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J. Burke 2009-2010

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Contents

Textbook Correlations 1 Dynamics Extension 1.1 Introduction to Vectors . . . . . 1.1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . 1.1.2 Relative Velocity . . . . . 1.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Force Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Inclined Planes . . . . . . 1.2.2 Problems . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Translational Equilibrium 1.3.2 Rotational Equilibrium . 1.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . v 1 1 2 3 4 7 7 9 10 10 10 12 15 15 15 16 17 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28

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2 2-D Motion 2.1 Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Objects Launched Horizontally 2.1.2 Objects Launched at an Angle 2.1.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Conservation of Energy . . . . 2.2.2 Pendulum Motion . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 2D Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Conservation of Momentum . . 2.3.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 2.3.3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Planetary Motion 3.1 Uniform Circular Motion . . . 3.1.1 Centripetal Acceleration 3.1.2 Centripetal “Force” . . 3.1.3 Centrifugal Force . . . . 3.1.4 Problems . . . . . . . .

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. . .5 *Safety Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electroscopes . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . 4.3. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 *Problems . . . .1 Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric Potential Energy 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrical Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. 5. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .3 Satellite Motion . . . . . . .2 Forces and Fields . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . CONTENTS . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetism . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .1 Electric Current . . . .2. .3 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 *Complex Circuits . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .5 Electric Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Universal Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Acceleration Due to Gravity . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . .2. 4. . . . . . . . 4. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .3. . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . .4 Force on a Charged Particle 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .2. 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 *Series Circuits . . .2. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2 Electric Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation 3. . . . .3 Lines of Force . . . ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Permanency of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 *Kirchhoﬀ’s Rules . . . . .2. . . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . 3. .2 Charging Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Force on a Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 30 30 30 30 31 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 43 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 47 47 48 50 50 50 51 52 52 53 56 56 57 57 58 58 4 Fields 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . 5.4 Gravitational Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . 3. . . . 4. . 4. . . . . . . . . 5. . 5. . .1 Insulators and Conductors 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Parallel Circuits . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electric Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ohm’s Law . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 *Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electric Potential . .

. . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2. 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . .1. . . . 7. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Nuclear Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Half-lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 6. . . . . . . .1 Quantum Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Compton Eﬀect . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .4 6 Waves and Modern Physics 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 59 62 62 63 64 66 69 69 69 70 71 72 73 74 74 75 76 76 79 79 80 81 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 86 86 86 87 87 88 89 89 89 90 91 iii 5. . . . .2 Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . .3 Gamma Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nuclear Fusion . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis .2 Radioactive Decay . . . . . . Induction . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity . .4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence 6. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .1 Historical Models of Light . . . . . . . . . . . 7. 6. . . . 7. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Induced EMF . . . .5 Problems . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .1 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 7 Nuclear Physics 7. . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 5. . . . . . . . .2 Nuclear Reactors 7.3 Electric Generators 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Bohr Theory . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Photoelectric Eﬀect . . .1 Alpha Decay . . . .4. . . .3 Quantum Model . .4 de Broglie Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .3 Models of the Atom . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . .2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . 7. . .2 Modern Theory of Light .3. . .2 Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4. . 6. . . . . . . . .2. . . . .4 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Beta Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 7. . . . . . . 6. . . . .3 Modern Theory of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.

. . . A. . .1 Precision and Random Errors . . .1 Experimental Data . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2 Conﬁdence Intervals . A.2 Statistical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Analysis of Data A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv RRHS Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Standard Deviation . . . . .2. . . CONTENTS 93 93 94 94 94 94 95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. .2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors A. . . . . . . . .

9 #2.7. pg 934 #5.2.28 #2.4 6.10. BLM #1.3 2. pg 780 #2.2 4.3 5.28.2 2.8.25. pg 933 #1.2 7.5.1 7.15 pg 641 #9.2 1. pg 515 #39.3.4 #36.37.9.6. pg 571 #21.8 #4.1 1. 510-526 pgs 551-562 pgs 572-597 pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs pgs 632-661 672-680.1 3.14.3 Appendix A Pages in Textbook pgs 90-111.1 4.1 5. pg 596 #12.1 2. pg 685 #31 pg 681 #2 pg 767 #1. pg 489 #27. pg 655 #26. pg 526 #1.8.28 pg 495 #30.2.27 v .7. pg 886 #3.9. pg 936-937 #26. pg 863 #8. pg 862 #6.3 5.2 5. pg 799 #26 pg 852 #1.6 #3.1 6.19 pg pg pg pg 876 905 917 925 #1-6. pg 501 #31. 734-746 715-733 752-780 781-796 840-860 861 866-880 898-905 906-917 920-933 938-939 Problems in Textbook pg 93 #8.2 4.4.8.34 pg pg pg pg 623 509 567 594 #18.27.4 pg 796 #1-4.40.6. pg 778 #1.3. pg 463 #6 pg 475 #13.3. pg 611 Conceptual Problems.6. pg 608 #3.4.3 3.2.3 7.3.24.454-462 pgs 463-489 pgs 490-502 pgs 532-550 pgs 598-621 pgs 503-508.Textbook Correlations Section 1. pg 529 #30.688-693 694-714.2 6. pg 595 #5.33. pg 661 #5.5.4.3 #4. pg 918-919 #3.

CHAPTER 0. TEXTBOOK CORRELATIONS vi RRHS Physics .

This year. it does not have a direction. 1 . 1 The vector d actually represents a step in space from the origin to some point whose location is given by (dx . A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. the analysis will be extended again to three dimensions (this is a minor extension). v a vector is denoted using boldface (v).Chapter 1 Dynamics Extension 1. The arrow represents the head of the vector and the tail is at the other end. you talked brieﬂy about vectors in one dimension. when typing. You have used an x−y coordinate system in math. For example. In 2D space. it is actually two numbers. The vector can then be described using a magnitude (the “length” of the vector) and an angle θ (the direction of the vector). we will be extending that analysis to two dimensions. and momentum are all quantities for which it is important to know the direction. a scale of 1 cm for every 5 m can be used. Likewise. For example. Consider the diagram below.1 Vectors can be drawn using scale diagrams. we can use sin θ and cos θ identities to solve for dx and dy in the above diagram. The symbol d represents these components. A scalar is an ordinary quantity that has only magnitude (size). velocity. a vector is denoted → by placing an arrow over it (− ). like a scalar is. you probably discussed two kinds of quantities — vectors and scalars.1 Introduction to Vectors In grade 11 physics. and you know that two numbers are needed to specify a position on one of these graphs. For example. dy ). force. two coordinates are needed to specify a vector in two-dimensional space. When writing. displacement. Last year. A vector is not just a single number. The rest of this discussion will apply to vectors in two dimensional space. a 30 m displacement Note that if we know the magnitude d and the angle θ. where a protractor can be used to orient the vector correctly and an appropriate scale can be used to represent the vector. It is often convenient to represent a vector by an arrow that indicates the direction of the vector. temperature and mass have no direction associated with them. acceleration. In university.

by ). the direction of the vector in our diagram would be 60o . 2 We must now look at rules to add and subtract vectors. A slightly diﬀerent way of expressing 30o north of east would be to say E30o N . (The direction in the diagram could also be expressed as 60o east of north). For the examples that follow. south would be 270o . ay + by ). CHAPTER 1.1. Vectors can then be added in the scale diagram by drawing them head to tail. the direction of the vector would then be 30o . Bearings are another way of expressing directions. assume that θ = 30o in the previous diagram. So a + b will give (ax + bx . If we add these two vectors. and the diagram will look like this: RRHS Physics .1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS vector would then be drawn with an arrow that is 6 cm long. south. The last convention I will discuss is the one that we are going to use. east. north would be 90o . Addition What does it mean to add two vectors? Consider two displacement vectors a and b which represent displacements of a person walking. In the previous diagram.this can be interpreted as “go east and then rotate 30o toward the north” for the proper vector direction. we will draw a vector diagram showing this (notice that the vectors are drawn head to tail when adding them together) The vector components have been drawn in here as well (as dotted lines).1 Vector Algebra Direction There are diﬀerent conventions for describing the direction of a vector. west). This means that a vector that was pointed east was rotated 30o north. 1. north is 0o and all directions are measured clockwise from this reference direction. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. the other vector b represents the components (bx . The direction of the vector in our diagram would now be 30o north of east. our usual laws of algebra cannot be applied to them. This convention describes a direction as a rotation from one of the four reference directions (north. we cannot simply add the magnitude of two vectors together to obtain a total magnitude. This convention is convenient because there is no ambiguity about what the reference direction (0o ) is. 3. In math. we are actually adding their components. Since vectors are not single numbers. 2. Your textbook uses this last convention.1. you have probably described vector directions as a counterclockwise rotation from the positive x-coordinate (east using compass directions). The vector a actually represents the components (ax . ay ). In this system. In this system. To help visualize this. The addition of these two displacements should tell us where the person is at the end of his journey relative to where he started. in other words.

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION The only diﬀerence between these two diagrams is that the component vectors have been moved to show the x components together and the y components together. Notice now that we have one large right angle, so we can again use the pythagorean theorem and our trig functions to ﬁnd the magnitude and direction. When we add two scalars together, we get a sum. Similarly, when we add two vectors together we get a resultant vector. So we can say that a + b = c. The resultant vector is a single vector that goes from where we started to where we ended.

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS Subtraction Just like subtraction of two scalars is really the same as adding a negative scalar (5 − 3 is the same as 5 + (−3)), the subtraction of two vectors a − b is the same as a + (−b); but (−b) just means (−bx , −by ); in other words, we are just changing the direction of the vector b and instead of adding the components of the two vectors we subtract them. Using the same vectors as our previous example, a − b = c would look like

The resultant vector c can still be represented in component form

Notice that the vector c represents the sum of the components (ax + bx , ay + by ). Knowing this, we can now ﬁnd a magnitude for c using the pythagorean theorem and the appropriate trigonometric identities.

where, in this case, Σx = ax − bx and Σy = ay − by .

1.1.2

Relative Velocity

Since we now have a single right angle triangle, we can use the pythagorean theorem c= (Σx)2 + (Σy)2

to ﬁnd the magnitude of c and the angle θ can be found using tan θ = RRHS Physics Σy Σx

We saw in section 1.1 that an object’s position is given by two coordinates (x, y). Remember from grade 11 that velocity is the change in position, or displacement, over time; therefore, velocity is also a vector which has two components (vx , vy ). As was discussed in physics 11, there is no absolute velocity; the velocity of an object is always relative to some frame of reference. Consider the example of a dog on a boat. The boat is moving north at 7 m/s relative to the shore. Now suppose that the dog is moving north at 2 m/s relative to the boat. In other words, the dog is moving 2 m/s faster than the boat. How fast is the dog actually moving? It depends on your point of view. To someone on the boat, the dog is moving at 2 m/s; however, 3

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS to somebody on the shore, the dog is moving its 2 m/s plus the boat’s 7 m/s (since they are moving in the same direction), which is 9 m/s. The situation is similar in two dimensions. Suppose that a boat is crossing a body of water at 5 m/s relative to the water (we will use the symbol vbw to represent this speed).2 If the water is not moving, a person on the shore sees the boat moving at 5 m/s relative to the shore as well. Now suppose that the body of water is a river ﬂowing perpendicular to the boat at 3 m/s as measured by someone on the shore (vws ).

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION Since they are vectors, however, these velocities must be added as vectors (see section 1.1.1).

The resultant vector (the velocity actually observed by someone on the shore) is the vector vbs . This resultant velocity has two components (one across the river and one down the river). Note that the component across the river is the same as the original velocity of the boat that was directed across the river; therefore, the boat will cross the river in the same amount of time with the river ﬂowing as without!

The person on the shore now sees the river carrying the boat downstream at 3 m/s, but also sees the boat moving across the river at 5 m/s. Just like the dog on the boat, the person on the shore sees the addition of the two velocities, so the velocity of the boat with respect to the shore is given by vbs = vbw + vws (1.1)

1.1.3

Problems

1. Slimy the slug crawled 34.0 cm E, then 48.5 cm S. What is Slimy’s displacement from his starting point? 2. A delivery truck travels 18 blocks north, 16 blocks east, and 10 blocks south. What is its ﬁnal displacement from the origin? 3. A car is driven 30 km west and then 80 km southwest. What is the displacement of the car from the point of origin (magnitude and direction)? 4. Break the following vectors into components: (a) 45 km in a direction 25o south of west; (b) 74 km, 35o E of N

Remember, however, that these quantities are vectors and must therefore be added as vectors! (as was described in section 1.1.1) By using subscripts according to the convention described above (Eq. 1.1), we see that the inner subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same and the outer subscripts on the right-hand side of equation 1.1 are the same as the subscripts for the resultant vector on the left vbs . This can be used as a check if you are not sure if you are adding the proper vectors.

Using this notation, the ﬁrst subscript identiﬁes the object that is moving, the second subscript identiﬁes the frame of reference with respect to which it is moving

2

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RRHS Physics

CHAPTER 1. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 5. An explorer walks 22.0 km in a northerly direction, and then walks in a direction 60o south of east for 47.0 km. (a) What distance has he travelled? (b) What is his displacement from the origin? (c) What displacement vector must he follow to return to his original location? 6. By breaking each of the following vectors into components, determine the resultant of the following vectors: 10.0 m, 30o north of east; 6.0 m, 37o east of north; and 12 m, 30o west of south. 7. A man walks 3.0 km north, 4.5 km in a direction 40o east of north, and 6.0 km in a direction 60o south of east. What is his displacement vector? 8. After the end of a long day of travelling, Slimy the Slug is 255 cm east of his home. If he started out the day by travelling 90 cm in a direction 25o east of north in the morning, how far did he travel in the afternoon (and in what direction) to get to his ﬁnal location? 9. A dog walks at a speed of 1.8 m/s along the deck toward the front of a boat which is travelling at 7.6 m/s with respect to the water. What is the velocity of the dog with respect to the water? What if the dog were walking toward the back of the boat? 10. An airplane is travelling 1000 km/h in a direction 37o east of north. (a) Find the components of the velocity vector. (b) How far north and how far east has the plane travelled after 2.0 hours? RRHS Physics

1.1. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 11. An airplane whose airspeed is 200 km/h heads due north. But a 100 km/h wind from the northeast suddenly begins to blow. What is the resulting velocity of the plane with respect to the ground? 12. A boat can travel 2.60 m/s in still water. (a) If the boat heads directly across a stream whose current is 0.90 m/s, what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the boat relative to the shore? (b) What will be the position of the boat, relative to its point of origin, after 4.0 s? 13. An airplane is heading due north at a speed of 300 km/h. If a wind begins blowing from the southwest at a speed of 50 km/h, calculate (a) the velocity of the plane with respect to the ground, and (b) how far oﬀ course it will be after 30 min if the pilot takes no corrective action. (c) Assuming that the pilot has the same airspeed of 300 km/h, what heading should he use to maintain a course due north? (d) What is his new groundspeed? 14. A swimmer is capable of swimming 1.80 m/s in still water. (a) If she aims her body directly across a 200.0 m wide river whose current is 0.80 m/s, how far downstream (from a point opposite her starting point) will she land? (b) What is her velocity with respect to the shore? (c) At what upstream angle must the swimmer aim if she is to arrive at a point directly across the stream? 5

must cross a 260 m wide river and arrive at a point 110 m upstream from where it starts. whose speed in still water is 2. what heading and airspeed must she use for the ﬂight? 24. 3 km E.25 m/s must aim upstream at an angle of 25. A ferryboat. The speed of a boat in still water is v. wind speed? 18. 6 km S. 10 km W. At the end of three days.0 m/s directly across a river that ﬂows at 6. Compute how far the hiker is from camp and which direction should be taken to get back to camp. a severe storm comes up and blows the ship 100 km due east. What is the speed of the river’s current? 17. INTRODUCTION TO VECTORS 15.0 m/s. 20. the pilot must head the boat at a 45o upstream angle. What is the car’s change in velocity? 21. using a compass. and 3 km S. If there is to be an 80 km/h wind from the north for the entire trip. The boat is to make a round trip in a river whose current travels at speed u. The coach notices that it takes the player 4. What is the plane’s ﬁnal velocity? 22. the hiker is lost. Find the change in velocity.1. A wind is blowing from the west at 50 km/h. A plane’s velocity changes from 200 km/h N to 300 km/h 30o W of N. A pilot wishes to make a ﬂight of 300 km northeast in 45 minutes. Before it can move.1. Diane rows a boat at 8. why? 19. 5 kmN. The pilot changes its velocity by 30 m/s in a direction 30o N of E. mass. Compute the proper heading and speed that Kyle must choose in order to reach his destination on time. so that it then moves at 18 m/s E.85 m/s. (a) What is the resultant velocity of the boat? (b) If the stream is 240 m wide. How far is the ship from its destination? In what direction must the ship travel to reach its destination? 25. Kyle wishes to ﬂy to a point 450 km due south in 3. A ship leaves its home port expecting to travel to a port 500 km due south.5o (with respect to a line perpendicular to the shore) in order to travel directly across the stream. 26. To do so. A hiker leaves camp and.00 h. A car travelling at 15 m/s N executes a gradual turn. How fast is the player running? 23. (a) What is the speed of the current? (b) What is the resultant speed of the boat with respect to the shore? 16. Which of the following is a vector: velocity. walks 4 km E. 8 km N. A motorboat whose speed in still water is 8. A football player is running at a constant speed in a straight line up the ﬁeld at an 6 CHAPTER 1. We must assume u < v. how long will it take Diane to row across? (c) How far downstream will Diane be? 27. A plane is ﬂying at 100 m/s E. Derive a formula for the time needed to make a round trip of total distance D if the boat makes the round trip by moving (a) upstream and back downstream (b) directly across the river and back.0 s to get from the 25 m line to the goal line. RRHS Physics . DYNAMICS EXTENSION angle of 15o to the sidelines.

the vertical forces. we must use this equation in only one dimension at a time (x or y). Because we often know Fg and Fpy . Notice that although the normal. where µ is the coeﬃcient of friction). so Newton’s 2nd Law cannot be applied yet. both of which are vectors. therefore.2. As can be seen in the diagram above. I will take up as the positive direction. friction. Note that the expected acceleration (horizontal) for this box and the applied force are neither parallel nor perpendicular. you did many problems applying Newton’s 2nd Law to diﬀerent situations using free body diagrams. may = ΣFy may = FN + Fpy − Fg and 0 = FN + Fpy − Fg since the vertical acceleration is zero. all of the forces are now either in the x or y direction if we replace Fp with its components. This can be ﬁxed if we break this force up into its components. Remember that Newton’s 2nd Law (Fnet = ma) is a vector equation. A free body diagram for this box would like like this. therefore. a man is pulling a box with a rope that makes an angle θ with the ground. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1.1 Inclined Planes We are now going to apply force vectors and Newton’s second law to an inclined plane (a ramp). These are not equations to be memorized and applied to all problems!!! This is a sample analysis of a typical free body diagram involving forces at an angle. and gravity forces are all solely in the x or y directions. First. if we want to use scalar algebra to solve a problem. In the diagram below. We can now analyze the forces in each dimension using Newton’s 2nd Law. FORCE VECTORS 1. If we place a box on a ramp (ignoring 7 . This means that the acceleration and the net force will be in the same direction. Notice that FN = Fg . RRHS Physics 1. This will now be extended to situations where the forces are no longer solely in the x or y directions.CHAPTER 1.2 Force Vectors In Physics 11. the force of the man pulling is not. FN and Fpy will both be positive and Fg will be negative.2. we can solve for FN and use it in our calculation of Ff (remember that Ff = µFN . Now for the horizontal forces: max = ΣFx max = Fpx − Ff This can then be used with the horizontal acceleration. since it states a relationship between acceleration and net force. Analysis should always start with a free body diagram.

if present. In order to apply Newton’s second law. Instead of using our usual coordinate system containing horizontal and vertical axes.2. Again notice that FN = Fg . m(0) = FN − Fgy since there is no acceleration perpendicular to the plane. these would have to be considered in the force analysis. In other words. it is extremely important to draw a free body diagram at the start of the problem! The angle θ in the top of the triangle is the same angle as the slope of the inclined 8 RRHS Physics . Using trigonometry.2) Notice that these vectors exist in two dimensions and are not in component form (they are not either parallel or perpendicular to one another). Notice that this is just a simple analysis where friction and other external forces have not been included.3) We see now by analyzing the perpendicular forces may = ΣFy may = FN − Fgy (1. and FN = Fgy where Fgy can be found using equation 1. our x direction will be parallel to the plane and the y direction will by perpendicular to the plane.1.2. we want to analyze the forces one dimension at a time.3. it can be found that the two components are Fgx = mg sin θ and Fgy = mg cos θ (1. Similarly. FORCE VECTORS friction for now). only the force of gravity must be broken up into components. the normal force can then be used in this calculation. If friction is present. DYNAMICS EXTENSION plane (try showing this using geometry). Drawing a free body diagram. Since the normal force is already perpendicular to the plane.the normal force FN (which is perpendicular to the surface) and the force of gravity Fg . it makes more sense in this situation to rotate our axes so that they are perpendicular and parallel to the surface of the inclined plane (the same direction as the acceleration). it can be observed that there are only two forces acting on the box . the parallel forces can be used to obtain an expression for the parallel acceleration on the inclined plane max = ΣFx max = Fgx where Fgx can be found using equation 1. as in the following diagram. we get CHAPTER 1. This can be done as shown in the following diagram (where the Fg from the previous diagram has been enlarged). Again.

at what acceleration? (c) How much force is required to push the slug up the ramp at a constant speed? 7.0 N . (a) Ignoring friction.0o angle with the horizontal. how much force must be applied to climb the hill at the same speed? 10.0o angle with the horizontal. A 165 kg piano is on a 25o ramp.0 kg box is released on a 33. A man pushes a 15 kg lawnmower at constant speed with a force of 90 N directed along the handle. Jack is responsible for seeing that nobody is killed by a runaway piano.2 kg block that is hanging in mid air.2 Problems 1. (b) Using the same power as in (a).30. The total mass is 80 kg. If the slope of the ski hill is 30o .6o hill at a steady speed of 7.0 kg sled is being pulled along a horizontal surface by a rope that is held at a 20. A car can decelerate at -5. If the rope pulling the rock is at a 40. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. The coeﬃcient of friction is 0. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. FORCE VECTORS (a) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano descends at a constant speed? (b) How much force (and in what direction) must Jack exert so that the piano ascends at a constant speed? 8.5 m/s2 when coming to rest on a level road. The force of friction is proportional to the speed v so that Ff r = cv.30. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 5. what is the acceleration of the slug down the hill? (b) If there is a coeﬃcient of friction of 0.10. where it is attached to a 4. It takes 13.20. A 25. what is the acceleration of the sled? 2. at what speed can the cyclist climb the same hill? (Hint: P = F v) 1. A physics student is skiing down Ben Eoin Ski Hill. A dead slug (mass is 455 g)is lying on a hill which has an inclination of 15o . (a) Find the average force that that must be applied in order to descend the hill at 20 km/h. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 6.5 s for him to reach the bottom.300 m/s2 . The tension in the rope is 110.3 m/s2 . RRHS Physics 9 . If the coeﬃcient of friction is 0.0 kg mass is on a ramp that is inclined at 30o with the horizontal. The coeﬃcient of friction between the 5. which is at an angle of 30o to the horizontal. A 55.0 kg rock is being pulled at a constant speed. A 15. He wipes out 225 m from the bottom.0 km/h.0o hill at 6.0 m/s. An 18.76. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 3.CHAPTER 1.0 km/h. What would the deceleration be if the road inclines 15o uphill? 9. what is the coeﬃcient of friction between the ski hill and the person’s rear end? 12.2. will the slug slide down the hill? If so.0o incline and accelerates at 0. A rope attached to the 5.0 N is pulling the sled along a rope that is being held at an angle of 35o with the horizontal.0 kg block goes up the ramp and over a pulley.0 kg block and the ramp is 0. A 5. His speed when he wiped out was approximately 6. A force of 300.2. What is the acceleration of this system? 11. If a bicyclist (75 kg) can coast down a 5.0 kg sled is accelerating at 2. A bicyclist can coast down a 4. with what force is the rock being pulled? 4.

