3)

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4. By varying 10K potentiometer at the load section and note down the regulator output

voltage.

5. Calculate the Load regulation of the regulator using the formula

Load Regulation ==ΔVO / ΔIL ------------ (4)

6. Also calculate the Percentage of load regulation using the formula

1 2

1

*100

E E

E

−

----------------- (5)

Where E1 = Out put voltage without load & E2 = Out put voltage with load.

HIGH VOLTAGE REGULATOR

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.2.

2. Apply the unregulated voltage to the 723 IC and note down the regulator output voltage.

3. Calculate the line regulation of the regulator using the formula

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔV

i

------------ (6)

4. By varying 10K potentiometer at the load section and note down the regulator output

voltage.

5. Calculate the Load regulation of the regulator using the formula

Load Regulation = ΔVO / ΔIL ------------ (7)

6. Also calculate the Percentage of load regulation using the formula

1 2

1

*100

E E

E

−

-----------------(8)

Where E1 = Out put voltage without load & E2 = Out put voltage with load.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

i) FOR LOW VOLTAGE REGULATOR

LINE REGULATION: (RL is constant)

S.No Unregulated DC input, Vi in Volts Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

LOAD REGULATION: (V

i

is Constant)

S.No

Load Resistance, RL in Ohms Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

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ii) FOR HIGH VOLTAGE REGULATOR

LINE REGULATION: (RL is constant)

S.No Unregulated DC input, Vi in Volts Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

LOAD REGULATION: (Vi is constant)

S.No Load Resistance, RL in Ohms Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS

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Fig.3. Line Regulation

Fig.4. Load Regulation

RESULT: Low and high voltage regulators using IC 723 were constructed and studied. Also

the line and load regulations of the low & high voltage regulators are verified.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. What is the function of a voltage regulator?

2. What is a voltage reference? Why is it needed?

3. Draw the functional block diagram of 723 regulators and explain.

4. Design a high voltage and low voltage regulator using IC 723.

5. Define line and load regulation of a regulator.

6. List the features of a voltage regulator IC 723.

7. List the different types of IC voltage regulators

8. What is the output voltage range of an IC 723 voltage regulator?

9. What is the function of CL & CS terminals of IC 723 regulator?

10. What is the difference between a series and shunt voltage regulator?

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11. What is the difference between a linear and switching regulator.

12. What are the basic units / elements of a voltage regulator?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 15

THREE TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS

AIM: a) To construct and study the 3-terminal fixed voltage regulator using IC 78XX and

79XX series.

b) To find line regulation and load regulation of the IC regulator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Multimeter

2. Regulated DC Dual Power supply

3. CDS Board / Bread Board

4. Connecting patch Chords

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. Capacitors --- 1000 µF : 1 No.

--- 22 µF : 1 No.

2. IC’s

7805 :1No

7812 :1No

7905 :1No

7912 :1No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

a) Fixed Positive Voltage regulator:

Fig.1

b) Fixed Negative Voltage Regulator:

Fig.2

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PROCEDURE:

For fixed positive voltage regulator (78XX):

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.1.

2. Apply the unregulated voltage to the IC 78XX and note down the regulator output

voltage, vary input voltage from 7V to 20V and record the output voltages

3. Calculate the line regulation of the regulator using the formula

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔV

i

------------- (3)

4. By varying the load resistance RL note down the regulator output voltage.

5. Calculate the Load regulation of the regulator using the formula

Load Regulation ==ΔVO / ΔIL ------------ (4)

For fixed negative voltage regulator (79XX):

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.2.

2. Apply the unregulated voltage to the IC 79XX and note down the regulator output

voltage, vary input voltage from 7V to 20V and record the output voltages

3. Calculate the line regulation of the regulator using the formula

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔV

i

------------- (3)

4. By varying the load resistance RL note down the regulator output voltage.

5. Calculate the Load regulation of the regulator using the formula

Load Regulation ==ΔVO / ΔIL ------------ (4)

OBSERVATION TABLES:

FOR POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

LINE REGULATION: (RL is constant)

S.NO Unregulated DC input, Vi in Volts Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

LOAD REGULATION: (Vi is Constant)

S.NO Load Resistance, RL in Ohms Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

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FOR NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR

LINE REGULATION: (RL is constant)

S.NO Unregulated DC input, Vi in Volts Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

LOAD REGULATION: (Vi is constant)

S.NO Load Resistance, RL in Ohms Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS

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Fig.3. Line Regulation For 78XX

Fig.4. Load Regulation for 78XX

Fig.5. Line Regulation for 79XX

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Fig.6. Load Regulation for 79XX

RESULT: Hence constructed and studied the 3-terminal fixed voltage regulator using IC

78XX and 79XX series & also the line regulation and load regulation of them are verified.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define line and load regulation.

