5.

INDICES AND LOGARITHMS
IMPORTANT NOTES : UNIT 5.1 Law of Indices I. a m x a n = am + n II. a m ÷ a n = am – n III (am)n = amn Other Results : a0 = 1,
a −m = 1 am

,

(ab)m = am bm

1.

1000 =

3– 2 =

(3p)2 =

5.1.1 “BACK TO BASIC”
BIL

am

×

an = am + n

am ÷ an = am – n
a4 ÷ a = a5 – 1 = a 4 a3

(am)n

= amn

1.

a3 × a2 = a3 + 2 = a5 23 × 24 = 23 + 4

(a3)2 = a3x2 = a6

÷ a5 = a3 – 5 = a □
=
1 a2

2.

= 2


p – 4 ÷ p5 = p – 4 – 5 = p =

(32)4 = 32x4 = 3

p3 × p – 4 = p3 + ( – 4)
3.

= p = 2k3 × (2k)3


p( 1
)

(p – 5 )2 = p– 5 x2 = p =

(4a)2 ÷ 2a5 = (42a2) ÷ (2a 5) = =
16 a 2 2a 5

4.

= 2k3 × 23 × k3 = ( )

(3x2)3 = 33 × x2x3 =

Suggested Steps: S1 Use the EQUATIONS INVOLVING INDICES UNIT:5.2 SIMPLElaws of indices to simplify expression (if necessary) S2 : Make sure the base is the SAME S3 : Form a linear equation by equating the indices 5S4 Indices: Logarithms the linear equation 1 & Solve

5 Indices & Logarithms 2 .2 LOGARITMS Do YOU know that .. 2×8 21+3x 2x = 16 = x+3 x = 16 × 42x – 3 = 322 – x x= 251 – 3x = 5 × 125x 21 × (23)x = 24 (x + 3) 24x + 12 1 + 3x = 4x + 12 1 – 12 = 4x – 3x x = – 11 x = x= UNIT 5.x = 12 4...

No.2.If a number N can be expressed in the form N = ax .001 = 10-3 log10 100 = 2 log4 64 = 3 log10 0.1To convert numbers in index form to logaritmic form and vice-versa. Index Form Logaritmic Form 5 Indices & Logarithms 3 . then the logarithm of N to the base a is x? N = ax loga N = x 100 = 102 64 = 43 0.001 = – 3 Unit 5.

13 .1. 8. 15 . 9. 7. 102 = 100 23 pq = 8. 6. 5. 8= 23 = r log10 100 = 2 log2 logp 8 r = 3 = q 104 = 10000 a3 81 = b = 34 logp 2x = y V = 10x log3 x = = y 2 m = k loga y 25 = 32 log3 (xy) 10x = y3 log10 100y 4 = 2 = p 5 Indices & Logarithms . 12 . 3. 14 . 11 . 10 . 2. 4.

5.2 To find the value of a given Logaritm IMPORTANT : No.01 log 4 64 log p p (REINFORCEMENT) 6. 7. 10 . 4. 8.3 Laws of Logaritm 5 Indices & Logarithms 5 . 9. loga a x = x Notes Logaritmic Form 1.UNIT 5.01 dan log10 = 4 = 64 dan log4 = log10 0.2. 2. log10 1000 = 3 log2 32 = 5 = -2 = 3 = ½ 103 = 1000 dan log10 103 = 3 25 = 32 dan log2 25 = 5 10 = 0. log p log m p8 m-1 = = = = log a logm a2 1 m2 = = = = p log a a⅓ loga 1 a4 log p p-5 log b bk log p p log p (p×p2) = = UNIT 5. 3.

loga 3pr = loga 3 + loga p + loga r (b) loga 3aq = (d) log10 1000xy = 2.I.log10 10 2 = (log10 x + log10 y) – 2 log10 10 = (log10 x + log10 y) – 2 UNIT 5.3. loga 1 = 0 (sebab 1 = a0) loga a = 1 (sebab a1 = 1) Exercises (a)loga 2mn = (c) log10 10yz = (e) log2 4mn = Examples 1.2 Aplication of the law : loga xn = n loga x 5 Indices & Logarithms 6 . loga p q = loga p – loga q (a) loga p 2r = loga p – loga 2r = loga p – (loga 2 + loga r) = (b) log2 4 m = (c) log10  10     kx  = log10 10 – (log10 k + log10 x) = 1 – (log10 k + log10 x) (d) log10  xy    100  = (e) loga 3a m = = (log10 x + log10 y) . III loga (xy) = x loga  y      loga x + loga y loga x – loga y m loga x = = loga xm Other Results : NO. II.

log2 x = 4 log2 y .3.log2 2 3 = log2 y 4.log2 8 = log2 y 4 . Reinforcement exercises (Laws of Logaritm) Example : (a) log10 10000x 5 = log10 100x3 = log10 100 + log10x3 = log10 102 + 3 log10 x = 2 + 3 log10 x (b) log2 ( xy 4 8 = = ) = = (c) logp ( 8 p 5 ) = = k2 3 (d) log2 4x = y3 (e) log4 64 = 5 Indices & Logarithms 7 .3 1. Example : loga x3 = 3 loga x (b) log2 ( xy 4 (a) loga ) = log2 x + log2 y = log2 x + 4 1 x2 = loga x –2 = -2 loga x = = (c) log2 ( 4 y 4 ) (d) log2 y4 x = log2 y 4 .3 log2 2 = log2 y 4.log2 x (e) log2 y4 8 = log2 y 4 .