3 1. the net force is zero and the object is said to be in equilibrium.2 Rotational Equilibrium Even if all of the forces acting on an object balance. therefore. but opposite in direction. F1 + F2 + Fg = 0. we will now extend our discussion of equilibrium to two dimensions.3. it is obviously not accelerating. although the net force is zero in both cases. Equilibrant Force If the vector sum of all of the forces acting on an object is not zero. Note that our vector diagram starts and ends at the same point. The second condition will be discussed in the next section. Consider a mass being supported in midair by two ropes. the net force acting on the mass must be zero. there are three forces acting on the mass. As can be seen by the free-body diagram.3 Equilibrium You saw in Physics 11 that if two equal but opposite forces are applied to an object. as shown in the following vector diagram: A body in equilibrium at rest in a particular reference frame is said to be in static equilibrium. it is possible for the object not to be RRHS Physics 10 . The net force must therefore be zero and the object is said to be in translational equilibrium. a body moving uniformly at constant velocity is in dynamic equilibrium.3.3. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 1. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. 1. the resultant vector (the net force) is zero. This additional force is called the equilibrant force. The mass is stationary.1 Translational Equilibrium This is the type of equilibrium discussed in grade 11. Since force is a vector. As we said. these are vectors so they must add as vectors to be zero. The equilibrant force is equal in magnitude to the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. We will be dealing with mainly static equilibrium.3 This is a somewhat simpliﬁed view of equilibrium. this tells us that in the x direction F2x − F1x = 0 and in the y direction F1y + F2y − Fg = 0 The requirement that the net force be zero is only the ﬁrst condition for equilibrium. there will be a net force in some direction. There is a single additional force that can be applied to balance this net force. Remember. therefore.1. therefore. the components of the net force on a body in equilibrium must each be zero. so ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = 0 Looking at the components in the x and y direction separately.

since the point of rotation is often not known until the rotation begins. we must introduce the notion of a torque. it acts on every particle in the body. this is important. It can be thought of as a twisting force. You will learn more about these in university. While forces were described using up. It is not in rotational equilibrium. it is necessary to choose a stationary reference point for the measurements (the pivot point). the board will begin to spin. A torque has the same relationship to rotation as force does to linear movement. but one up and one down. An equilibrant force should provide both translational and rotational equilibrium. left. the center of gravity would be in the center of the mass (the middle of the ruler).. The center of gravity is the point at which we could apply a single upward force to balance the object. τ = F⊥ d (1. but for calculating torques. right. Στ = 0 Obviously. EQUILIBRIUM the parallel components of two vectors. For a mass with a uniform distribution of mass (such as a ruler). Centre of Gravity One of the forces often involved in calculating the torques on an object is the force of gravity. 11 where it is only the component of the force that is perpendicular to the torque arm that contributes to the torque (try opening a door by pushing parallel to the door). even though the forces are equal and opposite. when calculating the work. as it was when discussing work. This pivot point can be chosen arbitrarily.4) This is the second condition for equilibrium. Before dealing with torques. To measure the rotating eﬀect of a torque. etc. Rotational equilibrium refers to the situation where there is no rotary motion. you multiplied only If there is a natural pivot point (for example. As can be seen from equation 1. Rotational equilibrium is attained if the sum of all of the torques is zero.4 The further away from this pivot. To examine this more. Where does gravity act on a body? Of course. there are two conditions for equilibrium: that the sum of the forces is zero (translational equilibrium). This concept of multiplying only the perpendicular components of two vectors is called a cross product. the units for torque are usually N · m (this is not called a Joule. 4 RRHS Physics . and that the sum of the torques is zero (rotational equilibrium).CHAPTER 1. down. we were not usually concerned with the location of the force on a body. When ﬁnding an equilibrant force to satisfy both of these conditions. the greater the torque. DYNAMICS EXTENSION in total equilibrium. on a see-saw) then it usually makes sense to choose this as the pivot point. This is called a dot product. torques are described using the terms clockwise and counterclockwise. A clockwise torque added to an equal (in magnitude) counterclockwise torque will be zero. 1. it is necessary to ﬁnd both the force itself (magnitude and direction) and the location of application. but there is a point called the centre of gravity (cg) where the entire force of gravity can be considered to be acting. When you calculated work. As we have seen. A line drawn from the pivot to the force that is providing the torque is known as the torque arm.3. A torque τ is the product of a force multiplied by a distance from the pivot.4. the force and the displacement used had to be parallel). Consider a board where equal forces are applied at opposite ends of the board.

when a gust of wind from the southwest exerts a constant force of 100 N on its sails for 3. You mother asks you to hang a heavy painting. RRHS Physics 4. The ﬁrst tow truck pulls with a force of 25000 N . 10.0 kg tightrope walker stands in the middle.7 kg is supported by a boom and a cable. A high wire is 25. 7. If the wire must be fastened at the edges of the painting. Two tow trucks attach ropes to a stranded vehicle.1. Find the unknown mass in the diagram below: 5. The wire will break if the force pulling on it is too great. The cable makes an angle of 36o with the boom. Calculate the necessary tension in cable B.0 m when a 50. Cable B is attached to an adjoining building. A 40 kg iceboat is gliding across a frozen lake with a constant velocity of 14 m/s E. With what velocity will the sled be moving after the wind has subsided? Ignore any frictional forces. What is the tension in the wire? Is it possible to apply enough tension in the wire to eliminate the sag completely? Explain.0 N . 8. should you use a short wire or a long wire? Explain.3. and you plan to hook this wire over a nail in the wall. A sign with a mass of 1653. Joe wishes to hang a sign weighing 750 N so that cable A attached to the store makes a 30o angle as shown in the picture below. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1. A 20.0 kg sack of potatoes is suspended by a rope.3.3 Problems 1. 3. The frame has a wire across the back.5o with each other.0 m long and sags 1. Find the tensions T1 and T2 in the two strings indicated: 1. Find the resultant force on the vehicle. which grip will exert less force on the lifter’s arms: one in which the arms are extended straight upward from the body so that are at right angles to the bars. The two ropes make an angle of 15. Find the tension in the boom and the cable. When lifting a barbell. while the second truck pulls with a force of 15000 N . 12 . DYNAMICS EXTENSION 6.0 s. What is the tension in the rope? 2. and you don’t want it to break. 9. or on in which the arms a re spread apart so that the bar is gripped closer to the weights? Explain. A man pushes sideways with a force of 50.

0 kg person is sitting 1.0 N applied to a rope held at 30. Wilma is pulling with a force of 175 N in a direction 23o E of N.3. 14. Barney is pulling north with a force of 235 N .0 kg (uniformly distributed) . Where must a 22. direction.0 kg person stands at its tip. Three students are pulling ropes that are attached to a car. A long platform is holding your physics teacher in the air above some hungry alligators.0 cm wide.0 N at a constant velocity up the plane. EQUILIBRIUM 17. In the following diagram. A force of 500. What is the coeﬃcient of friction? 13. What force is required by each student to hold the platform up? 16.0 cm from the hinges which exerts a force of 60.0 kg person is sitting 0.0 m and a length of 15. The plane has a base of 14. Find the size and correct location for the single force which will stabilize the following beam: RRHS Physics 13 18. Fred. If there is a spring on the door 5. What equilibrant force must a fourth student.0 kg.0 m platform has a mass of 10. and point of application of the necessary equilibrant force. one at either end. (a) ignoring the mass of the board (b) If the board has a mass of 40.0o above the surface of a ramp is required to pull a wagon weighing 1000.90 m away from the pivot on the other side. DYNAMICS EXTENSION 11. Betty is pulling with 205 N east. The 10.0 m from the same end. Your physics teacher has a mass of 75 kg and is located 2 m from one end. A 50. apply to prevent acceleration? 1.2 m from the pivot on a see-saw. Find the equilibrant force: 12.0 N. and its center of gravity is located 4.0 m. The platform is being held up by two students. A 60. 19.0 kg child sit to balance the see-saw? 15.CHAPTER 1. determine the magnitude. how much force must be used to open the door if the force is applied at the outer edge of the door? How much force must be used if the force is applied 15 cm from the hinges? Assume that the door is 90. Calculate the forces F1 and F2 that the supports exert on the diving board when a 50.

DYNAMICS EXTENSION 14 RRHS Physics .3.1. EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 1.

8 m/s2 (assuming that we are at the surface of the earth and we are ignoring air resistance). we see that there is only one . Since we know our vertical acceleration.1 We have already discussed this year that horizontal and vertical motion are independent of one another.1 Projectiles An object that is launched in the air follows a trajectory and is called a projectile. This makes the horizontal analysis very easy — all analysis of the motion can be performed using the equation dx = vx t (2. since max = ΣFx . Vertical Motion Looking at the vertical forces in our free body diagram. The horizontal speed does not change. velocity. 2. and acceleration. Notice that the train follows a parabolic trajectory. there is no horizontal acceleration. Ignoring air resistance. and we are going to apply our knowledge of vectors to analyze this motion. therefore.1 Objects tally Launched Horizon- Consider a train that drives horizontally oﬀ the edge of a cliﬀ. These are all vector quantities. and t is the time in the air. since we now know that the vertical acceleration is going to be 9.1) where dx is the horizontal distance travelled.Chapter 2 2-D Motion 2. vx is the horizontal speed. The motion of a projectile is described in terms of its position.1.gravity. This also makes things somewhat simple. all of our motion equations for acceleration can be 15 . a free body diagram of the train (after it has left the ground) would look like this 1 We can show this later on. as seen in the picture below: Horizontal Motion Notice that there are NO horizontal forces acting on the train! There is no force either speeding up or slowing down the train horizontally (as long as we are ignoring air resistance). only a horizontal force can contribute to horizontal motion and only a vertical force can contribute to vertical motion.

remember to keep your horizontal and vertical motion separate from one another and to be careful with your sign conventions.4. 2.1 to 2. Notice that equation 2. For this reason.2 Objects Launched at an Angle We are now going to analyze an object that is launched at an angle. t is the time in the air. The analysis is essentially the same as that for the horizontally launched projectile. the ball follows a parabolic path. therefore. CHAPTER 2. Notice that the one quantity that the horizontal and vertical motion have in common is t.1 and 2. the analysis can be done as it was for the horizontal projectiles. instead of horizontally. 2-D MOTION for the soccer ball. as shown in the diagram below. namely using equations 2.2. Once this is done.5) t= 2a RRHS Physics . it does not follow a straight line!!! Your ﬁrst step in any problem with an object launched at an angle should be to resolve the object’s velocity into its components. however. 2. As the ball rises. vyi will be zero in equations 2. Remember. The ball then begins speeding up vertically downward and continues speeding up until it returns to the ground. since there are no horizontal forces.1. If a projectile such as the ball above leaves the ground and returns to the same height (the ground). The object does. the vertical speed gets smaller and smaller.2.1. The horizontal distance travelled dx is called the range in this situation. The horizontal speed vx is constant. you may have to use the quadratic formula from time to time √ −b ± b2 − 4ac (2. PROJECTILES used. the time in the air. 1 dy = vyi t + at2 2 dy = (2. vyi is the initial vertical velocity.4) 2 where dy is the vertical displacement.3. but gravity will act to slow it down. and the length of the vector (if drawn to scale) indicates its magnitude. then the vertical displacement dy is zero (why?).4.3) 2a vyi + vyf dy = t (2. and 2.2 as both of these equations make use of this quantity. we are not usually given a horizontal and vertical speed. The vertical speed vy is initially upward in this example. not the ball’s actual path! The direction of the arrow indicates the ball’s initial direction. vyf is the ﬁnal vertical velocity. In this case. have a velocity that can be resolved into horizontal and vertical components. Remember from grade 11 that you must use the appropriate sign conventions for up and down for each quantity. Again.2 is a quadratic equation if t is an unknown. you will ﬁnd yourself most often using equations 2. and a is the acceleration due to gravity. Since in this section we are dealing with horizontally launched projectiles.2) 2 2 vyf − vyi (2.1. until it reaches zero at its highest point. Consider a soccer ball that is kicked in the air as shown below: Extremely Important!! The arrow in the diagram above represents the velocity vector 16 This is done using trigonometry as shown back in section 1.

0 m high.02 m from the basket. He throws a rotten egg horizontally out of the moving elevator with a velocity of 5. or below the monkey in order to hit him? 9.0 s later.7 m above the ground. A football is kicked at an angle of 37o with the horizontal with a velocity of 20. A baseball is hit at 30. YES! It’s a score. Calculate the horizontal displacement travelled.1.0 m from the basket. A hunter is trying to shoot a monkey hanging from a tree. 3. An Olympic longjumper is capable of jumping 8.CHAPTER 2.0 s remaining in a basketball game. 2-D MOTION 2. A sniper on a building is trying to hit a target on the ground.05 m above the ﬂoor. A hunter aims directly at a target (on the same level) 220 m away.5 m high. A football is kicked with a speed of 21. (a) How much time is left in the game when the basket is made? (b) The three-point line is a distance of 6. Is the ﬁeld goal good? 12. The rotten egg landed 4. How high was the cliﬀ and how far from its base did the diver hit the water? 2. The building is 13. releasing the ball at the height of the basket.0 m. A diver running 3. A basketball player tries to make a halfcourt jump-shot. At the time of the throw. Immediately.0 m/s at an angle of 37o to the horizontal. what velocity must the player give the ball? 8.0o . an outﬁelder runs 4.1. by how much will it miss the target? 3. Assuming the ball is launched at 51. What horizontal distance will the wheel travel before it strikes the ground and what will the wheel’s velocity be when it strikes the ground? 17 2. A person is in a moving elevator. and with only 2. the elevator was 8. An airplane is in level ﬂight at a velocity of 500 km/h and an altitude of 1500 m when a wheel falls oﬀ.0o with the horizontal. Should the hunter aim directly at.2 m away from the elevator. 4. How much later does it hit the ground? 7. The ﬁeld goal poles are 31. Did the Pat tie the game or put his team ahead? 10.0 m/s. If the bullet travels at 135 m/s.3 Problems 1.6 m/s dives out horizontally from the edge of a vertical cliﬀ and reaches the water below 2. What was the original distance between the batter and the outﬁelder? 11. above. how far from the building is the target? 6. Pat makes a jump-shot at an angle of 60o with the horizontal. What was the velocity of the elevator? Was the elevator moving up or down? 13. As soon as the hunter ﬁres. The ball is released at the height of the basket. 14.0 m/s as he leaves the ground. Trailing by two points. An athlete throws the shotput with an initial speed of 14 m/s at a 40o angle to the horizontal. the monkey is going to let go of the RRHS Physics . how long was he in the air and how high did he go? 5.0 m/s.00 m/s toward the inﬁeld and catches the ball at the same height it was hit. If the bullet leaves the gun at a speed of 550 m/s.0 m away and are 3. giving the ball a velocity of 10 m/s. The shot leaves the shotputter’s hand at a height of 2. PROJECTILES tree.0 m/s at an angle of 53.5 m away from the building in order to hit the target. Assuming his horizontal speed is 9. The sniper aims his riﬂe at a point 19.2 m above the ground.

20. 19. What minimum initial velocity must a projectile have to reach a target 90. drawing vectors showing the force on the puck at two positions while it is on the table and at two more while it is in the air. A teﬂon hockey puck slides without friction across a table at constant velocity. If the shot is made from a horizontal distance of 12. will they become larger or smaller? (a) vxi and vyi (b) time of ﬂight (c) maximum height (d) range where v is the initial velocity of the projectile and θ is the angle with the horizontal. Why does the faster ball not fall as far as the slower one? After all. The basket is 2. what is the range of initial speeds allowed to make the basket? 18. PROJECTILES 14. (Hint: use the trigonometric identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ) (b) Assuming that the initial velocity is v. (b) Draw vectors showing the horizontal and vertical components of the puck’s velocity at the four points. For each of the following questions. but the slower one is below the batter’s knees. (a) Show that the range R of a projectile. its direction of motion makes an angle of θ with the horizontal. Will the following quantities change? If so. they travel the same distance and accelerate down at the same rate.0 km/h horizontally in a low-ﬂying airplane wish to drop an explosive onto a master criminal’s car travelling 130 km/h (in the same direction) on a level highway 78.0 m away? 16. 2-D MOTION speeds. what angle will provide the maximum range? 15. which is deﬁned as the horizontal distance travelled when the ﬁnal point is at the same level as the initial point. where g is one-sixth as large as on Earth. Two baseballs are pitched horizontally from the same height but at diﬀerent 18 RRHS Physics . (c) Draw the total velocity vector at the four points. (a) Draw the situation above. it ﬂies of and lands on the ground.6 m above the ﬂoor. The fatser ball crosses home plate within the strike zone. Derive a formula for θ as a function of time. The player likes to shoot the ball at a 35o angle.22 m (horizontally). At any moment.1 m above the ﬂoor. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a cliﬀ with initial speed vo . When it reaches the end of the table. is given by the equation R= v 2 sin 2θ g CHAPTER 2. draw all vectors to scale.1. Suppose an object is thrown with the same initial velocity on the moon. Police agents ﬂying a constant 200. At what angle (with the horizontal) should the car be in their sights when the bomb is released? 17. A basketball leaves a player’s hands at a height of 2.0 m and must be accurate to ±0. 21.0 m below.2.

When the mass is below its equilibrium position. this formula no longer holds).2 This type of oscillation (when the restoring force follows Hooke’s Law) is referred to as simple harmonic motion. it will often be found that this is a linear relationship. The spring exerts an equal and opposite force on the mass. This force can be given by the relationship F = kx (2. remember from grade 11 that frequency is the inverse of period (f = 1/T ). Notice that the spring has a natural length to which it always wants to return if you stretch or compress it. the spring exerts a smaller force than gravity.6) where k is what is known as the spring constant and x is the displacement of the spring in metres (how far it stretched from the equilibrium position). Suppose that you RRHS Physics now pull this mass down a bit (Fig 2.1b)).CHAPTER 2.7) where m is the mass in kg and k is the spring constant again.1c)and let it go. where F is the restoring force of the spring and the negative sign indicates that this force is in the opposite direction of the displacement x. The spring constant k is constant for any given spring. the suspension of a car. which results in a downward acceleration. The period (the time for one complete vibration. When the spring is above the equilibrium point. Consider a spring that is allowed to hang vertically with no mass attached. Also. The mass will cause the spring to stretch a certain distance.at this point. (See Fig 2.1a). depending on its spring constant. if you exceed the limits of the spring. The relationship is sometimes given as F = −kx. in this case. a mattress. If you double the mass hanging on the spring. a force equal to the weight of the mass is exerted on the spring. diﬀerent springs will have diﬀerent spring constants. but is dependent on the spring. The units for the spring constant are N/m. This is now its new equilibrium position . the force exerted by the spring upwards is equal to the force exerted by gravity downwards. Simple harmonic motion can be applied to many real world situations : a raft bobbing up and down in the water.1: Simple Harmonic Motion When a mass is hung on a spring. you will double the distance the spring stretches. or oscillation) of this motion in seconds is given by T = 2π m k (2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Figure 2. the spring exerts a greater force than the force of gravity and provides an upward acceleration. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 2. Of course. This is the equilibrium position. suspension bridges. meaning that a spring constant of 45 N/m indicates that it would take 45 N to stretch this spring 1 m (assuming that this length was within the limits of the spring. which causes the spring to stretch. This relationship is known as Hooke’s Law. etc. we can also have simple harmonic motion with a horizontal spring. 2 19 . What happens? You should notice that it bobs up and down repeatedly. 2-D MOTION 2. Suppose that you place a mass on the spring (see Fig 2. the spring itself exerts a force towards equilibrium as it is compressed or stretched.2.

x = 0 and all of the energy is kinetic.1 instead of the original equilibrium position (a). it increases linearly as we move away from equilibrium (Eq 2. at the maximum displacement (the amplitude A). since the increase in energy becomes the potential energy of the spring.10) Notice that the period of a pendulum does not depend on its mass! Since the total mechanical energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of that system. or removed from. At equilibrium. Substituting this into Eq 2.1 Conservation of Energy When we stretch or compress a spring. the total energy of an oscillating system can be given by3 3 If we are dealing with a vertically held spring that is supporting a mass. Consider a spring supporting a mass where the mass is pulled a distance x from its rest position and then released. the system. v = 0 and all of the energy is potential. 1 Ep = kx2 (2. a compressed or stretched spring will have potential energy. So the average force exerted will be F = 1 kx and 2 1 ∆E = ( kx)(x) 2 or. The total energy of the system can therefore be expressed 1 as Et = 2 kA2 .6). it can be shown that a pendulum exhibits simple harmonic motion with a spring constant of k= mg L where L is the length of the pendulum. this can be ignored if all displacements (x) are measured from the new equilibrium position (b) shown in Fig 2.2. work is done on the spring.7 we get T = 2π l g (2.2. 20 RRHS Physics .2. however.2. 1 1 Et = mv 2 + kx2 (2. the total energy remains the same.2 Pendulum Motion For small displacements (θ less than ≈ 15o ). Remember that ∆E = W so ∆E = F d But F is not constant. therefore. 2-D MOTION 2.9) 2 2 If no energy is being introduced to.8) 2 where k is the spring constant of the spring (in N/m)and x is the displacement from equilibrium (in m). SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION CHAPTER 2. 2. then there is also gravitational potential energy involved in the system.

200 kg ball. The spring.30 m. it sinks deeper into the water by 5. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2. What is the speed of the block at the instant when the spring is still compressed by 0.2 cm. the car’s springs compress vertically by 1. What is the value of m? 6. the frequency is 0.110 m and released. It takes a force of 60 N to compress the spring of a popgun 0. in contact with a spring bumper. If a particle undergoes SHM with an amplitude A.5 N hangs from it.30 kg mass is hung from it.0 kg person climbs into an 1100 kg car. A block of mass 0.10 g were trapped? 8. When the man steps oﬀ. Determine: (a) The maximum velocity (b) The velocity when the mass is 0.0 cm. what is the total distance it travels in one period? 3.2. 2-D MOTION 2.30 kg hangs from it? 5. When an 80.325 m. A piece of rubber is 45 cm long when a weight of 8. draw the appropriate velocity-time graph and acceleration-time graph for the oscillator. how long does it take to reach the (new) equilibrium position again? RRHS Physics 21 . The spring is then stretched an additional 0. What is the frequency of vibration? 7. frictionless surface.10 cm.0 N hangs from it and is 58 cm long when a weight of 12. if it had 3.4 Hz when a weight of 0. A geologist’s simple pendulum. when an additional 700 g mass is added to m.3 Problems 1.62 Hz. What is the acceleration of gravity? 14. With what speed will the ball leave the gun? 10. How long must a pendulum be to make exactly one complete vibration per second? 15. At what frequency would you expect the web to vibrate if an insect of mass 0. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 9.75 J of work done on it? 11.150 m when a 0. has a frequency of 0.48 Hz. How much would a spring scale with k = 120 N/m stretch.50 kg is placed on a level. A mass of 2.CHAPTER 2.10 m to load a 0. What will be the frequency of vibration when the car hits a bump? 4. A 300 kg wooden raft ﬂoats on a lake. is then released. whose other end is ﬁxed. If the spring is stretched an additional 0.8190 Hz at a particular location. A mass m at the end of a spring vibrates with a frequency of 0. Given the following position-time graph for a simple harmonic oscillator. 13.30 g is caught in a spider’s web. whose length is 37. What is the spring constant of this piece of rubber? 2. What will its frequency be if only 0.70 kg stretches a vertical spring 0. with a spring constant of 100 N/m that has been compressed by an amount 0.050 m from equilibrium (c) The maximum acceleration. The web vibrates at a frequency of 15 Hz. 2.2. the raft vibrates brieﬂy. When a 75 kg man stands on the raft. A small cockroach of mass 0. A spring stretches 0.10 m? 12.100 m from this equilibrium point and released.60 kg is hung from it.