2. Mention the application of voltage regulator.

3. List the types of voltage regulator.

4. List the different types of 3- terminal voltage regulator IC’s?

5. Draw and explain the internal block diagram of 3- terminal regulator IC.

6. Why do we use capacitors at input and output terminal of a regulator?

7. Define “dropout” voltage of a regulator.

8. What is the difference between a +ve and a –ve voltage regulator.

9. Compare three terminal voltage regulators with 723 voltage regulator.

10. List the features of IC voltage regulators.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 16

DIGITAL TO ANALOG (D/A) CONVERTERS

a) Weighted Resistor DAC

AIM: To obtain analog output voltages for the digital input data using 4- bit D/A converter

using weighted resistors method.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 4 – bit D/A converter (weighted resistors) Trainer kit.

2. Multimeter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect trainer to the mains and switch on the power supply.

2. Measure the power supply voltages in the circuit as +12V & -12V.

3. Calculate V0 theoretically for the digital I/P data using formula.

¸ _

· − + + +

¸ ,

0 3 1 2

8 2 4

o f

b b b b

V R

R R R R

Use Rf = 1 kΩ & R= 10kΩ.

4. Note down O/P voltages for different combinations of digital inputs and compare it with

theoretical value.

For Example:

When b3 is high and all other inputs are low then the output voltage is

¸ _

· − + + + ·

¸ ,

0 0 0 5

4

/ 2 / 4 / 8

o f

V R V

R R R R

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TABLE:

Digital Input Data

Theoretical (V0) Practical (V0)

b1 b2 b3 b4

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

1

0 1 1

1

1 0 0

1

1 0 1

1

1 1 0

1

1 1 1

RESULT: Obtained analog output voltages for the given digital input data using 4- bit

weighted resistor D/A converter.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. How many resistors are required in 12 bit-weighted resisters DAC?

2. Mention different techniques for D/A conversion

3. What is the main disadvantage of weighted resistor DAC over others?

4. A 5-bit D/A converter is available. Assume that ‘00000’ corresponds to an output of 10V

and that the D/A converter is connected for 0.1 V for increment. What output voltage will

be produced for’11111’?

5. Define the terms full-scale voltage and one least-significant bit for a D/A converter.

6. Consider the 4-bit D/A converter with Vr=10V,Rf=10KΩ. Determine

a) Number of possible output levels b) Full scale voltage c) Value of 1 LSB

7. Determine the out put voltage for the following input digital words when 4-bit D/A

converter with Vr=10V, Rf=10KΩ is considered

i) 0001 ii) 0110 iii) 1010

8. Derive Vo of 4-bit D/A converter.

b) R-2R Ladder Network DAC

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AIM: To obtain analog output voltages for the digital input data using 4-bit R-2R ladder

type D/A converter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1) 4 – bit D/A converter (R-2R) Trainer Kit.

2) Multimeter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the trainer to the mains and switch on the power supply.

2. Measure the supply voltages of the circuit as +12V & -12V.

3. Calculate theoretically Vo for all digital Input data using formula.

¸ _

· − + + +

¸ ,

3 0 2 1

0

2 4 8 16

f

b b b b

V R

R R R R

In this experiment Rf = 1 1kΩ & R= 11kΩ.

4. Note down Output voltages for different combinations of digital inputs and compare it

with theoretical values.

