BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO

Este material ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el Personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las estructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal.

Con mucho afecto y gratitud a la querida Institución, que me ha permitido servir con entusiasmo y crecer profesionalmente.

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y la Escuela de Telecomunicaciones del Ejército de Chile. jmoyam@profing.tie.cl

Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual N° 151.465 I.S.B.N. N° 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar

INDICE
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• Prologo _________________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apendices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Prólogo
Prólogo El profesor Juan Moya Montaña me ha distinguido con la solicitud de prologar Structures and Vocabulary, texto de autoaprendizaje de gramática inglesa básica para adultos. Este manual forma parte del esfuerzo permanente del profesor Moya por contribuir al mejoramiento de la enseñanza de este idioma en el Ejército. El autor me concede la oportunidad de testimoniar mi reconocimiento y felicitarlo por su larga trayectoria como profesor vinculado al Ejército de Chile.* También, me permite hacerle llegar el sentimiento –y creo ser portador de cientos de integrantes de la institución– de profundo afecto hacia el comprometido teacher que, sacrificando horas de descanso, acudió en auxilio de tantos de nosotros cuando, con desesperación y a última hora, buscábamos incrementar nuestro nivel de inglés para cumplir alguna misión encomendada. Al respecto, permítaseme una anécdota. Ella no es sino un ejemplo –me atrevo a decirlo– de miles de vivencias que oficiales y cuadro permanente tuvimos para tratar de estar “a la altura”, poder entender y hacernos entender en un idioma extranjero; casi siempre en la víspera de una comisión de servicio o destinación que así lo exigía. Se vivía el mes de octubre de 1980 y el infrascrito –entonces mayor– recibió la orden de presentarse, ¡en una semana! (después se transformaron en 15 días) al curso de Estado Mayor en el Army War College de Pretoria, Sudáfrica, donde se suponía que las clases eran dictadas en inglés y en afrikaans. Esta designación cambiaba sorpresivamente mi destino a una unidad en Chile, luego de que mi participación en el curso de Estado Mayor en la Escuela Superior de Guerra de Francia fuera cancelada, debido al cese de los intercambios castrenses con dicho país. Ello, después de haber concluido –junto a mi compañero, el mayor Hernán Reyes– una metódica preparación en el idioma francés. Y aquí surge el reconocido rasgo de la personalidad del profesor Juan Moya. Enfrentado él a nuestra poca preparación y escaso tiempo disponible, se entregó de lleno y con entusiasmo a esta titánica tarea. Ésta consistió en clases diarias, donde el profesor Moya fue mi sombra; disparando verbos, haciéndome repetir pertinazmente cientos de palabras para aumentar mi vocabulario; exigiéndome el spelling de todo el abecedario, números y unidades de medida. Esto ocurría durante todo el día, en medio de entregas, cierre de oficina, firmas de actas y trámites para sacar pasaporte. Nunca podré olvidar esas cuatro últimas noches en que nos acompañó, a Isabel y a mí, desde las 9 de la noche hasta las 3 de la madrugada, impartiendo sus lecciones, haciéndonos preguntas a las cuales respondíamos encaramados sobre cajas, baúles y maletas. Si este relato no indica voluntad de servicio y entrega, creo que ningún otro podría reflejar ese espíritu de cooperación del distinguido autor y amigo. De esa traumática experiencia nació la decisión –con el gran apoyo de mis superiores, primero, y, luego, en el ejercicio de mis funciones como CJE.–, de buscar un cambio integral que permitiera a
* El Profesor Juan Moya Montaña fue contratado como Ayudante de Profesor para la Escuela Militar el 1 de marzo de 1970 y prestó servicios a la institución por 30 años en forma continua en el ya mencionado Instituto Matriz, en la Academia de Guerra y en el Comando de Institutos Militares.
A short course in english for adult students

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los oficiales y cuadro permanente del Ejército incorporar al inglés como un segundo idioma, exigible mediante un proceso regulado, que combinara el interés personal y el apoyo institucional para el logro del objetivo. Bien conocemos el sistema vigente que se orienta a tal propósito. Vayan aquí mis agradecimientos también a todos los que lo han construido; también a cuantos han debido “sufrir” el proceso. Sin duda, estos últimos, ahora se dan cuenta que han adquirido una herramienta básica en la formación de un profesional militar moderno. Con todo, no quisiera dejar la impresión que en el Ejército habría existido una despreocupación o falta de eficiencia en esta materia. Por el contrario, nuestros legendarios profesores de inglés, tanto de la Escuela Militar como de la Academia de Guerra del Ejército –Mr. Lühr, Mr. Clerc, Mr. Parada, Mr. Sepúlveda, y otros–, buscaban el mismo propósito. Y, por supuesto, obtenían resultados acordes a las horas, tiempos, sistemas e interés de los alumnos y de la institución por el tema. Lo que pasó fue que las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional al Ejército superaron el sistema vigente; pero no así la voluntad, vocación y entrega de esos ejemplares maestros. Tampoco, el permanente interés de la institución por el asunto. De allí surge la necesidad del cambio, conocido por todos, hacia la actual estructura de la Escuela de Idiomas del Ejército y la aplicación de un modelo educacional en la materia, que ya cubre varias lenguas (desde el inglés al chino mandarín, incluyendo también las originarias rapanui, mapudungun y aimara), donde nuestro personal se prepara sistemática y formalmente con una gran dosis de compromiso personal en esta tarea. Este libro, sin duda, contribuirá a formar parte de las múltiples variables que configuran este todo: la formación en idiomas extranjeros del personal del Ejército para capacitarlos al nivel que hoy exige nuestra profesión y las características de un mundo globalizado.

Juan Emilio Cheyre Espinosa General de Ejército Comandante en Jefe del Ejército

Santiago, enero de 2006.

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A short course in english for adult students

7. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. adjetivos. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. 5.). 2. estudiar y estudiar. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. 3. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. etc. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. preposiciones. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. Estudiar las ilustraciones. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. verbos. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. A short course in english for adult students 7 . Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. 8. 4. 6. 9. Leer. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%).

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What time?. milk. temporarily. the day after tomorrow. very few UNIT 3 • • • • • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I . How old? How long? What time? • This. At. Past and Future) • SOME . O´clock.etc. How tall?. at this time. students.. Those.. like? For describing people and things. usually. etc. Whose?. quarter past / to. For • Now. little. ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?. Who?. Where?. What?. etc.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . Until. every month. When?.Clothes • • • • Every day. many. How? Whom?. How wide?. sugar. at night Noon / midday.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which • VOCABULARY: . minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. How much?.People • How much? How many? • Much. Why?. three times a year. often. How often?. at present. QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?. sometimes.Adjectives • • • • • Uncountable nouns: money. A(N). Which?. Who?. What is / are . books.. The . midnight UNIT 4 • • • • • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE • Now.. • VOCABULARY: . etc. TIME AND DATES • How old?. What size?. yesterday.. Time and Dates UNIT 5 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. Always. etc. next week.Time expressions (I) . for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being. tomorrow. every week. • ARTICLES II . Why?. last week / last year / last Monday.. In . two days ago UNIT 2 • THERE TO BE (Present. work. How far?. never. These. How big?. What sort of?. How long?. How high?. the day before yesterday. How fast?. How thick?. What kind of?. What color?. very little. etc. On.NOT ANY . a lot. That. few. water. Countable nouns: people.. Past and Future) • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET • What?.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 • TO BE (Present. How many?.. A short course in english for adult students 9 .ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . twice a week. men.NO . How long?.Numerals. How?. generally. Once a day. today. at the moment. half past. lots of.

. etc. an Englishman. • Somebody / someone..Parts Of The Body .... What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! UNIT 8 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who... • How long does it take to. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl..Food • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. When Peter arrived this morning. etc. too / as well.the shortest • Intelligent. Please. • Mr. nowhere UNIT 9 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO. • IT TAKES. UNIT 10 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. more intelligent than. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian... in North Carolina.. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. when they got married.. / IT TOOK. somewhere. not anywhere. MUST. Scott. • Open the door.. This one is too old UNIT 11 • • • • • • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I.. at 10:30 last night. AS WELL. professions.. SO.. titles and ranks.. Cpt.. = DEMORAR • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES • VOCABULARY: .. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: • Our Health • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. streets. TOO. He told me that he was tired.. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. don´t do that. In Canada... You may use the phone now. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow. something. • An American. • What a tall woman!. etc. • A doctor. SHOULD. etc. in the USA. etc. SOMETHING.. not anybody / not anyone. MAY.. He speaks Italian.. • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . etc. White.. an engineer.EITHER. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. In Salt Lake City. • He said that he was tired.. a secretary. • The boy speaks Italian..shorter than.. The man whose car is parked outside. a Chilean. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now.better . countries and geographical names. • On Fifth Avenue. in the West Indies. • Good ...Nationalities. not anything. nobody / no one.. • It takes me 20 minutes to.. but the girl doesn´t. 10 A short course in english for adult students . please. Jones.The house • At that time. etc. nothing. etc..? • Short .. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. • Bob can swim very well. the most intelligent • As fast as.. cities. Whom. Bob sent her some flowers.. etc. NOT. OUGHT TO • HAVE TO = TENER QUE • VOCABULARY: ..best.Time Expressions II • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow.. etc.The City • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year.UNIT 7 • PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS • VOCABULARY: .. / IT WILL TAKE. Dr.

ever Book / books. He cut himself.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING . He will let them play He wants us to go. once. etc. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. brush / brushes. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop A short course in english for adult students 11 . MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . UNIT 13 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. harder.before.Nature • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain UNIT 15 • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . day / days.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIT 12 • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND • VOCABULARY: . Verb + to-infinitive B. twice. more carefully. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E.The Weather • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. etc. early.MAY. carefully. baby / babies. etc. Verb + gerund / bare infinitive D.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. knife / knives. go shopping. since. never. not yet. keep talking. yet / already?. Go skiing. Fast. too I saw her crossing / cross the road. three times. / CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . already. for. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting.Sports and Recreation • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. etc. He himself did it. certainly. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . earlier. soon More quickly. etc.Prepositions and Connectors • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. late. Sooner. MIGHT. lately. did he? UNIT 14 • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” • VOCABULARY: . hard. etc.

The Armed Forces II • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.UNIT 16 • FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN. COMMANDS. QUESTIONS C. ORDERS • VOCABULARY: . • USE OF ELSE. UNTIL. AS SOON AS. or else I´ll miss my flight. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. UNIT 17 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO • VOCABULARY: .The Workshop • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired.The Armed Forces I • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 18 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE • VOCABULARY: .. When I see her tomorrow. STATEMENTS B.. UNIT 19 • REPORTED SPEECH A.Regular and Irregular Verbs • • • • He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping UNIT 21 • ASSESSMENT TEST • • • • Student’s Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teacher’s Text Script 12 A short course in english for adult students .... ETC.. OR ELSE / OTHERWISE • VOCABULARY: .

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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Thank you /δæηk iu:/ gracias.it iz. the secretary. the new instructor. thanks. δi/ (antes de vocal) el. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. θæηks/ They´re very well.) un/a. It is. /δeir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. It´s a house. it is. They´re books. ARE /a:r/ 1. On /on/ encima de. Jones. los. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. Escuche. /its in δe gáridll/ It´s on the desk. la. At /æt/ en. /δéir in δe ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. they are. δei á:r. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r δóuz/. This /δis/ este/a. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. /its on δe désk/ They´re in the car park. Fine /fáin/ bien.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /δéi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. thank you. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. /δei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. /iés. they are. /shi:z δe sékretri/ They´re Bob.IS . He´s. /δeir δe stiú:dents/ He´s at home. las.) . Jim and Tom. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz δis a pén/ Is that a house? /is δæt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r δí:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r δóuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz δæt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z δæt wúman/ .How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. /hí:z mátch béter. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz δis/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots δæt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r δí:z/. θæηks/ He´s much better. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. /áim fáin. its a pén/ Yes. She´s. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. /iés. They´re. Those /δóuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons.δeir ká:rz/ He´s Mr.UNIT 1 PART I. δei á:r. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not. Thanks /δæηks/ gracias. Now /náu/ ahora. You´re. thanks. IS /iz/. /δeir véri wél θæηk iu/ 2. The /δe (antes de cons. In /in/ en. δeir búks/ Yes. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ Iam not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /δei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /δei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /δeir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . the students. It´s a pen /iés. /δéir in δe læb/ I´m fine. We´re. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. It´s. /hi:z δe niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. That /δæt/ ese/a. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. Who are those men? /hú: a:r δóuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz δe ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz δe búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r δe ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r δe stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r δe tchíldrn/ It is a pen.They´re cars.. These /δí:z/ estos/as. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a.

Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r δei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. Answer these questions. They´re not in the lab. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. It isn´t a train. The teacher ______ in the classroom now.) It´s a truck. 10. Are we ready to go? 4. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. Are the students in class? 6. Are you in the office? 2._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . 4. are not /a:r nót/. /mægazinz/ No. John and Mary _____ good friends. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent δei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt δis kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. He´s a pilot. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. They´re tables /téiblz/. 3. (sala de profs. they aren´t. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. He isn´t very well. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1.) It´s a pencil. here /híar/ aquí. over there /óuver δéar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. Escuche. 2. ______ an undergraduate student. he is.Escuche. it isn´t. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. 9. He´s not very well. (armas-poderosas) 6.rent δei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. /trák/ No. 5. He isn´t here. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. He is not here /híar/. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a káptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r δei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. They´re not there. The train _____ ten minutes late. Am I a good instructor? 5. It´s not a train. /pénsl/ No. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/.) They´re magazines. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. 1. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. isn´t /íznt/ . Clark? 3. (They´re not chairs).) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. He´s not here. They are not there /(éar/ It is not a train. aren´t /á:rent/.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. (It´s not a pen. 8. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. They aren´t there. Is that man Mr. Yes. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. The men ______ tired. 7. 2. (It´s not a tank. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. it isn´t. there /δéar/ allí. (They´re not books. they aren´t. 3. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæηk/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. is not /iz nót/. They aren´t in the lab.

The books are on the table 9.Is Cpt. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. That boy´s my brother 8. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . Is the bank open? 10. The computer / connected to Internet 6. thanks 5. they are not. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. I´m fine.(patio) 9. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. Who?. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. How?. The children are tired 10. 5. The course / interesting 4. The cat´s under the sofa 6. 3. The children / in the playground. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Peter and John / in class 3. Your friends / from Canada 5. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. as in the example below: The Browns . The pictures / clear (nítidas. Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. Are your friends American? (British) 7. 4 Ask questions. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. Where?. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex.8. 1.at home 1. It´s a chair 7.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. claras) 8. as in the example: It´s a plane. It´s a knife 2. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No. The manager / in his office 2. They´re books 3.

How ______ you? I ______ fine. 18 A short course in english for adult students . ______ she single? No. She ______ my classmate . 1. /δei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . She ______ from London. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Hello. B. (pausa) This ______ Janet. Jane. Come and meet her. Peter. thanks. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/. Jackson was here three weeks ago. she ______ ______. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. The day before yesterday /δe déi bifór jésterdei/ anteayer Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. la semana pasada Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días Yesterday /jésterdei/ ayer. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /δei wé:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. / méri woz δe bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ . Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. Sir. Jack. She ______ a new student. Oh. ______ you a student here? No. Jim? I ______ here. My name ______ Frank. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. 6. She ______ married. I´m glad to meet you. Wisconsin. Pleased to meet you. ¿Cuándo? Why? /wái/. I ______ glad to meet you. I ______ with my friend Janet. I ______ from Appleton. Hello. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. Oh. ______ you alone? No. ¿Por qué?. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. That ______ very interesting. Where ______ you. Brown? I ______ American. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Hello.Ex. /míster djækson woz híar θrí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). That´s bad news. Mike Hello. Mr. too. I ______ not. Where ______ you from. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Oh. I ______ ______. in the library. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ .WERE /wer/ I was /ai wóz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. I ______ an instructor.WERE /wer/ 1. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today.

Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. Mary was late for the train this morning. How?. but it ______ working well now.Y. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. 5. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. 6. The weather was fine that day. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?. 3. 2. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. but he ______ much better today. 5. 1. /dllón wóznt at hóum δis mórnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. Tom was at home at midnight last night. They ______ free today. Escuche. How old. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. They were good friends at school. Who? 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . 7. 3. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás δis mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at δis táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. 6. George was a little better this morning. /δei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérkiη/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. present or past: 1. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. Yesterday ______ Sunday.M. Today ______ Monday. The secretary was busy at midday. 2. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. Liz was in bed because she was sick. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. 3. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. The men were tired after the long walk. John was in the car at that moment. 4. 3.Why?. 6. 5. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. 4. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. but they ______ at work yesterday. 4. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. 2. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died.2.

/ái wil bí: véri bízi δis a:fternú:n/ . /δei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. 1. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today. but he 1. serán / estarán) They will be /δei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu lóη/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. bi: at δe mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil δei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu loη wil δei bí: in wóshiδton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. Escuche. For /for/ por What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. Mr. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. 2. It is not very cold now. The weather was not very nice last month. 7. We are not busy right now.C. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ellas será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. 4. but it _____________________________________________ next month. 6. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. They won´t be here all day. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. but they _______________________________ next semester. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. /ai wil nót bí: bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. Escuche. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vnin/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil δe tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil δei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. 5. I am not in my office at the moment. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. John isn´t absent today. 3. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. The day after tomorrow /δe déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /δeil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. A short course in english for adult students .

14. 2.Ex. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. The weather will be very nice this month. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2.Why? How?. They will be in the next town before midday. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. 7. What time?. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good.When?. Ask questions using Where?. 10. 5. 2. 2. Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ¿Quién era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. 6. 1. The program will be interesting. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 5. 4. 12. Where were you last weekend? 7. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. 3. 1. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todavía. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. in English. 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. Mary will be in New York next weekend. I´ll be in the first team. When is the next general meeting? 9. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. 9. John will be in class today. 3. 13. 7. 11. How long?. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 3. 6. 3. 7. Answer the following questions. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. etc. It´ll be hot tomorrow. 4. 6. Ella será una excelente secretaria. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. How are you today? 4. 4. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. They will be here at ten-thirty. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. When will you be on vacation again? 3. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. Mr. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. 9. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. 5. 8. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. My friends will be here before 12. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 4. 5. 8.

Q .W . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.U .S . E . My last name is Vasquez. /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.O .A 5.B . lea y aprenda: 1. it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.T .X .D .I .I .W .K .R .B .E .L . 3.M . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mánθ ái bó:t it at δe pí: éks/ B: No.N . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.V . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z.B . J .Y .Y .P .C .G .X .A .L .A .B .A -E 2.F . P .G .Z .Y .C .X .J .X .N . B: Can you spell that.V .W .H .I .O .V -B 3.G .U . ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .E . Tom works for IBM in LA.H .R . E .T .A .F .Q .Q .M .I .T .Z .O . 1.X .X .Q .C .A . please A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /θæηkiu:/ /kán iu: spél δæt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái bráδerz néim iz ignásio/ 2. Escuche. δæts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.PART II.C .Y .L .I . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.K . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.J . /mái la:st néim is váskes.S .K .A Ex.I .D .O .G .O .F 4.N .L . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.O .I . ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1. 4.E . U .U .r/ B: Last month. 2.W .E .

A. A as in Alfa. The commander´s last name is CLARK.D. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . I spell: C as in Charlie. FBI OK ITT a. 5. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /táηgou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iáηki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. I spell: J for Juliett.m.m.C. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B. L as in Lima. My name is JUAN.Ex. U for uniform. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph.

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.. 1. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2.... Are the maps in the library? Ex. Was . he is. am 9.? 4...? 2.. Are your friends from Canada? 5. will be in my office 6. 5. They aren´t happy.. 7.? C.. You´re a good instructor.is 4...are R: am .. The program won´t be .? 2. Is the computer connected to internet? 6. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. 3. Those children are not very good students.. 9. When are they free all day? 11. Yes. is 8. Was .. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not . No. What´s this / that? 7. 1. They aren´t American.am (pause) is . 2. When were the Smiths .is Ja: am .. 1. Mr Jackson was in the office all day. Yes.. Ex. Yes.. it is. Are . 4.? 4.. They aren´t angry.. I am..? 3. Who was that man? 12. They´re in class. she is. I´m in the office. They´re sad.. It´s a modern plane.. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. 6. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . / Was Mary. he´s not. Was . Is the package light or heavy? 7. Why will they be at home all day? 9.am 3. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. 1. is 2.. 1. No. We weren´t here last week. will be very cold 4. They´re young.are 5..Are J: am . they´re not. / Will Mary be. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4.. are 4. 9.. No.? 5. / Will my friends be. The men weren´t . 7.. Where are the books? 9.is Ex.? 5. When will Mary be in New York? 7.. No. will be very busy 5. 10.. 1.. 2. He´s an engineer. Yes. Mary wasn´t .. They were good friends at school. Who was here this morning? 5. Who´s that woman? Ex. 2. He´s at work. they are.. / Was Hernry. / Will John be . They´re British. they´re not... Ex.? 2. he´s not.is 6. What´s this / that? 2. They aren´t old... 1. I´m not. The secretary wasn´t... Ex. Is . 2. / Was the weather. Henry wasn´t . Are the children in the playground? 9... are 5. I´m hungry. My friends won´t be. will be very nice. When will you be free? 3.. 1.. I´m not thirsty. 8... Yes.. No. 6.. The weather wasn´t . Yes.is . will be absent 3. 5.are Ja: am B.. Are Peter and John in class? 3. / Will I be . 10.? 6..is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . They weren´t. / Was the secretary . What are these / those? 3..were 3. we are-We´re ready to go. It won´t be .am J: is 2. they are. Who was in the car. M: is P: is . they´re not.R: is J: is . Where are your friends now? 4..are 3. they´re not.. 1. 1. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . 3.. it´s not. 5. 14.. / Will it be. 1.you are. 8. It´s dirty. Who´s that boy? 8. I am... They´re hungry. F: is . 9.. He isn´t a doctor. How was George. How are the children? 10. At what time will they be here? 5. I won´t be... / Will the program be.? 4.. Where are the cigarettes?. 3.. How are you? 5.. / Were they. 2. He isn´t at home.. No.was 4. 6. 3. Is the course interesting? 4.. 1.? Ex... Where was Tom at.is 2.are Ex. I´m not. Why was Liz in bed? 4.. 5. 4. How old was Mr Clark when. No.. Is the manager in his office? 2.. 1.. 2. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex.? 6. I´m a army officer.... Ex. 1. Yes.... John won´t be.? 5. Yes.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A...was 7.are F: am . 13.. I´m not an navy officer. When will she be back in Chile? 8. How will the weather be this month? 6.. This isn´t a very interesting book. (open answers) Ex... Were . Are the pictures clear? 8.? 3. will be at the meeting 7.. No. will be in the same class 2. Was . 4. 3.. 6. 8. Yes. are 6..is J: is ... Clark. it is. He´s Mr..No. 1. The reports weren´t ready yet.. is 10.. Where´s the cat? 6. Yes.? Ex.. Ex. It´s open.. is 7. Mary won´t be. 4. / Were the men . Ex.? 3.? 6.. It isn´t clean. They´re updated. 3. She´s a secretary. 1. I´m hungry.

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Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. EXISTIR) A. /a:r δear éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . ha advertido. /δear á:rent éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. /δear á:rent éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. /δear a:r nóu tchéarz in δe rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. There are three (windows). en el singular. There isn´t any (water). There aren´t any (chairs). PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . THERE IS /δear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. There´s no water. THERE ARE /δear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. /δear íznt éni wóter in δe glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /δéar á:r sam trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /δear á:r nóu trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz δearz éni wóter in δe glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . /δear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /δear á:r sam tchéarz in δe rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /δear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /δear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /háu match/ Como ud.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. en castellano. THERE TO BE (HABER. /δéar íznt éni wóter in δe glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. / δéar íznt e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. se usa la contracción THERE´S /δéarz/. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. Is there a book on the desk? /íz δer e búk on δe désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz δer e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz δér éni wóter in δe glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r δer tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r δer éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). There´s only one (door). /δear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room.PART I. /δear iz nót e búk on δe désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. There´s a lot (of ice). Normalmente. /δear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. There is a book on the desk /δear íz e búk on δe désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. There are no chairs.

/δéar á:rent méni buks on δe shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz δéar mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r δéar méni buks on δe shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. very few people at the conference. . EXERCISES Ex. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. /δéarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. La expresión a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. very little money left in the box. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. 3. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras much o many. There´s no water in that bottle. 4. There are many trees in the garden. 1. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. /δéar íznt mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. There is a tree in the garden. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /δéarz véri lítl wóter in δe glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. por lo tanto se omite. /δéar á:r e lót ov buks on δe shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. There are flowers in the garden. Normalmente el artículo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. /δear a:r véri fiú: desks in δe rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. /δear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /δéarz e lót ov shúgar in δe bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. only one student in the lab now.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). 2.

IS THERE? Or HOW MANY. 2. There´s some more coffee in the cup. five or six. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. There´s a telephone in the room. two. Ej. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ice in my glass. A LOT in the blank spaces. no milk in it. ___________________ 8. 7. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. There are 30 days in February. 2. Complete the following questions and answers. 4. A short course in english for adult students 29 . several helicopters in the airfield. 9. 3. 1. sir. 7.. ___________________ 5. 4. ___________________ 6. Change the following statements into the negative form. 6. Use HOW MUCH... very few. ___________________ 7. no time left. milk left in the bottle. 2. ___________________ dictionaries (are there)? money ______________ ? doors ________________ in the lab? milk _________________ in the jug? video tapes ___________ ? work _________________ today? people _______________ in the room?. 3. four men. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings... 6. 10. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. some letters for you on the desk. There´s central heating in the room. ARE THERE? in the questions.. a lot of mistakes in your composition. 10. 8. a lot. 9. a lot of work.. 6.5. There are more women than men. FEW. just one.. no more cassettes in the box. There´s some more money in my pocket. 1. 7. There are some extra chairs in the room. There are a lot of students absent. 2. There is another chair in that room There are some more books. 8. 3. 8. ___________________ 9. Ex. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. There are 24 hours in a day. ___________________ 3. 3. There are more than 10 students... There´s some more meat in the fridge. 1. 5. butter ________________ in the dish? secretaries____________ here? women ______________ in that group? men _________________ in the crew? (There are) 8. ___________________ 10. 5. of noise in this room. Ex. 5. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. just a little. Use LITTLE. 10... 9. ___________________ 2. There are a lot of people in the room. There are some students absent today. There are very ______________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There´s very ________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ books in the school library. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. ___________________ 4.. 4.: (How many) 1. There are some more clean glasses. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the Answers . 4.

How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little. Are there many errors in the bill? There´s very little whisky left. Change into the Past Tense: 1. of course) _________________________________________________________________________ 4. /δear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. students absent from class today. There´s a lot of work in the office today. There are very few people in the pub.THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /δear wóz/ / THERE WERE /δear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. 2. 7. 1. lots of cars) _________________________________________________________________________ 30 A short course in english for adult students . How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) _________________________________________________________________________ 2. 7. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes. of sugar in my coffee. 9. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) _________________________________________________________________________ 6. Answer these questions. /δear wé:rnt méni buks on δe désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. There were many people absent. more than enough) _________________________________________________________________________ 5. There wasn´t any beer in the can. There weren´t many books on the desk. There are two books missing from the shelf. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No. 9. it was a leap year) _________________________________________________________________________ 7. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. of errors in my bill. How many days were there in February that year? (29. 8. whisky left in the bottle. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. tickets available. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /δear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /δear wé:rent/. It´s too sweet. B. 3. 4. not more than 30) _________________________________________________________________________ 3. 10. 5.5. Was there a TV in the room? / woz δear e tÍ: ví: in δe rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r δear atδe pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). There are __________________________________ There are only a ____________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s just a ______________________________ of trees in that park. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes. 6. How much milk is there in the fridge? There aren´t many hotels in this town. 10. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /δear was e lot ov nóis in δe rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . Is there enough money for the trip? How many people are there on board? There isn´t much time to talk. EXERCISES: Ex. 6. 8. Escuche. /δear wóznt éni bíar in δe kæn/ No había nada de cerveza en la lata.

En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /δearl bí:/. Escuche. /δearl bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ . 6. /δear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. 9. 2. next time? very little food in the fridge now. not any more exercises in the book now. very few flowers in our garden. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /δear wil bí:/. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. Change into the future tense. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2.C. 1.1. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/ En las preguntas. 7. 3. 6. /δear wil not bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ There won´t be two more tests next week. 8. 4. 3. 2. Past or Future). 1. How many women ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How much free time __________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How many students ___________________________ ____________________________________________ at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. There´ll be another meeting this evening. /δear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil δear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: δis í:vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil δear bí. 5. 7. 3. There will not be another meeting this evening. There are some women at the meeting. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 31 . a lot of noise at the disco last night. several trees in the park now. 1. 3. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. There is a lot of free time in the evening. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. There will be two more tests next week. /δearl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. 5. 10. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil δear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. /δear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . in your class last year? much milk left. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. 5. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. 4. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. Just one or two bottles. Escuche. 2. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /δear wil bí: e veri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunaít/. 4. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. Ex. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish.

5. 3. __________________________________________ No. ¿Cuánto s autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. 7. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 8. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9. 2. 4. 10. 5. __________________________________________ Yes. 4. 8. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. 1. 9. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. 8. 9. Translate the following sentences into English 1.6. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your office? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 12. 3. 6. 5. Answer these questions in English. 7. No hay tiempo para conversar. __________________________________________ No.. 7. 2. 10. 4. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. 11. 6. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex.

thousand. Ej. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. thirty.971 forty five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv θáuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred θáuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú hándred/ 2. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstín/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntín/ 30 thirty /δérti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /δri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /δertín/ 18 eighteen /eitín/ 40 forty /fórti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtín/ 19 nineteen /naintín/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftín/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. 32 thirty-two. 94 ninety-four.285 d) 94 k) 6.875 g) 148 n) 5. two hundred and sixty-five. el punto es coma y la coma es punto. Las palabras hundred. US$ 4.687.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. Las palabras hundred.000 one thousand /uán θáuzand/ 200.. million y billion no van seguidas de and. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5.. Ej. NUMBERS Escuche.” Ej.000 five thousand.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv θáuzand θri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45.000.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . 2. 45 fortyfive. 12. 5.973 f) 28 m) 256. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. Ej. Ej. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1.387 five thousand. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of.394 e) 33 l) 24. las palabras thousand. 400 four hundred. twenty-one.5% . 365 three hundred and sixty-five.000 two million /tú mílion/ 5. 21. 4. Al escribir cifras en inglés. 70.45 km.PART II.000 three million. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium. 5.000 two thousand /tú θáuzand/ 2. 3. three hundred and eighty-seven. 3. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. 463.365. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés. 68 sixty-eight. forty. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. Las palabras twenty.000.80 Ex.

mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny /græni/ father-in. daddy /dæd.law /fá:δer in ló:/ mother-in-law /maδer in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /bráδer in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:δer/ step-mother /step máδer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step bráδer/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:δer/ foster-mother /fóster máδer/ god-father /god fá:δer/ god-mother /god máδer/ papá. mujer padre madre hijos.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE GENERAL person /pε:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /gε:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfa:δer/ grandmother /grandmáδer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:δer/ mother /máδer/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /bráδer/ sister /síster/ uncle /áηkl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. personas niño/s. mommy /mam. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persona gente. marido esposa. dædi/ mom. niños 34 A short course in english for adult students . pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman /dlléntlman/ lady /léidi/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero dama chicos.papi mamá. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad.

.. are there.? There´s. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2.. 9... There isn´t much.. There are 4.. 10. 7. is there? There´s. 2.. There will be a lot. 10. is there.. 1. There were 29... / There´s no more. There are seven days. 5. There aren´t many. 7.. a lot 6. 6. 1.. 6.... There wasn´t.? Ex. 9. How many. 1.. little 3.. There´s a lot of noise in this room now.. 2... There isn´t much money in it.. there are no spelling mistakes. 2.. There aren´t any more. 2. is there.. There isn´t Ex.. 5..? There are..? 5.. computers. 3. 2.. There are 7.. 3.? 7. Ex.. How many..? 10. There isn´t any more.. Are there more. There won´t be another concert until next week. a lot 9. Is there any more.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A..? There´s.? 7.. No hay mucha leche sobrante. There are Ex. are there. 3. Is there a hotel. Will there be 5. How many... Ex.. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. 9.. There were. There was very little. 1.. students. of course. 10. 3. How much milk was there. There are 9.. Are there any students. 1..? 2. 3..There aren´t any extra. There is 6.. Were there..? 9. There was. 8. There were only two hotels in that town.... 2... Will there be more than.. How many. there was a lot of work. 4.. little B. 5. few 8.... There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. Is there much free... little 4.. 4. Were there 2. There´s just one / There are... There isn´t a... There is 3... Ex. / There´s no more. How much money is there in the wallet? 5... There were very few children in the street that day.. 7.were there 10. 9.. 2. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. a lot 5.. 1. There were. There´s 6..... There were. Ex..? There are. How much money will there be.... Yes.. Are there more than.. How many people were there.. How much. there won´t be another meeting 7.....? There are. There aren´t 30. / There are no more... 3... 7.? 6. 2. are there. 2. There´s 3. 1. a lot 10..people. 5. There aren´t many. 4... 2. 1.. There will be some.Is there a restaurant near here... / No.. are there? There are. Is there a train. A short course in english for adult students 35 .... 9. 12.? 3.. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7... 8. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10.. There was very little free time during the morning. There was. 1... How much. 1.. Will there be any.... Was there enough....? Thre are.. There weren´t any 6. How much. How many.? Ex. 4. C.? 4.? 6. few 2. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.? 5.. there was more than enough.... There will be another general meeting next Friday. There are 7. 1. 3. Ex.? 10.? 7. There are 2. 8. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4.There are 10. There´s no central.. There weren´t many people in the building at that time. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. 4. There is 8. There isn´t any more... There won´t be any. How much. No. 1... 1.? There´s. are there.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora.? 4..? 8. 4.... Yes. There were about 20 . Are there 24. is there. There´ll be 28 days. Sólo una o dos botellas. 11. Ex. There was 8. few 7. Is there another. No. 8..? There´s. There are 5. there weren´t more than 30 3.. 5... There are 9. there aren´t any..? 6. There were.. There is no time to talk.. 6. 5. No.. there were lots of cars.. There weren´t. Ex.. 4.. Yes. 8. 1. There are twelve eggs. 3.. It was a leap year. 6... There is 4. 4. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6. 1. are there. How many people will there be... Ex.. 3.. How many. 5. Are there any more.. / There are no extra.

nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. Ex. three hundred and twenty-eight. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 1.Part II. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students . eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million.

