BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO

Este material ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el Personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las estructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal.

Con mucho afecto y gratitud a la querida Institución, que me ha permitido servir con entusiasmo y crecer profesionalmente.

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y la Escuela de Telecomunicaciones del Ejército de Chile. jmoyam@profing.tie.cl

Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual N° 151.465 I.S.B.N. N° 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar

INDICE
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• Prologo _________________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apendices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Prólogo
Prólogo El profesor Juan Moya Montaña me ha distinguido con la solicitud de prologar Structures and Vocabulary, texto de autoaprendizaje de gramática inglesa básica para adultos. Este manual forma parte del esfuerzo permanente del profesor Moya por contribuir al mejoramiento de la enseñanza de este idioma en el Ejército. El autor me concede la oportunidad de testimoniar mi reconocimiento y felicitarlo por su larga trayectoria como profesor vinculado al Ejército de Chile.* También, me permite hacerle llegar el sentimiento –y creo ser portador de cientos de integrantes de la institución– de profundo afecto hacia el comprometido teacher que, sacrificando horas de descanso, acudió en auxilio de tantos de nosotros cuando, con desesperación y a última hora, buscábamos incrementar nuestro nivel de inglés para cumplir alguna misión encomendada. Al respecto, permítaseme una anécdota. Ella no es sino un ejemplo –me atrevo a decirlo– de miles de vivencias que oficiales y cuadro permanente tuvimos para tratar de estar “a la altura”, poder entender y hacernos entender en un idioma extranjero; casi siempre en la víspera de una comisión de servicio o destinación que así lo exigía. Se vivía el mes de octubre de 1980 y el infrascrito –entonces mayor– recibió la orden de presentarse, ¡en una semana! (después se transformaron en 15 días) al curso de Estado Mayor en el Army War College de Pretoria, Sudáfrica, donde se suponía que las clases eran dictadas en inglés y en afrikaans. Esta designación cambiaba sorpresivamente mi destino a una unidad en Chile, luego de que mi participación en el curso de Estado Mayor en la Escuela Superior de Guerra de Francia fuera cancelada, debido al cese de los intercambios castrenses con dicho país. Ello, después de haber concluido –junto a mi compañero, el mayor Hernán Reyes– una metódica preparación en el idioma francés. Y aquí surge el reconocido rasgo de la personalidad del profesor Juan Moya. Enfrentado él a nuestra poca preparación y escaso tiempo disponible, se entregó de lleno y con entusiasmo a esta titánica tarea. Ésta consistió en clases diarias, donde el profesor Moya fue mi sombra; disparando verbos, haciéndome repetir pertinazmente cientos de palabras para aumentar mi vocabulario; exigiéndome el spelling de todo el abecedario, números y unidades de medida. Esto ocurría durante todo el día, en medio de entregas, cierre de oficina, firmas de actas y trámites para sacar pasaporte. Nunca podré olvidar esas cuatro últimas noches en que nos acompañó, a Isabel y a mí, desde las 9 de la noche hasta las 3 de la madrugada, impartiendo sus lecciones, haciéndonos preguntas a las cuales respondíamos encaramados sobre cajas, baúles y maletas. Si este relato no indica voluntad de servicio y entrega, creo que ningún otro podría reflejar ese espíritu de cooperación del distinguido autor y amigo. De esa traumática experiencia nació la decisión –con el gran apoyo de mis superiores, primero, y, luego, en el ejercicio de mis funciones como CJE.–, de buscar un cambio integral que permitiera a
* El Profesor Juan Moya Montaña fue contratado como Ayudante de Profesor para la Escuela Militar el 1 de marzo de 1970 y prestó servicios a la institución por 30 años en forma continua en el ya mencionado Instituto Matriz, en la Academia de Guerra y en el Comando de Institutos Militares.
A short course in english for adult students

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los oficiales y cuadro permanente del Ejército incorporar al inglés como un segundo idioma, exigible mediante un proceso regulado, que combinara el interés personal y el apoyo institucional para el logro del objetivo. Bien conocemos el sistema vigente que se orienta a tal propósito. Vayan aquí mis agradecimientos también a todos los que lo han construido; también a cuantos han debido “sufrir” el proceso. Sin duda, estos últimos, ahora se dan cuenta que han adquirido una herramienta básica en la formación de un profesional militar moderno. Con todo, no quisiera dejar la impresión que en el Ejército habría existido una despreocupación o falta de eficiencia en esta materia. Por el contrario, nuestros legendarios profesores de inglés, tanto de la Escuela Militar como de la Academia de Guerra del Ejército –Mr. Lühr, Mr. Clerc, Mr. Parada, Mr. Sepúlveda, y otros–, buscaban el mismo propósito. Y, por supuesto, obtenían resultados acordes a las horas, tiempos, sistemas e interés de los alumnos y de la institución por el tema. Lo que pasó fue que las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional al Ejército superaron el sistema vigente; pero no así la voluntad, vocación y entrega de esos ejemplares maestros. Tampoco, el permanente interés de la institución por el asunto. De allí surge la necesidad del cambio, conocido por todos, hacia la actual estructura de la Escuela de Idiomas del Ejército y la aplicación de un modelo educacional en la materia, que ya cubre varias lenguas (desde el inglés al chino mandarín, incluyendo también las originarias rapanui, mapudungun y aimara), donde nuestro personal se prepara sistemática y formalmente con una gran dosis de compromiso personal en esta tarea. Este libro, sin duda, contribuirá a formar parte de las múltiples variables que configuran este todo: la formación en idiomas extranjeros del personal del Ejército para capacitarlos al nivel que hoy exige nuestra profesión y las características de un mundo globalizado.

Juan Emilio Cheyre Espinosa General de Ejército Comandante en Jefe del Ejército

Santiago, enero de 2006.

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A short course in english for adult students

8. A short course in english for adult students 7 . 6. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. 7. 3. estudiar y estudiar. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. 5. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. 9. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. verbos. 2. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. etc. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos.). preposiciones. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. adjetivos. Leer. Estudiar las ilustraciones. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). 4. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad.

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How fast?. at night Noon / midday. at present. at this time.People • How much? How many? • Much. Whose?. last week / last year / last Monday. Past and Future) • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET • What?..Numerals. How big?. Past and Future) • SOME . ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?. very little. When?. TIME AND DATES • How old?. work. never. How thick?.. QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?. etc. etc. Where?. little. What?. books. In . a lot.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which • VOCABULARY: . the day before yesterday. How far?. Why?..Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . What color?. At. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening.Time expressions (I) . • VOCABULARY: . What size?. Until. For • Now. very few UNIT 3 • • • • • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I . That. etc. etc. quarter past / to. for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being. at the moment. students. every week.NO . How many?. How wide?. What kind of?. yesterday. How high?.NOT ANY . sugar. How old? How long? What time? • This. Who?. What time?. On. Once a day. the day after tomorrow. Why?. Countable nouns: people. tomorrow. water. often. etc.etc. many. midnight UNIT 4 • • • • • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE • Now. How often?... Always. A(N). • ARTICLES II . What is / are . How long?. three times a year.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . twice a week. milk. lots of. Which?. How?. How tall?. temporarily. sometimes. How? Whom?. like? For describing people and things. half past. O´clock. every month. generally. What sort of?. few. two days ago UNIT 2 • THERE TO BE (Present..TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 • TO BE (Present. usually. A short course in english for adult students 9 . today. How much?. Who?. Time and Dates UNIT 5 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. The .Clothes • • • • Every day. How long?. These. men.Adjectives • • • • • Uncountable nouns: money... Those. next week.

SO.Parts Of The Body .. somewhere. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. more intelligent than... etc..Food • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. at 10:30 last night.. a secretary. in the USA... NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: • Our Health • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. You may use the phone now. nothing... in North Carolina. NOT. nowhere UNIT 9 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO... etc. In Canada...EITHER. SOMETHING.. • It takes me 20 minutes to. not anywhere. etc.the shortest • Intelligent. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door.. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! UNIT 8 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who.. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now. professions. cities. • Bob can swim very well.. • How long does it take to. White. Dr. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. too / as well.. etc.. OUGHT TO • HAVE TO = TENER QUE • VOCABULARY: . Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow. • Mr. • He said that he was tired.. not anybody / not anyone. • What a tall woman!. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian.. streets. The man whose car is parked outside. Whom. • The boy speaks Italian. titles and ranks. = DEMORAR • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES • VOCABULARY: .... but the girl doesn´t.. Please.. please. the most intelligent • As fast as. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. don´t do that. 10 A short course in english for adult students ... • An American. SHOULD. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend.. He told me that he was tired. etc. This one is too old UNIT 11 • • • • • • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. • IT TAKES. etc. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. a Chilean. • Somebody / someone. • A doctor. / IT WILL TAKE. When Peter arrived this morning. countries and geographical names. nobody / no one... TOO. an Englishman.Nationalities.better . • Open the door. Scott..The house • At that time. something. an engineer. MUST. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. Jones. He speaks Italian. Cpt. in the West Indies. etc. UNIT 10 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN.. • On Fifth Avenue. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight.UNIT 7 • PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III . / IT TOOK. not anything. AS WELL. etc.. MAY... • Good .The City • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year.. etc..Time Expressions II • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. when they got married. Bob sent her some flowers. etc..? • Short .best.. In Salt Lake City. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS • VOCABULARY: ..shorter than.

once. harder. three times. not yet.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop A short course in english for adult students 11 . doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIT 12 • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND • VOCABULARY: . I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. Sooner. Verb + to-infinitive B.Sports and Recreation • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. for.before. already. never. day / days. carefully. brush / brushes.MAY. lately. hard. UNIT 13 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. etc. Fast. since. etc. ever Book / books. yet / already?. MIGHT. etc. earlier. etc.The Weather • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. did he? UNIT 14 • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” • VOCABULARY: . / CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . baby / babies.Nature • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. etc.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING . early. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. He cut himself. He will let them play He wants us to go. keep talking. twice. etc. go shopping. certainly. Go skiing. too I saw her crossing / cross the road. soon More quickly. more carefully. late. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: .Prepositions and Connectors • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain UNIT 15 • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . He himself did it. knife / knives. Verb + gerund / bare infinitive D. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing.

.The Armed Forces I • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 18 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE • VOCABULARY: . When I see her tomorrow..The Workshop • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired.The Armed Forces II • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes.. UNIT 17 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO • VOCABULARY: . UNIT 19 • REPORTED SPEECH A.UNIT 16 • FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN. QUESTIONS C. OR ELSE / OTHERWISE • VOCABULARY: .. • USE OF ELSE.Regular and Irregular Verbs • • • • He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping UNIT 21 • ASSESSMENT TEST • • • • Student’s Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teacher’s Text Script 12 A short course in english for adult students .. COMMANDS.. ORDERS • VOCABULARY: . Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. UNTIL. AS SOON AS. ETC. STATEMENTS B. or else I´ll miss my flight.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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Now /náu/ ahora. These /δí:z/ estos/as. Thanks /δæηks/ gracias. It´s. In /in/ en. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . This /δis/ este/a. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. On /on/ encima de. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. /its in δe gáridll/ It´s on the desk. they are. /its on δe désk/ They´re in the car park. /iés.) un/a. They´re. She´s. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. /áim fáin. Jones.it iz. /hí:z mátch béter. /δeir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz δis/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots δæt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r δí:z/. /δéir in δe ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. θæηks/ They´re very well. /δéir in δe læb/ I´m fine. It´s a pen /iés. At /æt/ en.IS .UNIT 1 PART I. Escuche. IS /iz/.) . They´re books. the students. it is. It is. We´re. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not. He´s. Jim and Tom. los. The /δe (antes de cons. Thank you /δæηk iu:/ gracias. Fine /fáin/ bien. δei á:r. δei á:r. /shi:z δe sékretri/ They´re Bob. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. You´re. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. they are. thanks. /δeir véri wél θæηk iu/ 2. the secretary. Those /δóuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. /δeir δe stiú:dents/ He´s at home.They´re cars. Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ Iam not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /δei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /δei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /δeir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . /δei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. its a pén/ Yes. the new instructor.. thank you. thanks. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. /hi:z δe niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. la. That /δæt/ ese/a. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r δóuz/. It´s a house. /iés. δeir búks/ Yes. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . θæηks/ He´s much better. δi/ (antes de vocal) el. Who are those men? /hú: a:r δóuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz δe ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz δe búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r δe ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r δe stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r δe tchíldrn/ It is a pen.δeir ká:rz/ He´s Mr.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /δéi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz δis a pén/ Is that a house? /is δæt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r δí:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r δóuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz δæt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z δæt wúman/ . Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. las. ARE /a:r/ 1.

John and Mary _____ good friends. Is that man Mr. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. (It´s not a pen. here /híar/ aquí. The men ______ tired. Are you in the office? 2. He isn´t very well._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. Escuche._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . He is not here /híar/.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. (It´s not a tank.) It´s a pencil. They aren´t in the lab. (armas-poderosas) 6. over there /óuver δéar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. Are we ready to go? 4. /pénsl/ No. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. ______ an undergraduate student. They aren´t there. Yes. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. there /δéar/ allí. Answer these questions. (They´re not books. He isn´t here.) They´re magazines. 7. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. 4. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent δei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt δis kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. /trák/ No.rent δei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. 9. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. he is. The train _____ ten minutes late. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. aren´t /á:rent/. 2. They´re tables /téiblz/. 2. they aren´t. isn´t /íznt/ .Escuche. They´re not there. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæηk/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. It isn´t a train. is not /iz nót/. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. 3. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. are not /a:r nót/. it isn´t. It´s not a train. (They´re not chairs). /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a káptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r δei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. (sala de profs. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. it isn´t. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. /mægazinz/ No. He´s not here. Are the students in class? 6.) It´s a truck. They are not there /(éar/ It is not a train. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. 8. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. Am I a good instructor? 5. 1. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r δei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. Clark? 3. 3.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. 5. They´re not in the lab. 10. He´s not very well. He´s a pilot. they aren´t.

The cat´s under the sofa 6. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . The children are tired 10. Your friends / from Canada 5. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. The course / interesting 4.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. 3. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. claras) 8. They´re books 3. How?. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. as in the example below: The Browns . Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. thanks 5. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1.Is Cpt. Where?. The pictures / clear (nítidas. Is the bank open? 10. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Who?. they are not. 4 Ask questions. The computer / connected to Internet 6.8. 5. The books are on the table 9. The manager / in his office 2. It´s a knife 2. Are your friends American? (British) 7. as in the example: It´s a plane. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. The children / in the playground. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. Peter and John / in class 3. 1. That boy´s my brother 8. It´s a chair 7. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. I´m fine.at home 1. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex.(patio) 9.

My name ______ Frank. 1.Ex. (pausa) This ______ Janet. I ______ an instructor. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/. Jim? I ______ here. Oh. she ______ ______. Mike Hello. How ______ you? I ______ fine. ______ you alone? No. That´s bad news. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . I ______ not. I ______ from Appleton. Sir. B. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. Jackson was here three weeks ago. 6. too. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Come and meet her. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary.WERE /wer/ 1. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Oh. thanks. She ______ my classmate . Hello. Hello. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /δei wé:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. in the library. Pleased to meet you. Wisconsin. Mr. She ______ from London. How ______ you? I ______ fine. That ______ very interesting. Peter. She ______ a new student. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ . ______ she single? No. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. I ______ ______. / méri woz δe bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. 18 A short course in english for adult students . Oh.WERE /wer/ I was /ai wóz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. I ______ with my friend Janet. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. I ______ glad to meet you. Hello. ¿Cuándo? Why? /wái/. ______ you a student here? No. Brown? I ______ American. The day before yesterday /δe déi bifór jésterdei/ anteayer Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. ¿Por qué?. Where ______ you from. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. /míster djækson woz híar θrí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). Jane. I´m glad to meet you. She ______ married. Where ______ you. la semana pasada Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días Yesterday /jésterdei/ ayer. Jack. /δei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr.

6.Why?. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . Escuche. 3. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. The secretary was busy at midday. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. 5. 2. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. How old. 2.M. 6. 4. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. 2. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. Tom was at home at midnight last night. but it ______ working well now. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. /δei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérkiη/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. Yesterday ______ Sunday. 5. 3. The weather was fine that day. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás δis mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at δis táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. 7. 3. 3. They were good friends at school. 2. Mary was late for the train this morning. 4. but they ______ at work yesterday. The men were tired after the long walk. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 6. Who? 1. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. 5. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking.Y. /dllón wóznt at hóum δis mórnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. How?. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. but he ______ much better today. 4. present or past: 1.2. Liz was in bed because she was sick. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. George was a little better this morning. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?. They ______ free today. John was in the car at that moment. Today ______ Monday. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche.

but he _______________________________________ next Monday. but it _____________________________________________ next month. /ai wil nót bí: bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. A short course in english for adult students . de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. 1.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. /δei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. 6.C. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. 3. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ellas será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. 2. John isn´t absent today. I am not in my office at the moment. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today. The weather was not very nice last month. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu lóη/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. but they _______________________________ next semester. serán / estarán) They will be /δei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. 5. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. /ái wil bí: véri bízi δis a:fternú:n/ . but he 1. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vnin/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil δe tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil δei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. It is not very cold now. We are not busy right now. The day after tomorrow /δe déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /δeil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. Escuche. They won´t be here all day.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. For /for/ por What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. 7. 4. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. Mr. bi: at δe mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil δei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu loη wil δei bí: in wóshiδton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. Escuche. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal.

Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. 4. in English. Where were you last weekend? 7. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. 11. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. It´ll be hot tomorrow. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. They will be in the next town before midday. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. 10. 3. 2. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. 7. The weather will be very nice this month. Answer the following questions. 6. 7. I´ll be in the first team. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. They will be here at ten-thirty. 5. 3. 3. 5. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. John will be in class today. Translate the following sentences into English: 1.When?. Mr. The program will be interesting. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. 3. Ella será una excelente secretaria. 13. How long?. 2. 7. 2. 4. 9. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. 9. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. 1. 1. When will you be on vacation again? 3. 5. I will be free next Tuesday morning. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. 6. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todavía. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 12.Ex.Why? How?. When is the next general meeting? 9. What time?. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. My friends will be here before 12. How are you today? 4. Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ¿Quién era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 2. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. Mary will be in New York next weekend. etc. Ask questions using Where?. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . 4. 5. 8. 14. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. 8. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. 1. 4. 6.

Escuche.Q .J .X . lea y aprenda: 1. P .X . B: Can you spell that.I .B .A 5.W .K .I .E .X . My last name is Vasquez.E . E .L .X .T .W .V -B 3.L . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.A .A . ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .A -E 2.G .K .Q .T . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.H . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.O .I .I .O .U . THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.U .F . 3.O .C .Y . 1.O . I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mánθ ái bó:t it at δe pí: éks/ B: No.S .I .P . /mái la:st néim is váskes.U .V .F .E .C .Q .I .K . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.PART II.R . 2. U .Z .A Ex. Tom works for IBM in LA. E .B .L .G .Y . ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.M .A .C .B .O .H . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1. please A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /θæηkiu:/ /kán iu: spél δæt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái bráδerz néim iz ignásio/ 2.O .Z . δæts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.G .B .X .G .N .F 4.Q .Y .r/ B: Last month.C .Y .I . J .W .A .D . 4.S .N .T .V .R .E .L .M .J .D .W .X . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.N .

FBI OK ITT a.D.C. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p. My name is JUAN. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /táηgou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iáηki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1. I spell: C as in Charlie. A as in Alfa. A. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B. 5. The commander´s last name is CLARK.m. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . L as in Lima.m. I spell: J for Juliett. U for uniform.Ex.

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? 4. When will you be free? 3.is . 3. 9. 13.. Clark. Is the manager in his office? 2...? 6.. am 9..are F: am ..were 3. he´s not.. Yes. 8... they are. The weather wasn´t .is 4. 10.. / Was Mary.? 5. How was George. 1. we are-We´re ready to go. 1....? 6. they´re not. Henry wasn´t . I´m hungry. They´re updated. I´m a army officer. 4. it´s not. When were the Smiths . Is the package light or heavy? 7. / Was Hernry. 2. 7..is 6. 2.... 6...Are J: am . Yes. I am. F: is . they´re not. Are the pictures clear? 8.? 3. / Were the men . 4..? C. Where are the cigarettes?. Yes. No.? 2... Yes. Yes.? 4.. / Will the program be.. Mary won´t be. This isn´t a very interesting book.is Ja: am . The men weren´t .. Who´s that woman? Ex.is Ex.are Ja: am B. They weren´t. How old was Mr Clark when.am J: is 2.. 1.. will be in the same class 2. The secretary wasn´t. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. It won´t be . 3.. are 5.. 9. He isn´t a doctor. No. Are your friends from Canada? 5.. he´s not.? 3. No... 1. Are the maps in the library? Ex. 1. They aren´t old.. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not .? 2. Mr Jackson was in the office all day.. 9.. they´re not. No.. We weren´t here last week. / Was the weather. 6. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. I´m in the office. is 2.. They´re in class..... What are these / those? 3.are 3. Is the course interesting? 4. Who´s that boy? 8. will be in my office 6. He´s at work.. How are you? 5. is 10. I´m not. 1. They´re young. 2. is 7. No. What´s this / that? 2.... Was .. No..? 4. / Will Mary be. 5. 1. I´m not thirsty.. It´s a modern plane. Where are your friends now? 4. They aren´t American.. / Will it be. It´s dirty. The program won´t be . 6. They aren´t angry. 1... it is.. they´re not. 5.... (open answers) Ex.is J: is . 8. 2. Why was Liz in bed? 4. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . Mary wasn´t . Those children are not very good students.. 2. It´s open. You´re a good instructor. They´re hungry..you are. 1.. Who was in the car.are R: am . it is.. When are they free all day? 11. 1.. 6.. 1. They´re sad.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. No. 2.. It isn´t clean. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . / Will John be ... he is. 1. Yes. Ex.. Who was here this morning? 5. 4. They aren´t happy. / Was the secretary . 3. 1. He´s Mr. will be very nice. are 4. will be at the meeting 7. 8.. I am.am 3. He isn´t at home. / Will I be ..? 5.? 2.was 4. Are . 5.R: is J: is . Is the computer connected to internet? 6. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. Was . Where´s the cat? 6. 3.? 3..am (pause) is . 1. Ex.. How will the weather be this month? 6.... Where was Tom at.. 10. 1. / Were they. Ex. Yes.. Ex... is 8. Is . He´s an engineer.are Ex. The reports weren´t ready yet. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning...No. Ex. At what time will they be here? 5. Who was that man? 12. She´s a secretary. Why will they be at home all day? 9. Are Peter and John in class? 3.. they are.was 7. will be very cold 4. 3. M: is P: is . she is. I´m not. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. My friends won´t be. will be absent 3... John won´t be. When will she be back in Chile? 8.? Ex. They were good friends at school. Yes.. What´s this / that? 7. Was . Ex. Was ..are 5..is 2. Yes.. 4. How are the children? 10.? 5. I won´t be.. No. 1. Yes. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex... They´re British. Were ... I´m not an navy officer. 5. are 6. Are the children in the playground? 9... 3. I´m hungry. Where are the books? 9. / Will my friends be. When will Mary be in New York? 7.? Ex.is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . will be very busy 5. 14.? 6.. 7.