For Example:

When b3 is high and all other inputs are low then the output voltage is

¸ _ ¸ _

· − + + + · − · −

¸ , ¸ ,

5 0 0 0 5

1 1 2 . 5

2 4 8 1 6 2 * 1 1

V R K V

o f

R R R R K

TABLE:

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Digital Input Data Theoretical Value of

the output,V0 (in volts)

Practical Value of the

output,V0 (in volts) b1 b2 b3 b4

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1

0 1 1 0

0 1 1 1

1 0 0 0

1 0 0 1

1 0 1 0

1

0 1 1

1

1 0 0

1

1 0 1

1

1 1 0

1

1 1 1

RESULT: Obtained analog output voltages for the given digital input data using 4- bit R-2R

ladder network D/A converter.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Derive the expression for the output voltage V0 of R-2R type D/A converter.

2. What are the advantages of R-2R type D/A converter?

3. Compare R-2R Type with weighted resistor type D/A converter.

4. Mention the applications of D/A converters.

5. Define the terms full-scale voltage and one least-significant bit for D/A converter.

6. Consider the 4-bit D/A converter with Vr=10V,Rf=10KΩ. Determine

a) Number of possible output levels b) Full scale voltage

c) Value of 1 LSB

7. Determine the out put voltage for the following input digital words when 4-bit D/A

converter with Vr=10V,Rf=10KΩ is considered

i) 0001 ii) 0110 iii) 1010

8. What is the difference between Inverted R-2R and Non-Inverted R-2R type D/A

converter?

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EXPERIMENT NO: 17

INVERTING, NON- INVERTING AMPLIFIERS

AND VOLTAGE FOLLOWER USING IC 741 OP-AMP

AIM: a) To find the voltage gain of Inverting and Non- Inverting amplifiers Using IC

741 Operational Amplifiers.

b) To study the operation of Voltage Follower.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread Board/ CDS Board.

2. Function Generator

3. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

4. Regulated Power Supply (Dual Channel).

5. Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. IC741 :1No

2. Resistor s---- 1KΩ :1No

10KΩ :1No

100KΩ :1No

3. Capacitor --- 0.01µf :1No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

a) INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

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Fig. 1

NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER:

Fig. 2

b) VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

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Fig. 3

THEORY:

When the input signal is applied at the inverting input by grounding the non-inverting input

of an op-amp, the amplifier operates in the inverting mode. That is the output differs in

phase by 180 degrees with respect to the input. In an inverting amplifier the gain is given

by the relation Af = -Rf/R1. Where Rf and R1 are the feedback and input resistor

respectively. When operated in the non-inverting mode, the input signal is applied to the

non-inverting input with the inverting terminal grounded through a resistor. The gain in this

case is given by the relation

Af = 1+Rf/R1.

The lowest gain can be obtained from a non-inverting amplifier with

feedback is 1. When the non-inverting amplifier is configured for unity gain, it is called as

Voltage follower because the output voltage is equal to and in phase with the input voltage.

The voltage follower is also called a non-inverting buffer amplifier because, when placed

between two networks, it removes the loading on the first network.

PROCEDURE:

Part-I

Inverting amplifier

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

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3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 1V peak-to-peak amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator (at pin no.2 of the IC741).

NOTE: See that the amplifier should not saturate due to excessive input voltage. It is

preferred to keep the input signal amplitude less than or equal to 1 V).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6)the output terminals.

5. Observe and plot the input & output voltage waveforms.

6. Measure the output voltage (Vo) and voltage gain (Vo/Vin) from the experimental results.

7. Calculate the output voltage of the inverting Amplifier theoretically using the formula Vo

= - (Rf/R1) Vin and find its gain using the formula Af = -Rf/R1.

Non-inverting amplifier

8. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.2 on the breadboard.

9. Apply a sine wave input signal of 1V peak-to-peak amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator (at pin no.3 of the IC741).

10. Connect the CRO at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

11. Observe and plot the input & output voltage waveforms.

12. Measure the output voltage (VO) and voltage gain (Vo/Vin) from the experimental results.

13. Calculate the output voltage of the Non-inverting amplifier theoretically using the

formula VO = (1+Rf/R1) Vin and find its gain using the formula Af = 1+Rf/R1.

14. Verify the experimental results with the theoretical values.

Part-II

Voltage follower

1. Connect the circuit of voltage follower as shown in fig.3 on the breadboard.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 1V peak-to-peak amplitude at 1 KHz frequency from the

function generator (at pin no.3 of the IC741).

4. Connect the CRO at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Observe and plot the input & output voltage waveforms.