En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /δéi hav gót/ Escuche. It´s got very long ones. John _____________________________ a new uniform.. /ai hav not gót. 37 ./ My dog´s got long ears.. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car... I´ve only got 5 dollars./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. significa TENER. /δei hávent got. /δeiv gót./ The rooms haven´t got central heating. /ai hávent gót. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos) They have got a big house.. tienen) (ellos tienen) I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ Peter´s got many friends... tenemos) (uds. /pí:ter haz not gót. 2. Yes. it has. I haven´t got one ( one = a car) Yes.. /δe rú:mz hávent gót./ I haven´t got a car./ They haven´t got a big house. A short course in english for adult students No./ Has the dog got long ears? /haz δe dóg gót../ My dog hasn´t got long ears. /δe rú:mz hav gót séntrl hí:tiδ/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /δéiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos. /mai dóg haz gót loδ íarz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) The rooms have got central heating./ Peter hasn´t got many friends...UNIT 3 PART I./ They´ve got a big house. /mai dógz gót. He´s got one sister and two brothers... he´s got a lot. (ones = ears) No./ My dog has not got long ears..... /δei hav not gót.../ The rooms have not got central heating. (of friends) No..r/ Peter has not got many friends. lea y aprenda: I have got a car. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad. /pí:ter házent gót. I´ve got very little (money).. /mai dóg haz not gót.. es decir. /δei hav gót e bíg háus/ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) My dog has got long ears.. /pí:terz gót. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót../ En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT.. they haven´t. Hans ____________________________ long black hair ../ They have not got a big house.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. But they´ve got a radio./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót./ Have they got a big house? /hav δei gót. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´T GOT /hδvent gót/ y HASN´T GOT /hδzent gt/ Escuche... /ai hav gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) Peter has got many friends. /δe rú:mz hav not gót ./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche..... /mai dóg házent gót. They´ve got a small one. they haven´t got one../ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav δe ru:mz got....

3. They´ve got a big family.3. The soldiers ______________________ We ______________________________ The book _________________________ I ________________________________ Mary _____________________________ My friends ________________________ My flat ___________________________ The car __________________________ a very good instructor. 6. The boy has got black shoes. I´ve got some cigarettes. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. Bob´s got our address. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 6. 200 pages.. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1.? 1. Bob´s got five dollars. 7. Bob´s got some money. The house has got a garden. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10.. Have you got a computer at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 A short course in english for adult students . 9. 6. a small house in the country. Bob´s sister has got a car. 8.. 10. 10. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. 7. 4. You´ve got your passport here. They´ve got a lot of friends there. 2. Nancy´s got a computer.. a new blue dress. A car has got four wheels . My friends have got a telephone. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. a lot of money. 4. Ex. three children. 6. They ´ve got very little free time. You´ve got many things to do today. two bedrooms. I´ve got three children. 5. Have you got a big library at home? 9. 4. 5.? / HOW MANY. Bob´s got a big family. You´ve got a lighter. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 7. The students have got a new instructor. 5. 3. The flat has got two bathrooms. four wheels. 7. 3. We´ve got a small classroom. 8. They´ve got two cars. 9. 8. How many children have you got? 3. They´ve got our telephone number. 5. 9. 2. Ex. 2. The students have got some experience. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. 10. Ex. My father´s got a modern car. 2 Change into the negative form 1. a son and two daughters.

ADJECTIVES En inglés. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. ARTICLES (I) 1. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /δis iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /δis iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). /δis iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). That´s a girl. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. Ej. masculino o femenino. altos. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. The books are old. The book is old. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. There´s a car in the street. The women are very tall. A. /δis iz an æ (Esta es una manzana).PART II. This is a one-way ticket. no específico. This is a house /δis iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. Además. todos los sustantivos actúan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. There are several books on the desk. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as). Por lo tanto. The woman is very tall. /δæts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). /δæts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). Ej. The men are very tall. /δi:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). Compare: This is an orange. la los. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . This is a book. plural. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A five-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers 2. That is a tree /δæt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). son invariables. determinados. alta. This is an apple. Those are animals /δóuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). Those are trees /δóuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). /δéarz a ká:r in δe strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). several /séveral/ (varios/as) o many /méni/ (muchos/as). Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. That´s an animal /δæts an æ ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). These are houses. /δis iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). The man is very tall. He is an honest man. Ej. altas. Ejemplo. /δis iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). That´s an orange. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. This is an old car /δis iz an ´pl/ óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). Ej. There is a book on the desk. An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B.

They´ve got a horse on the farm. 4. 7. 27. Is this an envelope? That man isn´t a teacher. 8. 6. 10. 9. Change the following sentences into the plural. 29. 2. 13. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. 26. 5. 32. That is a picture This is a car. There´s a tree in the garden. 3. 5. 23. This boy isn´t a new student. 2. 20. The student has got a new notebook.Exe. Please show me a photograph. 22. 3. 19. 7. 13. 11. 12. use some. 30. There will be an interesting program tonight I´ve got a question for you. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. Change these sentences into the plural. 8. Use the indefinite articles a or an 1. many or several 1. 14. 6. 14. 2. 12. 16. 4. 9. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. 7. 31. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? There´s a yellow flower in the garden. Smith. 10. There´s a text book on the teacher´s desk. 2. 6. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I haven´t got a cigarette. 11. There´s a woman in the office. Mr. There is a letter for you. 10. There is a student in the laboratory now. 4. 1. 15. There is a new student in this class. Peter´s got a new pen. 12. 11. 5. 21. 9. 28. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. They´ve got an interesting book in the library The boy´s got a book in English. 24. This is an interesting novel. 14. There was a car accident last Sunday. 8. 18. 3. 1. 25. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 15. 13. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students .

please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time.m.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. /ei. EXERCISES Ex.m. It´s twenty past twelve 10.PART III. 04:00 p. de18:00 . please? /wóts δe táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea.m. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. em/ It´s four o´clock p. It´s ten past three 4. /pii em/ It´s ten o´clock p. B.m. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. It´s twenty-five past six 12. 10:00 p. 1. It´s a quarter to ten 11.17:00) in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ (en la tarde / noche. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. G. de 13:00 . I. /pii em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . K. It´s twenty to one 2. J. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. L.m. It´s five to nine 5. F. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde.m. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ (en la mañana. It´s ten to five 6. /éi ém/ p. 07:00 p.m. /pii em/ It´s seven o´clock p. It´s half past eight 9.m. E. It´s five past seven 8.m. It´s a quarter past two 3. C. D.m. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. H.

19.Ex.m. 17. Write down the times and read: What time is it? What´s the time? 1. 24. 21. 7. 18. 11. 2.m. 15. 20. 23. 8. 10. 3. 9. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:00 p. 13.m. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:00 a. 22. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 6. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:00 p. 12. 2. 4. 5. 16. 14.

white and red.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. adinerado correcto. sano pesado. puntiagudo corto. sik/ interesting /íntrestiη/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. estrecho nuevo bonito.derecho tosco. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. gordo tonto. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. fijo. completo bueno feliz duro. par (números) caro rápido.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 .liviano largo angosto.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES ENGLISH angry /ægri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /kεrvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /ε:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd we:rkiη/ healthy /hélδi/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /háηgri/ ill. dificil esforzado saludable. atrasado flojo claro. gratis lleno. enojado malo grande romo. incorrecto joven COLO(U)RS What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. no plano temperado ancho. agradable raro. precursor fácil vacío parejo. insatisfactorio bonito rico. fome temprano. sick /il. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. orange /órindll/ gray. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /loη/ narrow /nárrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /δik/ thin /δin/ thirsty /δ:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /roη/ young /jaη/ SPANISH tarde. leso. agitado triste agudo. It´s blue. amplio sabio. leso libre. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. bajo de estatura tonto. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. sensato maravilloso equivocado. grey /grei/ purple /pε:rpl/ pink /piηk/ dark blue /dá. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo.contento pobre. brusco.

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an 3. a 14... an 28.. show me some photographs. 1.? 7..9 B . These are cars 3. There were several car accidents. 3. a 19. Ex. Have you got your. It´s half past three 4.. I´ve got some coins. 4. Bob hasn´t got a. 6. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14.a 23. It´s five past nine 7.. an 5.2 E . Ex. 5.? 4. These boys aren´t new students 9.? Ex.10..4.a 17. It´s ten to nine 3.. 2. 3. 5. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24. a 21. an 16. There are some trees. How many cars have they got? 2. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7.. It´s quarter to two 18. Ex.? 9. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23. 7. My father hasn´t got a..10 D .. Ex.. an 12. (open answers) Part II. an 8.5 I .. a 18. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9. How much money has Bob got? 5. There are several letters. has got 6. 1. They´ve got horses. an 30. a 11.. It´s twenty-five past five 20. 2. Part III.. 2.? 5... a 25.. There will be many new students. a 9. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. have got 9. 1. 13. 2. Those are pictures 2.... 1... How many children have you got? 3..? 10. 1. It´s nine o´clock 2.... Has Bob´s sister got a... a 31. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13... They´ve got some interesting books. has got 10. Are these envelopes? 4...? 2. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15. Nancy hasn´t go a.. B.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. Have they got our. 1. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . 5. 1. It´s twenty past three 16.. Are those women nurses? 11.F. an 26. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. 1. an 7.... It´s five past ten 17. It´s three minutes to three 10. 9. an 32. Have you got many.. has got 8. 9. These are interesting novels 10. We haven´t got a. The students haven´t got any experience. 12. The house hasn´t got. an 22.. 6.. Has Bob got our. a 27. a 15. have got 7. has got 3. I´ve got friends in S.. 1. / The students have got no experience. 10. It´s quarter past eight 21..? 6. It´s twenty-five past three 14. a 29. It´s twenty-five to five 22. It´s half past eleven 19...an 4. She hasn´t got blue. How much free time have they got? Ex. 3. I haven´t got any cigarettes. Are those men engineers? 12. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. A . 8. have got 5. There are some new students. 2. Have they got a. There are many text books. It´s quarter to twelve 5.3 H .They haven´t got many friends... a 24..4 G . I´ve got several magazines. 6... I´ve got several questions. 1. How many wheels has a car got? 4. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11.? 8. a Ex. Have the students got a..8 C . 13. an 6..7 F .. have got 4..1 K . a 2. 4. 8. 11... My friends haven´t got. an 13. has got Ex.. There are yellow flowers. There are many students.... 15. 3.. Peter´s got new pens 8. 7..12 J . It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. a 10. Those men aren´t teachers 5.6 Ex. It´s quarter past one 6. Have you got a.. Has Bob got any money? 3. Has the boy got black.. The boy has got some books. a 20.11 L . I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. There are many women. Please. 1. has got 2. The student has got some new notebooks 14.

Bl 46 .

/for δe táim bí:iη áim lívin wiδ mai bráδer dllón/ (Transitoriamente. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now. I´m living with my brother John. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. en la actualidad). Mary is not working in Room 10 now. I am not living with my brother John. FOR THE TIME BEING /for δe táim bí: iδ/ (mientras tanto.UNIT 4 PART I.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. Este sufijo se pronuncia /iη/ . /mériz wé:rkiη in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of.parar) To swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sítiη/ (sentándose) cutting /kátiη/ (cortando) stopping /stópiη/ (deteniendo. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. /δéi a:r liviη in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. For the time being. They aren´t living in New York at present. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. parando) swimming /suímiη/ (nadando) to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /ráit/ (escribir) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO.transitoriamente). Escuche. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at δis táim/ (a esta hora). estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. Hay tres grupos de verbos. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. /hé:rberts hæviν lántch at δe móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being.. I´m not living with my brother John . They´re not living in New York at present. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ (sentarse) To cut /kat/ (cortar) To stop /stop/ (detener. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. actualmente). Escuche. +cons.Y. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /líviη/ (viviendo) writing /ráitiη/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:kiη/ (hablando) eating /í:tiη/ (comiendo) working /wé:rkiη/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. AT THE MOMENT /at δe móument/ (en este momento). lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. + vocal + cons. Mary´s working in Room 10 now.

Where. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. tocar/tocando (un instr. The children are playing soccer. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´T/AREN´T delante del sujeto. When.ARE) con el sujeto.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo . pedir/pidiendo. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: iη/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex.. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseriη/ arriving /erráiviη/ asking /á:skiη/ asking for /á:skiη fo:r// buying /báiiη/ closing /klóuziη/ coming /kámiη/ cutting /kátiη/ doing /dú:iη/ drinking /dríηkiη/ driving /dráiviη/ drying /dráiiη/ eating /í:tiη/ finishing /fínishiη/ fixing /fíksiη/ giving /gíviη/ going /góuiη/ helping /hélpiη/ inviting /inváitiη/ learning /lé:rniη/ leaving /lí:viη/ listening to /lísniη tu/ living /liviη/ looking at /lúkiη at/ making /méikiη/ opening /óupniη/ paying /péiiη/ playing /pléiiη/ putting /pútiη/ reading /rí:diη/ receiving /risí:viη/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando. 1.IS. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. Escuche. etc. Escuche. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. Escuche. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. arreglar/arreglando/fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. How. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. How often.

llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. Escuche./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:diη létez/δe niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rkiη in δi ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:kiη wiδ fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:viη δi ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:iη δe shópiη/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báiiη δe péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchiη tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísniη tu δe niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráitiη tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóliη áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléiiη kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:kiη tu δe pa:rk/ Running across the park /rániη akrós δe pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:iη éksersaiz/ Working out /wérkiη áut/ Visiting a museum /vízitiη a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádiiη for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshiη δe ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíiniη δe háus/ Making the bed /méikiη δe béd/ Tidying up the room /táidiiη áp δe rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúkiη a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéariη sam dríηks/ Going to bed /góuiη tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gétiη ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hæviη e ba:θ/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /gétiη drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hæviη brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góuiη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráiviη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 .pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réiniη/ running /rániη/ saying /séiiη/ selling /séliη/ sending /séndiη/ singing /síηiη/ sitting /sítiη/ sleeping /slí:piη/ speaking /spí:kiη/ spending /spéndiη/ starting /stá:rtiη/ staying /stéiiη/ studying /stádiiη/ taking /téikiη/ talking /tó:kiη/ telling /téliη/ thinking /θíηkiη/ travelling /træveliη/ trying to /tráiiη tu/ waiting for /wéitiη fo:r/ walking /wó:kiη/ washing /wóshiη/ watching /wótchiη/ wearing /wéariη/ working /wé:rkiη/ Writing /ráitiη/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. 2.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.

7. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We´re making a lot of progress.I´m trying to open the window. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 3. 12. You´re doing the exercise correctly. 11. The students are reading a story.Ex. 2. They´re living in Bristol at present. John´s having breakfast now. Mary´s eating an apple now. 6. (arrive) You ___________________________ the exercises well now. It´s raining very hard now. 7. 3. 10. I´m helping John with the work 5. 3.The men are running now. 5. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. 8. 11. The students are writing a composition. 9. Ask questions using questions word like What. (visit) The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. 5. I´m singing because I´m happy. 4. He__________________________ the grass. 4. I´m answering a letter. 9. 12. Complete the following sentences. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. (spend) Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) There´s a man in the garden. 10. 9. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. 1. 7. The cadet´s sleeping in class. 6. George is travelling by plane. John and his friends are watching TV. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . 1. 4. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. Why. 4. The dog´s drinking milk. (work). 3. The children are watching TV 2. (do) They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. Bill´s answering the phone. 12. 6. (go) Mr. (listen) The students _________________________ to school now. Where. (wait) For the time being. 8. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 11. etc. 8. 5. (cut) There are several students in the gym. The girl´s washing the dishes.They´re looking at the horses. 10. The boy´s singing an English song.

too. He ____________ (sleep).. A short course in english for adult students 51 . of course! Robert : Well. let´s go for a walk. He ____________ (study) for a test. No. And Jim´s in his room. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). And Betty´s in the kitchen. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. 6. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. he isn´t. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. you know. 3. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering.Ex.then. I ___________ (go) there. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep).

two thousand two /δe déit tudéi iz wénzdi δe fé:rst ov méi tú. two thousand two /wénzdi méi δe fé:rst tú. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on δe fiftí:nθ ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. o también. nineteen seventy-five /on ó:gast δe fiftí:nθ náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mánθs/ in a year. Los números ordinales son: 1st. θáuzand tú:/ o también. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. Summer /sámer/ Verano. Wednesday. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /θé:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:rθ/ 5th Fifth /fifθ/ 6th Sixth /sixθ/ 7th Seventh /sévenθ/ 8th Eighth /éitθ/ 9th Ninth /náinθ/ 10th Tenth /ténθ/ Escuche. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. se usan para expresar fechas. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. May the first. A. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /manθ/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. on August the fifteenth. The months of the year are: January /dlláñiuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. o también.PART II. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. θáuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:rθei is on δe tuénti fífθ ov dllú:n/. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. on June the twentyfifth /on dllú:n δe tuénti fífθ/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilévenθ/ Twelfth /tuélfθ/ Thirteenth /θe:rtí:nθ/ Fourteenth /fortí:nθ/ Fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ Sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ Seventeenth /seventí:nθ/ Eighteenth /eití:nθ/ Nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ Twentieth /tuéntieθ/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti θé:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:rθ/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fífθ/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síksθ/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti sévenθ/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éitθ/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náinθ/ Thirtieth /θértieθ/ Thirty-first /θé:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /δérzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. Spring /spriη/ Primavera.

5.30. 16. 8. 3. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth. 12. 13.1893 04. 9.1999 08.01. 7. 3. 14. 4.27. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.28.09.05.12.1900 10. 2. 13. When is your birthday? When was your father born? What day is today? What´s the date today? How many days are there in a week? What are the seasons of the year? What´s your favo(u)rite season? What are the days of the week? What are the months of the year? What´s the first month of the year? What´s the third day of the week? What´s the last month of the year? How many months are there in a year? How many hours are there in a day? When is New Year´s Day? When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .2001 18.07.1810 05. 5. 12.1978 12. 14.2000 01.1938 02. 2. 11. 8.08. as in the examples: 1. 10. 2.1963 05.1906 18. 6.02.1956 10. 9. 6. 1. 4. 12. 15.12. Answer the following questions: 1. Write the following dates.09. 7.1492 07.1956 The twelfth of September.1987 02. 11.11. 10.EXERCISES Ex.03.

. How high is that hill? It´s about 1. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. viejo. 1.) para describir objetos. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm.altura size /saiz/ tamaño. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km.200 mt. huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /ráund/ redondo. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz. thin /θin/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. young /yaη/ joven old /ould/ viejo.. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. light /láit/ liviano 54 A short course in english for adult students .? /háu big?/ How well. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular.. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. shallow /shálou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto.70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km.? /háu wel/ How heavy. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son..B.. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /θik/ grueso.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. big /big/ grande tiny /táini/ diminuto.like?* /wot. new /niú:/ nuevo long /loη/ largo.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are. long. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were. etc. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular.. Iz /a:r. square /skwear/ cuadrado. Nota importante: Como Ud.. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho.. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu lóη/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu f(st/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu (ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /leθ/ longitud width /wiθ/ anchura thickness /θiknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /depθ/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura.... high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. habrá advertido. oval /óuval/ ovalado heavy /hévi/ pesado.

000 one thousand /wan θáuznd/ mil 1. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas. Days of the week Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /θε ´:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ εrdi/ ´t Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo segundo minuto hora día semana month /mánθ/ season /sí:zon/ year /yíar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación. temporada año siglo Nota: En Inglés.000. Units of time second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 2 two /tu:/ dos 3 three /θri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho 9 nine /nain/ nueve 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /θε:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /θε ´:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /θε wán/ ´:rti treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS first /fε:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /θε:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:rθ/ cuarto fifth /fifθ/ quinto sixth /siksθ/ sexto seventh /sévnθ/ séptimo eighth /éitθ/ octavo ninth /náinθ/ noveno tenth /ténθ/ décimo eleventh /ilévnθ/ décimo primero twelfth /twelfθ/ décimo segundo thirteenth /θε:rtí:nθ/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:nθ/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:nθ/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:nθ/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntieθ/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fε ´:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /θε θ/ ´:rtie trigésimo thirty-first /θε fε ´:rti ´:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtieθ/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftieθ/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstieθ/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntieθ/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitieθ/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintieθ/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándreθ/ centésimo one thousandth /wan θáuzndθ/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílionθ/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES 1.000. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000th 1.

Seasons of the year summer /sámer/ autumn /fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ 4. Months of the year January /dllániuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. Dates Today is Monday. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. 2001 (the second of May.3. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre verano otoño winter /wínter/ spring /spriη/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. 2nd May.

. October. The fifth of May. is arriving 7. forteen ninety-two 14. 2. February the twenty-eighth. August. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex... Wednesday. 1. Jane: is . 9. What are they looking at? Ex. It isn´t raining. How´s George travelling? 7. August the twenty-seventh.3.. is working 5. The students aren´t writing. / Is the cadet sleeping. nineteen eighty-seven 12... Friday. 1. It´s on. are spending 9. Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . The eighteenth of September. am listening 2. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. July..? 7.. eighteen ten 8. October the twelfth.. November and December 10. / Are you doing the exercises..? Ex. are working out Ex. 2.. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth. He was born on. nineteen fifty-six 13.? 9. What´s Mary eating now? 2.. The second of November. The fifth of December. I´m not helping John. / Are the students writing. 16... The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11.. What are you trying to do? 12.. May. Today´s.? 5. The tenth of August. are doing 8.... The cadet isn´t sleeping. eighteen ninety-three 11. What are John and his friends doing? 3.. nineteen seventy-eight 9. 1.studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning . nineteen fifty-six Ex. What are the men doing now? 11...driving Bob: are fising 2. Saturday and Sunday.. 5. What are the students reading? 6. July the second. March.. is my favority season. The twelfth of March. are visiting 6. Tuesday. nineteen oh six 4. 3. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3. 1. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. The months of the year are January. / Is the boy singing. Why are you singing? 10. 2. 3. / Am I helping John. nineteen thirty-eight 3.? 8. 1.? 10. What are you doing? 5. There are twelve months in a year 14... There are seven days 6.. nineteen hundred 5. are speaking 11. The last month of the year is December 13. 4. 5. New Year´s day is on the first of January.going Hans : am going / are ... The boy isn´t singing. You aren´t doing the exercises. September. The seasons of the year are Winter. The first of January.. Thursday. 6. is cutting 12. is coming 10. The eighteenth of July. / Is it raining. two thousand one 7. The date today is.. June..The first month of the year is January 11. April.. 4... are going 3. Hans: are . Why isn´t he working? 8. A short course in english for adult students 57 . February. is waiting 4. 1. The days of the week are Monday.. 8. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. two thousand 6. Where are they living at present? 4.

Bl 58 .

etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. does /daz/. she. You and I. The students. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. A short course in english for adult students 59 . seldom /séldom/ (raramente). many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). it. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega ténis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. /δéi ólwiz kám híar on sæ ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. never /néver/ (nunca). -sh. the telephone.studies.changes /tchéindlliz/. /bób wóshiz δe ka:r on sæ ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. three times /θri: táimz/ (tres veces). /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:niη/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). twice /twáis/ (dos veces). /ai ófn sí: méri at δe kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. /δe bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) Bob washes the car on saturday. /δe sán ráiziz in δi í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. etc. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente).vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in δi í:vniη/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. it). You. -ce. el SUJETO (I.rises /ráiziz/. a month /e mánθ/ (al mes). en forma habitual. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. /wi: góu tu δe bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study .UNIT 5 PART I. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). En la forma afirmativa. the boy. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. /hi: spí:ks spánish and ínglish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bién) The secretary answers the telephone. watches /wótshiz/. -x.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. /δe stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana)æ ´ Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. every morning /évri mó:niη/ (todas las mañanas). persona del singular (he. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. etc. plays /pléiz/. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). Los verbos have. /dllón tchéidlliz δe bátriz wáns e mánθ/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. -ch-. Cuando decimos. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). /δe sékretri ánserz δe télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. do. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. Escuche. etc. goes /góuz/. change /tchéindll/ . “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. /ai spí:k spánish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). she. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”.

En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´T/DOESN¨T Escuche. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. My wife watches TV in the morning. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. etc.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day? Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home? Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday? Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. HOW. comer. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. Escuche. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót láηguidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du δei góu tu δe bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz δe bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll δe báteriz évri mánθ/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. The bus stops here. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche. We go to the beach every summer. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. divertirse). se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends haven´t got a new car. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. The students play soccer every day. WHERE. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). o experimentar. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. HOW MUCH. We have lunch at school every day. Mary has got many friends in Canada.. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dáz δe bás stóp/ here?. WHEN. Do the students play /du δe stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. He speaks English well. Mary has many friends in Canada. como en to have breakfast (desayunar).En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. beber.

21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex.EXERCISES Ex.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 . I watch TV after dinner. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri θérzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:niη/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæ ´terdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vniη/ Every morning /évri mó:niη/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vniη/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mánθ/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /θri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mánθ/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in δe sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in δi ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in δe wínter/ In the spring /in δe spriη/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 . 1. 2.

Change the following sentences into a) negative. (eat) Mr Smith ________________________ TV after dinner every evening. (play) Peter ___________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. 4. 8. b) interrogative. (leave) My wife and I often _____________________________ in that restaurant. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 4. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. 12. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . They live near here. 7. The children ________________________at this time every morning. (wash) I never ____________________________________ Spanish at school. 10. (read) The students sometimes _________________________rugby at school. 2. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. (speak) The manager generally _________________ the office after 8:00 p. I have dinner at work. (go) I ______________________________ breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (have) John _______________________ the newspaper on the train every day.c. 2. 3. (arrive) Myriam__________________________ the floor once or twice a week. and c) Wh-questions: 1. Then translate them into Spanish 1. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. 11. 5. I study English every day. (play) The train ______________________in London at 7:50 every morning. (get up) We seldom ___________________________ to the North in the summer. 3.m. 6. (watch) Ex. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. I do the exercises well. 9.

3. 7. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. They play golf twice a week. We go to the club on Friday. That man speaks German. 11. 5. Answer these questions in English: 1. What are they doing? 6. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 14. WHEN. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. Bob is in the office. The students need more practice. 8. They have two cars. HOW. Are there any trees in your garden? 5. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 63 . They have two cars now. 9. WHERE. They go to the park on Sunday. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. etc. 9. They work out every morning. 10. She lives near Wimbledon. The children are in the park. 13. Peter watches TV every night. 6. They need twenty dollars. 3. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. 7. 4. Bob always drinks beer. 6. 6. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. Peter does everything well. 10. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. John goes to Pucón in the summer. Mary comes to work by bus. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. 8. 5. Ex. They come here twice a week. They get up at 7:15 every morning. What´s he doing? 3. 12. 2. 1. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. How many legs has a dog got? 4. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4.

An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. Ex. (work) 2. (come) 6. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. Who can it be? (play) 17. 10. 3. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. Ex. 8. (go) 5. Mr. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. 2. Put the verb into the correct form.(not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (the banks / close) A:’Where __________________________________from?’ (Martin / come) B: ‘He’s Scottish’. (understand) 16. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. I don’t understand this sentence. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. Bees __________________________________ honey. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. 8. Rice __________________________________ in Britain. 2. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. 4. 7. (open / close) 13. Look at that man. . 7. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. 5. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. Janet _______________________________ tea very often.Ex. 9. 6. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. (work) 8.m. 4. (do / watch) 14. He ___________________________ a green uniform. You must always speak to him in English. 1. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. (come) 7. every day. Hello. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. 2. 5. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. (watch) 4. 6. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. (leave) 3. We_______ just ____________ TV. 3. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. For the time being.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. 6. 4. (begin) 12. 9. I never ___________________________ coffee. 5. A: ‘What __________________________________?’ (you / do) B:’I’m an electrical engineer’. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. 3. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. Look! John __________________________ over there. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. 7. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. He must be a police officer.

He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. It´s 7 o´clock now. 11. 6. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. Our teacher (stand. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. 3. Arabic is his native language. Alice (take. it). Look out of the window. There´s a cartoon on TV now. (Rain. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. Black´s at home. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8.m. (Rain. 5. 1. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. or (walk. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . 2. (Take. not) ___________________________________ it.Ex. 4. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six o´clock. It´s 7:30 a. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . not) __________________right now. but this morning they (pay. but the children (watch. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. It (rain. not) __________________________ TV either. not) _____________________up right now. 10. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . Mrs. 7. Mrs. They (play) with their toys instead. I usually (sit) _______________________at the same desk in class every day. They (like. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day.

1. A.look like? /wót du /daz...at/ What do /does. tu/ Who.. We take photographs with a camera.for/ What.. 12.... whom vuelve a ser who) Ex. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where.. QUESTION WORDS. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?.wiϑ/ Who. abáut/ Who...with?* /wot.for?* /hu:...PART II.. What´s your opinion? Who is that man?.for?* /wot. Nota: Muy a menudo.? (Descripción de personas . Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin.. The boys usually talk about football.físico) EXAMPLE What is that? . California Jack visits his parents twice a month.. 9. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?..... I go there three times a week... My friends come from San Diego. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes It takes me about 20 minutes to get there...with?* /hu:.. They need twenty-five dollars. What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?. 5. normalmente trasladan la preposición al final.from?* /wéar ... 2.at?* /wot. 11.. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición. las preguntas que comienzan con Preposición + Whom/What.. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning.. 10. 7. 66 Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. about?* /wot.. 13. Ann likes apples. 4. oranges and pears We go to the South in the summer. 3. 15. 8. for/ What. I like Mary because she´s very friendly. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1..to?* /wéar ..about?* /hu: .. 16...wiϑ/ What. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ..from/ Where.abáut/ What.lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son.. They look at the stars with the telescope. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14./Where. 6..

Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. 5. ___________children like to watch cartoons. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. ___________leather in these shoes is very good. 17. Girls work harder than boys. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired.17.We all need _______________fresh air. 10. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. los y las . 11. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. ___________air in large cities is not very fresh. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. 18. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. (Fresh air is good for the health. 16. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water. es decir. happiness. la. 8. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. people. 3. We are studying ______________history of France. 15. Gold is an important metal. milk.) 1. 6. men. 2. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. ___________fish in the refrigerator is fresh. 19. 9. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. ___________history is an interesting subject. I always drink ________________water with my meals. cats. 1. experience. Books are expensive in Chile. Supply the definite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. The books which I want are on the table. Ann writes detective stories. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. etc. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. 20. 12. ___________air in this room is not good. 7. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. se traduce como el.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. ___________light in this room is not good. money. The students go to the gym after lunch. 4. The gold in this ring is of good quality. 13. Ex. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . ___________animals in that photograph are wild animals. ___________water in this glass is dirty. students. We like _________ animals. 14. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. We have ______________ good light in our classroom.

5. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. The woman crossing the road is my wife. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? Are these the envelopes __________________you need? The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE.Mr. ? Ex. 14. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. Smith´s office. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. 7. This is the book which we use in class. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. En inglés. 19. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. 2. ? The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. 10. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 6. animal o cosa estamos hablando. This is the book we use in class. 3. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. 9.. 15. 12. 17. 68 A short course in english for adult students .Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man in Mr. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. 3. 2. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. Smith´s office. ? I don´t know the man who is in Mr. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona. The men trained at our school are good pilots. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. 13. 18. 8. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19.18. The cars imported from Japan are really good. 11. (I would like = me gustaría) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. 4. 20. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. C. 20. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. 16.

4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Smith. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. as in the example: 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 20. 11. 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. 17. 18. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15.Ex. 14. 7. 19. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . 8. 1. 10. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 15. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Translate the following sentences into English. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible. 12. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 16. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 13. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. Rewrite the sentences in Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 9. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The girl with him is his sister 2. 2. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students .5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllákit/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarriη/ sunglasses /sanglá.siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro. arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stókiηz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fíηger riη/ parka /pá:rka /. anorak /ánorak/ leather jacket /léδer dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 .

