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1. OBJECTIVES At the end of this class, student should be able to: a. Obtain and understand 1st order and 2nd order system step response. b. Obtain and understand pole-zero map for a system. c. Find the value of transient response (peak time, rise time, settling time, percent overshoot) and steady –state response (steady-state value and steady-state error) from the simulation graph of unit step input. 2. INTRODUCTION MATLAB is an interactive program for scientific and engineering calculations. The MATLAB family of programs includes the base program plus a variety of toolboxes, a collection of special files called M-files that extend the functionality of the base program. Together, the base program plus the Control System Toolbox provide the capability to use MATLAB for control system design and analysis. There are two kinds of M-files: a) Scripts, which do not accept input arguments or return output arguments. They operate on data in the workspace. b) Functions, which can accept input arguments and return output arguments. Internal variables are local to the function. In MATLAB, control systems can be modeled as transfer functions, in zero-pole-gain or state-space form, either classical or modern control techniques. It can manipulate both continuous-time and discrete-time systems. Also, time responses, frequency responses, and root loci can be computed and graphed. 3. THEORY MATLAB software programming can be used to obtain system step responses. These responses are particularly valuable when the system is not a pure two pole system and has additional poles or zeros, A plot of the step response of a transfer function, T(s) = num/den, using the command step (T), can be obtained where T is an LTI (Linear time invariant) transfer-function object. Multiple plots also can be obtained using step (Tl, T2…) Information about the plots obtained with step (T) can be found by left-clicking the mouse on the curve. The curve's label can be found as well as the coordinates of the point that being clicked. Right clicking on a curve emphasizes and identifies the curve. Right clicking away from a curve brings up a menu. From this menu, the characteristics below can be selected: System responses to be displayed Response characteristics to be displayed Choices for zooming, and Choice for grid on or off.

If a response characteristic being selected, an appropriate point is displayed on the plot. Clicking on the point reveals measurement of the selected characteristic.

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STEP (Step response of LTI models) STEP (SYS) plots the step response of the LTI model SYS (created with either TF, ZPK, SS). For multi-input models, independent step commands are applied to each input channel. The time range and number of points are chosen automatically. Figure 2 shows the example of output response of a step input.

Output Input

Steady-state error

Steady-state Response

Transient Response

Figure 2 The specifications in Figure 2 are defined as follow: A. Input/stimulus – a desired response B. C. Output – the actual response Transient response – a gradual change before the steady-state response i) Peak time, Tp : The time required to reach the first, or maximum peak. ii) Percent overshoot, %OS : The amount that the waveform overshoots the steady state, or final value at the peak time. iii) Settling time, Ts : The time required for the transient‟s damped oscillations to reach and stay within ±2% or ±5%of the steady state value. iv) Rise time, Tr : The time required for the waveform to go from 0.1 of the final value to 0.9 of the final value. D. Steady-state response – after the transient response, which is its approximation to the desired response E. Steady-state error – the differences between input and output

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PZMAP (Pole Zero Map of LTI models) PZMAP (SYS) computes the poles and (transmission) zeros of the LTI model SYS and plots them in the complex plane. The poles are plotted as x's and the zeros are plotted as o's. 4. TOOL / EQUIPMENT I) PC 2) MATLAB 5. PROCEDURES Exercise 1 By using MATLAB, type one simple program that has been given below in order to plot 1st order system step response by applying a unit step input to a system, G1 (s).

G( s)

„Exercise 1‟ num=50; den=[l 5]; „G1(s)‟ G1=tf(num,den) step(G1) title(„Output Response‟) xlabel(„Time‟) ylabel(„c(t)‟)

50 (s 5)

%Display label %Define numerator %Define denominator %Display label %Create LTI transfer function object and disp1ay %Plot step response graph for system G I(s) % Add title to graph % Add time x-axis label % Add response y-axis label

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Output

Output Response 10 9 8 7 6

c(t)

5 4 3 2 1 0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6 Time (sec)

0.8

1

1.2

Exercise 2 Simulate the 2nd order system step response system as shown below. From the graph, find the Tp, Tr, Ts, %OS, steady-state value and steady-state error.