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Is there a book on the desk? /íz δer e búk on δe désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz δer e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz δér éni wóter in δe glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r δer tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r δer éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). There is a book on the desk /δear íz e búk on δe désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /a:r δear éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . /δear a:r nóu tchéarz in δe rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. /δear á:rent éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. ha advertido. /δear á:r nóu trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz δearz éni wóter in δe glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . THERE IS /δear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. /δear íznt éni wóter in δe glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. There´s a lot (of ice). /δear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /δear á:r sam tchéarz in δe rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /δear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /δear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS .THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. /δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. EXISTIR) A. There aren´t any (chairs). THERE TO BE (HABER. /δear iz nót e búk on δe désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. There are no chairs. There are three (windows). /δear á:rent éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. se usa la contracción THERE´S /δéarz/. THERE ARE /δear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. en castellano. en el singular. /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /δéar íznt éni wóter in δe glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. There isn´t any (water). /δear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. / δéar íznt e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /δear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. Normalmente. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /δéar á:r sam trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. /háu match/ Como ud. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. There´s only one (door).PART I. There´s no water. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass.

There´s no water in that bottle. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. por lo tanto se omite. La expresión a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras much o many. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. /δéarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. There is a tree in the garden. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. /δéar íznt mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /δéarz e lót ov shúgar in δe bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /δéarz véri lítl wóter in δe glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. Normalmente el artículo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. . There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. MANY /méni/ muchos/as.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). /δéar á:r e lót ov buks on δe shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. very little money left in the box. There are many trees in the garden. 3. very few people at the conference.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. EXERCISES Ex. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. 2. only one student in the lab now. /δéar á:rent méni buks on δe shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz δéar mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r δéar méni buks on δe shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. There are flowers in the garden. /δear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. /δear a:r véri fiú: desks in δe rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. 1. 4.

ice in my glass. There´s a telephone in the room. 9. ___________________ 8. 3. a lot of mistakes in your composition. ___________________ 3. butter ________________ in the dish? secretaries____________ here? women ______________ in that group? men _________________ in the crew? (There are) 8. five or six. 10. There are some extra chairs in the room. of noise in this room. ___________________ 6. 5. There are very ______________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There´s very ________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ books in the school library. There´s some more coffee in the cup. two. 3. 6. four men. milk left in the bottle. some letters for you on the desk. 10. very few. 6. a lot. 4. a lot of work. ___________________ dictionaries (are there)? money ______________ ? doors ________________ in the lab? milk _________________ in the jug? video tapes ___________ ? work _________________ today? people _______________ in the room?.. 7. no more cassettes in the box. 5. Ex. 2. 2. ARE THERE? in the questions. 9. Change the following statements into the negative form. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. There are a lot of students absent.. Ex. 4. There are a lot of people in the room. 7. ___________________ 4. just a little. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. There are more than 10 students. There are 30 days in February. A LOT in the blank spaces. There are some students absent today. There´s central heating in the room. 3. There are 24 hours in a day. There´s some more meat in the fridge. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. FEW. 8.5. 1.. 6. 2. ___________________ 9..: (How many) 1. ___________________ 7. several helicopters in the airfield. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. 9. There´s some more money in my pocket.. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug..IS THERE? Or HOW MANY. 2. Complete the following questions and answers. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket.. There is another chair in that room There are some more books. ___________________ 5. A short course in english for adult students 29 . Use LITTLE. no milk in it. 10. 3. sir. ___________________ 10. 1.... 5. There´s a train for Paris in the morning... Use HOW MUCH. 7. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the Answers .. just one. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. There are more women than men. There are some more clean glasses. ___________________ 2. 8. 1. no time left. 4. Ej. 8. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form.

There weren´t many books on the desk. There were many people absent.THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /δear wóz/ / THERE WERE /δear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. /δear wóznt éni bíar in δe kæn/ No había nada de cerveza en la lata. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. of course) _________________________________________________________________________ 4. 10. It´s too sweet. /δear wé:rnt méni buks on δe désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. There are __________________________________ There are only a ____________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s just a ______________________________ of trees in that park. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /δear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /δear wé:rent/. Is there enough money for the trip? How many people are there on board? There isn´t much time to talk. 2. tickets available. 7. How much milk is there in the fridge? There aren´t many hotels in this town. Answer these questions. 6. 7. 8. B.5. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) _________________________________________________________________________ 6. 2. There are very few people in the pub. students absent from class today. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) _________________________________________________________________________ 2. 3. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /δear was e lot ov nóis in δe rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. Escuche. of sugar in my coffee. How many days were there in February that year? (29. whisky left in the bottle. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little. /δear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. of errors in my bill. Change into the Past Tense: 1. more than enough) _________________________________________________________________________ 5. 9. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes. 8. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes. 10. 1. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . lots of cars) _________________________________________________________________________ 30 A short course in english for adult students . 9. There are two books missing from the shelf. EXERCISES: Ex. not more than 30) _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Was there a TV in the room? / woz δear e tÍ: ví: in δe rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r δear atδe pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). There wasn´t any beer in the can. There´s a lot of work in the office today. it was a leap year) _________________________________________________________________________ 7. 6. Are there many errors in the bill? There´s very little whisky left. 5.

There is a lot of free time in the evening. 2. Escuche. There´ll be another meeting this evening. Change into the future tense. 2. 4.1. next time? very little food in the fridge now. 3. not any more exercises in the book now. There will not be another meeting this evening. 1. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /δearl bí:/. Escuche. 4. How many women ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How much free time __________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How many students ___________________________ ____________________________________________ at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil δear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. 6. 1. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. very few flowers in our garden. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. 6. /δearl bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ . 7. /δear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil δear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: δis í:vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil δear bí. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. in your class last year? much milk left. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 5. Ex. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. 1. several trees in the park now. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /δear wil bí: e veri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunaít/. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. 10. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 31 . /δear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . 3. /δearl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. 5. 5. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/ En las preguntas. There will be two more tests next week. 7. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. 2. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. 9. 8. 3. 3.C. a lot of noise at the disco last night. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. /δear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. Just one or two bottles. There are some women at the meeting. Past or Future). En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. /δear wil not bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ There won´t be two more tests next week. 4. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /δear wil bí:/.

3. 5. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. 10. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. __________________________________________ No. 5. 7. 4.. 4. 1. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your office? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 12. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 8. __________________________________________ Yes. 11. 9. No hay tiempo para conversar. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . __________________________________________ No. ¿Cuánto s autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 8. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. 8. 9. 6. Answer these questions in English. 7. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. 2. 10. 4. 5. 3. 7. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 6. 2.6.

875 g) 148 n) 5. 463. Ej. million y billion no van seguidas de and. NUMBERS Escuche. las palabras thousand. US$ 4. el punto es coma y la coma es punto.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred θáuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú hándred/ 2.000. 21.000 one thousand /uán θáuzand/ 200. 32 thirty-two.973 f) 28 m) 256. 12. 68 sixty-eight. 45 fortyfive.. twenty-one.000 two million /tú mílion/ 5. three hundred and eighty-seven. 5. 400 four hundred.80 Ex.000 three million. two hundred and sixty-five. 94 ninety-four. thirty.5% .394 e) 33 l) 24.387 five thousand. 3. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5.45 km.687. Las palabras hundred.000..265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand.” Ej. Al escribir cifras en inglés. Ej. 2. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv θáuzand θri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45. 70. Ej.285 d) 94 k) 6. 4. Las palabras hundred.971 forty five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv θáuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. 5. 365 three hundred and sixty-five.000 five thousand.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 . para indicar lo mismo que “lots of.PART II. 3. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.365. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. Las palabras twenty. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstín/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntín/ 30 thirty /δérti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /δri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /δertín/ 18 eighteen /eitín/ 40 forty /fórti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtín/ 19 nineteen /naintín/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftín/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. forty.000 two thousand /tú θáuzand/ 2. thousand. Ej.

niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad.papi mamá. niños 34 A short course in english for adult students . mujer padre madre hijos. mommy /mam.law /fá:δer in ló:/ mother-in-law /maδer in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /bráδer in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:δer/ step-mother /step máδer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step bráδer/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:δer/ foster-mother /fóster máδer/ god-father /god fá:δer/ god-mother /god máδer/ papá. marido esposa.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE GENERAL person /pε:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /gε:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfa:δer/ grandmother /grandmáδer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:δer/ mother /máδer/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /bráδer/ sister /síster/ uncle /áηkl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. dædi/ mom. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny /græni/ father-in. personas niño/s. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman /dlléntlman/ lady /léidi/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero dama chicos. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persona gente. daddy /dæd.

.? 7.. There are 4..? 6. No.... There are 5.. Is there a train.. there were lots of cars.... How many. are there.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A. There isn´t a.? 2. / There´s no more. there are no spelling mistakes. 1. 7.? 4.. There was very little free time during the morning... 2. How much money will there be. 3...? There´s.. There aren´t many... computers. A short course in english for adult students 35 .. Yes... 5..? 10.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora. There wasn´t. Ex.There aren´t any extra.... 1. Ex.. are there. C. There isn´t much. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10... few 2. 3. 10.people. 1. 4.. How many. 1. 12. There are Ex.were there 10. There are seven days. There weren´t.. / No... There is 8.... ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2... How much money is there in the wallet? 5..? There´s.. 4. There aren´t many. Are there more. Yes. 3. Will there be 5. 1.. There´s a lot of noise in this room now. 6. a lot 5... There were very few children in the street that day. 4.Is there a restaurant near here... There won´t be another concert until next week. There isn´t Ex.? Thre are.? There´s. Ex. 2.. 3... Ex. 2. 1. are there? There are..... students. Were there.. There will be some. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6.? There are.. 9.. Ex. How many people were there. 1.. There isn´t much money in it. is there.. 7.. 3.. There weren´t many people in the building at that time... a lot 6. 5. 10. 2. There was 8. 8. There were only two hotels in that town... Ex. No... there weren´t more than 30 3.. There was very little.There are 10.? There are....... 9. 5. There aren´t any more.. Were there 2. Will there be more than. How many people will there be.. Sólo una o dos botellas.. Are there any more. 1.. 1.. There are 7.. There are 2. 1. There is no time to talk. How many. little 4. Are there more than. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. There weren´t any 6. 6.. little B. 11. 3.. 4. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. How many.. There´ll be 28 days. Is there a hotel.. There´s just one / There are. How much. are there... How much milk was there. there was more than enough... there won´t be another meeting 7.? There´s. is there. Ex... is there? There´s..? 6. 2. are there.... There will be another general meeting next Friday... There were 29. There is 4. 8. There are twelve eggs. No hay mucha leche sobrante.. 10.. / There are no more. 1. 2. 5. There are 7. there was a lot of work.. 8... 8. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. There´s no central. are there..... There were about 20 .... 9. 8. 4. 9. There are 9. There isn´t any more. 9.. 3. of course.. is there. there aren´t any.. There are 9... Is there any more. How much. 4. How much.. There was. 7. 2.? 9. Is there much free. Ex. few 8. There´s 6.? 5. little 3.... 6.? 10. There were. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4.. 3.? 7. There were.. / There are no extra. There isn´t any more. Will there be any. There was.. 1.? 8..? 6.... There´s 3. Is there another..? Ex. Was there enough. 5.. Yes. There won´t be any. No. There were. a lot 10. a lot 9. How much. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.. 2. 2. 4.. few 7. 4....? 7.. There is 3. 5. Are there 24. It was a leap year.... 3. There were..... / There´s no more. 1.? 4. 7. 2. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. How many.. 5.? Ex. 1. There will be a lot.? There are. 1. Are there any students. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8... There is 6... There aren´t 30..? 5. How many. 6..? 3.

nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 1. 36 A short course in english for adult students . eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million. three hundred and twenty-eight. Ex. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand.Part II.

./ They have not got a big house.. I´ve only got 5 dollars. /pí:ter haz not gót. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /δéi hav gót/ Escuche. /mai dóg haz gót loδ íarz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) The rooms have got central heating. (of friends) No. /mai dóg haz not gót. /pí:terz gót. /δei hávent got./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche. I haven´t got one ( one = a car) Yes./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót. /δei hav not gót. he´s got a lot. /ai hav not gót. (ones = ears) No. they haven´t got one. /δe rú:mz hávent gót... 2. Yes. He´s got one sister and two brothers. /δeiv gót. /ai hávent gót. lea y aprenda: I have got a car. A short course in english for adult students No. They´ve got a small one.. /pí:ter házent gót... lea y aprenda: I have not got a car.UNIT 3 PART I.../ They haven´t got a big house.. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) Peter has got many friends.... lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót./ Have they got a big house? /hav δei gót./ They´ve got a big house./ The rooms haven´t got central heating. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´T GOT /hδvent gót/ y HASN´T GOT /hδzent gt/ Escuche.. I´ve got very little (money). Hans ____________________________ long black hair .. It´s got very long ones../ Peter hasn´t got many friends... it has. But they´ve got a radio. tenemos) (uds. they haven´t.. significa TENER.... /mai dóg házent gót.. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos) They have got a big house.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1.. /δe rú:mz hav gót séntrl hí:tiδ/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /δéiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos./ My dog has not got long ears.../ I haven´t got a car. /mai dógz gót../ My dog hasn´t got long ears./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex. /δe rú:mz hav not gót . tienen) (ellos tienen) I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ Peter´s got many friends..r/ Peter has not got many friends.. 37 . HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad. /δei hav gót e bíg háus/ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) My dog has got long ears../ The rooms have not got central heating./ My dog´s got long ears../ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav δe ru:mz got../ Has the dog got long ears? /haz δe dóg gót../ En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT. John _____________________________ a new uniform.... es decir.

They ´ve got very little free time. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. 7..? / HOW MANY. A car has got four wheels . 2 Change into the negative form 1. 3. The house has got a garden. three children. Ex. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. My father´s got a modern car. 7. 8. Have you got a big library at home? 9. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. four wheels. You´ve got a lighter. They´ve got a lot of friends there. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. I´ve got three children. Ex. 200 pages.. 3. They´ve got our telephone number. 10. 9. Bob´s got five dollars. Nancy´s got a computer. 6. 4.? 1. Bob´s sister has got a car. 10. You´ve got many things to do today. 8. My friends have got a telephone. a son and two daughters. The soldiers ______________________ We ______________________________ The book _________________________ I ________________________________ Mary _____________________________ My friends ________________________ My flat ___________________________ The car __________________________ a very good instructor. How many children have you got? 3.. two bedrooms. The students have got some experience. They´ve got a big family. The students have got a new instructor. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. 5. 4. 6. 4. 5. I´ve got some cigarettes. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. Ex. 9. The boy has got black shoes. You´ve got your passport here. 7. 2. 9.3. a small house in the country. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. We´ve got a small classroom. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. The flat has got two bathrooms. 7. 6. 8. They´ve got two cars. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. a lot of money. 3. 5 Answer these questions: 1. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 2. 10. 5. 5. Bob´s got our address. Have you got a computer at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 A short course in english for adult students . 6. 4. 2. Bob´s got a big family. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Bob´s got some money. a new blue dress.

pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. plural. /δis iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). /δæts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). Ej. This is an apple. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /δis iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /δis iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A five-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers 2. He is an honest man. The men are very tall. The woman is very tall. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. /δéarz a ká:r in δe strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). That´s an orange. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. /δis iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. This is an old car /δis iz an ´pl/ óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). Además. los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. This is a one-way ticket. Ej. /δi:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). altas. no específico. ADJECTIVES En inglés. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. son invariables. la los.PART II. masculino o femenino. An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B. The man is very tall. /δis iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). Ej. several /séveral/ (varios/as) o many /méni/ (muchos/as). En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). /δæts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). The women are very tall. Ej. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. Ejemplo. There´s a car in the street. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. alta. The books are old. Those are animals /δóuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). There is a book on the desk. The book is old. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. Those are trees /δóuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). Compare: This is an orange. That´s an animal /δæts an æ ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). There are several books on the desk. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. That is a tree /δæt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). /δis iz an æ (Esta es una manzana). El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. These are houses. altos. This is a book. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. A. Por lo tanto. EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as). determinados. ARTICLES (I) 1. This is a house /δis iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). todos los sustantivos actúan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. That´s a girl. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante.

25. 4. There is a student in the laboratory now. 14. use some. 13. 10. 22. 7. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. 11. This boy isn´t a new student. 21. They´ve got a horse on the farm. 10. 3. 9. 18. 32. 9. 13. 30. 13. 6. 14. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. 15. 3. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. 19. Smith. 5. 6. 20. 6. Mr. 23. 31. 2.Exe. 8. There´s a woman in the office. 2. 28. 24. 1. 29. 12. 14. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? There´s a yellow flower in the garden. 26. Change the following sentences into the plural. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. 5. 7. 5. Change these sentences into the plural. Use the indefinite articles a or an 1. There is a new student in this class. 4. 11. There was a car accident last Sunday. 9. 2. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . That is a picture This is a car. 8. 3. The student has got a new notebook. There is a letter for you. 2. 12. 12. There will be an interesting program tonight I´ve got a question for you. 4. 1. Please show me a photograph. They´ve got an interesting book in the library The boy´s got a book in English. 16. 7. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I haven´t got a cigarette. 10. This is an interesting novel. 8. There´s a tree in the garden. 27. 11. many or several 1. Peter´s got a new pen. Is this an envelope? That man isn´t a teacher. There´s a text book on the teacher´s desk. 15.

04:00 p. /pii em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . EXERCISES Ex.PART III. It´s twenty past twelve 10. It´s five past seven 8. 07:00 p. em/ It´s four o´clock p. L. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. D. 10:00 p. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. It´s half past eight 9. J. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. It´s a quarter past two 3. It´s twenty to one 2.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche.m. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. /pii em/ It´s seven o´clock p. F. /pii em/ It´s ten o´clock p. It´s five to nine 5. de 13:00 . C. H. E.m. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ (en la mañana. It´s a quarter to ten 11. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1.m.m.m. de18:00 .m. K. It´s ten past three 4. G. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde.m. It´s ten to five 6. B. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7.m. I. /ei. please? /wóts δe táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. It´s twenty-five past six 12. 1.17:00) in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ (en la tarde / noche. /éi ém/ p.m. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A.m.

15.m. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . Write down the times and read: What time is it? What´s the time? 1. 8. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:00 p. 6. 23. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:00 p. 5.m. 11. 4. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:00 a. 3. 12. 19.m. 21.Ex. 13. 7. 16. 2. 9. 2. 22. 17. 14. 24. 20. 18. 10.

impar (números) viejo satisfecho. grey /grei/ purple /pε:rpl/ pink /piηk/ dark blue /dá. agitado triste agudo. bajo de estatura tonto. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /loη/ narrow /nárrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /δik/ thin /δin/ thirsty /δ:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /roη/ young /jaη/ SPANISH tarde. sensato maravilloso equivocado. gordo tonto. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. insatisfactorio bonito rico. atrasado flojo claro. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo.derecho tosco. It´s blue.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . estrecho nuevo bonito. no plano temperado ancho. puntiagudo corto. leso libre. fijo. sano pesado. dificil esforzado saludable. leso. sick /il. orange /órindll/ gray. enojado malo grande romo. agradable raro. amplio sabio. incorrecto joven COLO(U)RS What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. par (números) caro rápido. white and red. completo bueno feliz duro. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. adinerado correcto. gratis lleno. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. brusco.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES ENGLISH angry /ægri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /kεrvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /ε:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd we:rkiη/ healthy /hélδi/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /háηgri/ ill.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. fome temprano. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro.liviano largo angosto. sik/ interesting /íntrestiη/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. precursor fácil vacío parejo.contento pobre.