72 A short course in english for adult students .

... Bob doesn´t always drink.... We play tennis.... Bill doesn´t have dinner.. You study English every day Bill studies English. Mary doesn´t like. Ann plays tennis...? Do we work here.. Bill doesn´t study English. Bill doesn´t play tennis.? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex.? Does Bill work here.... We don´t do the exercises. The bus doesn´t leave. They don´t do the exercises... They don´t work out...? Do we study English.... plays 7.. You don´t go to the movies.eat 12..? Do they work here.? Do you watch TV. 3.? Does Ann play tennis... They play tennis.... play 6....? Do we go to the movies..... Bill doesn´t do the exercises. They don´t work here.? Do they go to the movies.? Does Ann work here.........? Do they play tennis.. 1.. /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 . Ann doesn´t watch TV.. 2......?/ What time does the bus leave? 5. Ann studies English....... speak 10. We don´t watch TV. You don´t study English..... Ann doesn´t go to the movies.... We don´t have dinner. 4....? Do we play tennis. We don´t go to the movies.. Ann doesn´t study English. washes 9.. reads 5.?/ What does Peter do every night? 4. Bill doesn´t watch TV..? Do you play tennis..... get up 2.... They don´t play tennis..?/ When do they work out? 7.. Ann has dinner at work.? Does Ann go to the movies.. Ann doesn´t do the exercises. They don´t watch TV.. /Does Mary like.? Does Bill go to the movies. Peter doesn´t watch... Interrogative Do you work here. They don´t have.. You have dinner at work..... Bill goes to the movies. Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every..../ What does Mary like to drink? 2.... 1.. /Does the bus leave.......? What language does that man speak? 6.... arrives 8... Ann goes to the movies........ They go to the movies.. Bill has dinner at work.. We go to the movies..? Do they watch TV. You don´t play tennis. Ann doesn´t work here.. We study English.. Ann doesn´t have dinner.?/ What does Bob always drink? 8.. You don´t have dinner.? Does Ann study English.?/ Where do they live? 3.... They don´t study English. They don´t go to the movies... /Do they live .. We have dinner at work.... You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis.. They have dinner at work..? Does Bill play tennis....? Do we watch TV... Bill doesn´t go to the movies. Ann doesn´t play tennis.. They don´t live.. We don´t play tennis. Bill doesn´t work here....? Do they study English.. We don´t work here.? Do you study English. /Do they work out.... We don´t study English..? Does Bill watch TV.. go 3... /Does Peter watch..? Does Ann watch TV..... That man doesn´t speak....? Do you go to the movies... /Does that man speak........? Does Bill study English.watches Ex.. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here....... have 4. leaves 11.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex....... They study English. They don´t have dinner. /Does Bob always drink. You don´t watch TV.. You don´t do the exercises....

play . doesn´t grow 3. takes/does it take 6. is coming 6. do-like 18. 7.. Where does she live? 2. The stamps . 1. They don´t come. How often do they play golf 3. Why do you like Mary? 17. fresh air 11. doesn´t tell 9. Ex.. 6. 10. leaves 3. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. stamps 18. does-understand 16. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II..they have. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. 1. opens-closes 13. They´re playing /running/ etc. How much money do they need? 3. live 6. Where do your friends come from? 7. When do you go to the club? 8. How many cars do they have now? 12. 6. animals 13. /Do they come. What does Susan look like? 2. is working 8. How much money do they need? 11. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. He´s working 3. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. 1. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. is not standing/is sitting 5. There are fifty-two weeks in a year. Where does John go in the summer? 6. 1. /Does Peter do. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. am sitting/sit 3. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. take place Ex. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. are-studying 19. English books / The magazines C. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. There is very little free time 8. What do they do on Sunday? 9.. are-doing/are-watching 14. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. The air 2. The water 8. Peter doesn´t do.. rises 4. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. 12. flows Ex. translates 8. isdoing 11. The air 12. He hardly ever/never uses it. The book which I want is on the table 3. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. do-go 10.. 7. meat 15. At what time do they get up every morning? 4.. Ex. is working 2. doesn´t drink 2. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. are-living 9. 10. are-doing 15. The fish 16. 1. I usually spend my summer vacation in. What do the students need? 5. is beginning 12. 8. good light 5. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. speaks 2. 15. is playing 17. 8. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. 74 A short course in english for adult students . 5. What do you take photographs with? 16. is watching 4. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. 1. goes 2. make 5. 9. stamps . How long does it take you to get there? 11. leather 10. comes 7. Ex. Where do the students go after lunch? 20.don´t play 7. How often do you go there? 12... How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. How does Mary come to work? 7. is sleeping/sleeps 2. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. 2. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. 1. 11. The leather 9. go 5. is wearing Ex. speaks/is speaking 4. do the banks close 3. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. When does Bob go to bed early? B. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. The animals 14. Yes. History 3. is not raining / is shining / is 7. It´s got four legs 4. 1.the coins 20. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. does Martin come 4.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10.water 7. there are some trees/No. 1. 1. does this word mean? Ex. the history 4.closes 4. there aren´t any trees 5.The men who are working in that room are engineers. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. 1.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. John is the student who speaks English well. Where do you go in the summer? 5. 1. Is it raining 9. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. A. causes 5. do-get 20. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. opens . 16.coins 19.. is eating/eats 6.. don´t eat 6. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. drink 3. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. Children 17. 1.. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. Does it rain 8. The light 6. do you do 5. 9. doesn´t believe 7.

She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. 16. ¿Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. ¿Es el Sr. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4.18. 15. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. The books which are on that chair are mine. 2. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. 3. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. The man driving the car is my father 4. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. 16. 1. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. necesita? 14. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. 3.Ex. 15. John is the student who speaks English well. 8. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 2. That is exactly the car I would like to have. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 12.The men working in that room are engineers. The girl with him is his sister 2. 8. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. lee todos los días? 13. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien.The people who are working in that office are engineers. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. 4. ¿Es este el computador que ud. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. usa todos los días? 19. Ex. 10. 1. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. 5. ¿Es este el diario que ud. 12. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. The book I want is on the table 3. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. 1. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener Ex. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. The people described in the story are very interesting.

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Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. al igual que en la forma negativa. to stop . /δéi dídnt sí:.to complete.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. 5. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). To clean . Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado.cleaned.. /méri klí:nd δe háus iésterdi mó:rniη/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/. 3. last night (anoche).cleaned . lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. en la conversación diaria. mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. -te. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd δat déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas).stopped . To work .UNIT 6 PART I. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal..to decide también agregan -ed/-d.. Los verbos terminados en -t. To see . tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). 2./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. To come .) Como ud. We worked hard that day.. A menudo.. completed /komplí:tid/. En los Ejemplos 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado. the day before yesterday (anteayer). /pí:ter kéim híar θrí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3.worked . /méri didnt klí:n. lea y aprenda: 1. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). decided /disáidid/..come. last year (el año pasado). / A short course in english for adult students 77 .. 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year” estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. como last week (la semana pasada). needed /ní:did/.worked 6.saw . Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning.. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST./ We didn´t work hard that day.seen./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago. /δéi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4.bought. También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. that day (ese día).To buy . o una hora o fecha pasada./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. They saw a good film yesterday.. como two days ago (hace dos días). /wí: dídnt wé:rk. -d.came . /pí:ter didnt kám. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t δe ká:r lá:st íar/ (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 2.etc. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: to stop . lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal.. como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). va en INFINITIVO... como to want. 1810) Escuche. 5. on September 18th.. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche).-de... Escuche.bought .stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4).../ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo)./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd δéi sí:.to need.2. Peter came here three days ago. /ai dídnt bái.. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /δei stópt tó:kiη wen δe tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado. pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. Escuche. 4.

responder llega preguntar. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar..... 1. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. no gustar ayudar esperar. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd δéi sí:. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. pedir transportar.... localizar mirar amar. WHERE.. pedir fumar comenzar. etc... lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái.. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar../ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. WHEN. HOW. gustar terminar odiar.. partir quedarse.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n.?) EXERCISES: Ex... arreglar repetir solicitar. atender . permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám.. utilizar visitar esperar./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT. esforzarse usar./ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dúu/ (¿Qué hizo ud.

servirse oir guardar. creer brillar entender. mirar desear trabajar. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. conocer aprender.saber.pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. llevar enseñar contar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . encontrar olvidar conseguir. comer. mantener saber. narrar. obtener.conocer pagar poner. decir pensar.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. 2. enterarse partir. funcionar Ex. dejar prestar perder. salir. colocar leer correr. fabricar reunirse. extraviar hacer.

15. We have a test every week. 6. 9. Peter came here yesterday. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . 3.000 dollars.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. 11. 2. They saw the car accident. 16. They studied English in London. Mary visits her parents every month. 8. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. They sell lots of books every year. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. Peter comes here every week. __________________________________________ last week. 4. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. Change the following sentences into a) negative. We had dinner at the Club. 3. The boy did the exercise well. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. 17. 5. We enjoy our vacation every summer. The postman brings a letter every Monday. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. desgastar escribir Ex. 18. 6. 10. They go to Europe every year. 9. They bought the car in Paris. Father tells the boy a story every night. They receive a letter every week. It rains a lot here every winter. 8. 20. We watch TV every night. 3. 19. 7. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 14. We went to work by bus. I give the boy a present every year. 10. 5. The boy reads a book every month. John sold his house for 120. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 7. 4. 12. Bob washes the car every Saturday. I wanted to drink tea. 2. I sleep well every night. They eat fish every Friday. I write to Mary every week-end. 13.

6. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. 2. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ What did you eat for dinner last night?. 8. 4. etc. 6. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. 6 7. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. 4. He didn´t go because he was tired. Where. 2. They came here by taxi. How. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. 5. 3. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. 10. Peter saw the film last week. I went by taxi. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. Bill spent one hundred dollars. In each case. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. How often. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. ___________________________________________________ Did you watch TV last night? If so. 9. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. When. 5. I didn´t (go by bus). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . Ask questions using question words like What. 7. He went to the zoo yesterday.Ex. The boy wanted to play. 3. Did Mr. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. 7. What did you watch? _________________________________________________ What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. Bob did the same exercise three times. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. 5. How much. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. 1. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2.

Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17.16. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students . Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20.

pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10.. (not.PART II.. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. Bob la amaba mucho.. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? ¿Dónde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1. Explain the change in meaning. Uncle Paul lived in that house. as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. John Kerry went to that school. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. Peter was a good student... En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. Bill helped me with my homework. Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio. (not... now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob used to love ama. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. anymore.. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway.. We exported shoes to the USA. 1.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano.. anymore) Bob used to work in the car factory. (not. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. Mr. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. not.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young.. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ 2. (not. (not.. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /δei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. Scott used to smoke cigars. He no longer loves her now. Equivale al la terminación -aba o -ía del español.. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer.. I rode the subway to work. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) A short course in english for adult students 83 . (not. (not. Mother played the piano well. I don´t play well now. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much.. Scott smoked cigars. Ann came to class on time every day. Mary spoke Italian at home.. (not.. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche.

PART III. You walk to ______ school every morning.. The books of the students are new. Clark goes to ______ office every day 5. This is John´s book. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. The car is hers. es decir agregando un apóstrofe + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. Mr.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. (mi libro) The book is mine (mío) Mary bought this car last year. EXERCISES Ex. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /δéi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. The house is theirs. That´s my brother´s car. John walks to______ desk. 8. They went back to ______ seats and began to write. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). We moved to ______ new house last month. Escuche. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. This is my parents´ house. Jones take ______ children to the park on Sunday. 7. The house of Mr Smith is very big. de ud. That is the car of my brother. Escuche.(su auto). 3. This is their house (nuestra casa). o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /δéar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. 1. 4. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. Mrs. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. The teacher writes with ______ pen. The students´ books are new. This is the house of my parents. Escuche. His /hiz/= suyo. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. Mr and Mrs. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /δéarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. This is my book. Smith´s house is very big. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. (de ella) They´ve got a house. I walk to ______ chair 2. 6. It is her car. . de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. 1. A. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective.

4. the pen is _______________. 9. 8. A short course in english for adult students 85 . You have a dog and a cat. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. The friend of my sister is very sick. 9. 10. the English books are _______________. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. 3. 10. (This book is mine. The dog wags ______ tail. Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. 7. the dog is mine . 8. This is the pen of Helen. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. Helen has a cat. My brother drives ______ car every day. the car is _______________. You have a pen. 6. These (cigarettes) are Peter´s cigarettes.9. 7. the pen is _______________. 10. the dog is _______________. This is the book of John. the cat is _______________.. The office of Mr. 4. This (desk) is the teacher’s desk. 11. 5.2 . 12. Mr. This (office) is John’s office. 8. 2. That’s the home of my teacher. 3. This (book) is my book. We have two English books. 7. John has a dog. I have a dog. 2. That is the room of the teachers. Mary has a new pen. He’s the teacher of Helen 9. This is the wife of Mr Smith 11. 2. This is the notebook of William. Helen and Mary have two English books. Jones has a new car. 5.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 13. What´s the name of that man? 14. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. The house of my friends is beautiful 12. 3. Ex. 4. I have a dog and a cat. the dog and the cat are _______________. Smith is very large. 5. 3. the English books are _______________. He took his book and left my book. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. This (room) is her room. 4. 6. This (notebook) is my notebook. The desk of the teacher is new. 10.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He’s also the teacher of my friend. That (notebook) is Helen’s notebook. 6. the dog and the cat are _______________.

Bob studies his book every day. 8. 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . 3. her. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. EXERCISES Ex. 10. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. John likes Mary. 11. Is this letter for Mr. 10. him. it. 2. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. Use object pronouns (me. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) When did she send the letters? (last Monday) When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) When did she spend the money. 9. 2. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. They are talking about the accident. 7. 4. I understand the teacher very well. 8. I know William and his wife very well. 3. (last summer) When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) When did he invite you? (last month) When did they eat the apples? (this morning) When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). James goes with John and Alice to the club. I like this song very much. 6. 2. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. 14. them) instead of names 1. 5. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /δei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /δem/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y. you. 12. 6. William studies the book She speaks with John. The teacher likes Mary and William. 12. 4. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. 9. 7. 5. us. por lo tanto. 1. 13.B. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1.

cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . boticario clergyman /klε ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dreser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllánitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dllórnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretri/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /télifonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wotchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ abogado gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actor actress /(ktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barber /bá:rber/ barbero. sacerdote clerk /klε ´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero conductor /kondáktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. peluquero butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate fish... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didn´t = did not) 1. We didn´t go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didn´t come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didn´t want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didn´t see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didn´t sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didn´t buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didn´t do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didn´t have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didn´t write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didn´t study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didn´t he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didn´t. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didn´t (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didn´t (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didn´t (eat fish). I ate chicken. 4. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didn´t (say “yes”). He said “No” 7. No, I didn´t (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didn´t (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didn´t (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didn´t (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didn´t (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didn´t (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 17. No, I didn´t (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didn’t (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didn´t (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didn´t (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesn´t live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesn´t play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helen´s pen. 3. The teacher´s desk is new. 4. That´s my teacher´s home 5. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. This is William´s notebook 8. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. This is Mr Smith´s wife. 11. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. That´s the teachers´ room. 13. What´s that man´s name? 14. What are those men´s names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This office is John´s 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 7. That notebook is Helen´s. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teacher´s. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók δis mó:niη/, at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/, etc. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai woz dráiviη tu δi éarpo:rt at ten oklók δis mó:niη/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /δéi we:r pléiη fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz vízitiη hiz péarents in ditróit on δe fifθ ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ái woz slí:piη wen de télifoun ræη la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wí: we:r hæviη lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai wóznt dráiviη.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei wé:rent pléiiη.../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wóznt vízitiη.../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wóznt sli:piη.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: wé:rent hæviη lántch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´T/WEREN´T) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráiviη.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r δéi pléiiη.../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: vízitiη.../ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:piη.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hæviη lántch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:diη.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r δei pléiiη fútbol.../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt δei hæviη lántch.../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rkiη.../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wót we:r iú: dúiη.../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud....?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play) We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready) I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp) Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave) We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. ___________________________________________________ 4. The generals were working in the conference room. ___________________________________________________ 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ______________________________________________
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. ___________________________________________________ 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. __________________________________________ 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. _______________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué, todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I ___________________________ very well last night. (sleep) I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. (sleep...arrive) They _______________________ to the office when I __________________________ them this morning. (go..see) Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet... live) We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (play...begin) Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. (work...walk) When John ______________________ us last night, we ____________________________ ( call on...have dinner) Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (have...drive) What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) Mr. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. (work...become) 12. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. (read...ride)

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please EXERCISES Ex. You call me up after 9 o´clock. Take a taxi. 2. 6. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. please. Say that again. 4. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE.PART II. You drink milk every morning. You write your answer on the whiteboard. 3. 7. please Work slowly please. don´t open the window. Listen to him please. 9. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche. 8. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. 1. 2. 1. Look at the map. You listen to the story carefully. please Don´t speak so slowly please. esta implícito en la orden). Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. por favor. please. 2. 5. /pli:z óupn δe wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. 3. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. 10. You come here tomorrow morning. Drink black coffee. 8. Come again this afternoon. Por favor. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. Don´t speak so fast. You have another cup of coffee. (so = tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . please Drive fast please. A. abra la ventana Hable más lento. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. You fill up the tank. Give Mary my new address. please. (you) open the window. You eat more slowly. Work hard. Eat my bread and butter. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 9. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. 10. 4. 6. 5. 7. (so /sou/= tan) Ex. You spell your first name. You study hard every day.

.+Sust. They are coming back from China. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. Mrs. Sir. calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios. Smith to send the message right away. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies..They´ve climbed Mount Everest. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. 6. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean.) EXERCISES Ex. etc. montes.) 2.. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. (adj. 5. Johnson ordered Sgt. 3. ciudades.. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. Cpt. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. 7. President. Gen. 10.. 4. continentes. canales. No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido the delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. Sgt. países. The New York City subways go very fast. He lives on Fifth Avenue.) Santiago is the capital of Chile. Prof. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic.. (adj. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. 1. estados. Senator etc. Lady. __________ United States.Ms.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adj. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido the. lea y compare: New York is a large city. __________ China. Miss. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. mares. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee. A short course in english for adult students 95 . 9.. 8. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina.B.. Supply the definite article the where necessary: 1. cordilleras.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. volcanes. Dr. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City.) o grados (Gen.etc. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal).. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. Escuche. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday.

__________ London School of Economics is very famous. C. _________ English language is easy. 6. 3. __________ Europe is a large continent. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. 7. in __________ Utah. 10. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. 3. __________ Broadway buses are slow. 5. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 2. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. 14 15. Ex. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. 6. 1. 8. 4. 7. 96 A short course in english for adult students . Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 5. 9.11. (He lives in Mexico.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. He lives in __________ Mexico. We walked along __________ Broadway. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 13. 11. 8. / adv. 10. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 11. 2. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1. __________ England is a small country. 9. 2. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 12. 4. __________. 12. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj.) __________ Mexican climate is warm.

These shoes are very expensive.. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. as in the example Peter is a very tall man 1. The movie was very exciting. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 97 . WHAT. 3. 6. 2. It is a beautiful day. She plays the piano well. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4.Ex. This music is very romantic. What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This whisky is very good 10. 12. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. I was a very stupid person. They are very beautiful women. 5..! . Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N). New York is a fascinating city. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. 9. These exercises are very difficult. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. as indicated: 1. 4. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. or How.. 4. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. She is an excellent pianist.. 2. 7. John is a very intelligent person. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. What. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. 3. This is a very incredible story.!. These photographs are very beautiful 11. This trip is very interesting. 2. Mary is a very friendly person 13.. She plays the violin beautifully. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. 8.!. Make exclamations using What a(n). 3. Supply HOW. He runs very fast. ______________________ well she swims! 5. 5. 14. ______________________ pretty she is! 3..

He is a very tall man. 17. It is very cold today. Grandfather told us a sad story. 8. You have a beautiful new car. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 98 A short course in english for adult students . 13. It´s a cold day today. Ann was a generous woman. 10. 11. She is very pretty. We were very tired after the walk. It was a very fast train. He is a handsome fellow. It was very cold last night. 15. 16. 18. 9. 12. 7. She is wearing a beautiful dress.6. 14. Bob acted very foolishly.

cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero f) The Kitchen /δe kítchin/ La Cocina broom /brú:m/ can opener /kæn óupner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /nápkin/ máquina licuadora servilleta A short course in english for adult students 99 . excusado.c.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos./ terrace house /téris háus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza. d) The Sitting-room /δe sítiηrum/ El Living arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:pit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /kértenz/ fireplace /faiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza fina.w.. cabaña casa pareada casa en fila casa de veraneo apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bíldiη/ edificio de dptos.quinta detached house /ditηtætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e háus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /síliη/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændiη/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e háus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:θrum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáiniηrum / kitchen /kítchin/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /sítiηrum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio baño..BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /háusiη/ Vivienda farm house /fá.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi. (BR) bungalow /báηgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomínium/ condominio cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /δe bédrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæηkit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáoun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskrú:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kábord/ aparador cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora fridge /frídll/ refrigerador frying pan /fráiiη pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /δe bá:θrum/ La Sala de Baño bath tub /bá:θ tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /míror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleréitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /siηk/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spun/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshiη mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa shaving brush /shéiviηbrash/ shaving cream /shéiviη krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /túθbrash/ tooth paste /tú:θpéist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos h) The Studio /δe stúdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiúter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáiliη kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gará:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:θ/ sendero swimming pool /suimiη pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

Don´t drive so fast please. What a. (Open answers) 1.. The Broadway buses.. / were the men going. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9... The Mexican climate. Why weren´t they working that day? 7.? 7.the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8.. European cities.. / Were the soldiers doing. was . 4. 3. Alice wasn´t making. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. the Persian Gulf. the United States 6.... 13.doing 11.. The children weren´t watching. please 2. White lying on the sofa? 7.? 6. was sleeping / arrived.. Europe.... 6. / Were we running.. 3. Call me up after 9 o´clock please 5. 9. The Atlantic Ocean. What a. What.. Where were the generals working? 5. Ex.. 15... Don´t work so slowly please. (when he phoned me last night) Ex.. I was listening to the news at that moment. Listen to the story carefully please. I was. 9.. The New York City traffic.... met / was living 5. 2..Utah Ex.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2. England. 1. Don´t give Mary my new address please.. 7.. The men weren´t going.. 8... 10. 10. was reading 3. The West Indies 7. B... 9. York. were playing / began 6. 1.? 5. 1.France. was getting ready 6. What a..the Dominican Republic 3.UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex. (when they got married / then).were playing 4..... 7. 1. What. was working / became 12. Come here tomorrow morning please. were having dinner 11. Drink milk every morning. everyone was talking.... was shining 2. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. 3.. What. A short course in english for adult students 101 . (in December last year). 3. Where were your parents living when they met? 8... were camping 8.. 6.. 11.. 2. 5.. Study hard every day please... 6. 5.... / Were the boys studying. 4. 3. Don´t drink black coffee please. We weren´t running. 10... 6.They were playing bridge at that time. What.the Mediterranean Sea. What a. What.. 8.. 1. did . 14.. the Suez Canal 12. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6.. / Was she having... 2. She wasn´t having. 11.. 1.... 2.Broadway. The soldiers weren´t doing. What were you doing at that time? 6. 2.Clark Street. was leaving 10... Italy. Ex. 3. 4. The Hudson River / New York City 4. Don´t work so hard please.. Ex. were . Germany.The Panama Canal.... Write your answer on the whiteboard please. Don´t come again this afternoon please.. 9.. 4. 1. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4.) 2... London. Have another cup of coffee please. were crossing 5. 2. Fill up the tank please.. Don´t take a taxi please. 1.. / Were the children watching.. 3. C.. 10. was living 9... Don´t say that again please. had / was driving 9. I was. read / was riding PART II A..... I was working.. was doing 12.. Don´t eat my bread and butter please.English cities 7.. 2. 1.. What a. 4.... slept 2. 4.. What a. Central Park Station 11.. Why was Mrs.? 4.. Eat more slowly please 7.? 3.. were walking Ex. The boys weren´t studying. Don´t listen to him please 5... What was Mary eating in her room? 3.. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. 1. 5. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8...? 2. What a. 12.Berlin 9... 6.. 4. was driving 7.. What an. (at this time yesterday. The English language. Madison Avenue..? Ex. 3. Salt Lake City.. were going / saw 4. The London School of Economics. 1.. What a.working / walked 7. When I arrived.do 10. 8. The United States. 1.. called on / were having dinner 8. / Was Alice making.... What a... 8... 5. Ex. They were living in.. Ex. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9. Spain 10. Spell your first name please. 2.. China..

What a cold day it is today! 8.. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. 6. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. 10. 1. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12.. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2... What a tall man he is! 9.. 4. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. 1. What a fast train it was! 17.. What a. Johnson is!. Ex. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. 13. How fast she runs! 5..What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students . What. How. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10.. What a beautiful day it is today! 4. 4. How tire we were after the walk! 16. How. What a. 7.. What a. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. What. How pretty she is! 11. What a pleasant man Mr... What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8.. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9. How. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3.What a.. How.. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14.7. 5....Ex.. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5.. 8. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. How cold it was last night! 10.. 3. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13. 11. 3. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. How. 2. What an. How cold it is today! 7.. What an excellent pianist she is! 3.... 1. How. 14. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. 2... 9.. What. 12.. How well she plays the piano! 2.

by the end of this year /bai δi énd ov δis yíar/ hacia fines de este año. 3. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. I won´t be at home. Dgo./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil δei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámiδ tu tchíle nekst mánδ/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . Lea. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil δei vízit.UNIT 8 PART 1.. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. y sugiere la idea de decisión./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt δei vízit. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday... Peter is going to come to Chile next month. Tu wé:rk tumórou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. in three months /in θrí: mánθs/ dentro de tres meses. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto.. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end.. intenciones. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mánδ/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow. Peter will come to Chile next month. /pí:ter iz góuiδ tu kám tu tchíle nékst manδ/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. the day after tomorrow /δe déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. etc. /méri wóunt kám. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. Where. next month /nékst manθ/ el próximo mes. /δéi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. promesa o determinación. /δei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow... /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. When. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám./ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. acordadas o previstas con antelación. En la interrogación.. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana... En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana.. promesas o determinaciones. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. Peter is coming to Chile next month. They won´t visit us next weekend.

2. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. 4. 4. 5. (send) My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. They´ll get married in May 6. 10. 3. (dig) NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 12. 3. 1. 9. and b) interrogative. 6. 9. 7. What. 8. (attend) I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. 5. Where. ___________________________________________________ John will give the answer next week. 2. 8. (use) The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. ___________________________________________________ They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ They´ll need five volunteers. (march) I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. (move) ¿Qué hará ud. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Mary will go out this evening. 1. (buy) Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. 1. (have) Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. 7. 4. 3. (be) We ________________________ a new house soon. ___________________________________________________ The soldiers will wait there until dawn. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. How long. ___________________________________________________ Bob will sell the car because it´s old. The train will arrive soon. (launch) Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. In each case. 10. John will accept the offer. using WILL 1. ___________________________________________________ Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: What will you do? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 3. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. (sell) The instructor ________________________ the overhead projector. You will send them a fax. ___________________________________________________ They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . 5.? Ex.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. 11. They´ll go to the north in the summer. Ask questions using question words like When. How. 2. (hire) The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. etc.

Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). 2 Change SAY to TELL. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. 6. 2. 3. 13. Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. 14. 9. She said (to me) that she was sick. A. la persona a quien se le habló. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. John told Helen that he loved her. said Mary. Antes de la conjunción that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. Can you ________________________ me where the office is. “I am very tired after the long walk”. 10. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. Mr. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. she ________________________ Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 2. Jackson said (to his students). he said. please? Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. John ________________________ yesterday. “I will be back at about 10:30”. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Helen” Mary said. 1. Sorry. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. 7. es decir. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said.PART II. “I love you. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. “This book is very interesting “. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. please. 3. 5. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” Yesterday. 12. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR).1. 11. EXERCISES Ex. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 8. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”.

La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. Jim was talking about a woman. Change TELL to SAY. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. 3. y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. WHOSE Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game.4. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. Bob told me that he could speak French well. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) 106 A short course in english for adult students . WHOM. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 1. too. . William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. The car which is outside is a police car. The man whom I met was John´s father. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone.

Ex. 5.whom) did you write a letter last night? 2.Whose is that book on the desk? (aquí el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you. About (who. His car is parked outside the building. 9. 6. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. but I´m not quite sure. From (who. They are American. 2. 13. I met a man yesterday. Ex. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? With __________________ will you work on the thesis? I don´t know __________________ watch this is. 21. (Who. The man is a doctor. He wrote detective stories. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. The man (who. 8. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? __________________ are you talking to? The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. Smith read in class yesterday. 17. Choose the correct form. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. whom) you saw is my new teacher. 1. 1. Mr Clark. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. 16. Which. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 4. 7. Whom. 3. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. 19. 12. 9. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 18. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence..using WHO. 6. With (who. whom) is the best student in your class? 4. whom) does he want to speak? 3. 20. (Who. whom) I danced was very beautiful. whom) telephoned you is my brother. 2. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love. EXERCISES Ex. 24. 10. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player __________________ will you ask for help? __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. the blue one or the brown one? __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. __________________ jacket do you like best. 14. 7. __________________ are they talking about? The man __________________ Prof. whom ) are they talking? 8. 15. I met a man _______________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 107 . 3. The girl with (who. Whose 1. WHOM or WHOSE 1. whom) did you get the money? 10. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. The boy (who. 22. 11. To (who. Mr Clark. The woman (who. 23. Fill in the blank spaces with Who. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified.

I met a woman yesterday. 8. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. That´s not your leather jacket.I think that this wallet is yours. 2. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. There´s a man in the lobby. 7.Whose glasses are these? 11. as in the example. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. You were talking to a man in the lobby. 14. His car was parked outside the school.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 7. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? To whom does this car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ 1. 5. 6. Is that car yours? That is not John´s bicycle. 12. It´s my brother´s 108 A short course in english for adult students . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. Those keys are mine. Peter came to the party with a young woman. The policemen interrogated the old man.. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen _________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? 10. 9. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. 15. This pen is mine That house is ours. Exercise 4. They found his wallet in the street. 5. They contacted a man. 1. 5. 2. This is the young woman. It´s hers. Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives.2.That car isn´t his. 13. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. Her husband died in a car accident. 4. 4.This sweater isn´t my sister´s.This house is ours. 3. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Ask questions with whose. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He wants to speak with you. It isn´t theirs. 3.

They need something now. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. He lives somewhere in New York. There is someone in the room 109 .. He said something to her... ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. I saw somebody in the car I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. 1.anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not. es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. Change to negative form Use a) NOT. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. He told somebody about it. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas.. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY.. They don´t need anything now. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. alguna parte). There is someone at the door..anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not. SOMETHING. Anybody Not.. Somewhere (algun lugar. SOMEBODY. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday...any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. They will go somewhere after the lesson They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1. alguna cosa). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. I saw somebody in the corridor.anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10.. Please put it somewhere in this room.. ANY o NO. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5.C.. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. He gave the book to somebody.. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3.

1 saw somebody I knew. 11. 2. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . 8. 8. They found nobody at home. He told somebody about it. He gave it to someone. 4. There is nowhere for him to sit. We went nowhere after the dance. She spoke to no one about it. He went somewhere last night. He took them somewhere on Long Island. I saw somebody at the desk. They gave us nothing to eat. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. There is someone in the next room. 12. 3. 10. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . 3. We saw nobody at all in the park. He brought something with him. 7. There is no more coffee. I liked something about her.11. thank you. Change to question form 1. 5. 6. She put it somewhere.. He has something to do. They found the money somewhere. Somebody wants to speak to him. 9. Ex. 2. 3.. He´s going to do something now. They will send the goods to someone. 9. 2. ANY” negative form: 1. 12. She has something to do. 14. 4. 13. 7. They want nothing to drink. 1 want no more. 5. 6. He can see nothing without his glasses. 10.

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte baker’s /béikerz/ panadería book shop /buk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldiη/ edificio bus /bás/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café /kæfei/ café cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda. disco /dískou/ discoteca dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ lavaseco.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /θíater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camióm (USA) tunnel /tánel/ tunnel underground /andergráund/ tren subterráneo (BR) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krósiη/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 . escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.) corner /kó:rner/ esquina crossroads /krósroudz/ cruce department store /dipá:rment stóar/ tienda de depart.escrit. tintorería estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (BR) fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ cuartel de bomberos flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería grocer’s /gróuserz/ almacén (BR) grocery store /gróuseri stóar/ almacén (USA) hardware store /hárdwear stóar/ ferretería hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel /houtél/ hotel jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósiη/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camión (BR) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos chemist’s /kémists/ farmacia church /tchértch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine coach /kóutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería college /kólidll/ escuela (univ.

Bl 112 .

said Ex. 4. He says that she. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5.. whom 3. whom Ex. will send 3.. 1. whom 9. which 12. You won`t send. will sell 5. Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2. 2. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister.. Whose . whom 20. whom Ex. Where will they go in the summer? 2. whom 4. 9. / Will Mary go out.. 1. 4. Mr Smith said that. Whose 3. 6. They won`t get married. will use 6... 2. whose wallet they found in the street.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. 1.. 1.. B. will hire 12..... Whose 9. That car doesn´t belong to him. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3.whom 10. Those keys belong to me 5. 3. told 7. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. who 22. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. The man tells me that.. It doesn`t belong to them... 6. Mr Smith won`t see.? 2. When will John give the answer? 3. / Will they get married? 6. said 10.. who 6.. John told his friends that. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . 1. Mr Smith told Peter that.woman with whom Peter came to the party..5. 4.? 4. 2. 3. Which 2. said 4. whom 8.. Ex. John said that.? 5. whom 11. 12. It belongs to my brother. 8. tell 13... I said that.. Who 19. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7.. told 14. whom 10.. 1. told 3..? Ex.. 2.....whose husband died in a car accident 3. William told the doctor that.who wrote detective stories.... will dig 7. says 6. says 8. which 6. said 9. 14.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex.. Mary will not go out. whom 18. 7. whose 15. will have 4. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. A. Who 17. will be 10. The boy says that.. Does that car belong to you? 6. 1. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. That house belongs to us 3. How many volunteers will they need? 10... will launch 8 will attend 9.... 13. 1... the boy told us that. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. 1.which 16. She told me that. 5... I said that... 7. Who 4. / Will you send. 5. / Will John accept. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. will march 2... 15...the old man whose car was parked outside the school..... Ex.who wants to speak with you. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8.. 1. Ex... which 24. Who 13. Helen told the travel agent that. whom 2. told 5. whose 21. Whom 5.. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9. 2.. whose 5. / Will Mr Smith see. which 23. Ann told the office that. Whose is this brand new car? 4. 1. whom 7. Who(m) 8. will move Ex. Whose is this gold ring? 6.. 3. 1.. 3. 7. The teacher said that.? 3.... 1. / Will the train arrive. 1.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. 4. says 2. 3.... Why will Bob sell the car? 4.. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. tell 12.. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. whom 7. John will not accept. 6. 7. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. Bob said that he.. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. says 11. The train won´t arrive. Ex. belongs to me 2..whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11.. This house belongs to us.. It belongs to her. 2.. 5. whom 14... A short course in english for adult students 113 .. will buy 11. 8..

