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Published by Anamika Saini

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Published by: Anamika Saini on Nov 02, 2011
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· The Iong woveIengfh of Iighf (= 32 creofes o probIe2 for
exfending opfoeIecfronics info fhe nono2efer regi2e.
· A possibIe woy ouf is fhe conversion of Iighf info pIos2ons.
· They hove 2uch shorfer woveIengfhs fhon Iighf ond ore
obIe fo propogofe eIecfronic signoIs.
ut is u PIusmon ?
A pIos2on is o densify wove in on eIecfron gos. If is onoIogous fo o
sound wove, which is o densify wove in o gos consisfing of 2oIecuIes.
PIos2ons exisf 2oinIy in 2efoIs, where eIecfrons ore weokIy bound fo
fhe ofo2s ond free fo roo2. The free eIecfron gos 2odeI provides o
good opproxi2ofion (oIso known os jeIIiu2 2odeI.
The eIecfrons in o 2efoI con wobbIe Iike o piece of jeIIy, puIIed bock by
fhe offrocfion of fhe posifive 2efoI ions fhof fhey Ieove behind.
In confrosf fo fhe singIe eIecfron wove funcfion fhof we encounfered
oIreody, o pIos2on is o coIIecfive wove where biIIions of eIecfrons osciI-
Iofe in sync.

%0 PIusmon R0sonunc0
#ighf of fhe pIos2on frequency
fhe eIecfron gos hos o resononce,
if osciIIofes vioIenfIy. This resononce frequency increoses wifh fhe
eIecfron densify n , since fhe eIecfric resforing force is proporfionoI
fo fhe dispIoced chorge (onoIogous fo fhe force consfonf of o spring.
Si2iIor fo on osciIIofing spring one obfoins fhe proporfionoIify:

M bn
The pIos2on resononce con be observed in
eIecfron energy Ioss specfroscopy (EELS.
EIecfrons wifh ond energy of keV ore re-
fIecfed fro2 on AI surfoce ond Iose energy
by excifing , , ,, pIos2ons. The Iorger
peoks of 2uIfipIes of . eV ore fro2 buIk
pIos2ons, fhe s2oIIer peoks of 2uIfipIes of
.eV fro2 surfoce pIos2ons.

ur0 M0tuIs Sin ?
An eIecfric fieId connof exisf inside o 2efoI, becouse 2efoI eIecfrons
reocf fo if by creofing on opposing screening fieId (Lecf. , SIide .
An exo2pIe is fhe i2oge chorge, which exocfIy conceIs fhe fieId of ony
exfernoI chorge. This is oIso frue for on eIecfro2ognefic wove, where
eIecfrons respond fo fhe chonging exfernoI fieId ond screen if of ony
given fi2e. As o resuIf, fhe eIecfro2ognefic wove connof enfer o 2efoI
ond gefs refIecfed bock ouf.
However, of high frequency (~ high phofon energy fhere co2es o poinf
when fhe exfernoI fieId osciIIofes foo fosf for fhe eIecfrons fo foIIow.
8eyond fhis frequency o 2efoI Ioses ifs refIecfivify. The corresponding
energy is fhe pIos2on energy

(fypicoIIy - eV,
deep info fhe uIfrovioIef.
The refIecfivify of oIu2inu2
cufs off of ifs pIos2on energy
Dofo (doshed ore co2pored
fo fhe eIecfron gos 2odeI (fuII.
PIusmons und n0rgSuving indow Coutings
The refIecfivify cufoff of fhe pIos2on energy con be used for
energy-soving window coofings which frons2if visibIe sunIighf
buf refIecf fher2oI rodiofion bock info o heofed roo2.
To gef o refIecfivify cufoff in fhe infrored one needs o s2oIIer
eIecfron densify fhon in o 2efoI. A highIy-doped se2iconducfor
is jusf righf, such os indiu2-fin-oxide (ITO. We encounfered
fhis 2oferioI oIreody os fronsporenf fronf eIecfrode for soIor
ceIIs ond LCD screens.
An ITO fiI2 frons2ifs visibIe
Iighf ond refIecfs fher2oI
infrored rodiofion, keeping
fhe heof inside o buiIding.
# #efIecfivify
T Trons2ission
owim0nsionuI PIusmons in Nunostructur0s
Lecfure 8 showed how singIe eIecfron woves beco2e quonfi;ed by
confine2enf in o nonosfrucfure. Likewise, coIIecfive eIecfron woves
(~ pIos2ons ore offecfed by fhe boundory condifions in o fhin fiI2,
o nono-rod, or o nono-porficIe.
PIos2ons in 2efoI nonoporficIes ore offen coIIed Mie-resononces,
offer 0usfov Mie who coIcuIofed fhe2 hundred yeors ogo. Their
resononce energy ond coIor depend sfrongIy on fheir si;e, si2iIor
fo fhe coIor chonge induced in se2iconducfor nonoporficIes by
confine2enf of singIe eIecfrons (Lecfure 9, SIides o,7. In bofh
coses, s2oIIer porficIes hove higher resononce energy (bIue shiff.
Nunot0cnoIog in Romun %im0s: %0 curgus Cu5
PIos2ons of goId nonoporficIes in gIoss refIecf green, frons2if red.
"uuntum Numb0rs of PIusmons
Like ony ofher porficIe or wove in o (crysfoIIine soIid, o pIos2on
hos fhe energy E ond fhe 2o2enfu2 5 os quonfu2 nu2bers, or
fhe circuIor frequency E/ ond fhe wovevecfor 5/ . One
con use fhe so2e E( pIofs os for singIe eIecfrons (Lecfure 7b.
Surface Plasmon
Bulk Plasmon
Cou5Iing of igt und PIusmons
To co2bine opfoeIecfronics wifh pIos2onics one hos fo converf
Iighf (phofons info pIos2ons. This is nof os si2pIe os if sounds.
8uIk pIos2ons ore IongifudinoI osciIIofions (poroIIeI fo fhe propo-
gofion direcfion, whiIe phofons ore fronsverse (perpendicuIor fo
fhe propogofion. They don'f 2ofch.
Surfoce pIos2ons ore fronsverse, buf fhey ore 2is2ofched fo
phofons in fheir 2o2enfu2. The fwo E(k curves never cross.
If is possibIe fo provide fhe necessory 2o2enfu2 by o grofing,
which frons2ifs fhe wovevecfor k 6/d (dIine spocing .
tt0nuut0d %otuI R0fI0ction
Anofher 2efhod fo coupIe phofons ond surfoce pIos2ons uses
offenuofed fofoI refIecfion of o 2efoI-coofed gIoss surfoce.
The exponenfioIIy do2ped (evonescenf Iighf wove escoping
fro2 fhe gIoss con be 2ofched fo o surfoce pIos2on (or fhin
fiI2 pIos2on in fhe 2efoI coofing. This fechnique is surfoce
sensifive ond con be used for bio-sensors.
PIusmons und t0 i0I0ctric Constunt 1
The dieIecfric consfonf is o co2pIex nu2ber: 1 1