3. since p = mv. a vector diagram must be drawn. we are now going to look at one of our grade 11 topics (collisions).11) Just as with one dimensional collisions. not velocity. and extend our analysis to two dimensions. you would write pa + pb = pa + pb or.13) where primed quantities ( ) mean after the collision and unprimed mean before the collision.2. 2.3 2D Collisions As with many of our topics so far in this course. however. This still applies in two dimensional collisions. We can now RRHS Physics . To add momentum vectors in two dimensions. so is momentum. momentum is a product of mass and velocity (p = mv).11 and 2. The vector nature of the momentum could be addressed in this one dimensional situation using positive or negative values for the velocities. In two dimensions. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. 22 Since momentum is a product of mass (a scalar) and velocity (a vector). 2-D MOTION Equation 2. the two balls will go in diﬀerent directions after the collision. This vector nature of momentum becomes extremely important in two dimensional collisions.12. Since velocity is a vector. Consider the example of a ball moving to the right that collides with another ball at rest. the sum of all of the momentum vectors after the collision (pa and pb ) is equal to the total of the momentum vectors before the collision (pa ). the momentum vector for an object will be in the same direction as the velocity vector of the object.12. the vector nature of momentum does not allow simple algebraic operations using equation 2.12) (2.3.12 could only be used algebraically if you ﬁrst break the vectors into components and then apply the equation in each dimension.1 Conservation of Momentum If the collision is not head on. Although you can still express the conservation of momentum using equations 2. the special attention must be paid to the vector nature of momentum. 2. Also. Do not draw a velocity vector diagram when solving these problems! The momentum vector diagram for equation 2. you could show that in an isolated system the momentum of each object before the collision added up to equal the total momentum after the collision. remember that it is momentum that is conserved. The individual momentum vectors can be found using the formula p = mv.13 would look like this: where pt is really just pa . if you remember from grade 11. When you analyzed one dimensional collisions. You learned in grade 11 that the total momentum of an isolated system remains constant. but remember that momentum is a vector so it must be added as a vector!! For a collision involving two objects in one dimension. since there is only one momentum vector before the collision. ma va + mb vb = ma va + mb vb (2. pa = pa + pb (2.

some of the energy is transformed into other types of energy.3. 2D COLLISIONS Consider the special case where particle b is initially at rest. the vector diagram must be a right angle triangle. If we draw our components into the momentum vector diagram. the total kinetic energy of the particles before the collision is the same as the total kinetic energy of the particles after the collision. 2. In other words.14) 2 2 2 2 Remember that energy is not a vector.15) which is really an expression of the pythagorean theorem. some energy is lost. the y momentum after the collision is still zero 0 = pay − pby 2. In this type of collision. Since the magnitudes of these vectors are related by the pythagorean theorem. then after cancelling the mass and the factor of one half. A velocity vector diagram in this situation4 would therefore show that the vectors va and vb would add to give the vector va . every velocity vector is multiplied by the same factor to obtain the corresponding momentum vector. Since the masses are equal. an elastic collision is one in which no kinetic energy is lost.CHAPTER 2. it is only the magnitude of the velocity that is used in Eq 2. Remember. 2-D MOTION use our usual methods of component analysis for solving vector problems. the two particles move oﬀ at right angles to one another. va and vb (and pa and pb ) are perpendicular to one another. pa = pax + pbx where the momentum components can be found using the appropriate velocity components (pax = ma vax and pbx = mb vbx ). the collision is elastic. A velocity vector diagram can be applied here only because the masses are all the same. A completely inelastic collision is one in which the objects stick together. we see that the momentum is conserved in each dimension. For a two body collision. such as thermal energy. and one of the particles is initially at rest. We now have 1 1 1 2 ma va = ma va2 + mb vb2 2 2 2 If the mass of each particle is the same. therefore. it may be possible to calculate the amount of energy lost by comparing the total initial kinetic energy with the total ﬁnal kinetic energy.14) reduces to 2 va = va2 + vb2 (2. Similarly the sum of the y components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the y components after the collision.3. our conservation of energy equation (2. Since the original y momentum is zero in this example. though. 4 In other words. the sum of the x components of momentum before the collision are equal to the sum of the x components after the collision. Inelastic Collisions An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy is not conserved. after this collision.14. therefore. that this is only true for the special case where the two objects have the same mass. this would be expressed as 1 1 1 1 2 2 ma va + mb vb = ma va2 + mb vb2 (2.2 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic Collisions As you learned in grade 11. the velocity vectors are proportional to the momentum vectors. RRHS Physics 23 . but a completely inelastic collision does not mean that all of the energy is lost.

the second ball is moving North. what will be their velocity after the impact? How much kinetic energy was lost in the collision? 2. of mass mb = 0. 6.3.400 kg.20 m/s.0o North of West. 50. of mass 0.0 km/h. What was the speed of each car prior to the collision? RRHS Physics 2. A particle of mass m travelling with a speed v collides elastically with a target particle of mass 2m (initially at rest) and is scattered at 90o .2×10−23 kg·m/s. What is the ﬁnal direction of the ﬁrst ball. 2D COLLISIONS CHAPTER 2. If they collide and remain stuck together.40 kg strikes a second ball. and what are their ﬁnal speeds? 9. an electron. Vehicle B is a delivery truck of mass 3500 kg initially travelling east at 45 km/h. Car B has a mass of 1250 kg and is travelling 60 km/h. Two cars collide at an intersection. and a neutrino. A billiard ball is moving North at 3. (a) What was the mass of car B? (b) How fast was car B travelling before the accident? 4. A collision between two vehicles occurs at a right angled intersection. Two streets intersect at a 40o angle. What is the magnitude and direction of the momentum of the recoiling nucleus? 3. and the second car had a velocity of 40.2 × 105 m/s collides elastically with a stationary proton. What is the ratio of their speeds after the collision? 10. Find 24 .60 kg. The ﬁrst car has a mass of 925 kg and was travelling North.6×10−23 kg·m/s and 6. A billiard ball of mass ma = 0. A billiard ball of mass 0. As a result of this elastic collision. initially at rest. what will be the velocity of the combined mass immediately after impact? 5. 40. the investigator determined that car A. and another is moving East with a speed of 4. A radioactive nucleus at rest decays into a second nucleus. The two vehicles remained stuck together after impact and the velocity of the cars after impact was 10 km/h in a direction 30o W of N. Immediately after impact.80 m/s. At what angle will the second proton be observed.00 m/s. The electron and neutrino are emitted at right angles and have momenta of 8.2. From skid marks. initially at rest. A proton travelling with speed 8. 2-D MOTION the speed and direction of the second ball after the collision. The second car has a mass of 1075 kg and was travelling West. Vehicle A is a car of mass 1800 kg travelling at 60 km/h north. A collision investigator is called to an accident scene where two vehicles collided at a right-angled intersection. and what will be the velocities of the two protons after the collision? 7. mass 1400 kg was travelling 50 km/h west before impact.3 Problems 1.0o North of West.0 km/h. If the two vehicles remain stuck together after the impact. One of the protons is observed to be scattered at a 60o angle. The ﬁrst ball is deﬂected oﬀ at an angle of 30o with a speed of 1. ball A is deﬂected at an angle of 30o and ball B at 53o . After the collision (assumed elastic).400 kg moving with a speed of 2.3. the ﬁrst car had a velocity of 52. (a) At what angle does the target particle move after the collision? (b) What are the particles’ ﬁnal speeds? (c) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy is transferred to the target particle? 8. Car A has a mass of 1500 kg and is travelling at 50 km/h.00 m/s strikes a second ball.

2) T The only force acting on the object is the string. which is pulling inward.1) t and since the distance travelled in one period T is the circumference (2πr). To calculate the speed of the object. If we consider a force that is always perpendicular to the motion. the acceleration must also be inward. With projectile motion.1 Uniform Circular Motion the change of speed. Knowing that the acceleration is always perpendicular to the velocity. Consider an object revolving at the end of a string in a circle. there is still an acceleration. we get v= 2πr (3. in other words. not Since the force is never in the direction of the motion. the object moves in a curve. There is. however. Remember from grade 11 that acceleration was deﬁned as the change of velocity with time. 1 .1 An object that moves in a circle at constant speed is said to undergo uniform circular motion. however. Note that the velocity is always tangential to the circular motion (it is always perpendicular to the string). the acceleration is never in the direction of the motion. We will now look at the situation where the force acts so that it changes direction and is always perpendicular to the motion.1 Centripetal Acceleration Since the force is never in the same direction as the motion. there will be no acceleration in the direction of motion. we see v= 25 3. Since this is the only force. the object will speed up or slow down.1. we can simply use d (3. and if we rearrange the velocity vectors so that they all start from the same point in our diagram. We also saw with projectiles that if a force acts perpendicular to the motion. We know from Newton’s First Law of Motion that an object with no net force acting on it will continue to move in a straight line at a constant speed. If a force acts on the object parallel to the direction of motion. So even though the speed is not changing. This inward acceleration is what is called the centripetal acceleration. the object will not speed up or slow down. the force acting (gravity) was always perpendicular to the original direction of motion.Chapter 3 Planetary Motion 3. we realize that the speed of the object should not change. an acceleration present.

always inward toward the center of the circle. ac = v2 3. this provides the required centripetal force for circular motion. we will look ﬁrst at the object at its lowest point in the circle. 3. To summarize the directions of each of the vectors that have been discussed (see ﬁgure 3. but where r in the ﬁrst one has been replaced with v.3.1. the corresponding equation for the second diagram would be 2πv (3. by deﬁnition. Also note that the units for this acceleration are still m/s2 . when solving centripetal force problems.2 Centripetal “Force” The word “Force” in this heading is in quotes because it should not be confused with an actual force on an object.1: This is not a free body diagram. the centripetal force (which is a combination of all of the actual forces acting on the object) is always directed toward the center of the circle. Looking at equation 3. we get the equation for the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration a= (3.3. we are doing nothing more than applying Newton’s Second Law Fnet = ma (3. the centripetal acceleration is also always directed toward the center of the circle. PLANETARY MOTION centripetal acceleration.4) r This centripetal acceleration is. consider an object being swung by a string at constant speed on a frictionless. an actual force and should not be included in any free body diagram.2 and 3.3) T Combining equations 3.5) If the acceleration is a centripetal acceleration. horizontal surface. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3. the velocity is perpendicular to the radius of the circle (tangential) You can see that this diagram is very similar to our ﬁrst one. where you can see that the centripetal force Fc is just the net force required for a particular 26 Vertical Circles Consider the case of an object being swung in a vertical circle. then equation 3. In our example of an object being swung in a circle on a string. and v in the ﬁrst one has been replaced by a. This is a common misconception of students.1 below).6) Figure 3. In fact. in particular.1. There are only two forces acting on the object — The force of gravity Fg RRHS Physics . 1. Centripetal force is not.2.5 becomes Fc = mac (3. the only force acting on the object is the force exerted by the string. however. 2. It is in reality another term for the net force acting on an object that is exhibiting a centripetal acceleration. it just shows the direction of the three quantities.

Newton’s First Law states that objects in motion continue in motion at a constant velocity. we will also choose the upward direction to be upward. in fact. This is wrongly interpreted as an outward force on the ball which is transmitted along the string to your hand. being pulled inward by the string. not outward. the ball is not being pushed outward. because of Newton’s Third Law. You are moving in a circle (away from this straight line path). also. Notice that there is no centripetal force in this diagram! The acceleration (centripetal) in this case is upward. It is a common misconception that circular motion introduces a force on an object that is directed away from the center of the circle. Someone watching from a non-rotating reference frame (for example.1. The term centrifugal force is used to explain this apparent sensation of being pulled outward. Pretend you are the ball in our example.1. 3. because of inertia. some centrifugal force pushing outward on the ball. In this situation. you would naturally want to travel in a straight line. PLANETARY MOTION and the tension of the string T . We have already RRHS Physics 2 tangent to the circle 27 . we get mac = Fc mac = T − Fg where we have made T positive because it is upward and Fg negative because it is downward. Drawing a free body diagram of this situation would look like this: 3. If there were. a ﬁxed position above the rotating ball) would obviously see that there is only a force acting inward on the ball and that you simply want to keep going straight because of your inertia. it would appear that some force is trying to push you back to this straight line path (your natural tendency). This “fake” force has been called the centrifugal force.CHAPTER 3. it is. in fact. Centrifugal force is what is called a pseudoforce — it is not a real force. from your point of view (a rotating reference frame). the ball would ﬂy outward away from the center of the circle. Remember. that ac can be found using ac = v 2 /r. the ball will ﬂy oﬀ in the direction of the velocity2 that it had when the string broke.3 Centrifugal Force The term centrifugal force (“center-ﬂeeing”) is probably one that you have heard before. Centrifugal force is simply a term used to explain the apparent force that a rotating object experiences. When you are spinning a ball around in a circle. you know that you feel a force pulling outward on your hand. If you break the string. the ball exerts an equal but opposite force on your hand. Your hand is actually exerting an inward force on the ball. Applying Newton’s Second Law to this situation. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION seen that the force required to move in a circle is inward (since the acceleration is inward).

0 kg mass is being swung in a vertical circle on a 3.1 times per second.e. What is the coeﬃcient of static friction between the coin and the turntable? 11.15 m.20 kg and is attached to a string 0.5 cm. The diameter of the washing machine is 65 cm. How large must the coeﬃcient of friction be between the tires and the road if a 1600 kg car is to round a level curve of radius 62 m at a speed of 55 km/h? 5.20? 6. A cat is stuck in a washing machine while it is in spin mode.1. The moon’s nearly circular orbit about the earth has a radius of about 385. (a) If the yo-yo makes 1.0 cm from the axis of a rotating turntable of variable speed. Assume a radius of curvature of 8. If the coeﬃcient of friction between the cat and the vertical wall of the washing machine is 0. A coin is placed 18. how fast must the washing machine spin (rotations per minute) if the cat is not to slide down the side? 10. (a) Draw a free body diagram indicating all of the forces involved. Determine the acceleration of the moon towards the earth. The ball makes exactly 2. A 150 g ball at the end of a string is swinging in a horizontal circle of radius 1. A 5.4 Problems 1. the coin remains ﬁxed on the turntable until a rate of 58 rpm is reached.000 km and a period of 27. Will the car make the turn if (a) the pavement is dry and the coeﬃcient of static friction is 0. what force does the string exert on it? (b) If Sue increases the speed of the yo-yo to 2. A gravitron circus ride has a 2. If its speed is 3. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION CHAPTER 3.0 revolutions per second.42.0 complete revolution each second. What is the critical speed (i. PLANETARY MOTION (b) What coeﬃcient of friction is necessary to prevent the people from falling? 8. 28 RRHS Physics . What minimum speed must a roller coaster be travelling when upside down at the top of a circle if the passengers are not to fall out. The yo-yo has a mass of 0. A ball on a string is revolving at a uniform rate in a vertical circle of radius 96. the minimum speed at which the ball will maintain a circular path) for this mass? 3.0 m radius and rotates 1.1. what force does the string now exert? 4. When the speed of the turntable is slowly increased.80 m long. calculate the tension in the string (a) at the top of its path (b) at the bottom of its path (c) at the middle of its path (halfway between top and bottom) 12.0 m rope.15 m/s and its mass is 0. What is the maximum speed at which a car can safely travel around a circular track of radius 80.3 days.335 kg. (b) the pavement is icy and µ = 0. Sue whirls a yo-yo in a horizontal circle.0 m if the coeﬃcient of friction between the tire and the road is 0.3.60. What is its centripetal acceleration? 2.00 revolutions in a second. 9. 3.30? 7.0 m. A 1000 kg car rounds a curve on a ﬂat road of radius 50 m at a speed of 50 km/h.

6 km. assuming that the ball is travelling at its critical speed at the top of the circle. determine a formula for the angle at which a road should be banked so that no friction is required.0 kg. When you drive rapidly on a hilly road or ride in a roller coaster. Tarzan plans to cross a gorge by swinging in an arc from a hanging vine. (a) On which part of the inside of the tube will people be able to walk? (b) What must be the rotation speed (revolutions per day) if an eﬀect equal to gravity at the surface of the earth (1 g) is to be felt? 16.1. PLANETARY MOTION 13.0 m long. If a curve with a radius of 60 m is properly banked for a car travelling 60 km/h. The circle formed by the tube has a diameter of 1. calculate the tension in the rope at the ball’s lowest point. how much and in what direction? 29 . by how much is the person’s weight changed because of the earth’s rotation? The radius of the earth is 6370 km. will a friction force be required? If so. 14.CHAPTER 3. For the previous question. A person has a mass of 75. A projected space station consists of a circular tube which is set rotating about its center (like a tubular bicycle tire). you feel lighter as you go over the top of a hill and heavier when you go through a valley. and explain this sensation. For a car travelling with speed v around a curve of radius r. A 1200 kg car rounds a curve of radius 65 m banked at an angle of 14o . Assume no change in energy for the system. what is the maximum speed he can tolerate at the lowest point of his swing? His mass is 85 kg. 15. 19. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION must be the coeﬃcient of friction for a car not to skid when travelling at 90 km/h? 20. the vine is 4. Sketch the situation. 17. what RRHS Physics 3. 18. including the relevant forces. If the car is travelling at 80 km/h. If his arms are capable of exerting a force of 1500 N on the vine. If the person is standing on the equator.

if the acceleration due to gravity is known then the mass of the planet can be calculated. it is falling toward the earth. It is just that its speed and the curvature of the earth prevent it from actually hitting the earth. a force of gravity exists between any two masses. however.67 × 10−11 N m2 /kg 2 .8 m/s2 on the surface of the earth).3 Satellite Motion If a projectile is thrown horizontally.2 Acceleration Due to Gravity For readings on this unit. In grade 11. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can be expressed as Gm1 m2 (3.7) r2 where G is the proportionality constant and is equal to 6. Everyone has experienced gravity on earth. gravity is much more common than this. given by G in the equation below. however. m1 m2 Fg ∝ r2 where m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects and r is the distance between them. this is how the mass of the earth was found. People often ask what keeps a satellite up.2.2. We don’t understand exactly what gravity is. Assuming a circular orbit. This type of relationship appears often in physics. the acceleration of the satellite is a centripetal acceleration. you should also refer to chapter 12 in your textbook.3. Any planetary data needed for the problems can be obtained from the table on page 955 of your textbook. On a completely smooth earth (with no atmosphere to slow things down) one can imagine an object that is thrown fast enough so that when it falls toward the earth. but not to understand why they are so.8) R2 We now have a general expression which can be used to calculate the acceleration due to gravity on any planet (or. and has led scientists to believe that there may be some unifying theory for apparently unrelated phenomena. we must consider the orbit. and many people are aware that there is a force of gravity on other planets. it travels a further distance. Newton discovered that this force depends on the two masses involved and the distance separating them. In this way. a satellite can be launched so that it actually “falls” around the earth. Fg = 30 3.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation In the 1600’s. using Newton’s Second Law we get RRHS Physics . In fact. equating the two expressions. Equation 3. Consider a mass m on a planet of mass M with a radius of R. Newton. Newton realized that there is an inverse square relationship between the distance and the force of gravity. speciﬁcally. you used the equation Fg = mg to calculate the force of gravity. it has actually travelled far enough that the earth’s curvature matches the curvature of the falling object. where g was the acceleration due to gravity (9.7 is a more general expression for the force of gravity between any two objects.2 Universal Gravitation 3. could not determine the constant needed to form an equation out of this proportionality. Nothing is actually keeping a satellite up.) g= GM m R2 3. It should be noted that this law allows us to accurately predict results. To determine this necessary speed. PLANETARY MOTION 3.2. we get mg = or GM (3. It was not for another hundred years before Henry Cavendish devised an experiment to determine this proportionality constant.2. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. it falls in a parabolic trajectory toward the ground. If the object is given a higher speed.

as given in equation 3. one can obtain the necessary speed for the satellite to obtain a circular orbit. 3.2. Substituting this (as well as equation 3. m is the mass of the satellite. Solving this equation for v. and r is the radius of the orbit which is the same as the distance between the objects. 2. The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. faster than this speed. its orbit will decay and the satellite will spiral towards the earth.7. The ratio of the squares of the periods (T ) of any two planets is the same as the ratio of the cubes of their average distances (r) from the sun. Among these works were Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. v= GM r (3. 3. Johannes Kepler published astronomical works examining the motion of the planets around the sun. It is the same situation as a person in a freely falling elevator.9) What is providing the centripetal force for this satellite? The force of gravity between the earth and the satellite. Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 1. Gravity is still quite signiﬁcant at the height of most satellites. PLANETARY MOTION 3. and if there were no gravity at this location the satellite would not be able to maintain its orbit.2. 2 T1 r3 = 1 2 3 T2 r2 F = mac (3.4)into equation 3. If the satellite goes slower than this speed. Notice that the mass of the satellite is not important.11) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation can in fact be used to derive Kepler’s third law (see problem 15).4 Kepler’s Laws More than half a century before Newton proposed his law of gravitation.10) r2 r where M is the mass of the earth (or other planet). which were determined experimentally: RRHS Physics 31 .CHAPTER 3. Since the satellite is in free fall around the earth. it can be understood why astronauts in the space shuttle experience apparent weightlessness. we get GM m mv 2 = (3. and the satellite will enter an elliptical orbit (unless the satellite attains the required escape velocity to escape the earth’s gravity).9.

6.3. 2. Frank is really concerned about his weight. From this data. If the bowling balls are 0.85 × 105 km. The distance between the moon and the earth is 3.71×10−8 N . what is the mass of each bowling ball? 3. What is the acceleration due to gravity near its surface? 4. and would like to ﬁgure out beforehand what force would be necessary to pull the same wooden block across the same glass surface on Jupiter.0 N is required to pull a 10.44 × 106 s and it is 1. A force of 40.50 m. r = 6. Calculate the force of gravity on a spacecraft 12800 km above the earth’s surface if its mass is 700 kg. A physics class is planning a class trip to Jupiter (m = 1. The force of gravity between two similar bowling balls is 1. What is the eﬀective value of g at a height of 1000.36 × 1022 kg) due to the gravitational attraction of both the earth (me = 5. 8. How far above the surface of the earth will Frank have to go so that his weight will be only half of what it is on the surface of the earth? How will this aﬀect Frank’s mass? 9.2. 12. Do the previous question again. See Dick and Jane ﬂy.50 × 108 km. and the distance between the moon and the sun is 1.0 km above the earth’s surface? That is.0 kg wooden block at a constant velocity across a smooth glass surface on earth. Another hypothetical planet (there’s a lot of these planets out there!) has a radius 20. Four 8. determine the mass of Jupiter.0 kg spheres are located at the corners of a square of sides 0. At what distance from the earth will they experience zero net force because the earth and the moon pull with equal and opposite forces? (See Dick and Jane ﬂoat. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3. Calculate the speed of a satellite moving in a stable circular orbit about the earth at a height of 3200 km.0 times that of earth and a mass 100 times that of earth. PLANETARY MOTION weight. what is the acceleration due to gravity of objects allowed to fall freely at this altitude? Just for fun. and doesn’t really want to exercise in order to lose 32 RRHS Physics .98 × 107 m). Determine the net force on the moon (mm = 7.90 × 1027 kg.) The distance (center to center) between the earth and the moon is 3. this time assuming that the earth and the sun are pulling at right angles to one another. Dick and Jane are on a joyride from the earth to the moon.5 Problems 1. 13.2.98 × 1024 kg) and the sun (ms = 1. A hypothetical planet has a radius 1. What is g near the surface? 5. assuming that they are pulling in opposite directions on the moon.99 × 1030 kg). All distances are center to center. 10. 7. One of the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo has a rotational period of 1. But Frank is lazy. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the gravitational force on one sphere due to the other three. Can you help them out? Try anyway!! 11.50 m apart. 3. sketch a velocity-time graph of the object as it falls toward the earth.85 × 105 km.9 × 109 m (center to center) from Jupiter. but has the same mass.6 times that of the earth.

What is the apparent weight of a 65 kg astronaut 4200 km from the center of the earth’s moon in a space vehicle (a) moving at constant velocity? (b) accelerating toward the moon at 3. Jupiter is 5. how would you go about “dropping” an object down to earth? 24. The radius of the moon is 1785 km and the mass of the moon is 7. Find the value of this constant. A geosynchronous satellite is one which stays above the same part of the earth all of the time(in other words. what happens to the shuttle’s period? 23. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is halved and each of the masses is tripled? 20. Does a satellite with a large or small orbital radius have a greater velocity? 22. it’s period is the same as that of the earth). RRHS Physics 3. 31.3 × 1022 kg. What is its average distance from the sun? 26. 1969. though only a few hundred meters across. Using Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. show that for any satellite in a circular orbit around the earth. What happens to the gravitational force between 2 masses when the distance between the masses is doubled? 18. As an astronaut in an orbiting space shuttle. 16. How high above the surface of the earth is this satellite? 17. What happens to the gravitational force between two objects if the distance between the objects is tripled and one of the masses is doubled? 19. The mass of Pluto was not known until a satellite of the planet was discovered. 27. Find Jupiter’s orbital period in Earth years. On which of the following does the speed depend? (a) mass of the satellite (b) distance from Earth (c) mass of Earth 29. PLANETARY MOTION 14. the ratio R3 /T 2 is a constant. Uranus requires 84 years to circle the sun. A satellite is placed in an orbit with a radius that is half the radius of the moon’s orbit. Use Kepler’s third law and the period of the moon (27. The asteroid Icarus. Apollo 11’s orbit around the moon was adjusted to an average orbit of 111 km. If a space shuttle goes into a higher orbit.2 times farther than Earth is from the sun. 32. Find Uranus’ orbit as a multiple of Earth’s orbital radius. On July 19. (a) At what velocity did it orbit the moon? (b) How many minutes did it take to orbit once? 15. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION 21. Find its period in units of the period of the moon. 33 . Why? 28. what would happen to the value of G? 30. If Earth were twice as massive but remained the same size. Its period is 410 days. A satellite is going around Earth.CHAPTER 3.2.4 days) to do problem 16. orbits the sun like other planets. How long would a day be if the earth were rotating so fast that objects at the equator were weightless? 25.6 m/s2 ? (c) in orbit around the moon? State “direction” in each case.

PLANETARY MOTION 34 RRHS Physics .2.3. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION CHAPTER 3.

Objects that have like charges (either both negative or both positive) are found to repel one another. for example. not the protons.1. two objects are being rubbed together and each obtains a charge. When a conductor is given a negative charge. In each case.Chapter 4 Fields The electric force plays a very important role in our lives. in the amount of charge is zero. . and was chosen long before our present knowledge of the atom and the charges present in it. you notice that it will stick to the wall. a plastic ruler rubbed with a cloth will be able to pick up small pieces of paper. you may have felt a shock when you touched a metal door knob after walking across a carpet. the positive charges and negative charges in the atom are equal and the atom is electrically neutral. During any of the processes described above.1 Insulators and Conductors A conductor is a material in which many of the electrons are bound very loosely to the nuclei and can move about freely within the material. Metals are generally very good conductors. You have learned in chemistry that the basic structure of the atom consists of a positively charged nucleus (which has its charge due to the positively charged protons in it) that is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons. when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a paper towel the plastic acquires a negative charge and the towel acquires an equal amount of positive charge. This is the law of conservation of electric charge. giving it a net negative or positive charge. electric forces are responsible for the metabolic processes that occur in our body. even more important than many people think. According to atomic theory. This kind of atom is called an ion. 4. the excess electrons will spread themselves over the whole conductor (since they are trying to get away from one another).1 Static Electricity Everyone has experienced static electricity in their lives. the forces that holds atoms and molecules together to form liquids and solids are electrical forces. The two types of charge were referred to as positive and negative by Benjamin Franklin. objects that have unlike charges (one negative and one positive) are found to attract. the net change 35 4. it is the negative electrons that are free to move from atom to atom (or object to object). Remember. Likewise. a positively charged conductor will have a deﬁciency of electrons over the whole conductor. In a normal state. even ordinary pushes and pulls are the result of the electric force between the molecules of your hand and those of the object being pushed or pulled. Sometimes (as in the examples involving friction earlier) an atom may gain or lose one or more electrons. If you rub a balloon in your hair. the choice of what was negative and what was positive was arbitrary.

such as only conducting electrons in one direction or only conducting when illuminated by light. the pieces of paper will actually jump through the air to the ruler. Some of the excess electrons on the ruler can now move into the paper. For example. One of the more common types of electroscope is called a thin-leaf electroscope. it has merely been separated. The other way of charging an object is called induction.1. 4. they are trying to get as far away from one another as possible. you could break the sphere in two and have two oppositely charged objects. however. and you will observe the tiny pieces of paper ﬂying oﬀ (being repelled) of the ruler after a few seconds. some materials known as semiconductors (such as silicon. in this way. a charge is induced in the papers just as in the diagram above. Consider the case where you have a negatively charged rod. CHAPTER 4. but the charge remains only on the particular part of the material that was charged. if it is charged negatively. The ruler and paper are now both charged negatively. Since the extra electrons on the rod all repel one another. With induction.2 Charging Objects Induction and conduction can also work together.4. FIELDS gain a negative charge (see diagram below). and carbon) which generally have a few free electrons. giving it excess electrons. This rod is touched to a neutral sphere. there are . germanium. and they touch. i. it would also be possible to make the charge permanent (think about how this would work). the side of the sphere near the rod will be left with a positive charge and the side of the sphere furthest away from the rod will 36 4.1. so the sphere now becomes negatively charged. with each object gaining an equal and opposite charge).1. When the negative rod is brought near the neutral sphere. This type of electroscope consists of two metal leaves that are on a hinge and are therefore free to swing. Nearly all materials fall into one of these two categories. STATIC ELECTRICITY An insulator is a material in which there are almost no loosely bound electrons. An object can also be charged by conduction.however. If you ground the sphere. these electrons now have somewhere to go to get away from one another. If you take a charged plastic ruler and put it near a pile of little pieces of paper. No charge has been created. Consider our example of the negative rod and the neutral sphere. An insulator can be charged (such as the plastic ruler is when rubbed with a cloth). there are more electrons than protons on the rod. When the ruler is placed near the pieces of paper. As soon as they touch. As soon as you touch the neutral sphere. some of the free electrons in the sphere will be repelled from the rod.e. The positive side of the paper is then attracted to the negatively charged ruler. the excess electrons do not distribute themselves over the entire material. We have already seen that an object can be charged using friction (in which case the charge is actually separated. conduction occurs. These semiconductors often have interesting properties.3 Electroscopes An electroscope is a device that detects the presence of an electric charge. but is just brought near it. The RRHS Physics . the charged object does not actually touch the neutral one.