I don´t want any more. 2. / Tell nobody about.. / He said nothing. They didn´t find anybody at home 2. 7. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6... 10.. I didn´t see anybody in. / Please. He didn´t tell anybody.. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. There isn´t any more coffee.3.. 4.. Don`t tell anybody about.... 9. / I put the money nowhere.. He didn´t say anything. 3.. 1. Does she have anything to do? 4. / There´s no one in. Did I see anybody at the desk. 5... 6.. Did he bring anything with him? 10. He can´t see anything without his glasses.. 2. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. Did she put it anywhere? 6.. He doesn´t live anywhere in... 1. put it nowhere in.? 2. Ex. There isn`t anyone at. Did I like anything about her? Ex... 7. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. 1. 1. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14..... 8. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12.. I didn`t put the money anywhere. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. They don´t want anything to drink 4.C. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . / I saw nobody in. don´t put it anywhere in. thank you. / There`s no one at. / He lives nowhere in. 11. They didn´t give us anything to eat . Did he give it to anyone? 11. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. Is there anyone in the next room? 7... 3. / He told nobody. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14.. Did he go anywhere last night? 3... Ex. Did I see anybody I knew? 9.... Please. 10... There isn`t anyone in. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5.

5. The instructor will use a video. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.UNIT 9 PART 1. 8. /δéi á:rent góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. Paul will go to Germany and France. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. They´ll travel to Mexico in March. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. /méri íznt góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 2. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . 3. 6. 2. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end.? EXERCISES Ex. 1. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. 4. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. Equivale a la expresión “Yo voy a . Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year.. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. I will send Mary a post-card from L. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góuiη tu dú:/ ¿Qué va ha hacer ud.. Lea. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. etc. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 8. Tom will come to Chile next year. 2. 6. 7. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary.. 5. “Tú vas a . Mr.”.. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as/. 7. /δéi a:r góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. 4. 3. Lea.”.. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. “Él va a .”.A..

Bob and Jim are going to swim.. o “It won´t take. Translate the following sentnces into English 1. A.. 6. 3. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took the students the men me ________________ FUTURE It will take you the men ____________________ Escuche. How long. It will take you at least an hour to type the report.. 4. Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”.. Bill is going to answer the question. 3.. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. 7. /IT TOOK.. “It didn´t take. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. 1. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II.... It took the students about an hour to answer the questions.. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr. 6. “Did it take. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip δe ripó:rt/ Ud. etc. 2..Ex.. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. Ask questions using question words like When. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. They´re going to fix the engine. 5. 3. 4. 5. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway. 2. Bill is going to travel by plane.”../ IT WILL TAKE.”.. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. Where. /it tuk δe stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser δe kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES. o “Will it take. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos... We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. 4...?”.?”.”. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge.

___________________________________________________ She learned to speak English in only one year. 6.. 7. ___________________________________________________ I wrote the letter in a few minutes..Escuche. 1.. It takes me seven minutes to walk there.? How long did it take you to. ___________________________________________________ They will build the bridge in two years. 11.. ___________________________________________________ We drove to Philadelphia in one hour.? How long will it take you to. 2. Change to negative and to interrogative form. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1... 2.. ___________________________________________________ They will complete the work in six years.. IT TOOK.. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. ___________________________________________________ I found my mistake in a few minutes. 4.: 1.. It took him several hours to finish it.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud.... ___________________________________________________ I do my homework every night in a short time.. 5.? Escuche. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. 8.. or IT WIL TAKE. 2. 9. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to.. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . ___________________________________________________ I finished the work in an hour.. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. It took them many years to build the road. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 117 . It took Herbert a long time to walk there. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway..? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. ___________________________________________________ He does his homework every day in one hour. en. en. en. ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. 5. 4.) I did my exercise in one hour. 12.. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk there. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. ___________________________________________________ I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. 3. 10.? Ex. 3.

Translate the following sentences into English 1. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. It takes much time to learn English. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. It took a month to complete the work. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . 10. 7. 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ud. 9. It takes an hour to do this exercise. It took an hour to discover the mistake. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. It will take a long time to get there. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 11.6. 12. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Uds. It will take you a week to read this book. It took them two days to find him. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avión. 3.

short . A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. old. Grado Comparativo. Mary is a beautiful girl. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. thin . (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George.hotter. hot .more intelligent important .bigger.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. big. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. tall . Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo.thinner c. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando.shorter b. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group.smaller. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . es decir son iguales. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2.taller. 1.B. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know.

4.most important d. 1.most much . 7.farthest little .smallest tall .cleverest modern .. hot . (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. + as.thinnest c.Washington (large) John is ____________________________ William (short) Henry is ____________________________ I (tall) This book is ____________________________ that book .. 5. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1.worst far . (old) The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday (bad) This summer is ____________________________ last summer (hot) This article is ____________________________ that one. pretty . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .as.most modern e..best bad . Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . short .. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small .as o not so. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e..biggest. dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother.most intelligent important . 120 Philadelphia is.(larger than). 6. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. 3. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .tallest.prettiest common . thin . (interesting) A short course in english for adult students .shortest b.hottest..least many . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.most common clever .d.. He is not as tall as his brother.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante big . 2..most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj.

(intelligent) 4.. (young) 6.. 6..... 11. Henry is ____________________________________________________________________ New York is not smaller than Chicago.(interesting) 5.(tall) 2.. first in comparative form. 10. is. 8. 12.. and second in superlative form.(long) 8. introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1. 3... (beautiful) John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. 5.... 9.... 5... 12... 9.. 15. 3..... Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. (good) Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school.. Henry is.. This book is. The Empire State Bldg.. (healthy) This room is ____________________________ that one. 3. Grace is. The Mississippi River is.. 2..... (light) Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex. 4.... This street is ___________________________________________________ This exercise is not more difficult than the last one. (sweet) This is ____________________________ park in the city.. (good) Some people are ____________________________ others. This book was __________________________________ The weather today is not better than it was yesterday...(hot) New York is ____________________________ city in the United States.. This book is ______________________________________________ This book was not more expensive than my French book. 11.The weather today is ________________________________ Ex.... 10.(wide) 9.(tall) 7. (light) Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) That city has ____________________________ parks in the region. Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) These apples are ____________________________ those. 4.. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1... 7. (few) John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group... 2.. Helen is __________________________________________________________ This street is not wider than that street. 9. (little) Ex. 13... This street is. New York is _____________________________________________________ Helen is not younger than her sister.. (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 .. 6. Today is ____________________________ day of the year.. (large) This is ____________________________ apple of all.. This exercise is _______________________________________ This book is not thicker than my French book. The weather today is ________________________________ The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday. Frank is. Henry is not taller than I. (bad) Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) This is ____________________________ room in the whole building... 14...8. 4.. State the adjectives in parentheses. John is ____________________________ boy in the class (tall). Bill is.... 7. (intelligent) He is also ____________________________ student in the class.... (interesting) New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States.(pretty) 3.. In the following. 2... 8. John is a....

. 8.. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1.. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. 10..C. New York is more important than Washington D. This street is wider than that one.. 4. John is as tall as his brother. 12. 7. This exercise is. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. The sky is darker than it was yesterday. 6. John is taller than his brother. John has less experience in computers than I. This corridor is larger than the room.John makes more mistakes than Henry.10.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . 11. Our apartment is larger than yours. 5. This exercise is longer than the last. 5. 9.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday..There are more people today than yesterday 13. This book is better than the other. 2.. Peter has more money than Henry 14..

merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skálop/ shellfish /shelfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /apetáizer/ 3. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa cholga. Provisions /províllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wiη/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drésiη/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérriη/ loco almeja caracol. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. mejillón ostra gamba. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo.

Vegetables /védlletablz/ Verduras celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /tuna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nats/ pineapple /páinápl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.king crab /kiη kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /driηk/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft driηk/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .

.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex. lighter than 12. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5. / Am I going to send Mary. It didn´t take him several hours to.. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7.... It didn´t take them two days to. 8.? 3. Tom is going to come to.. 2. / Is Jane going to buy. What are they going to do? 6.? / How long did it take to. 4...? / How long did it take them to..? / How long did it take them to build... / Did it take him several hours to..? / How long does it take to.. 1. / Will it take a long time to.? 8. Paul isn´t going to go to..? 5. more difficult than 9..? Ex.. / Did it take them two days to... It will take them two years to build the bridge.. Ex. 8. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get. 3.. They aren´t going to travel to. / Are the Johnsons going to spend..... / Is the instructor going to use.. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6... more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 ...3.... / Does it take me seven minutes to. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A.. The instructor´s going to use. shorter than 3... The Johnsons are going to spend. 3... I´m going to send Mary. It took me a few minutes to write the letter.. 6. 1. It didn´t take them many years to build. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6... 4.? 3. 6. Ex.? / How long will it take to. Who is going to answer the question? Ex. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. better than 10.. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes.. 1.. I´m not going to send Mary..? 2. It didn´t take an hour to. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3.. worse than 6.? / How long will it take you to.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station . What are you / we going to buy? 4. 4. 8. It took me an hour to finish the work 10.......? 4. / Will it take you a week to. 12... What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. They are going to travel to. 11......? 6.? / How long does it take me to. 9. Jane´s going to buy..... 4..? 6.? 12. 5. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play.. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia. taller than 4. It won´t take you a week to. / Is Tom going to come to.. It doesn´t take an hour to. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5. 1. It didn´t take a month to. / Did it take a month to. It won´t take you very long to read that article. more interesting than 8. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office..? 9. healthier than 11.. 5.? 8. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report.? 5... It took me a few minutes to find my mistake.. / Is Paul going to go to... It won´t take a long time to. It took her only one year to learn to speak English.. / Does it take me ten minutes to get.. 2. 2... It will take them six years to complete the work. / Does it take an hour to. The instructor isn´t going to use. / How long did it take him to.. 2. 7... It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane. 3.... / Are they going to travel to.. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend. 2. 2.. Jane isn´t going to buy.. It doesn`t take much time to. 2... 1...... hotter than 7.. / Did it take an hour to.? 4.? / How long does it take to.... B..? 11.? / How long does it take me to get. older than 5. 2. / Did it take them many years to build. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2.. Ex.. Tom isn´t going to come to....? Ex. Mr Jackson´s going to play.? / How long did it take to.. 1...? 7. 3.. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7. 1.. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to... What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. Paul`s going to go to. Ex. / Does it take much time to.? 7. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. Why isn´t she going to go? 7. 9.They aren´t going to come to the party tonight....? 10.. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer.. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5.

narrower than 5. the lightest 12. older than her sister. the tallest 2. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. worse than it was yesterday. 1. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. cheaper than my French book 8. Our apartment is as large as yours. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. the most intelligent 8. the worst 10. 3. 9. the largest 5. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. 12. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. 9. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. There are as many people today as yesterday. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last.5.. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday.This corridor is as large as the room. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. 126 A short course in english for adult students . the hottest 3. 10. the least Ex. 5. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. Peter has as much money as Henry. the fewest 15. 4. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. the most 14. 4. This street is wider than my street. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. This exercise is as long as the last. John has as little experience in computers as I. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class.Ex. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. the sweetest 6. Bill is more intelligent than James. 2. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. 4. 3. bigger than Chicago 3. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. This exercise is easier than the previous one. 13. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. 2. 8. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. the best 9. Grace is prettier than her sister. shorter than I 2. 11. This street is as wide as that one. 9. the most interesting 4. 1. 7. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. thinner than my French book 7. 6. (Open answers) 1. Ex. the largest 11. Ex. 7. This book is as good as the other. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. 4. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. the most 13. 10. This book is more interesting than that one. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. easier than 6. 3. the most beautiful 7. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. / This is the widest street in this town. 2.New York is as important as Washington. 14.

He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). 2. /mériz kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. por ejemplo: to go. to fly. to arrive. to have lunch/dinner. ha advertido. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. He´s attending a meeting. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. We´re staying there for 10 days. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. 1. /méri íznt kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r δéi vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r δéi vízitiη ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:iη tumórou mó:rniη/on sándi/ etc. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. /δéi a:r vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. We´re leaving on January 21st. Lea. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . (Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. We´re going to Cancun again. to travel. to attend. to come. /δéi á:rent vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. I accepted their invitation. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. etc. to drive. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Ex. to come back.UNIT 10 PART 1. agendadas. to visit. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. to stay. to leave.) EXERCISES Ex.

Write sentences indicating Dr. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. Sat. I want to play tennis tomorrow. 9. Mary: “Yes. 7. We just got a telegram from our daughter. 1._________________________________________________________________________ After dinner. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. Dr. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. At 10:15 on Saturday. 4. 10:00 Visit Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. at Kennedy Center Thurs. Texas. 8. he _______________________________________________________ at Nasa Space Center At midday. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. 14.. Use the information given below: Dr. “I´m afraid. 5. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. _________________________________________________________________________________ On Wednesday morning. 07:40 Fly to Houston. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. Fri. Make complete sentences: 1. ____________________________________________________________________________________ At 7:40 AM on Thursday. 13. After that. 2. Dr. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Surgeons Club Wed. 3. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . 4. Novoa is going to the USA next week. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. It´s 8:15 now. As you can see.Texas 14:00 Conference at Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. Ex. Mr. The departure of our train is at 8:25. he ______________________________________________________________________ On Thursday afternoon. 7. Brown said to us. 6. he ____________________________________________________________________ He is arriving in Washington DC. 3. On Monday evening. 2. Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at US. Dr. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6.3. “ Yes. Answer these questions in English. late in the evening. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. he _______________________________________________________________________ On Friday morning. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. 6. 5. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 4. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. We must hurry up. Ex. It says. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ In the evening. 11. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. Mary?”. 3. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. Right after lunch. On Monday morning. at 16:00. I´ll be away on a business trip”. 10. 12. Let´s hurry up.

. 9. este fin de semana. It may rain tomorrow. He must be over 70 years old. (No se debe decir. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. He can swim well. Jones ___________________________________________________ Yo no voy a salir de Stgo.) Ej. 7. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. ¿a que hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. be allowed to 2. = You have to obey orders. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. Ej. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. / I assume. He can swim well. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidadad) 2. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. You can see the lake from here. MUST. You can use my computer.. You should study every day.. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. 5. 2.. 1. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. PODER = ser posible 3. 1. 8. Ej. 2. Be able to 2. be likely to.. Translate the following sentences into English 1. DEBERÍA = consejo.. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. 2. A short course in english for adult students 129 . 1. = I think / assume he is over. OUGHT TO. 5. MAY. 10. Bob can swim well. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej.. ___________________________________________________ Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. (No se debe decir. recomendación 1. MODAL VERBS (I) A. I think.. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. CAN. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ ¿A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ Según el itinerario. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. 6. ___________________________________________________ Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. You must obey orders. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. have to 2. Be possible to 3. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. 3. 4. = Bob is able to swim well 2. ___________________________________________________ Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. ___________________________________________________ Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente.Ex. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. You had better study every day MUST 1. 2. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. PODER = ser capaz de. Be allowed to Example 1.

papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. (El está usando un uniforme verde. 2. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. mother? You ____________ not do that again. I think that you should see a doctor /. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. (Uds. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. Complete the blanks with CAN. It may rain tomorrow.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. 7.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. A short course in english for adult students . 6. (Negative). 2. 4. según corresponda. Must (Deber) 1. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. 4. MUST. Peter.. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. It´s out of order. 2. habilidad o destreza. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. 3. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. I just put on my glasses. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. (Ud.?) It´s getting cloudy.. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. 1. ____________ I use your pen please. 3. He is a retired civil servant. 2. 8. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. He must be a policeman. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. Sr. Tommy. puede retirarse. (No debería fumar tanto. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. Tommy. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. 130 Gentlemen. 5. It´s not good for your health. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. (Ud. MAY o SHOULD. (No te subas a esa silla. (formal). 1. 9. You may fall down and break an arm. Now I ____________ read better. Para dar consejos. (Se está nublando. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. (Ud. Para indicar capacidad. (Puedes retirarte ahora. Joe. Para indicar obligación. Sir? ____________ I have another piece of cake. John can swim very well. if you like. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. It´s dangerous. John. if you wish.

What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. 3. The man is very strong. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Ex. A pesar de ser sinónimos. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. It´s too young. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. pueden fumar aquí. B. I think you ____________ go on a diet. I don´t know why they´re talking. 14. They´re very poor. Debe estar cansado. 3. debe venir mañana nuevamente. Bob can speak three languages.10. 5. 2. You´ll be welcome to our home. 21. 13. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . Translate the following sentences into English 1. Ex. They ____________ be working instead. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. 19. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. Lea. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 22. El no puede hablar español bién. 17. El trabajó muy duro. Billy . 11. 20. He ____________ be there. 15. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. He sometimes goes home for lunch. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. El puede correr muy rápido. 2. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. 18. We must go because it´s late.We don´t accept cash. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. He ____________n´t be an engineer. 3. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. 4. 16. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. You ____________ come and visit us any day. señor? 9. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 6. It´s almost midnight now. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t know how to start a car. Ud. 23. They should take a taxi. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. You are too fat. Uds. They may use Room 203. The boss gets very angry when people are late. John. 4. Why don´t you phone at his home. 24. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. 10. 12.

Mary must study French next year. al igual que con los verbos principales. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. We must prepare our lessons every night. We must write a composition each night. 4. I must get up early every day. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. 7. WON´T. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . 12. You must read this article. John must go out of town this afternoon. los verbos modales DO / DOES. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. John must also take another language. 8. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. 11.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. = Peter has to work until late every evening. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. DIDN´T. 3. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. They must stay there at least an hour. 2. 9. 1 must write many letters. Lea. We must learn many new words every day. 1. I must work tonight. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. 5. 10. Lea. DID. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. 6.

6. 4. 5. Mary has to come with him. We have to study tonight. 5. He has to see a doctor. Then. 9. They have to come back later. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . 11. 6. 8. 4. 3. We have to write a composition tonight. 12. 2. 4. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. We had to meet him at noon. 3. 7. change to past and future time: 1. 3. John has to be here at two o’clock. He __________ spend more time on his English. John has to stop his English lessons. 10. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. I have to get up early. He __________ learn all the new words. 4. They have to write many letters. I have to work today. We __________ make reservations at once. Ex. Smith has to go out of town. He __________ go to the hospital right away. We have to get up early. I had to leave at once. Read the following with MUST. We all have to write a short story. We __________ telephone her right away. Mr.Ex. He had to be there at two o’clock. He __________ stay at home and rest. You have to wait a few minutes. 9. Change to negative form: 1. 6. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 8. 3. Ex. 7. 10. I ____________ answer this letter at once. They have to study very hard. She__________ attend class every day. Change to past and future time: 1. 1 must must leave at once. 5. 2.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . He had to leave at noon. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. WHY. 7. 9. 6. 9. They have to rent an apartment soon. 2. He has to take more exercise. Then. Change to interrogative form. 5. 11. 10. ask questions with WHEN. They will have to come back later. 11. etc. We have to get up at 6. 8. 1. 5. 3.. He had to buy several new books. She has to rest a while because she´s tired 12. 12. I have to buy a new pen. WHAT TIME. 4. They had to leave early.00 every morning. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We have to work on Sunday. He will have to wait a few minutes. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. WHERE. John had to go to the hospital. They have to study every day.7. We have to prepare our homework every day. He had to return yesterday. 10. We will have to learn many new words.

fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fiηger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fiηger/ middle finger /mídl fiηger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /riη fiηger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /θai/ thumb /θam / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) muñeca 4. entrañas pecho. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . ti:θ/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /æηkl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fíηger/ foot / feet /fu:t.BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov δe bódi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /laη/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mauθ/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /θrout/ tongue /táη/ tooth /teeth /tu:θ.mamas nalgas pecho. The Trunk /(e truηk/ El tronco back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /bláder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bíard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /héar/ Head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2.

TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at this moment /at δe móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for δe táim bi:iη/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /yésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /δis mó:rniη/ this afternoon /δis a:fternú:n/ this evening /δis í:vniη/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:niη/ yesterday afternoon /yésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rniη/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /δe déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /δe déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in δe sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mánθ/ every year /évri yíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:niη/ every other day /évri áδer déi/ every other three days /évri áδer θrí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mánθ/ many times a year /méni táimz e yíar/ a long time ago /e lóη táim agóu/ many years ago /méni yíarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri loη agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /immídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante. “al tiro” lo antes posible. por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente .

de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an δén/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

He didn´t have to be. John didn´t have to go. 1. We had to telephone.. / She´ll have to attend.. We had to study. He´s flying back to Washington DC. I have to write. Ex. 8. Ex.? / Why must we go? 4. Can 12. 1. 9. / John´ll have to stop.. / I´ll have to work. / Must we go.. 7... You had to wait.. 2. I have to get up. They´re going to stay several days with us. 9. 3. Should / ought to 24. According to the schedule. -I had to get up..... 1.. What will they do with the money they received? 8. 5.. May 8. I have to work..... John has to go out. / He´ll have to stay... 6.? / Which room may they use? Ex.... She had to attend.? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. John had to be. Mary had to come.... Should / ought to 7.. 3... 2. Mary has to study... 1. 7.. Should / ought to 21... Attending a reception at the White House 3. They don´t have to study. He can run very fast. 2.. Should 19.. 3.. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. Must / should . 1. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. 2. We had to hurry. Bob can´t speak. Must 22.. You have to read..... Must 23.. 9.. / I´ll have to answer. / We´ll have to make. I promise you I will never do that again. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. / Can Bob speak. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. 3. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. 6. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight.. He had to see. Can / must 16. / May they use. They may not use. We have to prepare. They shouldn´t take. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial.. Ex. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. / Mary will have to come. We don´t have to prepare. 6. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4....can / may 10.. Can 9. We don´t have to write. 5.. / John will have to be. 10... I don´t have to buy. May I sit here.. 5.. They had to come back. 1.. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning. That may / can happen again. at what time are we getting there? PART II. He had to spend. 1. They didn´t have to leave. 3. Should / ought to 4. / He´ll have to see.. 1. Mary and John have to fly. 12.. May 17. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening...... / We´ll have to telephone. / I´ll have to get up. 4. Can´t 15. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center.. Can .. 2... We all had to write. 4.. / Should they take.11. Ex. 2. / He´ll have to learn. 3. We don´t have to work...? / What should they do? 3.. What should I do now? 7. Must 11. 7. Can 5. 5... Can you help me this afternoon? 8. A short course in english for adult students 139 . 12. John had to stop. Ex...... We didn´t have to meet... 2.. 2. 7.11.. Should / ought to 18. 6. 2. We must not go... Must 3. He worked very hard. / He´ll have to go. 3.can´t 14.. 4. / We´ll have to hurry.. / They´ll have to write. Can´t Ex. He can´t speak Spanish well..We have to learn Ex...5. 4... He had to stay. I had to answer. He must be tired. 6.. / We´ll have to go. 5.. They may visit us tomorrow 5.Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. / We´ll have to write.. 4. You can / may smoke here.. Must 20. 9...... Mr Smith doesn´t have to go. 5.. We had to make...8. 10. He had to go.. 1. 8.12. He had to learn.. 2. 10. John also has to take. / They´ll have to come back. We had to go. / He´ll have to spend 7. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. Must 6. 6. 3... John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday.. 5. I had to work. 14.. 11.. 4. 1. 4... They have to stay. May 2...... A.. We won´t have to learn. B. Ex.... / We´ll have to study... We have to write. Ex.. 4.. Open answers Ex.8.. 12. 4. 3.. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. Sir? 9.... I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow.. 8. 3. Mary will come to see us next week. They had to write..He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center.You must come again tomorrow. 6. / You´ll have to wait.... 2. 9. 10. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center...10. Can´t 13. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. 10. 11. He´s flying to Texas...... We don´t have to get up.

Ex. What did he have to buy? 6. When will they have to come back? 10. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. When did he have to return? 8. 5. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . When / What time did he have to leave? 2. 1. How long will he have to wait? 9. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. What do they have to do every day? 4.

Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. cuando otra acción ocurra. 2. 4.?) EXERCISES: Ex. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. 2. 9. I ________________________ here. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum δis í:vniη/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. (travel) I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. etc. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. /δe tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl δéi bí: tráveliη in iú:rop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil δe prézident bí: dú:iη at δis táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:iη/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. 7. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. 10. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. /δe tchíldren wil bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæ ´terdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). 3. /línda wil bí: tráveliη in iúrop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. lea y aprenda: 1. 4. (watch) What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . 1. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /δe prézident wil bí: fláiiη tu tókiou at δis táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. (drive) The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. (do) We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). lea y aprenda: 1. (work) At this time next month.UNIT 11 PART I. we ________________________ in the USA. 3. 6. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. /δéi wil bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. (visit) Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. (play) The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. 2. 3. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. at this time tomorrow /at δis táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). (work out) I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. 5. Escuche. /wi: wil bí: hæviη /lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. o when the program starts tonight /wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). es decir. 4. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. /δéi wóunt bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. 8.

They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. 8. ___________________________________________________ 4. 5. Ask questions using question words like What. (read) What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) W___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. (cook) Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.2. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. 142 Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. 10. 7. (have) They ________________________ Brazil next month. ___________________________________________________ 7. 12. 6. (come) They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. 5. we ______________________________ television. 3. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. The students will be taking a test at 10. of course. Mr. 2. (come) ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) A short course in english for adult students . 4. 7. etc. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 3. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contínuous Tense: 1. 14. the Past or the Future tenses. Review Practice. (see) They _________ not ________________________ English very often. 15. (live) They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. 6. (watch) John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. (visit) At this time tomorrow. 4. (practise) What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. 4. 2. ___________________________________________________ 2. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. Where. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. 10. 9. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. ___________________________________________________ 6. 4. 3. 17. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 18. 3. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. How long. 2. 9. (spend) At 10:30 last night. 5. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. (work) Mr. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. ___________________________________________________ 5. we ________________________. (play) We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. (come) Mr. Use the Present. (have dinner) Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1.Ex. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. 13. 1. 16. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. ___________________________________________________ 3. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. 11.

.19. 22.. Be quiet.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive.please? or Would you. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive..(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. as a rule. Sit on this chair. Ask somebody to do the following things. using Could you. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 ... please? B: Sure Ex. please? Would you sign your name here. Sign your name here. Speak more slowly.ing. Wait for me in the lobby. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. 23. Repeat your question.. (instead of = en vez de) 1... (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. Speak more slowly. instead of the simple imperative form.. 3. lea y aprenda: 1. MAKING REQUESTS .. 4. 20.. please? Would you mind waiting outside. 21. will you? Could you speak more slowly.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. 3. 2. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wiδ pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche.. please? 1. 5.+ infinitive. using Can you. Turn the radio down. please? (Informal) Imperative.. Help me open the suitcase. 6. PART II A... 4... please?. Pay attention. 5. Come back this afternoon. A: Could you help me...please?. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold... A: Will you lend me your pen. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. Ask somebody to do the following things.. Open the window. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. 24.. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. 7. please? (Formal) Would you mind +. 2. or Will you. 1.... please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive.. 2.

please? Stranger: Sure. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. 3. B. Ask him. 7. 2. go ahead. 3. 3. Tom? Tom:: Of course. S-M-I-T-H. of course. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. 6. You: ____________________________________________________________ . Make requests. • Please do. Ask him. John? B: Sure. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John? John : Certainly. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. You want Sr. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes..ing. Use the other elevator. Wait for me in the lobby. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. Ask him/her politely. You : _________________________________________________________ . ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. • Please don´t. Ask him. Ask her to do that informally. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Turn the radio down. 6. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. 7. please? 1 Speak more slowly. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. 4. It´s too cold. Take off your hat. 4. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. 144 A short course in english for adult students . You : María. certainly. Take off your hat. go ahead. You : __________________________________________________________ . Smith 4. Escuche. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station.. Follow the instructions carefully.6. 1. I didn´t know you were studying. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. Sign your name here. Ask him. Repeat your question. Use the other elevator. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes.

7. I read it this morning. It´s too cold outside. come in please. It´s all yours.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. A short course in english for adult students 145 . please • No. here you are. 6. I don´t need it now. Mr Jackson. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. to turn the light on. Sir? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. go ahead. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . You want to go in . Ask his permission. 5. please. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. 1. You are at a friend´s house. to shut the window. You want to take a look at his newspaper. You: ________________________________________________________________________________ .EXERCISES Ex. Follow the instructions carefully. Jackson: Sure. mum? Your mother: Yes. Ask permission to do things. You: ________________________________________________________________________________________. to spell your last name. please. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. 1. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . You: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. 4. but keep the volume down. You want to open the window. 2. Jack? Jack. You want to use your friend´s lighter. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . thank you. Ask the speaker´s permission. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. please. C. I´ve got a bad cold. Bob? Bob: Sure. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. please. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Ask your mother´s permission. I´m working. You want to ask a question. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • Shall I + Infinitive? • Do you want me to + Infinitive? • Would you like me to + Infinitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. 3. You´re at a conference. Mr. Mr Jackson is working in his office. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. Ask his permission. 2. please do. Ask his permission. You want to turn on the TV. 3. 1. Ask his permission. Ask your host´s permission.

Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. to speak more slowly. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. etc. Why not? Yes. 6. I don´t understand French. that´s a good idea. I´m a bit busy right now. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. thanks. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes.4. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. 2. 5. 3. to help me complete the application form. Sorry I can´t. I can manage myself. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. to repeat your question. please. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. To spend the summer holidays with us. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. It´s getting late. I don´t understand English very well yet.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. thanks. EXERCISES Ex. 8. I´m a little hungry. to tell Mary that I want to see her.. Let´s do that. D. 10.. please. 4. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. Sure. please. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. 7. of course. 146 A short course in english for adult students . certainly / Yes. To go to the seaside next weekend. 9. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. please. 1. to call back later today.

. Jane: So do I . Escuche. NOT. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. To stay at home and watch TV . let´s do that.TOO. Peter: And Janet will come too! 147 . 6. / BUT +S+ MV 1. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. It´s a very interesting exhibition.too. Mary will come to the party tonight. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. A.5. Peter went to the party as well. I´d love to.. 2) John. 9. let´s do that. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. John went to the party. Jane: I also like it very much. lea y aprenda. Peter also went to the party.. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. John went to the party. 7. but peter did. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. 2. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. ALSO. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. Why not. To play tennis tomorrow morning. Peter didn´t go to the party either. John didn´t like the party. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). but peter didn´t go to the party. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. John didn´t like the party.. but peter liked the party. John went to the party. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. but peter didn´t. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. To go to the arts exhibition. Peter: And so will Janet! A short course in english for adult students 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. Peter went to the party. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. John went to the party. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. 10. It´s a pleasant evening. John went to the party and so did Peter. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). Las palabras ALSO. John didn´t go to the party. It´s much cheaper. They´re very nice people.

John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. John walks to school. (my wife) 8.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. 5.. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. EITHER. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). 3.3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. 6. Las palabras NOT. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ We´ve got a big house. Mary can speak Italian well. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 148 A short course in english for adult students . lea y aprenda. (We) 7. Mary likes pie for dessert. Escuche.. then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. (Carmen) 2. Tom: And so was his brother . Ann: Nor did I! 4. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. 7. 8. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. I don´t understand it ___________________ I can´t drive a car. He liked the picture. 2a. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. or do you speak another language? So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. 3. (the secretary) 3. 4. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. Mary: I don´t like it either. Mary: Neither do I. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. or BUT 1. (I) 4. 10. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. 1 watch TV after dinner. 9. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. lea y aprenda. Ex. Escuche. ___________________ John is not going to go there. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. EXERCISES Ex. (he) 5. (Jane) 1. She comes here every day. He´s going to go to France. 1. What language do you speak. 2. Ann: I didn´t see you either. ___________________ my husband can. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ Mary is going to go to Spain.

Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. They weren´t very busy. We will go by train. 3. (Carmen) 2. (They) 11. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. first use NOT. (Peter) 6. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. (you) 14. John walks to school.(My wife´s car) 12. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria.EITHER. They were very busy. (I) 13. Mary should work harder. They must pay more. (my wife’s car) 12. We won´t go by train. 1. (he) 5. Mary can speak Italian well. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. (you) 14. (the secretary) 3. but Jane does. She doesn´t come here every day. (Jane) 1. John didn´t go to the movies.. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE. (Carmen) 2. (the secretary) 3. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. Complete these sentences with BUT. (I) Bob likes coffee. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10.. (they) 11. (I) 13. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). Now. They mustn´t pay more. but Jane doesn´t. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. (The children) 9. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. (My friends) 10. I didn´t eat there yesterday. My car isn´t very old. John doesn´t go to school .9. 2b. Mary shouldn´t work harder. My car is very old. Mary can´t speak Italian well. (I) 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . Bob doesn´t like coffee.

We will go by train. 1 watch TV after dinner. She comes here every day. (We) 7. 1 ate there yesterday. “What did Peter send yesterday”. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”.4. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). He sent some candy to his sister. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. Como ud.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. (I) 13. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. “What did Mary buy?. 3. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (my wife) 8. (you) 14. He told the story to us. He sent a letter to me. (the children) 9. 5. A su vez. 150 He gave the money to me. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. They were very busy. 2. (he) 5. Del mismo modo. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. (Peter) 6. He liked the picture. 1. 6. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. She brought the book to me. 4. The teacher gave some dictation to us. A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . (my friends) 10. (my wife’s car) 12. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). John went to the movies with us. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. Ex. My car is very old. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. Mary likes pie for dessert. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. lea y aprenda. (they) 11. They must pay more.