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Ex. They´ve got some interesting books.. Have they got our. an 7. It´s quarter to two 18. a 14.? 8.10 D ... 13... / I´ve got no cigarettes 7. I haven´t got any cigarettes. My father hasn´t got a. Have they got a. 1. an 8. a Ex.? 5. It´s five past nine 7..4 G .. She hasn´t got blue. an 30. Have the students got a.? 2. a 27. How many cars have they got? 2.. It´s quarter to twelve 5. These are interesting novels 10. 6. 1. Have you got your. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7.? Ex. a 10. It´s twenty-five past five 20. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14. 3.? 7. 1.. an 3.. 6. 9.2 E . an 16. Please. (open answers) Part II. 1. a 31. 1. These are cars 3. There are several letters.. There were several car accidents.a 23.. I´ve got some coins. an 13. 2. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23..... Has Bob got our.. The students haven´t got any experience.. 10. a 2. I´ve got several questions. 8. 11. 2.5 I . 3. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9. an 6. Those men aren´t teachers 5.6 Ex.? 6. It´s five past ten 17.11 L . a 19.. 1.. 1. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13.... It´s nine o´clock 2.. The student has got some new notebooks 14. Nancy hasn´t go a.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. 1...? 9.. a 21..7 F . 9... a 15. 13. Bob hasn´t got a. 5. 1. Part III. It´s quarter past eight 21. an 32.12 J . I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. There are some trees.10.3 H . It´s forteen minutes past ten 8.... / The students have got no experience. 5.. We haven´t got a.. These boys aren´t new students 9. 7. an 5. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24. show me some photographs. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15.. Have you got many.. My friends haven´t got. an 22. a 20. How much free time have they got? Ex.. Ex.. a 18.. There are some new students. Has Bob got any money? 3... Ex. 4. 2.. The boy has got some books. It´s half past three 4..? 4.. an 28. a 29... has got Ex.. have got 5. It´s twenty-five past three 14.. 7.? 10. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11. a 9. has got 8..F. Ex. I´ve got friends in S. It´s half past eleven 19. Are these envelopes? 4. Has Bob´s sister got a. Those are pictures 2.an 4. It´s twenty-five to five 22. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. 1. Have you got a. There are yellow flowers. has got 2. It´s three minutes to three 10. It´s twenty past three 16. 3.. an 26. 8.. B. Has the boy got black. It´s ten to nine 3. Peter´s got new pens 8. A . a 24.. 6. 2. an 12. There are many women. How much money has Bob got? 5.1 K .4. has got 3. They´ve got horses. 3. has got 10. a 11. have got 9. a 25. The house hasn´t got.. There will be many new students.. 15. has got 6. There are many students. Are those women nurses? 11.. have got 4. Are those men engineers? 12. It´s quarter past one 6. 1...a 17. have got 7. 12.. 5.They haven´t got many friends. I´ve got several magazines. There are many text books. 2. How many wheels has a car got? 4... How many children have you got? 3.9 B .. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 .8 C . 4...

Bl 46 .

/hé:rberts hæviν lántch at δe móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at δis táim/ (a esta hora).parar) To swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sítiη/ (sentándose) cutting /kátiη/ (cortando) stopping /stópiη/ (deteniendo. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE.Y. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. AT THE MOMENT /at δe móument/ (en este momento). Mary is not working in Room 10 now.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. I´m living with my brother John. They aren´t living in New York at present.. actualmente). Mary´s not working in Room 10 now. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. Hay tres grupos de verbos. Escuche. en la actualidad).UNIT 4 PART I. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo.transitoriamente). El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:kiη/ (hablando) eating /í:tiη/ (comiendo) working /wé:rkiη/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. I´m not living with my brother John . /δéi a:r liviη in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. /for δe táim bí:iη áim lívin wiδ mai bráδer dllón/ (Transitoriamente. FOR THE TIME BEING /for δe táim bí: iδ/ (mientras tanto. I am not living with my brother John. They´re not living in New York at present. /mériz wé:rkiη in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. + vocal + cons. For the time being. Este sufijo se pronuncia /iη/ . lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. Escuche. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /líviη/ (viviendo) writing /ráitiη/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ (sentarse) To cut /kat/ (cortar) To stop /stop/ (detener. parando) swimming /suímiη/ (nadando) to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /ráit/ (escribir) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. +cons.

etc. 1.IS. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. When.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo .. How often. The children are playing soccer. Where. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. arreglar/arreglando/fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. Escuche. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: iη/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex.ARE) con el sujeto. Escuche. Escuche. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. tocar/tocando (un instr. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseriη/ arriving /erráiviη/ asking /á:skiη/ asking for /á:skiη fo:r// buying /báiiη/ closing /klóuziη/ coming /kámiη/ cutting /kátiη/ doing /dú:iη/ drinking /dríηkiη/ driving /dráiviη/ drying /dráiiη/ eating /í:tiη/ finishing /fínishiη/ fixing /fíksiη/ giving /gíviη/ going /góuiη/ helping /hélpiη/ inviting /inváitiη/ learning /lé:rniη/ leaving /lí:viη/ listening to /lísniη tu/ living /liviη/ looking at /lúkiη at/ making /méikiη/ opening /óupniη/ paying /péiiη/ playing /pléiiη/ putting /pútiη/ reading /rí:diη/ receiving /risí:viη/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´T/AREN´T delante del sujeto. pedir/pidiendo. How.

contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réiniη/ running /rániη/ saying /séiiη/ selling /séliη/ sending /séndiη/ singing /síηiη/ sitting /sítiη/ sleeping /slí:piη/ speaking /spí:kiη/ spending /spéndiη/ starting /stá:rtiη/ staying /stéiiη/ studying /stádiiη/ taking /téikiη/ talking /tó:kiη/ telling /téliη/ thinking /θíηkiη/ travelling /træveliη/ trying to /tráiiη tu/ waiting for /wéitiη fo:r/ walking /wó:kiη/ washing /wóshiη/ watching /wótchiη/ wearing /wéariη/ working /wé:rkiη/ Writing /ráitiη/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. 2. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 .comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:diη létez/δe niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rkiη in δi ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:kiη wiδ fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:viη δi ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:iη δe shópiη/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báiiη δe péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchiη tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísniη tu δe niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráitiη tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóliη áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléiiη kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:kiη tu δe pa:rk/ Running across the park /rániη akrós δe pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:iη éksersaiz/ Working out /wérkiη áut/ Visiting a museum /vízitiη a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádiiη for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshiη δe ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíiniη δe háus/ Making the bed /méikiη δe béd/ Tidying up the room /táidiiη áp δe rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúkiη a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéariη sam dríηks/ Going to bed /góuiη tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gétiη ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hæviη e ba:θ/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /gétiη drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hæviη brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góuiη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráiviη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. Escuche.

using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. 10. 3. The girl´s washing the dishes. The children are watching TV 2. Bill´s answering the phone. Mary´s eating an apple now. 1. 11. 3. I´m helping John with the work 5. 10. (listen) The students _________________________ to school now. 6. (visit) The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. 5.The men are running now. 8. (go) Mr. 8. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. (wait) For the time being. (cut) There are several students in the gym. Complete the following sentences. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. John and his friends are watching TV. 3. 10. The dog´s drinking milk. I´m answering a letter. The cadet´s sleeping in class. 9. We´re making a lot of progress. He__________________________ the grass. 12. John´s having breakfast now. Ask questions using questions word like What. 7. etc. 7. The students are writing a composition. 11. (do) They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. 9. George is travelling by plane. 5. 12. 5.Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 6.I´m trying to open the window. 4. (arrive) You ___________________________ the exercises well now. 11. (work). 12. I´m singing because I´m happy. 9. 1. 7. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. 4.They´re looking at the horses. 4. The students are reading a story. They´re living in Bristol at present. It´s raining very hard now. (spend) Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) There´s a man in the garden. The boy´s singing an English song. You´re doing the exercise correctly. Why. 6. 4. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 3. Where. 2. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. 8.

I ___________ (go) there. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. you know. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. And Jim´s in his room. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep).Ex. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. 6. 3.then. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. let´s go for a walk. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. he isn´t. of course! Robert : Well. too. He ____________ (study) for a test.. No. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. And Betty´s in the kitchen. He ____________ (sleep). I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. A short course in english for adult students 51 .

The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:rθei is on δe tuénti fífθ ov dllú:n/. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. A. θáuzand tú:/ o también. θáuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. Spring /spriη/ Primavera. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /manθ/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on δe fiftí:nθ ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. May the first. two thousand two /δe déit tudéi iz wénzdi δe fé:rst ov méi tú. Summer /sámer/ Verano. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. Los números ordinales son: 1st. o también. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /δérzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. on August the fifteenth.PART II. se usan para expresar fechas. Wednesday. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. The months of the year are: January /dlláñiuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. o también. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /θé:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:rθ/ 5th Fifth /fifθ/ 6th Sixth /sixθ/ 7th Seventh /sévenθ/ 8th Eighth /éitθ/ 9th Ninth /náinθ/ 10th Tenth /ténθ/ Escuche. nineteen seventy-five /on ó:gast δe fiftí:nθ náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mánθs/ in a year. on June the twentyfifth /on dllú:n δe tuénti fífθ/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilévenθ/ Twelfth /tuélfθ/ Thirteenth /θe:rtí:nθ/ Fourteenth /fortí:nθ/ Fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ Sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ Seventeenth /seventí:nθ/ Eighteenth /eití:nθ/ Nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ Twentieth /tuéntieθ/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti θé:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:rθ/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fífθ/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síksθ/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti sévenθ/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éitθ/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náinθ/ Thirtieth /θértieθ/ Thirty-first /θé:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . two thousand two /wénzdi méi δe fé:rst tú. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday.

as in the examples: 1.05.2000 01. 13.09.1999 08.1978 12.2001 18. Write the following dates. 16. 8. 6.1987 02.1906 18.30. 12. 2.12.1956 The twelfth of September. 3.12. 7. Answer the following questions: 1.1900 10.01.1963 05. 13.02.03.1492 07.11. 14. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 14.09.07. 12. 4. 9.1956 10.28. 8. 3.27. 12.EXERCISES Ex. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth. 2. 10. 10. 11.08. 15. 5. 1. 9. 4. 5.1938 02. 11. 6.1810 05. When is your birthday? When was your father born? What day is today? What´s the date today? How many days are there in a week? What are the seasons of the year? What´s your favo(u)rite season? What are the days of the week? What are the months of the year? What´s the first month of the year? What´s the third day of the week? What´s the last month of the year? How many months are there in a year? How many hours are there in a day? When is New Year´s Day? When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .1893 04. 7.

.? /háu wel/ How heavy. How high is that hill? It´s about 1..láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. 1.. long. shallow /shálou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche.) para describir objetos.altura size /saiz/ tamaño. etc. Iz /a:r. big /big/ grande tiny /táini/ diminuto. square /skwear/ cuadrado. Nota importante: Como Ud.... talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. young /yaη/ joven old /ould/ viejo. oval /óuval/ ovalado heavy /hévi/ pesado. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km. thin /θin/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante.like?* /wot. new /niú:/ nuevo long /loη/ largo. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt.B.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /θik/ grueso. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were..70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu lóη/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu f(st/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu (ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big. light /láit/ liviano 54 A short course in english for adult students . viejo.200 mt. habrá advertido. huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /ráund/ redondo. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /leθ/ longitud width /wiθ/ anchura thickness /θiknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /depθ/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura.. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm.... nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.? /háu big?/ How well. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho.. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt.

000th 1. Days of the week Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /θε ´:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ εrdi/ ´t Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo segundo minuto hora día semana month /mánθ/ season /sí:zon/ year /yíar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS first /fε:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /θε:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:rθ/ cuarto fifth /fifθ/ quinto sixth /siksθ/ sexto seventh /sévnθ/ séptimo eighth /éitθ/ octavo ninth /náinθ/ noveno tenth /ténθ/ décimo eleventh /ilévnθ/ décimo primero twelfth /twelfθ/ décimo segundo thirteenth /θε:rtí:nθ/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:nθ/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:nθ/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:nθ/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntieθ/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fε ´:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /θε θ/ ´:rtie trigésimo thirty-first /θε fε ´:rti ´:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtieθ/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftieθ/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstieθ/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntieθ/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitieθ/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintieθ/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándreθ/ centésimo one thousandth /wan θáuzndθ/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílionθ/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES 1. Units of time second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2.000.000. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000 one thousand /wan θáuznd/ mil 1. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 2 two /tu:/ dos 3 three /θri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho 9 nine /nain/ nueve 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /θε:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /θε ´:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /θε wán/ ´:rti treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1. temporada año siglo Nota: En Inglés.

Months of the year January /dllániuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre verano otoño winter /wínter/ spring /spriη/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . 2001 (the second of May. 2nd May. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth.3. Dates Today is Monday. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. Seasons of the year summer /sámer/ autumn /fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ 4.

Where are they living at present? 4. July the second. are speaking 11. two thousand one 7.. eighteen ninety-three 11. The eighteenth of September.. 3... is coming 10. September.? Ex. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. You aren´t doing the exercises.. forteen ninety-two 14. Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7.. nineteen thirty-eight 3. is arriving 7. is working 5.? 10.. February the twenty-eighth. It´s on.. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6.The first month of the year is January 11.. The months of the year are January. The twelfth of March. two thousand 6.. Thursday. August the twenty-seventh. 1. Hans: are . is cutting 12. 4. Why are you singing? 10. am listening 2.3. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. June.? 9. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2.. November and December 10. August. The date today is.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . The seasons of the year are Winter.. nineteen eighty-seven 12. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. Wednesday. nineteen oh six 4.going Hans : am going / are .. nineteen fifty-six Ex. / Am I helping John. May... New Year´s day is on the first of January.. Why isn´t he working? 8. The second of November. The last month of the year is December 13. 1. 8.. February. 1. / Is the cadet sleeping. He was born on..studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning ... are going 3. Friday. eighteen ten 8. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. Jane: is .. Today´s.. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth. are spending 9. / Is it raining. It isn´t raining. The days of the week are Monday.. Tuesday. What are they looking at? Ex. What´s Mary eating now? 2.. There are twelve months in a year 14. 6. April.? 5.. 5. is waiting 4. The boy isn´t singing. are doing 8.. 1.driving Bob: are fising 2. / Are you doing the exercises. Saturday and Sunday.. The tenth of August. 16. How´s George travelling? 7. A short course in english for adult students 57 . October. October the twelfth. The fifth of December.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex.. July. 4. are working out Ex. The fifth of May. 5.. The cadet isn´t sleeping. I´m not helping John. nineteen fifty-six 13.. March. / Is the boy singing. nineteen hundred 5. / Are the students writing. What are John and his friends doing? 3.? 7.. 9. 2. 1.. are visiting 6. 2. The students aren´t writing. is my favority season. There are seven days 6. 1. The eighteenth of July.. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. What are you doing? 5. What are you trying to do? 12.. What are the men doing now? 11. nineteen seventy-eight 9.. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12.? 8. 3. What are the students reading? 6. 2. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3.. The first of January.

Bl 58 .

seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . never /néver/ (nunca). twice /twáis/ (dos veces). -x. etc. /bób wóshiz δe ka:r on sæ ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. You and I. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. do. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. The students. o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. /ai ófn sí: méri at δe kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). does /daz/. /wi: góu tu δe bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. etc. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. /hi: spí:ks spánish and ínglish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bién) The secretary answers the telephone. /δéi ólwiz kám híar on sæ ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week.studies.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. -ch-. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente).rises /ráiziz/. /dllón tchéidlliz δe bátriz wáns e mánθ/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). the boy. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. -ce. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in δi í:vniη/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. watches /wótshiz/. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. she.UNIT 5 PART I. a month /e mánθ/ (al mes). el SUJETO (I. You. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . Cuando decimos. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). En la forma afirmativa. /ai spí:k spánish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. /δe bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) Bob washes the car on saturday. the telephone. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?.etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. Escuche. /δe sékretri ánserz δe télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. goes /góuz/. plays /pléiz/. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega ténis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). -sh. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. every morning /évri mó:niη/ (todas las mañanas). etc. A short course in english for adult students 59 . EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. seldom /séldom/ (raramente). it). -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). /δe stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana)æ ´ Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). /δe sán ráiziz in δi í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. en forma habitual. change /tchéindll/ . “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:niη/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. persona del singular (he.changes /tchéindlliz/. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). three times /θri: táimz/ (tres veces). a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). she. sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. often /ófn/ ( a menudo). Los verbos have. it.

. The bus stops here. Mary has got many friends in Canada. comer. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day? Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home? Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday? Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. beber. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. divertirse). Escuche. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dáz δe bás stóp/ here?. o experimentar. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). HOW. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´T/DOESN¨T Escuche. We have lunch at school every day. Mary has many friends in Canada. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends haven´t got a new car. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. HOW MUCH. We go to the beach every summer. My wife watches TV in the morning. WHEN. Do the students play /du δe stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. etc. He speaks English well. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót láηguidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du δei góu tu δe bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz δe bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll δe báteriz évri mánθ/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. The students play soccer every day. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. WHERE. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students .

21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex. Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri θérzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:niη/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæ ´terdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vniη/ Every morning /évri mó:niη/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vniη/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mánθ/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /θri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mánθ/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in δe sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in δi ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in δe wínter/ In the spring /in δe spriη/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 .EXERCISES Ex. I watch TV after dinner. 1. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner. 2. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 . I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a.

You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. (play) Peter ___________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. and c) Wh-questions: 1. Then translate them into Spanish 1. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. 3. (read) The students sometimes _________________________rugby at school. 11. (arrive) Myriam__________________________ the floor once or twice a week. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. b) interrogative. (watch) Ex. I study English every day. The children ________________________at this time every morning. 10. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . (leave) My wife and I often _____________________________ in that restaurant. 6. (eat) Mr Smith ________________________ TV after dinner every evening. 9. (go) I ______________________________ breakfast at 7:15 every morning. (have) John _______________________ the newspaper on the train every day. 4. 3. (wash) I never ____________________________________ Spanish at school. They live near here. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 7.m. 2. 12. I do the exercises well. 2. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. (speak) The manager generally _________________ the office after 8:00 p.c. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. (get up) We seldom ___________________________ to the North in the summer. 4. I have dinner at work. (play) The train ______________________in London at 7:50 every morning. 5. 8.

The children are in the park. 3. We go to the club on Friday. 12. 13. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. 5. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 6. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. The students need more practice. She lives near Wimbledon. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. 8. 8. Answer these questions in English: 1. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. 9. How many legs has a dog got? 4. What are they doing? 6. 7. Peter watches TV every night. 2. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 5. Peter does everything well.3. They need twenty dollars. They work out every morning. Bob always drinks beer. They have two cars. Are there any trees in your garden? 5. 6. HOW. They play golf twice a week. John goes to Pucón in the summer. They have two cars now. 9. WHERE. They come here twice a week. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. 1. What´s he doing? 3. WHEN. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. Mary comes to work by bus. Ex. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 63 . etc. 11. 7. 10. 14. 6. They get up at 7:15 every morning. 10. That man speaks German. They go to the park on Sunday. 4. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. Bob is in the office.

Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. 10. 4. 6. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. 5. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). 2. (do / watch) 14. 5. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. Mr. 3. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. Bees __________________________________ honey. 7. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. For the time being. Ex. (come) 6. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. Ex. He must be a police officer. Hello. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. (understand) 16. 5. 9. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students .m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. You must always speak to him in English. We_______ just ____________ TV. . (come) 7. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. A: ‘What __________________________________?’ (you / do) B:’I’m an electrical engineer’. (leave) 3. 6. Who can it be? (play) 17. (work) 8. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. 4. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. I don’t understand this sentence.Ex. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. 3. 7. (work) 2. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. 2. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. 4. every day. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. (open / close) 13. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. 2. I never ___________________________ coffee. 9. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. 8. 3. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years.(not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (the banks / close) A:’Where __________________________________from?’ (Martin / come) B: ‘He’s Scottish’. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. (go) 5. (watch) 4. 1. 7. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. (begin) 12. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11.m. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. Look! John __________________________ over there. He ___________________________ a green uniform. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. Put the verb into the correct form. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. Look at that man. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. 8. Rice __________________________________ in Britain. 6.

(Rain. 1. but this morning they (pay. 6. 10. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. 4. It´s 7:30 a. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. Black´s at home.Ex. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. Our teacher (stand. There´s a cartoon on TV now. it).m.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . but right now he (speak) _____________________English. Arabic is his native language. not) ___________________________________ it. 3. It (rain. Mrs. They (play) with their toys instead. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. Mrs. not) _____________________up right now. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. (Take. 5. 11. They (like. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. not) __________________right now. It´s 7 o´clock now. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six o´clock. not) __________________________ TV either. (Rain. Look out of the window. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. but the children (watch. 7. or (walk. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. I usually (sit) _______________________at the same desk in class every day. 2. Alice (take.

. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición.físico) EXAMPLE What is that? .. 2.. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning. 15. tu/ Who. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. A. 14. A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ..look like? /wót du /daz. 66 Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. My friends come from San Diego. 16. I go there three times a week.. 7. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?. 11... They need twenty-five dollars.. 8.at?* /wot.. Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin.. abáut/ Who..... whom vuelve a ser who) Ex..PART II.. California Jack visits his parents twice a month..abáut/ What. about?* /wot. What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?.... 1.. 12..with?* /wot.. 3. for/ What.. Nota: Muy a menudo.for/ What.for?* /wot. las preguntas que comienzan con Preposición + Whom/What.at/ What do /does. 6. What´s your opinion? Who is that man?. oranges and pears We go to the South in the summer.. We take photographs with a camera... I like Mary because she´s very friendly.. They look at the stars with the telescope.. 13..to?* /wéar . The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. normalmente trasladan la preposición al final.. QUESTION WORDS. 10. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where.. Ann likes apples.about?* /hu: .. The boys usually talk about football.lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son...../Where.wiϑ/ Who. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. 9.? (Descripción de personas .from?* /wéar .wiϑ/ What.with?* /hu:.. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday.from/ Where. 4.for?* /hu:. 5.