RRHS Physics A charged object can sometimes be observed to lose its charge. 4. FIELDS two leaves are connected by a conductor which extends outside of the case. Suppose you have a negatively charged plastic ruler. In some cases. more often. will repel each other and will spread out. STATIC ELECTRICITY Note that an electroscope does not tell you what kind of charge is present. these ions are free to move and form a conductor through the air called a plasma. Suppose. use an electroscope to determine the sign of the charge if you ﬁrst use conduction to charge the electroscope with a known charge (positive or negative). They have been shown here to be slightly separated for illustration purposes. Notice the equal number of positive and negative charges.1. The excess electrons on the ruler can be attracted to the positive end of the polar water molecule and carried away. the faster the charge will be carried away. now negatively charged. giving it a permanent charge. they will exert a large enough force to rip electrons oﬀ of molecules in the air. You can. If charges become large enough.1. objects can be neutralized by charged ions in the air. even after we remove the charged rod. Think about how you may do this. even when nothing is apparently done to them. Sparks and lightning are examples of this. as shown here. the charge is neutralized by water molecules in the air. Water molecules are what are known as polar molecules .even though they are neutral. each end of the molecule is oppositely charged. however. a positive charge will also cause the leaves to repel. the two leaves just hang vertically. particularly on each leaf. some of the excess electrons in the rod will be transferred to the electroscope. Air can also become a conductor under certain circumstances. Some of the electrons will be repelled down into the leaves. the leaves.CHAPTER 4. The more water molecules in the air. The leaves will then stay spread apart.4 Permanency of Charge If we then touch the electroscope with the charged rod. now that a negatively charged rod is brought near the electroscope. 4. If the electroscope is neutral. 37 .

the leaves at ﬁrst collapse and then diverge. (a) What charge is now on each block? 38 RRHS Physics . A attracts C. When an electroscope is charged. but as soon as they touch the rod. 12. 9. You then poke the blocks apart with an uncharged insulating rod. 5. STATIC ELECTRICITY CHAPTER 4. you remove the two positively charges objects. the leaves rise to a certain angle and remain at that angle. one at each end of the line of blocks. If you wipe a stereo record with a clean cloth. FIELDS (b) Explain how the blocks acquired these charges by describing the motion of the negative particles. Explain how to charge a conductor negatively if you only have a positively charged rod. What charge is on the rod? 8. A charged rod is brought near a pile of tiny plastic spheres. Why don’t they rise farther? 10. how can you ﬁnd if an object is a conductor? 2. while the objects with strong positive charges are nearby. what kind of charge does B have? 6. Finally. You ﬁnd that object A repels object B. Will an object hold its charge longer on a dry day or a humid day? Explain. Three metal blocks in contact are resting on a plastic tabletop. Can you charge a metal rod by holding it in your hand? Why or why not? 7. why does the record now attract dust? 4. and C repels D.5 Problems 1.4. If you move a charged rod toward a positively charged electroscope. Some of the spheres are attracted to the rod. If you know that D is positively charged.1. You place two objects with strong positive charges. Why would trucks carrying ﬂammable ﬂuids drag a metal strip along the ground? 11.1. close to but not touching the blocks. Using a charged rod and an electroscope. Explain. 3. they ﬂy away in different directions. Explain what happens to the leaves of a positively charged electroscope when rods with the following charges are nearby but not touching the electroscope: (a) positive (b) negative 4.

The electric ﬁeld is not a kind of matter .2. When another charged object is placed in this electric ﬁeld. since it appeared to behave like magic. Coulomb’s Law is given by the equation kq1 q2 (4.CHAPTER 4. Forces between electric charges and masses are diﬀerent in that they appear to act over empty space. 39 . The inverse square relation is one of the recurring mathematical patterns in nature. 4. Michael Faraday ﬁrst suggested the concept of an electric ﬁeld in the 1800’s. r is the distance between the charges in meters.0 × 109 N m2 /C 2 . E= F q (4. FIELDS 4. they think of pushing or pulling an object. 1 It is in fact an invention of the human mind that is very useful. it should be independent of any test charge being used to map the electric ﬁeld. it is precise for only point charges. without using some test charge. and k is a proportionality constant whose value is 9.1 is the distance between the centers.1) r2 where q1 and q2 represent the magnitude of each charge in Coulombs. By varying the charges on a variety of spheres. FORCES AND FIELDS than the distance between them. This may require pushing with your hand. then the r in equation 4. Faraday suggested that any charged object has an electric ﬁeld surrounding it. we can measure the force exerted on q by the electric ﬁeld.60 × 10−19 C It should be noted that equation 4.2 4.” Scientists often discover that a theory which is very complex is often wrong. Charges produced by rubbing ordinary objects (such as a comb) are typically 1 µC or less.2) Notice that E is a vector and therefore has a direction. Using some test charge q.2. If the two objects are spheres.1 Forces and Fields Coulomb’s Law The French physicist Charles Coulomb investigated electric forces in the 1780’s using a torsion balance similar to that used by Henry Cavendish for his studies of the universal gravitation constant. comprehensive explanations is one of the driving forces in physics. or some other type of contact. This worried people. The smallest known charge is that of an electron (or a proton.it is a concept. in fact. Einstein once said “The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is its utter comprehensibility. however. tying a rope to something. strong nuclear forces. The current search for a uniﬁed theory that relates the four forces of nature (gravitational. The search for simple. we can’t measure the electric ﬁeld. To help explain this idea.2 Electric Fields Forces like gravity and electric force behave very diﬀerently than the forces that people are used to in everyday life. which has an equal but opposite charge).1 only applies to objects whose size is much smaller RRHS Physics 4. electromagnetic. he was able to deduce that the electric force between two charged spheres is directly proportional to the magnitude of each charge and inversely proportional to the distance between the spheres. it is the ﬁeld that interacts with the second object and applies the force. The direction of the electric ﬁeld at any point is deﬁned as the direction of the force on a positive test charge at that point. this is known as the elementary charge F = e = 1. and weak nuclear forces) continues. When people think of forces.1 Since the electric ﬁeld is something associated with only the source charge. The electric ﬁeld E can then be deﬁned as the force exerted per unit charge at any location around a source charge.2.

these ﬁelds can then be added vectorially. If a positive test charge is placed anywhere in the vicinity of the source. They indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld.2. the stronger the electric ﬁeld. The closer together the ﬁeld lines. Note in our diagrams above that the lines are closer together near the charges than they are further away from the charges.2. They are drawn so that the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld is proportional to the number of ﬁeld lines in a unit area. or lines of force. 4.1 into equation 4. consider a positive source charge.1.3 can be applied to each source to obtain the electric ﬁeld. gravitational ﬁelds can be used to explain gravity acting over a distance. The electric ﬁeld lines are sometimes visualized as the path that would be followed by a tiny test charge placed on it. 2. consider a positive and a negative source (of equal strength). For example. The electric ﬁeld would look like this: The lines of force in the previous two diagram do a number of things: 1. FORCES AND FIELDS For a point source Q. Notice that the test charge q is absent in this equation. this is only true if the test charge has no inertia or moves extremely slowly. the force on the test charge will be away from the source. it would gain momentum and would not follow the ﬁeld lines. we know that the force on any test charge q can be found using Coulomb’s Law. Substituting equation 4. FIELDS points around the sources.3 Lines of Force In order to visualize an electric ﬁeld. then equation 4. as the test charge is accelerated by the force.4 Gravitational Fields To draw an electric ﬁeld around two or more point sources. Drawing these lines of force around the positive test charge. If there is more than one source charge. are drawn so they indicate the direction of the force on a positive test charge. In the same way that the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as RRHS Physics . however.3) r2 for the magnitude of the electric ﬁeld. we draw a series of lines to indicate the direction of the electric ﬁeld at various points in space.4. The earth can be said to possess a gravitational ﬁeld. equation 4. which interacts with all objects near the earth. showing that the electric ﬁeld E is independent of the test charge q . In reality.2. consider what direction the force on the positive test charge would be at various 40 In the same way that electric ﬁelds can be used to explain electric forces acting over a distance.2. the representation of the electric ﬁeld will then look like this: 4.it depends only on the source charge Q and the distance from this charge r. For example. E= CHAPTER 4. we obtain kQ (4. These electric ﬁeld lines.

How many excess electrons are on a ball with a charge of −4.2. What is the total force (magnitude and direction) which acts on the ﬁrst ball? 10. 3. A and B. How far apart are two electrons if they exert a force of repulsion of 1. We have already seen that this ratio is equal to g (F/m = g). Three particles are placed in a line. What should you do? 11.2). The middle particle is 72 cm from each of the others. What total force is exerted on the positive charge? 9. is 0.030 m to the east.0 µC is 0.1 × 106 m/s. and an electron. what force is exerted? 12.CHAPTER 4. Two electrons in an atom are separated by 1. has a charge of +25 µC. (a) How many electrons are transferred? (b) If each water molecule donates one electron. are separated by a distance d and exert a force F .0 µC. mass 1. What is the ratio of the magnitude of the average electrostatic force of attraction between them to the gravitational force of attraction between them? 6. located 16 cm to the right. the typical size of an atom. has a charge of -20 µC. The bottom electron is resting on a table. A positive charge of 3. and the right -83 µC. A second ball. the electron revolves in a circular orbit around the proton with a speed of 1.2. (b) Find the net force on the right particle. A charged ball has a charge of +16 µC. A strong lightning bolt transfers about 25 C to Earth. Two charged bodies exert a force of 0.5 Problems 1. How high will the second electron “ﬂoat” above this bottom electron? In other words. You are given two similar spheres.5 × 10−10 m. -2. What is the force between them? 5. In other words. One. You want to charge the spheres so that B has exactly half the charge on A. A third ball.67 × 10−27 kg. The hydrogen atom contains a proton. mass 9. q1 and q2 . If they are moved so that they are one fourth as far apart.145 N on each other. 8. what mass of water lost an electron to the lightning? One mole of water has a mass of 18 g. What is the radius of the electron’s orbit? 41 4. 4. located 25 cm above the second ball. the acceleration due to gravity g can also be thought of as the gravitational ﬁeld intensity. The left particle has a charge of -67 µC. Two charges. at what height will the electrical force of repulsion be equal and opposite to the gravitational force of attraction of the earth? 7.00 × 10−17 C? 2. In one model of the hydrogen atom. Two electrons are arranged so that one is above the other.0 N on each other? 4. (a) Find the net force on the middle particle. the RRHS Physics . FIELDS the force per unit charge (equation 4.0 µC is pulled on by two negative charges. What new force will exist if (a) q1 is doubled? (b) q1 and q2 are cut in half? (c) d is tripled? (d) d is cut in half? (e) q1 is tripled and d is doubled? 13. the gravitational ﬁeld is deﬁned as the force per unit mass. -4. FORCES AND FIELDS middle +45 µC.11 × 10−31 kg.050 m to the north and the other.

(c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another). which is about 1 × 105 N/C. Two nonconducting spheres have a total charge of 850 µC. (a) two positively charged point sources. When placed 1. A water droplet of radius 0.0 µC and the other 68.020 mm remains stationary in the air. 19. Take into account gravity and determine E.67 × 10−27 kg) is suspended at rest in a uniform ﬁeld E. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines for the following situations.30 m apart.0 cm away from a 1. You ﬁrst map the ﬁeld with a 1. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric ﬁeld at a point midway between -20. What is the electric charge on the earth? 26.0 µC charge 40. Assume all of the charges are of the same magnitude. Its magnitude is about 150 N/C at the earth’s surface and points inward towards the centre.2. A negative charge of 2. Measurements indicate that there is an electric ﬁeld surrounding the earth.0 × 10−8 C experiences a force of 0.060 N to the right in an electric ﬁeld. how many excess electrons must the water droplet have? 28. What is the ﬁeld magnitude and direction? 18. If the electric ﬁeld of the earth is 150 N/C. What is the electric ﬁeld 2. What must be the charge and placement of the third charge for the ﬁrst two to be in equilibrium? 15. 42 CHAPTER 4.2 cm apart.0 µC are 8.0 × 10−6 C test charge. FORCES AND FIELDS 14. are a distance l apart.5 N and is repulsive. one 33.0 µC charged particle? 21. 17. the force each exerts on the other is 28.0 cm apart? 23.0 µC and a +60. Electrons are accelerated by the electric ﬁeld in a television. A proton (m = 1. (b) Would you ﬁnd the same ﬁelds? Explain. Two charges.0 × 10−10 m from the nucleus? (b) What is the direction and magnitude of the force exerted on an electron at this distance? 22. What is the acceleration of an electron in a 2200 N/C electric ﬁeld? 25. one at each corner of an equilateral triangle. 24. −Qo and −3Qo . (a) What is the direction and magnitude of the electric ﬁeld at 1. A lead nucleus has the charge of 82 protons.0× 10−6 C charge. FIELDS 20. (b) one positively charged point source and two negatively charged point sources. These two charges are free to move but do not because there is a third charge nearby. (a) Would you measure the same forces with the two test charges? Explain. At what location between them will the electric ﬁeld be zero? 27. What is the charge on each? What if the force were attractive? 16. Find the force on an electron.4. Explain why it is not possible for two electric ﬁeld lines to cross. then repeat your work with a 2. Two positive charges. RRHS Physics . You are probing the ﬁeld of a charge of unknown magnitude and sign.

FIELDS 4. as the negative particle accelerates toward the positive charge. for example. The potential diﬀerence between points a and b would be Vab = Va − Vb . because of the force of attraction between the two charges. In this case. it is useful to deﬁne an electric potential as the potential energy per unit charge. Suppose you have two spheres. which is just Vab = Epa − Epb q but the change in potential energy is just the work done in moving the charge. a ball on a hill will come to rest in the valley below where the potential energy is zero. the negative charge will move on its own toward the positive charge. The symbol for electric potential is V . electric potential energy can only be measured relative to some reference point. we say that it is at a high potential. This is similar to doing work to lift an object from one level to a higher level. only diﬀerences in electrical potential energy (and thus electric potential) are measurable. the electrical potential energy will actually be converted into kinetic energy. If the two spheres are touched together. Just as with gravitational potential energy. 2 without accelerating it RRHS Physics . therefore. sphere B is said to be neutral. Potential diﬀerence is often referred to as voltage. Note that the electric potential is not the same thing as the electric potential energy. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL The potential at some point a can be expressed as Va = Epa q 4. This will continue until the work done adding charge to 43 4. where Epa is the potential energy of a charge q placed at point a. you have to do work to move it (you have to overcome the force of repulsion between the two positive charges). It can be seen that the potential of A is decreasing while that of B is increasing. Remember that W = ∆E. If positive work is required to move the charge. Suppose you want a negative particle to move closer to a positive charge. This will add energy to the system. you don’t have to do anything. so Vab = Wab q (4. since they are trying to get away from one another.3.2 Electric Potential Just as the electric ﬁeld was deﬁned as the force per unit charge.3. then you will increase the potential energy of the system. if you have a positive charge that you want to move closer to another positive charge. 4. We are now going to extend this concept to include electrical phenomena. The diﬀerence in potential between two points is called the potential diﬀerence. electrons will go from sphere A into sphere B. Since the excess electrons are being held close together on sphere A. a change in electric potential energy is equal to the work required to move a charge2 from one location to another. The potential energy here will decrease.3 Electric Potential We have seen that energy can be extremely useful in dealing with mechanical systems – it is a conserved quantity and is an important aspect of nature. namely potential energy. which is called the volt. For example.1 Electric Potential Energy As was true when dealing with gravitational potential energy. one negatively charged (A) and one neutral (B).4) The unit of electric potential (and potential diﬀerence) is joule/coulomb. Sharing Charge All systems come to equilibrium when the energy of the system is at a minimum.3.CHAPTER 4.

053 N is needed to move a charge of 37 µC a distance of 25 cm in an electric ﬁeld. A lightning ﬂash transfers 30 C of charge to earth through a potential diﬀerence of 3.4 Problems 1. (a) Is the potential energy increased or decreased? (b) What is the potential diﬀerence? 6. that is. 4. A -30. if they were not.5 × 107 V . An equipotential line is one in which all of the points are at the same potential. How much water at 0o C can be brought to boiling temperature? 9. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL sphere B is equal to the work gained in removing a charge from sphere A.3. at this point.5 × 10−4 J. than a larger sphere would be able to hold more charge than a smaller sphere and still be at the same potential (since it has more space for the charge to spread itself over). What is the speed of the electron as a result of this acceleration? 8. An electron in a picture tube of a TV set is accelerated from rest through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V . A 12 V battery does 1200 J of work transferring charge. FIELDS 2. the two spheres will be at the same potential. as shown below. Equipotential lines are perpendicular to the electric ﬁeld at any point.4. Draw the electric ﬁeld lines and the equipotential lines for the following situations: 4.5 V ? 3. there would be some component of the electric ﬁeld parallel to the equipotential line and work would be required to move the charge along the surface against this electric ﬁeld.3 Equipotential Lines The electric potential can be represented in our electric ﬁeld diagrams by drawing equipotential lines3 .3. What work is done when 5. (c) one positive plate and one negative plate (across from and parallel to one another).0 µC charge is moved towards a +45.0 C is raised in potential by 1. We usually use dashed lines to represent the equipotential lines. If a large charged sphere is touched by a smaller uncharged sphere. the potential diﬀerence between any two points on the line is zero and no work is done moving from one point to another on the line. what can be said about (a) the potentials of the two spheres? (b) the charges on the two spheres? 7. How much charge is transferred? 3 (a) two positively charged point sources. If the two spheres are diﬀerent sizes. CHAPTER 4. The change in energy while doing this is 4.0 µC charge.3. or equipotential surfaces in three dimensions 44 RRHS Physics . (b) two equally but oppositely charged point sources. A force of 0. How much kinetic energy will an electron gain if it falls through a potential diﬀerence of 800 V ? 4. What is the size of the potential diﬀerence between the two points? 5.

A battery produces electricity by transforming chemical energy into electrical energy. It can be seen that there is a chain reaction of moving electrons through the wire from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. In 1800. this is given a special name. Even though we now know that it is the negative electrons that actually ﬂow in the wire. the idea of electricity was restricted to producing a static charge by friction on small scales. indicating that electricity can transfer large amounts of energy. a chemical reaction inside the battery results in an excess of electrons on one terminal of the battery (negative terminal) and a deﬁcit of electrons on the other terminal of the battery (positive terminal). A wire is a conductor. so its electrons are held very loosely. a battery is several cells connected together.1 Electric Current Q (5. When people discussed current. electrons on the negative terminal enter the end of the wire attached to this terminal. when the conventions for positive and negative were established two centuries ago. therefore. This ﬂow of charge is referred to as an electric current. also referred to as an amp.Chapter 5 Electricity & Magnetism 5. As was discussed in the previous chapter. When a wire is connected to the two terminals of a battery. Contrary to a common belief.1.1 Electrical Quantities Current When a conductor such as a wire is connected to the terminals of a battery. The small devices that we commonly refer to as batteries are really cells.1) t where Q is the charge that passes a given point in coulombs and t is the time interval in seconds. you will study this in more detail in chemistry. charge can ﬂow from one terminal of the battery to the other through the wire. electrons do not move through a wire at the speed of light. an ampere (A). we still refer to a positive ﬂow of charge in a wire I= 45 Until 1800. Remember that in solids. at the same time. it is the electrons that are free to move and not the protons. 5. Electric current is therefore measured in C/s. little was known about the structure of the atom. it was only in 1752 that Benjamin Franklin showed that lightning was an electric discharge. free electrons in the end of the wire attached to the positive terminal immediately are attracted to this positive terminal. Alessandro Volta produced the ﬁrst steady ﬂow of electric charge when he invented the electric battery1 . it was assumed that it was positive charge that ﬂowed in the wire. the current must actually be a ﬂow of electrons through the wire. 1 . The electric current (I) is deﬁned as the net amount of charge that passes a given point per unit time. In short.

they lose potential. therefore. the walls of the pipe oﬀer resistance. In our gravity/water analogy above. If we inserted a series of screens or grates in the pipe. In the same way. 2. since each end of the pipe is at the same height. Type of material : Diﬀerent materials. Consider a pipe carrying water that is perfectly horizontal. When charges are moved through a resistance. These materials are than said to be superconducting. CHAPTER 5. 3. there is a potential diﬀerence between the two terminals because of their opposite charges. when we increase the potential diﬀerence (or voltage) between two points more current will ﬂow. 46 . the ﬂow of positive charge in one direction is nearly identical (mathematically and conceptually) to the ﬂow of negative charge in the opposite direction so it really doesn’t make a diﬀerence which convention we are using. In liquids and gases. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Resistance The amount of current that actually ﬂows depends not only on the voltage (potential diﬀerence) but on the resistance present. When discussing sharing of charge in the last chapter. since at higher temperatures atoms move faster and are less orderly. insulators have a very high resistance. the resistance of certain materials becomes essentially zero. We used the gravitational analogy before to discuss electric potential. there is a loss of potential across any resistor (and a gain in potential across a battery). and the symbol for an ohm is Ω (the Greek letter Omega). At very low temperatures (within a few degrees of absolute zero). If one end of the pipe is raised. Remember that we can only measure a potential diﬀerence between two points. the water at each end has the same potential energy and there is no ﬂow of water. charges ﬂowed from the object at a higher potential to the one at a lower potential. the resistance of most materials increases with temperature. For practical purposes.1. The higher the pipe is raised (or the greater the diﬀerence in potential energy). If we consider a wire to be an ideal conductor (no resistance). it gains or loses energy.5. With a battery. This makes sense. we can use it here as well. The actual ﬂow of negative charge in a wire is referred to as electron ﬂow. A diﬀerence in potential was required for the ﬂow of charge. Resistance of a wire can depend on a number of things: 1. Potential diﬀerence is measured in volts (V ). Remember that when a charged particle undergoes a change in potential. this would oﬀer more resistance as it would interfere with the ﬂow of water by slowing it down. thereby interfering with the moving electrons more. however. the water at one end has a higher potential energy than the other end and the water will begin to ﬂow. electrons in a wire are slowed down because of their interaction with atoms of the wire. Temperature: In general. Resistance is measured in ohms. oﬀer different levels of resistance to the movement of electrons. it was observed that when two spheres at diﬀerent potentials touched. the greater the ﬂow of water. because of their atomic structure. ELECTRIC CURRENT as conventional current. Comparing this to electricity. Silver is one of the better conductors (low resistance). Thickness: A thicker wire has more crossRRHS Physics Potential Diﬀerence (Voltage) A diﬀerence in potential is required for an electric current to ﬂow. then the potential diﬀerence between any two points on this wire is zero (no voltage is lost in the wire). positive and negative ions are both free to ﬂow so a current could really be the movement of either positive or negative charges.

Consider a wire that is carrying a current.1) so P = IV (5. In materials that follow Ohm’s Law. the current is proportional to voltage). If we are speciﬁcally talking about the power dissipated in a resistor. but we probably know the current ﬂowing through it and the resistance of the resistor. Remember that one watt is equal to one joule per second. it is really energy that we pay for.2) I= R where the unit of resistance is deﬁned so that 1 Ω = 1 V /A.5. we can minimize the amount of power lost in the wire.2 itself is not Ohm’s Law.CHAPTER 5. we can see that the power dissipated in the wire depends on both the current in the wire and the resistance in the wire. power is just the amount of energy 47 In most electric circuits. but I = q/t (equation 5. we can replace the potential diﬀerence V in equation 5.2 to obtain P = I 2R (5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM sectional area for the electrons to pass through. if you double the voltage. the current also doubles. By keeping both of these quantities as small as possible.2 Ohm’s Law Since ∆E = qV (from equation 4. ELECTRIC CURRENT are often interested in how much energy is being transformed per unit time. A resistor that follows Ohm’s law is said to be ohmic. Ohm’s Law refers to the fact that the resistance for most conductors does not depend on the potential diﬀerence across the conductor (in other words.4) we have P = qV t Ohm’s “Law” is really a misnomer. Most (but not all) metals obey Ohm’s Law. we want to transform electrical energy into some other form of energy (such as heat. the resistance must be constant. and inversely proportional to the resistance (from our discussions in the last section). the current is proportional to the voltage. Since we know that current is directly proportional to the voltage. I∝V In order for this proportionality to be true. since it is not really a law that applies in all situations. the watt (W ). 5. Length: A longer wire has more obstacles in total for the electrons to pass by. Cost of Electricity Although we often refer to paying for power. from physics 11 you may remember that this quantity is power: P = ∆E t (5. so it will have a lower resistance. power will be dissipated in the form of heat energy according to equation 5. 4. We RRHS Physics .3 Electrical Power This equation is often useful since we may not know how much voltage is lost in the resistor. That is. The unit for electrical power is the same as any other kind of power. Looking at this equation. the voltage must be the only variable changing that aﬀects the current.4) This gives us the power transformed by any device.3) 5. A device that has a constant resistance that is independent of the potential diﬀerence is said to obey Ohm’s law.1. Ohm’s Law was discovered experimentally by Georg Ohm to apply to many materials.5) 5.1. as long as we know the current ﬂowing through the device and the potential diﬀerence across the device. Note that equation 5. light. current can be expressed as V (5. Since wires have a resistance in the real world. thereby increasing the resistance.4 with equation 5. or mechanical).1.