4. 10. 8. Please hand me that book. They brought us many presents from abroad. 2. He bought some flowers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. 3. 9. 2. They gave us some magazines. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. He gave me some books. They sent us an invitation to the party. 6. They sent an invitation to us. Please give us some dictation today. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He sent his mother several letters. 9. 10. 7. 12. 5. 1 gave him the note which you sent. 12. 11. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. They sent us the material right away. 11. Henry told us the story of his trip. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us. John lent some money to his friends. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 .7. John gladly lent me the money.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél(/ La salud arthritis /a:rθráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hélθ/ heart attack /ha:ræt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rúmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r θróut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tuθ eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:piη kof/ tos convulsiva.

Were .. will . Ex. 6. will . Could you / Would you turn.. / Will the students be taking. 1.... Mr Perez? 2.travel PART II A.please? 4.. will be working 2. Could you / Would you sign..... will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3.. will be cooking 8.... Would you mind taking.? 4..? 7. 1 They won´t be running....be / are . to spell my..come 13.spend .going 20. will be doing 7.. please? 5... 4. me to speak.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex. please? 4.expecting 15.? 4. 4.... Can you / Will you be. Ex.staying 22. Do . / Will Mike be washing.arriving 21... were .. me to translate. 1. don´t we invite....please? 2..? 2.. 1.? 3... please? 2......? C. 1.? 3. will visit 3. 1.reading 9. 3. Can you / Will you help. please? Ex. will be working 4... were . 10. me to get you.get up 18. Ex.. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex....go / are .. turn.. please? 4. do .please? 7. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. Can you / Will you pay. please? Ex.. May I / Do you mind if I use. and resting.Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5.going to go / are . me to help you. 4..please? 5. Can I use your.. Could you / Would you help me.. does . please? 4. 1..be doing 10. will have dinner 7...arrive / are . How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3.. comes 5....living 16.. will be watching 10. were watching 4. Can you / Will you turn down. 9. 1. Did . The students won´t be taking. D. A short course in english for adult students 153 ..be doing Ex. like to spend. like to go. please? B... Could you / Would you show me.. 4.. 3.. will be having 2.. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7.doing 8.. 7. Mike won´t be washing..... 7.. please? / Would you mind spelling.. will be playing 8. please? 6. will.going to stay / are .do 10. Could you / Would you speak. Can you / Will you call me up. 1. are . Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me. Will . don´t we take. 10.. please? 3. 1. 5. saw 6. please? 6.. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.. 8. Can I take. sitting..come 5.? 5.... 1. 1.? 6. Can you / Will you give me. May I / Do you mind if I open.? 2.... tell Mary that you. shut. Can I turn. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. will be working out 9.. 2..going to arrive / are . call back. Could you / Would you use. don´t we go..? 2...practice 7.... Would you mind repeating.. Will ...... Can you / Will you sit. is playing 2..and watching. will be entertaining 5. 9.stay / are . staying......? 5.stay 9.. will be driving 4.. / Will Hans be working.. Can you / Will you come. 6. 8. go. Would you mind turning. will be living 6....? 6..going to be 19.. please? 7.. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6.. play..... did ..5. 1. 6. will . will . did .phone 14. Would you mind signing... Would you mind using.. 1..... smokes 23.. Can you / Will you speak.buy 12..3.? 3.. Could you / Would you spell. Could you / Would you take.. Would you mind waiting. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait.? Ex. May I / Do you mind if I ask. does . 1. Could you / Would you repeat. please? Ex..be doing 11...write 17.. please? / Would you mind showing me. 2. 3... will be visiting. did .. me to repeat my. please? 7. will be travelling 3... / Will they be running. will .put on 24. Ex... did . please? 5.. will .please? 3 Can you / Will you open ... Hans won´t be working. Ex. 1... please? 6...Would you mind speaking.... 2. please? 3. 5. May I / Do you mind if I go in. don´t we travel. will .

.. and neither / nor does the secretary.either / Mary should work..8. They sent an invitation to the party to us.. and the secreatry also eats. / Mary likes. and the children don´t like. I ate.either / I didn´t eat. 3 He sent me a letter 4. and Carmen can.5.... as well / John walks.. and neither / nor did my friends. I eat. either / John doesn´t walk...too / Mary should work.. John went.. Mary should work... 2b... either / They weren´t.. 1. 1.. Henry told the story of his trip to us. but they won´t. and the secretary doesn´t eat... / I don´t watch. and neither / nor will they.... but I don´t. also 5. 8.. They must pay.. either 4.. and I walk. I ate. They were. I don´t eat... and Peter didin´t go.7.. He sent several letters to his mother. She doesn´t come. 14.. They sent us an invitation.. and my wife´s car isn´t.. and neither / nor was I... and the children also like..and so did Peter... John doesn´t walk..11. and so was I 13. 11.. 7.. and my wife doesn´t watch. and so do I 4... 14. He gave some books to me. but my friends did. but they will...12. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat. She brought me the book. and neither / nor do I 4.. and so did my friends..... as well / He liked.. 1... He liked. 1 gave the note which you sent to him...... Ex... She comes. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come.. but the secretary does 3. Mary can speak. but we must B. We´ll go. 9. but I do. but you should . either / He didn´t like...... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. 6... John lent his friends some money 11. 13. 12. and neither / nor should you. John walks.. but 9. too.... 1. and so do the children 9.. also 10. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. They must pay and we must pay..and so does he 5. I watch. He told us the story 5. but we did. but the children don´t. They weren´t. either Ex.. and my friends also ate..... 10.. as well / They were. Mary shouldn´t work..PART III A..either / Mary doesn´t like.. I diidn´t eat....and neither / nor does he 5... but we didn´t / He didn´t like. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work... and Carmen can´t. and neither / nor must we Ex. 1. 8. but my wife does..either / We won´t go. as well.. either 6... Mary likes. Mary likes. and so does my wife 8. 14. / Mary doesn´t like.. 5... either / Mary can´t.... They mustn´t pay. John didn´t go.. My car is.either / She doesn´t come... / We´ll go.. and so must we Ex...... 10.. John gladly lent the money to me. 10... / I ate. I eat.. but the children do. 4... They gave some magazines to us..... / They must pay. and they won´t go.... but I was.... They sent the material to us right away. He sent his sister some candy... Mary can´t. and my wife also watches. 6. and he comes.. 3. Please give some dictation to us today. I don´t watch. and I don´t walk.They brought many presents to us from abroad.. They were. He didn´t like.. 10.... He liked. and you should work. Ex. Mary doesn´t like. and so did we 7.. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes. I watch..... 7... too / She comes... either / They must pay.. and Peter also went. 4... either / I don´t eat. John walks. / John doesn´t walk.. too / as well 8. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak.. / They weren´t... 6. and my wife´s car is. 2a. 1.. too / as well 2. He gave his friend a ring. We won´t go..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat... and neither / nor do the children 9.. and I wasn´t. 3... He bought his wife some flowers.. 11. 9. and you shouldn´t work.. 10. 2. / I don´t watch.. and so should you.. but Peter did. 6. / I eat. We will go. My car isn´t. 11... / John went.. but 3. Mary can. but he does. but I wasn´t. too / Mary can... John went... / We won´t go. / John didn´t go... and neither / nor did we 7. Mary should work. He gave me the money 2... but Carmen can 2. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students ..... but my wife doesn´t. and we mustn´t pay.... The teacher gave us some dictation 6. but my wife´s car is.... but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay. and we liked...... and so can Carmen 2. 13....and neither / nor did Peter.. and so does the secretary...either. / I watch. and he doesn´t come.. 2. 1.. and so will they... and we didn´t like. She comes. 3.9. and I was....either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t. 1... Will you lend me your pen? 12... and my friends didn´t eat. and neither / nor does my wife 8..... My wife´s car is. 3.. but 7.... and they will also go...........

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

He´s. hemos Uds. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. como por ejemplo: I´ve. You´ve. To study . Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. To work .worked. Habíamos Uds.. y por lo tanto Ud. /hí:z/. /iu:v/. /méri haz ríten anáδer nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. To decide . Ellos han contestado la carta. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos.. She´s /shí:z.worked .. A short course in english for adult students 157 . forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente.. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. puede ver. /δéiv á:nserd δe léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. Como Ud. forma) de un verbo principal. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. /ái hav sí:n δæt múvi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. etc..decided . Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. Curiosamente..studied. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hæv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Escuche.decided. /áiv bí:n δéar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. /aiv/.studied . Ej. habremos Uds. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra.

for ten years /for tén yíarz/. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER.? vez. hasta este momento. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet.. They visited me in the winter of 1995. never /nóu/néver/ No. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. several times /sévral támiz/. once...El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. Lea. /áim shó:r δat áiv sí:n δt fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. /yés wáns δéi vízitid mi in δe wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. Lea. Lea. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. /hav iú éver. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv δéi éver vízitid iú: in δe wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún). una vez. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. since 10:30 /sins tén θé:rti/. Yes. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/.. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. durante). Lea. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá: st mándi/. tambien. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. /δéiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræηk tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /δe tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. three or four times /θrí: or fó:r támiz/. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. en las negaciones de debe usar yet... /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students .. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por.? Lea.. etc. many times /méni támiz/. /áiv sí:n δat dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. twice /twáis/. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio.

Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz δe tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. Generalmente se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævnt/ HASN´T /hæznt/). dejar prestar perder. 1. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. /δéi hav sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. conocer aprender. mantener saber. /áiv olrédi sí:n θæt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. We haven´t had breakfast yet. haber oir guardar. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. /δéi hævent sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav δéi sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav δéi sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Mary has sold her car.? EXERCISES Ex. enterarse partir. encontrar olvidar conseguir. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. salir. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. Mary hasn´t sold her car. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. servirse.Lea. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud.

Peter has had dinner already. Hurry up! (start) 2. He isn´t in Chile. llevar enseñar decir pensar. 3. (see) 5. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. 2. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. 4. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. John has sent them a fax. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . They have studied the report. (receive) 7. I don´t remember when. He________________ to America. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. Your train ________________ already ________________. fabricar.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. John ________________ for that company since 1987. (live) 6. but I´m sure I know him. He´s reading it now. Sir. (go) 10. 5. creer entender. The soccer game has already finished. The plane has already left. The tennis game________________ just ________________. He knows it well. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. 6. 1.conocer pagar poner. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. (speak) 12. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. (be) 3. (work) 9. (meet) Ex. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. (go) 8. comprender usar (ropa). (leave) 4. vestir escribir Ex. I ________________ that man before. confeccionar reunirse. 2. colocar leer correr.

como /m/. ___________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. 8. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. ___________________________________________________ ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. 4. 5. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. 6. como /k/. etc. 12. How long. /b/. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. John? ___________________________________________________ Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. 10. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. 9. 5. 11. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. 4. 6. 2. Where. ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. 9. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. 5. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. /p/. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. ___________________________________________________ El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. etc. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What. ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. todavía? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. _________________________________________________ Ex. 7. 10. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. /l/. 3. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 3. How. 2. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. 4. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. 8.. 6. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1.Ex. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. 1. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. 6. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. 1. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . etc. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. /g/. 7. 7. /t/. /d/. ______________________________________________ No. 5. When. 2. 4. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. _______________________________________________ Yes. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales.

two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. -oof. no siguen la regla anterior. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. banjo. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. -x. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. -sh. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. -ce. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. soprano. -ch. solo. Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . etc). -ff. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. piano. -ge.

zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ .: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . volcanos/volcanoes /volkéinouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:θ/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ five several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:θ/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /θí:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /δí:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipóθesis/ parenthesis /parénθesis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipóθesi:z/ parentheses /parénθesi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memorδda/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . tornado / to:rnéidou /. volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es.

They went sightseeing in the morning. abandonar To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir To practise /práktis/ practicar Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. speaking. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. continuar. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming).B. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. to write. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. After playing tennis. to speak. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. 1. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. I enjoy playing tennis. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. salir. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. aceptar como cierto To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. Además.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópiη/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). etc. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. 164 A short course in english for adult students . no aceptar como cierto To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. I heard some surprising news. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. they went to the library. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóutiη/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuliη/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpiη/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsiη/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhiη/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hænd gláidiη/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háikiη/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógiη/ ir a trotar To go running /góu rániη/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séiliη/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópiη/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:iη/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéitiη/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:iη/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáiviη/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swímiη/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu trékiη/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:iη/ ir a esquiar (acuat. etc. writing. correr el riesgo de To quit /kuit/ dejar. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To risk /risk/ arriesgar. como ud. seguramente recordará. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. como To make (He made us do the exercise again).

seguir. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. A short course in english for adult students 165 . the old woman locked all the doors. discutir Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. 4. mantenerse esperar con ansia. mantenerse soñar con. 2.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rθwail/ ¿Vale la pena. seguir... (take) He put on his coat ______________________________ the house..Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposición to) van seguidas de un gerundio. 5. 2. They kept on talking for hours. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. 6. 1. (work) We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. 7. (pay) 1 can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. 4.. Por lo tanto. Bob will soon get used to living in this country.we:rθ/ ¿Vale la pena. 2.esta/e.. (go) Ex.. (leave) ______________________________ to bed. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get θru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar.. (say) The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. Es inutil It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that... dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar.?) There´s no use waiting any longer. 3. I look forward to seeing you soon. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /δeaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena.. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ There´s not much point in /δeaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. rendirse continuar. Ann is fond of gardening. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. 1. seguir insistir en continuar. (eat) Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. 3. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomáticas que a pesar de contener la preposición to van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v. worth /iz δis. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course.

It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. it’s true. 6. 4.5. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. 1 didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. He wants to carry on _______________________. Bob: We could go the cinema. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? If you walk ínto the road without looking. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. not really. 9. Bob: No. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. 8. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write He tried to avoid answering my question. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 166 A short course in english for adult students . Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. _______________________________________? 4. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. 1 don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. 10. 3. 6. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1. 5. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. It´s not a good. 4. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 12. Ann: You broke into the shop. Ex. Use -ING. 9. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. 2. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ________________________________ until. 1. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. 7. 3. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. 10. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? I enjoy _______________________ to music. no problem. 1. Sorry! Bob admitted. 5. 11. 1 dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. You can´t stop me doing what I want. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob: No. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 8. Ex. 2. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 1 aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. 2. I really must do it today. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. idea to travel during the rush hour.

9. He will marry Helen. He will not remain a bachelor. (take) There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. She won’t go to the university. 4. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (go) Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) We look forward _______________________ you soon. (do) We are thinking _______________________ French. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. 5. 11. 12. 7. I aIways enjoy talking to her. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 4. She’s a very interesting person. They will fly to Mexico. 8. 3. They will stay home this summer.5. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 2. 1. 10. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. (see) The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. 2. 7. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. They will not drive in their new car. 6. John will study to be an engineer. We’re going to the movie tonight. 5. (see) lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. l’m not feeling very well. (finish) Ex. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. I will play tennis. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (study) Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. She will study music. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . They won’t go abroad. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. 6. He will not work in his father’s store. (hit) There is little chance _______________________ her again. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Could you turn the radio down. (wait) Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. 8. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. (drive) John got tired _______________________ for us. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. He will live in a dormitory. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. We will not visit the Smiths. Use gerunds.

lt’s slowly falling apart. B: Oh. then. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. The Porters´ house is too small.Ex. Well. 13. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. 168 A short course in english for adult students . I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. I´d be glad to. 10. We had a blizzard. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all.. 9. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. 6. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ It´s driving me crazy. A: Good. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. Complete the sentences in the dialogues.m. try. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. I’m listening to you. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ could you he1p me in the kitchen? B: Sure. 8. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. 7. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. 2. They’re considering _______________________ We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. 9. 3. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. I don’t cough any more. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. 11. B: Well._______________________ their homework. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. Beth doesn’t like her job. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. 6. if necessary. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. and 1 still don’t understand it. I enjoy _______________________ sports. she dusted the furniture. 1. news! I feel great. try again. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. 10. 12. B: Let´s go. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. 4. 8. I´m not tired yet. Ex. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. Add a preposition after the gerund. Keep _______________________. it has. yesterday. don’t give up. 5. 2. It was cold and rainy yesterday. 14. Sometimes students put off. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p.

Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. I said. The ice is smooth. 11. When there’s a strong wind.ING 1. 14. Mr. Use the expressions GO +. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. “ Ex. George and Jane know all the latest dances. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. He usually takes long walks in the woods. Jim and his wife live near the sea. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. It´s winter now. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. On weekends in the winter. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10.. She runs a couple of miles every day. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.9. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . “Three free trees. What do they like to do? hey like _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. so the lake is completely frozen. A: I didn’t understand what you said. Mr. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. Answer the questions. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. She spends hours in the water.. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. Jim Clark is a nature lover. Barbarta prefers indoor sports.

r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:θ/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúriη/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in δ kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /θru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wiδ/ within /wiδin/ without /wiδáut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. hacia hacia. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / lóη/ among / máη/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t δ bæk v/ at the bottom of / t δ bótom v/ at the top of / t δ top ηv/ before /bifó. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. at 4.

2. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. acto seguido sin embargo.ni.and. 13. así mismo mientras tanto además. debido a que no both. nevertheless.. 7. 12. I´m getting along quite well. 10. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan θiη/ for that reason /for δæt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1. con posterioridad por lo tanto. He´s my best friend.. por lo tanto then /δen/ sin embargo. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdiηli/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ólδou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /férδermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando... por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar... on the other hand... we can´t afford the house. en consecuencia posteriormente. del mismo modo por lo tanto. sin embargo. pues por lo tanto. 6... yet she didn´t pass her exam. It´s cold outside. no sólo.. Mary was sick. she came to class... The yard is too big. moreover.. besides. so he failed the exam. nonetheless... 9.como. Alice studied very hard. enseguida.and/ either.nor /ní:δer. he went to the post office. por cierto thus /δas/ inicialmente.. /bóuθ. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital. en realidad in addition /in adíshon/ además in spite of that /in spáit v δæt/ a pesar de ello in the first place /in δ fé:rst pléis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in δ mí:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in δ seim wéi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan hænd/ por un lado ´ on the other hand / n δi áδ r hænd/ por otro lado ´ to begin with /tu bigín wiδ/ para comenzar to start with /tu stá:rt wiδ/ para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 .. ni. no obstante ello de otro modo.but also /nót óunli. furthermore. he seems to know a lot about our customs. por consiguiente así. the house is not very comfortable. 3.. The student speaks English well. ya sea. he took her to Europe. o. 11. but he didn´t do well in the test. On one hand. it has an excellent location 14. we´ve known each other all our lives.. He studied hard as well. entonces. no obstante therefore /δéarfo:r/ en efecto.. 5.. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque.. he went to the bank. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néverδelés/ en consecuencia.B. no obstante después. aunque. we have to wash the car. de este modo en cambio.o:r/ neither.no:r/ not only...or /í:δer. 8. then. He didn´t study hard enough.but ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto... de lo contrario similarmente. por otra parte sin embargo. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. He gave her a beautiful diamond. however. no obstante nonetheless /nanδeles/ igualmente otherwise /áδerwaiz/ finalmente. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad... como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ de hecho.. in addition. First. 4. next /nékst/ a pesar de. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital.....sino que también. my roommate is not doing so well.

Bl 172 .

No. in speaking 4.. Ex. 8.. 3..Yes. of taking 12. 2.instead of driving in their new car Ex. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. turning the radio down. visiting Ex. 7. being 8. moving into a larger house 3. 2. speaking 3. travelling during the rush hour 3. I´ve never been there 2. 2. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2.left 4. 4. doing 6. How long have we / you waited for them? 12.. have lived 6. applying 5. has gone 8. has . washing 6.. 4. Ex... by working 5. I haven´t read that book yet. going away. 2. has . 4.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6.. of driving 10.? Ex. 6. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. laughing 6.. going out for a walk 5. 1. Ex. What has Mary told you about that? 7. tomorrow 4.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7.. 1. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4.instead of going to the university 3. (Possible answers) 2. What have they bought? 3. from hitting 6. 5.. she´s been there twice. not having a license 5. How long have you worked in the army? 10. without / after saying 2. has . closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . They haven´t given her. 5. How many books have they sold today? 6. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life.. making 3. 1. instead of going abroad 4. 6. before going Ex. riding 7.. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2. trying Ex. of doing 8. The general has already gone to the meeting.started 2. has spoken 12. visiting 12. working 8. using 9. of waiting 11. playing tennis 3. John? 5. Yes. 3.. 7. hitting 9. please? 6. What have the boys done today? 11. going out this evening 3. 2. before eating 3. about taking 6. about studying 9. going for a swim 5. Where has John been? 9. working 14. What have you eaten? 8. on going 3. 5. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9.instead of working in his father´s store 6. 2. to seeing 5. has worked 9. 1.. answering 11.. waiting a few minutes. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7.. Breaking / having broken 6.read 11. has. No.been 10. she´s come here a couple of times. before leaving 7. have met Ex. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. eating 6. snowing 7.. / Have they given her. 3. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. Yes. 6. have seen 5. being 7. speaking 13. I´ve never seen him in person.. of swimming 2. have . he´s lived abroad several times 6. of seeing 7. No. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10.. going to 4. reading 4. waiting 2. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. (Possible answers) 2... instead of remaining a bachelor 8. having 10. 9. 8.. Why has he gone to bed? 4. vacuuming 5. without / after paying 4.. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. I´ve driven one once or twice. they´ve never seen one 4. breaking down Ex. 3. taking 5. buying 8. standing up 4. listening 4. instead of visiting the Smiths 5. being 12.. seeing 10. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. taking 9. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3.1 1.. 1. practising 11. 1. has been 3. looking for 10. 1.received 7. Ex. of finishing Ex. They´ve studied English for more than two years. They´ve been here several times before. Yes.

repeating that Ex. smoking 5. 10. doing things / doing his homework 7. went camping 4. 11. helping him 8. go dancing 10. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. 2. goes bowling 9. to go shopping 5. trying 6. are going to go ice-skating 11. goes jogging 6. reading a good book 4. like to go skiing 7.Ex. 174 A short course in english for adult students . tapping your fingernails on the table 9. like to go sky-diving 14. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. etc. 2. to go water-skiing 3. go sight-seeing 13. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. like to go sailing 12. likes trekking 8.

30. (work) That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. /its bí:n ráiniη for abáut an áuar/. 4. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. hasta esta fecha. /δéi hav bí:n líviη in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. (sit) The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8.UNIT 13 PART 1. 1. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rkiη δéar for mó:ar δan tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav δei bí:n líviη δéar véri lóη/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu loη hav iú: bi:n præktisiη íηglish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:iη/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. /δéiv lívd in δe sáuθ éver sins δéi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. Lea. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . Lea. /wí:v bí:n stádiiη iηglish for óuver tú: mánθs/ It´s been raining for about an hour. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. /hi:z bí:n wérkiη δéar for abáut tú: áuarz/. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. Miami desde 1985. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. 1. /hi:z wé:rkt δéar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours.? EXERCISES Ex. 3. /δéiv bi:n líviη in δe sáuθ for at lí:st tú mánθs/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. 2. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rkiη δéar sins éit θé:rti/.

I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. 9. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. When. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. Change the following sentences into a) negative. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. Jane´s been feeling well since March. 10. (read) Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. (write) The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. 1. (work out) The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. etc.5. Bob´s been swimming all morning. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 176 A short course in english for adult students . 2. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. Ask questions using question words like What. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. 7. 8. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. (run) The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. (discuss) Ex. Where. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. How long. and b) interrogative. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4.

Peter wants to study engeneering. He pretended to be reading the paper. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. /si:m/ parecer. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disε´:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. pensar. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. The woman pretends to know everything. simular. (II) A. TO DECIDE planear. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. etc. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. She promised not to be late. verse. no lograr Olvidar To hope /houp/ To learn /lε:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /θréten/ To want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. 2. simular. que son las siguientes: 1. TO WISH /wish/ desear. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much.PART II. TO PLAN /plæn/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. so I agreed to lend him some money. verse. simular Prometer Rehusar. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. I promise to help you. The students tend to be negligent. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. negarse a Amenazar. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. They seem to be doing well now.

dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. I would prefer /wud prifε preferiría ´:r/ I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. I´d love to go to the club.. (No se debe decir. Por favor.Mary. B. TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir. Permítame llevarle su bolso. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. He asked to take part. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. I don´t mean you to do it now. I begged them to see the photos. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola. the student. 178 A short course in english for adult students . when. Let me carry your bag for you. señora Please let me go out. TO TELL /tel/ decir. pedir. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. I would like to go. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. déjeme salir I want to go there. I´d hate the boys to do it here. where. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. solicitar. 4. El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. “You make me TO feel happy”) Tú me haces sentir feliz The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. I´d hate to do that here. Verb + Wh. Bob taught us how to use the computer. him. They don´t mean to do it now. TO KNOW /nóu/.3. Hot weather makes me feel tired. saber. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. I´d prefer to do it now. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/.. etc. mostrar. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. 6. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. We expect you to be there soon. We expect to be there soon. I begged to see the photos. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. Do you understand what to do? 5. them. madam. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. me.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car.

2. I enjoy _____________________________ television. please? EXERCISES Ex. thanks. van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. 3. (watch) It was a nice day. (go) It’s a nice day. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. 1. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) I’m not in a hurry. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. Ex. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. fine. (call) A short course in english for adult students 179 . (parte de la acción) Los oí cantando una canción We heard them sing ten songs. It’s relaxing. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. 6. We were all too afraid to speak. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________to the airport in time. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) They don’t have much money. 5. D. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. I wonder where Sue is. When I’m tired. I can manage. Complete the sentences for each situation. Mary: OK. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. 7. Put the verb into the correct form to-Infinitive or -ing 1. (acción completa) La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle We heard them singing a song. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. Hans: OK. 6. 4. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. 1. 2. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. 2. 3. 3. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. She promised not_____________________________ late.C. We’ve got a new computer in our office. 1. (go) I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . It’s driving me mad. (acción completa) Los oí cantar 10 canciones. Jack : Please help me. 4. (bark) Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. 5.

of course. We were hungry. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 2. 2. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not.(tend) They have solved the problem.. 1. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. (appear) You know a lot of people. 2. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can 1 go now or do ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 5. He has lost weight. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 2. (miss) 10. I was surprised that it rained. 8.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4.8. 1. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. TO LEND. I didn’t know _____________________________.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. (have) 9. 4. 5. 6. My father said I could use his car. I was really astonished. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. Sue told Hans to lock the door. 7. 4.(seem) Tom is worried about something. 3. Sylvia: Be careful. (seem) That car has broken down. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK. Complete the questions. 4. 5. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. Sylvia warned 5. TO SHUT.. 6. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students . Ex.. 6. 4. (seem) My English is getting better. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. 3. TO WAIT 1. 6. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. 5. 1. Sue: Lock the door. TO REPEAT. ____________________________________________________________________ Ex. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. (find) Ex. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? ____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No ____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. I will. ____________________________________________________________________ Jane. Yes. (appear) David forgets things. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early.. TO SHOW. 7.

He looks older when he wears glasses. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. We continued to work until 10:30. I love to go to baseball games. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The minister went on talking for two hours. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while.continuar. sin cambiar de significado. I think you should know the truth. After discussing the economy. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. VERBS +. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. It made me _____________________________ (cry) Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. recordarse. 9. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. I regret saying what I said. 9. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. detenerse.. (smoke) I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. I was told that 1 shouldn’t believe everything he says. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. The food is awful (eat) The film was very sad. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir.. I remember doing that. 6. A short course in english for adult students 181 . 2. 3. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. TO STOP /stop/ parar. My lawyer advised. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. (I said that. If you’ve got a car. My lawyer said 1 shouldn’t say anything to the police. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. 4. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. (I remembered I had to do that. (study) E.3. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. (go) I’m in a difficult position. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. estos cambian de significado de la oración. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. a diferencia de los anteriores. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or infinitive (with or without to). It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. 1. parar. arrepentirse. 7. 8. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. I remembered to do that. you are able to travel round more easily. 5.

(answer) One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. That’s not what I meant! 1 meant _____________________________ just the opposite. 11. 7. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. (meet) 1 hope _________________________ you again soon. 2. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. (talk) Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. (get) We finished _____________________________ around seven. 1.’ (shut) I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. (hire) (come) 22. Sometimes either form is possible. 15. 5. (cry) Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. 1 haven’t got enough money. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 19. 16. (break) The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. They denied _____________________________the money. I clean (= completely) forgot. (go) Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. 5. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 182 A short course in english for adult students . 6. 2. 3. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. (move) What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate _____________________________ to school. 16.EXERCISES Ex. 10. 1. 3. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. I’ll phone her tomorrow. 17. (write) Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. 8. 3. 11. 1. (lock) I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. 1 promise _____________________________ on time. 4. (go) I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. 13. (eat) Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) I like _____________________________ new people. Ex. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. (get). 1. She didn’t answer the phone. 12. 7. 2. (help) I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. (say) 23._____________________________you any money. 13. 10. 6. 4. 18. I’m too tired. (live) Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. (jog) The company will continue _____________________________ new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. (go) I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. 8. 12. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. (camp) My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. (drive) I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. (meet) The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. (be) I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. (steal) I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. I want _____________________________this afternoon. 15. (see) The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. 3. (watch) Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 1 won’t be late. 9. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 don’t remember . (go) (shop) 24. 14. 14. 20. 9. 2. 21.

(go) We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. 2. 20. 6. 15. It needs _____________________________. (talk) I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. (move) I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 17. 6. (wash) I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. 11. Smith. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. 10. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. 5. 7. 19. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. 3. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. 9. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. I want a different job. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise.(buy) They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV.4. mum. BARE INFINITIVE. 1 don’t regret _____________________________ it. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . As a matter of fact I do it every day. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. 11. 16. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. 12. This is very urgent. 12. (watch) I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. (go) It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. I saw him _____________________________ his car. When you see Mandy tomorrow. remember _____________________________ her my regards.George? (do) Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. 1. It is too expensive. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. 10. 8. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. 4. 18. (wash). or did you forget? (phone) I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. I´ve already done my homework. She looked up and said hello to me. won’t you? 5. 14. (move) He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. GERUND. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. (watch) Where did they agree_____________________________. (rain) Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. Ex. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. TO-INFINITIVE. (live) I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. 13. 4. (lock) I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. 7. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. Someone must have taken my bag. This jacket is dirty. 9. 8.

1. is she? You don´t know him well. ___________________________________________________? Ex. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. 12. ____________________________________________________________? Henry left at two o’clock. isn´t she? You know him well. _____________________________________? 5. did he? The boys can´t speak French. 3. 10. _______________________________________________________________? She studies with you. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. You are busy today. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. ____________________________________________________________? 6. ____________________________________________________? 4.PART III TAG ENDINGS. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. 13. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. _______________________________________________________? He has many friends here. You don´t know him well. ___________________________________________________? I´m your best friend. It is beginning to rain. ____________________________________________? 3. 2. ________________________________________________________? There´s some more milk in the fridge. Smith has seen that movie. 7. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. ha advertido. The wind is blowing very hard. has he? Como Ud. ______________________________________________? Both men look very much alike. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. The boy can speak French. Helen and her sister are both studying English. John is a good student. 9. 6. George is a very tall boy. 11. ___________________________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________________? He will be back later. 5. You were absent from class yesterday. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. __________________________________________________________? He has to work tomorrow. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. isn’t he?) 2. ____________________________________ ? (He comes here every day. ______________________________________________________? They will be here early. They were both absent from the lesson. Add the proper tag ending. 14. _______________________________________________________? You live uptown. ____________________________________________? 9. You know him well. I´m doing the exercise well. ____________________________________________________________? Mr. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. 8. doesn’t he?) She can speak French well. ___________________________________________________________? He left at two o’clock. 4. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. ______________________________________ ? (John is a good student. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. He comes here every day. ______________________________________________________? 7. The boy can´t speak French. 2. Mary is at home now. ________________________________________________________? 8.

__________________________________________________? 12. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. ________________________________________________________ ? 5. _________________________________________? 7. doesn’t he?) 2. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. _________________________________________________? 13. There are many students absent today. does he?) 2. ____________________________________________________________ ? 3. 8. 5. There are only a few people ahead of him. _________________________ ? (John often walks to the post office. __________________________ ? (He doesn’t come here every day. ________________________________________________________? 11.. Add the proper tag ending: 1. 12. ________________________________________________________? 11. _______________________________________________________ ? Ex. ________________________________ ? The sun sets at about six o’clock. He doesn’t come here every day. ______________________________________________________ ? The shopping district extends for many blocks. ____________________________________________? 9. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. 3. He didn’t visit us last night. __________________________________________________ ? William has been working very hard today. He never goes there in the morning. _____________________________________________? 8. 11. 10. ________________________________________________________ ? The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. ______________________________________________________ ? 7.. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. He doesn’t always buy stamps. John didn’t receive any change. _____________________________________? 4. doesn’t she?) Sue was at home when you called last night. She can’t speak French. Add the proper tag ending: 1. They didn’t arrive on time. _______________________________________? 10. _____________________________________________? 6. _______________________________________________? 11. He didn’t mail any packages. ________________________________________________ ? The sun is setting now. There are many people ahead of him. _______________________________________________________? 12. He gave him the stamps. Mr. 4.10. ______________________________________________? 3. Smith is out of town. 5. John often walks to the post office. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Mary goes shopping every day. They don’t live uptown. __________________________________________________? 5. _________________________________________________________ ? 6. 9. _______________________________________ ? José used to work in this office. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. They don’t know each other. __________________________________________________________ ? Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. ____________________________________________? 10. _____________________________________________ ? 8. But he dropped the letter into the box. They didn’t have to work yesterday. She isn’t busy now. _____________________________________________? 12. ____________________________________________ ? They went into the church. He hasn’t got any money. 2. He put a stamp on the envelope. 4. ______________________________________________________ ? William will be here soon. 7. They are leaving early in the morning. ____________________________________________________? 14. ____________________________________________? Ex. 3.”. They didn’t come with her. _______________________________________________________ ? 4. _____________________________________________________ ? 9. _________________________________________ ? William was born in Cardiff. 6. ____________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 185 . He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. _____________________________? (Mary goes shopping every day. _____________________________________ ? Ex.

Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You think you´re a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreación amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ægliη/ ´ athletics /aθlétiks/ baths /ba:θs/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuliη/ boxing /bóksiη/ car-racing /ka:r réisiη/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimiη/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikliη/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáiviη/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsiη/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhiη/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidiη/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidiη/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisiη/ hunting /hántiη/ hurdling /hé:rdliη/ ice-skating /áis skéitiη/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógiη/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpiη/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños, termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego, partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo javalina trote Viaje Salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol,box) movie theater /múvi θíater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo,valla paddling /pæliη/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /péntaθlon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /riηk/ cancha de patines rowing /róuiη/ remo running /rániη/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:iη túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéitiη/ patinaje skiing /skí:iη/ esquí skiing resort /skí:iη rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfiη/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suímiη/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /δíater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje, excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /trékiη/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /tráηks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíiη/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit líftiη/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to find Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isn´t there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. José used to work..., didn´t he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The traffic on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He first goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, don´t they? 3. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. I´m a good student, aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldn´t like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /háns had oñrédi léft wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd δe óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó, el viejo ya había fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /δéi we:r hæviη lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /δéi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración, la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft yét wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu hædnt stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /δi óuld mæn hædnt dáid yét bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had δe shóu stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had δéi lívd bifó:r δéi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?)

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Ex. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ________________ ______ the art gallery. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. but by the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. (go) Ex. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. 7.(finish) 4. (go) 2. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. 2. All of the other passengers (board. Jane had seen that movie twice. 9. 1. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. 1. but they (become. 1. not)_______________________________ him in years. 4. 1. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. 5. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. an old friend of mine. By the time the firemen arrived.already) __________ ____________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. (put out 10. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. Tom had already left the office. 6. 3. the rain (stop) _____________ _________ 6. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. As soon as he opened the door. It was raining hard. Paul had already sent her a fax. 3. 4.EXERCISES Ex. (leave) 9. Millions of years ago. They´d already spent all the money. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. The teacher (give. (steal) 7. She said she ______________________ there several times before. 2. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. 3. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. At first. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. The students (see. (take) 8. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. (be) 6.(start) 3. 10. The children had already had supper. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. Gloria almost missed her plane. and b) the interrogative. The show (begin. When the police arrived. (disappear) 5. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. I (see.Yesterday at a restaurant. not) ______________________ _______ _______________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. 2. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . I (recognize. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room.

El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. Dr. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Black had studied at Harvard University. etc. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. 7. 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 4. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 9. 5. 10. 7. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a USA. The girl had studied French at school. Where. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. How long. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 5. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. Paul had sold his house the previous year. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes.Ex. How. Bill had made the same mistake three times. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no había leído ese libro aún. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. They´d spent over US $ 3. John had visited them that evening. 1. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 6. Ask questions using question words like What.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. 3. 4. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. When. 8.

late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. We arrived there early (adv. EARLY. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde.). Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /sε:rten/ cierto ´ safe /séif/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /sε:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. A. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). He drives carefully (adverbio). Con los adverbios SOON.) lesson. Peter hardly works on Saturday. A dog runs faster than a horse.) train.). A bus runs more slowly than a train. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /fæst/ ´ rápido/rápidamente.PART II. Mr Blake will call later tonight. LATE y HARD. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. This train is very slow. vimos que. FAST. difícil. early /ε:rli / ´ temprano. I have to study hard (adv. Bob works harder than any of the other students. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately .(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. I got up a little earlier than usual today. tempranamente. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. es decir. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. intenso/intensamente. hard /ha:rd/ duro. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. (casi no. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. They took the early (adj. adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj. atrasados) 2.

EXERCISES Ex. (early) 5. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. John left the office quickly that afternoon. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. (good). He comes here ____________________________ she. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________ (beautiful). (quick). 5. 2. 9. (frequent) 6. He gets up as early as I do. (good) 7. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________ (easy). Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. 12. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. I go there ____________________________ he does. This is an ____________________________ exercise. 2. John works ____________________________ I (hard) 9. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. (wise) 12. He can run much ____________________________ I. (easy). 3. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. (often) 3. He learns his lesson ____________________________(quick). as usual. (beautiful) 7. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . John was very ____________________________ (foolish). She prepares her lessons ____________________________ (careless). well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. 9. They acted ____________________________ in doing. 3. He always drives ____________________________ (careful). (easy) 5. that.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. 2. 7. He is a very careful student. 6. Bill behaves badly in class. 4. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. 6. 8. 11. He did the work____________________________. 3. (bad) Ex. (wise) 11. He always does his work ____________________________ (good) He speaks very ____________________________ (fast). 10. She works very ____________________________ every day. They get up every morning ____________________________ we. John works more carefully than I. We walked very ____________________________ (quick). He comes here ____________________________ he did before.(regular) 4. She speaks English____________________________ (beautiful). John works better than William. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. She plays the guitar ____________________________ anyone else. (hard). He certainly acted ____________________________ (foolish). (careful) 2. 8.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. They went very far. 4. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening (early). We went farther. He studies ____________________________ Mary. 10. (fast). 8. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________ (fast) Ex. He always does his work ____________________________ (careful).

Express in full form. John speaks English ____________________________I. He came ____________________________ he could. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she. Bob cut himself with the knife. (bright) 9. He can run ____________________________ his brother. (late) 11. He doesn’t walk as / so fast as I do. (hard) B. (early) 3. (soon) 12. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday.. She sings ____________________________ she plays. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated areas.10. using equality of comparison: 1. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. (good) 4. (fast) 3. She doesn’t speak ____________________________ her sister. They came to work ____________________________usual. (soft) 10. Express in full form. He can’t come ____________________________ we. (fast) 12. 4. (early) 5. (early) Ex. (quick) 8. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. He came here ____________________________ he could. (regular) 10. (beautiful) 6.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. He will arrive____________________________ they. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /δemsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. (early) 11. (good) 8. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (early) 6. (fast) 2. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. Speak ________________________________________________________ possible. (careful) 7. (easy) 5. He goes to bed ____________________________ I (late) 2. You can do it ____________________________ I . (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. (easy) 5. He works ____________________________ he can. She can’t play ____________________________ she can sing. He didn’t arrive ____________________________ we expected him. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. using equality of comparison: 1. I go to bed ____________________________ you. (hard) 7. (good) 4. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. (bad) 9. Se usan para expresar énfasis.

3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell. The baby cannot dress ______________________________. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ Do you like to talk about______________________________? The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man killed ______________________________. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. We ______________________________ will wait for you. The President ______________________________ attended to the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. You ______________________________ must speak to him, Peter. You ______________________________ have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She likes to study alone. 3. I went to the movie alone. 4. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. He likes to walk alone in the park. 6. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 7. He works alone in a small office. 8. He prefers to work alone. 9. I do not like to eat alone. 10. I do not think he can do it alone. 11. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 12. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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C. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (subject + was / were going to + infinitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razón. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didn´t. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didn´t . _________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ La Naturaleza a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ geografía air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:rθ/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /íθmas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, bahía cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shóar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spriη/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satélite nat. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcán agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ vegetacióin branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ Animales ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ant /ænt/ ´ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ búfalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/, cockerel /kókerel/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave, pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /máηki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono
A short course in english for adult students

rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /traηk/

planta raíces semilla arbusto, mata árbol tronco

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cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dóηki/ dragonfly /drægonflai/ ´ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flæmíηgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco

mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/

ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - finished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadn´t gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. She´d worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small office 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie first but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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2. 6. Lea. /δéid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de 2 horas. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. (drink) We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. /δéi had nót bi:n wé:rkiη o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day /δ mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. /δ mæn had bin wé:rkiη o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. (rain) What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. báut tú: áuarz/ Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædnt/.?) EXERCISES Ex. 4. (watch) The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village.(fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had δéi bi:n pléiη sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu lóη had δei bi:n pléiη sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:iη/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. The man had been working all day. 3. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea. 7. /δéid bi:n pléiiη sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. They´d played soccer for about two hours. (walk) Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. 5. 1. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening.UNIT 15 PART 1.

esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 3. 6. Bob had been sleeping since 8. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y se sentía cansada. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. La Sra. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. 2. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. Where. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. The students had been practising Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How long. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. Change the following sentence into a) the negative.30. It´d been raining hard that afternoon.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Ask questions using question words like What. 5. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Mr. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. 4. and b) the interrogative 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . etc. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. The patient had been feeling better. They´d been studying the report that evening. 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. She´d been reading a magazine. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

8. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. Complete the following in your own words. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). You telephoned him at his office. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. He invested his money in real estate. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. It was excellent. She gave the money to John. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . but he should _______________________________________________________ 9. but I did not. 5. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. 11. He studied engineering in college. . I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. 1. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. expresa un reproche o crítica. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. but they should ____________________________________________ B. 9. 6. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano.Smith yesterday You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. We went to Mexico on our vacation. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. 7. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . as usual. He sent the package by regular mail. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. 3. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. Ex. It was very interesting. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3.OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. He started to study English last month. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve.) 2. He left the books in Room 10. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. 10. A. but you came late. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4.) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night.PART II. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. We sent her a fax. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. Compare: I should start to study French now. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. 4. 2. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. 2. 12. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8.

tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. She prefers to come back later. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. 10. 9. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. 4. They prefer to speak to him at his home. When I’m hot and thirsty. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. 7. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. 7. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. He´d better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. 8. What would you rather drink. What had I better do. They prefer not to wait outside. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. 1.. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness.. 2. 6.. I prefer to wait here . I like chicken ______________________________ beef. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. 3. BETTER THAN or TO. 9. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. Ex. 1. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. 3. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. 6. 2. TO o LIKE.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. I like rock ‘n roll ______________________________ classical music. 7.. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if she spends more time on her homework.) It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 4. 2. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if he takes private lessons. I prefer not to go to the party alone. 5. (I’d rather wait here. 4. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. When I choose a book. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. 10. 6. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. It will be better if you come back later. 5. When I’m hot and thirsty... John prefers to go to the party with Helen. 5... 8. EXERCISES Ex. 3. 8.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción. 206 When I’m hot and thirsty. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you rest a while. ________________________________________ Ex.. 2. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. 9. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. A short course in english for adult students . I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. (You’d better come back later.

Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. You could have stayed with us. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. 11. 17. 15. 18. • Jim: If you need money. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. • The phone´s ringing. I could hear something (Podía oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. He could have hurt himself badly. Mr. etc. I can hear something. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. podrías. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. 13. 16. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. They enjoy their jobs. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia.10. • When you go to New York next month. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. podríamos. It could be Tim.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. 12. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. • It´s a nice day.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. En este caso COULD significa podría. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. ser capaz de) • Listen. C. 14. • I listened.

Ex. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. 1. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. 8. 2. 4. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. Answer the questions with a suggestion. Complete the sentences. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. 3. 5. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. • The trip was cancelled last week. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I ______________________________ eat a horse! If you’re very hungry. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. I’m really hungry. ‘I can’t find my bag. 4. 2. It’s so nice here. 7. Use COULD. 4.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. 6. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. Ex. Ken was short of money last week. 5. Ken had to work on Friday evening. EXERCISES Ex. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. 5. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. 4. we ______________________________ have dinner now. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 2 Put in CAN or COULD. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. 3. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. Sometimes either word is possible. A: The phone is ringing. 1. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 208 A short course in english for adult students . but it ______________________________ be in the car. You ______________________________ for it. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 3. 1. 2.’ Peter is a keen musician. So he didn’t do any of these things. 3. 1. 1. We could go to the cinema. We ______________________________ watch that’. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week.

That restaurant ___________________ be very good. They can’t _____________________________many people. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. It rained every day during their holiday. You can´t be hungry already. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You must be very tired. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. Put in MUST or CAN’T. I must have been asleep. 7. es decir. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. 8. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchiδη tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:piδη/ EXERCISES Ex. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. 3.. It’s always full of people. 1. You ___________________ be very pleased. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. They haven’t lived here very long. I’ve lost one of my gloves. 6. Congratulations on passing your exam. He must have been watching the news on TV.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. 5. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. 4.___________________ have walked very fast.5. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. Ex. You’ve been travelling all day. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. Ted isn’t at work today. 1. He must _____________________________ ill. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. 3. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. /δei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. She can´t have seen me. A short course in english for adult students 209 . AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. You got here very quickly. You ___________________ be very tired. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. 2. MUST. Ted wasn’t at work last week. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 4. 2. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. so they ___________________ be short of money. debemos usar CAN´T. 1. He must ___________________________ ill. que no puede ser cierto. You. She does the same thing every day. o conclusión. They can´t know many people. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. It’s always empty. You’re going on holiday next week. MUST HAVE. Tom was in his bedroom. CAN´T.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV.

(she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. There is a man walking behind us. 1. 2. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. The jacket you bought is very good quality. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 6.. Ann was in a very difficult situation. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He must _____________________________ out. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 210 A short course in english for adult students 5. Look. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. the light was on. 10. . 9. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I can’t find my umbrella. B: She may have been asleep. Ex. B: She might not have known about it.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere..) what happened. 3. I may not have enough. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. He must _____________________________ us. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE.Somebody must _____________________________ it. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. Carol knows a lot about films. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. Jane walked past me without speaking. B: He may not have been feeling well. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. She knew everything about our plans. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door..) She might know (Ella podría tal vez saber. 7.. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. She’s still at work at this time. 8. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone.. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa. It can’t ____________________ Mary. (I/asleep) 1 must have been asleep. When I woke up this morning. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle.. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.

I can’t find George anywhere. 4. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . Perhaps she was ill yesterday. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. 2. 3. I can’t find my umbrella. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. I wonder where he is. 2. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. 10. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. Perhaps she is working. Perhaps she wants to be alone. B: Yes. 4. He might ___________________________________ it already. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. 3. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. Perhaps she went home early. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). MIGHT NOT or COULD. He might. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. 9.’ ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure.’ ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. 3. A: I wonder how the fire started. 1. She couldn´t have seen me 2. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. 1. COULDN’T. B: Well. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. 6. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. 11.EXERCISES Ex. It might ______________________ her brother. She might not have seen you. They might ________________________ for a bus. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. she was too far away. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). B: I agree. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident.’ ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Perhaps she didn´t see me. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. 1. Perhaps she had to go home early. She might be in her office. 1. 4. Perhaps she was working yesterday.’ ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. Use MAY or MIGHT. the police aren´t sure. 7. Perhaps she isn’t working today. 8. 5. Perhaps Margaret is busy. it´s possible. 5. A: Tom loves parties. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. B: That´s possible. Do you think it was an accident? B. 1.’ Ex... be having lunch. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. It might ________________________________________ her brother. I’m looking for Helen.

aluvión de agua neblina. remolino tifón remolino viento con viento 212 A short course in english for adult students .VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e wé(er/ El tiempo Atmosférico blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpoar/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ flashflood /flæshflad/ ´ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitniη flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ scattered shower /skæterd sháuer/ ´ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /θánder/ thunderbolt /θánderboult/ thunderstorm /θándersto:rm/ thundery /θánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. eléctica) tornado tromba.

She´d been working on that report since last week / the previous week. 1.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived.. 8. I´d rather drink tea with my meals.could have gone 5. 4.? 3. 4. to 12.. / Had I been working. had . 2. 6. 7. 2.. What had the boy been watching? 3. to 8. could apply 4. We could hang it in the kitchen. have sent it by air mail 3. 3. 4. Why had Mr. to have telephoned him at his home 6. 1. better than 11. You should not have given. You´d better rest a while 4. had been watching 2. have left them in Room 11. 4. 5. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. 2. can 7. He ought to have come. 2... to 5. Ex. 10. Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired. I hadn´t been working. better than 9... You should have told.. What had you been doing that morning? 2. (Possible answers) 2.. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. She´d rather come back later. than 7. We could go and see him on Friday.. / Had it been raining. He´d better take private lessons. have gone to Tahiti 10. Ex. 1. could 5.? 5.. John would rather go to the party with Helen.what had they been doing that evening? 2. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. I´d rather not go to the party alone. She hadn`t been reading. can / could 6.. 3.. 10.. 5. 6. to have invested it in stocks / shares. have studied medicine. than 10. You should have gone... 6. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV. had been flying Ex. 1. You could phone her now . 3... It hadn`t been raing.. 6. They´d rather not wait outside 5. 7. It´d been raining all morning . 1.The patient hadn´t been feeling. better than C.. than 15. You´d better not work so hard after your illness.. could 3. 2. better than 6. 9. PART II A. 5. have sent her an e-mail. / Had the students been practicing.. 8. 7. had been raining 5... 1.could have gone 3. 12. had . 3. can / could 4. 4. They´d rather speak to him at his home. 2. / Had Bob been sleeping. 8.. better than 14. You ought to have telephoned. have given it to Jane 4.been doing 6. 10. Smith been saving money? 4. 7.. / Had she been reading. I ought not to have gone.. 1. to 16. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. The sky was clear and the sun was shining... Mrs. had been studying 4. Ex.? 6.. / Had the patient been feeling. can / could 2.. to 17. We´d better not mention it to him. 9. 5. You ought to have given. 9. 1. than 18. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. had been walking 3. You should have attended. We could have fish 3. The students had not been practicing. 5. Ex. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. could Ex... Ex.? 2. He´d better go to a doctor at once. He ought to have started. . How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. 2... Helen had better begin more time on her English. 2... 8.. 9. 11.. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B.. could 8. than 13.been drinking 7. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation..? 4. could come A short course in english for adult students 213 . 3. 3. 7. You could give her a book..? Ex.. She´d better spend more time on her homework. Ex.1.. 1. 6. 3. Ex.. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex. You should not have told l her.

3. b e 3. It may / might be in the car. She may / might not be working today 11.Ex. 1. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. 4. 3. 4. Ex. 3. She can´t have understood what I said. She may / might want to be alone 5.. 2. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. She may / might have gone home early 7. 4b.She can´t have seen me. must 8. 3b.must 7. 6. might have come if he´d been invited. 6. 1. Ex. have left 2. She may / might have had to go home early 8. C. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. She may / might be working 4. must 5. might have been an accident. 6. have been 4. 3. must 3.The neighbors must have been having a party . He may / might have been in the bathroom. It must have been very expensive 4. 4. 1. 3. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. C. must 2. 3. be waiting 5. have been 5. be going 8. 5. know 3. Ex. I must have forgotten to turn it off. She may / might have been ill yesterday . have bought Ex. 5. 11. She must have listened to our conversation. have taken / stolen 9. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. 10. 3. He may / might not have heard the bell.She may / might have been working yesterday. 8. 2b.2. go 7. Ex. (Possible answers)2. 5. 4. 6. 2a. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. She may / might be busy. have been 10. The driver can´t have seen the red light. might not have been invited. be 4.They must have gone away. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. can´t 4. be following Ex. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. She may / might be watching TV in her room. 2. 2. 2. 10. 2. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . can´t Ex. 9. be 6. She may / might have gone out 3a. (Possible answers) 1. 9. can´t 6. She may / might not want to see me.

/wen wi gét tu δæt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld móar δan tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). /if auar tí:m winz δe nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar θerd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. by the end of this month.. /bai disémber δe fift:nθ wi wil hav lívd in δis kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. She is free now.. Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. we will have lived in this country five years. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche.. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. Cuando tú vengas acá mañana.UNIT 16 PART I.. ´ If our team wins the next game. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. by this time next week. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud.. Escuche. When Peter gets home tonight. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. I will have had dinner already. I have the information now Yo tengo la información ahora When I have the information this afternoon. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas.. Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez.. /bai δi énd ov δis mánθ δe spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllúpiter/ Hacia fines de este mes. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. etc. etc. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). Ella está libre ahora When she is free next time. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). Escuche.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day Tú vienes acá todos los días When you come here tomorrow. lea y aprenda : By December 15th.. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th. A short course in english for adult students 215 . we will have gotten our third trophy. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours.... nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo.

(visit) 12. (have) By December. a) By the end of this month. the Johnsons ________________________ already. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will have completed this course in English. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Si no tomamos un taxi. (finish) If he gets here at 6 o´clock. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. 5. (complete) I________________________ in this country two years next October. 6. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. (forget) When he becomes a man. 5. they ________________________ and ________________________ . 2.go) Ex. (leave) By the end of March. 1. 1. the students ________________________ their first course. (be) By tomorrow. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday. 8. Antes de las seis de la tarde. 10. I ________________________ all these grammar rules. he ________________________ many things. 2. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow. 5. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. 3.EXERCISES Ex. 2. 5. 2. 3. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. they________________________ the most important places of interest. (learn) By this time next month. they ________________________ home. 7. (go) If he doesn´t hurry. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. we ________________________ the work. I will have finished reading this book. 4. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. By two o´clock. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. you ________________________ from your illness. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 216 A short course in english for adult students . 3. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. they ________________________ dinner when he gets there. (come . 4. the weather ________________________ considerably. 2. 4. 3. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. 1. 4. 3. 1.

A. do / does. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. must. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. se habrá recuperado de su operación. De acuerdo con esta regla. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. los verbos modales am / is / are. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.5. could. might. had to. SUBORDINATE VERB Present Future Past Conditional a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. would. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. muy pronto Ud. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. did. had. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. Hacia fines de este curso. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. will. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight.) He says that his first name is Robert. have / has. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. Si sigue los consejos de su médico.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. Escuche. Antes de la medianoche. can.

he will see Mary. would) rain. The boy says he has seen the movie. 9. The young man tells us he is married. 10. The weather man predicts it will rain. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. He says he is very sorry. 4. u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro. had been) a soldier. Choose the correct form: 1. 2. following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. 10. could) do it easily. 9. The girl says she is studying for a test. He thinks he (can. The newspaper says it (will. would) be here. AFTER (después que). I think I can meet you. “will rain”) next Sunday. I didn’t know what he (is. 4. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. She said she (may. 12. He said he (will. 8. He says he will be here at noon. He asked me where 1 (live. 6. 2. lived). I think it will be very hot this afternoon. I don´t know where Mary is. He said he (has been. 218 A short course in english for adult students . 2. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. 5. 15. is going) away. meant). I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 16. 17. could not) go. I didn’t know what the word (means. lea y aprenda : If John comes (no. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. was). UNLESS (a menos que). 5.hard every day I know where she lives. they will not go to the beach. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. 14. 19. Change to past tense. He says he has to work. If it rains (no. 8. Escuche. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). BEFORE (antes que). AS SOON AS (en cuanto). “will come” ) tomorrow. She said she (was going. She said she (does not. 11. 12. 6. I think he will be there by ten o´clock He believes he can do it. Bob wants to know how many people there are. I told him that I (cannot. might) be late. 11. He wants to know where she is. UNTIL (hasta que). I don’t know what his name (is. did not) feel well. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF. 7.EXERCISES Ex. debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando). 18. was) trying to do. 3. 20. aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. 7. 13. 3. Del mismo modo. 1.

7. 12. 4 5. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. 9. anybody / anyone. we will go to the beach.: 1. too. 8. BEFORE. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. 10. within ten or fifteen minutes. Don´t start moving. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. nobody / no one. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. 10. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week. any other person. he will see Mary. something. él vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow. 3. 6. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. AS LONG AS. 3. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. 5.Escuche. 2. A. 2. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 1. anywhere. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 8. 9. please let me know. 4. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. please give him the message.(within a few minutes) I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III. any other thing. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. Do not leave before I ____________________________:____________________________ (tell) you to go . USE OF “ELSE” Y “OR ELSE”. 11. 6. we will have to leave without him. Please wait here ____________________________ the doctor arrives. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. Ex. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. AS SOON AS. somewhere. I will give him your message. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. ANY y NO (somebody / someone. he will keep it. nothing. some other thing. etc. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. WHEN. WHILE. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. 7. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. they will not wait for him. he can go with us on the city tour. etc. no other person. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . anything. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. we may go to the beach. Escuche. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives.

I must go home right away. If she doesn’t. 9. 3. If I don’t. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. 4. Can I show you any other thing. she´ll punish you. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. you will soon forget it. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. We had better hurry. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). If we don´t. You must ask some other person about it. 6. Smith? 10. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. Join the following pairs of sentences. We must hurry. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. Turn off the radio. You must study hard. If you don’t. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Helen must rest more. There was no other person in the room at that time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . Save your money. If you don’t. you won’t pass the course. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. 2.B. You must do as your mother says. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. EXERCISES Ex. Put the dog outside. Mrs. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If you don’t. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche. If you don’t. 11. we´ll be late. you’ll wake the baby. Let’s do some other thing tonight. If we don’t. my mother will be angry with me. she may have a nervous breakdown. No other person helped him with the work. 8. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. we´ll miss the train. I didn’t tell any other person about it. If you don’t. You must practice your English every day. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Did they go any other place? 2.

but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(δ axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /leiδ/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /mélloriη téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ El Taller serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderiη áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldiη tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We must hurry. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Repeat the previous exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Ex. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

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I thought it might rain this evening. Ex. will have forgotten 9. The girl said she was studying for a test. 2. 1. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon. 1. 9. until 10. 3. 10. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. 18. 10. I didn´t know where Mary was. 3. Before midnight. 4. The young man told us he was married. otherwise she´ll punish you.hard every day. was going 7. Let’s do something else tonight. otherwise you won’t pass the course. Save your money. otherwise you will soon forget it. will have left 2. 1 1. does . we´ll have processed all the information. (Open answers) Ex. does . Ex. There was nobody else in the room at that time. likes 8. 2. Smith? 10. He hoped he could be there. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. before 9. or else we´ll be late. is 9. when / as soon as PART III. 2. unless 2. lived 4. 1. will have learnt (or learned) 10. 17.come Ex. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 5. will have been 8. is 4. Helen must rest more. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. 3. 1 must go home right away.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. 11. 3. You must study hard. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. 3. A. We had better hurry. I knew where she lived. Save your money. go 12. 1. arrives 2. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. will 6. 9. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. You must ask somebody else about it. 3.(will have ) gone Ex. We must hurry. did not 10. We must hurry. Can I show you anything else. will have had 6. 4. 6. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. will have finished 4. I you follow your doctor´s advice. is 11. will have changed 3. 13. 1 must go home right away. 6. 8. Ex. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. 15. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 1. He wanted to know where she was. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 1. 20. 11. 6. 10. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. will have visited 12. when / as soon as 8. 5. otherwise we´ll miss the train. or else my mother will be angry with me. I thought I could meet you. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Mrs. will have completed 7. 4. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. or else you won’t pass the course. 2. 2. 5. or else we´ll miss the train. until 4. had been 9. 1. or else you’ll wake the baby. can 3. 8. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. 14. 7. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. Put the dog outside. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. 3. 1. Ex. Turn off the radio. You must do as your mother says. Turn off the radio. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8.rain 3. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 4. 7. meant 5. otherwise we´ll be late. gets 6. Did they go anwhere else? 2. 7 You must practice your English every day. will have recovered 11. until 6. Put the dog outside. He said he had to work. might B. You must study hard. You must do as your mother says. tell 7.9. or else you will soon forget it. We had better hurry. could not 8. 8. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 1. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. He said he would be here at noon 2. will have gone 5. 6. 2. 1. will have come . 5. as soon as 3. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12.16. Nobody else helped him with the work. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. 1. as long as 5. Before 6 this evening. Ex. while 7. 19. The weather man predicted it would rain. 2. comes 11. or else she´ll punish you. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. A short course in english for adult students 223 . The boy said he had seen the movie. Ex. 4. 7 You must practice your English every day. He believed he could do it. telephones 10. Helen must rest more. comes 5. 9. 8. would 2. He said he was very sorry. was 12. 12.

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People speak English all over the world. Peter wrote the letter last year. 13. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. Smith wrote the book last summer. They had finished the work by noon.p. 18. Mrs. (S) (Tr. 16. 10. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. Mr. He will deliver the merchandise today. They have found the child at last. She broke the plate on purpose. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be más el participio pasado del verbo principal. 6. 12. The workers will build a new bridge over that river.) (doer) (P. 3. He will fix the car. (P. 11.S. 14. The car will have been fixed.Jackson saw the accident. They will leave the tickets for you. They will bring the boy tomorrow.) (be + p. He has fixed the car.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres.p.O). He had fixed the car.O). 8. 7. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. 1. The car will be fixed. The car has been fixed.O). She ate the cake this morning. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. Change to passive voice: 1. The wind blew the smoke away soon. 17. The letter was written (by Peter) last year.p. 15. 2. Smith teaches that class on Friday. es decir.) (be + p. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. THE PASSIVE VOICE Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object).UNIT 17 PART 1.V) (D.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river.S. 225 . He took the money last Monday evening.) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. He will have fixed the car. The car had been fixed. People will forget it in few days. 4. 5. En la voz pasiva. They fought a big battle here many years ago. He fixed the car. He will do the work this afternoon.V) (D. 9. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. Mr. (P. The car was fixed. (be + p. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him).V) (D. Somebody has taken my book. She has just taken the newspaper. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer).S. (S) (Tr. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut.

13. 13. 21. 20. They ______________________________________________ The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). They will send the book next week. 8. 7. 15. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. The cries of the child were heard clearly. He broke his leg in an accident. 2. Smith. 4. America was discovered in 1492. He _______________________________________________ The town will have been captured by Wednesday. 5. The book will be published in June. The work will be done by Mr. Smith. The work won’t be done by Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They ______________________________________________ The house was built in 1910. 2. 3. My grandfather _____________________________________ The books will be brought by John. 23. 9. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. The work will be completed tomorrow. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . 14. 14. ___________________________________________________ America was discovered in 1492. 10.19. ___________________________________________________ The book will be published next spring. 10. The e-mail was sent this morning. ___________________________________________________ Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. Smith. Longmans _________________________________________ The lecture was attended by many people. They left the wounded soldiers behind. Change to negative and to question form: 1. Scott. 5. The book was found by Mary. The money was stolen by a thief. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. __________________________________________________ He was struck by an automobile. 22. 9. The book was written by Mr. 7. Thompson. Smith. The dish was broken by the maid. 24. 8. Mary found the book. ___________________________________________________ The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ The work had been finished by June. 3. Change to active voice: 1. 15. 6. The money has been found. The city was destroyed by bombs. ___________________________________________________ This book was written by Mr. 2. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. 4. 3. Will the work be done by Mr. 12. They made this gun by hand. 11. The house was struck by lightning. ___________________________________________________ Ex. Columbus _________________________________________ Our class is taught by Mr. 11. The book has been returned by John. 12. The lesson is taught by Mr. 6.

6. may. are. 9. (Who. (How) __________________________________________________? The work will be completed next month. 12. 13. (When) __________________________________________________? The child was finally found in the park. 7. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. must. (When) __________________________________________________? The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. may.Ex. ________________________________________ in Scotland. 2. _________________________________________by the chef. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? The house was built in 1945. _____________________________ by the end of the month. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child finally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. 9. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today.. (Where) __________________________________________________? The tree was planted by my father. 10. 17. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. _____________________________ because of bad weather. ________________________________________about 10:30. America was discovered in 1492. were + being). 8. should. should. __________________________________one of the servants. 5. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. 5. 14.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. ___________________________________________ in 1492.. ____________________________________ by our instructor. 16. se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal. 4.. _________________________________________ in the park. Answer these questions: 1. (Active) They have to send this report today. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. 5. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. 2. _________________________________________ in the safe. is. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. a la voz pasiva. 7.. (What time) ______________________________________________? He was injured in an automobile accident. ________________________________________ by the maid. 4. más el pasado participio del verbo principal. ____________________________________________in 1999. 8. Change to question form. 10. (Active) They must finish this job today. etc. have to. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can. (Who. 11. (In what year) __________________________________________________? The money was stolen by one of the servants. 3. 3. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am. was. _________________________________________ in Chicago. 15. A short course in english for adult students 227 . 4. must.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by fire. La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? The book will be published in June. 6. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours.

6. 2. 5. Where. John is bringing the mail now. They are considering that question now. . 3. They were discussing the question when I went in. The material is being sent (by them) today. 2. They have to deliver the books today. 8. He sent the e-mail last week. He should send this right away. By whom. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. Change to passive voice: 1. State each question twice. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The police may hold him for several days. He cannot finish this today. You can use this room for the lesson. Change to passive voice: 1. They are sending troops there today. 4. 11. They cannot put those things here. 6. They are transferring him to another class. John brings the mail every day. 2. 7.: 1. 7. 12. She is typing that letter now. They are holding the meeting today. They are examining him now. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 228 A short course in english for adult students . John will bring the mail tomorrow. 4. 3. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Change to negative and to question form. 7. 11. They were cleaning the office this morning. They have put the chairs in the room. 8. 12. 9. 10. John has brought the mail every day. 4. 8. They are sending the merchandise today. 6. We must lose no time. John may bring the mail tomorrow. The mail is brought by John every day. 10. This can be finished (by us) right away. 5. John brought the mail yesterday. The story is being published today. 6.Ex. We have to write these exercises at home. 9. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. 3. 12. 11. We must help him. John has to bring the mail every day. They are sending the material today. He wasn’t killed in an accident. He is finishing the work now. They are defending the city well. 5. We are using this room. This must be checked twice. How. 9. 10. They may send the fax tomorrow. We must find him immediately. 8. He has to do it immediately. Change to passive voice : 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 9. We can finish this right away. 2. 7. He was killed in an accident. etc.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ El signo “SE” en español En español. 5.4. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. 12. It should be sent immediately. lt has to be sent right away. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. 11. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. 8. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. The class is taught by Mr. lt can be done three or four times a month. This book was published in 1945. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Smith. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “English is spoken in this country”. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. 6. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. The money has been sent to New York. “A big battle was fought here”. The material is being prepared by Mr. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. 10. 7.Reese. This room can be used for our meetings. It has to be done at once.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes.8. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. A new type of missile has been tested recently. most goals had been successfully attained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Next time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. using the word “SE” in each case. The data was being processed at that moment. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. Several different techniques may be applied. By the end of the 90’s. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. It is considered that English has become a universal language. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 230 A short course in english for adult students . 11. All kinds of computers are repaired here. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1.

