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Gena Gorin Block V Chemistry SL 31 October 11

Lab 9 Molecular Mass of a Volatile Liquid

Purpose: To determine the molecular mass of acetone via applying the ideal gas law to a volume of the evaporated liquid. Variables: No variables are truly independent, as no part of the lab setup is changed with intention of testing the effects of that change in fact, the results are intended to converge to a specific value. Essentially, all parts of the experiment are control variables. Equipment: Thermometer Room temperature water bath Beakers: 600 mL, 1000 mL, 50 mL Hot plate Analytical balance Acetone Beral-type 15 mL pipets, 3 Screen cage Water Paper towels Measurements: See prelab. Procedure: In a 600 mL beaker, heat 450 mL of water Mass each pipet; draw acetone into the pipets using a 50 mL beaker Secure pipets in the cage and heat in boiling water, allowing gas to escape Collect water temperature and environment barometric pressure When all liquid evaporates, remove and cool pipets in room temperature water Dry, mass each pipet Flush remaining acetone, fill pipets with water, and mass them Record all mass data

Data (Qualitative): Three pipets were used, with long, medium-length, and short tips respectively (referred to in data tables as 1, 2, and 3). Enough colorless liquid acetone was drawn into each pipet to fill approximately a fourth to a third of the volume. After five to ten minutes in boiling water, all of the pipets were filled only with gas. Due to exchange with atmosphere, some non-quantified amount of gas output was witnessed in the pipet tips. After cooling, some of the gas condensed. Data (Quantitative): Water temperature = 100.0 .1 C = 373.15 .1 K Barometric pressure: 1 atm exactly Pipet 3 Empty 1.6572 .0001 g With vapor 1.7369 1.6594 1.6906 .0001 g With water 15.7333 15.7224 15.7378 .0001 g Calculations: Mass changes (g) Pipet 1 Pipet 2 Pipet 3 Vapor mass 0.0318 0.0341 0.0334 .0002 g Water mass 14.0282 14.0971 14.0806 .0002 g At room temperature (approximately 72F or 22C in this case), the density of liquid water is 0.997773 gmL-1, yielding the following pipet volumes: Pipet active volumes Pipet 1 Pipet 2 Pipet 3 Volume (mL) 14.0592 14.1286 14.1120 .0002 .0002 .0002 Volume (L) 0.014059 0.0141286 0.0141120 210-7 210-7 210-7 In this case, active volume is defined as that volume which the water and presumably acetone take up. Pipet masses (g) Pipet 1 Pipet 2 1.7051 1.6253

Using the ideal gas law, PV = nRT, wherein: P = 1 atm V = active volume of each respective pipet ( .014 L) n = number of moles of acetone gas R = the ideal gas constant, 0.082057 LatmK1mol1 T = temperature of gas = 373.15 .1 K The following calculations can be made: PV = nRT (1 atm)V = n(0.082057 LatmK1mol1)(373.15 .1 K) V = n(30.6196 .00821 Lmol1) For pipet 1: (0.014059 210-7 L) = n(30.6196 .00821 Lmol1) n = 4.591510-4 1.3010-7 mol acetone For pipet 2: (0.0141286 210-7 L) = n(30.6196 .00821 Lmol1) n = 4.614210-4 1.3010-7 mol acetone For pipet 3: (0.0141120 210-7 L) = n(30.6196 .00821 Lmol1) n = 4.608810-4 1.3010-7 mol acetone If average molecular mass (u) = molar mass (gmol1) = M/n: For pipet 1: (0.0318 .0002 g)(4.591510-4 1.3010-7 mol)-1 m = 69.26 .46 u For pipet 2: (0.0341 .0002 g)(4.614210-4 1.3010-7 mol)-1 m =73.90 .45 u For pipet 3: (0.0334 .0002 g)(4.608810-4 1.3010-7 mol)-1 m =72.47 .45 u The average mass is 71.88 .45 u. Conclusion: According to the calculations, the molecular mass is approximately 71.88 u. The number is problematic, as acetone actually has a mass of 58.08 u (yielding an error of 23.8 per cent). The results are rather consistent throughout the three trials, implying precision but lack of accuracy, likely due to persistence of error from a single step in the procedure. Evaluation: Certain weaknesses seem to have been present, such as a lack of a direct method of ascertaining the volume of each pipet. In another example, its essentially impossible to use the stated lab procedure to gauge whether all of the acetone inside the pipet had vaporized the pipets were suspended in boiling or near-boiling water for approximately 7 minutes, but there may have been a non-negligible mass of liquid acetone left inside. Furthermore, its highly dubious that all of the acetone gas in the pipet condensed.

Improvements: Possible improvements may include using greater experimental volumes (to decrease error due to uncertainty or inadvertent loss), as stated in the footnote, to decrease influence of normally negligible factors and minimize the impact of accidental loss of material. The experiment might also be improved by using cooler water temperatures and stoppers to restrain the escape of gas while it is meant to be condensing in a cold water bath.