The students go to the gym after lunch. 15. The books which I want are on the table. We are studying ______________history of France. es decir. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. I always drink ________________water with my meals. etc. 5. men. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. 17. We like _________ animals. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. We eat _______________ meat almost every day.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. 3. Ex. students. ___________water in this glass is dirty. The gold in this ring is of good quality. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water. ___________leather in these shoes is very good.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . money. los y las . ___________children like to watch cartoons. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. experience. Books are expensive in Chile. ___________history is an interesting subject. 6.) 1. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. 14. ___________light in this room is not good. 20. Ann writes detective stories. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. 12. 13. 4. 16. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B. Gold is an important metal. people. la. 9. 19. 10. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. Girls work harder than boys. happiness. se traduce como el. cats. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. We have ______________ good light in our classroom.17. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. ___________air in large cities is not very fresh. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. 2. ___________air in this room is not good. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. ___________animals in that photograph are wild animals. Supply the definite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. 7. 8. (Fresh air is good for the health. 18. 11. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car.We all need _______________fresh air. 1. ___________fish in the refrigerator is fresh. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired. milk.

The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister.. Smith´s office. 6. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. 7. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. ? I don´t know the man who is in Mr. 20. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. 11. 3. En inglés. 8. 20.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1.18. 16. 17. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. 3. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. 12. C. animal o cosa estamos hablando. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. (I would like = me gustaría) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. Smith´s office. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. 14. 13. The woman crossing the road is my wife. ? Ex. ? The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. The men trained at our school are good pilots. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? Are these the envelopes __________________you need? The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 2. 15. This is the book which we use in class. This is the book we use in class. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona.Mr. 19. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. I don´t know the man in Mr. 4. 5. 68 A short course in english for adult students . The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. 18. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 10. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. The cars imported from Japan are really good. 2. 9.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 1. 4. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. 13. Smith. or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. 9. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. Translate the following sentences into English. 18. 11. 16. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 5. 8. 17. 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 7. 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. as in the example: 1. 2. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 20. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 12. 1. 14.Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The girl with him is his sister 2. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.

¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad.

siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllákit/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarriη/ sunglasses /sanglá. anorak /ánorak/ leather jacket /léδer dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 . arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stókiηz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fíηger riη/ parka /pá:rka /.

72 A short course in english for adult students .

.? What language does that man speak? 6..? Does Ann watch TV... Ann doesn´t watch TV. We have dinner at work..? Do we study English..? Does Bill play tennis.... You have dinner at work..?/ What does Bob always drink? 8.? Does Ann play tennis..... 3.. We don´t do the exercises.....? Do we work here... Bill doesn´t study English. Ann has dinner at work....... We go to the movies.. They don´t work here...... Ann doesn´t play tennis.. We study English.... Ann doesn´t do the exercises.. They play tennis.... arrives 8.. 4... You don´t go to the movies... /Does Mary like..?/ What time does the bus leave? 5... We don´t work here. Bill has dinner at work... They don´t live. 1. We don´t go to the movies... Bill doesn´t play tennis. Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every.. They have dinner at work. speak 10.. They don´t study English.? Does Bill watch TV.? Does Ann study English..... Bill doesn´t watch TV. go 3...? Does Ann go to the movies...? Does Ann work here.... Bill doesn´t work here....eat 12../ What does Mary like to drink? 2.... They don´t have.. Bob doesn´t always drink...KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex. get up 2. Ann doesn´t study English. You don´t have dinner. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis. We don´t watch TV..? Does Bill study English.? Do we watch TV. /Do they live .? Do they watch TV.... We play tennis... /Do they work out. /Does the bus leave.. Ann doesn´t work here...? Do they go to the movies. Bill goes to the movies...? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex. You study English every day Bill studies English.? Do you watch TV.... Bill doesn´t do the exercises. Interrogative Do you work here...... We don´t study English.? Do they play tennis... You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here. plays 7. Bill doesn´t have dinner..? Do you go to the movies.. That man doesn´t speak..? Do they study English..... play 6.?/ When do they work out? 7.. washes 9... /Does Bob always drink... You don´t watch TV.? Do they work here... Ann plays tennis. You don´t do the exercises.. reads 5... We don´t have dinner........... /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 ....... They go to the movies...... You don´t study English...? Does Bill work here.? Do we go to the movies...? Does Bill go to the movies...? Do we play tennis. They don´t watch TV. The bus doesn´t leave....... Ann studies English. Ann goes to the movies. Peter doesn´t watch. They don´t have dinner... They don´t go to the movies....? Do you study English. /Does that man speak.?/ What does Peter do every night? 4.... They don´t do the exercises...watches Ex. 1.? Do you play tennis.. /Does Peter watch. have 4..... Ann doesn´t go to the movies... They don´t play tennis. Bill doesn´t go to the movies... Mary doesn´t like. We don´t play tennis.. Ann doesn´t have dinner....... leaves 11...... They study English. 2...?/ Where do they live? 3.. They don´t work out.. You don´t play tennis...

.. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. 7. Ex.. does Martin come 4. History 3. don´t eat 6. Does it rain 8. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. drink 3. How much money do they need? 11. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. are-doing/are-watching 14. there aren´t any trees 5. there are some trees/No. play . do-get 20. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. 6.coins 19. 1. is watching 4. /Do they come. Peter doesn´t do. He hardly ever/never uses it. is working 8. comes 7.. 7. 10. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. What do they do on Sunday? 9. doesn´t tell 9. Is it raining 9. fresh air 11. How often do you go there? 12. 5. isdoing 11. the history 4. translates 8. 1. do-go 10. English books / The magazines C. John is the student who speaks English well... There are fifty-two weeks in a year. That is exactly the car which I would like to have.. 10. are-living 9. 6. The water 8. 1. takes/does it take 6. Why do you like Mary? 17. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. Are these the boys who study with you? 17..The men who are working in that room are engineers. take place Ex. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. When do you go to the club? 8. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. What does Susan look like? 2. does-understand 16. leaves 3. 1. How much money do they need? 3. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. are-doing 15. go 5. opens-closes 13. is sleeping/sleeps 2. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. Where does John go in the summer? 6. How often do they play golf 3. 2. Ex. leather 10. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. How long does it take you to get there? 11. make 5. 11.?/ How often do they come here? Ex. is playing 17. He´s working 3. do you do 5.. do-like 18. The fish 16. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. opens . What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. animals 13. How does Mary come to work? 7. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. The stamps .?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8.. The leather 9. I usually spend my summer vacation in. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. When does Bob go to bed early? B. am sitting/sit 3. Children 17. The air 2. 8. 1. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. meat 15. stamps . 1. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. 1. How many cars do they have now? 12. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. What do you take photographs with? 16. is wearing Ex.water 7. doesn´t grow 3. A.closes 4.. 1. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. 9. speaks 2. 9. is eating/eats 6. /Does Peter do.the coins 20. The animals 14. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. 74 A short course in english for adult students . Yes. 1. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. do the banks close 3. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. causes 5. 15.don´t play 7. good light 5. The book which I want is on the table 3. 8. What do the students need? 5.they have. 12. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. stamps 18. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. is not standing/is sitting 5. is coming 6. flows Ex. live 6.?/ How many cars do they have? 9. 1. goes 2. What do they look at with the telescope? 15.. The air 12. is beginning 12. is not raining / is shining / is 7. Where does she live? 2. They´re playing /running/ etc. 16. They don´t come. speaks/is speaking 4. It´s got four legs 4. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. There is very little free time 8. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. 1. The light 6. are-studying 19. Where do your friends come from? 7. doesn´t believe 7. is working 2. doesn´t drink 2. 1. Ex. rises 4. Where do you go in the summer? 5. does this word mean? Ex. 1.

The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. 2. ¿Es este el computador que ud. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. 12. ¿Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. 10. 15. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. 16. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. necesita? 14. usa todos los días? 19. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. The book I want is on the table 3. 1. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. The people described in the story are very interesting. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. 8. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. 4. 2. ¿Es este el diario que ud. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener Ex. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. 8. 16.18. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. ¿Es el Sr. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9.The people who are working in that office are engineers. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. 3. 3. 5. That is exactly the car I would like to have. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. The man driving the car is my father 4. The books which are on that chair are mine. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. 1. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. The girl with him is his sister 2. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. Ex. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud.The men working in that room are engineers. 1. 15. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. 12. lee todos los días? 13. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5.Ex. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. John is the student who speaks English well. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes.

Bl 76 .

To buy . that day (ese día). mientras que los de los ejemplos 4.cleaned .cleaned. Escuche../ We didn´t work hard that day. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: to stop . decided /disáidid/.. En los Ejemplos 1. lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. -te. A menudo. To work ..to complete. 2.etc. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal. Peter came here three days ago.saw . last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. o una hora o fecha pasada.. on September 18th.to decide también agregan -ed/-d.. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche)../ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. /pí:ter kéim híar θrí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3... completed /komplí:tid/../ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. last year (el año pasado).bought ..-de./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago. al igual que en la forma negativa../ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd δéi sí:./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). 5. /pí:ter didnt kám.2. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. To clean .. Los verbos terminados en -t. como last week (la semana pasada). To see . They saw a good film yesterday. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd δat déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. como two days ago (hace dos días).. 4.. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t δe ká:r lá:st íar/ (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 2.seen. / A short course in english for adult students 77 . 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. last night (anoche). /δéi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4. 5. /wí: dídnt wé:rk.. needed /ní:did/.come. va en INFINITIVO. We worked hard that day. Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. the day before yesterday (anteayer).came . aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year” estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares.. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. /ai dídnt bái. to stop . También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO. como to want. They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /δei stópt tó:kiη wen δe tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó. en la conversación diaria. tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla).. 3. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!).. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). /δéi dídnt sí:.worked . last weekend (el fin de semana pasado.UNIT 6 PART I. 1810) Escuche.stopped . several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). Escuche.to need. /méri didnt klí:n.) Como ud. /méri klí:nd δe háus iésterdi mó:rniη/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana.worked 6. lea y aprenda: 1. pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. -d. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo).bought./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. To come .

esforzarse usar. partir quedarse.... gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar.. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. 1. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.?) EXERCISES: Ex. localizar mirar amar. pedir transportar. pedir fumar comenzar.../ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái. utilizar visitar esperar../ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd δéi sí:./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám. desear invitar escuchar ubicar./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n. atender .. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar.... no gustar ayudar esperar.... gustar terminar odiar. WHERE./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái. arreglar repetir solicitar. WHEN.. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar./ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dúu/ (¿Qué hizo ud. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk. etc. responder llega preguntar.. HOW..

conocer aprender.saber. colocar leer correr. encontrar olvidar conseguir. salir.conocer pagar poner.servirse oir guardar. mantener saber. mirar desear trabajar. funcionar Ex. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. fabricar reunirse. creer brillar entender. 2. llevar enseñar contar. enterarse partir. decir pensar. obtener.pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener. extraviar hacer.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. narrar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. dejar prestar perder. comer.

I sleep well every night.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. We enjoy our vacation every summer. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 16. 18. 6. 7. 10. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. The boy reads a book every month. 2. They go to Europe every year. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. 20. It rains a lot here every winter. desgastar escribir Ex. 19. We went to work by bus. 3. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 4. 3. They studied English in London. 4. Peter came here yesterday. 7. We watch TV every night. 9. 5. We have a test every week. We had dinner at the Club. 8. 2. 10. 11. I write to Mary every week-end. 17. 15. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. 8. Peter comes here every week. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. The postman brings a letter every Monday. 5. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. Mary visits her parents every month. 13.000 dollars. They receive a letter every week. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. 3. __________________________________________ last week. 4. They saw the car accident. The boy did the exercise well. 14. 12. Father tells the boy a story every night. I give the boy a present every year. Bob washes the car every Saturday. They sell lots of books every year. John sold his house for 120. 6. They eat fish every Friday. 9. They bought the car in Paris. I wanted to drink tea.

2. 9. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. In each case. 3. 7. How much. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. 5. The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. 4. 5. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. etc. He went to the zoo yesterday. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ What did you eat for dinner last night?. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. Where. 8. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. How. 5. ___________________________________________________ Did you watch TV last night? If so. 4. I didn´t (go by bus). 1. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. 6. 6 7. Ask questions using question words like What. 10. When.Ex. Bob did the same exercise three times. The boy wanted to play. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. Peter saw the film last week. What did you watch? _________________________________________________ What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. Did Mr. He didn´t go because he was tired. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. 6. 3. They came here by taxi. Bill spent one hundred dollars. 7. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. How often. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. 2. I went by taxi. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9.

Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students .16. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20.

Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /δei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer.. not. I rode the subway to work. (not.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? ¿Dónde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. Ann came to class on time every day.PART II. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. We exported shoes to the USA.. (not.. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano. Bob used to love ama. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer.. Mother played the piano well.. Scott used to smoke cigars. 1. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. John Kerry went to that school.. I don´t play well now. Bill helped me with my homework. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) A short course in english for adult students 83 . He no longer loves her now.. Mary spoke Italian at home. (not. Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. Uncle Paul lived in that house... Bob la amaba mucho. anymore) Bob used to work in the car factory. as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory.. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. (not. (not.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6.. Mr.. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas.. (not. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school.. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ 2. Equivale al la terminación -aba o -ía del español. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. anymore. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. (not. (not. Peter was a good student. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.... Scott smoked cigars. Explain the change in meaning. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche..

. 1. This is John´s book. The house of Mr Smith is very big. EXERCISES Ex. Mrs. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. Escuche. Clark goes to ______ office every day 5. Escuche. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /δéarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. The books of the students are new. Jones take ______ children to the park on Sunday. The teacher writes with ______ pen. I walk to ______ chair 2. Mr. This is the house of my parents. The house is theirs. 1. John walks to______ desk. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. de ud. 8. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. That is the car of my brother. That´s my brother´s car. The students´ books are new. 6. o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /δéar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. 7.PART III. A.. This is my book. This is my parents´ house. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. Smith´s house is very big. The car is hers. We moved to ______ new house last month. It is her car. Mr and Mrs. His /hiz/= suyo. (mi libro) The book is mine (mío) Mary bought this car last year. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón).(su auto). They went back to ______ seats and began to write. 4. This is their house (nuestra casa). es decir agregando un apóstrofe + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. Escuche. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /δéi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. You walk to ______ school every morning. 3. (de ella) They´ve got a house.

9. I have a dog and a cat. 6. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. This is the wife of Mr Smith 11. 7. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. 3. This is the book of John. I have a dog. the English books are _______________. These (cigarettes) are Peter´s cigarettes. Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. That (notebook) is Helen’s notebook. Smith is very large. 5. This (office) is John’s office. the English books are _______________. 13. 3. the dog is mine . 10. 2. 8. My brother drives ______ car every day. 7. 12. He’s also the teacher of my friend. 8. 10. 5. That is the room of the teachers. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. Ex. 10. What´s the name of that man? 14. The office of Mr. the car is _______________. 4. He’s the teacher of Helen 9. A short course in english for adult students 85 . the dog and the cat are _______________. 2. 5. You have a dog and a cat.2 . The house of my friends is beautiful 12. This is the pen of Helen. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. 4. You have a pen.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. 10. the pen is _______________. 6. 6. This (room) is her room. Helen has a cat.. 8. Mary has a new pen. Jones has a new car. He took his book and left my book. the dog and the cat are _______________. 9. Mr. the pen is _______________. This is the notebook of William. 4. 11. The desk of the teacher is new. That’s the home of my teacher. the dog is _______________. This (book) is my book.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2.9. (This book is mine. The dog wags ______ tail. The friend of my sister is very sick. This (desk) is the teacher’s desk. 7. the cat is _______________. We have two English books. This (notebook) is my notebook. Helen and Mary have two English books. John has a dog. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. 3. 4.

5. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. 7. 4. 2. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) When did she send the letters? (last Monday) When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) When did she spend the money. William studies the book She speaks with John. 13. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. them) instead of names 1. 8. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /δei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /δem/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y. 14. 6. 10. 6. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. you. 9. Is this letter for Mr. it. They are talking about the accident. us. 7. 9. 10. him. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. 4. 12. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. I know William and his wife very well. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . Bob studies his book every day. 3. 2. I understand the teacher very well. 1. The teacher likes Mary and William. 2. 3. EXERCISES Ex. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. John likes Mary.B. 12. 11. por lo tanto. 5. 8. (last summer) When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) When did he invite you? (last month) When did they eat the apples? (this morning) When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). I like this song very much. James goes with John and Alice to the club. her. 11. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. Use object pronouns (me.

BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actor actress /(ktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barber /bá:rber/ barbero. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . peluquero butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dreser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllánitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dllórnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretri/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /télifonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wotchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ abogado gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. boticario clergyman /klε ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. sacerdote clerk /klε ´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero conductor /kondáktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer. cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate fish... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didn´t = did not) 1. We didn´t go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didn´t come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didn´t want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didn´t see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didn´t sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didn´t buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didn´t do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didn´t have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didn´t write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didn´t study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didn´t he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didn´t. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didn´t (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didn´t (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didn´t (eat fish). I ate chicken. 4. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didn´t (say “yes”). He said “No” 7. No, I didn´t (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didn´t (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didn´t (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didn´t (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didn´t (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didn´t (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 17. No, I didn´t (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didn’t (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didn´t (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didn´t (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesn´t live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesn´t play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helen´s pen. 3. The teacher´s desk is new. 4. That´s my teacher´s home 5. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. This is William´s notebook 8. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. This is Mr Smith´s wife. 11. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. That´s the teachers´ room. 13. What´s that man´s name? 14. What are those men´s names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This office is John´s 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 7. That notebook is Helen´s. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teacher´s. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók δis mó:niη/, at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/, etc. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai woz dráiviη tu δi éarpo:rt at ten oklók δis mó:niη/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /δéi we:r pléiη fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz vízitiη hiz péarents in ditróit on δe fifθ ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ái woz slí:piη wen de télifoun ræη la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wí: we:r hæviη lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai wóznt dráiviη.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei wé:rent pléiiη.../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wóznt vízitiη.../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wóznt sli:piη.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: wé:rent hæviη lántch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´T/WEREN´T) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráiviη.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r δéi pléiiη.../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: vízitiη.../ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:piη.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hæviη lántch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:diη.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r δei pléiiη fútbol.../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt δei hæviη lántch.../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rkiη.../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wót we:r iú: dúiη.../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud....?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play) We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready) I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp) Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave) We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. ___________________________________________________ 4. The generals were working in the conference room. ___________________________________________________ 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ______________________________________________
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. ___________________________________________________ 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. __________________________________________ 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. _______________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué, todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I ___________________________ very well last night. (sleep) I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. (sleep...arrive) They _______________________ to the office when I __________________________ them this morning. (go..see) Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet... live) We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (play...begin) Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. (work...walk) When John ______________________ us last night, we ____________________________ ( call on...have dinner) Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (have...drive) What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) Mr. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. (work...become) 12. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. (read...ride)

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1. Eat my bread and butter. You write your answer on the whiteboard. por favor. Work hard. please. 6. Take a taxi. You eat more slowly. please. 8. 4. 2. please Don´t speak so slowly please. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. 1. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche. (so = tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . 9. Don´t speak so fast. Drink black coffee. 7. please. Say that again. Come again this afternoon. You have another cup of coffee. 10. You drink milk every morning. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 5. 7. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. 8. 5.PART II. You study hard every day. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. 6. You fill up the tank. 3. /pli:z óupn δe wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. (you) open the window. 2. You spell your first name. please Work slowly please. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. don´t open the window. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. please EXERCISES Ex. You call me up after 9 o´clock. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. You come here tomorrow morning. A. (so /sou/= tan) Ex. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. esta implícito en la orden). 10. please Drive fast please. Give Mary my new address. 3. Por favor. You listen to the story carefully. 4. 9. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. Listen to him please. 2. Look at the map.

Dr. lea y compare: New York is a large city. __________ United States. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. volcanes. Prof.) Santiago is the capital of Chile.They´ve climbed Mount Everest.) o grados (Gen.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adj. Cpt.. A short course in english for adult students 95 .) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. He lives on Fifth Avenue. cordilleras. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. Escuche. 1. Senator etc. Lady. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor.B. montes. Smith to send the message right away. 3. continentes.+Sust. ciudades. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). 10... Johnson ordered Sgt. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. They are coming back from China. __________ China. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans.. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. 6. Gen. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido the. Mrs. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee. 7.. 9. mares. Sir. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido the delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station.) EXERCISES Ex.) 2. estados. President. (adj.Ms. canales.etc.. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. (adj. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina.. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes. países. etc. 5. 8.. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. Supply the definite article the where necessary: 1. Sgt. Mr De Ponti invited Dr. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. Miss.. The New York City subways go very fast. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. 4.

Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 3. 3. 7. 2. 13. 4. Ex. __________ England is a small country. (He lives in Mexico. 4. 5. / adv. 7. We walked along __________ Broadway. 5. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1.) __________ Mexican climate is warm. 2. 12. C. 6. 1. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. He lives in __________ Mexico. _________ English language is easy. __________ London School of Economics is very famous. 8. 10. 11. 12. __________. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. __________ Europe is a large continent. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 2. 11. 14 15. __________ Broadway buses are slow. 9.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 9. 8. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. 6. 10.11. in __________ Utah. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!.