What eﬀect does this have on the bird? (Does tweety fry?) 15. calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through the bird in question 12. 14.0 × 10−5 Ω per meter and the bird’s feet are 3. if he increases the voltage the resistance will increase. The cost of electricity is usually expressed as a cost per kilowatt hour (our cost in Nova Scotia is roughly $0.0 W light bulb if it is connected to its proper source voltage of 12 V ? RRHS Physics The energy E can be found in kilowatt hours (kW h) if the power P is measured in kilowatts and the time t is measured in hours. Remember that energy is given by the equation E = Pt (5.0 cm apart. When she connects it to a 1. A 12 V battery is connected to a device and 24 mA of current ﬂows through it. The damage caused by electric shock depends on the current ﬂowing through the body – 1 mA can be felt. A current of 1.5 A for 6. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 8. 5 mA can be painful. What is the voltage of the battery? 6.0 A? 5. What is the resistance of a toaster if 110 V produces a current of 4. electrical companies usually measure energy usage in units called kilowatt hours. What is the eﬀect on the current in a circuit if both the resistance and voltage are doubled? 9.10 A ﬂows in a wire. How many electrons are ﬂowing past any point in the wire per second? 3. Joe argues that.1. at 20 mA. It drops to about 1500 Ω for wet skin.0 A of current through a 150 Ω resistor? 4. above 100 mA can be fatal. The resistance of the human body when the skin is perfectly dry is about 105 Ω.1.6) CHAPTER 5. How much charge passes through the battery? 2.5 V battery. Does the device obey Ohm’s law? 2 the standard SI unit of energy 48 . Is Joe correct? Explain.4 Problems 1. 5. what eﬀect does this have on the circuit’s current? 10. ELECTRIC CURRENT used per unit time. What voltage will produce 12. 10-20 mA can cause muscular eﬀects. Calculate the amount of current ﬂowing through a person’s body (for dry skin and for wet skin) if they stick their ﬁnger in a household socket (120 V ). A bird stands on an uninsulated transmission line carrying 1200 A.5 V battery is connected to a bulb whose resistance is 10 Ω. Sue ﬁnds a device that looks like a resistor. a person may not be able to let go of a conducting wire.5. how much current will ﬂow when a 24 V battery is used? 7. only 45 × 10−6 A ﬂows. What voltage does the bird feel? 13. but when a 3. 25 × 10−3 A ﬂows. Because the joule2 is a fairly small unit of energy. How many electrons leave the battery each minute? 12. A resistance of 60 Ω has a current of 400 mA through it when it is connected to the terminals of a battery. respiratory paralysis occurs between 20 and 100 mA. A 1. The line has a resistance of 1. A service station charges a battery using a current of 5.085/kW h). If the device obeys Ohm’s law.0 V battery is used. Assuming the same values of resistance for a bird. since R = V /I.0 h. What is the current through a 6. 11. If the voltage across a circuit is kept constant and the resistance is doubled.

operated at 120 V .0o C to 55.11 per kW h. A stove element operating on 220 V is being used to heat 2. by means of a converter. How many kWh does a 1300 W frying pan use in 15 minutes? 17.000 V rather than 12. what minimum wattage must the heater have? (The speciﬁc heat of air is 0. Heat loss through the walls amounts to approximately 2090 kJ/h.71 kJ/kg o C and the density of air is 1. ELECTRIC CURRENT how much current does it draw from the 12 V battery? 24. A power station delivers 360 kW of power to a factory through 3. The current in an electromagnet connected to a 240 V line is 60 A. At $0. What is the current through the stove element? (b) How much energy does the element convert to thermal energy in 30.5 kg of water. A transistor radio operates by means of a 9. At what rate (in kg/s) must cooling water pass over the coils if the water temperature is to rise by no more than 10o C? 28. can be used without blowing a 10 A fuse? 20.29 kg/m3 .CHAPTER 5. what is the cost of operating the set per month (at an average of 7.4 A from a 120 V line? 27. (a) 220 V are applied across it. Air is brought into the room at 5o C and is changed completely twice an hour. If the heater can heat 200 ml of water from 5o C to 95o C in 5.0 hours per day and the electric company charges $0. The resistance of an electric stove element at operating temperature is 11 Ω.0 minutes for the temperature of the water to go from 21.0 s? 25.08 per kW h.2 Ω lines.0o C.0 s? (c) The element is used to heat a kettle containing 1. If the air is to be maintained at 20o C.000 V ? 21. RRHS Physics 5. is plugged into a household circuit by a homeowner who pays $0.50 hp (1 horsepower = 750 W ) electric motor that draws 4. Assume that 70 % of the heat is absorbed by the water.1. Calculate the resistance of a 40 W automobile headlight designed for 12 V .06 per kWh? 19.) 49 . How much power does it use and how much does it cost per month (30 days) if it operates 3. What does it now cost to operate the radio for 300 hours? 22.0 V battery that supplies it with a 50 mA current.0 minutes.0 hours per day for 30 days)? 23. what is the eﬃciency of the burner? 26.90 and it lasts for 300 hours. what is the cost per kW h to operate the radio in this manner? (b) The same radio. An electric heater is used to heat a room of volume 36 m3 . What is its increase in temperature during the 30.0 A when operated on 120 V . It is observed that it takes 12. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 16.20 kg of water. How many 100 W light bulbs. An electric heater draws 15 A on a 120 V line. What is the eﬃciency of a 0. 18. If the resistance of the element is 75 Ω. How much less power is wasted if the electricity is delivered at 40. (a) If the cost of the battery is $0. A modern television set draws 2. A small immersion water heater can be used in a car to heat a cup of water for coﬀee.

in this example we used just three resistors but equation 5. R2 . Knowing the equivalent resistance. Consider three resistors in series as shown below: which makes sense.9) RRHS Physics . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM to the sum of the voltage drops across each resistor V = V 1 + V2 + V3 or IRt = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 Rt = R1 + R 2 + R3 (5. When you add more resistances. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. V2 .5. the total resistance (also called the equivalent resistance) is just the sum of the separate resistances. I1 . R3 respectively. and V3 = IR3 .2. I = I1 + I2 + I3 (5. we know that the total voltage provided by the battery is equal 50 If I is the total current that leaves the battery. In our circuit diagrams we will be using some of these symbols: 5. the total current must equal the sum of the individual currents in each branch. you increase the total resistance. Because charge must be conserved. V2 = IR2 . the charge (and therefore the current) cannot leave or enter the circuit between resistors.8 could be applied to any number of resistors in parallel.8) (5.2 *Circuits In this section we will be looking at direct current (dc) circuits.2 we know that V1 = IR1 . If V1 . V3 are the potential diﬀerences across R1 . then by applying equation 5. the equation I = V /R can then be used to ﬁnd the current ﬂowing from the battery. By conservation of energy.2. Consider the parallel circuit shown below: The same current must pass through each resistor. currents. and R3 . there cannot be any junction points between the resistors that would allow the current to change while going from one resistor to the other.2 *Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit is one in which the current splits up. The sum of the voltage drops would then still be the same as the voltage of the battery. I2 .1 *Series Circuits A series circuit is one in which two or more resistors are connected end to end so that the same current passes through each resistor. since there is only one path.2 to analyze the resistances.7) 5. and voltages throughout the circuit. when we put several resistance in series. Of course. this decreases the current going through each resistor and therefore decreases the voltage drop across each resistor. each resistor has its own path.2. applying equation 5. R2 . and I3 will be the currents through each of the resistors R1 . 5.

2. R2 . however.CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM In the parallel circuit. the net resistance is 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt 30 30 30 so Rt = 10Ω. Again. and R4 are not in parallel since R3 and R4 share the same path (all of the current that goes through R3 also goes through R4 ).3 *Complex Circuits Circuits are often not simply either series or parallel circuits. the voltage of the battery is applied to each resistor3 . resistors are in series if there is one and only one current path between them. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). R3 is in series with R4 . R3 . then they are not in series. if there is a junction between the resistors. For example. but are often some combination of the two. You can then work backwards through your equivalent circuits to ﬁnd the required information about each individual resistor. In this case it is necessary to analyze the circuit in steps: 1. if three 30 Ω resistors are placed in parallel. resistors are in parallel only if each resistor has a separate current path. Draw the circuit again (an equivalent circuit). This equivalent resistance is then in parallel with R2 . so V V V V = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 and dividing out the V from each term gives 1 1 1 1 = + + Rt R 1 R2 R3 (5.10) 5. so these can be added together to give Req1 (see diagram 1 below). equation 5. R1 and R2 are not in series. 3. every time you add a resistance in parallel. so they can be combined using equation 5. Consider the following example. Notice that the total resistance is less than any of the individual resistances! But remember.10 to give Req2 (see diagram 2 below). RRHS Physics 51 .10 can be applied to any number of resistors that are connected in parallel. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. Remember. calculate a new equivalent resistance that can replace them. This combination is then in series with R1 . since there is a junction in between the two. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. If any resistors are in parallel. so they can then be added to ﬁnd the total resistance. *CIRCUITS 2. so we now have a way of ﬁnding the total (or equivalent) resistance of a parallel circuit. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the circuit has been reduced to a simple series or parallel circuit. you are also adding another path for the current to follow. 5.2. If any resistors are in series. Also. 3 Since the loss of potential must be the same regardless of the path that the charge follows. In this example. The equivalent circuits for each step are shown below. replacing the original resistors with the new equivalent resistance that was calculated. Remember.

too complicated for this analysis. A short circuit exists when a current ﬁnds a way to avoid the resistance in the circuit. 1.4 *Kirchhoﬀ ’s Rules Most of the circuits that you will see this year can be solved by ﬁnding equivalent resistances and applying the equation I = V /R. By applying these rules to the junction points (rule #1) and closed paths (rule #2) of a circuit. each object receives the full voltage across the circuit. Instead of being designed to shut oﬀ when the current exceeds a certain level. These rules actually apply to all circuits. we use Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. To deal with these circuits. It then cools down and can be pushed back in place by a spring mechanism. the current could bypass the light bulb altogether. A fuse is simply a thin strip of metal that is designed to melt if a current higher than desired tries to ﬂow through it. For example. 2. Most newer houses have circuit breakers. *CIRCUITS CHAPTER 5. It is called a ground fault interrupter (GFI) and is usually required in bathrooms and kitchens. For example. then it may be an indication that too many things were being operated on the circuit. the current can no longer ﬂow and the fuse must be replaced. Houses are wired in parallel.9.7. the sum of all of the currents entering the junction must equal the sum of all of the currents leaving the junction. This resistance is then taken out of the circuit. when this strip heats up because of too much current ﬂowing. If a fuse (or circuit breaker) blows. There could be a short circuit somewhere in the house. A circuit breaker consists of a bimetallic strip which makes contact to complete the circuit.5 *Safety Devices Houses commonly have either fuses or circuit breakers to ensure against too much current ﬂowing. The GFI would sense this change and would turn itself oﬀ. if you are using a hair dryer in the bathroom and it fell in the sink. breaking the circuit. The second reason is potentially even more dangerous.2. There are two reasons that too much current may be ﬂowing. The wires may overheat and start a ﬁre. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM will ﬂow. consider a lamp cord which has two insulated wires leading to the light bulb. This is just an expression of equation 5. the total resistance of the circuit decreases and more current 4 such as many of the ones found in a ﬁrst year university physics course 52 . however.2. 5. the two metals expand at diﬀerent rates. for example. 2. circuits that have multiple batteries in diﬀerent paths. The algebraic sum of the changes in potential around any closed path of the circuit must be zero. Some circuits4 are.2. a system of equations can then be found and solved. a lot of power will be dissipated in the wires (since P = I 2 R). If too much current ﬂows. Kirchhoﬀ’s two rules are: 1.5. This means that as more devices are plugged into a circuit. At any junction point. Note that this is just an expression of equation 5. dramatically increasing the current ﬂowing. RRHS Physics 5. the water would provide another path for the current and the total current ﬂowing would increase. If this strip melts. This causes the bimetallic strip to bend. it is designed to detect small changes in the current. which serve the same purpose as the fuses found in older homes. and we have in fact already discussed them although they have not yet been formally stated. If the insulation were to become damaged and the wires allowed to touch. A third type of safety device is slightly different.

Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. 7. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Find the unknown currents and voltages.6 *Problems 1. 5. what is the resistance of each bulb and the power dissipated in each? 6.50 A. Find the current in each branch. (a) What is the voltage across each bulb? RRHS Physics 9.2. Eight lights are connected in series across a 120 V line. 2. *CIRCUITS (b) If the current is 0. 3. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor. Find V. Three 100 Ω resistors can be connected to make four diﬀerent equivalent resistances. Find the voltage drop across each resistor and the current in each branch. What is the resistance in each case? 53 . 5. 4. Find each resistance. 8.CHAPTER 5.2.

13.0 V battery and you wish to apply a voltage of only 1.2. If each resistor is 10 Ω. and P1 .5. *CIRCUITS 10. If 100 mA ﬂows through each bulb. 16. or 150 W at 120 V . 100 W . ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Ω resistors. and I4 .0 54 . ﬁnd the current leaving the battery.0 V . 11. 12. Describe how the connections to the two ﬁlaments are made to give each of the RRHS Physics 14. If each resistor is 10 Ω. CHAPTER 5. Find It .I3 . Suppose that you have a 6. Given an unlimited supply of 1.0 V input? 15. Find the current in each branch. Find R3 .0 V output for a 6.I3 . how could you connect them so as to produce a 1. 17. Find the potential diﬀerence across each resistor and the current going through each resistor. ﬁnd the current leaving the battery. Such a bulb contains two ﬁlaments that can be connected to the 120 V individually or in parallel.0 Ω. A three-way light bulb can produce 50 W .I2 . Eight lights are connected in parallel to a 120 V source by two leads of total resistance 2.V2 . what is the resistance of each and what percent of the total power is wasted in the leads? 18.

what must be the resistance of each ﬁlament? 19. which is brighter? 21. 5. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? What happens to the three currents? (d) What happens to the brightness of each bulb if a wire is connected between points B and C? (e) A fourth bulb is connected in parallel with bulb 3 alone. (a) If they are connected in parallel. what is the resistance of the other? . I2 . Why? (b) Should the resistance of the dimmer be increased or decreased to dim the lamp? (c) Can the dimmer be used to save money? 24. Lamp dimmers often consist of rheostats (variable resistors). If one resistor is 2. What happens to the brightness of the two bulbs? 20. Two lamps have diﬀerent resistances. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM three wattages. and I3 in the following circuit. Using Kirchhoﬀ’s rules. (b) What happens to the brightness of each bulb when bulb 1 is unscrewed from its socket? What happens to the three currents? (c) Bulb 1 is screwed in again and bulb 3 is unscrewed. determine the currents I1 . Two resistors when connected in series to a 120 V source use one-fourth the power that is used when they are connected in parallel. Find the value of the resistors in the following circuit. *CIRCUITS 22. which is brighter (dissipates more power)? (b) When connected in series.8 kΩ. (a) Would a dimmer be hooked in series or parallel with the lamp to be controlled.CHAPTER 5. RRHS Physics 55 23. What happens to the brightness of each bulb? (f) The wire at point C is broken and a small resistor is inserted in series with bulbs 2 and 3. one larger than the other. (a) Compare the brightness of the three bulbs.2. Consider the circuit below.

RRHS Physics 56 . each with a north and south pole. 5.3. Materials that are strongly magnetic (they can be turned into magnets and are attracted by magnets) are called ferromagnetic materials. but these eﬀects are very small and not usually noticeable. ferromagnetic materials are actually made up of tiny regions known as domains. On a small scale. however.3 Magnetism As was the case with electric and gravitational forces. in ferromagnetic materials. Materials that are not ferromagnetic show slight magnetic eﬀects. The angular diﬀerence between magnetic north and true (geographic) north is called the magnetic declination. Electrons in atoms can be visualized as orbiting a nucleus.5. that the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is tangent to the ﬁeld line at any point and the number of lines per unit area is proportional to the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld.5 The north pole of the compass is also observed to point away from the north pole of another magnet. The direction of the magnetic ﬁeld is deﬁned as the direction that the north pole of a compass needle would point when placed at that point in the ﬁeld — The earth’s north magnetic pole is actually about 1500 km away from the north geographic pole. for example. the magnetic ﬁelds due to each electron add together so that the domain behaves as a tiny magnet. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM away from the north pole of the magnet and towards the south pole. 5. the concept of ﬁelds and lines of force will also be used to explain magnetic forces. these spins cancel each other out and there is no net magnetic ﬁeld. Magnetic poles are not. the result is two magnets. however. magnetic ﬁelds are the result of north and south poles. the north pole of the compass points towards the earth’s north magnetic pole. This will be seen in the next section. As a result. the domains are more lined up in one direction. the same as electric charges. 5 Domain Theory One of the major diﬀerence between magnets and electric charges is that electric charges can be isolated while magnetic poles cannot. the domains attempt to line up and the material (at least temporarily) becomes a magnet. In a magnetized piece of iron. these domains are arranged randomly pointing in all directions. The explanation of the domain theory has its roots at the atomic level. This is how ferromagnetic materials are attracted to other magnets. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron. The magnetic eﬀects of the domains end up cancelling each other out. however. MAGNETISM CHAPTER 5. Whenever a ferromagnetic material is placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. the electrons in a domain seem to cooperate and “spin” in the same direction. almost as if they were spinning on their axis. A positive or negative charge can be isolated. we follow the same conventions as for electric ﬁeld lines — namely. magnetic forces act over distances. This means that the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole! When drawing the magnetic ﬁeld lines around a magnet. but north and south poles always appear in pairs. If you cut a magnet in two.3. The idea that all magnetic ﬁelds are a result of electric currents supports the idea that north and south poles must always exist in pairs.1 Magnetic Fields Whereas electric ﬁelds were the result of positive and negative charges. Also similar to electric ﬁeld is the fact that like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract. The electrons produce a magnetic ﬁeld. since an electric current will always produce both. nickel. A compass needle is really a small magnet. In an unmagnetized piece of iron. In most materials. Since these forces do behave similarly. Each domain behaves like a tiny magnet with a north and south pole. and cobalt.

In other words. if you then curl your ﬁngers (as if making a ﬁst). tangent to a circle drawn around the wire. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). the domains in the core will be aligned by the magnetic ﬁeld of the current.3. In addition to adding loops and increasing the current. then. He ﬁrst tried deﬂecting a compass needle with a static charge. Coil of Wire If you take a straight wire and form a single loop. Since we draw on two dimensional paper. and θ is the angle between 7 depending on its orientation RRHS Physics 57 . around 1820. 5. we will be using a sign convention to represent the third dimension. To use this hand rule. when using left hand rules.11) where I is the current in the wire in amperes. In fact. We will be required in this section to represent three dimensional diagrams. it often7 experiences a force. To determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld in a solenoid. with a north pole at one end and a south pole at the other end. curl you ﬁngers around the coil in the direction of the conventional current (positive ﬂow). that he found he was able to deﬂect the compass needle. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Anything directed into the page (away from us) will be identiﬁed with an ‘×’. Another way of thinking about this is that your thumb will point to the north pole of the electromagnet created by the coil.CHAPTER 5. To use this hand rule. This hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside of a solenoid (a coil). electron ﬂow is used instead of conventional current. but this was found to have no eﬀect. It was only with a moving charge. your ﬁngers point in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld.6 The ﬁrst right hand rule is used to determine the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld around a straight conductor.2 Electromagnetism The ﬁrst person to uncover a connection between electricity and magnetism was Hans Oersted.3. turning the ferromagnetic material into a magnet as well. your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld inside the coil.3. Straight Wire It is observed that a compass needle placed near a straight current carrying wire will align itself so that it is perpendicular to the wire. when a wire is placed in another magnetic ﬁeld. the ﬁrst right hand rule can be applied to show that the ﬁeld inside the loop is in the same direction everywhere (and in the opposite direction outside the loop). the magnetic ﬁeld lines are actually circles around the wire. the second right hand rule can be used. that the wire’s magnetic ﬁeld will interact with another external magnetic ﬁeld. The strength of the solenoid can also be increased by increasing the current. the ﬁeld will be stronger here. Since the ﬁeld lines are more concentrated inside of the loop. this increases the strength Some people use left hand rules instead.3 Force on a Wire We have already seen in section 5. This is an electromagnet. MAGNETISM of the ﬁeld even more. The direction of this magnetic ﬁeld can be found using the ﬁrst right hand rule. or a current. it makes sense. B is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld in Tesla. 6 5. This solenoid actually behaves as a magnet.2 that a wire carrying a current exhibits a magnetic ﬁeld. A coil of wire containing many loops is called a solenoid. l is the length of the wire (in metres) in the magnetic ﬁeld. The force on a wire can be calculated with the following formula: F = IlB sin θ (5. By using more than one loop. anything pointing out of the page (toward us) will be identiﬁed with a ‘·’. the strength of the electromagnet can be increased by using a ferromagnetic core inside the coil.3.

The third right hand rule is used to predict the force exerted on a current carrying wire in an external magnetic ﬁeld. the force will be out of the page. Between c and d.12) If we examine the part of the wire between a and b. your palm will then point in the direction of the force on the wire. point your thumb in the direction of the conventional current and extend your ﬁngers straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld. Remember that I = q/t.3. as shown below. A charged particle moving on its own can experience a force due to a magnetic ﬁeld.3. substituting this into equation 5.3. use left hand rules. The magnitude of the force on a charged particle can be found in a way similar to the force on a wire. but l/t is just the speed of the particle. It will therefore not change the speed of the particle. your thumb points in the direction of a moving negative charge.11 we get F = qlB sin θ t An electric motor is an extremely useful device that changes electric energy into mechanical energy. have to be moving through a wire. This loop of wire will rotate. to 58 RRHS Physics . we ﬁnd by applying the third right hand rule that there will be a force on the wire into the page.5 Electric Motor 5. The third right hand rule can also be applied to a moving charged particle in a magnetic ﬁeld. so F = qvB sin θ (5. since the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld. If the moving particle is negative. 5. There will be no force between b and c. It can be seen that if the wire is parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld (θ = 0o or θ = 180o ) then there is no force on the wire. you must point your thumb in the direction opposite the motion of the particle.5. as shown in the side view below. As we learned before. instead of the thumb pointing in the direction of the conventional current. hold your hand ﬂat with your four ﬁngers together and your thumb perpendicular to your ﬁngers. The charges do not.8 8 Remember. Even when this force causes the particle to change direction. The simplest design of an electric motor consists of a loop of wire (the armature) suspended on an axis in a magnetic ﬁeld. MAGNETISM the wire and the magnetic ﬁeld. it makes use of the fact that a current carrying wire experiences a force in a magnetic ﬁeld. however. you may also use the left hand rule. CHAPTER 5. the thumb points in the direction of a moving positive particle. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM Notice when using the third right hand rule that the force on the particle (direction of your palm) is always perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the particle (direction of your thumb).4 Force on a Charged Particle We saw in the last section that a current carrying wire in a magnetic ﬁeld experiences a force. To use this rule. the force continues to be perpendicular to the motion. There will therefore be a torque on the loop of wire. The current in the wire is the result of moving charges. a force perpendicular to the velocity of the particle will produce circular motion. as long as this force remains the same magnitude. where q is the charge of the particle in coulombs and v is the speed in m/s. To do this.

What is the direction of the force on the wire? 59 . Can you conclude that there is no magnetic ﬁeld at the location of the wire? 4. as shown below. As the armature turns. The speed of the motor can also be increased by increasing the current or the strength of the external magnets (since F = IlB). Locate the North pole for the following electromagnets. As a result. (b) Two opposite poles. if the loop goes past this point. To make eﬃcient use of a motor. it will be seen that the forces on the loop are no longer perpendicular to the plane of the loop so there will be no torque eﬀect. This allows the current to change direction in the loop. In reality. Also.CHAPTER 5.3. The brushes are contact points which allow the current to ﬂow into the split ring commutator. the direction of the force on each side of the loop is reversed and the loop continues to rotate.6 Problems 1. (c) A wire carrying a current towards you (out of the paper) 2. we want it to turn continuously. every half turn (when the loop is vertical) the commutator changes its connection to the RRHS Physics 3. 5. both of which increase the size of the force on the armature. Sketch the magnetic ﬁeld in the following situations: (a) A bar magnet. This is done in a direct current (DC) motor using a split ring commutator and brushes. A wire is carrying a current to the east in the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. the split ring commutator turns with it while the brushes remain ﬁxed in place. but no force acts on the wire. as well as a ferromagnetic core. A strong current is suddenly switched on in a wire. the forces will try to bring the loop back to this vertical position. but just touch one another. In order to make the loop continue turning. MAGNETISM other brush.3. Many loops of wire are usually used. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. it is necessary to change the direction of the current at the point where the loop is vertical. If this analysis is repeated after the loop has made a quarter turn (a and d in the above picture). (a) (b) Notice that the split ring commutator and the brushes are not attached to each other. motors do not consist of a single loop of wire as described above.