G( s) 24.542 4s 24.542

s

2

„Exercise 2‟ num=[24.542]; den=[1 4 24.542]; „T1(s)‟ T1=tf(num,den) step(T1) title(„Output Response‟) xlabel(„Time‟) ylabel(„c(t)‟)

% Display label % Define numerator in polynomial % Define denominator in polynomial % Display label % Create and display transfer function of T1(s) % Run a demonstration step response plot % Add title to graph % Add time x-axis label % Add response y-axis label

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Output

Output Response Characteristics Tp Tr Ts %OS Steady-state value (Final value) Steady-state error (|Input value - Final value|) 0.69 s 0.298 s 1.7 s 25% 1 |1-1| = 0

Answer

Note: How to get Tp ,Tr ,Ts,%OS, Steady-state value (Final value)? Right hand click on the graph, choose “Characteristrics – Tick the parameter you want to know”

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Exercise 3 Plot the pole-zero map of the system from exercise 2 by adding another line [P,Z] = pzmap(T1) % calculate and plots zeros and poles in the complex plane

Output

P= -2.0000 + 4.5323i -2.0000 - 4.5323i

Z= Empty matrix: 0-by-1

**Pole-Zero Map 5 4 3 2
**

Imaginary Axis

1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -2

-1.8

-1.6

-1.4

-1.2

-1 Real Axis

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

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Exercise 4 Continuation from exercise 3, use MATLAB to calculate characteristics of 2nd order system such as damping ratio,; natural frequency, n; percent % overshoot, %OS (pos); settling time, Ts; and peak time, TP, from pole location. „Exercise 4‟ p1=[-2 + 4.5*i]; p2=[-2 - 4.5*i]; deng=conv(p1,p2); % Display label. % Define polynomial containing first pole. % Define polynomial containing second pole. % Multiply the two polynomials to % find the 2nd order polynomial, % as a^2+bs+c. % Calculate the natural frequency, sqrt(c/a). % Calculate damping ratio, ((b/a)/2*wn). % Calculate settling time, (4/z*wn). % Calculate peak time, pi/wn*sqrt(1- z^2). % Calculate percent overshoot % (100*e^(z*pi/sqrt (1-z^2)).

omegan=sqrt(deng(3)/deng(1)) zeta=(deng(2)/deng(1))/(2*omegan) Ts=4/(zeta*omegan) Tp=pi/(omegan*sqrt(1-zeta^2)) pos=100*exp(-zeta*pi/sqrt(1-zeta^2))

**6. DISCUSSION (CO3) 1. For an open-loop system with G( s)
**

5 , simulate the transfer function using MATLAB 2s 25

s

2

command when the input is a unit step. a. Write the MATLAB command to generate the output response of the system; b. Draw the output response‟s graph and label Tp, Tr, Ts and steady-state value; c. Find the Tp, Tr, Ts, %OS, steady-state value and steady-state error. 2. For an open-loop system with G ( s)

(s

2

14.145 , simulate the transfer function 1.204s 2.829)(s 5)

using MATLAB command when the input is a unit step. a. Write the MATLAB command to generate the output response of the system; b. Draw the output response‟s graph and label Tp, Tr, Ts and steady-state value; c. Find the Tp, Tr, Ts, %OS, steady-state value and steady-state error. d. Draw the pole-zero map for the system. 3. Given poles as -1.5 + 2.78i and -1.5 – 2.78i, find damping ratio,; natural frequency, n; percent % overshoot, %OS (pos); settling time, Ts; and peak time, TP.

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7.0 CONCLUSIONS List out what you have learned from this experiment. 8.0 REFERANCES [1] Nise, Norman S., Control Systems Engineering, 4rd editions, John Wiley, 2000. ISBN: 0471366013 [2] Dorf, R.C. & Bishop, R.H. Modern Control Systems, Addison Wesley (1995) (7th. Edn,) ISBN: 0201845598 [3] Using Simulink Version 6 [4] Using Matlab Version 6

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