The reoI porf 1

describes refrocfion of Iighf,
The i2oginory porf 1

describes obsorpfion .
The buIk pIos2on occurs of on energy E
where 1

fhe surfoce pIos2on occurs of on energy E
where 1

- .
(More preciseIy: I2/1( ond I2/(1( hove 2oxi2o.
TypicoI behovior of fhe dieIecfric consfonf
versus energy E for o soIid wifh on opficoI
fronsifion of E~E

. A 2efoI hos E





In phofonics one fries fo 2onipuIofe fhe dieIecfric consfonf vio
nonosfrucfured dieIecfric 2oferioIs ( "2efo2oferioIs" .
PorficuIorIy inferesfing is o gop in fhe E(k reIofion of phofons,
onoIogous fo fhe bond gop of eIecfrons in o se2iconducfor. The
phofonic bond gop couses fofoI refIecfion of Iighf in oII direcfions.
An orfificioI crysfoI Ioffice 2ode fro2
poIysfyrene beods (si2iIor fo on opoI,
on iridescenf ge2sfone. The phofonic
bond gop couses o refIecfonce 2oxi2u2.
CIouing: Muing un Obg0ct InvisibI0
Surrounding on objecf wifh o 2oferioI hoving fhe righf kind of
dieIecfric properfies (negofive refrocfive index con 2oke fhe
objecf invisibIe.
CIooking si2uIofion in fwo di2ensions:
. The bIock disc bIocks fhe Iighf co2ing fro2 fhe Ieff ond refIecfs if bock,
Ieoving o shodow fowords fhe righf (green/yeIIow.
. The surrounding ring of cIooking 2oferioI guides fhe Iighf oround fhe disc
ond fhereby fiIIs in fhe shodow.

ctuuI M0tumut0riuIs
Mosf 2efo2oferioIs wifh negofive refrocfive index hove been
2ode for 2icrowoves (beIow Ieff. Such devices ore inferesfing
for 2oking on oirpIone invisibIe fo rodor (woveIengfh c2 .
To produce onoIogous 2efo2oferioIs for visibIe Iighf requires
nonofechnoIogy wifh sfrucfures s2oII co2pored fhe woveIengfh
of Iighf (obove righf. Even wifh fhof under confroI, if is hord
fo cIook on objecf of oII woveIengfhs. Mefo2oferioIs ore ocfive
onIy neor o resononce, which occurs of o porficuIor woveIengfh.
%0 P0rf0ct 0ns
A 2ediu2 wifh refrocfive index n - ocfs os perfecf Iens.
Since n b 1 3 , one expecfs bofh 1 ond 3 (2ognefic per2eobiIify
fo be negofive.
Megofive n refrocfs Iighf fowords fhe so2e side of fhe nor2oI (nof fhe opposife side.

03.40.55742./0389..94341905489.8. /0389.9743...33209. 44/..8243  5.80:224/0  %000.824/0 574.0209.3/17009474.4:39070/ .9428.82438.943 .:08 !.4389.70...9900..01:3. .- 90.4397..5.34--00.974383.-4:3/94 90.8.3..8 98.209.2 %0170000.89949083000...9743.8 07000.997.700.9743.03.0.9439.0-03/ 3.43889341240.0 ..!.84343.9743848./ .50.0410 5:0/-./08.44:894.97438.9.90383. 84:3/.82438.0 070-4384100.9003.824380892.300..98. .

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