A copper wire 40 cm long carries a current 0f 6. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld? 8. A certain magnetic ﬁeld is strong enough to balance the force of gravity on the wire. If the force on the wire below is into the page.0 × 106 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld feels a force of 8.0 mm diameter copper wire can just “ﬂoat” horizontally in air because of the force of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld B which is horizontal and of magnitude 5. 11. A straight 2. What current does the wire carry? The density of copper is 8. Describe the path (quantitatively) of a proton (m = 1. A proton having a speed of 5. Find the direction of the force on the wire in each of the following magnetic ﬁelds. identify the poles of the magnets. What is the direction of the force on the wire? 9.5. Electrons in a vertical wire are moving upward. An electron is moving alongside a wire carrying a current in the opposite direction. The wire is placed in a magnetic 60 .67 × 10−27 kg) that moves perpendicular to a 0. An external magnetic ﬁeld is directed vertically upward. What is the force on the wire? 7. MAGNETISM 5. When moving horizontally in a northerly direction.120 T magnetic ﬁeld RRHS Physics (c) 6.0 × 10−14 N toward the west when it moves vertically upward.0 A and weighs 0. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM ﬁeld directed from east to west. it feels zero force. A wire carrying a 30 A current has a length of 12 cm between the pole faces of a magnet at an angle of 60o . A beam of protons is moving from the back to the front of the room. (b) 10. (a) CHAPTER 5. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 15.0 × 10−5 T . What is the direction of the force on the wire? 12.3.9 × 103 kg/m3 . What is the direction of the force on the electron? 13.90 T .35 N . The uniform magnetic ﬁeld is approximately 0. It is deﬂected upward by a magnetic ﬁeld. What is the direction of the ﬁeld? 14. A current carrying wire is pointing to the East.

(a) What is the speed of the electron as it leaves the second plate? RRHS Physics 5. 21. what would you expect the iron ﬁlings to do? 18.000 V .5 cm.3.CHAPTER 5.1 × 105 m/s in a magnetic ﬁeld when it is moving southward.240 T uniform magnetic ﬁeld? 25.02 T. Calculate the energy of the proton.08 m. which exists between the two parallel plates below. Charged cosmic ray particles from outside the earth tend to strike the earth more frequently at the poles than at lower latitudes. An electron (m = 9. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are at right angles to each other and both are perpendicular to the ion beam so that the electric and magnetic forces on an ion oppose each other. A particle with a charge of 2. What is its period of revolution if it encounters a 0. The force is upward and of magnitude 5. What is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld if the radius of its path in the ﬁeld is 3. If an ion is to pass through these ﬁelds without being deﬂected. A force of 5. An electron is accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 5000 V before entering a magnetic ﬁeld. What value of electric ﬁeld could make their path straight? In what direction must it point? 27. The electron then passes through a small opening into a magnetic ﬁeld of uniform ﬁeld strength 0. An electron experiences the greatest force as it travels 2. B=0.385 T magnetic ﬁeld. A beam of singly charged ions move in a region of space where there is a uniform electric ﬁeld. Explain. Could there be a nonzero magnetic ﬁeld in this region? Why or why not? 20.25 T . MAGNETISM (b) Describe the motion (radius and direction) of the electron. E=1000 N/C.4 T) and follows a path with a radius of 0. A proton moves in a circular path perpendicular to a 1. 16. what must be the speed of the ion? 26.032 T .25 × 106 m/s.4 mm? 24.65 × 104 m/s and the ﬁeld is 0.7 × 10−27 kg is accelerated by a voltage of 2800 V . 17.78 × 10−16 N acts on an unknown particle travelling at a 90o angle through a magnetic ﬁeld. 61 . A charged particle moves in a straight line through a particular region of space. It then enters a magnetic ﬁeld (B=0. Calculate the mass of the particle. The ﬁeld points directly toward the observer.10 cm in a 0. A doubly charged helium atom whose mass is 6.6 × 10−13 N . Protons move in a circle of radius 8. 23. The radius of its path is 4.11×10−31 kg) is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 20. If a long straight wire carrying a current were placed ﬂat on a paper and iron ﬁlings were sprinkled on the paper. and a uniform magnetic ﬁeld. how many elementary charges does the particle carry? 22.10 T magnetic ﬁeld. What is the magnitude and direction of the magnetic ﬁeld? 19.0 × 10−18 C is accelerated by 400 V . If the velocity of the particle is 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM with a speed of 9.

opposing the motion of the bar magnet. In other words. suppose the bar magnet below is brought towards the coil. whatever the external magnetic ﬁeld is doing. The direction of RRHS Physics 62 . Michael Faraday found that a changing magnetic ﬁeld can produce a current as if there were a source of emf9 in the circuit. The induced emf in this situation is given by V = Blv (5. We call this an induced emf. could magnetic ﬁelds produce electric current? 5. Suppose we have a coil of wire which is perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld. The minus sign is part of the equation to remind us that the induced emf always opposes the change in magnetic ﬂux (see Lenz’s Law below). v. measured in webers W b) refers to the total magnetic ﬁeld in a certain area (or the number of ﬁeld lines) and is given by φ = B⊥ A (where B⊥ is the component of B that is perpendicular to the area surrounded by the conductor). Magnetic ﬂux (φ. Faraday’s law of induction states all of this in mathematical terms. the current is induced in such a way to create a magnetic ﬁeld which opposes this external magnetic ﬁeld. when the magnet is removed. it turns out that it is actually the rate of change of the ﬂux that induces a current. Scientists then began to wonder: if electric currents produce magnetic ﬁelds. No current ﬂows while the magnet is stationary.1 Induced EMF Around 1831. the current will be induced so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which tries to pull the bar magnet back towards the coil. and we move this wire so that the ﬂux changes.14) EMF stands for electromotive force. and (2) a magnetic ﬁeld exerts a force on an electric current or moving electric charge. a current will ﬂow in the opposite direction. and not a force where B. if a magnet is moved quickly into a coil of wire.13) Now we will look at a straight wire (of length l) going through a magnetic ﬁeld. The induced emf V (or the voltage) which is observed in the wire is given by V = −N 9 The current must ﬂow in such a way that the left end of the electromagnet will become a south pole. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM where N is the number of loops (if there are more than one). it is a historical term and was in use before we actually knew that emf was a potential diﬀerence. The rule for determining the direction of the induced emf is called Lenz’s Law and it states that an induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic ﬁeld opposes the original change in ﬂux. For example. INDUCTION CHAPTER 5.5. and the conductor itself are all perpendicular to one another. a current will ﬂow in the wire while the magnet is moving. If the bar magnet is pulled away from the coil.4 Induction We have already discovered two ways in which electricity and magnetism are related: (1) an electric current produces a magnetic ﬁeld. 5. Such a current is called an induced current.4. The current will be induced in the coil in a direction so that the coil becomes an electromagnet which will try to push the bar magnet away. For example. ∆φ ∆t (5. Faraday found that the induced emf is not simply related to the change in the magnetic ﬁeld strength B.4. Fill in the direction of the current in this example.

that it is only a change in ﬂux that will induce a voltage. This is accomplished through what is called a transformer. Remember. A transformer consists of two coils of wire called the primary and the secondary.CHAPTER 5. There is. we know that the induced voltage in the secondary coil is given by Vs = N s ∆φ ∆t where Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and ∆φ is the rate at which the ∆t magnetic ﬂux changes. this would create more current which would create a stronger force which would cause the wire to move faster. 5. the secondary voltage will be larger than the primary voltage. INDUCTION When a current ﬂows in the primary coil. From equation 5. therefore.13. Combining these two equations. it is this coil that would be connected to the source of the power. this is called a step-up transformer. this is a step-down transformer. Just like before. no current passed through the iron core from coil to coil. we brought up the idea of increasing or decreasing the voltage while keeping the power the same. Notice that if Ns > Np . This magnetic ﬁeld will also pass through the secondary coil.4. The input primary voltage Vp is also related to the change in ﬂux by ∆φ Vp = Np ∆t where Np is the number of turns in the primary coil.) Even though the voltage is being changed in a transformer. and it would mean that we are getting something for nothing!!! Remember that the motion of the wire and the wire itself must be perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld B. So the force that the magnetic ﬁeld exerts on the wire has to be opposite the direction of motion.4. it is only when the wire cuts through the lines of ﬂux that a potential is induced in the conductor. This is called perpetual motion. the secondary voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. This is achieved by using an alternating current in the primary coil (which also means there will be an alternating current in the secondary coil. however. there must be a constantly changing magnetic ﬁeld from the primary coil. however. The secondary coil would be considered to be the output current. RRHS Physics This is called the transformer equation.15) 5. If Ns < Np .2 Transformers When we discussed transmission of power. Just think about it — if the magnetic ﬁeld started pushing the wire in the same direction that it was moving originally (the applied force). The primary coil has the incoming current. the two coils are wrapped around a common soft iron core. our ﬁngers go straight out in the direction of the external magnetic ﬁeld and the thumb gives the direction of the current. to maintain a current in the secondary coil. the two wires are insulated from one another. we get Vs Ns = Vp Np (5. we know that a magnetic ﬁeld will be created around this coil. the current is always induced so that force opposes the motion. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM the induced current in this wire can be found using the same hand rule as we had for the force on a wire before (3rd right hand rule). But remember. conservation of energy tells 63 . therefore. In the example shown below. But this would mean the wire is moving on its own and creating an electric current.

the force on cd must be out of the page. the wire is moving parallel to the magnetic ﬁeld so no current is induced. 64 Unlike the DC motor described earlier. At position 1. If we begin turning the loop with our hand so that ab comes out of the page and cd goes into the page. Since P = V I. so the current must ﬂow in a direction so that there will be a force into the page. the split ring commutator does not have to be used. then the current must be lowered. an AC generator does not need to change the direction of the current every half turn. at position 3. applying our third right hand rule we see that the induced current must ﬂow from a to b. into the page).4. Notice the sinusoidal nature of the graph. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Now if we look at a side view and only follow the line ab in a complete rotation. therefore. we can apply Lenz’s law to each wire.16) CHAPTER 5. we see what happens to the current. the wire is moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the maximum current is induced (in this case.5. the wire is again moving perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld and the current induced is a maximum (in this case. The wire ab is moving out. which is almost the same as the one used to explain the electric motor. RRHS Physics . and is in eﬀect a motor in reverse.3 Electric Generators A generator transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy. at positions 2 and 4. then Vp Ip = Vs Is or Vs Ip = Vp Is (5. out of the page). INDUCTION us that the power output can be no greater than the power input. Similarly. Shown below is a graph of the potential difference (the graph for the current would look the same) for one complete rotation.4. If we assume that the transformer is 100% eﬃcient (no power is lost). Consider the picture below. An AC generator uses two slip rings as shown below. with the numbers on the graph corresponding to the explanation above. this means that if the voltage goes up. so the current must ﬂow from c to d.

This emf will oppose the emf connected to the motor. the rms (or eﬀective) voltage can be found to be Vrms = 0.5Imax To make a DC generator. a motor and a generator are constructed similarly. Since the current is not constant.707Imax (5.5Vmax Imax In North America. as were used with the DC motor. If we square an AC electric current graph. In a generator.707Vmax (5. The greater the speed of the motor. Instead. we get a sin2 θ graph. Alternating current is just what its name suggests – the current changes direction. This is RRHS Physics Taking the square root of each side. the frequency of this alternating current is 60 Hz. and then take the square root of the average when we are ﬁnished.CHAPTER 5.10 The current is actually sinusoidal. current is induced through the armature so there is a force on the armature that opposes the motion. generators can produce alternating current and this is also what is required for transformers. Back EMF As was previously stated.4. giving Pavg = 0. This simply means that we square the values before averaging them. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5. Alternating Current As we have seen. The result of this is a rectiﬁed current (the current always ﬂows in the same direction).18) Since power is P = V I. INDUCTION called a counter torque. we want to come up with some way to refer to the average.11 we cannot just average the current over time. the greater this counter torque and the greater the applied torque must be to keep the generator turning. The more current that is drawn. we get the rms (or eﬀective) current in terms of the maximum (or peak) current Irms = 0.17) Similarly. value. The average of the squares of the currents can be shown to be 2 I 2 = 0. the slip rings can be replaced with split rings. since this result would be zero (current would cancel out since it changes direction). as was seen in a previous graph. the armature is being turned by the force exerted on the current carrying wire. however. the average power can be found by multiplying the rms voltage by the rms current. or eﬀective. When a motor is operating. we take a root mean square average (rms). This current can be smoothed out by using many sets of armatures and commutators. the situation is the reverse. As we turn the generator. 11 the equivalent direct current that would produce the same power 10 65 . we have just seen that an armature moving through a magnetic ﬁeld also generates an emf. the greater the back (or counter) emf.

A step-down transformer has 7500 turns on its primary and 125 turns on its secondary. INDUCTION or Pavg = 0.10 s for the whole coil to reach the ﬁeld free region. It is removed from the ﬁeld in 0. A 10 cm diameter circular loop of wire is in a 0. Also note that since P = V I. A square coil of sides 5.0 Ω? How much work was done in pulling the coil out of the ﬁeld? 7.4. it is usually the rms value of a current or voltage that is speciﬁed.5.405 T magnetic ﬁeld.10 s. The rectangular loop below is being pulled to the right.5 Ω. What is the average induced emf ? 2. The voltage across the primary is 7200 V .5Pmax (5.350 T to zero. The magnetic ﬁeld perpendicular to a single 12. It is quickly and uniformly pulled from the ﬁeld (moving perpendicularly to B) to a region where B drops abruptly to zero.15 Ω. 5.0 × 10−5 T and is nearly vertical. but is removed from the ﬁeld in 100 ms.0 cm diameter circular loop of copper wire decreases uniformly from 0. It is initially in a 0. If the solenoid below is being pulled away from the loop shown. How much energy is dissipated in the coil if its resistance is 100. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 5.50 T magnetic ﬁeld.What is the potential diﬀerence induced between the wing tips that are 70 m apart? What part of the earth would this be? 8.0 cm/s.800 T . What is the induced emf ? 4. Calculate the electric energy dissipated in the process. (a) What voltage is across the secondary? 66 RRHS Physics .4 s. Hence. and voltage and current are both sinusoidal. An airplane travels 1000 km/h in a region where the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is 5. out of the magnetic ﬁeld which points inward as shown.4 Problems 1. It takes 0. a power vs time graph would be a sin2 θ graph so the average power should be half the maximum (or peak) power.0 cm long and the magnetic ﬁeld is 0. calculate the emf developed.0 cm diameter circular loop of wire has a resistance of 8. A rod is moving perpendicular to a magnetic ﬁeld with a speed of 15. 6. in what direction is the induced current in the part of the loop closest to the viewer? 9. how much charge moves through the coil during this operation? 10. with its plane perpendicular to B. A direct current whose values of I and V equal the rms values of I and V for an alternating current will produce the same power.0 cm contains 100 loops and is positioned perpendicular to a uniform 0. A 12.60 T magnetic ﬁeld. If the wire has a resistance of 0.4. The magnetic ﬂux through a coil of wire containing 2 loops changes from -20 W b to +15 W b in 1. If the rod is 12. In what direction is the induced current? 3.19) CHAPTER 5.

Frequently. Scott connects a transformer to a 24. If you unplug a running vacuum cleaner from the wall outlet. transformer windings that have only a few turns are made of very thick (low-resistance) wire. An ac voltage. what would the new output voltage be? 16. A 150 W transformer has an input voltage of 9. What is the maximum value of the power dissipated in a 100 W light bulb? 67 . Why is a generator more diﬃcult to rotate when it is connected to a circuit and supplying current that when it is standing alone? 23.4. Why is this true? 18. while those with many turns are made of thin wire. is across a 35 Ω resistor. A hair dryer uses 10 A at 120 V .0 V at the secondary.0 A. What current ﬂows in the primary? 11. What is the value of the rms and peak currents in the resistor? 24. If you now plunge a magnet into the coil.CHAPTER 5. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) What is the ratio of output voltage to input voltage? 14. how many turns are on the primary side? 15. and (c) the power transformed 13. Georger Westinghouse proposed using the present AC system. A transformer for a transistor radio reduces 120 V AC to 9. If there are 1200 turns on the secondary side of the transformer. 19. Would permanent magnets make good transformer cores? Explain. you are much more likely to see a spark than if you unplug a lighted lamp from the wall. A transformer has input voltage and current of 12 V and 3.0 V and an output current of 5. The output voltage of a 180 W transformer is 16. whose peak value is 90 V . Calculate the peak current in a 2. Why? 21.0 A. Calculate: (a) the number of turns in the primary.0 V source and measures 8. 120 V light bulb when it is on? 25. (a) Is this a step-up or step-down transformer? (b) By what factor is the voltage multiplied? RRHS Physics 5. the coil will swing.0 A. INDUCTION 17. Thomas Edison proposed distributing electrical energy using constant voltages (DC).0 A respectively. What are the reasons the Westinghouse system was adopted? 22. The peak value of an alternating current passing through a 600 W device is 3. What is the rms voltage across it? 27. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM (b) The current in the secondary is 36 A. What should be the ratio of turns in the transformer? What current will it draw from the 240 V line? 12. Which way will it swing with respect to the magnet and why? 20. 26. and an output current of 0.0 V AC. You hang a coil of wire with its ends joined so it can swing easily. The secondary contains 30 turns and the radio draws 400 mA.2 kΩ resistor connected to a 240 V ac source.75 A. (b) the current in the primary. where the line voltage is 240 V . What is the resistance of an ordinary 60 W. If the primary and secondary were reversed. It is used with a transformer in England.0 V and the input current is 11.

INDUCTION 28.5. (a) What is the maximum power which is dissipated in this hair dryer? (b) What happens if it is connected to a 240 V line in Britain? 30. What is the average power used? What are the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous power? 29. You wish to design a fuse which will just allow two 100 W light bulbs. A magnetic circuit breaker will open its circuit if the instantaneous current reaches 21. What is the largest effective current the circuit will carry? 31. Calculate the resistance and the peak current in a 1000 W hair dryer connected to a 120 V line.4. At what instantaneous current should the fuse be designed to melt? CHAPTER 5. ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM 68 RRHS Physics . and a 150 W stereo to operate on a 120 V line. a 700 W hair dryer.25 A. A 10 Ω heater coil is connected to a 240 V ac line.

Chapter 6

**Waves and Modern Physics
**

6.1 Quantum Theory

extremely hot object (2000 K) will begin to appear white (all of the colors are now being emitted). When discussing the spectrum of light emitted by an object, we usually discuss blackbodies. A blackbody is one that absorbs all radiation falling on it, so that any light that is observed is light that is being emitted. In other words, no light is being reﬂected from it.

Quantum Theory took almost three decades to come about, and cannot be credited to any one scientist. It is now the basis for explaining the structure of matter. The topics in the following sections involve discussions about things that we cannot see and may possibly be beyond our comprehension using our present set of rules and understandings; as with all physics, they are an attempt to explain and predict what we observe in a way that we can understand. They are models and theories that support one another and have been supported experimentally, but they may not actually represent what is really happening. Remember that we cannot see what electrons and photons actually are! This aspect will be discussed further in section 6.2.

6.1.1

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

When an object is heated, it absorbs energy; this energy is then given oﬀ in other forms of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation is usually of a frequency below the visible spectrum (for low temperatures). If an object becomes hot enough, however, it is observed to emit electromagnetic radiation in the visible range (light), as shown in the diagram below. At the “lower” range (1000 K) of these temperatures, red light begins to be emitted; as an object is heated more and more, higher frequency colors of light (the blue end of the spectrum) are also emitted so that an 69

Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory does give a reason for this electromagnetic radiation. It predicts that oscillating electric charges would produce electromagnetic waves, and objects would emit radiation because of this; however, his theory did not accurately predict the observed spectrum of light, particularly for the higher frequencies. This is sometimes referred to as the ultraviolet catastrophe. As way of explanation for the observed spec-

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY trum, Max Planck suggested in 1900 that the energy of vibration of the atoms in a solid is not continuous. In other words, the energy emitted by an atom cannot be just any value but can only have discrete values which are multiples of a minimum value given by Emin = hf (6.1)

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS electric current. This is known as the photoelectric eﬀect. One of the things that puzzled scientists about this observed eﬀect was that only light above a certain frequency will cause this aﬀect to happen; for example, only ultraviolet light (even if it is very dim) will cause electrons to be ejected from zinc. If, for example, red or yellow light is used it cannot cause electrons to be emitted no matter how bright the light is. Wave theory does not accurately explain photoelectric eﬀect. Electromagnetic waves have an energy density associated with them. Based on this theory, any light (regardless of frequency or intensity) would eventually provide enough energy to release electrons; however, if any release occurs, it is always observed to be within one nanosecond. Although the electromagnetic wave theory of light does predict that electrons will be released when light shines on a metal (since a force is exerted on them), it also makes some inaccurate predictions. • If light intensity is increased, the number of electrons ejected and their maximum kinetic energy should increase. • The frequency of the light should not affect the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. Only the intensity should aﬀect the kinetic energy of the electrons. Einstein extended Planck’s quantum theory to light in 1905. Planck had not suggested that light consisted of quanta, only that the energy of the molecular oscillators was quantized; however, since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, Einstein suggested that light may be transmitted as tiny packets called photons. Each photon would have an energy of hf . According to Einstein’s photon theory of light, if a monochromatic light source were made more intense (brighter), this would imply more photons were being transmitted. The RRHS Physics

where h is Planck’s Constant, and f is the frequency of the oscillation. Plank found h by ﬁtting his formula for the blackbody radiation curve to the experiment. Planck’s constant has been found experimentally to be h = 6.626 × 10−34 J · s. The idea that energy exists only in discrete amounts was a revolutionary idea. The smallest amount of energy possible (hf ) is called a quantum of energy. This is an extremely small quantity, as can be seen by the size of Planck’s constant; therefore, it would not be signiﬁcant in everyday situations. The energy of any molecular vibration could only be some whole number multiple of this quantum E = nhf (6.2)

where n is a whole number. Another way of expressing this quantum hypothesis is that not just any amplitude of vibration is possible. The possible values for the amplitude are related to the frequency f . Planck, however, was not entirely happy with this idea. He thought of it as more of a mathematical device to get the right answer than an important discovery. He had no basis for suggesting this concept of a quantum of energy other than the fact that it worked — it could be used to accurately predict the spectra of blackbody radiation. Five years after Plank’s hypothesis, Einstein would give it more credibility in his studies of the photoelectric eﬀect.

6.1.2

Photoelectric Eﬀect

When light shines on a metal surface, electrons can be emitted from the surface generating an 70

CHAPTER 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS energy of each of the photons, however, would depend only on the frequency (color) of the light. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory consisted of three postulates: • one electron can be ejected upon collision with one photon, with the photon losing all of its energy • some minimum energy Wo (called the work function) is required to release the electron • if the energy of the photon is greater than the work function (hf > Wo ), the electron will be released. The maximum energy of the electron will be the diﬀerence between the energy of the photon (hf ) and the energy required to release the electron (Wo ). KEmax = hf − Wo (6.3)

6.1. QUANTUM THEORY • if the frequency of the photon f is increased, then KEmax increases linearly

Einstein’s predictions were all veriﬁed by Millikan experimentally in 1914. The diagrams below show how diﬀerent variables aﬀect the electrons released during the photoelectric eﬀect.

Many electrons will require more than the bare minimum (Wo ) to escape the metal, and thus the kinetic energy of the electrons may be below the maximum. Einstein’s Photoelectric Theory (if his above postulates are accepted) makes certain predictions about what should happen in the photoelectric eﬀect: • an increase in intensity of the light means more photons hitting the metal, which should mean more electrons being released; the kinetic energy of each electron should not be changed since the energy of each photon is unchanged (this is only determined by the frequency of the light) • if the energy of the photon is less than the work function, than no electrons will be released. In other words, if f < fo (where f is the frequency of the incident photon and fo is the threshold frequency (hfo = Wo )), no electrons will be released RRHS Physics

The quantities of energy calculated at the atomic level are very small. Energy is often expressed in electron volts instead of joules. An electron volt is the amount of energy gained when an electron is accelerated through one volt. The electron volt is a much smaller unit of energy than a joule 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J

6.1.3

Compton Eﬀect

In 1922, Arthur Compton directed X-rays of known wavelength at a graphite target. Along with electrons being released from the target (as with the photoelectric eﬀect), X-rays were being scattered. Some of the scattered X-rays now had a lower energy, and thus a lower frequency (as indicated by larger wavelength). 71

6) but since the speed of a photon is the speed of light c this simpliﬁes to p= or h (6. Substituting this into our momentum equation gives p= E v c2 6. properties of waves such as diﬀraction and interference are only observable when the size the slits is not much larger than the wavelength. A photon is a particle that has energy and momentum. since electromagnetic waves had particle properties. this is why particles are not generally observed to have wave properties. p= 72 hf E = c c which is called the de Broglie wavelength. his graduation was held up for one year until Einstein supported the hypothesis and de Broglie graduated in 1924.4 and 6. he obtained mv = h λ Rearranging this gives an expression for the wavelength of a particle λ= h mv (6. such as diﬀraction and interference. then perhaps things thought to be particles (such as electrons) have wave properties. Compton was able to show that both the energy and momentum gained by these electrons was found to equal the energy and momentum lost by the photons (given by equations 6. The slits required for diﬀraction or interference would be much smaller than the objects themselves.5). By making careful measurements. The wave nature of ordinary objects is not noticeable because the wavelengths are so small.4).1 however. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS Both energy and momentum were conserved! This provided further evidence for the photon theory of light. The difﬁculty here. 1 RRHS Physics . after the collision. Objects such as electrons. Equating the momentum of a particle with mass with the momentum of a photon (which does not have mass). We also know that momentum is conserved in any collision. This shift in energy is known as the Compton Eﬀect. we can deﬁne a mass equivalence of m = E/c2 . so it would be expected that this may be the case here as well.1. only its frequency is lowered.1.6.4) λ a larger wavelength λ implies a loss of energy for the X-ray photons. the electron gains energy from the X-ray photon and the X-ray photon now has less energy. however. however. QUANTUM THEORY Since CHAPTER 6. In fact. If he was correct. If we use Einstein’s E = mc2 relationship for mass-energy equivalence. is that a photon has no mass (and p = mv for particles). are small enough that wave properties can be observed. The photon does not actually slow down. He suggested in 1923 that.5) λ It is clear that the larger wavelengths observed by Compton also indicate a loss of momentum in addition to the loss of energy (from equation 6. Compton proposed that the incident X-ray photon was acting like a particle that collides with the electron in the metal. the photon and the electron would be experiencing an elastic collision. He subsequently won the Nobel Prize in 1929. De Broglie’s work was doubted since particles had never been observed to have wavelike properties.4 de Broglie Hypothesis Louis de Broglie felt that there was a symmetry in nature. but has no mass and travels at the speed of light hc E = hf = (6.