No. Equation in the form ax = b Steps to be followed: S1 : Take logaritm (to base 10) on both sides.4 Change of Base of Logarithms 5 Indices & Logarithms 8 .8 x= 63x-2 = 66 log10 2x+3 = x+3 x = = x = x= UNIT 5. Example 3x = 18 log10 3x = log10 18 log10 18 log10 3 Exercise 1 2 x Exercise 2 7 x 1. S2 : Use the law log10 ax = x log10 a. = 9 = 20 x log10 3 = log10 18 x = x 2. = = = 200 log10 200 x = 7 1-x 2 x+3 = 2. 5 x+2 = = 16 log10 16 log10 16 log10 5 x = 4 x+1 = 28 x= 3 = 8 x-2 log10 5x+2 = (x+2) log10 5 = log10 16 x+2 = x+2 x 3.UNIT 5. S3 : Solve the linear equation with the help of a calculator.4 EQUATIONS IN INDICES (Which involves the use of LOGARITM) I.

Solve the equation log2 (x+1) = 3.6 Aplication of the Laws of Logaritm To Solve Simple Equations involvong logaritms EXAMPLE C1.6 = (f) log6 2. log4 9 = = (c) log7 2 = log 10 9 log 10 4 (a) log5 20 = = (d) log9 77 = log 10 20 log 10 5 (b) log4 0. Answers: log2 (x+1) = 3 5 Indices & Logarithms EVERCISE L1.5 = (g) log5 2000 = (h) log12 6 = UNIT 5. Jawapan: 9 .8 = (e) log3 9. Solve the equation log2 (x – 3 ) = 2. loga x = Example log 2 8 log 2 4 3 2 log b x log b a Exercise 1 (a) log4 32 = = (d) log9 27 = = log 2 32 log 2 4 Exercise 2 (b) log16 8 = 1. log4 8 = = (c) log8 2 = = (e) log81 9 = = (With a calculator) – Change to base 10 1.Formula : No.

Solve the equation log3 (2x – 1) + log2 4 = 5.6.1 To Determine the value of a logarithm without using calculator. L8. EXAMPLE C1. Ans : x = 6 Ans : x = 14 L7.1 x = 0. Ans : x = 0. Solve the equation log10 (3x – 2) = – 1 . Solve the equation log10 (1+ 3x) = 2 Ans : x = 15 Ans : x = 33 L5. L6.322. Solve the equation log4 (x – 2) + 3log2 8 = 10.465 .585. Withouf using calculator. L2. Jawapan: 3x – 2 = 10-1 3x – 2 = 0. Without using a calculator find the value of 5 Indices & Logarithms EXERCISE L1. Ans : x = 3 Ans : x = 3 L9. Solve log3 3(2x + 3) = 4 L10 . Solve log2 8(7 – 3x) = 5 Ans : x = 12 Ans : x = 1 UNIT 5. Solve the equation log3 (x – 6) = 2. Given log3 5 = 1. Solve the equation log5 (4x – 1 ) = – 1 .771 .3 L4. log3 7 = 1. Solve the equation log2 (x + 5) = log2 (x – 2) + 3. Given log2 3 = 1.x + 1 = 23 x+1= 8 x = 7 Ans : x = 7 C2.7 L3. Solve the equation log5 (4x – 7) = log5 (x – 2) + 1.1 3x = 2. evaluate 10 . log2 5 = 2.

6 = = = = (d) log2 10 = = = = log 2 5 log 2 4 2.(a) log2 15 = log2 (3 × 5) = log2 3 + log2 5 = 1.322 = (b) log2 25 = log2 (5 × 5) = = = (c) log2 0.322 2 (a) log3 35 = = = = (b) log3 49 = = = = (c) log3 1.4 = = = = (d) log3 21 = = = = log2 ( 3 ) 5 log2 3 – log2 5 log2 (2 × 5) log2 2 + log2 5 (e) log4 5 = = = (e) log9 21 = = = = (f) log5 2 = = = log 2 2 log 2 5 1 ( ) (f) log5 3 = = = 1 ( ) Enrichment Exercises (SPM Format Questions) EXERCISE EXCERCISE 5 Indices & Logarithms 11 .585 + 2.

9 in terms of m and p. [4] (Ans: T = 8V ½ ) (Ans: 16V-2 ) 2x – 1 L9 Solve 4 = 7.409 ) 5 Indices & Logarithms 12 . express T in terms of V.log4 V = 3. Given log 4 T + log 2 V = 2.L1 Given log3 x = m and log2 x = n. Given log3 x = p and log2 x = q. Find logx 36 in terms of m and n. Find log3 x2y3 in terms of p and q. Given log3 x = p and log9 y = q. Solve 42x – 1 = 9x. [4] [4] (Ans: p + 4q ) (Ans: 2p + 6q ) L5 Given log5 2 = m and log5 7 = p. [4] ( Ans: x = 1. express log5 4.82 in terms of m and p. express log5 2. x [4] L10. [4] [4] (Ans : 3/n + 1/m ) (Ans: 2/p + 2/q ) L3. express T in terms of V. [4] [SPM 2004] L6. Find log3 xy2 in terms of p and q. Given log5 2 = m and log5 7 = p. [SPM 2003] [4] L8. Find logx 24 in terms of m and n. Given log3 x = p and log9 y = q. [SPM 1998] L4. [SPM 2001] L2.677 ) ( Ans: x = 2. [4] (Ans: 2p – m – 1 ) (Ans: 2(p + m – 1 ) L7 Given log 2 T .

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