6. Measure the output voltage (Vo) and voltage gain (Vo/Vin) from the experimental results.

7. Calculate the gain of the voltage follower using the formula Af = 1+Rf/R1.

8. Verify the experimental results with the theoretical values.

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

INVERTING AMPLIFIER

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NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER

VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

RESULT: Inverting and Non- Inverting amplifiers using IC741 Operational Amplifier were

studied and the results were plotted.

The operation of Voltage Follower using IC741 Operational Amplifier was studied and the

results were plotted.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Mention the applications of Inverting and non-inverting amplifiers.

2. List the ideal and practical characteristics of IC741 Op-amp.

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3. Draw the circuit of DC inverting amplifier.

4. Show that the output of inverting amplifier is Vo = - (Rf/R1)Vin

5. What is the phase of the output signal when zero phase signal is applied to inverting and

non-inverting amplifier.

6. What is the minimum gain of non-inverting amplifier?

7. Show that the gain of non-inverting amplifier is Af = 1+Rf/R1.

8. Why the input terminals of IC741 Op-Amp are called Inverting and Non-Inverting

terminals.

9. Give the pin configuration of IC741.

10. Draw the voltage transfer curve of ideal and practical Op-Amp.

11. List the important characteristics of a voltage follower.

12. Mention the applications of a voltage follower.

13. Why R-C components are used for AC voltage follower.

14. List the applications of OP-AMP 741 operating in non- inverting mode.

15. Draw the DC voltage follower and explain.

16. Can we use the Inverting mode of Op-Amp as voltage follower?

17. What are the other voltage follower IC’s.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 18

HIGHER ORDER ACTIVE FILTERS (LPF & HPF)

AIM: 1. To Design & construct 2

nd

order Low pass & High pass Butterworth Active Filters at

1 KHz frequency.

2. To verify the frequency Response of the higher order active filters.

APPARATUS REQUIRED :

1. CDS Board / Bread Board

2. Regulated DC Dual Power supply

3. Cathode ray Oscilloscope

4. Connecting patch chords

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

IC 741 : 1No.

Resistors------ 15.9 KΩ : 2 No

10 KΩ : 1No.

5.86 KΩ : 1No

Capacitors 0.01µF : 2No

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY: An Improved filter response can be obtained by using a second order active

filter. It consists of two RC pairs & has a roll-of rate of -40dB/decade.theresults

derived

can be used for analyzing Low pass & High pass filters.

The op-amp is connected as non-inverting amplifier as shown in the circuit diagram &

hence,

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B f B f

V A V R R V · + · ) / 1 (

1 0 , where

1

1

R

R

A

f

f

+ ·

& VB is the voltage at Node B.

Case I: For the Low Pass Filter

The Normalized Transfer Function

1

) (

2

+ +

·

S S

A

s H

f

α

Where α is damping Factor

Normalized Frequency S =j (ω / ωh)

By putting S = jω

4

) ( 1

) (

h

f

A

j H

ω

ω

ω

+

·

Case II: For High Pass Filter

1

) (

2

+ +

·

S S

A

S H

f

α

Where S=j (ωL / ω) & 4

) ( 1

) (

ω

ω

ω

L

f

A

j H

+

·

DESIGN:

Step1: Choose C = 0.01 µF

Step2: We have fh =

RC π 2 1

=>

C f R

h

π 2 1 ·

=> R= 15.9 KΩ

In the Circuit R1=R2=R = 15.9 KΩ & C1 = C2 = C = 0.01 µF

Step3: Damping Factor (α) = 1.414 (From Butterworth Polynomials)

We have α = 3 - Af => Af = 3 – α = 1.586

Step 4: But

1

1

R

R

A

f

f

+ ·

yields Rf = 0.586 R1

Step 5: Choose R1 = 10 KΩ => Rf = 5.86 KΩ

PROCEDURE:

Second order Low –Pass Filter

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 on the breadboard with Y1=Y2=1/R & Y3=Y4= jωC.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude from the function generator

(at pin no.3 of the IC741).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Increase the input signal frequency in steps from 10Hz to 1MHz & Observe the

corresponding output voltage of the filter.