.. 8. 5. These photographs are very beautiful 11.Ex. This whisky is very good 10. 7. 2.!. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N). _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13.. He runs very fast. New York is a fascinating city. 9. 3. 4. The movie was very exciting. These exercises are very difficult. Make exclamations using What a(n).!. 2. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. Supply HOW.. John is a very intelligent person. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. This is a very incredible story. 4. 2. as indicated: 1. I was a very stupid person. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 97 . 12. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. What. What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This trip is very interesting. Mary is a very friendly person 13. 3.. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. This music is very romantic. or How. ______________________ well she swims! 5. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. 6. They are very beautiful women. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. 4. She plays the violin beautifully. It is a beautiful day. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. ______________________ pretty girl! 2.! . as in the example Peter is a very tall man 1. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. WHAT. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. 3. These shoes are very expensive.. 14. 5. She plays the piano well. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. She is an excellent pianist.

16. 10. 13. 7. It was a very fast train. Grandfather told us a sad story. He is a very tall man. 15. She is wearing a beautiful dress. Ann was a generous woman. It´s a cold day today. You have a beautiful new car. 18.6. It was very cold last night. 14. Bob acted very foolishly. 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 98 A short course in english for adult students . We were very tired after the walk. He is a handsome fellow. 17. 12. It is very cold today. She is very pretty. 8. 11.

c.w.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero f) The Kitchen /δe kítchin/ La Cocina broom /brú:m/ can opener /kæn óupner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /nápkin/ máquina licuadora servilleta A short course in english for adult students 99 .rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi..BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /háusiη/ Vivienda farm house /fá. cabaña casa pareada casa en fila casa de veraneo apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bíldiη/ edificio de dptos. (BR) bungalow /báηgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomínium/ condominio cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo./ terrace house /téris háus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.quinta detached house /ditηtætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e háus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /síliη/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændiη/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e háus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:θrum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáiniηrum / kitchen /kítchin/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /sítiηrum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio baño. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /δe bédrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæηkit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáoun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda. d) The Sitting-room /δe sítiηrum/ El Living arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:pit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /kértenz/ fireplace /faiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza fina.. excusado.

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskrú:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kábord/ aparador cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora fridge /frídll/ refrigerador frying pan /fráiiη pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /δe bá:θrum/ La Sala de Baño bath tub /bá:θ tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /míror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleréitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /siηk/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spun/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshiη mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa shaving brush /shéiviηbrash/ shaving cream /shéiviη krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /túθbrash/ tooth paste /tú:θpéist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos h) The Studio /δe stúdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiúter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáiliη kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gará:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:θ/ sendero swimming pool /suimiη pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

8.. 6. Listen to the story carefully please.. 3. Ex.Broadway. Spain 10. She wasn´t having. was sleeping / arrived.. I was. C.. 1. 4. The boys weren´t studying. The Mexican climate. 1.. 10. 8. Don´t say that again please. Spell your first name please.. England. 1... I was working.? 2. What a... 9. 6. were going / saw 4. Don´t give Mary my new address please.. Have another cup of coffee please. 5.Berlin 9. / Were we running. was getting ready 6. The Broadway buses.. The Hudson River / New York City 4. York.. What a. Salt Lake City... 5. (when he phoned me last night) Ex.. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10. The London School of Economics. / Were the children watching.? 5. What a. What was Mary eating in her room? 3. 2..? 3..Utah Ex. Ex.. Central Park Station 11. 5. / Was Alice making. Where were the generals working? 5. 2. 9..do 10.. Eat more slowly please 7.. 3.. Alice wasn´t making.. (when they got married / then). The English language.the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8...were playing 4. 2.France.. 8. were camping 8. were . the Persian Gulf. The New York City traffic.. What a. 4. 10. were walking Ex.... / were the men going.. The West Indies 7. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. White lying on the sofa? 7.. What a. What a. 2.. London. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. the Suez Canal 12. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9. Ex. 2. When I arrived. called on / were having dinner 8.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2.. was doing 12. Don´t take a taxi please. 6.The Panama Canal. was . 2. 9.UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex. 1.. 3.. Why weren´t they working that day? 7...) 2. 7. the United States 6. was shining 2... 2. Don´t drink black coffee please. Study hard every day please.. were crossing 5. What. We weren´t running.. did ... read / was riding PART II A. They were living in. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. had / was driving 9. Don´t work so slowly please. 11. 4.. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. Italy... What an. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9. China. The Atlantic Ocean.. Fill up the tank please.. Don´t work so hard please. 12...... 15.. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex. 3.. 6. What.. 2.. Madison Avenue. 14.. Drink milk every morning. were playing / began 6. I was. The men weren´t going.. 11. please 2.. was living 9. slept 2. / Were the boys studying.......They were playing bridge at that time. What a. What....English cities 7.... 1. What were you doing at that time? 6. met / was living 5. The soldiers weren´t doing... Ex.? 4.. What a.. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4.the Dominican Republic 3.. 1.. 1... Don´t listen to him please 5. 10... 4. 3. 4.. 3. 3. 8. A short course in english for adult students 101 . 1. (Open answers) 1. 10..... 6. Ex.. Why was Mrs. 4..doing 11. was working / became 12..? 6. (in December last year). 3. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8. (at this time yesterday. Don´t come again this afternoon please.the Mediterranean Sea...? 7... I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. 13. The United States..Don´t drive so fast please..... I was listening to the news at that moment..working / walked 7. Don´t eat my bread and butter please. / Were the soldiers doing.... Germany. B. 1.. Come here tomorrow morning please. was driving 7.. 1. European cities. 5.... The children weren´t watching. was reading 3.. What.. / Was she having.... 1... 9. everyone was talking. were having dinner 11. Call me up after 9 o´clock please 5.Clark Street. Europe. What. What a. 7. was leaving 10.? Ex. 4.. Write your answer on the whiteboard please.

8.. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students . How. 4.. 13. 7.. 2. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13.. 14.. What an. What a cold day it is today! 8.. 2. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. How cold it was last night! 10. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. How. What a beautiful day it is today! 4. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9.. How pretty she is! 11.7. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10... How. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. 12. 1.. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. What... How.. 3. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. How fast she runs! 5... What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. How... How. What..What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. 6. What a fast train it was! 17. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What a pleasant man Mr. Johnson is!. What. 1.. 11.. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5.Ex..... What a. 4.. 5.. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. 10. What a. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8. 3. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. 9. Ex.What a. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. 1. How well she plays the piano! 2.. What a tall man he is! 9. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. What a. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. What a beautiful new car you have! 14.. How cold it is today! 7.

SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. Where. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras.. acordadas o previstas con antelación.. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. When. Dgo. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. /méri wóunt kám. Tu wé:rk tumórou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. /δei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. Peter is going to come to Chile next month./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil δei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámiδ tu tchíle nekst mánδ/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . in three months /in θrí: mánθs/ dentro de tres meses. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. /δéi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow. They won´t visit us next weekend. y sugiere la idea de decisión.. /pí:ter iz góuiδ tu kám tu tchíle nékst manδ/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. promesas o determinaciones. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend.. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro.. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow.. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil δei vízit. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. I won´t be at home./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt δei vízit. En la interrogación../ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones... Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana.. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mánδ/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. intenciones. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. the day after tomorrow /δe déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana. En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. Lea. promesa o determinación./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. Peter will come to Chile next month. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday.. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. next month /nékst manθ/ el próximo mes. 3.UNIT 8 PART 1. by the end of this year /bai δi énd ov δis yíar/ hacia fines de este año. etc. Peter is coming to Chile next month.

etc. What. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. Mary will go out this evening. using WILL 1. 2. 1. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. 8. How long. John will accept the offer. 4. 6. 5. (be) We ________________________ a new house soon. and b) interrogative. (move) ¿Qué hará ud. (send) My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. How. 11. 5. 6. 3. 7. 9. (have) Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. 3. ___________________________________________________ They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . (attend) I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. 4. 3. In each case. (hire) The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. (use) The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. Ask questions using question words like When. (buy) Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. They´ll go to the north in the summer. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. 2. (sell) The instructor ________________________ the overhead projector. 12. 7. (dig) NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. 10. 1. ___________________________________________________ John will give the answer next week. 10. ___________________________________________________ They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ They´ll need five volunteers. 2. They´ll get married in May 6. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. 1. 9.? Ex. 8. 5. ___________________________________________________ Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. (march) I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. The train will arrive soon. ___________________________________________________ Bob will sell the car because it´s old.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: What will you do? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 4. ___________________________________________________ The soldiers will wait there until dawn. (launch) Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. Where. You will send them a fax.

Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. 2 Change SAY to TELL. 14. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Antes de la conjunción that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. please. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. 8. 2.1. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . please? Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 12. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. John ________________________ yesterday. “I love you. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. es decir. She said (to me) that she was sick. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR). Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. 1. EXERCISES Ex. “I will be back at about 10:30”. Jackson said (to his students). Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. 5. said Mary. 3. Helen” Mary said. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. John told Helen that he loved her. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”. “This book is very interesting “. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). 3. 2. 4. Mr. “I am very tired after the long walk”. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. 6.PART II. 10. 9. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. 7. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” Yesterday. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. Can you ________________________ me where the office is. she ________________________ Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. la persona a quien se le habló. A. he said. Sorry. 11. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. 13.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Bob told me that he could speak French well. The man whom I met was John´s father. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. WHOSE Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 3. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache.4. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) 106 A short course in english for adult students . WHOM. . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. The car which is outside is a police car. With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. 1.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. Jim was talking about a woman. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. too. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO. Change TELL to SAY.

whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. From (who.Whose is that book on the desk? (aquí el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 8. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. The boy (who. Whom. (Who. __________________ are they talking about? The man __________________ Prof. but I´m not quite sure. Whose 1. 13. 22. Ex. His car is parked outside the building. whom) is the best student in your class? 4. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? With __________________ will you work on the thesis? I don´t know __________________ watch this is. The man (who. 1. 23. 18.using WHO. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. I met a man _______________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 107 . The man is a doctor. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love. 4. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player __________________ will you ask for help? __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. (Who. With (who. 11. whom) did you get the money? 10. 3. To (who. I met a man yesterday. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. 17. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? __________________ are you talking to? The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. 21. WHOM or WHOSE 1. Mr Clark. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. 12. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. 9. EXERCISES Ex. 2. whom ) are they talking? 8. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Choose the correct form. 6. Ex. whom) you saw is my new teacher. The woman (who. the blue one or the brown one? __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. The girl with (who. Mr Clark. 24. 6. 2. 15. whom) I danced was very beautiful. 7. Fill in the blank spaces with Who. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. 9. 19. 7. 14. whom) telephoned you is my brother. 3. 16. He wrote detective stories. 5. About (who. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. Which.. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. whom) does he want to speak? 3. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence. 20. __________________ jacket do you like best. 10. They are American. Smith read in class yesterday. 1.

They found his wallet in the street. 8. They contacted a man. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 9. That´s not your leather jacket. 13. There´s a man in the lobby. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7.That car isn´t his. 3. 6.This house is ours. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. It´s my brother´s 108 A short course in english for adult students . Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Those keys are mine.. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? To whom does this car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ 1. 4. as in the example. It isn´t theirs.I think that this wallet is yours. 6. It´s hers. This pen is mine That house is ours. 2. 15. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. Ask questions with whose. 5. The policemen interrogated the old man. 12. He wants to speak with you.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen _________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? 10. 3. Exercise 4. 14. 4. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4.2. I met a woman yesterday. 2. This is the young woman. Her husband died in a car accident. 5. You were talking to a man in the lobby. Peter came to the party with a young woman. His car was parked outside the school. Is that car yours? That is not John´s bicycle. 7.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. 7.Whose glasses are these? 11. 5. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5.

.... He said something to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas. There is someone in the room 109 . I saw somebody in the corridor. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. They need something now. Please put it somewhere in this room. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not.anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT. They will go somewhere after the lesson They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not. He told somebody about it. Anybody Not... alguna parte). I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2.C.anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not. He gave the book to somebody.. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. They don´t need anything now.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8.any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. ANY o NO... 1. alguna cosa). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Change to negative form Use a) NOT. ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. There is someone at the door. He lives somewhere in New York. SOMETHING. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. SOMEBODY.. Somewhere (algun lugar. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. etc.. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY... es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo. I saw somebody in the car I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3.

thank you. He gave it to someone. We saw nobody at all in the park.. We went nowhere after the dance. I liked something about her. 13. He´s going to do something now. 9. 8. 1 want no more. 7. 5. 4. 7. 5. Somebody wants to speak to him. He brought something with him. She has something to do. They want nothing to drink. She put it somewhere. There is no more coffee. ANY” negative form: 1. 2. They found nobody at home.. I saw somebody at the desk. He took them somewhere on Long Island. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 11. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . He told somebody about it. They gave us nothing to eat. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . She spoke to no one about it. 4. 12.11. They found the money somewhere. 6. They will send the goods to someone. 6. He can see nothing without his glasses. 2. There is someone in the next room. 10. There is nowhere for him to sit. 1 saw somebody I knew. 14. 12. 2. He has something to do. Change to question form 1. Ex. 10. 8. 3. He went somewhere last night. 9.

escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /θíater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camióm (USA) tunnel /tánel/ tunnel underground /andergráund/ tren subterráneo (BR) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krósiη/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 . disco /dískou/ discoteca dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ lavaseco. calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.escrit.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos chemist’s /kémists/ farmacia church /tchértch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine coach /kóutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería college /kólidll/ escuela (univ. tintorería estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (BR) fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ cuartel de bomberos flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería grocer’s /gróuserz/ almacén (BR) grocery store /gróuseri stóar/ almacén (USA) hardware store /hárdwear stóar/ ferretería hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel /houtél/ hotel jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósiη/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camión (BR) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.) corner /kó:rner/ esquina crossroads /krósroudz/ cruce department store /dipá:rment stóar/ tienda de depart.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte baker’s /béikerz/ panadería book shop /buk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldiη/ edificio bus /bás/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café /kæfei/ café cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda.

Bl 112 .

. Mr Smith told Peter that.. whom 10. said Ex. Who 19. Bob said that he. 8.who wrote detective stories.. will sell 5. 2. whom 18. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5.... 7.? 5. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. whom 2. John said that. 2. The train won´t arrive.. 4.. will hire 12.. whom 9. 8. 1. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. You won`t send. The teacher said that. 2. 2. How many volunteers will they need? 10. 6.... The teacher told Paul`s parents that.. / Will Mary go out. 12. Mary will not go out.. 6... I said that. whom 11. A short course in english for adult students 113 . says 6. Whom 5. John told his friends that. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7.. Where will they go in the summer? 2.? 4. which 12. William told the doctor that. Ex. That house belongs to us 3. Ex. 5.. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. whom 8. says 8.. I said that.. 13. Whose . said 4. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. Who 17. said 10. When will John give the answer? 3. whom 7.. Helen told the travel agent that... 1. 7.... I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . belongs to me 2. The boy says that.? 2...? Ex. 3. B. Ann told the office that.whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10.. / Will John accept. Whose 9.... 1.. 1. What will Mr Smith send them? 6.. 7.. told 3. Whose is this brand new car? 4.woman with whom Peter came to the party.. whom Ex. It belongs to my brother.... will march 2.. Does that car belong to you? 6. 1.. whom 3.5. whose 5. who 22. 3. whom 7. Who 4. 1. told 14. 15.. 1. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John....? 3.. Mr Smith won`t see. 1.. 3.. 4. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. will launch 8 will attend 9. which 6.. whom 20. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. 14.. 2. which 23. said 9. / Will you send. will send 3.. Whose is this gold ring? 6. will dig 7. says 2.. It belongs to her. 5. who 6. Ex.. 1... whom Ex.. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. Who 13. the boy told us that. whose 15. Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2. / Will Mr Smith see... / Will the train arrive.. which 24.. 2... This house belongs to us.whose husband died in a car accident 3. told 5. / Will they get married? 6..whom 10.who wants to speak with you. will be 10.. John will not accept. 6. Ex. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. 4.. The man tells me that... 5.. It doesn`t belong to them. 4. told 7. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. They won`t get married. whose wallet they found in the street. Whose 3.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. That car doesn´t belong to him. 3. Where will you wait for me / us? 9.. 3. will have 4.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.which 16.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. tell 12. whom 4. 1. She told me that. tell 13. A.. Who(m) 8. Which 2.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11... 1. says 11. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. will buy 11. will use 6.. Those keys belong to me 5. 9. 1... whose 21. Mr Smith said that. whom 14. 1.. 1... 7. will move Ex. He says that she. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9.

There isn`t anyone in. Did he bring anything with him? 10. Did I see anybody I knew? 9. They don´t want anything to drink 4. 2. / He told nobody. There isn`t anyone at. Did I like anything about her? Ex.. 8. Does she have anything to do? 4... They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one... 4. / I saw nobody in. Did she put it anywhere? 6. Don`t tell anybody about. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13. / There`s no one at. 3. He didn´t tell anybody.. / I put the money nowhere. put it nowhere in.. 6. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. 7.. / Tell nobody about. don´t put it anywhere in. I didn`t put the money anywhere....... They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. 5. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. 1. He didn´t say anything. 2.. He can´t see anything without his glasses..... Did he go anywhere last night? 3. Is there anyone in the next room? 7... Did he tell anybody about it? 5...? 2. 1.. 9.. 10. / He said nothing. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8.3. / Please.. 11. They didn´t give us anything to eat . I didn´t see anybody in... / He lives nowhere in.. Ex. Please.... There isn´t any more coffee. Did he give it to anyone? 11. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . They didn´t find anybody at home 2. He doesn´t live anywhere in. thank you.C. 1. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. 3.. I don´t want any more. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5.. 1. / There´s no one in. Did I see anybody at the desk.. 7. Ex.. 10.

A. 1... 4.? EXERCISES Ex. “Tú vas a . 3. 7. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góuiη tu dú:/ ¿Qué va ha hacer ud. etc.”. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. They´ll travel to Mexico in March.”. /δéi á:rent góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Tom will come to Chile next year. I will send Mary a post-card from L. Paul will go to Germany and France.. 8.”.. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. /δéi a:r góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. Equivale a la expresión “Yo voy a . 2. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. 8. Lea. 5. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. 7.. 3. 6. “Él va a . EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as/. 2. Mr. Lea. /méri íznt góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.UNIT 9 PART 1. The instructor will use a video. 5. 6. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. 2.. 4.

. Ask questions using question words like When. 1. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. Bill is going to travel by plane. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. 4. etc. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip δe ripó:rt/ Ud.. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. She´s not going to go because she´s tired..Ex.”. o “Will it take. 4.”. 2. 3. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take.?”. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche. Bob and Jim are going to swim. 5. Translate the following sentnces into English 1. Where.?”. /it tuk δe stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser δe kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. It will take you at least an hour to type the report. Bill is going to answer the question. 3. “It didn´t take. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take... _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex.. A..... Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took the students the men me ________________ FUTURE It will take you the men ____________________ Escuche. /IT TOOK. 3. 5. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway.. o “It won´t take. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos.. “Did it take... LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES./ IT WILL TAKE. 4.. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. 2.”. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. 7. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. How long.. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . They´re going to fix the engine... 6. 6.

5. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. en. en.. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? . en.. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 117 . 12... Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. IT TOOK. 9. It took him several hours to finish it. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. 6. ___________________________________________________ I found my mistake in a few minutes.. 7. Change to negative and to interrogative form. ___________________________________________________ I do my homework every night in a short time.) I did my exercise in one hour. ___________________________________________________ They will complete the work in six years. ___________________________________________________ I wrote the letter in a few minutes. or IT WIL TAKE. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions. ___________________________________________________ We drove to Philadelphia in one hour. 4.. ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. It took Herbert a long time to walk there.. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes.. 4. 10... 3.? Escuche.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud.. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk there.? How long did it take you to.? How long will it take you to. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. 2. It takes me seven minutes to walk there. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway. It took them many years to build the road. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. ___________________________________________________ She learned to speak English in only one year. 8. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. ___________________________________________________ They will build the bridge in two years.Escuche. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. 3. 1..: 1.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. ___________________________________________________ I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. 2. ___________________________________________________ I finished the work in an hour.. 11. 5.... 2...? Ex. ___________________________________________________ He does his homework every day in one hour..

It took a month to complete the work. 8. It took them two days to find him. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ud. Translate the following sentences into English 1. It took an hour to discover the mistake. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 12. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. 3. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. It will take a long time to get there. It takes an hour to do this exercise. 7. Uds.6. It takes much time to learn English. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avión. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . 9. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. It will take you a week to read this book.

Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. big. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). short . (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3. tall . Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad.thinner c. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . (Este auto es muy viejo) 2.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. Grado Comparativo. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small .shorter b. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George.smaller. (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George.taller. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one.B.more intelligent important . 1. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. old. Mary is a beautiful girl. (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. hot .bigger. thin . (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person.hotter. es decir son iguales. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons.

short . Si el adjetivo está formado por cons.most modern e. 120 Philadelphia is. 2..(larger than). A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er .. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent . 7. 5. 6. + as...most much .smallest tall .as. 3. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more.Washington (large) John is ____________________________ William (short) Henry is ____________________________ I (tall) This book is ____________________________ that book .+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante big .as o not so.hottest.biggest.worst far . dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. (old) The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday (bad) This summer is ____________________________ last summer (hot) This article is ____________________________ that one.d.most intelligent important . hot . thin . He is not as tall as his brother.most important d.cleverest modern .most common clever ... (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother.least many .thinnest c. 1. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small . Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most.shortest b. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e.. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.tallest. Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1. (interesting) A short course in english for adult students .prettiest common .best bad .farthest little . (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. 4.. pretty .