Determine the wavelength of a 0.CHAPTER 6. If an electron and a proton travel at the same speed. An HCl molecule vibrates with a natural frequency of 8. Calculate the wavelength of a photon having the same momentum as an electron moving at 1. What is the diﬀerence in energy (in joules and electron volts) between possible values of the oscillation energy? 3. of a 3. 13.1. Explain this on the basis of the photon theory of light. 12.80 nm. which has a shorter wavelength? 17.0 km/h. (a) What is the separation between possible energy values (in joules)? (b) If the swing reaches a height of 30 cm above its lowest point and has a mass of 20 kg. A child’s swing has a natural frequency of 0. What are the wavelengths.35 kg baseball with a speed of 90. RRHS Physics 9.5 Problems 1. They can be developed with a red “safelight” on. 10. Calculate the momentum of a photon whose wavelength is 500 nm. does it increase or decrease? 11. why can’t we see them in the dark? 2. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS In 1927. Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of 100 V . The wavelength associated with this diﬀraction was measured and found to be just what de Broglie had predicted.0 × 106 m/s. If an X-ray photon is scattered by an electron. Explain why the existence of a cutoﬀ frequency in the photoelectric eﬀect more strongly favors a particle theory rather than a wave theory of light. If energy is radiated by all objects. What is the energy (in joules and electron volts) of a photon of wavelength (a) 400 nm (b) 700 nm 5. Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light. 15. 14. in meters. does its wavelength change? If so. 6.0 eV photon and a 5. De Broglie waves are known as matter waves. Certain types of black-and-white ﬁlm are not sensitive to red light.1 × 1013 Hz. If the threshold wavelength in the photoelectric eﬀect increases when the emitting metal is changed.40 Hz. What is the maximum kinetic energy and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium surface whose work function is 2. what can you say about the work functions of the two metals? 6. 7. experiments actually showed that electrons actually do diﬀract. 16.1. what is the value of the quantum number n? (c) Would quantization be measurable in this case? 4. QUANTUM THEORY 8. λ = 450 nm. Find the speed of an electron having the same momentum as a photon having a wavelength of 0.0 eV electron? 73 .28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410 nm (b) 550 nm 6.

Huygen’s wave model could be used to explain various properties of light. Newton Particle Model In the latter part of the seventeenth century. the water molecules attract the light particles with more force than the air molecules. the particles must be moving very fast.2. for example. This model gained acceptance because it could be used to explain various properties of light (Newton’s reputation didn’t hurt either). since beams of light appear to travel in straight lines (just as the curvature of a projectile’s path is reduced as the particle’s speed is increased). these scientists also proposed that all of space was ﬁlled with an ether that provided the medium for these light waves. They proposed that light actually consists of waves.6. a ball thrown against a wall). a group of scientists proposed a particle model of light. was putting forward a wave model of light. This particle model of light was the dominant model of light for almost two centuries. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS molecules of the medium in which it is travelling. This causes the light to change direction as it speeds up toward the water. it can be observed that they follow the same law of reﬂection as light – the angle of incidence is the same as the angle of reﬂection. As with Newton’s particle model. the pull would be the same in all directions and the light would travel in a straight line. • Refraction – Again by observing water waves. it could be seen that waves bend RRHS Physics 6. another group of scientists. led by Christian Huygens. Huygens Wave Model Around the same time as Newton and others were proposing the particle model of light. • Dispersion – Newton proposed that different colors of light were actually different sized particles. this was also observed when a particle collided with a surface (for example. We will start with two models that were proposed around the same time in the latter part of the seventeenth century. In a uniform medium. It also implies that the light would be going faster in water than in air. • Reﬂection – By observing water waves. 6. This model proposed that light was made up of extremely small particles that travelled extremely fast. The most prominent of these scientists was Isaac Newton.2. As these particles passed through a prism. • Refraction – Light appeared to bend when going from one medium to another.2 Wave-Particle Duality Modern physics has required a drastic shift in the way that we view the world around us. In this section we will look at some of the results of so called “modern physics” and how they integrate and compare to more classical views.1 Historical Models of Light In this section we will discuss and review some of the historical models of light that were touched upon in your physics 11 course. It was reasoned that the particles must be extremely small. • Reﬂection – Light was observed to be reﬂected at the same angle as the angle of incidence. As the light gets closer to the water. Newton theorized that the light particles are attracted to the the individual 74 . going from air to water the light was observed to bend toward the normal. since all waves at this time required a medium. since two beams of light could be observed to pass through one another without any interference. the smaller particles were deﬂected more than the larger particles which resulted in the white light being split up into the entire spectrum of colors. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6. Each color consisted of similarly sized particles that had been lined up.

2. Young performed his double slit experiment to show that light passing through two slits demonstrated the same interference pattern as two sources of water waves. however. Scientists have come to accept this and have called it the waveparticle duality of light. For example. however. He further calculated that in order for these waves to continue to travel and interact together. The equation represents the energy of a particle on the left side. Around the beginning of the nineteenth century. without its problems.0 × 108 m/s — the same speed as the speed of light!! The logical conclusion was that light is a type of electromagnetic wave. the wave model of light became the more widely accepted model of light.2. the resulting image is slightly blurred. Huygen’s wave model was not as well accepted as Newton’s particle model. mainly due to Newton’s reputation. By the middle of the nineteenth century. there was no evidence of the ether that was supposedly required for the transmission of waves. According to Maxwell’s theory. Also. This would imply that light travels slower in water than in air. light waves are just a very narrow band of frequencies of this electromagnetic wave spectrum. we must refer to both theories. by the early to mid 1800’s it began to gain more acceptance for the following reasons. a wave theory of light began to make more sense now as this alone could explain the interference pattern. This model was not. which contradicts Newton’s theory. we must use either the wave or particle theory of light. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS toward the normal when going from deep water to shallow water. the wave theory of light can also explain some aspects of light such as diﬀraction. The two aspects of light complement one another. however. The existence of electromagnetic waves was demonstrated a few years later by Hertz. however. and interference where the particle theory fails. in 1850.2 Modern Theory of Light Experiments demonstrating the photoelectric eﬀect and the Compton eﬀect have brought credibility back to Newton’s particle model of the seventeenth century. 6.CHAPTER 6. The two theories. Electromagnetic Theory In the latter part of the nineteenth century. but on the right side is the frequency of the corresponding wave. this supported Huygen’s theory of refraction and contradicted Newton’s theory of refraction. waves travel slower in shallow water than deep water. Neils Bohr has proposed the principle of complementarity to summarize this situation. indicating a spreading out of the light. The equation for the energy of a photon itself (E = hf ) demonstrates the integration of the two theories. Similarly. which appear to be incompatible. but to understand light fully. • Diﬀraction – When light goes through a very small pinhole or slit. We cannot try to visualize this duality as 75 . each explain certain aspects of the behavior of light. It states that to understand any given experiment. they must be travelling at a speed of 3. just as light bends toward the normal going from air to water. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY charge will emit interacting electric and magnetic waves (electromagnetic waves) that require no medium (just as electric and magnetic ﬁelds require no medium). the speed of light was shown to be lower in water than in air. refraction. James Maxwell improved upon Huygen’s wave model. Maxwell predicted that an accelerating electric RRHS Physics 6. Neither theory by itself can be used to explain light. water waves exhibit this eﬀect of bending and spreading out when going through a small opening.

macroscopic world. but in the process would move it from that position. there is no reason that light should ﬁt our narrow view2 of the world around us. however. 6. its behavior imitates that of a wave. but a visual picture is again not possible. imagine trying to locate an object such as an electron. light reveals both wave and particle properties. because these are things that we have observed to transfer energy from one point to another. or even a combination of the two. You would probably only locate the ball by accidentally hitting it with you hand. Consider yourself in a dark room with a ping pong ball. when light interacts with matter. Science simply uses abstractions of the human mind to try to explain and predict the world around us. suppose we use light (or some other form of electromagnetic radiation). like light. 2 76 .6. The two aspects of light are different “faces” that light shows. when light passes through space or a medium. We think of waves as the water waves that we can easily see. This does not mean that light is either a wave or a particle. This would tell you where it is. In general. CHAPTER 6. depending on which property of light is being measured. It has been said that an electron is a “logical construction”.2. When this radiation interacts with the electron. We must have an understanding of both the particle and wave aspects of matter to understand it. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY a particle vibrating. We have grouped the set of properties that we can measure and given them the name electron. An electron. you must interact with it.2.4 Implications We have referred to the idea that things like light and electrons are just the sum of their properties.3 Modern Theory of Particles As was shown by de Broglie. To locate this. Applied to a smaller scale. you would have to feel your way around. This raises another problem: in order to measure something. Electrons have traditionally been thought of as tiny. But it has been shown that electrons also exhibit wave Our picture of the world around us consists only of things large enough to see and that reﬂect or emit electromagnetic waves within the range of frequencies of visible light. In terms of everyday language and images. negatively charged particles. It simply means that in diﬀerent situations. we try to think of it in terms of what we observe in the everyday. we can only discuss these things in terms of their properties.2. Nobody has ever actually seen an electron – we have no idea what it “looks” like. is the set of its properties that we can measure. Uncertainty Most scientists believe that the properties of an object can only be deﬁned by thinking of an experiment that can measure them. one cannot say that light diﬀracts unless it is possible to describe an experiment to show and measure this diﬀraction. When we try to visualize light. we use images and constructs from our macroscopic world to try and explain the microscopic world. or as a wave that has a mass. You wouldn’t know where it is going. light behaves similarly to things (particles and waves) that we have experience with. its behavior is more like that of a particle. We instinctively want to describe light in these terms. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS properties. this duality extends to particles as well. it will actuRRHS Physics 6. For convenience (and to try and preserve our sanity!). we cannot picture a combination wave and particle. This has some major implications. We cannot picture what they are. One cannot say that a particle is at a certain location unless it is possible to describe an experiment to locate the particle. or a particle as a baseball moving through the air. In order to locate the ball.

however. we describe experimental observations on electrons and atoms (and light) using concepts that are familiar to us. Probability The classical Newtonian view of the world is that it is deterministic – if we know the position and velocity of an object at some point in time. we must use a small wavelength. If we want an accurate position of a tiny object. In addition to the uncertainty associated with this interaction. we cannot let ourselves think that electrons and atoms are particles or waves that exist in space and time. this means that we cannot pinpoint the location of an electron. than it follows that we cannot predict with certainty where it will go next. on the other hand. photons of larger wavelength are used then they would have less of an eﬀect on the object but its position will be less accurately known. This is known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.4 and 6. but according to equations 6. Since matter is made up of these small particles for which the wave-particle duality is so important. and not determinism. Thus. then we can predict its future position if we know the forces acting on the object. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS ally transfer its momentum and move the electron. This distinction between our interpretation of experimental observations and what is really happening is very important. This probability is so high that it gives rise to the appearance of determinism. such as waves and particles that exist in space and time.2. Objects can be seen to an accuracy no greater than the wavelength of the radiation used. however. For examRRHS Physics 6. we can only calculate probabilities that an electron will be observed at diﬀerent places. If we cannot say with certainty where an electron is. If. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY ple. Modern physics has seriously questioned this deterministic view.5. The position and momentum of a particle cannot both be precisely known. We have seen that an electron cannot even be considered to be solely a particle. the probability that the stone will follow the expected parabolic path is extremely high. there is a ﬁnite probability (although extremely small) that when you through a stone horizontally it will curve upward! Granted. but has wave properties. 77 . this means that we would be increasing the energy and momentum of the photon which would disturb the object even more.CHAPTER 6. it is still a probability and not a certainty. the wave-particle duality contributes even more uncertainty. Along with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. it stands to reason that even ordinary sized particles will be governed by probability. In summary. the act of measuring actually introduces signiﬁcant uncertainty to either the position or the momentum of the particle.

2. WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY CHAPTER 6.6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 78 RRHS Physics .

This became known as the Rutherford Model. It was observed that cool gaseous elements absorb the same wavelengths that they emit when excited. individual lines are seen rather than a range of colors. This is known as an absorption spectrum. Around 1911. When energy is transferred to atoms. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 6.3. These spectra serve as a key to the structure of the atom. but a few were bounced almost directly back.1 Atomic Spectra As we saw in section 6. A spectrum will show dark lines where wavelengths have been absorbed.1. The fact that these spectra come from individual atoms and not interactions between the atoms means that these spectra can be used as a ﬁngerprint for identiRRHS Physics The spectrum of sunlight is observed to have some dark lines. The spectrum of a gas is a series of lines of diﬀerent colors. Ernest Rutherford performed an experiment in which he directed positively charged alpha particles (helium nuclei) at a thin sheet of metal foil.3 Models of the Atom The existence of atoms. Less dense gases. This was sometimes referred to as the plum pudding model. He found that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaﬀected. Since the spectra resulting from these low density gases is due only to the individual 79 . He also suggested a planetary model where electrons orbit the nucleus. 6. and the fact that electrons were a part of this structure. was accepted by scientists by 1900. liquids and dense gases emit light with a continuous spectrum of wavelengths. since they are unique to each atom. each line corresponding to a speciﬁc wavelength of light emitted from the atoms of the gas.CHAPTER 6. Although a major step forward. he argued that they would simply be attracted to the positive nucleus. The emitted light is due to individual atoms. The continuous nature of this spectrum is due to the interaction of each atom or molecule with its neighbor. The ﬁrst model of the atom visualized the atom as a homogeneous positive sphere inside of which there were negative electrons. The diagram below shows an emission spectrum for hydrogen. It was deducted that cool gases surrounding the sun absorbed some of the wavelengths of sunlight. not interactions between atoms. A gas that is cool will absorb certain wavelengths of light that is shone on it. This is how helium was discovered. the composition of the atmosphere of the sun was determined. The study of spectra is known as spectroscopy and is an extremely important branch of science.3. Using spectroscopy. MODELS OF THE ATOM ﬁcation. The picture below shows an absorption spectrum of sunlight. in industry. composition of various products can be veriﬁed or used to categorize the products. If they were at rest. 6.1. He concluded that the atom is mostly empty space with all of the positive charge concentrated in a tiny massive central core (this is what caused the few alpha particles to bounce away). This is known as an emission spectrum. this model was ﬂawed (as will be seen in the next section). When viewing these spectra. scientists can analyze unknown materials. where the atoms or molecules are much further away from their neighbors. the atoms absorb this energy and then emit it in the form of light. emit a discrete spectrum. heated solids. By analyzing these wavelengths.

it should slow down and spiral towards the nucleus. electrons can jump directly or in steps. and also predicted an unstable atom. A continuous range of frequencies would therefore be emitted. The energy is negative because energy has to be added to the electron to free it from the force of the nucleus.3. as in solids).1 . As the electrons spiraled inward. it makes 80 where n is called the principal quantum number and En is the energy of the electron in electron volts. the atom would not be very stable.8) 6.6.7) where Eu is the energy of the electron in the higher level and El is the energy of the electron in the lower level. the difference in energy between the two energy levels (upper and lower) is equal to the energy of the photon absorbed (in the case of an electron raising energy levels) or emitted (in the case of an electron dropping energy levels). as it loses energy. The Rutherford model could not explain this. When changing energy levels. Thus. The change in energy of an electron when a photon is absorbed or emitted is equal to the energy of the photon. 1. The smallest energy level is referred to as the ground state.1). The radius increases with n2 . both are therefore quantized. Neils Bohr. they are accelerating. it usually remains in this state for only a fraction of a second.8). for example. Bohr postulated that the electron can exist in diﬀerent energy levels. RRHS Physics . If an electron absorbs energy.6 eV n2 (6.2 Bohr Theory The visible spectrum of hydrogen consists of four lines. The higher the energy level. the less negative the energy is (a free electron is deﬁned as having zero energy). however. While Rutherford focused on the nucleus and the fact that it occupied only a small part of the atom.3.3.2. Bohr derived an equation for the energy of an electron in a speciﬁc energy level n in an atom to be En = −13. this model could not explain why atoms emit line spectra. as shown in the diagram in section 6. Using quantum theory. any model of the atom should be able to explain why light is emitted at discrete wavelengths and should be able to predict what these wavelengths will be. Bohr focused on the electrons surrounding the nucleus. blue. Any accelerating electric charge will give oﬀ light (as was seen in Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory in section 6. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS a transition from the ground state to an excited state. CHAPTER 6. modiﬁed Rutherford’s model by integrating Planck’s quantum hypothesis. Neils Bohr attempted to unite Rutherford’s nuclear model with Einstein and Planck’s quantum theory. and violet. in other words. their frequency would increase gradually and so would the frequency of the light emitted. In 1911. It became clear that Rutherford’s model was not suﬃcient. 2. The number n determines both the radius3 and the energy. The energy of the photon emitted (hf ) is therefore given by hf = Eu − El (6. Since electrons are orbiting in circular paths.red. green. Bohr’s theory was that light is only emitted when an electrons drops to a lower energy state. going 3 These well-deﬁned orbits do not actually exist in the sense of a planet orbiting the sun. A student of Rutherford. while the energy depends on 1/n2 (as can be seen in equation 6. The Rutherford model had two main ﬂaws. MODELS OF THE ATOM atoms (and not the interactions between the atoms. he suggested that the energy of an electron (and its radius) is quantized. The electron then drops back down to the ground state.

The Bohr model only had one quantum number (the 81 6. The electron. Bohr did not know how to explain this. 6. it does not predict the correct spectra for any of the other elements. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS from n=3 to n=1 state. The Bohr model works very well for hydrogen. Louis de Broglie. however. however. electron can go from 3 to 1.CHAPTER 6. the density of the electron cloud predicts the probability that we will ﬁnd an electron in a certain area. and explained some of the chemical properties of the elements. the greater complexity of the quantum model allows it to model the other elements more accurately. There is no deﬁned path that the electron follows — it is meaningless to even ask how an electron gets from one energy level to another. used de Broglie’s wave model to begin a quantum theory of the atom. so he simply said that that the laws of electromagnetism do not hold inside the atom! This was not generally accepted very well by other scientists and remained a problem with the model of the atom.8 that when n=1. As energy is added and the electron goes up levels. This electron cloud can be interpreted as a probability distribution for the electron. an accelerating electron will lose energy and therefore spiral into the nucleus. however. The quantum model of the atom only predicts the probability that an electron is in a speciﬁc location. The region in which there is a high probability of ﬁnding the electron is referred to as the electron cloud. his postulates could not be explained on the basis of known physics and he could not predict the correct spectra for any other elements. His model also could not explain why some spectral lines were brighter than others and it could RRHS Physics . As a result.3 Quantum Model The Bohr model calculated the emission spectrum and ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. This theory is known as quantum mechanics and has been extremely successful in modelling the microscopic world. If we consider the electron to be a particle. This remained a problem with Bohr’s model. One of the problems with Rutherford’s model was that it was unstable. three diﬀerent photons could be emitted in this example. each independently. is actually spread out in space in a cloud of negative charge. MODELS OF THE ATOM not explain bonding of atoms in molecules. Although it was the ﬁrst model to actually explain the discrete line spectra. In quantum mechanics. This is because for n=1 the electron is closest to the nucleus so it requires the most energy to be released. En represents the amount of energy required to free the electron. Since it was theorized that electrons move in circles. The only waves that could exist are waves for which the circumference of the circular orbit contains a whole number of wavelengths. but is actually much harder to visualize. the energy is actually at a minimum. This was a major problem with the model. de Broglie argued that the electron wave must be a circular standing wave. determined energy levels of the elements. or from 3 to 2 and then from 2 to 1. Erwin Schrodinger and Werner Heisenberg.3. applying his theory of matter waves. the magnitude of the energy is the largest. it was obviously not complete since it could not be extended to the other elements. since it has a wave nature. however. the energy En goes up (it gets closer to zero). suggested that each electron in the atom is actually a standing wave. The quantum model predicts the same energy levels for the hydrogen atom as the Bohr model does. This implies that the wave-particle duality we discussed earlier is at the root of the atomic structure. This provided an explanation of the quantized orbits proposed by Bohr. Notice in equation 6. The ground state (the lowest energy level) exists when n=1.3. the radius of the orbit of the electron is not the same as the radius of planet around the sun.

The photons emitted will therefore have lower frequencies than the one absorbed. In a ﬂuorescent light bulb. when electrons are initially excited they are raised to what is called a metastable state. these electrons collide with and excite atoms of the gas in the tube and cause them to emit ultraviolet photons. 5.3. 6. These materials are used. as compared to 10−8 seconds for most atoms). for example. in luminous watch dials. it takes powerful computers to calculate accurate details for many atoms. Determine the frequency and wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron drops (a) from E3 to E2 in an excited hydrogen atom (b) from E4 to E3 in an excited hydrogen atom 7.3. 8. How can the spectrum of hydrogen contain so many lines when hydrogen contains only one electron? 6. spin (ms )). magnetic (ml ). Compare these wavelengths to the visible spectral lines of hydrogen in the diagram in section 6. What minimum frequency photon is needed if the photoelectric eﬀect is to be observed? 4.1.5 Problems 1. At low temperatures. some electrons may stay in this metastable state for over an hour. These photons then strike a ﬂuorescent coating on the inside of the tube which then ﬂuoresces (emits photons of visible light). Explain any discrepancies. MODELS OF THE ATOM principal quantum number n). however. the quantum model uses 3 additional quantum numbers (orbital (l). What are some of the problems with a planetary model of the atom? 82 RRHS Physics . How much energy is required to ionize a hydrogen atom in the n = 3 state? 3. WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS 2. Quantum mechanics uses this model to predict many details about the structure of the atom and is very successful.3. Calculate the wavelength of all of the possible photons released when an electron drops from the n = 4 to the n = 2 energy levels in a hydrogen atom. How many spectral lines can an atom emit when an electron goes from the n = 4 energy level to the ground state. CHAPTER 6.3. the major diﬀerence is that with phosphorescent materials. we saw that it is possible for the electron to return to the lower state in two or more jumps. Metastable states last much longer than higher energy levels in typical atoms (seconds.4 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence When an atom is excited by a photon from one energy state to a higher one. Fluorescent objects will emit visible light after absorbing ultraviolet radiation. This is called ﬂuorescence. Phosphorescence works in a similar way. Certain dyes and other materials ﬂuoresce by emitting visible light when UV light falls on them. The result is that light can be emitted long after the initial excitation. the applied voltage accelerates electrons. nearly all of the atoms in hydrogen gas will be in the ground state. Can infrared light produce ﬂuorescence? 6. In a group of these atoms.6.

work must be done to overcome this force if we want to remove one or more nucleons from the nucleus (assuming a stable nucleus). the electric force becomes more important. A. This adds energy to the system. we looked at what is believed about the structure of the atom. There must be some other force that prevents the protons from repelling. this means that the total energy of all of the parts of the nucleus will be more than the total energy of the assembled nucleus. but they behave diﬀerently in nuclear reactions.1. All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons — this number of protons actually determines what element it is.1. The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide. since the atomic number Z and the element symbol are redundant. Rutherford postulated the existence of a neutral particle with a mass close to that of a proton. this force is the same between protons and protons.1 The Nucleus same number of electrons and behave the same chemically. 1 . and neutrons and neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) that have diﬀerent numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. This force only acts over short distances. so as the distance becomes greater.Chapter 7 Nuclear Physics 7. and A is the mass number. an element is written as A X. called a neutron. James Chadwick demonstrated the existence of this particle. the others being the gravitational force. In the last chapter.1 Structure The number of protons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of electrons and is called the atomic number. They have the 83 Since the nucleons in a nucleus are held together by this strong nuclear force. for example. 7. Both protons and neutrons are referred to as nucleons. Z. The sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atom is called the mass number. Helium (He) will always have the atomic number 2. the electromagnetic force.2 Mass Defect where X is the symbol for the element. we will now look a bit more in-depth at the structure and workings of the nucleus. protons and neutrons. Sometimes. This force is called the strong nuclear force1 and it overcomes electrical repulsion to keep protons together. this same force should cause protons to repel each other inside the nucleus. Z is the atomic number. This is one of the four forces of nature. Since we are adding energy when we remove a nucleon. The notation used to represent particular atoms is A ZX 7. and the weak nuclear force. The electric force attracts electrons to the positive nucleus. however. In 1932.