6. Measure the gain of the filter from the experimental results.

7. Plot the frequency response curve of the low pass filter with the experimental results

obtained & compare it with the expected waveform shown in Fig.2

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OBSERVATION TABLE:

Vin=2V p-p

Input

Frequency(Fin)

in Hz

Vout

Output

Voltage(in volts)

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB

Second order High –Pass Filter

1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.1 on the breadboard with Y1=Y2= jωC & Y3=Y4=1/R.

2. Switch ‘ON’ the power supply and apply + 15V to pin no.7 and -15V to pin no.4 of the

IC741.

3. Apply a sine wave input signal of 2V peak-to-peak amplitude from the function generator

(at pin no.3 of the IC741).

4. Connect the C.R.O at (pin no.6) the output terminals.

5. Increase the input signal frequency in steps from 10Hz to 1MHz & Observe the

corresponding output voltage of the filter.

6. Measure the gain of the filter from the experimental results.

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7. Plot the frequency response curve of the low pass filter with the experimental results

obtained & compare it with the expected waveform shown in Fig.3.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Vin = 2V p-p

Input

Frequency(Fin)

in Hz

Vout

Output

Voltage(in volts)

GAIN

Vout / Vin

20 Log (Vout / Vin)

Magnitude in dB

EXPECTED WAVEFROMS:

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Fig. 3 Frequency response of 2nd Order LPF

Fig. 4 Frequency response of 2nd Order HPF

RESULT: The higher order LPF & HPF are designed for a chosen cutoff frequency and the

frequency response curves were plotted between voltage gain (dB) and frequency (Hz).

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EXPERIMENT NO: 19

DUAL SLOPE ANALOG TO DOGITAL CONVERTER

AIM: To verify the analog to digital conversion using Dual slope A to D converter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Analog to Digital Converter Trainer Kit

2. Power Supply

3. Digital Multimeter

4. Function Generator

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY:

The most natural occurring phenomenon is analog in nature. With the introduction of

digital devices and computers, it has become necessary to convert the data taken in

physical system to digital form. The data to the digital device, namely appears in analog

form:

Ex: a temperature difference would be represented by the voltage output of a

thermo couple, therefore the need arises for a device that converts analog information into

digital form. The process of concerting an analog voltage into an equivalent signal is known

as analog to digital conversion. There are so many methods to achieve this. One of the

method dual slope A/D converter is used. The block diagram of dual slope A/D converter is

given in Fig.1. It has four major blocks Integrator, Comparator, a Binary counter and a

Binary to 7 Segment decode & driver.

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The conversion process begins at t=0 with the switch S1(assume as it has built in auto

switching) in position 0,there by connecting the analog voltage Va of the integrator. This

result in high Vc, thus enabling the AND gate and the clock pulses reach the clock (ck) input

terminals of the counter which was initially clear. The counter counts from 00…00 to 111…

11 when (2-a) clock are applied. At the next clock pulse (2) the counter is cleared and 0

becomes 1.This controls the state of S1 which now moves to position 1 at T1. There by

connecting Vr to the input of the integrator. The output of the integrator now starts to

move in the positive direction. The counter continues to count until Vo=0V. As soon as V0

goes positive at T2, Vc goes low disabling the AND gate. The counter will stop counting in

the absence of the clock pulses.

The time T1= 2

N

Tc -------- (1)

Where Tc is the time period of the clock pulses. When the switch is in position 1, the o/p

voltage of the integrator is given by.

( )

1 1 o a r

V V T V t T · · − ----------- (2)

Vo= 0 at t = T2

( ) ( )

− · ·

N

2 1 a r 1 a r c

T T V V * T V V * 2 T ----------- (3)

Let the count recorded in the counter be ‘n’ at T2

Therefore T2-T1 = n.Tc = ( )

N

a r c

V V *2 .T ------------------ (4)

which gives ( )

·

a r

n V V *2 ---------------- (5)

This shows the output of the counter is proportional to the analog voltage Va.

The count recorded in the counter is numerically equal to the analog voltage, If Vr= 2.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect analog output voltage to input of A/D converter at Va

2. Connect Ref. voltage at VR.

3. Measure the voltages Va and VR with digital multimeter.

4. Now the display will show a reading of

Display = [ Va/VR] *1000

5. Fix the reference voltage at 100 mV

6. Now vary the analog input & note down the readings for different values.

7. Verify the display reading with the theoretical value that will come by using the

above formula.