.. 2. (intelligent) He is also ____________________________ student in the class.... This book was __________________________________ The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. (interesting) New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States. 10.8. 15.. (light) Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) That city has ____________________________ parks in the region. State the adjectives in parentheses. introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1. 13... 11... (young) 6.... (good) Some people are ____________________________ others... Bill is. Frank is. (sweet) This is ____________________________ park in the city.(long) 8...... John is a. 4.(pretty) 3. Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) These apples are ____________________________ those.(tall) 2.. 5. The Empire State Bldg.(intelligent) 4...... Henry is not taller than I. This street is ___________________________________________________ This exercise is not more difficult than the last one.. (bad) Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) This is ____________________________ room in the whole building.. This street is.. (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . 6... first in comparative form.(tall) 7.. New York is _____________________________________________________ Helen is not younger than her sister.(wide) 9... (few) John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group. 3. 3. 9... 2.(interesting) 5. 4....... In the following.. (healthy) This room is ____________________________ that one... 7. The weather today is ________________________________ The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday. 10. and second in superlative form.. This book is ______________________________________________ This book was not more expensive than my French book. The Mississippi River is. 2. Grace is. This exercise is _______________________________________ This book is not thicker than my French book... Henry is ____________________________________________________________________ New York is not smaller than Chicago.... 9.. 7... 6. 4. (little) Ex.. 8.(hot) New York is ____________________________ city in the United States.. 8. 14. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. 9. (good) Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. This book is. 5. 3.The weather today is ________________________________ Ex.... 12.. (light) Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex........ 11.. (beautiful) John is ____________________________ boy in the class. (large) This is ____________________________ apple of all. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. is. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1.... Henry is.. 12.. Helen is __________________________________________________________ This street is not wider than that street. John is ____________________________ boy in the class (tall).

There are more people today than yesterday 13. 11. This exercise is.. John is as tall as his brother.. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. This corridor is larger than the room.. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. 5. John has less experience in computers than I. 12. 2. 3. New York is more important than Washington D. Peter has more money than Henry 14.John makes more mistakes than Henry. 4.. This book is better than the other..C. 6. 5. John is taller than his brother.10. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. 10. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. 7. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. The sky is darker than it was yesterday.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday. This street is wider than that one. Our apartment is larger than yours. 8. This exercise is longer than the last.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . 9...

Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa cholga.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drésiη/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo. Provisions /províllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1. Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /apetáizer/ 3.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skálop/ shellfish /shelfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. mejillón ostra gamba. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wiη/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérriη/ loco almeja caracol.

Vegetables /védlletablz/ Verduras celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.king crab /kiη kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /driηk/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft driηk/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students . Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /tuna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nats/ pineapple /páinápl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7.

8.? 5. / Did it take him several hours to. 7.. / Are they going to travel to.. healthier than 11.. The Johnsons are going to spend.? / How long does it take me to.. Tom is going to come to. 5. / Does it take an hour to. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 . better than 10. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3.... / Did it take an hour to.? 12.. Ex. It took me an hour to finish the work 10.? / How long did it take to. 2... 1. I´m not going to send Mary. 2. What are they going to do? 6. Ex.. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions. 3. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend. Tom isn´t going to come to.? 4.? 3.. / Is the instructor going to use. / Did it take them two days to... 6.. Ex..? 6. Jane´s going to buy. It didn´t take an hour to.... The instructor isn´t going to use. Mr Jackson´s going to play.. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station ... 9. Ex.. / Is Paul going to go to. It will take them six years to complete the work..... Paul`s going to go to.? / How long does it take to... Jane isn´t going to buy..... / Does it take much time to.. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5.. hotter than 7... It doesn´t take an hour to. 4.. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play.? 3. It didn´t take them two days to. Paul isn´t going to go to. It doesn`t take much time to.. worse than 6.? 8..? 8. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report. 4.... 3.... 3. It won´t take you very long to read that article... 2. / Will it take a long time to. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5....? / How long did it take them to build.... It didn´t take a month to. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. 6.3. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5.... / Is Mr Jackson going to play. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7... 2..? / How long does it take to. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer. It didn´t take him several hours to. / Does it take me ten minutes to get. lighter than 12...? 7. 2.. more interesting than 8... 2. 8.. older than 5.. 11. / Did it take them many years to build...They aren´t going to come to the party tonight. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake. They are going to travel to.... It took me an hour to do my exercise 3. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A.? 6. 4.? 2. / How long did it take him to..? Ex.? / How long did it take them to. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6.? / How long does it take me to get. They aren´t going to travel to. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2..? / How long will it take to..? / How long will it take you to. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day. Who is going to answer the question? Ex... 8... 1... It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get. 1....? 4. It won´t take you a week to. 3. / Are the Johnsons going to spend.. It took me a few minutes to write the letter. 1. It won´t take a long time to.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex.. What are you / we going to buy? 4. B..... It took her only one year to learn to speak English. / Did it take a month to.? 10. 1. 2.. / Will it take you a week to. 9.. 1.? / How long did it take to.. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office. shorter than 3. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4.? 5..? Ex. 4... How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7... taller than 4. 1.? 9...... She´s going to buy another pair of shoes. / Is Tom going to come to. 12. I´m going to send Mary. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane. 5. It didn´t take them many years to build. Why isn´t she going to go? 7.? 7. / Does it take me seven minutes to... 2..? 11... more difficult than 9....... The instructor´s going to use. It will take them two years to build the bridge.. / Is Jane going to buy. / Am I going to send Mary.

This book is as good as the other. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary.5. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. worse than it was yesterday. / This is the widest street in this town. 3. 14. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. John has as little experience in computers as I. 5. thinner than my French book 7. 7. the most 14. 12. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. the worst 10. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. 3. older than her sister. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. Peter has as much money as Henry. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. shorter than I 2. 2. the best 9. 1. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. 10. the fewest 15. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. This exercise is easier than the previous one. narrower than 5. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. Grace is prettier than her sister. Bill is more intelligent than James. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. 11. the largest 5. This street is wider than my street. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last. the sweetest 6. the largest 11. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. Our apartment is as large as yours.New York is as important as Washington. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. This book is more interesting than that one.Ex. the least Ex. There are as many people today as yesterday. 9. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. the most 13. the tallest 2. the most intelligent 8. 126 A short course in english for adult students . Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. 9. easier than 6. 2. This street is as wide as that one. 6. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8.. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. the most interesting 4. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. 8. 4. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. the lightest 12. 4. 1. Ex. 4. 2.This corridor is as large as the room. This exercise is as long as the last. cheaper than my French book 8. bigger than Chicago 3. 9. 7. 10. the hottest 3. the most beautiful 7. Ex. 13. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. 4. 3. (Open answers) 1.

John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. to have lunch/dinner. I accepted their invitation. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. He´s attending a meeting. /δéi á:rent vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. agendadas. to visit. etc.UNIT 10 PART 1. /δéi a:r vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. to come back. ha advertido. to stay. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. 2. Lea. We´re leaving on January 21st. /méri íznt kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r δéi vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r δéi vízitiη ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:iη tumórou mó:rniη/on sándi/ etc. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. to arrive.) EXERCISES Ex. to travel. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. (Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. por ejemplo: to go. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. 1. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. to attend. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. /mériz kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. to drive. to fly. We´re going to Cancun again. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. to leave. We´re staying there for 10 days. Ex. to come. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end.

I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15.Texas 14:00 Conference at Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. at 16:00. Make complete sentences: 1. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. Dr. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at US. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ In the evening. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. 5. Sat. 3. 4. As you can see. 7. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. 8. Ex. Brown said to us. “ Yes. We must hurry up. 10. ____________________________________________________________________________________ At 7:40 AM on Thursday. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. Answer these questions in English. Texas. “I´m afraid. Let´s hurry up. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. We just got a telegram from our daughter. Fri. he _______________________________________________________ at Nasa Space Center At midday. It´s 8:15 now. 4. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________ On Wednesday morning. 11. Mary?”. he ______________________________________________________________________ On Thursday afternoon. Novoa is going to the USA next week. 7. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 14. After that. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. At 10:15 on Saturday. 07:40 Fly to Houston. 9. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. 10:00 Visit Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert.. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr._________________________________________________________________________ After dinner. I want to play tennis tomorrow. 4.3. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . Mr. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. I´ll be away on a business trip”. Surgeons Club Wed. On Monday evening. Write sentences indicating Dr. he _______________________________________________________________________ On Friday morning. Mary: “Yes. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. 6. 3. Dr. Ex. 5. 1. late in the evening. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. Right after lunch. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. Use the information given below: Dr. 2. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. 12. he ____________________________________________________________________ He is arriving in Washington DC. On Monday morning. The departure of our train is at 8:25. Dr. It says. at Kennedy Center Thurs. 13.

/ You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. be likely to. 1. ¿a que hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana.. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Jones ___________________________________________________ Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. He must be over 70 years old. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. OUGHT TO. 6... = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ ¿A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ Según el itinerario. 10. 9. Bob can swim well. You can see the lake from here. (No se debe decir. have to 2. 2.) Ej. Be able to 2. / I assume. be allowed to 2. 3. 5. ___________________________________________________ Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. ___________________________________________________ Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. You had better study every day MUST 1. A short course in english for adult students 129 . ___________________________________________________ Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. You should study every day. recomendación 1. You must obey orders. Be allowed to Example 1.. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. DEBERÍA = consejo.. You can use my computer. 8. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. He can swim well. ___________________________________________________ Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. Ej. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidadad) 2. 2. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. 5. = Bob is able to swim well 2. MODAL VERBS (I) A. 2. He can swim well. I think. Be possible to 3. = I think / assume he is over. 2. MUST. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. 7. CAN. este fin de semana. It may rain tomorrow. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. 1. PODER = ser capaz de. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. (No se debe decir. 4. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. PODER = ser posible 3.. = You have to obey orders. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. Translate the following sentences into English 1.Ex.. MAY. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. Ej. 1..

(Ud. Now I ____________ read better. It´s dangerous. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. (Se está nublando. 6. I think that you should see a doctor /. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. 8. Sr. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. Must (Deber) 1. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. 2. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. He is a retired civil servant. A short course in english for adult students . (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. 4. 4. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. habilidad o destreza. 9. He must be a policeman. (Ud. (Negative). Tommy. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. MAY o SHOULD. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. (Uds. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades.?) It´s getting cloudy. Para indicar obligación. Para dar consejos. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. Tommy. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. 3. 1. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. It´s out of order. if you wish. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. 7. Joe. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. 2. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo.. (El está usando un uniforme verde. Complete the blanks with CAN. (No te subas a esa silla. Peter. ____________ I use your pen please. (No debería fumar tanto. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. Sir? ____________ I have another piece of cake. 2. 130 Gentlemen. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. It´s not good for your health. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. (Puedes retirarte ahora. 3. John. según corresponda. 5. mother? You ____________ not do that again.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. 2. (formal). MUST.. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. John can swim very well. (Ud. puede retirarse.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. I just put on my glasses.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. It may rain tomorrow. if you like. You may fall down and break an arm. Para indicar capacidad. 1. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean.

b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. 2. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . Lea. Bob can speak three languages. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. 18.10. The boss gets very angry when people are late. Ud. 21. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. 11. We must go because it´s late. 3. 4. pueden fumar aquí. señor? 9. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 3. You are too fat. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. 5. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. A pesar de ser sinónimos. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. 6. 24. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. Ex. I think you ____________ go on a diet. 13. 3. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. Why don´t you phone at his home. B. 17. He sometimes goes home for lunch. 20. They´re very poor. debe venir mañana nuevamente. 10. It´s too young. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . They should take a taxi. 23. 16. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. He ____________n´t be an engineer. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. El no puede hablar español bién. The man is very strong. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. El trabajó muy duro. It´s almost midnight now. 19. 12. You´ll be welcome to our home. 15. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t know how to start a car. 14. 2.We don´t accept cash. John. They ____________ be working instead. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. El puede correr muy rápido. I don´t know why they´re talking. Uds. You ____________ come and visit us any day. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. They may use Room 203. He ____________ be there. 22. Debe estar cansado. Billy .

9. We must learn many new words every day. John must go out of town this afternoon. al igual que con los verbos principales. They must stay there at least an hour. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. 11. Mary must study French next year. WON´T. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. = Peter has to work until late every evening. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . Lea. 5. We must prepare our lessons every night. I must get up early every day. 1. 12. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. 2. We must write a composition each night. 3. I must work tonight. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. 10. 6. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. Lea. DIDN´T.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. 4. 7. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. You must read this article. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. 8. 1 must write many letters. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. John must also take another language. los verbos modales DO / DOES. DID. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1.

I have to work today. 4. Smith has to go out of town. He __________ learn all the new words. 1 must must leave at once. 2. 3. 8. 11. We have to write a composition tonight. 6.Ex. Change to past and future time: 1. 4. change to past and future time: 1. He __________ spend more time on his English. They have to come back later. 2. 3. Change to negative form: 1. 10. We have to study tonight. John has to be here at two o’clock. We __________ telephone her right away. 6. They have to write many letters. We __________ make reservations at once. John has to stop his English lessons. I ____________ answer this letter at once. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . 7. We had to meet him at noon. Read the following with MUST. 3. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. 7. He __________ stay at home and rest. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. They have to study very hard. You have to wait a few minutes. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. We have to get up early. 9. Ex. 5. 2. She__________ attend class every day. Mary has to come with him. 8. He has to see a doctor. Then. 3. We all have to write a short story. 5. 4. Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. 12. He __________ go to the hospital right away. 4. 6. 10. 5. Ex. I have to get up early. He had to be there at two o’clock. I had to leave at once. 9.

4. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. 1. We have to prepare our homework every day. Change to interrogative form. 11. They will have to come back later. He will have to wait a few minutes. We have to work on Sunday. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John had to go to the hospital. WHAT TIME. 8. 5. ask questions with WHEN. We will have to learn many new words. 12. 9. 9. I have to buy a new pen. 8. 7. WHERE. Then. He had to leave at noon. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . 5. 6. 2. 10.. She has to rest a while because she´s tired 12. He has to take more exercise. They had to leave early.00 every morning. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. He had to buy several new books. We have to get up at 6. 10. They have to study every day. He had to return yesterday. 11.7. They have to rent an apartment soon. WHY.

mamas nalgas pecho. fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fiηger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fiηger/ middle finger /mídl fiηger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /riη fiηger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /θai/ thumb /θam / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) muñeca 4. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . The Trunk /(e truηk/ El tronco back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /bláder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. entrañas pecho. The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bíard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /héar/ Head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /æηkl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fíηger/ foot / feet /fu:t.BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov δe bódi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /laη/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mauθ/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /θrout/ tongue /táη/ tooth /teeth /tu:θ. ti:θ/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3.

un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante. lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . “al tiro” lo antes posible.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at this moment /at δe móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for δe táim bi:iη/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /yésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /δis mó:rniη/ this afternoon /δis a:fternú:n/ this evening /δis í:vniη/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:niη/ yesterday afternoon /yésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rniη/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /δe déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /δe déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in δe sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mánθ/ every year /évri yíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:niη/ every other day /évri áδer déi/ every other three days /évri áδer θrí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mánθ/ many times a year /méni táimz e yíar/ a long time ago /e lóη táim agóu/ many years ago /méni yíarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri loη agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /immídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato.

de vez en cuando.sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an δén/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. A short course in english for adult students 137 .

Bl 138 .

Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning. They may not use. 8... 9. 9.. 7. / You´ll have to wait. 4. 5. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. / I´ll have to get up. John had to be...You must come again tomorrow.. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. According to the schedule.. John had to stop.. 2. / He´ll have to see..... Must 6....... Ex. John didn´t have to go.. 2... 1. / John´ll have to stop...... He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center.. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. 4. 6.. Should / ought to 4. 8.. May I sit here.. 9. B.. Ex..Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I.. 12.. We won´t have to learn... He´s flying back to Washington DC.. They have to stay. / She´ll have to attend... We had to go. Ex. Attending a reception at the White House 3.. 2. 4. Mary had to come.... 14.. / He´ll have to stay.... 7. I have to write. They didn´t have to leave.. 3..10.. 5.... 1. 1. We had to study. 7. at what time are we getting there? PART II.We have to learn Ex. He didn´t have to be. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. 3. / I´ll have to answer. You can / may smoke here. He must be tired. You had to wait... Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. I have to work. She had to attend. 12.. Must 20. John also has to take. May 17. Sir? 9.. What will they do with the money they received? 8. 6. 1. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. 1.. 10.... They may visit us tomorrow 5. 4. 2. They had to write... 5.. We must not go. 1..11. We didn´t have to meet. 2.. Must / should . He can´t speak Spanish well. / We´ll have to make..He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center... 3.? / What should they do? 3. 1. A short course in english for adult students 139 .. 1... 6. Mary has to study. 3. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 3.. We have to prepare. 3. / He´ll have to go.. Ex. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center.. Can´t 15.. Must 3.. Can 5. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. Ex. Must 11. Can´t 13.. / They´ll have to write.. -I had to get up. Bob can´t speak. I had to work. Can 9. 5.can / may 10.? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. 5...11. We don´t have to work. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial. Should / ought to 21.. / He´ll have to learn. A. He had to spend. 3. Must 23. 9. He can run very fast. / Must we go... 10. 6. Can . 3.. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go. 2. 5.. We don´t have to prepare. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. 2. 2. 4. We had to hurry....... We had to telephone. That may / can happen again. / Should they take. 4. May 8. They´re going to stay several days with us.. 1. / May they use. 11.... 4.. Can / must 16. Should / ought to 18.. 2.. They shouldn´t take.. 2.. / We´ll have to telephone. / I´ll have to work. He had to stay. / We´ll have to hurry. 1..12... 5. I don´t have to buy. 4.. We don´t have to write. / We´ll have to go. 6.... They don´t have to study... We don´t have to get up.. 6.. 2. I have to get up. / John will have to be... He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. Mary will come to see us next week. He´s flying to Texas. You have to read. Mary and John have to fly. 3.8. We all had to write. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7.. Open answers Ex.. I promise you I will never do that again. 10.. He had to go. 7. Should / ought to 24... At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10.. Should / ought to 7.. 10... Can´t Ex. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. / We´ll have to study.. 11...5.. We have to write. May 2. / Mary will have to come.can´t 14... 12. / We´ll have to write. He worked very hard.. John has to go out. Can 12. We had to make. They had to come back.. He had to see. 8. I had to answer. What should I do now? 7.. 3.. 9. 6. / He´ll have to spend 7. Ex. / They´ll have to come back.. Ex... When are they traveling to the USA? 9... Should 19. 10.8.? / Why must we go? 4. He had to learn. Must 22...? / Which room may they use? Ex. Can you help me this afternoon? 8.. 4. / Can Bob speak.

Why does she have to rest a while? 12. When / What time did he have to leave? 2. What did he have to buy? 6.Ex. How long will he have to wait? 9. When did he have to return? 8. What do they have to do every day? 4. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7. When will they have to come back? 10. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. 5. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. 1.

4. 8. I ________________________ here. 7. /δéi wil bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. 5. we ________________________ in the USA.?) EXERCISES: Ex. (play) The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. 4. 1. 6. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. /δéi wóunt bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. 3. (visit) Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. 2. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. (travel) I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses.UNIT 11 PART I. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /δe prézident wil bí: fláiiη tu tókiou at δis táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. (do) We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. /δe tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl δéi bí: tráveliη in iú:rop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil δe prézident bí: dú:iη at δis táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:iη/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud. 3. (drive) The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. 3. lea y aprenda: 1. 2. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum δis í:vniη/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). 4. /δe tchíldren wil bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. es decir. lea y aprenda: 1. (work out) I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. (watch) What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . 9. (work) At this time next month. cuando otra acción ocurra. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæ ´terdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). 2. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. /wi: wil bí: hæviη /lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. 10. /línda wil bí: tráveliη in iúrop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. etc. Escuche. o when the program starts tonight /wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. at this time tomorrow /at δis táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana).

(work) Mr. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. 4. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. Review Practice. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. 6. ___________________________________________________ 6. of course. 9. (visit) At this time tomorrow. 3. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. 16. ___________________________________________________ 7. 3. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. 13. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. 2. 10. (cook) Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. 7. Ask questions using question words like What. (see) They _________ not ________________________ English very often. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. (have) They ________________________ Brazil next month. 6. we ______________________________ television. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. 9. 10. How long. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 8. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. 18. Mr. 2. (practise) What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. 4. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. 1. 11. (play) We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. etc. ___________________________________________________ 2. Where. 17. 142 Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. 3. 5. (read) What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) W___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. 4. (spend) At 10:30 last night. 2. (live) They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The students will be taking a test at 10. 7. (have dinner) Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. 3. we ________________________. 8. ___________________________________________________ 5. 5. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. the Past or the Future tenses. 4. ___________________________________________________ 4. (come) ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) A short course in english for adult students . Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contínuous Tense: 1. 5.2. (come) Mr. ___________________________________________________ 3. Use the Present.Ex. 14. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. (watch) John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. (come) They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. 15. 12. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow.

please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive.19... today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. please? (Informal) Imperative...please?.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor.. PART II A. Repeat your question. please? B: Sure Ex.. please? Would you mind waiting outside... using Could you.... 1.please? or Would you. Ask somebody to do the following things. Ask somebody to do the following things...+ infinitive. 5.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying... Pay attention. 2. 5. please? 1... Open the window. please?. 7. 6. A: Could you help me. 3. Sign your name here. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive.. please? Would you sign your name here... 23.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. A: Will you lend me your pen. 21. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold.. Speak more slowly.. or Will you. 4. MAKING REQUESTS . 20. Help me open the suitcase. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. (instead of = en vez de) 1. 4. instead of the simple imperative form. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex.. please? (Formal) Would you mind +.. Turn the radio down.. 2. Be quiet. 3. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wiδ pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche. 24.ing. Come back this afternoon. lea y aprenda: 1. using Can you. as a rule. Wait for me in the lobby. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. 22. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 .. Sit on this chair.. will you? Could you speak more slowly. Speak more slowly. 2.