The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. 3.: 1. 4. 8. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. (Passive Voice) 15. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. 6. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. 10. 5. We expect John to come at six o’clock. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. Change to negative and to question form. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. He ______________________________ (know) her well. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. We expected him to arrive last night. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. State each question twice. 10.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 9. He ______________________________ (be) here now. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. 12.) 2. 5. 7. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 231 . We expect the parade to begin soon. Se supone que él está aquí ahora. 1. 12. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. 4. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. They´re supposed to start the work soon. 11. 6. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. etc. (They at ten o’clock. (Passive Voice) 13. They expected the war to be over sooner. 3. 2. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. WHAT TIME. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. (Passive Voice) 14. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. We expect the bus to stop here. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. (Passive Voice) Ex. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. 11. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 3. He was supposed to bring the money last night. We expect her to bring the book with her. 3. We expect our lesson to last one hour. 7. 2. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday.PART II. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 2. 8. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 9. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. WHERE. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry.. They expect the train to arrive at four ‘clock. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday.

A. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May.. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 232 A short course in english for adult students . He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L.4. 9. 8. 10. 6. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. 5. The book is supposed to be published in June. They´re suppposed to finish the job tomorrow. 7.

bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 . BRANCHES /bræntchiz/ramas o servicios ´ Infantry /infantri/ Infantería Artillery /a:rtílori/ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Signal /sígnal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endlliníarz/ Transportation /transportéishon/ Transportes Medical /médikal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ material de guerra COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ Oficiales Comisionados Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Major /méidllor/ Mayor Captain /kæptin/ ´ First Lieutenant /f :rst luténant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Ensign /énsin/ Alférez (en la marina) Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ Suboficiales Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent férst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /práivit/ Recruit /rékrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skuódr n/ Battalion /batælion/ ´ Brigade /brigéid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tácticas pelotón escuadrón (cab.blin. grado Oficial superior ARMS /á:rmz/armas.) batallón brigada cuerpo Platoon /plδtú:n/ Company /kámpni/ Battery /bæteri/ ´ Regiment /rédlliment/ División /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi Artillería Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado Teniente General Brigadier General Teniente Coronel Capitán Subteniente Cadete Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado pelotón compañía batería (art.) grupo (cab. pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /só:rd/ espada Dagger /dæger/ ´ Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mortar /mó:rtar/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Flame-thrower /fléim θróuer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mízil/ Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/ arma de destrucción masiva Bullet /búlit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil. proyectil Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ Propellant /propélant/ propelente o polvora Primer /práimer/ Shrapnel /shræpn l/ ´ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ Armas Tácticas Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ Gun /gan/ cañón.) regimiento división Ejército vainilla estopin ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ Tiro de munición Bullet /búlit/ bala.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ Ranks /ræηks/ ´ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:dinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræηk/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango.

coraje Decisiveness /disáisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Enthusiasm /enθusiázn/ entusiasmo Initiative /iníshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllástis/ justicia Morale /morá:l/ moral Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ámbito de control ´ Tact /tækt/ ´ tacto. comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo. criterio Willing obedience /wíliη obí:diens/ obediencia espontánea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ráifl/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /éimiη mécanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing pin /fáiariη pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lókiη lag/ asegurador Rear sight /ríar sáit/ alza Sighting mechanism /sáitiη mekanízm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK /δ tδk/ El Tanque Armor /á:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gáner/ Tank driver /tæηk dráiver/ ´ Turret /tárit/ blindaje cañón artilllero conductor del tanque torreta APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Airplane /éarplein/ avión Bomber /bómer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæηk/ tanque de combate ´ Command /komænd/ ´ Confidence /kónfidens/ Cooperation /kouoperéishon/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiúarans/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Integrity /intégriti/ Leader /lí:der/ Pride /práid/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Trait /tréit/ mando confianza cooperación cadena de mando confiabilidad dignidad resistencia espíritu de cuerpo integridad líder.TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ Vehículos Tácticos ´ Tank /tæηk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hélicopter/ helicóptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones ´ Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihéivior/ conducta Commander /kománder/ comandante Control /kontróul/ control Courage /káridll/ valor. característica Barrel /bærel/ ´ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fáiariη mékanízm/ Follower /fólouer/ Hammer /hæmer/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sling /sliη/ Trigger /trigger/ cañón culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador. gatillo Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Tank commander /tæηk komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Wheel /wi:l/ plancha de blindaje tubo del cañón comandante del tanque orugas rueda posición sentada posición encuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiariη posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /stændiη/ position ´ posición de pie Sitting /sítiη/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /ní:liη/ position posición arrodillada 234 A short course in english for adult students .

. Smith last summer.? 5. 2. 9. The meeting is being held by them today... 23. Those things cannot be put by them here.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. 10. English is spoken (by people) all over the world.. 11. 7. 2.The book hasn´t been returned by John. 10. It was hidden in a wooden box. 14. A thief stole the money. 14..? 12. This gun was made (by them) by hand . Mr. 11. 8.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. It has to be done by him immediately. / Had the money been stolen by. 2. 13./ Will the work be completed. 13. 1. 21. The book will be sent by them next week.. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9. 6 Many people attended the lecture. 3. The mail is being brought by John now.? 15. Smith teaches our class. He´s being transferred by them to another class. 2. 9.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. John will bring the books.. 3. 2. The mail has been brought by John every day.? 3. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). He´s being examined by them now. 16.In what year was the house built? 10. Ex. 3. How was the house destroyed? 3. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. No time must be lost by us. Where was the child finally found? 5. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. Longmans will publish the book next spring. That class is taught by Mr.? 10. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. He may be held by the police for several days. Ex. The book wasn´t written by Mr.The book won´t be published in June.? 8. 6.. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. 6. The book was written by Mr.. 4. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. 9. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 2. The mail was brought by John yesterday. 8. Ex./ Is the lesson taught by. Smith. Smith on Friday. He was held for about two hours. / Was America discovered in. / Was the dish broken by.. / Will the book be published in. 5. 5. 2. The tickets will be left for you by them. / Was the telegram delivered. It was put in the safe. 5. 8. My grandfather built the house in 1910. 3. Columbus discovered America in 1492. Jackson. 20. 8. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. 10. It was stolen by one of the servants.. 3. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago.. 4. This room is being used by us. He was finally found in the park. My book has been taken by somebody. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. 12. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. She was born in Scotland. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. 5.. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. 9.. 18. The accident was seen by Mrs. Ex. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. 7. 11. / Was the book written by... The office was being cleaned by them this morning. 2. 5. 17. A short course in english for adult students 235 . The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. This should be sent by him right away. 6. He must be helped by us . It was released at about 10:30 12. 15. It was published in 1999.? 6. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex.? 4.. The child has been found by them at last 15. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 10. 4. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 2. The enemy has destroyed the city.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. The work is being finished by him now.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys.. 12. 1. It was published in Chicago. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 14.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. Mr. When will the work be completed? 4. / Was it discovered by. 7. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 8.The money hasn´t been found. 4.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. They were married in Valparaiso. 6. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 4.Scott wrote this book.. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 12.. 5.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. He had finished the work by June. Thompson. They´re corrected by our instructor. 17. Ex. The work had been finished by them by noon. It will be prepared by the chef. 22.? 14. 24.? Ex. 3. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. / Was the city destroyed by. It will be completed by the end of the month. This cannot be finished by him today. The city is being defended by them well 11. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 7. 13. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions.? 9. / Was the house struck by. When will the book be published? 7. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. This room can be used by you for the lesson. It was broken by the maid.. / Has the book been returned by. That letter is being typed by her now. That question is being considered by them now. / Has the money been found? 13. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 10. 12. 15. 6... 7.? 11. Ex. 4. It was discovered in 1492. 11. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. 16. An automobile struck him 9.. 8. 19.

12.. 2.. / Is the King supposed to visit. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II.. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. / Is he supposed to be living. was supposed to send 5.. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years. Reese. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. 8... 10. is supposed to be 7..7. He must be found by us immediately. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. is supposed to be sent 13.... he was supposed to arrive. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used.. It doesn´t have to be sent right away.. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. The books have to be delivered by them today. The King isn´t supposed to visit. 9. were supposed to deliver 4.. 8. The war was supposed to be over. 1.Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. 9. It can´t be done three or four times a month. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 2. 2. / Was he supposed to bring it. are supposed to be put Ex. 7. The parade is supposed to begin. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4.. 2. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. 3. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. This room can´t be used for our meetings.. During that year. 5.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students .. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. The bus is supposed to stop.. is supposed to be 6.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. He is supposed to leave for. The class isn´t taught by Mr..... was supposed to be 11. is supposed to call 9. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr.. 12. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. Public transport services should be improved in this city. He isn´t supposed to be living. 9. 8.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5. This mustn´t be checked twice. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10.. 2. This book has been translated into several languages.. The weather is supposed to be hot. 1. 3. 6. 8. several important projects have been carried out. 9. The mail has to be brought by John every day. 2. 10.. 4. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. La próxima vez. All the invitations were sent by air mail. The merchandise is being sent by them today. It doesn´t have to be done at once.. 11. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. is supposed to be 8. He wasn´t supposed to telephone.. 5. 7. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr..? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. is supposed to know 12. / Was he supposed to telephone. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. The money hasn´t been sent to NY. 9... / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. 3. 11. 4. She is supposed to bring the.. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6... 1. The train is supposed to arrive at. Ex. 10. 10. We aren´t supposed to meet them. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. 6... Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. 7. This book wasn´t published in 1945. Ex. is supposed to come 3. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. / Is the material being prepared by Mr...... 6. 5. 2. The e-mail was sent by him last week. 4.. is supposed to have been sent 14. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. is supposed to meet 10. 3. Ex. 10.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5. New methods are being developed to control inflation. Ex. Our lesson is supposed to last. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas..11. / Are we supposed to meet them.. He wasn´t supposed to bring it. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación. The bank is supposed to open at.

PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. you would see him more often. listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once.. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow.. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta.) . ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales.. If he comes tomorrow. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. I´ll give him your message. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. you will not get a good mark. You will see him if he comes tomorrow.. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. you´ll have an accident. she´ll miss her train.). ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1.. 4. tú lo verás.. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. you will be able to see everything.) 2. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. (Si. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa.UNIT 18 PART I. you will see him. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. (Si te sientas aquí. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 . (Si él viene mañana. tú lo habrías visto) I. you would have seen him. you will see him. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana... (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. (Si él viene mañana. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. b. introducida por la palabra IF. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here. (Si él viene mañana.. too. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo.. (Si no estudias duro. If he comes tomorrow. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. you will see him. tú lo verías más seguido también) c.

she would speak English better. 4. If he ________________________ (know) her better. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. 12. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. 7. WHILE (mientras). ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. 6. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. she would study more. she will see the Prince. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. I would study French. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes.. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. he could go with her to the party. (lf Mary had more time. he would be a better student. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. como tomorrow. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. UNLESS (a menos que). él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). I would buy that suit. he will tell us what happened. etc. etc. we could study better. next Monday morning. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. I will give her your message. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. Si Mary supiera nadar. she would go to the beach more often. 9. she would study more. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). BEFORE (antes que). John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. “If Mary will come”). 8. 5. AFTER (después que). he would help us.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. (Si John estuviera aquí. (Si yo fuera millonario. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. 3.1. UNTIL (hasta que). 11. 238 A short course in english for adult students . we would go for a walk. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. Read. Del mismo modo. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. If John were here now he would help us. this evening. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. If I ________________________(be) in your position. 10.) 2.

If he studied more. he will meet her. 6. lf I knew her. but if. 7. ___________________________________________________ 12.. they will succeed. 11. 5. If I have more time . but if.. I will read more books.. 6. He would speak better if.. he. 9. If he studies hard. lf they try hard.) 2. he will pass. 3. lf he were here. 4. If today were a holiday. he can help us. 6. (John does not study hard. he ___________________________ (work) harder. If he came to class on time.. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. ___________________________________________________ She has very little money.. 12. I.. he will go.. If we have more practice. we will speak better.. ___________________________________________________ Mary isn’t here now. he.. 9.. ___________________________________________________ I don’t speak English well. 3. would be very happy. 3. I will go to the beach. ___________________________________________________ He doesn’t like to study English.. ___________________________________________________ William never comes to class on time.. he would help us. If he came to class regularly.) Mary does not prepare her lessons... 3. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. 4. ___________________________________________________ Ex. If today were a holiday.. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. lf I am free tomorrow. If he came to class more often. we. he ________________________ (feel) better. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 . but if. If I were you. but if. lf I don’t have to work. ___________________________________________________ 7... 9. ___________________________________________________ 6. If he went to bed earlier. he. If he were stronger . he. 10. but if. If I could speak French. but if. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. lf he had more money. he ________________________ (help) us. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.. but if. I ________________________ (speak) to her. ___________________________________________________ I can’t speak French. __________________________________________________ 10... 7. he will make good progress. we will not go. he will see her.... 4. I. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. ___________________________________________________ 8. Complete the following: 1.. he________________________ (learn) more. If he goes to the party. 12. ___________________________________________________ 4. 11. If I knew her well. ___________________________________________________ He has very little free time... ___________________________________________________ He has very little practice in speaking. he ________________________ (be) a better student.. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach.. If he is here. but if.. 10. but if. ___________________________________________________ I am not in Florida now. ___________________________________________________ He has very few friends. I. lf John prepared his lessons every night. I will go to the movie. 7. I. ___________________________________________________ 9. If the weather is cold. lf John were here. 5. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan.. 5.. 4.. 2. but if. he.. If he prepares his lessons. ___________________________________________________ 3. If he comes. 8. If he had more time. 2.. ___________________________________________________ 5. 8... (If he had time. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. 10. he would go) 2... John does not study hard but if. 5. (If he were here. If l were in Florida now..Ex..... but if. If I were free tomorrow. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. If he has time. ___________________________________________________ 11. 2 .. 11.

he could telephone me. could) help us. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. 11.. will be) nice tomorrow. If I were you. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . Mary will talk with him. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. If he (knows.. If you could visit any country in the world. were) in your position. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. John said he (will.. 2. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. (lf I were in your position.) If the weather (is. If I (was. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.. If today were Sunday. knew) my number. he would have passed his examination. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 15. If today were Sunday. might) be late... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. they would have called you up. I am sure he would. We would go for a walk in the park if. 4.. If you studied harder. If you had an automobile. If I (know. 14. Mary told me that she (can. 6. 8. 7. we may drive to the country. I would. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Answer these questions: 1. habría aprobado su examen). would) walk to school. knew) how to swim. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Ex. If I (had. 13. I would go swimming every day. I (will. we. If you had much money. If John had studied hard. He said he (may. 3. Mary would go with us if.12. would) be here soon.. When John (comes. He would speak better if. 10. have) time tomorrow. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. If he (can. 7. I will go to the movie. If today were a holiday. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 12. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 5. will come) here tomorrow.. I would study French. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. had) the time. Choose the correct form: 1. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. 6. 9. If you knew English perfectly.. could) not come.

2. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. he would have come to see you . 3. If I________________________ (be) in your place. If you ________________________ (call) me. 5. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . If he had studied more. Ex. I wasn’t in his position. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I would have been glad to go. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. 10. 2. 4. She didn’t wear her raincoat. 2. He couldn’t speak English at the time. I didn’t know his name. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . 3. Ex. 1. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. I would have called on you. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. 2. 9. he would not have caught cold. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. we would have gone to the beach. but if. John didn’t prepare his lessons. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If I________________________(have) your address. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. EXERCISES Ex. 10. 5. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. I would not have been so angry.En situaciones formales o literarias. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. 8. 4. Had he known that you were ill. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. I didn’t have your telephone number. I would have told him. 6. She didn’t come on time. (succeed) . 8. he ________________________(catch ) cold. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. he he would have succeeded. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. If he had not worn his overcoat. 6. they would have gone to the park. He didn’t tell me about it. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (He would have come to the party if he about it). I didn’t have a car last winter. 9. 7.

a. she would speak to him. If he comes. If he had come. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. If he had telephoned me. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . If the weather is nice. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. If I were you. If he were here. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If I am free next week. 4. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. he would take part in the game 2. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11.Ex. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If it rains. he will go with us a. If he works harder. If he came. If John is present. she would have spoken to him. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If he has time. 2. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I can do it. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. If he has the money. she will speak to him. If I had known about it. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. If he is here. If he goes there. If you had asked me. they will go to the beach a. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. b. If I see her. 5. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.

12. 7. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. John looks as though he (was. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. If it (rains. 9. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14.) 2. were) a holiday.If today (was. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 6. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 16. were) you. Answer these questions: 1. 7. He acted as if he (had. I would have acted differently. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. we could have gone to the beach. 15. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If yesterday had been a holiday. If I had been invited.Call me if he (comes. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. will rain) tomorrow. I (will. If England had been better prepared for war. had eaten) a large dinner. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.I think he (would come. If the weather had been nice.I feel as if I (ate. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.If I (would be. I would certainly do it. I would not accept the work. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. If the weather were nice. If you had studied harder. If I (was. I would certainly do it. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. we may not go away. 8. Choose the correct form: 1. were) in his position. He acted as if he (was. 14. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. has been. we could go to the beach. could have gone) if they had asked me. 5.He will not go unless she (goes. will come) before noon. 3. I (could go. will go) too. 11. had been) a holiday. had had) a great shock. 10. If I (knew. were) the manager of the place. 13. If you had had last week off. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 .If yesterday (was. he would have taken part in the discussion. had known) this yesterday. would have come) if we had asked him. 4. were) sick.9. 6. If you had known it was going to rain. had been) here. If he (was. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If I had more time. Ex. (lf I were you. If you hadn´t had to study last night.

5. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better.PART II. o “Me habría gustado. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas.. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish 4. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish 5. 7. 12. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex. 2. It´s been raining hard for about five hours..) I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. Mary isn’t here but I wish 10. 10.. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8. Mary is not here now. 8.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . A. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. 2.”.. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. Complete the following sentences: 1.. 1. I wish I weren´t so busy. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish 7. I wish I knew how to swim. I have no car but I wish 2. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. I´d certainly invite her to the party..I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off. John wishes she were here now. John won’t do it for us but I wish 9. I wish I had seen her.”. 9. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. 3. S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional Ex. este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo. es decir. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish 6. 6. (I wish John were here now. I wish it would stop raining soon. “Me gustaría. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. I cannot swim but I wish 3. 4. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. 11.I can’t speak English well but I wish 244 A short course in english for adult students ( I had one.” I don´t know how to swim. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND.. They insisted that we ______________________________ (visit) them again. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night.”. 3. 2. 6. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: 1. etc. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. 1. 4. TO REQUIRE. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. Smith ______________________________ (take) a long vacation. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. 5. The doctor suggested that Mr. TO DEMAND.. “It´s imperative that.. En el Presente del Subjuntivo.. “It´s essential hat.. 9. 8..”. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética.. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo.12. 3. 3.. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. I´m sorry it is raining so hard.”. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ (be) finished today? He insisted that she ______________________________ (go) on with the work... 10. (He recommended that she go with him. 5. She asked that we should be there before midday. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach. “It´s advisable that. He recommended that she ________________________ go) with him. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. “It is necessary that.) En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas. 6. A short course in english for adult students 245 . I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. It is imperative that they ______________________________ (be) there on time. (I wish he spoke English well.) I suggested that you see the manager today. I suggested that you should see the manager today. He proposed that John ______________________________ (be) chairman. 9. 7. He asked that it______________________________ (be) done right away. EXERCISES Ex. 2. 4. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. I recommended that you ______________________________ (come) back later. I´m sorry John is not here with us.) He suggested that John______________________________(wait) a few minutes. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater..”. 10. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara..) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. TO ASK. TO SUGGEST.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. 8. 7.. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.

9. If he had felt better. 7.Ex. Ex. be) there early. 10. If you come too early. please let me know. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry).) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. 5. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He said he already (saw. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 9. 4. John always (sits. have seen) John yesterday. had gone) with you to the party last night. I asked John to wait for me. I (saw. 2. 11. If he (will come. If John were here. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? Were I you. 3. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. I (may sleep. had seen) that movie. I asked her to come back later. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. is sitting) at this desk. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. 13. I wish I (were. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. 7. 2. 2. 14. he would have spent it at the beach. Which would you prefer. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. 4. Ex. I wish I (went. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. He asked me to lend him the money. Had I known your number. If I (were. 5. He asked me to be there on time. 10. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. 11. The merchandise is supposed (to send. I would go swimming. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. I suggested that John wait for me. would be) in Florida now. 6. may be sleeping). 3. John said he (will. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 246 A short course in english for adult students . 8. would be) in Florida now. 6. 3. 7. He suggested that John (come. 6. 5. comes) back later. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. Which would you prefer to study in the future. 2. he would spend it at the beach. 4. Which would you prefer. 10. Choose the correct form: 1. Which would you prefer. We asked them to go with us in our car. Had I had more time. I ______________________________ (do) it. 8. 12. 8. 9. Which would you prefer to be. John asked me to take a walk with him. me). I ______________________________ (telephone) you. 12. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). 4. He (is living. would) be here tomorrow. John sat between Mary and (I. to be sent) tomorrow. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. He recommended that I (am. comes) soon. If he had been well. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. has been living) here many years. 5 Answer these questions: 1. If he felt better.

Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.6. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 .

combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. bajas maniobras Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:piη fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva acción preventiva prisionero incursión comando retaguardia posición de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha. auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /δi á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atækiη iunit/ ´ Barrack /bærak/ ´ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /defénsiv æktchn/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæηk/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuórterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíliη/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espía estrategia lucha rendición vigilancia táctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue /priémptiv æktchn/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchn/ ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /réindller/ Rear /ríar/ Rear position /ríar posíshon/ Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ Relief /rilí:f/ Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rése:rvist/ Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ Retreat /ritrí:t/ Review /riviú:/ Revolt /rivólt/ Riot /ráiot/ Salute /saliút/ Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sló:ter/ Spy /spái/ Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ Struggle /strægl/ ´ Surrender /sarénder/ Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wiθdróal/ 248 A short course in english for adult students . cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza.

conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar A short course in english for adult students 249 .Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kónker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To invade /invéid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. pelear disparar rendirse invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wiθdró:/ To inspect /inspékt/ matar guiar.

Bl 250 .

.would do more things every day. If he were here. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss. 5. he would play tennis more often.. 10. 4. he might he1p us.I were there now I would visiting Orlando.. we would speak better..... 12. I´d drive to. I´d have acted differently. 3..he had been there. 2. Ex.. I´d would visit. / If the weather had been nice.. 8. 6... 2... 6. would have told 9. 13. If he went. I´d getter better marks. 5... she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. 1 would do it gladly. 2 ..I spoke it well. 6. 2.would visit Epcot Center 7. had been 8... 9. 11. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. would make 5. would learn faster 4. 4. 1.. they would succeed. 7.... 5. 2. If I had more time. have 9.would buy a modern car. had told 10. would speak 6. 5.it were not so cold.she were here I would be talking with her now.. had had 3..... 8. I would call you up. (Suggested answers) 1. 8. he would meet her. And I´d. C) Ex. 2.he had spoken it. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). had been Ex. 2. I´d go to. would have driven Ex. I´d go to the movie... he had told me. / If I´d seen her. he studied harder 3. If 1 could do it. they would have gone to the beach..would plan a trip to France. If we had much practice... had been 4. I´d give her the message.. had gone 9. (Possible answers). 2.. had Ex. 15. she had come. If they tried hard. she wouldn´t have caught cold...Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. she´d be able to travel abroad more often.. would go to the beach. would have come 6. 14. had known 7. he´d enjoy living here. If I saw her. would have been 5.. 7.. is 3. I´d speak a lot better . would 5.. he´d speak it better.I had had it..would invite her out to dinner. might 12. we would not go. 4. If I didn´t have to work. would have caught 3. 8. If the weather were cold.I could speak it. 12. He´d certainly speak better. would visit Ex.I had been in his position. I´d buy. would feel 8. I´d have called you up.he liked to do it. I had known it.. 4... were 3. 12.. 2. I´d beging to study.. Yes.he´d be a better student.he had more friends. would take 9.. 5.. 9. 3... she had come on time.. 11. 1. 6. I ´d have done it gladly. 3. 10.she had more money... comes 10. he would have gone with us. he would see her. knew 4. could 6.. could 7. 6.. would learn 4.. 2.. If he prepared his lessons. I´d have given her the message.. 10. 7. would 4... If I were free tomorrow.she had wore it...he´d learn more. would go 10.. 3. they would go to the beach.she had the day off / free. he would go with us.. I would have called you up.. he ´d have gotten a better job. I´d read more books. he came to class on time he´d be a better student.. would have been 7. he´d make good progress. he would pass 5. would go 12.. knew Ex. he might have helped us. would have written 8. / If he had had time.. she would have taken part in the competition. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera. / I´d go to.. 4. Oh yes. I´d be planning a trip to France.. If 1 were free now.could go on a picnic. / If 1 had been free yesterday.I had been there. I´d go to the beach. 7.. 8. had 11.. first. knew 8. I´d go to. 9.. Ex. / If he´d been here.. 12.. 6. Ex. would speak 3. 7. 6. were 8. (Possible answers) 2. were 6. he could help us. If he were here. would be 7. 4. 9.. 11.. had called 5. would work 11. had 5. of course. Ex. 2. 9. Yes. were 7. (Possible answers) 2. had worn 6. I would have included it in the list of guests 7..... prepared 10.he had more free time. had 11.. would have gone 10. would have helped 4..I had had one. were 12... 4... If he had time. 5...he had more practice in conversation.. 3. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . 10. / If I´d been able to do it..... if he studied hard. 8. were 9. If A short course in english for adult students 251 . If he came. 3. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better.If the weather were nice.. 11. you would have seen him... 3.

You´d be right or wrong. I was too busy at that moment. would have gone out for a walk 15.. If it had rained. would have helped you 6. it were nice 7.. I think. he would be promoted. were 14. (Suggested answers) 2. I wish John were here with us. they would have stayed at home. it would have been the same 8. saw 13. would 7. If he´d worked harder.. of course. / . 7. 10. / No. knew Ex. I would have gone to.. No. I wouln´t have gone.. would buy a Japanese car. they would stay at home. the meeting would be good. 1. had gone 6. had known 9. He loves sports / No.. I could swim 3. be 9. 1. had gone 3. Ex. / . of course. sits Ex. I´d be pleased to hear that. I love the rain.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. would go out for a walk 14. Ex. 9. take Ex. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies... I´d prefer to travel to Europe. 8. 6. 252 A short course in english for adult students . had known 5. had hurried 6.. I would have gone all the same.. would begin 5. If it rained.. were 6. It depends. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 5. (Possible answers) 1.. 4. 2. I had studied 4. I wish today were a holiday..he went there. 10. 4. he will let us know.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. 8. I hate the rain / Yes. 2. of course. would 10. has been living 12.. would have come 8. 5. I would have gotten a better mark.. 2 . of course. me 9. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. 12. Ex. would have telephoned 3.. If he had the money.. wait 3. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 7.would have attended the conference. Of course he would have gone. 6. had had 4. 9... (Suggested answers) 1. comes 13. of course. go 10. Yes. 12. I´d prefer to be rich. he might have gone with us. 7. 4. were 5. he had worked harder during the term. 16. I wish he had gone with us last night. Yes. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. Yes. had 11. 3. were 9.we had asked him to help us. I would have gone. would have I´d have told him you were here. If he´d gone there. had known it started today. visit 7. I would have certainly helped him. had been 8. were 11. he would have been promoted.. PART II A) Ex. 4. 2. 1. You´d be wrong if you said that. / . I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. the meeting would have been good... 10. were 10. would 8. 5. If John were present. had had 12. 2. would go 9. come 6.. be 4. I´d be very sorry to hear that. I wish I knew her better 7. I could speak it . would have done 7.. 8... she were here. 3. would have phoned you 3. If he worked harder. would have gone 10. Yes. he would do it 9. 13.were 4. had been 12. 9. My English is not very good. to be sent 10. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3. 8. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. 2. 10. 5. 2. I´d have gone to a concert instead. she were... 6. 5. it had been a holiday 6. 5. he would have let us know. of course. had the day off .. had been 12. 6. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. I´d prefer to own a horse. were 3. be 8. could 3. were 7. 4.. 2. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. I didn´t have to work. I like riding horses.had been invited 4. 3. 10. come 5. 11. 9. had already seen 14. of course. / If John had been present. 5. He hates sports... 7. would have come Ex. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. 3.. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money... You´d be very wrong if you said that. 5.. could have gone 7. 12.. would watch TV every day 11. had studied 4. 2. 10. 12. I´d be sorry to hear that. I wouldn´t have helped him. of course. be 4. 1. 2. comes 8. rains 6. Ex. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. were 2. it were a holiday. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. 7. I wish it weren´t raining so hard.. had eaten 16. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. be 5.. he wouldn´t have gone. may be sleeping 11. I were 8. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. 6. goes 15. were 11.. 3.. 9. 2. I´d have gone to. 11. of course / No. 11.. could Ex. . I´d prefer to be in good health..

He said. “I´m working very hard. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona. “I worked very hard. “I must do the job well.” He said that he had worked very hard. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss. (Indirect Speech) I.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy.” He said that he had to do the job well.” He said that he was busy then. “I´m busy now. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto.” He said that he would work hard all day. He said. “I´m busy today. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. He said.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).” He said that he had worked very hard. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. “It may rain again. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. John said. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. “I was busy yesterday.” He said that he had been busy the day before. pidió o advirtió hacer.” He said that it might rain again. “I like New York. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). He said. He said. He said. “I have to do that again. “I´m busy at this moment. He said. He said. “I will work hard all day.” He said that he had to do that again. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. “I have worked very hard. “I always work hard. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. He said. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York.” ➙ He said that he was working very hard.” He said that he could use a computer. “I can use a computer. “I´m very busy. He said.” He said that he always worked hard. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). He said. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 .

Cuando se desea expresar una orden. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto. etc.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ .” He said that she was very busy that night. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación.” A short course in english for adult students (John said that he had to work tonight. He said. He said. advertencia. The teacher asked the students. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today.” He said.” Mary said to me. “We will finish this tomorrow. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun). “We may have an exam. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. “I have to work tonight.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. 6.” Mr. Bob asked me. en el discurso indirecto. 10.” He said. Smith said. “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. “I´ll be busy tomorrow.” He said that he was very happy there. Bob asked his friends. Smith said. 5. me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Infinitive.” Bob told us that he liked New York. un requerimiento. ‘’I will be back later. 2.” He said that he would be busy the following day. no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura afirmativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me.” He said. “I don’t know her well. 4. 9. 8. según vimos en la Unidad 8.” The doctor said. 7. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex. Bob said. “I´m very busy tonight.” Mr. “I have no money. 1. “I hope she comes soon. “I´m very happy here. ADVERTENCIAS.” Mary said to me. III. “I like New York. “John is a very sick man. He said.” He said. REQUERIMIENTOS. 254 John said. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. II. “I cannot go with you tonight. 3. “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. ETC. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. “l have known him a long time.

He said to me. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12.” (John told me to wait five minutes for him. 4. “Don’t cross the road. John said. He asked me. . “Try to come on time.. Mary asked. Go to the whiteboard.Mr Smith asked us. 2.. 5.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The teacher asked. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3. “Wait five minutes for me. “Where does John live?” (Mary asked where John lived.) 2. -) How much does it cost? (He wants to know ... 8. He said to me. 4. “Be more careful. ) Is he in the building? (She wants to know. 3. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13.) 2. “Don’t write in pencil. Give this message to Mrs. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. “Sit down for a few minutes. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. 11. ‘’Please don’t be late.11. I asked him. Don’t waste so much time. 6.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. Answer the following questions in indirect form. 2. She said. He asked me. She said to him. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5..” ___________________________________________________ S. He warned the child. (The teacher told me to sit in the first row.” ___________________________________________________ 5. “I am going away tomorrow..” Ex. ‘’Please send me the money at once. I asked him. ) (I don’t know where John is. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. 9. He said to me. Where´s John? (I don’t know.. 5. 7. The teacher said to us. Helen said to me.” 12. He begged me.” ___________________________________________________ 3. He asked me. 12. Prepare your lessons more carefully. “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. “He is supposed to be here now. 6. Smith. Change from direct to indirect form: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 1. Do your exercíses in ink. Come back later.? Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. Sit down and read the story.) Where is she going? (She didn’t say.” ___________________________________________________ 4. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. “Don’t forget what I told you. “Don’t make the same mistake again. John said to me. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. Take your feet off the desk.He asked me. Change to indirect form: 1. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. Sit in the first row. 2. 3.) Where does she live? (Can you tell me. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. He said to me. I asked her. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper.” ___________________________________________________ 6. “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3.” ___________________________________________________ 9. I asked John. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. He said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 7.. Sit up straíght..) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 . Wait outside in the hall. I asked her. 10.” __________________________________________________ 10. He asked me. He asked me. 4. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. . 5.