RESULT: Studied the analog to digital conversion using Dual slope Analog to Digital

converter.

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EXPERIMENT NO: 20

ADJUSTABLE VOLTAGE REGULATORS USING FIXED

VOLTAGE REGULATORS

AIM:

1) To construct and study the adjustable voltage regulator (10V) using fixed voltage.

regulator IC7805

2) To construct a constant current source using three terminal voltage regulator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Digital Multimeter

2. Regulated DC Power supply

3. Breadboard / CDS Board

4. Connecting wires

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

1. Capacitors –-- 0.33µF :1 No.

2. IC 7805 :1 No

3. Resistors ---- 10 Ω : 2 No.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Constant Current Source using IC 7805

THEORY

In the laboratory, one may need variable regulated voltages or a voltage that is not

available as standard fixed voltage regulator. This can be achieved by using a fixed three

terminal regulator as shown in Fig .1. Note that the ground (GND) terminal of the fixed

three terminal regulator is floating. The output voltage

Vo = VR + VL ________________ (1)

= VR + ( IQ + IL) RL ______________ (2)

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= VR + IQ RL + VRRL/ R ____________ (3)

Or

Vo = (1+ RL / R) VR + RL IQ ________ (4)

Therefore Vo=(1+ RL / R) VR ------------ (5) (Since IQ is negligible )

Where VR is the regulated voltage difference between the OUT and GND terminals. The

effect of IQ is minimized by choosing RL small enough & the term IQ R2 can be neglected.

The minimum output voltage is the value of the fixed voltage available from the regulator.

The LM117, 217,317, IC78XX positive regulators and LM137, 237,337, IC 79XX negative

regulators have been specially designed to be used for obtaining adjustable output voltages.

It is possible to adjust output voltage from 1.2V to 40V and current up to 1.5 A. Adjustable

voltage regulators provided the answers to the excessive inventory and production costs

because a single device satisfies many voltages requirements from 1.2 up to 57 V. In

addition, they have the following performance and reliability advantages over the fixed

types.

• Improved system performance by having line and load regulation of a factor of 10 or

better.

• Improved overload protection allows greater output current over operating

temperature range.

• Improved system reliability with each device being subjected to 100% thermal limit

burn-in.

Thus, adjustable voltage regulators have become more popular because of versatility,

performance, and reliability. The IC 78XX & LM317 series are the most commonly used

general –purpose adjustable positive voltage regulators. IC 79XX and LM 337 series are the

most commonly used adjustable negative voltage regulators.

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in figure.1.

2. Apply the unregulated voltage to the IC 7805 and note down the regulator output

voltage, vary input voltage from 12V to 30V and record the output voltages.

3. Vary the load resistance in steps (by keeping i/p voltage constant) & measure the

regulator output.

4. Calculate the load current in the circuit by varying the input voltage & load Resistance in

steps.

5. Calculate the line regulation & load regulation of the regulator using the formulae

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔV

i

Line Regulation = ΔVO / ΔIL

6. Plot the curve between unregulated input voltage and the regulated output voltage &

compare it with the expected wave form shown in Fig.2.

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OBSERVATION TABLES:

LINE REGULATION: (RL is constant)

S.NO Unregulated DC input, Vi in Volts Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

LOAD REGULATION: (Vi is constant)

S.NO Load Resistance, RL in Ohms Regulated DC output, VO in Volts

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS :

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a. Line Regulation

b. Load Regulation

Fig.2 Line & Load Regulation curves

RESULT: Hence constructed and studied the adjustable voltage regulator (10V) & constant

current source using fixed voltage regulator IC7805 .

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Define line and load regulation.

2. Mention the application of voltage regulator.

3. List the types of voltage regulator.

4. List the different types of 3- terminal voltage regulator IC’s?

5. Draw and explain the internal block diagram of 3- terminal regulator IC.

6. Why do we use capacitors at input and output terminal of a regulator?

7. Define “dropout” voltage of a regulator.

8. What is the difference between a +ve and a –ve voltage regulator.

9. Compare three terminal voltage regulators with 723 voltage regulator.

10. List the features of IC voltage regulators.

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