Drug Study

Name of Drug

Classification

Adverse effect

Indication

Contraindication

Nursing Considerations

Cefuroxime IV 50mg q6

ANTIINFECTIVE; ANTIBIOTIC; SECONDGENERATION CEPHALOSPORIN

Body as a Whole: Thrombophlebitis (IV site); pain, burning, cellulitis (IM site); superinfections, positive Coombs' test. GI: Diarrhea, nausea, antibioticassociated colitis. Skin: Rash, pruritus, urticaria. Urogenital: Increased serum creatinine and BUN, decreased creatinine clearance.

It is effective for the treatment of penicillinaseproducing Neisseria gonorrhoea (PPNG). Effectively treats bone and joint infections, bronchitis, meningitis, gonorrhea, otitis media, pharyngitis/tonsilliti s, sinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and is used for surgical prophylaxis, reducing or eliminating infection.

Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins and related antibiotics; pregnancy (category B), lactation.

Determine history of hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins, and history of allergies, particularly to drugs, before therapy is initiated. Inspect IM and IV injection sites frequently for signs of phlebitis. Report onset of loose stools or diarrhea. Although pseudomembranous colitis. Monitor I&O rates and pattern: Especially important in severely ill patients receiving high doses. Report any significant changes.

Classification Name of Drug

Adverse effect

Indication

Contraindication

Nursing Consideration

GI: Nausea, Ascorbic acid 0.5 bid Vitamins vomiting, heartburn, diarrhea. Hematologic: Acute hemolytic anemia (patients with deficiency of G6PD); sickle cell crisis. CNS: Headache (high doses). Urogenital: Urethritis, dysuria, crystalluria (high doses). Other: Mild soreness at injection site; dizziness and temporary faintness with rapid IV administration.

Proph ylaxis and treatment of scurvy and as a dietary supplement. Increases protection mechanism of the immune system, thus supporting wound healing. Necessary for wound healing and resistance to infection.

Assessment & Drug Effects Use of sodium ascorbate in patients on sodium restriction; use of calcium ascorbate in patients receiving digitalis. Safety during pregnancy (category C) or lactation is not established.

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Lab tests: Periodic Hct & Hgb, serum electrolytes. Monitor for S&S of acute hemolytic anemia, sickle cell crisis.

Patient & Family Education Take large doses of vitamin C in divided amounts because the body uses only what is needed at a particular time and excretes the rest in urine.

Megadoses can interfere with absorption of vitamin B12.

Note: Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron when taken at the same time as iron-rich foods.

Classification Name of Drug

Adverse effect

Indication

Contraindication

Nursing Consideration

Assessment & Drug Effects Paracetamol drops 60mg/ml 1.5ml q4 Non-opioid analgesic Side effects are rare with paracetamol when it is taken at the recommended doses. Skin rashes, blood disorders and acute inflammation of the pancreas have occasionally occurred in people taking the drug on a regular basis for a long time. One advantage of paracetamol over aspirin and NSAIDs is that it doesn't irritate the stomach or causing it to bleed, potential Side effects of aspirin and NSAIDs. To relieve mild to moderate pain due to things such as headache, muscle and joint pain, backache and period pains. It is also used to bring down a high temperature. For this reason, paracetamol can be given to children after vaccinations to prevent postimmunisation pyrexia (high temperature). Paracetamol is often included in cough, cold and flu remedies. Hypersensitivity to acetaminophen or phenacetin; use with alcohol.

Monitor for S&S of: hepatotoxicity, even with moderate acetaminophen doses, especially in individuals with poor nutrition.

Patient & Family Education • Do not take other medications (e.g., cold preparations) containing acetaminophen without medical advice; overdosing and chronic use can cause liver damage and other toxic effects.

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Do not self-medicate children for pain more than 5 d without consulting a physician. Do not use for fever persisting longer than 3 d, fever over 39.5° C (103° F), or recurrent fever. Do not give children more than 5 doses in 24 h unless prescribed by physician.

Classification Name of Drug

Adverse effect

Indication

Contraindication

Nursing Consideration

Ambroxol 0.5m tid

Mucolytic

Occasional gastrointestinal side effects may occur but these are almost invariably mild.

Adjuvant therapy in patients with abnormal, viscid, or inspissated mucous secretions in acute and chronic bronchopulmonary diseases, and in pulmonary complications of cystic fibrosis and surgery, tracheostomy, and atelectasis. Also used in diagnostic bronchial studies and as an antidote for acute acetaminophen poisoning.

There are no absolute contraindication but in patients with gastric ulceration relative caution should be observed.

Assessment & Drug Effects • Monitor for S&S of aspiration of excess secretions, and for bronchospasm (unpredictable); withhold drug and notify physician immediately if either occur. • Lab tests: Monitor ABGs, pulmonary functions and pulse oximetry as indicated. Have suction apparatus immediately available. Increased volume of respiratory tract fluid may be liberated; suction or endotracheal aspiration may be necessary to establish and maintain an open airway. Patient & Family Education • Report difficulty with clearing the airway or any other respiratory distress.

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