Wait for me in the lobby. Ask him. Follow the instructions carefully. 144 A short course in english for adult students . 5. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. please? Stranger: Sure. Ask him. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. 3. B.. Take off your hat. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. go ahead. Sign your name here. You : _________________________________________________________ . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. certainly. Repeat your question. • Please don´t. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. 1. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you).ing. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. You : __________________________________________________________ . Escuche. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. Ask him. John? B: Sure. You : María. 3. Make requests. 7. Take off your hat. You: ____________________________________________________________ . 2. • Please do. Use the other elevator. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. Smith 4. Ask her to do that informally. John? John : Certainly. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. Ask him/her politely. You want Sr. 3. 6. of course. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station.. 4. Use the other elevator. please? 1 Speak more slowly. It´s too cold. Ask him. I didn´t know you were studying. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. Tom? Tom:: Of course. S-M-I-T-H.6. go ahead. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind. 7. 4. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. Turn the radio down. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

1. Ask his permission. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . C. Ask his permission. to turn the light on. 5. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Ask his permission. please. 4. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. 1. please • No. You want to go in . 7. Mr Jackson. come in please. 3. I read it this morning. Mr Jackson is working in his office. A short course in english for adult students 145 . please. to shut the window. Ask his permission. please. thank you. Ask permission to do things. You: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. go ahead. Jackson: Sure. Ask your host´s permission. Mr. You want to turn on the TV. 2. but keep the volume down. It´s too cold outside. to spell your last name. You: ________________________________________________________________________________________. You want to ask a question. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. Ask the speaker´s permission. It´s all yours. Sir? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. 2. 6. please do.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. You want to use your friend´s lighter. Bob? Bob: Sure. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . You want to take a look at his newspaper. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. Ask your mother´s permission. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. I´m working. here you are. You: ________________________________________________________________________________ .EXERCISES Ex. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • Shall I + Infinitive? • Do you want me to + Infinitive? • Would you like me to + Infinitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. You are at a friend´s house. please. mum? Your mother: Yes. Jack? Jack. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. 3. Follow the instructions carefully. You´re at a conference. 1. I´ve got a bad cold. You want to open the window. I don´t need it now. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes.

please. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. thanks. etc. Let´s do that. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. please. I can manage myself. of course. I don´t understand English very well yet. that´s a good idea. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. I don´t understand French. please. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. 6. EXERCISES Ex. 10. I´m a bit busy right now. certainly / Yes. to call back later today. Sure. 2. to repeat your question. please. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. 8. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. It´s getting late. Sorry I can´t. 146 A short course in english for adult students . I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. thanks. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. 9. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. 1. to speak more slowly. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. 7. To spend the summer holidays with us. 5.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. to tell Mary that I want to see her. 3. 4. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. D.4. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. I´m a little hungry. To go to the seaside next weekend. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to... to help me complete the application form. Why not? Yes.

EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. I´d love to. but peter did. lea y aprenda. let´s do that. Escuche. To go to the arts exhibition. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. It´s a pleasant evening. It´s much cheaper. but peter liked the party. John didn´t like the party. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. ALSO. NOT. To play tennis tomorrow morning. John went to the party. Las palabras ALSO. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. John went to the party and so did Peter. John went to the party. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. 2. 2) John. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress.. To stay at home and watch TV . Jane: I also like it very much. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not.. John didn´t go to the party. John went to the party.TOO. let´s do that. Peter: And so will Janet! A short course in english for adult students 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. They´re very nice people. Mary will come to the party tonight. John didn´t like the party. 9. It´s a very interesting exhibition. Peter didn´t go to the party either.5. 10. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. John went to the party. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. Peter went to the party as well. Why not.too. Peter: And Janet will come too! 147 . / BUT +S+ MV 1. 6. Peter went to the party. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. but peter didn´t go to the party. Jane: So do I . Peter also went to the party. A. 7. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones.. but peter didn´t..

La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 148 A short course in english for adult students . He´s going to go to France. (my wife) 8. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. Las palabras NOT. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. 1. or BUT 1. Mary: Neither do I. 10. (he) 5. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. lea y aprenda. EXERCISES Ex.. 3.3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. lea y aprenda. 2. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ We´ve got a big house. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. 6. or do you speak another language? So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. Mary can speak Italian well. 2a. Ann: I didn´t see you either. ___________________ John is not going to go there. then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. 9. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ Mary is going to go to Spain. Escuche. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. 8. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. ___________________ my husband can. Mary likes pie for dessert. Tom: And so was his brother . Peter doesn´t understand Italian. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. She comes here every day. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. Mary: I don´t like it either.. (I) 4.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. Ex. (Carmen) 2. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. John walks to school. 3. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. (Jane) 1. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. Ann: Nor did I! 4. EITHER. 7. (the secretary) 3. (We) 7. 5. Escuche. 1 watch TV after dinner. I don´t understand it ___________________ I can´t drive a car. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. 4. What language do you speak. He liked the picture.

My car isn´t very old. (Carmen) 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 .. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). (they) 11. but Jane does.(My wife´s car) 12. Now. Mary should work harder. Bob doesn´t like coffee. (Carmen) 2.9. (I) 13. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (Peter) 6. Mary can´t speak Italian well. She doesn´t come here every day.EITHER. first use NOT. (he) 5. They mustn´t pay more. (I) Bob likes coffee. (my wife’s car) 12. (you) 14. I didn´t eat there yesterday. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. (you) 14. (I) 13. John walks to school. My car is very old. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (I) 4. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (They) 11. They must pay more. (Jane) 1. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. (My friends) 10. 3. (the secretary) 3. Mary can speak Italian well. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (the secretary) 3. Complete these sentences with BUT. but Jane doesn´t. John didn´t go to the movies. (The children) 9. John doesn´t go to school . They were very busy.. They weren´t very busy. We won´t go by train. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. 2b. We will go by train. 1.

Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. Mary shouldn´t work harder. 3. My car is very old. “What did Peter send yesterday”. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. She comes here every day. (my wife’s car) 12.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. The teacher gave some dictation to us. He liked the picture. 4. Como ud.4. “What did Mary buy?. (they) 11. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. (Peter) 6. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. They must pay more. (We) 7. John went to the movies with us. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. A su vez. A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). 5. She brought the book to me. He sent a letter to me. Ex. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. Mary likes pie for dessert. (you) 14. He told the story to us. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. (he) 5. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. 1 watch TV after dinner. Mary bought him a pair of shoes. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. They were very busy. 2. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. (I) 13.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. 1. We will go by train. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. 6. (my friends) 10. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. 1 ate there yesterday. He sent some candy to his sister. (my wife) 8. 150 He gave the money to me. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). (the children) 9. Del mismo modo. lea y aprenda.

7. He bought some flowers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. He gave me some books. He sent his mother several letters. They gave us some magazines. 4. They brought us many presents from abroad. Please give us some dictation today. John gladly lent me the money. Please hand me that book. 2. They sent an invitation to us. 12. 12. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us. 11. 3. 9. They sent us an invitation to the party. 1 gave him the note which you sent. Henry told us the story of his trip. 5. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. 10. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. 11. John lent some money to his friends. 10. 8.7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 2. 8. 9. They sent us the material right away. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 .

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél(/ La salud arthritis /a:rθráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hélθ/ heart attack /ha:ræt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rúmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r θróut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tuθ eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:piη kof/ tos convulsiva.

. / Will the students be taking. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3.travel PART II A.. please? Ex. 10.? 4.. did ..? 2..be doing 10.going 20. don´t we invite. Could you / Would you use. Did . 4...... Mike won´t be washing.. Could you / Would you repeat.. 1... 1. Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me. please? 3...... Ex. 1. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. smokes 23.? C. Mr Perez? 2.stay / are .buy 12. does .. Would you mind signing.. 9. 8.stay 9. Ex. were watching 4. please? 3. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.. will be doing 7. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait...do 10..going to arrive / are .? 3.reading 9. please? 2... will ..be doing 11.. Could you / Would you speak.. Ex.please? 4.. don´t we go.. Would you mind using.. comes 5.? 6.. me to speak. 1.. Ex.Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5.. please? 4. go. will be driving 4.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex.. did . please? 7.. saw 6. May I / Do you mind if I open. 2. call back.expecting 15. please? Ex. did .. please? Ex.. please? B..? 5.. 10.Would you mind speaking..... will be working 2.please? 2.be doing Ex. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7.... 1... 1. Can you / Will you speak. to spell my.come 5. turn. Can you / Will you give me. please? 6.. like to go. will be playing 8.be / are .5.. 1.. Can I use your.please? 5. will have dinner 7... will be living 6....? 3.phone 14...and watching.. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3..? 3... please? / Would you mind showing me. 3. 4. will be watching 10. will be working out 9. me to get you.. / Will they be running. / Will Mike be washing... will be cooking 8. Could you / Would you turn. 8. Can I take.? 7. D. 1... 9.... 4.. me to repeat my.. Do . will ... will . Will .? 2. 1..arrive / are . will .going to go / are ..doing 8.. Can you / Will you call me up. 1. is playing 2.. Would you mind repeating. 5. were .... Would you mind taking.. Were . 5. Could you / Would you help me.. play. don´t we take. 1. Could you / Would you sign. will ...... 2..get up 18. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. Can I turn. sitting. 1. 2.come 13.? 4.... me to help you.going to be 19.. Can you / Will you help.. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex.. will.write 17.. please? 6. shut.. May I / Do you mind if I ask. do .please? 3 Can you / Will you open . Will .... were . will . Can you / Will you sit.. 6.. staying.. 7.3. Would you mind waiting. don´t we travel.. please? 4.. 1 They won´t be running. like to spend..living 16.? 6. / Will Hans be working.. please? 5. 3..... 3. please? / Would you mind spelling. Can you / Will you turn down.. May I / Do you mind if I go in..arriving 21. will be entertaining 5.? 5.. please? 4... 6. does . 7. please? 7..... are . Could you / Would you show me. 4..spend . Can you / Will you come. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6.. will be visiting. will be working 4.. will be having 2. May I / Do you mind if I use..staying 22.? Ex. 1. Can you / Will you be. The students won´t be taking. will visit 3... me to translate.. Could you / Would you take. did . please? 5...please? 7. will be travelling 3... Would you mind turning. 1...going to stay / are .... 6.. please? 6. 1. Ex.. Can you / Will you pay. Hans won´t be working.. will ..? 2..go / are . A short course in english for adult students 153 ..put on 24.practice 7.. tell Mary that you... Could you / Would you spell.. and resting...

..and neither / nor did Peter. 2a.11.. 1. John went. They were. and my friends didn´t eat. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come. 10. either / I don´t eat. He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex...and neither / nor does he 5. He liked.. Mary can. and the secreatry also eats. 2b. 10. 11.. 1.. and so do I 4. 6. and they will also go.... either / John doesn´t walk. 7. My wife´s car is. They must pay. Mary likes.. They gave some magazines to us.... 1.....either / She doesn´t come... They sent the material to us right away... but 7... but I wasn´t. / I eat.. and neither / nor was I. either 4. 1. 10.. too / as well 8.. Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes... and they won´t go. They weren´t. but the children do... John lent his friends some money 11.They brought many presents to us from abroad... My car is... too / She comes.. and you should work... but my wife´s car is... John didn´t go. Mary can speak... Ex.. and the children also like. John went.either / We won´t go. He told us the story 5.. I eat.. and we liked...8.. / They must pay..either... 1.. John walks.. We will go. 14. 6. I eat. but we did... / John doesn´t walk... Mary can´t.. They mustn´t pay. and you shouldn´t work. 2.. / Mary doesn´t like. John walks. but my wife does.. I watch. and my wife doesn´t watch. 11.. either Ex.. 3.. / We´ll go. and neither / nor did we 7. but Peter did.. He sent his sister some candy...either / Mary doesn´t like.. She comes. / They weren´t... 1. and we didn´t like.. 7. 12. He gave some books to me.. and Peter also went.. / I don´t watch. either / They must pay. They sent an invitation to the party to us.. but my friends did. 4.. and so must we Ex. Mary doesn´t like. He sent several letters to his mother. and my wife also watches. too.. 3... but the secretary does 3. 1 gave the note which you sent to him. and so does my wife 8. and he doesn´t come. and my friends also ate... and so was I 13. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t.... and I walk.. / I watch... Mary should work...... as well / They were. 5. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. Ex. She comes.. / I don´t watch.either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12... and Carmen can... and my wife´s car isn´t. either 6. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go.. 4.. and I don´t walk.12. and the children don´t like..7.. and my wife´s car is... and so should you. but they won´t. and so did we 7.... and neither / nor must we Ex.. 6... / John didn´t go. I diidn´t eat.. I don´t eat. and neither / nor does my wife 8.. but we didn´t / He didn´t like..5... 8. I ate.. 10.... but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat. too / Mary can.. 9. John gladly lent the money to me.... 8.. but I was. either / He didn´t like.. but 9.. as well / John walks.. 14. and so can Carmen 2.... 9. She brought me the book..either / Mary should work... and so does the secretary. Mary likes..... too / as well 2... / I ate. but I don´t. 2.and so did Peter. 1.... and neither / nor do the children 9..too / Mary should work. but 3.....PART III A.. Will you lend me your pen? 12.. / John went... and neither / nor do I 4.... as well... My car isn´t.... 13... We´ll go..... They must pay and we must pay. 10.9. He liked..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat. He didn´t like. and neither / nor did my friends. and neither / nor should you. The teacher gave us some dictation 6. and he comes... but we must B.. Please give some dictation to us today. but he does. 3 He sent me a letter 4.... and so do the children 9.. but they will. / Mary likes.. They were. and so did my friends... but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work.... but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak. We won´t go... 3... but the children don´t. He gave his friend a ring. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students .. and so will they. John doesn´t walk.... but my wife doesn´t. I watch. also 5. Henry told the story of his trip to us..... and the secretary doesn´t eat.and so does he 5.. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay.. and neither / nor does the secretary. as well / He liked. / We won´t go.... 11.. but you should .. 6... I don´t watch. 3. He bought his wife some flowers. He gave me the money 2.. either / They weren´t.... and neither / nor will they... also 10... 14.. and we mustn´t pay.. and Carmen can´t. I ate... Mary should work.. and I was. She doesn´t come.. and Peter didin´t go... but Carmen can 2. Mary shouldn´t work. and I wasn´t.either / I didn´t eat.. 13.. either / Mary can´t.. They sent us an invitation. but I do. 1....

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

decided. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. Ej. forma) de un verbo principal. /iu:v/. puede ver. A short course in english for adult students 157 . /áiv bí:n δéar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. habremos Uds. como por ejemplo: I´ve. Curiosamente. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter. etc. To work . Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. /hí:z/. hemos Uds. You´ve. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. Como Ud. She´s /shí:z..worked.. /méri haz ríten anáδer nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hæv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. Escuche. Ellos han contestado la carta. y por lo tanto Ud.. He´s. /aiv/. To decide . habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. /ái hav sí:n δæt múvi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. /δéiv á:nserd δe léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. Habíamos Uds.decided .studied . forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra.worked .. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos.. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos.studied. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. To study . han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos..

three or four times /θrí: or fó:r támiz/. twice /twáis/. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora.. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. Lea./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud.. durante). /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. Yes. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before.El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. Lea. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræηk tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. /δe tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. never /nóu/néver/ No. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy..? vez. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. una vez.. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes.. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá: st mándi/. They visited me in the winter of 1995. since 10:30 /sins tén θé:rti/. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. etc. many times /méni támiz/. for ten years /for tén yíarz/. /δéiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). tambien. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún). nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv δéi éver vízitid iú: in δe wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B.. /áiv sí:n δat dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. several times /sévral támiz/. Lea. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice.. once. /yés wáns δéi vízitid mi in δe wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio.. en las negaciones de debe usar yet. /áim shó:r δat áiv sí:n δt fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. /hav iú éver. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/.? Lea. Lea. hasta este momento.

/δéi hav sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. enterarse partir. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. Generalmente se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævnt/ HASN´T /hæznt/). conocer aprender. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud.? EXERCISES Ex. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz δe tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. 1. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. /áiv olrédi sí:n θæt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. We haven´t had breakfast yet. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. Mary hasn´t sold her car. haber oir guardar.Lea. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. dejar prestar perder. encontrar olvidar conseguir. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. salir. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . servirse. /δéi hævent sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav δéi sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav δéi sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Mary has sold her car. mantener saber. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar.

Your train ________________ already ________________. He isn´t in Chile. The soccer game has already finished. 1. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . (be) 3. (go) 10. He knows it well. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. The tennis game________________ just ________________. 6. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. (work) 9. John has sent them a fax. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. (receive) 7. llevar enseñar decir pensar. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. (see) 5. (speak) 12. 3. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. John ________________ for that company since 1987. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. 3.conocer pagar poner. Peter has had dinner already. but I´m sure I know him. I don´t remember when. comprender usar (ropa). (live) 6. 2. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. colocar leer correr. Hurry up! (start) 2.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. (meet) Ex. 4. creer entender. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. 5. He________________ to America. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. (go) 8. 2. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. (leave) 4. The plane has already left. They have studied the report. I ________________ that man before. Sir. fabricar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. vestir escribir Ex. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. confeccionar reunirse. He´s reading it now. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11.

Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. como /k/.Ex. ___________________________________________________ El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. _______________________________________________ Yes. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. /t/. 3. como /m/. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. 1. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. 9. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. /g/. 7. 5. 2. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. _________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. 11. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. /p/.. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. When. 4. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 2. 6. /d/. 2. 10. Where. 8. 5. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 5. etc. How. 5. John? ___________________________________________________ Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. 6. 6. ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. /b/. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . How long. etc. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What. 4. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. 8. etc. ___________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. 9. 7. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. 10. ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. /l/. ______________________________________________ No. 6. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. 3. 1. 4. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. todavía? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. 4. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. 7. 12.

-ge. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. -sh. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . -x.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. -oof. no siguen la regla anterior. -ce. banjo. etc). soprano. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. -ch. Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. -ff. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. piano. solo.

tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ .: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /θí:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /δí:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipóθesis/ parenthesis /parénθesis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipóθesi:z/ parentheses /parénθesi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memorδda/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:θ/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ five several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:θ/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7. tornado / to:rnéidou /. zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. volcanos/volcanoes /volkéinouz/ .

salir. como ud. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. After playing tennis. seguramente recordará. 1. to write. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. etc. I enjoy playing tennis. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To risk /risk/ arriesgar. continuar. Además. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). etc. correr el riesgo de To quit /kuit/ dejar. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. I heard some surprising news. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópiη/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. abandonar To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir To practise /práktis/ practicar Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. to speak. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). speaking. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. aceptar como cierto To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. no aceptar como cierto To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. They went sightseeing in the morning. 164 A short course in english for adult students . (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóutiη/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuliη/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpiη/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsiη/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhiη/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hænd gláidiη/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háikiη/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógiη/ ir a trotar To go running /góu rániη/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séiliη/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópiη/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:iη/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéitiη/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:iη/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáiviη/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swímiη/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu trékiη/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:iη/ ir a esquiar (acuat.B. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. writing. they went to the library. Ann will soon finish typing the letter.

. (leave) ______________________________ to bed. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. seguir insistir en continuar. mantenerse esperar con ansia. (pay) 1 can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other. seguir.we:rθ/ ¿Vale la pena. Bob will soon get used to living in this country. rendirse continuar. 1. 3. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. 4. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. (go) Ex. 6.. Es inutil It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. 2.. 5.. 4.. A short course in english for adult students 165 . Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /δeaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena.esta/e. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomáticas que a pesar de contener la preposición to van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v. They kept on talking for hours.?) There´s no use waiting any longer. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ There´s not much point in /δeaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this.Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposición to) van seguidas de un gerundio. (say) The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it. Por lo tanto.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rθwail/ ¿Vale la pena.. mantenerse soñar con. 3. I look forward to seeing you soon.. (eat) Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. Ann is fond of gardening. the old woman locked all the doors. 7. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get θru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex... seguir. worth /iz δis. (work) We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. 2.. 1. discutir Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last. 2. (take) He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course.

Ann: You broke into the shop. 2. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. 11. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. 8. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. 8. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? I enjoy _______________________ to music. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. 5. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. idea to travel during the rush hour. 10. Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ________________________________ until. 9. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob: No. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. Bob: No. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. it’s true. 2. no problem. 7. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. 3. _______________________________________? 4. 1. Ex. Use -ING. 6. 1 aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1.5. 7. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. 1. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? If you walk ínto the road without looking. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write He tried to avoid answering my question. 5. 9. I really must do it today. 4. You can´t stop me doing what I want. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. Ex. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 166 A short course in english for adult students . Sorry! Bob admitted. Bob: We could go the cinema. 1 dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. It´s not a good. 2. 4. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. not really. He wants to carry on _______________________. 10. 12. 1 don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. 6. 1 didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6.