He said he (can. was) married. She said she was going out of town.. 7. 4... could) meet us easily. 9. 9. said to me) that he was busy.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex..) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 10. Choose the correct form: 1. 6.. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 8. 7.) ___________________________________________________ Where does he live? (Ask him. 7. He told her to leave the room. is it)? He said he (will. He said he was busy. 3. 9. He asked me where I lived. He didn’t say where he (is. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (He said. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. would) come here soon. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I’d like to know where (is it. 11. 2. He asked me what time it (is. meant).) ___________________________________________________ Where is he now? (Can you tell me. Smith here? (I’d like to know. He said he would be back soon.. He asked her whether she liked New York. 14. ) ___________________________________________________ Is Mr. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students . 4. I asked her whether she (is. 15. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I don’t know whether (I can. 8.) ___________________________________________________ When will he get back? (I´d like to find out. 2... She said her last name was Smith. was) going.. He asked me where I (live. 11. 10. 8. Jones wanted to know.) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. He asked how much it cost. . 10. 12. I´m not sure whether (he is. 13. 11. I asked him what the word (means.. can I) do it. He told me not to wait for him.) ___________________________________________________ How tall is he? (I don’t know. 6. 12. How is he getting along? (She wants to know .. ) ___________________________________________________ Is he very tall? (I really don’t know. Change from indirect to direct form: 1. Answer these questions: 1. He said that he could not meet us.7.) How is he getting along? (Mrs.. “I am busy. He (told me.. 8. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 5.. is he) here now. 12.. was). 5. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. it is). .) _________________________________________________ Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me. Can you tell me what time (it is. (He asked me where I lived. lived).

responder llegar preguntar. el pasado participio. gustar terminar odiar. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/. /δéir spí:kiη íηglish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). pedir transportar. el pasado. o cons+cons+vocal+cons. el gerundio. /δéi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. 3. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. 2. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchiη/ working /wé:rkiη/ loving /láviη/ playing /pléiη/ studying /stádiiη/ fitting /fitiη/ stopping /stopiη/ guiding /gáidiη/ repeating /ripí:tiη/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. /δéi spóuk íηglish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. Escuche. deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year.BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el infinitivo. localizar mirar A short course in english for adult students 257 . Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. /wí:r wé:rkiη ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /δéi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. -te. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ Spanish contestar.rd δis íar/ We are working hard now. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. no gustar ayudar esperar. -d. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t. /wí: hav wé:rkt há. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A.

dejar prestar perder. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. atender caminar querer lavar observar. funcionar B. extraviar hacer. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. fabricar reunirse. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ 258 Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Spanish empezar. partir quedarse. salir. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. conocer aprender. pedir fumar comenzar. arreglar repetir solicitar.To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ amar. mantener saber. esforzarse usar. haber oir guardar. utilizar visitar esperar.enterarse partir. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar.conocer A short course in english for adult students . servirse. mirar desear trabajar. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar.

colocar leer correr. creer entender. comprender vestir. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 . narrar pensar.To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ sang /sæη/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /θiηk/ thought /θo:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn pagar poner. llevar enseñar decir. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar.pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar.

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He said he´d seen it. 7. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. 11. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. John asked whether / if it was raining. 10. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. “Leave the room. 3. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. could 11. Mrs.” 5. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. He asked. 2. 3. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. I asked her where it was. 2. He asked me what the word meant. 10. Mr. 13.” Ex. “I can´t meet you . He asked me. 9. 5. was 7. 3. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. 7. He told me not to make the same mistake again. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 6. he is 12. 12. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. 8. 9. He asked me to meet him outside the station. it is 4. 12. 6. was 9. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. She didn´t say where she was going . 6. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. . The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. He asked me. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. Ex. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise.” 8. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. 9. 9. Ex. 15. meant 8. “ 11. 7. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall.She said. “My maiden name was Jones. 2. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. Ex.” 9. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. “Do you like New York?” 4. 2. Smith. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. “I´ll be back soon. He politely asked me not to be late. 7. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. 8. 7. He said. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. I asked her whether / if John was here. 7. 10. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 4. 7. She said. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 5. 4. 5.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. He warned the child not to cross the road. 3. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. 14. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. He said to her. A short course in english for adult students 261 . 9. 2. 8. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . 8. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. I asked him when he had read that book. Ex. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 3. Ask him where he lives. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. He asked her. 2. He said (that) he had known him a long time. Smith is here. Because there was too much traffic at that time. 2. He told me to write a short story in English. He asked me how I was today. 2. Mr. was Ex. He begged me to send him the money at once. I don´t know how tall he is. 4. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. “I´m going out of town. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. 6. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. 4. told me 6. The teacher told me to come back later. He asked me to try to come on time. 5. 8. He said to me. 4. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. I told him to be more careful. 4. “Don´t wait for me. 2. 6. She wants to know how he is getting along. 3. He said. 1. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. She said. 12. 13. 3. “My last name´s Smith 6. I asked John what time it was. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 1. “How much does it cost?” 10. 14. He wants to know how much it costs. 8. He told me not to forget what he had told me. “Where do you live?” 3. 10. 5. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. Ex. He said (that) he had no money. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. 5. 11. (Possible Answers) . 7. I can 3. would 5. 12. 5. 6. Mr. 6. 15. it is 10. 8.

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/ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéiiη æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado. Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz. My name is.... aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud... thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do. Este es el o la Sr./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a..? ¿Tiene Ud..? Vengo de Stgo. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud. Permítame presentarme.. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército.. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.../ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.....? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students 263 . No entiendo francés Es Ud. mi nombre es. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr... ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud.? ¿De dónde es Ud.? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago.UNIT 20 USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. thank you I´m fine...? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud..Chile ¿Vive ud.. Mi nombre es... I don´t.. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No.. Please let me introduce myself. un/a. My name is./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræηk /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt.. Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.... . At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento.. francés/alemán/italiano? No. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórniη/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vniη/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: δis i:vniη/ /θækiu:/ /θækiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel θæηkiu/ /aim fáin θæηks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz..../ /δis iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. bat ai spí:k spænish and íηglish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a...

Sí. por favor No abra la ventana. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud.. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. Así lo espero. por favor. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. No lo creo así. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. Concuerdo con Ud. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. por supuesto No. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. No concuerdo con Ud. creo que sí Sí. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora.. razón.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. please Don´t open the window. I think so Yes. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. of course/certainly/sure No. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . come in and sit down Wait a moment. Ud. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. I don´t mind. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wiδ pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:tiη iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn δe wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts δe déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu háηgri/ /a:r iu θé:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r róη/ /ai agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt θiηk sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai θiηk sóu/ /ies δæts ráit/ /δæts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai δæt/ /wót daz δis wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts δe mí:niη ov δis wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. está equivocado.

). go. ¿Qué está estará (hizo. Sentémosnos aquí (vamos.etc..... address.(nombre dirección..(help me. ¿Podría Ud...)? Can Will 6. Don´t.(ayudarme.).( haciendo. please. por favor..(name........).etc) (hará.. Could you. help you.)? were you 2.(fumo.... etc... por favor. 8..(doing.. spell it? (.) please..)? ¿Querría Ud...... Sit here.(smoke. etc.... etc.. What are you will you be . etc)? 9. Let´s sit here.)? UD? 4... What´s your.. etc) 3.. etc..... 8. etc .)? Recuerde: 1. etc.)UD? did 3. etc. etc. Do you mind if I.. ¿Le molesta a UD si yo.) A short course in english for adult students 265 . ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo. ¿Cuál es su.)? 7. etc..(sentarme aquí. No vaya allá (hable.etc... (sit here. ¿Qué (hace.. 5.)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6....etc... ) 7. go there ( speak.)? will 4.Remember: 1... What do you. etc..(come here.etc. Can May I.(do.. etc) . Shall I.. ¿Puedo yo.etc)? 9.)? estaba 2. (... etc.)? Would 5. Siéntese aquí (venga.

por favor. please I need to make an international call to Chile. por favor. I want to check out at. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. Yo no cené aquí anoche. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta.. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un... please? There´s an error in my bill/check.. Is there a barber´s shop here. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik δis sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz δér e kólor tí: ví: in δe rú:m/ /δe séntral hí:tiη/éar kondíshoner íznt wé: rkiη wél/ /mai béd háznt bí:n méid iet/ /ai ní:d anáδer blæηkit/ /kud iu tchéindll δe táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts δe vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz δear a kóin operéitid wóshiη mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv δi:z klóuδz wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and δe kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación¡ ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz δe réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz δe bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz δer e télifoun in δe lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /δérz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai θiηk/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/driηk/órder δis/ /iz δer a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust δí:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r δe lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik δe líft/elevéitor tu δe ténθ fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at..B. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. a mi habitación. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call..oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik δe sé:rvis/δe fu:d/δe rú.. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night.. me parece. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú.. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. 266 A short course in english for adult students .. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from δe houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spánish plí:z/ /iz δer e suímiη pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in δe houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz δer e máni ekstchéindll in δe houtél/ /kud iu bríη e. por favor. por favor? ¿Donde está el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo... I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this.

..etc.. toilets.....) 2. etc... etc)? 3.(bar. ¿Hay un.? 3.) en el hotel? 4.(hacer una llamada. Could you. I want to.. etc.etc.....(bar. baños. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .( have another coffee..(lift. (telephones.)? Where are the.. Quiero. etc) Desearía.) I would like to..etc.. bar..(despertarme a las 7. bar.... ¿Podría Ud..Remember: 1. ) 2..(servirme otro café.) please? Recuerde: 1..(ascensor.(make a phone call.etc. ¿Dónde está el.etc...)? ¿Dónde están los . Is there a..) in the hotel? 4. etc. / teléfonos... Where is the..(wake me up at 7:30.etc. etc..

(the bill. etc. Quiero servirme.. medium or well-done? I want it well done please. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup.. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. ... ¿Qué quiere Ud. Can I have. ) /ai ní:d e téibl for θrí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz δer e téibl in δe non smóukiη éaria níar δe wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rviη lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll δis íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at δe méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:s ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wiη/ /ai θiηk ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ ´ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi anáδer náif δis wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo. etc). (tea. almendras saladas o maní. Remember: 1. etc.)? ¿Me podría traer.. por favor. etc. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. La quiere a punto.etc) Desearía servirme..s mi δe só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sámθiη tu dríηk wáin. Could you pass me the salt. ¿Desearía algo para beber? Vino. You can keep the change.. It was very good indeed. un sandwich.)? 3.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. please? I really enjoyed the meal. What do you want to.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu bríη mi δe bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid δe mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /θæηkiu véri match/iu kan kí:p δe tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor.)? How would you like your. bíar or e sóft dríηk/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. etc. Good bye....) I´d like to have. (la cuenta.. Muchísimas gracias.. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio... por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. (beber.. etc. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo.. (chicken and rice. etc. etc. (steak.etc)? 2. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine. etc)? 3...)? I´d like to order.. (más tea. cerveza o una gaseosa? Podría servirme una cerveza de barril.). ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? Whisky. etc. etc. amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. (eat. etc.)? 2. (comer.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. Thank you very much. (a beer. How do you want your. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta... (otro whisky. (another whisky. cognac. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area.? Could you get me.C. (some more tea. Fue muy buena en verdad. salted almonds or peanuts.. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. a sandwich. Puede conservar el vuelto.. por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida. etc) 268 A short course in english for adult students . por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne. Recuerde: 1. cherry.. etc)? Desearía pedir.)? What would you like to. mí: dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. Hasta luego... regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. (una cerveza. I want to have. (pollo con arroz. (drink. etc) ¿Puedo servirme.etc.

cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /hériη/ King-crab /kiη kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto. bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. plaice /sóul.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drésiη/ Fruit /frú:t/ hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kábidll/ Carrot /kárrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students .

Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náaif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /éiprikot //éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blæberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tcóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /rázberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblkloθ/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

Kan iu shóu mi δe wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz δe póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél me wéar δe bæηk iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar δe stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi δe wéi tu δe pá: rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu δe miu:zíam/ /luk at δe mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid δe stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu δe brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at δe réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k alóη δis strí:t as fá:r as δe træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at δe nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun δe strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik δe θé:rd té:rniη on δe ráit and δén wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv aloη δis róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/δen té:rn ráit and iul sí: δe táuer at δi énd ov δe róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréidller híar maisélf/á:sk e plísman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu δe næ´shional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz δi éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik δe tréin/ /ikskiú:s mi dáz δis bás go tu δe stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu δi óksford houtél in pá:rk strí: t/ /ikskiu:s mi wéarz δe níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz δer e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/δéarz wan in bridll strí:t. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. Excuse me. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. hasta el semáforo. outside the station. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. frente al cine. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. please? Excuse me. opposite the cinema. Ask a policeman. Yo también soy forastero aquí. It´s not very far. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. can you tell me the way to the park.por favor? Perdón. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. No sé. take me to the Oxford Hotel. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Where´s the post office. dónde está la estación.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. Do you know where the station is. Camine por esta calle. ¿Sabe Ud.. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. please? Excuse me. óposit δe sínema/ /wót táim du δe bæηks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt rániη/ /wót taim du δe shóps klóuz/ /dáz δe supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. Necesita tomar el tren. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. por favor? Perdón. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. por favor? Perdón. por favor? Perdón. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . Excuse me. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. We are here. You need to take the train. en la Calle Park Perdón. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. Sorry I don´t know. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. please? Excuse me. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks.D. Perdón. there´s one in Bridge Street. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu δe kaθídrl. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. I´m a stranger here myself. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. in Park Street.

? 6... What time do the... Could you tell me the way to. Which bus do I need to take to go to the......... please?...por favor? 3.. Do you know where the..? 2.s...... How far is the.. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la. Could you show the way to. I need to buy a / some. Where is the....? 2.. ¿A qué distancia está el / la. Necesito comprar un / algunos.por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la..más cercana... Hay un / una.. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement.. How do I get to.. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a....? 5.de aquí? 7...is..? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las...? Is there a.? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la... open / close? What time does the. from here? 7.open / close? 6.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 . Where is the nearest. is. ¿Dónde está la..? 5.Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util) City. ¿Cómo llego a... near here? Building /bíldiη/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk stó:r/ librería book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /θíater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1... please? 3.por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. please? 4.. por favor? 4. please? Can you tell me where the... /péivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1.

Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. Fasten your seat belt.E. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. /ai wil kæri δis hændbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano Where is the luggage /baggage claim? /wéar iz δe lágidll /bægidll kléim/ ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? I have nothing to declare /ai hæv náθiη tu dikléar/ No tengo nada para declarar How many bottles can I take with me? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wiδ mí:/ ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? /iz δer e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? Where is the bar? /restaurant? /wéarz δe bá:r /restorant/ ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? Are we landing /arriving soon? /á:r wi lændiη /aráiviη sú:n/ ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. Please put your cigarette out now. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld δe téibl and put δe Ajuste su cinturón. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil δe pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. Can you spell it please? ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? /háu mátch is δe bás tíkit tu δe zú:/ ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey /flight take? /háu lóη daz δe dllérni /fláit téik/ ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? What time does the train /plane leave? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin lí:v/ ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? What time does the train /plane /get there? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin get δéar/ ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu loη daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? /du δei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai δe wíndou/ ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in δe non smóukiη éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases /δí:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Estas son mis malaetas Please carry my suitcases with care /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wiδ kéar/ Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado I will carry this handbag myself. bæk ov io:r sí:t in δi apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo 274 A short course in english for adult students . /wi a:r lændiη /aráiviη in e fiu: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto) /kan ai hav ior pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a ritérn tíkit tu lión/ Can I have your passport. please? What´s your last name.

/plí:z kí:p δis risí:t /wí wil sénd δi áitmz tu δe pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz δis wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r δouz glávz/ Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dólares? No me gusta el color. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? /ai láik δis /δæt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik δí:z /δóuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: δem/ /kan ai trái δem ón // /háu mátch á:r δei /háu mátch du δei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai péi wiδ amérikan máni /iú: és dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. We´ll send the items to the plane. ¿Tiene Ud. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 . Shopping (de compras) I like this /that watch /jacket. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sámθiη/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of léδer /plástik /wu:l /kóton /góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik δe kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. guarde este recibo.F. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud.

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UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1. antes de comenzar la prueba. 4. 3. 5.50....LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B..READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas..Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas. Preguntas 1 .Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 ..Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio.. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador). usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma).

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am going to give him your message D. B. D. very ill now. should to go by taxi. D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. D. C. C. anywhere that day. C. A. give him your message. B. “How expensive it is!” B. C. was been stolen. will be there on time. somewhere that day. oirá oraciones incompletas. a little bored. will give to him your message C. nowhere that day. know her new address. had dinner that evening. won’t be possible to see it well A. might see a doctor today. are having dinner that evening. 14. had to be there very quickly. B. “What expensive it is!” C. D. have been having dinner that evening. B. quite busy at the moment. D. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. C. deberá consignarla. can be there now. B. would know her new address. A. were there earlier. too much difficult for him. 5. had stolen. had better go by taxi. have just opened the door. D. A. A. deberá elegir la alternativa A. B. D. 3. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. 6. A. knew her new address. Ud. D. was stealing. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. B. D. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. B. A. En cada caso Ud. so much difficult for him. D. C. ought to see a doctor today. A. A. D. 13. D. too late right now. 12. C. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . who Peter sent Mary last week. 11. had been stolen. A. give your message to him 2. he always works hard.15. he works hard as a rule. 4. C. A. he often works hard. can see a doctor today. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. B. may see a doctor today. won’t be allowed to see it well. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C. which Peter sent Mary last week. should know her new address. is trying to open the door now. 10. were having dinner that evening. won’t can see it well. A. C. wants open the door now. A. 9. B. opens the door now. are better to go by taxi. a few difficult for him. 7. too difficult for him. B.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. B. A. whose Peter sent Mary last week. o D. C. C. B. won’t be able to see it well. Ud. A. “How expensive watch is it!” D. B. C. everywhere that day. he seldom works hard. A short course in english for adult students 279 . C. 15. would rather go by taxi. D.

Didn’t care much. They go there only when the weather’s fine. He lived in this house until recently. 25.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. He must order someone to do the job. They go there from time to time. A. A. A short course in english for adult students 32. B. 27. She’ll ring them up. B. D. He remembered he had a friend. A. B. 17. A. D. 30. They are a little younger. A dull person. A. D. D. Didn’t remember. A. D. He was resting all day. Because they like the rain. He’d better stay at home all day today. C. They had dinner at the restaurant. B. He’ s only seen her once or twice. 31 A. B. D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. It was a very crowded place. B. oirá oraciones completas y. 29. At once. They attended a meeting at the club. Because it’s a busy little town. They are 10 years altogether. D. They go there when they want to have fun. He wanted to save money. No escriba en este cuadernillo. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. C. A. D. He has to work in the evenings too D. B. He stayed in the garden all morning. 28. C. He came to live in this house very recently. 21. B. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. She’ll show them a map. D. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. 0 D. Later in the day. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. Because they like shopping. A. A. C. 22. B. B. He doesn’t feel like going out today. A. A. The buses were crowded at that time C. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. 280 . There were too many people there. Después de cada oración U¡. C. A. B. C. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. He didn’t like hotels very much. He would miss his family. B. o D. 23. C. They decided to go home early. On his way to the office. A. 20. A. The weather was awful. He was away all day long. He preferred to go home by taxi. He was working at home all day. He hasn’t studied her well. 19. C. Didn’t make a decision. He must finish the job sometime. She’ll call the roll. She’ll go and see them. He was away almost all day. B. C. C. He has to decide what to do soon. en cada caso. B. He wanted to take a walk. C. They are a different age. They go there when they have time.30. B. C. C. C. 16. B. D. D. They went somewhere else together. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. He doesn’t see her so often. 26. He hates to be at home during the day. 24. A kind person. A. Away from the office. They are 12 years old. A polite person. que la conteste en mejor forma. He hasn’t told us much about her. 18. D. D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador.He had no time to travel. A. B. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. Ud. Ud. No escriba en este cuadernillo. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. He wanted to get home more safely. D. D. Didn’t forget. C. C. D. C. B. A sociable person. C.

Because they´d been friends for many years. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. B. C. They have used that car for a long time. C. 38. 281 . D. D. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. She wanted to buy an air ticket. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. B. C. C. B. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. D. C. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. He should have gone to the reception. C. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. 41. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. That area never appears on the maps. D. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. A. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. Mary telephoned him after she got there. He could not help at the reception. A. C. Because she told him about her husband´s death. C. B. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station.33. A. A. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. En cada caso.. A. B. C. She did everything immediately. 37. D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. C. They used to have two cars in those days. A. D. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. D. Robert telephoned them in a given order. Escuche atentamente. Because he was glad to see her again B. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. A. so they ate quickly and left the place. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time.. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. 43. 35. 40. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. D. C. They worked in a garage in those days. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. B. At a summer house they had in the south of France. She did everything as carefully as possible. B. 34. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. B. D. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. A. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. B. B. A. o D. D. A. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. El examinador leerá una historia. D. Robert called to give them a new order. C. A. A short course in english for adult students 42. It wasn’t warm enough inside. She did everything correctly. 39. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. 36. At an expensive hotel near Paris. She did everything following the instructions. No escriba en este cuadernillo. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold.

Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. B. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. A. C. D. D. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. B. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. D. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. C. A. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon.44. A. 47. A. B. C. C. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. Because India was an amazing country. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. D. B. 50. 45. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. To visit some friends in Portugal. C. B. C. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. 49. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. A. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. B. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. 46. 48. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. B. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . A. D. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. D. To a particular holiday place in India. C. A. To spend her summer holidays abroad. as usual. D.

John. along . I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. How often . Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning. valuable C. there had been B. Have .the most highest D..the highest C. Have . during . En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco.been drunk 52. How much time . enseguida. should to C. o D. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. must to B.your friends 60. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. What a lot of D. A. it was 55. A. How long . How much 56. they were having D. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. What a few B How interesting C. ought to 59. hardest B. A.your family B.drink D. But I know it’s a very strong liquor. elija la alternativa A. better D. satisfactory 53. How many times – theirs C. most good 54. Jim.the higher 57.drunk A. before you’re leaving D. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. You are getting too fat. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 51. C. Do – drank B. in order to leaving C. before leaving B. there were C. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. since . hard enough D. A. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. B.B. would rather D. never. _____________ books you´ve brought with you.the high B.them D. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a A short course in english for adult students 283 . so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. for . Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. C. too good B. before to leave 58. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. too many C. José? No. Will .

friend who was in hospital. too much heavy C. A. has slept – already D.have talked C. was going to take .can see her . he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. the accident _____________. A. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. has decreased D.mustn´t be C. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A.see her C. in a year B. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. either as or C.was allowed 61.never was able to be B. could be prevented D.are talking B. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall.will never be 64. as B. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. Consequently. not heavy enough 68. don´t talk D.produce . whose . A. was sleeping – still C. are decreased . have been prevented . give the letter her D. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. had been taking – should D.had to C. could have been prevented 284 A short course in english for adult students C. who . John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them. A. slept – also B. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. so that D. The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday.. have been decreasing . had taken – must B.An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. A.Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. by the year C. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon.will see her B. for the year 66. give her the letter . which . whom . neither D. give the letter to her . both nor and 67. give to her the letter . A. in order to 70. would take . talk 69. too heavy D.are producing . A. very heavy B. are decreasing B. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. had been sleeping – yet 62.will produce C. for to B. a year D.am going to see her 65. A.will be producing 63.doesn’t have to be D. so to C. must have prevented B.

have been flying 73. some nowhere anywhere 78. It __________ here in a few minutes A. did D. At this time tomorrow. seldom use 77. He needed the answer urgently. were allowed to use D. When I was your age. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. what the young man was doing C.should be . will be flying D. would better B. so I sent him an email __________ A. are going to fly B. If I had had some extra money. yet . otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . still B. don’t contradict C. can B. at once C. what time was it exactly 72. used to play D. was playing B. Miss Jones? A. A.71. A. would have had C. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. all the same D. right now D. He may get angry and reprimand you. don’t you contradict D. You _________ do it right now. where did the people go B. went 74. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. suddenly 76. would rather 79. they _________ the old computer. had to C. Sir. enough B. are flying C. have used B. I think. For the time being. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. A. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . any D. I didn’t have___________ extra money. had played C. so I could go ___________ else.will be C. you don’t contradict B. A. ___________ him.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. A. do contradict 75. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. at all B. A. had better D. I would have visited some other places too. 80. too much everywhere somewhere C. are using C.Tom. why was sleeping the old man D.

A. quietly and secretly. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. 91. so he walked home. at once C. How long B. ought to stay D. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. was too very young 87. became accustomed to 82. D. was much too old B. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. got afraid of D. need to remain 85. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. How often D. punctually 90. fills C. and Bill didn’t. A. hates reading C. was too young C. John didn’t come to class today. very often B. What time C.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . have to be B. completely alone D. and Bill didn’t either. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. A. C. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. in the right way B. dislikes to read 83. No escriba en este cuadernillo. without anything to eat. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. would like to stay 84. prefers to read B. A. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. It’s too cold. How frequent 86. too. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.95. begins D. 81. refused to 88. 89. A. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. A. A. wasn’t allowed to B. from a distant place. wasn’t very old D. simply . and so did Bill. somewhere else C. but Bill didn’t also. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. becomes B. B. A. D. o D. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. B. got tired of B. B. I think the children would rather stay at home today. almost D. and neither did Bill. C. doesn’t enjoy reading D. A. A. didn’t want to C. became sick of C. obtains C. Elija la alternativa A. simply couldn’t D.

get a place D. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. “She’s still in the living-room. Carol. Because the boy was going with them as well. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. so you should not have any trouble. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. actually C. I won’t be able to attend the reception. he’s four years old. because it’s a nice city. D. 97. B. You can.” “He was looking at the television.” Mrs Soames said. A. o D. If the boy wakes up. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. and the television could just be heard. C. Because the boy was a newly born baby. B. He’s told me the same thing over and over. A. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. “He’s wide awake.What time do you think they will get there? A. She’s fast asleep!” 96. 98. They saw a program on television. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. leave the city C. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. que estime Ud. of course. underline B. D. He is too old and is losing his memory. They had some trouble with their baby. B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. C. What did the Soames do that evening? A. D. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. C. It’s on the table. B. A.” Mrs Soames said. A short course in english for adult students 287 .” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room. They went to visit some friends. from time to time B. consider C. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. only a few times 95. Because the boy was not in good health. “Make yourself comfortable. Please cross out my name. report 94.92. Before she left. Anyway. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. at present. es la más adecuada en cada caso. listen to the radio or watch television. C. He´ll go back to sleep at once. with some exaggeration D. a young girl of seventeen. The girl had never done baby sitting before. because the weather’s good there. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. leave out D. D. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. be in that town B. B. obtain a room C. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. 93. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. many times. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.

niece B. It was just before eleven. 109. glove E. sock C. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. faster D. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? (line 6) A. 110. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. decided B. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. 104. B. He will go to his bedroom again. shirt A. They were both in the living-room. well E.? (line 8) A. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. He will fall asleep again. B. month C. D. across D. 112. B. 113. C. juice D. however (line 3) 103. It was almost midnight. quickly A. 111. What is the meaning of “holding” A. tie D. happier E. It was only a few minutes past eleven. cotton E. their E. meat C. worse A. age C. careful C. He will feel sleepy. high E. Be careful with the neighbours. promised D.deep B. nephew D. C. obviously D. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. Don´t worry about anything. 114. of course. cousin A.butter B. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. ought D. sight C. No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106. throw C. planned. 107 108. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 4) A. day D. should E. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. 102. 115. left (line 10) C. his C. among B. narrow A.would B. looking at B. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A.our B. waking up C. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. behind A. could A. B. cheaper B. wide D. century E. He will go to his bed. 105. perhaps C. D. It wasn´t very late. rice A. C. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. D. aunt C. her D. clever C. B.99. C. along E. sun E.neck B. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. 100. mine A. by no means B. weak B. hour A short course in english for adult students . fast D. D. D. o E. 288 A. C. looking for D. (término excluido). slowly B. 101.

barber D. tired D. broke C.customer B. arm D. seen B. always E. A. sometimes D. often B. put E. made A. tailor C. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . butcher E. 118.116. real C. shut E. nose B. 120. forgot D. shoulder A. brought C. bought B. belt E. seldom A. 119. elbow C. grocer A. 117.

Bl 290 .

37. 46. 68. 59. 38. 56. 58. 55. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 63 64. 13. 47. 31. 33. 17. 41. 21. 2. 57. 7. 9. 44. 39. 66. 10. 35. 4. 60. 67. 69. 8. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 34. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 48. 32. 22. 23. 62. 65. 12. 43.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 30. 6. 29. 27. 45. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. LISTENING PART 1. 70. 28. 52. 25. 53. 11. 3. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 54. 42. 40. 20. 16. 19. 18. 49. 15. 5. 36. 14. 24.

119. 108. 105. 107. 120. 72. 87. 99. 94. 76. 80. 111. 98. 109. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 106. 110. 78. 83. 114. 97. 89. 79. 82. 86. 84. 102. 95. 104. 118. 77. 90. 73. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96.71. 88. 117. 103. 81. 93. 75. 85. 112. 115. 74. 100. 101. 113. 91. 92. 116.

0 D. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. oirá oraciones incompletas. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. John. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. Después de cada oración Ud. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. 2. Question: What did they A short course in english for adult students 293 . B. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning.15. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. 13. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 .Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. 14. Ud. o D. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. que la conteste en mejor forma. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. 9. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. En cada caso Ud.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. so he left the job for the following weekend. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. 6. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26.30. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. so she will have to call them again this afternoon.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. 16. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. Ud. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. deberá consignarla. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. Ud. 10. If you take a taxi. They went to the club instead. 5. 4. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. but Bill is two years younger.John was going to work in the garden that morning. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. you really don’t look well this morning. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. B. 3.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. Jack. 8. deberá elegir la alternativa A.Jack and Tom are the same age. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. 11. 15. C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. C. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . He is only ten at present. 12. 7. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23.

do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not fine, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oirá oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. He’d rather stay at home all day today. 32. He got used to living in this house after a few months. 33. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. 34. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. 35. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. 37. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. 38. It hardly ever snows in that region. 39. They used to repair cars in those days. 40. She did everything right away. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. En cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. “A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. I’m sure we can arrange something for you.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. “Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green,” he thought. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husband’s death, back in his office asking about holidays abroad. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. “How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... “ Mrs Green shook her head. “As a matter of fact,” she said, “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. However, at her age...” “India …” he said. “Well, yes. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. “How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. You’ll see the really important places - and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you,” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what 1 don’t want.” The travel agent looked puzzled. “Look,” Mrs Green went on. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here.” She waved it at him. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. What happened a few months ago? 46. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? 47. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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A short course in english for adult students

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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A short course in english for adult students

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day
(Yo escribo una carta todos los días;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.
(Mary escribe una carta todos los días)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.
(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.
(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning
(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.
(Yo escribí una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .
(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE

SIMPLE
A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow
(Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.
(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes
(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE
A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará realizando o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estará ocurriendo en un momento aún no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...o´clock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..o´clock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi_ at __t táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i_ at eit _é: rti _is ívni_ / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, I´m not. I´m studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. She´s reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Don´t worry,. It´s all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasn´t. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Detective: Peter:

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she it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). Do I speak with the manager .. I´m not going to speak with . several times a year.. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó o sucede en forma habitual..etc.? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow.. on May 4..B.. next Sunday. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day... often.. en el pasado.. next week.. el sábado pasado... next month.? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.... etc.etc. ten months ago. I will not speak with the manager.? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past. sometimes..... SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. in 1986. 1997.. Once a day. last week.? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow.. Will I speak with the manager. como mañana. seldom... como todos los sucedió en una fecha u hora determinada días.prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. That day. Two days ago...... twice a week.? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. usually.? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. every month. etc. etc. every week.. I do not speak with the manager.. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud.. etc.? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow. Did I speak with the manager.. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad . I ´m not speaking with . EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención. last night....... EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. etc Always... Am I speaking with . ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive....? 300 A short course in english for adult students .. Does Jane speak with the manager. el próximo sábado. last Sunday.. (con He. Am I going to speak with... I did not speak with the manager... Jane does not speak with the ... como ayer. etc... ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud... siempre. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói_ tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer .

My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . Did you go alone? No. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. We will go to Cancun again. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . When are you going to leave? Well. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. I didn´t. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. I went with some friends. He usually walks. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. We really had a great time there. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus.

. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. Just. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before.. Sir.yet. many times before.. not. before. never. I´ve come here three or four times... Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. She had never been in Paris before.. etc. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. never. I have never been there. Once. already .. we will have had lunch already. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd δ is mó:rniη / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.. since... He says it´s spectacular. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice.Several times. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week.C. Jackson has never travelled abroad.... lately. three times.. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai δ i énd ov δ is mánθ / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud.. twice.. By the end of this month / year.. Your train has just left. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired.etc.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. But one of my brothers has visited it several times. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know. continuado hasta este momento. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t. But I had never visited it in the spring. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . Mrs. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a realizarse Describe una acción que se realizó u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó: r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud.

Anyway.. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B... A short course in english for adult students 303 .. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March. Yes.... After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it.. I hope they take a stand and vote for it.. They´d been dancing and singing. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things.. In the meantime.. A.. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday.. It´s a shame! Well. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:iη sins iu: arráivd híar δis mó:rniη / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. I´ve been working on my thesis..... when S + Past Since. Mary: Yes.. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep.... desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:iη bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud.. we simply have to be patient and wait. since.. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A. and I have been studying for the final exams. Peter: You really look tired..D.. . PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning... antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:iη bai δi énd ov δis mánθ / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud..... / for. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. antes de una fecha futura. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning.. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera.. Peter: Yes. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. / for. continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since.. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month. It will all be over before the end of this month.

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