1. RRHS Physics .1) CHAPTER 7. and c is the speed of light in m/s. Some important values that we will be using are: mp = 1. NUCLEAR PHYSICS Using E = mc2 . Using equation 7.1.0 × 1011 J of energy. m is the equivalent mass in kg. The unit of mass used in nuclear physics is the atomic mass unit. In a nuclear reaction.3 Problems 1. For each of the following. Calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon for 6 Li (the 3 mass of the lithium isotope is 6. Thus. This can be observed if we compare the mass of a nucleus with the mass of the individual nucleons that make up the nucleus. If the mass of a nucleus were equal to that of its constituents. the mass of a nucleus must be less than that of its constituents. The diﬀerence between the mass of a nucleus and the mass of its constituent parts (nucleons) is called the mass defect. identify the element. the energy equivalent of 1 u can be found to be 931.49 MeV. 84 7. It is expressed as a negative number. The mass of 2 H is 2. iron-56 (56 F e) 26 is the most tightly bound nucleus (it has the most negative binding energy). nuclei heavier than iron have smaller binding energies. The assembled mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the nucleons that compose it. This implies that by adding energy to the system. What do diﬀerent isotopes of an element have in common? How are they diﬀerent? 2.007276 u mn = 1.014102 u. 5. energy is released if the nucleus that results from the reaction is more tightly bound than the original nucleus. the number of protons. if the total mass of the products is less than the total mass of the original nuclei. since energy must be added to take a nucleus apart. and the number of neutrons: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 232 X 92 18 X 7 1X 1 82 X 38 247 X 97 3.008665 u where mp is the mass of a proton and mn is the mass of a neutron. the binding energy per nucleon is the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by the mass number A.1. some of the mass has been converted to energy and this energy will be released in the reaction. In general. In other words.015123 u). where E is the energy in J.7.66 × 10 kg). We know that energy can be expressed as an equivalent amount of mass according to Einstein’s E = mc2 (7. To be stable. Calculate 1 the mass defect and total binding energy. the binding energy can be calculated from the experimentally determined mass defect. A nuclear reaction produces 9. the total number of nucleons. which is iron. it could just fall apart. u. THE NUCLEUS The amount of energy that must be put into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its neutrons and protons is called the total binding energy. We will look at this more in the next two sections. the binding energy per nucleon increases as the mass number A approaches 56. What mass was converted? 4. Binding energy is not something the nucleus has – it is energy that it lacks relative to its separate constituents. One u is deﬁned as 1 12 −27 12 the mass of 6 C nucleus (u = 1. we are actually adding mass.

CHAPTER 7.1. THE NUCLEUS RRHS Physics 85 . NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.

there are more and more protons repelling each other so more neutrons are needed to exert a strong nuclear force to hold the nucleus together. usually because there are too many neutrons relative to protons (above stability curve in the diagram shown below). Changing from one element into another one is called transmutation. 86 where 222 Rn is called the daughter nucleus 86 and 226 Ra is called the parent nucleus.2 Beta Decay Beta (β) particles are electrons that come out of a nucleus — they are not orbital electrons! It is as if a neutron changes to a proton.2. 7. for large nuclei the electric force is able to overcome this strong nuclear force and cause this alpha decay. Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold large nuclei together. It became apparent that radioactivity was the result of disintegration or decay of an unstable nucleus. Remember that the strong nuclear force cannot act over as large distances as the electric force. these isotopes will decay spontaneously. If the atomic number gets too large. NUCLEAR PHYSICS There are three distinct types of radiation. stable nuclei have more neutrons than protons. beyond this. These nuclei are very tightly bound. Alpha decay occurs because the electric force of repulsion of the protons overcomes the strong nuclear force between the nucleons. there are no completely stable nuclides above Z=83.2. 4 He. 7. therefore. No88 tice that the mass number decreases by 4 and the atomic number decreases by 2.2 Radioactive Decay In 1896.1 Alpha Decay Alpha (α) particles are nuclei of helium atoms.3. as will be discussed in the following sections. they can barely penetrate a piece of paper. We will deal with natural radioactivity in this section. This is known as (natural radioactivity). 2 They are not very energetic. artiﬁcial radioactivity will be addressed in section 7. As a result. This is true for all alpha decays. 7. this is known as (artiﬁcial radioactivity). Many unstable isotopes occur in nature. The mass of the parent nucleus is greater than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the alpha particle. other unstable isotopes can be produced in the laboratory by nuclear reactions.2 the extra energy is carried away by the alpha particle as kinetic energy. there are not enough neutrons to do this. and required no external stimulation. Since the charge was 2 This is necessary if the reaction is to occur spontaneously. RRHS Physics .7. An explanation for this is that as the nucleus gets bigger. An equation representing alpha decay would look like the following: 226 88 Ra →222 Rn +4 He 86 2 Notice in the above diagram that stable nuclei tend to have the same number of neutrons as protons up to a mass number A of 30 or 40. Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium was found to darken photographic plates without any stimulation when placed near them (even when the plates were wrapped).2. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAPTER 7.

the nucleus does not undergo any change. In 10 years.2. NUCLEAR PHYSICS originally neutral. while X-rays generally refer to electron-atom interactions. There is another kind of β decay in which a positron (β + ) is emitted. Beta particles are more energetic than alpha particles and can pass through as much as 3 mm of aluminum. Diﬀerent isotopes have diﬀerent half-lives. this means that half of the sample 87 RRHS Physics . A neutrino is also emitted. It is called the antiparticle to the electron. they can be very dangerous. a nucleus can be in an excited state (due to a violent collision or a previous nuclear reaction). Another possibility in this situation (too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons) is an electron capture. which has no charge and no mass. an electron must be released to balance the charge of the proton.3 The weak nuclear force is crucial in Beta decay because the neutrino only interacts with matter via this weak nuclear force. Gamma rays originate in the nucleus. the nucleus may remain in an excited state for some time before it emits a γ ray. Gamma (γ) rays are high energy photons. allowing a proton to become a neutron.CHAPTER 7.4 Half-lives All of the nuclei of a radioactive sample do not decay at the same time – they decay one at a time over a period of time. This is a random process. RADIOACTIVE DECAY shell.3 Gamma Decay →14 N +0 e +0 ν 7 −1 0 where 0 e is the beta particle (β − ) and 0 ν is −1 0 the antineutrino. notice that the mass number stays the same but the atomic number increases by 1 (transmutation occurs). becomes a neutron. For this reason. Like an atom. Other than releasing energy. Suppose an isotope has a half-life of 10 years. 7. This electron disappears into the nucleus. In some cases. Neither the mass number nor the atomic number is changed during gamma decay (no transmutation occurs). In beta decay.2. but the opposite charge. it emits a photon. They can pass through several cm of lead and still be detected. when it drops down to a lower energy state. they are both high energy photons and even overlap in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays are very similar to X-rays. 7.2. It is basically their production that is diﬀerent. This photon is known as a gamma ray. An example of a beta decay reaction is shown below: 14 6 C 7. ranging from fractions of a second to many thousands of years. by emitting a positron. The half-life is the time it takes for one half of the original isotope (parent nucleus) in a given sample to decay into a diﬀerent element (daughter nucleus). It is then said to be in a metastable state and is called an isomer. One of the protons. in which the nucleus captures an orbiting electron from the 3 Recent studies have indicated that it may have a very tiny rest mass. A positron has the same mass as an electron. This can occur if there are too few neutrons as compared to the number of protons (see the diagram above). Beta decay is accompanied by the release of a neutrino (or antineutrino).

Write the complete nuclear equation. 238 U 92 decays by α emission and two successive β emissions back into uranium again. Show the three nuclear decay equations and predict the atomic mass number of the uranium formed. The activity is measured in Bequerel (Bq).5 Problems 1. 8. When 23 N e (mass=22. A radioactive polonium isotope. A radioactive bismuth isotope. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7. The diagram below show the number of parent nuclei remaining and the decay rate as a function of time. Write the complete nuclear equation. One Bequerel is one decay per second. what is the max11 imum kinetic energy of the emitted electron? What is its minimum energy? What is the energy of the neutrino in each case? 4.9945 u) decays to 10 23 N a (mass=22. β − . showing the element formed. Fill in the missing particle or nucleus. RADIOACTIVE DECAY of that isotope will have decayed into a diﬀerent element.9898 u). The isotope 64 Cu is unusual in that it can 29 decay by γ. CHAPTER 7. half of the remaining sample will have decayed (only onequarter of the original sample remains). It is proportional to the number of atoms in a sample. 84 emits a α particle. or β + emission. 7.2. A particular radioactive substance has a half-life of 3 years. 214 Bi.2. What is the resulting nuclide in each case? 2. How much of the sample remains after 12 years? 5. 83 emits a β particle. In another 10 years. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 45 Ca →? + e− + ν 20 58 Cu →? + γ 29 46 Cr →46 V +? 24 23 234 P u →? + α 94 239 N p →239 U +? 93 92 3. The activity of a sample is the decay rate of that sample. the activity (or decay rate) will also be cut in half. Notice that the half-life is 5700 years. 88 RRHS Physics . 210 P o.7. After one half-life. Which will give a higher reading on a radiation detector: equal amounts of a radioactive substance that has a short halflife or a radioactive substance that has a long half-life? 6. showing the element formed. so it is closely related to half-life.

Nuclear reactions can be man-made (in a laboratory). protons. It was observed that extra neutrons were produced in these ﬁssion reactions.3 Artiﬁcial Radioactivity Radioactive isotopes can be formed from stable isotopes by bombarding them with alpha particles. that uranium actually splits in two roughly equal particles when bombarded by a neutron. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 7.S. if the radioactive source enters our body through our food. developed the ﬁrst nuclear bomb. the top scientists in Europe and the U. This is accomplished with 92 a moderator. following Fermi’s work. radioactive ﬁssion fragments are released into the atmosphere. Fermi began bombarding the heaviest known element (uranium). however. 2.3. resulting in a transmutation. The neutrons emitted during the reaction shown in equation 7. but they can also occur in nature. The ﬁrst nuclear reactor (research) based on this concept was constructed at the University of Chicago in 1942. If these ﬁssion fragments enter our food chain. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY The ﬁrst use of nuclear ﬁssion was the atomic bomb used in World War II.7 % of the ﬁssionable 92 4 which can be used in the form of heavy water. neutrons.2) although there are many other possibilities. This would provide enormous amounts of energy. This fallout is a concern with nuclear testing. RRHS Physics 7. 7. the two masses would be brought together quickly. 89 .2 are moving too fast.1 Nuclear Fission It was discovered in 1938. A mod6 erator is most eﬀective if the atoms are close to the mass of the neutrons. Alpha and beta particles can usually be prevented from entering our bodies by clothing and skin. each less than the critical mass required for the bomb. resulting in a sustained chain reaction. When a ﬁssion bomb explodes. A tremendous amount of energy is released because the 235 U nucleus has a much greater 92 mass than that of the ﬁssion fragments (141 Ba and 92 Kr). and a single neutron was required to start a ﬁssion reaction. A bomb using uranium was dropped on Hiroshima. This ended the war. A typical ﬁssion reaction is given by 1 0n +235 U →141 Ba +92 Kr + 31 n 92 56 36 0 (7. This was called nuclear ﬁssion. The ﬁssion fragments are 56 36 much more tightly bound than the uranium nucleus. and one using plutonium was dropped on Nagasaki. Naturally occurring uranium is 99. often deuterium4 (2 H) or 1 graphite (which consists of 12 C). they must be slowed down to be absorbed by 235 U .3% 238 U and only 0. It was reasoned that these extra neutrons could be used to start other reactions. because it resembled cell division. This led to the discovery of the transuranic elements. To detonate the bomb. President Roosevelt authorized the Manhattan Project to research and attempt to build an atomic bomb. this is known as radioactive fallout. electrons. since they are not repelled by the positively charged nuclei.3. these particles are in direct contact with our cells. A chain reaction would begin and a tremendous amount of energy would be released. or gamma rays. they can be much more dangerous than the fallout itself. This bomb consisted of two masses of uranium.2 Nuclear Reactors There are some problems associated with the practical use of ﬁssion in nuclear reactors: 1.3. Under the direction of Robert Oppenheimer. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a nucleus is bombarded by another particle. Enrico Fermi discovered in the 1930’s that neutrons are most eﬀective at causing nuclear reactions.CHAPTER 7. 7.

The series of reactions that occur in the sun involves the following steps: 1 1H +1 H →2 H +0 e +0 ν 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 1 H +1 H →2 He 3 3 4 1 2 He +2 He →2 He + 21 H The ﬁrst two reactions would have to occur twice. it has a higher lifetime capacity and has longer operating cycles than other types of nuclear reactors. 235 U . nuclei with smaller masses combine to give a nucleus with a larger mass (this is the process that occurs in the stars). 3.3 Nuclear Fusion In nuclear fusion. The net result is that 4 protons produce one α particle (He). Because of its design. these control the rate of the reaction. 92 7. Some neutrons may escape before having a chance to cause further ﬁssions. The ﬁssion fragments from these reactions have many more neutrons than protons and are unstable (they are radioactive). RRHS Physics 90 . this produces steam which is then used to turn a generator. energy will be released. In a nuclear reactor that is being used to produce electrical energy. 5 CHAPTER 7. too many of the neutrons will be absorbed by the nonﬁssionable materials. usually containing cadmium. so it can be built where technology is limited.6 The core of the reactor consists of fuel to sustain the nuclear reaction (sealed in metal rods) and a moderator. For example. any reaction resulting in the formation of helium will very likely release energy. and can be separated to be used as fuel. this plutonium has an extremely long half-life of 24000 years and is very toxic. The energy released is greater (for a given mass of fuel) than that released in ﬁssion. 6 see the diagram on page 932 of your textbook.3. which is very expensive. The major diﬀerence between the CANDU reactor and other reactors is that it uses heavy water as a moderator and coolant. Also present are control rods. the control rods are fully inserted into the reactor so that they can absorb the neutrons. 2 positrons and 2 neutrinos. CANDU Reactor This reactor has been developed for use by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). and New Brunswick. As long as this larger mass is more tightly bound than the smaller masses. One of the byproducts is 239 P u. particularly since they usually have large half-lives. Since heavy water is a better moderator than natural water. helium is extremely tightly bound.7. Some of the beneﬁts of nuclear fusion include: 1. some minimum critical mass is needed (usually a few kg). There are presently CANDU reactors in Ontario. Without enough ﬁssionable ura92 nium.3. the reactor can use natural uranium instead of enriched uranium. which was discussed earlier. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY to sustain a chain reaction. It has a simpliﬁed design. the uranium must be enriched 5 so that is is 25% 235 U . There is a danger associated with the disposal of these materials. however. To slow the reaction down. Because of the high temperatures reached in the reactor. the heat from the ﬁssion reaction is used to boil water. which is created when 94 238 U absorbs neutrons. There is also only a limited supply of uranium. Quebec. Nuclear fusion has many features which make it more attractive than nuclear ﬁssion. NUCLEAR PHYSICS can also easily be used to construct a nuclear bomb. a coolant is also necessary to take away some of the excess heat. This 239 P u is ﬁssion92 94 able. Most people are aware of the dangers of nuclear reactions. Breeder reactors are a particular type of reactor that actually creates more ﬁssionable fuel than was there originally. It This is not usually necessary if the reactor is using heavy water as a moderator.

but it is a problem with a nuclear reactor. 3. Isotope 1H 1 2H 1 3H 1 3 He 2 4 He 2 141 Ba 56 92 Kr 36 88 Sr 38 136 Xe 54 235 U 92 238 U 92 Atomic Mass 1.043925 u 238.4 Problems Atomic masses of selected isotopes for use with problems. List three medical uses of radioactivity. it is very diﬃcult to control the reaction (or to even contain it) to obtain usable energy. What is the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction that is given in equation 7.9250 u 87. so obviously there are some problems with controlled fusion reactions. How much energy is released when two deuterium nuclei fuse to form 3 He with 2 the release of a neutron? 7. Why must the ﬁssion process release neutrons if it is to be useful? 2. Some of the problems associated with nuclear fusion are: 1. they must get close enough together for the strong nuclear force to act 7 7. The ﬁssion of a uranium nucleus and the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei both produce energy.9141 u 91. Controlled fusion has not yet been attained. Attempts have been made to use magnetic ﬁelds to conﬁne reaction. A few years ago.90722 u 235. Fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures (108 K). How many ﬁssion reactions take place per second in a 25 MW reactor? Assume that 200 MeV is released per ﬁssion.905625 u 135.CHAPTER 7. This is not necessarily a problem when designing a bomb. fusion reactions are often referred to as thermonuclear reactions. These temperatures are needed to make positive nuclei travel fast enough to get close to one another. the only way that we know of to produce fusion is at extremely high temperatures.016029 u 4. 2. The reaction in the sun was said to use 4 protons to produce a 4 He nucleus (ignor2 ing positrons and neutrinos). but as of now this requires more energy than is produced in the fusion reaction. which is available in the oceans) We do not presently have any practical nuclear reactors.7 for this reason. and there is no way to control it at these temperatures. Once this high temperature is achieved.002603 140. Why are neutrons such good projectiles for producing nuclear reactions? 3. a couple of scientists published a paper in which they believed that they had produced cold fusion.014102 u 3. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 2. Calculate the energy released in the ﬁssion reaction 1 0n +235 U →88 Sr +136 Xe + 121 n 92 38 54 0 4. and all of the particles can still not be contained in the ﬁeld.3. but their claims were soon shown to be wrong. The fuel is plentiful (such as deuterium. At present. This is higher than any known material can stand.016049 u 3.007825 u 2. How much energy would this release? 8.2? 5. 9.3. There is less of a radioactive waste problem than there is associated with nuclear ﬁssion (the products are mainly hydrogen and helium). 6. 91 RRHS Physics . ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY 7.050786 u 1.

The energy released in the ﬁssion of one atom of 235 U is 200 MeV. 92 (a) How many atoms are in 1.3. ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY (a) Which produces more energy? (b) Does the ﬁssion of 1 kg of uranium nuclei or the fusion of 1 kg of hydrogen nuclei produce more energy? (c) Why are your answers to parts a and b diﬀerent? 10.00 kg underwent ﬁssion? (c) A typical large nuclear reactor produces ﬁssion energy at a rate of 3600 MW. The ﬁrst atomic bomb released 1. What was the mass of the uranium-235 that was ﬁssioned to produce this energy? CHAPTER 7.0 × 1014 J of energy. NUCLEAR PHYSICS 92 RRHS Physics .00 kg of uranium-235? (b) How much energy would be released if all of the atoms in this 1. How many kilograms of uranium-235 would be used in one year? 11.7.

3*. In other words.Appendix A Analysis of Data A. and errors due to mismeasurement are not legitimate.3 and 2. In our meter stick example.1 Experimental Data however. focus your attention on the discrepancies between the assumptions made during the analysis of your data based on theoretic considerations and the actual conditions present during the collection of data. we might estimate it to be 2. for example. the thickness of the lines may vary. Errors in an experiment can generally be classiﬁed as resulting from two sources: Instrument Error It is safe to say that all of the instruments that we use have some error built in to them. Practice with any particular instrument will generally improve one’s accuracy with that instrument. . In addition to estimating the uncertainty oﬀ speciﬁc measurements as described above. Be Speciﬁc! Errors in procedure. Human Error The error introduced by the person using the instrument is often even larger than that due to the instrument itself. We only know that the correct measurement is 2. We could say that the uncertainty is at least 0. In writing lab reports. It may be smaller or larger. The wood may shrink or warp. or negligent? Were masses of ropes or strings ac93 In any scientiﬁc experiment. errors due to rounding oﬀ. Some of these may be due to human errors. The instrument may have been damaged at some point. Errors may come from such things as improper positioning of the instrument. All of these factors will contribute some error to the experiment. Take a meter stick. their analysis is extremely important in any experiment. you will be expected to do an error analysis. If the actual measurement appears past the halfway point between 2. You should attempt to be as speciﬁc as possibly in this analysis. errors in calculation. the ends of the stick may be chipped. Suppose that a measurement is between 2. there are errors present. where the * digit is some number between 0 and 9.4 cm. use of this meter stick has an uncertainty associated with it. therefore. and probably even more. this 7 is only an estimate. In addition to the fact that instruments may have ”ﬂaws”.4. Because these errors aﬀect the accuracy and precision of our results. and judging the ﬁnal digit (see above). instruments are designed to measure within certain limits.37. the device is only calibrated in millimeters.3 cm and 2. others may be inherent in the instruments that we are using. wrong position of the eye with respect to the scale and the object to be measured.1 mm. was friction considered to be constant. For example. The uncertainty in this measurement is in the second decimal place. do not write ”human error” or ”instrument error” as your sources of error. or their may be a problem with the calibration of the instrument.

2.1 Precision and Random Errors If you repeat an experiment several times. the smaller the standard deviation should be. In this case. For this reason. A. the ﬁnal result will still be diﬀerent from the true value. from the person conducting the experiment making the same mistake for each repetition. A large value would mean that the experimental results were not all close to the average value that was calculated. as it cannot be eliminated without locating the source of the problem. It does not address any possible systematic errors. you cannot expect to get the same result every time. you would expect that about half of your measurements would be too small and half too large. A. A. that is.2.2 Statistical Analysis The precision of the data can be quantitatively expressed with a statistical analysis. This type of error is generally more serious. or from an error inherent to the technique for measuring the property. this is not an excuse to be careless. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS counted for? Were objects that were assumed to be ﬁxed in one place actually allowed to move? These are the kinds of questions you should ask yourself. The goal in any experiment should be to reduce this random error as much as possible in order to increase the conﬁdence we have in our ﬁnal result. Section A. RRHS Physics . It is a good idea.2 Accuracy and Systematic Errors The other case is if the errors are systematic. The more random error we have in our experiment. we will deal with analyzing results which we assume have random error.1. This goal is achieved by being careful in taking measurements and ensuring that the instruments are in good working order. This type of analysis will give us some idea of how much uncertainty can be assigned to our measured value due to random errors only. This may result from a mistake in 94 The standard deviation (σ) of a data set is a useful measure of the uncertainty in any experimental result. we may end up with a very precise estimate. this type of error is present in all experiments. the more precise the data is considered (all of the experimental results would probably be pretty close to the average). In this case. or too low. Instruments and human error will cause diﬀerences in your results (errors). In the case of systematic error. a mistake has usually been made at some point in the experiment or there was a problem with the equipment used. no matter how many estimates are averaged together. Just because it is expected that there will be random error associated with the lab.2 will look at ways to estimate the precision of our results. As long as these errors are random. the less precise our results are. In our error analysis.A.1 Standard Deviation A. Adding to the diﬃculty is that there may be many systematic errors present of which we have no knowledge.1. The more data points that we have. to suggest ways the experiment might be improved. scientists generally repeat experiments to obtain a large number of estimates that can be averaged together to obtain a more reliable estimate. The smaller this value. It is basically a statistical measure of the spread of the data. but it will not be very accurate. either in discussing the sources of error or in the conclusion. ANALYSIS OF DATA calibrating instruments. the measurements are always too high. You would assume that they will tend to cancel out provided enough measurements are taken. This is why we do many trials when performing a scientiﬁc experiment. APPENDIX A.

Note. σ= (x1 − x)2 x)2 x)2 A. It only addresses the random errors in the data by providing a quantitative measure of the precision of our results.35. To obtain a 95% conﬁdence interval.45.84 2.30 9.20 3. What this means is that if we want a 95% conﬁdence interval. To be even more sure that the true average is within our estimate. you may ﬁnd that a few of the values are especially far from the rest.44 1.92 1. In this case. we would use t = 2.77 1. Our conﬁdence interval (or our best estimate) would then be 4.36 1. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Table A.01 2.23 3.40 1.96 2.70±0.42 1.25 2.02 1.2 Conﬁdence Intervals The standard deviation can be used to obtain conﬁdence limits for our results. x is the average of all the values.35 to 5.71 2. A conﬁdence limit (δ) for an average of a group of measurements can be deﬁned as tσ (A. It is often reasonable to exclude these values from any analysis since it is likely that these values result from some mistake in performing or recording that particular measurement. ANALYSIS OF DATA The standard deviation is given by + (x2 − + · · · (xN − N −1 (A.16 3.11 2. The relevant values for t are given in the table.26 3.1) where xi are the individual measurements.13 1.2.18 3. then our estimate would be statistically diﬀerent from this.1: Values of t for various conﬁdence intervals N (no.35 1.7 4.7 63.2) δ=√ N so that an average x with conﬁdence intervals can be expressed as x ± δ.31 1.05. A 95% conﬁdence interval means that there is a 95% probability that the true average 1 lies within the conﬁdence limits. and N is the number of measurements. If we have a theoretical value of 5. however.29 1.8.48 2.78 4. the diﬀerence may be due to systematic errors and this would have to be investigated and rectiﬁed.53 2. When examining the data.70 1 obtained by repeating the experiment under the exact same conditions an inﬁnite number of times and a standard deviation σ of 0.92 3.36 3.2.90 1.18 5.38 1.37 1.80 1.17 2. 95 RRHS Physics . then we can say that the data supports the theory since this is in the range of our uncertainty. but 95% conﬁdence intervals are the most common measure of conﬁdence in scientiﬁc studies.98 1. The data points that remain after this analysis are the ones that would be used for computing the mean and the standard deviation.35 1.76 1. of trials) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ∞ Conﬁdence 80% 90% 3.64 2. if possible.35.83 1.94 1.06 2.64 interval of 95% 99% 12.31 to obtain a conﬁdence limit of ±0. we could use a 99% conﬁdence limit which give a wider range of possible values. Consider an example where we took 9 measurements.31 3.86 1.60 2. we would use t = 2.4.45 3. or in other words we can say with a 95% degree of conﬁdence that true experimental average is in the range of 4.03 2.08 6. If we know the theoretical value to be 4.34 1. and got an average value x of 4. that this type of error analysis does not take into consideration any systematic errors present in the lab.36 2.20. and we took 12 measurements.14 2.36 1.78 1.APPENDIX A.89 2.58 A.50 2.57 4.81 1.

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