Could you turn the radio down. 2. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. 7. We will not visit the Smiths. 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 8. 2. She won’t go to the university. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 5. Use gerunds. (go) Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) We look forward _______________________ you soon. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. I will play tennis. She’s a very interesting person. 8. 6. 10. (wait) Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 5. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. 4. (drive) John got tired _______________________ for us.5. They will fly to Mexico. 4. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. They will not drive in their new car. 6. He will not work in his father’s store. 1. (see) lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. He will live in a dormitory. (finish) Ex. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. 12. 2. They will stay home this summer. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. I aIways enjoy talking to her. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. John will study to be an engineer. (study) Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. She will study music. He will not remain a bachelor. He will marry Helen. l’m not feeling very well. (see) The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. We’re going to the movie tonight. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. 3. (take) There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. 9. (do) We are thinking _______________________ French. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (hit) There is little chance _______________________ her again. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. They won’t go abroad.

They’re considering _______________________ We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. news! I feel great. Ex. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. if necessary.Ex. 8. 11. Well. 2. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. 14. try. I enjoy _______________________ sports. 6. and 1 still don’t understand it. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. yesterday. Add a preposition after the gerund.m. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. 6. 4. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed.. Keep _______________________. 1. A: Good. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework._______________________ their homework. 9. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. she dusted the furniture. 10. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. 12. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. B: Oh. I´d be glad to. 3. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. I’m listening to you. It was cold and rainy yesterday. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ could you he1p me in the kitchen? B: Sure. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. try again. We had a blizzard. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. I don’t cough any more. don’t give up. Beth doesn’t like her job. 168 A short course in english for adult students . 7. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. B: Let´s go. The Porters´ house is too small. 8. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. 13. lt’s slowly falling apart. 2. Sometimes students put off. 10. it has. then. 9. I´m not tired yet. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. B: Well. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. 5. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ It´s driving me crazy.

A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes.. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Mr.. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. George and Jane know all the latest dances. When there’s a strong wind. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. “Three free trees. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. She spends hours in the water. What do they like to do? hey like _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. so the lake is completely frozen. Answer the questions. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. It´s winter now. He usually takes long walks in the woods. “ Ex. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. A: I didn’t understand what you said. On weekends in the winter. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. Jim Clark is a nature lover.9. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. 14. Mr. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. Jim and his wife live near the sea. The ice is smooth. She runs a couple of miles every day. I said. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 11.ING 1. Use the expressions GO +.

PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / lóη/ among / máη/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t δ bæk v/ at the bottom of / t δ bótom v/ at the top of / t δ top ηv/ before /bifó.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:θ/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúriη/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in δ kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /θru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wiδ/ within /wiδin/ without /wiδáut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. hacia hacia. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. at 4.

Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital.. He gave her a beautiful diamond. pues por lo tanto.... del mismo modo por lo tanto. she came to class. ya sea. de este modo en cambio. in addition.como.. he seems to know a lot about our customs. nevertheless. 2. then.. The yard is too big.. aunque. He´s my best friend. nonetheless... we have to wash the car. por consiguiente así. así mismo mientras tanto además..no:r/ not only. On one hand. entonces.o:r/ neither.... the house is not very comfortable. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar. next /nékst/ a pesar de.. de lo contrario similarmente.. He didn´t study hard enough. we´ve known each other all our lives. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. it has an excellent location 14. 5.. por otra parte sin embargo.. acto seguido sin embargo... on the other hand. debido a que no both. so he failed the exam.... al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. First. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ de hecho. 10. 12. 11. por lo tanto then /δen/ sin embargo. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital.but also /nót óunli. I´m getting along quite well.. 4. sin embargo. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque.. yet she didn´t pass her exam.and. por cierto thus /δas/ inicialmente. 3.and/ either. however.ni. 7. no obstante después.. 6.. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad.. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néverδelés/ en consecuencia. besides. we can´t afford the house. furthermore. 8. en consecuencia posteriormente.or /í:δer. my roommate is not doing so well.nor /ní:δer.B. /bóuθ. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdiηli/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ólδou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /férδermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan θiη/ for that reason /for δæt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1. ni.. but he didn´t do well in the test.. no sólo. he took her to Europe.sino que también.. Mary was sick. 13. he went to the post office.but ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto. en realidad in addition /in adíshon/ además in spite of that /in spáit v δæt/ a pesar de ello in the first place /in δ fé:rst pléis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in δ mí:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in δ seim wéi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan hænd/ por un lado ´ on the other hand / n δi áδ r hænd/ por otro lado ´ to begin with /tu bigín wiδ/ para comenzar to start with /tu stá:rt wiδ/ para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . Alice studied very hard. no obstante ello de otro modo. The student speaks English well. 9. It´s cold outside.. he went to the bank.. no obstante therefore /δéarfo:r/ en efecto. con posterioridad por lo tanto. o.. enseguida.. no obstante nonetheless /nanδeles/ igualmente otherwise /áδerwaiz/ finalmente. He studied hard as well. moreover.

Bl 172 .

being 7. 1. going out this evening 3. moving into a larger house 3. 6. 4. eating 6. turning the radio down. 7. 3.? Ex. waiting a few minutes. What have they bought? 3. riding 7. applying 5. on going 3.. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. Ex. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. going to 4. visiting Ex. No. making 3... has been 3.left 4. laughing 6. vacuuming 5. I´ve never been there 2.. travelling during the rush hour 3. please? 6. have . No. What have you eaten? 8. without / after paying 4. I´ve driven one once or twice. buying 8. playing tennis 3. not having a license 5. has worked 9. Ex. standing up 4. Where has John been? 9.been 10.1 1. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . 3. have met Ex. speaking 3. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. of taking 12. hitting 9. 1. 2. 1. 5. 9. from hitting 6. answering 11. before eating 3. waiting 2. 2.. How long have we / you waited for them? 12.. 2. has gone 8.. instead of remaining a bachelor 8.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7. seeing 10. about studying 9. They´ve been here several times before. (Possible answers) 2.. 1.. before going Ex. they´ve never seen one 4... of doing 8. tomorrow 4. 3. practising 11. has. visiting 12. to seeing 5.. before leaving 7. snowing 7. 5. 5.. she´s come here a couple of times. has spoken 12. reading 4. The general has already gone to the meeting. of waiting 11. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6. 4. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening.. being 8. going away. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. 3. Breaking / having broken 6. / Have they given her. 1. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. trying Ex. by working 5.read 11. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. Yes. have seen 5. of finishing Ex. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. What have the boys done today? 11. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2. speaking 13. without / after saying 2. 6.instead of working in his father´s store 6.. going out for a walk 5. 8. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex.. Ex. 6. he´s lived abroad several times 6.instead of driving in their new car Ex. breaking down Ex. looking for 10. of swimming 2. have lived 6. doing 6. of driving 10. I haven´t read that book yet.. 8. I´ve never seen him in person... 2. They´ve studied English for more than two years. What has Mary told you about that? 7. working 14.instead of going to the university 3. using 9. 1. 2. John? 5. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5.. (Possible answers) 2. They haven´t given her. being 12. having 10. 1. 7. working 8.. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. Why has he gone to bed? 4. has . has . Ex.Yes. washing 6. No. How many books have they sold today? 6.received 7.. listening 4. 2. instead of visiting the Smiths 5..Key to answers UNIT 12 A. she´s been there twice. Yes.. has . They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4. about taking 6.started 2.. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2. taking 9.. going for a swim 5. of seeing 7. taking 5. 4. in speaking 4. Yes. How long have you worked in the army? 10. instead of going abroad 4.

2. repeating that Ex. went camping 4. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. helping him 8. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. like to go skiing 7. doing things / doing his homework 7. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. to go shopping 5. 10. 2. to go water-skiing 3. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. like to go sailing 12. trying 6. 11. 174 A short course in english for adult students . go sight-seeing 13. like to go sky-diving 14. reading a good book 4.Ex. goes bowling 9. smoking 5. go dancing 10. likes trekking 8. are going to go ice-skating 11. etc. goes jogging 6.

/hi:z bí:n wérkiη δéar for abáut tú: áuarz/. /δéiv lívd in δe sáuθ éver sins δéi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . /δéi hav bí:n líviη in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. 1. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. hasta esta fecha. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. (sit) The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. Lea. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. /wí:v bí:n stádiiη iηglish for óuver tú: mánθs/ It´s been raining for about an hour. Miami desde 1985. /δéiv bi:n líviη in δe sáuθ for at lí:st tú mánθs/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rkiη δéar for mó:ar δan tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav δei bí:n líviη δéar véri lóη/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu loη hav iú: bi:n præktisiη íηglish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:iη/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 1. 4.? EXERCISES Ex. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. (work) That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. 2. Lea. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rkiη δéar sins éit θé:rti/.UNIT 13 PART 1. /its bí:n ráiniη for abáut an áuar/. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. 3. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . /hi:z wé:rkt δéar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours.30.

etc. Where. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. When. 1. and b) interrogative. (run) The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. 8. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. 3. 2. (discuss) Ex. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 176 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. 10. 9. 1. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house.5. (write) The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. (work out) The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. (read) Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. Ask questions using question words like What. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Bob´s been swimming all morning. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. Jane´s been feeling well since March. How long. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 6.

(II) A. verse. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. TO WISH /wish/ desear. verse. TO PLAN /plæn/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. Peter wants to study engeneering. I promise to help you. He pretended to be reading the paper. 2. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. que son las siguientes: 1. They seem to be doing well now. etc. negarse a Amenazar. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. The woman pretends to know everything. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. /si:m/ parecer. simular Prometer Rehusar. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. The students tend to be negligent. pensar. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. simular. She promised not to be late. TO DECIDE planear. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice.PART II. simular. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. no lograr Olvidar To hope /houp/ To learn /lε:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /θréten/ To want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disε´:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. so I agreed to lend him some money. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. We aim to increase our exports to Europe.

I´d love to go to the club. We expect you to be there soon. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. Let me carry your bag for you. El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. I´d hate the boys to do it here. when. them. saber.. B. TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir. I begged them to see the photos. Do you understand what to do? 5. He asked to take part. (No se debe decir. Hot weather makes me feel tired. etc. I would prefer /wud prifε preferiría ´:r/ I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. We expect to be there soon. Por favor. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. señora Please let me go out. TO TELL /tel/ decir. I don´t mean you to do it now. They don´t mean to do it now. Bob taught us how to use the computer. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. I begged to see the photos. where. me. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. him. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar.3. déjeme salir I want to go there. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive.Mary. the student. mostrar. I would like to go. I´d hate to do that here. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part.. TO KNOW /nóu/. solicitar. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. “You make me TO feel happy”) Tú me haces sentir feliz The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. Permítame llevarle su bolso. Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola. 178 A short course in english for adult students . Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. madam. Verb + Wh. 4. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. 6. I´d prefer to do it now. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. pedir.

3. 6. We’ve got a new computer in our office. I can manage. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________to the airport in time. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. She promised not_____________________________ late. 1. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. 5. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. (watch) It was a nice day. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. D. 3. please? EXERCISES Ex. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. (go) I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. (parte de la acción) Los oí cantando una canción We heard them sing ten songs. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. Mary: OK. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. (call) A short course in english for adult students 179 . Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. It’s relaxing. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. 2. (acción completa) Los oí cantar 10 canciones. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. Jack : Please help me. 6. (bark) Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. 5. Hans: OK. 1. 2. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. I enjoy _____________________________ television. When I’m tired. Ex. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. 7. (acción completa) La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle We heard them singing a song. 4. Put the verb into the correct form to-Infinitive or -ing 1. I wonder where Sue is. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. Complete the sentences for each situation. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. We were all too afraid to speak.C. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) I’m not in a hurry. 4. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. thanks. 1. 3. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) They don’t have much money. (go) It’s a nice day. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. It’s driving me mad. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. fine. 2. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet.

(seem) That car has broken down. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. He has lost weight. 3. ____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Yes.(seem) Tom is worried about something. 1. 6. Sylvia: Be careful. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. My father said I could use his car. Sylvia warned 5. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can 1 go now or do ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. (seem) My English is getting better. 6. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. of course.. 3. 1. 4. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. 6. I will. 7. (find) Ex. 7. 1.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 5. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. Ex. I didn’t know _____________________________. 3. 2.. 4. Complete the questions. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. 2.(tend) They have solved the problem. 4. I was surprised that it rained. 2. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. ____________________________________________________________________ Jane. TO SHOW. 2. 5. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. 4. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? ____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No ____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. TO REPEAT. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. 8.. (appear) You know a lot of people. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. 6. TO WAIT 1.. (miss) 10. TO LEND. TO SHUT. Sue told Hans to lock the door. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (have) 9. Sue: Lock the door. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 5. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students .8. We were hungry. I was really astonished. (appear) David forgets things.

I like to listen to music while I´m studying. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. (I said that. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. 5. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or infinitive (with or without to). ________________________________________________________________________________ 9.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. We continued to work until 10:30. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. you are able to travel round more easily. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.. 2. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. 4. a diferencia de los anteriores. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. I remember doing that. He looks older when he wears glasses. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. arrepentirse. If you’ve got a car. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. (go) I’m in a difficult position. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. 1. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior.3. (I remembered I had to do that. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. VERBS +. 9. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. My lawyer said 1 shouldn’t say anything to the police. 7. recordarse. I regret saying what I said. I was told that 1 shouldn’t believe everything he says. It made me _____________________________ (cry) Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. TO STOP /stop/ parar. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. After discussing the economy. (smoke) I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. (study) E. 3. I love to go to baseball games. 6. I remembered to do that. The minister went on talking for two hours. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. I think you should know the truth.continuar. TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno. A short course in english for adult students 181 . What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 8.. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. estos cambian de significado de la oración. sin cambiar de significado. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. My lawyer advised. The food is awful (eat) The film was very sad. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. parar. detenerse. 9. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me.

They denied _____________________________the money. (be) I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. 18. 15. (talk) Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. I clean (= completely) forgot. (jog) The company will continue _____________________________ new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. (break) The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. (go) (shop) 24. I’m too tired. 1. 1. (camp) My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. (get). (eat) Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) I like _____________________________ new people. That’s not what I meant! 1 meant _____________________________ just the opposite. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. 9. 4. (meet) 1 hope _________________________ you again soon. 3. (answer) One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. 12. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 8. (steal) I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much.’ (shut) I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. Ex. 3. 3. Please remember to lock the door when you go out._____________________________you any money. (help) I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. 5. 12. 6. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. 8. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. 1 promise _____________________________ on time. (go) I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. 11. (cry) Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. 9. 7. 16. 2.EXERCISES Ex. 14. 1. 3. 17. 15. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. I want _____________________________this afternoon. 1. (hire) (come) 22. (see) The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. (drive) I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 don’t remember . 4. (meet) The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. (watch) Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 1 won’t be late. (say) 23. 14. 13. 7. 13. 2. 19. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. (go) I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. 1 haven’t got enough money. She didn’t answer the phone. 10. 5. (go) Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. (lock) I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. (get) We finished _____________________________ around seven. 10. 20. 11. 6. 2. 16. 2. Sometimes either form is possible. (move) What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate _____________________________ to school. 21. (live) Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. (write) Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. I’ll phone her tomorrow. 182 A short course in english for adult students . Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window.

(Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. 2. 8. She looked up and said hello to me. 9. 10. I want a different job. It is too expensive. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. mum. 19. (rain) Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. 4. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. (live) I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. 10. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. Ex. 6. 17. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. 18. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. This jacket is dirty.(buy) They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. 8. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. (lock) I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. (wash) I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . 20. As a matter of fact I do it every day. I saw him _____________________________ his car. It needs _____________________________. 16. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. 3. remember _____________________________ her my regards. 14. 11. 6. (watch) Where did they agree_____________________________. won’t you? 5. Smith. 12. When you see Mandy tomorrow. This is very urgent. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. 1. 1 don’t regret _____________________________ it. (go) We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. Keith joined the company 15 years ago.4. (move) I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. GERUND. 5. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. 7.George? (do) Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. (go) It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. 4. Someone must have taken my bag. 7. TO-INFINITIVE. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. I´ve already done my homework. 12. (talk) I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. 9. 11. (watch) I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. 15. or did you forget? (phone) I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. BARE INFINITIVE. 13. (move) He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. (wash).

I´m doing the exercise well. 7. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. 10. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. _______________________________________________________________? She studies with you. isn´t she? You know him well. 11. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ____________________________________________________________? Mr. You were absent from class yesterday. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. _______________________________________________________? You live uptown. ____________________________________________? 3. 12. 2. did he? The boys can´t speak French. __________________________________________________________? He has to work tomorrow.PART III TAG ENDINGS. _____________________________________? 5. You don´t know him well. 4. ______________________________________________? Both men look very much alike. ___________________________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . The boy can´t speak French. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. isn’t he?) 2. ______________________________________________________? They will be here early. You are busy today. ____________________________________________________? 4. has he? Como Ud. George is a very tall boy. ______________________________________________________? 7. He comes here every day. ___________________________________________________________? He will be back later. They were both absent from the lesson. 8. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. ____________________________________________? 9. ___________________________________________________? I´m your best friend. ___________________________________________________? Ex. _______________________________________________________? He has many friends here. You know him well. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. 9. ____________________________________ ? (He comes here every day. The boy can speak French. ________________________________________________________? 8. 2. 6. 1. 14. Smith has seen that movie. ____________________________________________________________? Henry left at two o’clock. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. The wind is blowing very hard. ________________________________________________________? There´s some more milk in the fridge. Mary is at home now. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. doesn’t he?) She can speak French well. ____________________________________________________________? 6. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. 3. ___________________________________________________________? He left at two o’clock. It is beginning to rain. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. John is a good student. 13. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1. ha advertido. Helen and her sister are both studying English. ______________________________________ ? (John is a good student. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. is she? You don´t know him well. Add the proper tag ending. 5.

We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. They don’t know each other. _________________________________________? 7. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. He put a stamp on the envelope. John often walks to the post office. 3. doesn’t she?) Sue was at home when you called last night. 9. _____________________________________________? 6. They didn’t arrive on time. They don’t live uptown. _________________________________________________? 13. She can’t speak French. 11. He never goes there in the morning. 10. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. John didn’t receive any change. __________________________________________________? 5. Smith is out of town. ____________________________________________? 9.. _______________________________________________________ ? Ex. ____________________________________________________________ ? 3. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. does he?) 2. 3. _________________________________________________________ ? 6. _____________________________________? 4. There are only a few people ahead of him. ______________________________________________________ ? William will be here soon. _______________________________________________? 11. __________________________ ? (He doesn’t come here every day.. ____________________________________________________? 14. 12. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Add the proper tag ending: 1. He didn’t visit us last night. _______________________________________ ? José used to work in this office. 5. They are leaving early in the morning. Mr. ______________________________________________? 3. Add the proper tag ending: 1. ________________________________________________________ ? The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. ____________________________________________ ? They went into the church. He hasn’t got any money. 7. _____________________________? (Mary goes shopping every day. _________________________ ? (John often walks to the post office. 5. ________________________________________________________? 11. 4. _____________________________________________? 12. _____________________________________________ ? 8. He doesn’t always buy stamps. ________________________________ ? The sun sets at about six o’clock. __________________________________________________? 12. ____________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 185 . He doesn’t come here every day. ____________________________________________? Ex. They didn’t come with her. _________________________________________ ? William was born in Cardiff. _______________________________________________________ ? 4.”. ________________________________________________________? 11. 8. ________________________________________________ ? The sun is setting now. doesn’t he?) 2. But he dropped the letter into the box. They didn’t have to work yesterday. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. ______________________________________________________ ? The shopping district extends for many blocks. There are many people ahead of him. _____________________________________________? 8. ______________________________________________________ ? 7. She isn’t busy now. He gave him the stamps. __________________________________________________________ ? Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. He didn’t mail any packages. _______________________________________? 10. 6. __________________________________________________ ? William has been working very hard today. _____________________________________ ? Ex.10. 4. ________________________________________________________ ? 5. _____________________________________________________ ? 9. Mary goes shopping every day. There are many students absent today. _______________________________________________________? 12. ____________________________________________? 10. 2.

Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You think you´re a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreación amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ægliη/ ´ athletics /aθlétiks/ baths /ba:θs/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuliη/ boxing /bóksiη/ car-racing /ka:r réisiη/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimiη/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikliη/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáiviη/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsiη/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhiη/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidiη/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidiη/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisiη/ hunting /hántiη/ hurdling /hé:rdliη/ ice-skating /áis skéitiη/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógiη/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpiη/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños, termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego, partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo javalina trote Viaje Salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol,box) movie theater /múvi θíater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo,valla paddling /pæliη/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /péntaθlon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /riηk/ cancha de patines rowing /róuiη/ remo running /rániη/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:iη túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéitiη/ patinaje skiing /skí:iη/ esquí skiing resort /skí:iη rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfiη/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suímiη/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /δíater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje, excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /trékiη/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /tráηks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíiη/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit líftiη/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to find Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isn´t there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. José used to work..., didn´t he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The traffic on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He first goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, don´t they? 3. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. I´m a good student, aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldn´t like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /háns had oñrédi léft wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd δe óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó, el viejo ya había fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /δéi we:r hæviη lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /δéi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración, la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft yét wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu hædnt stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /δi óuld mæn hædnt dáid yét bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had δe shóu stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had δéi lívd bifó:r δéi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?)

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and b) the interrogative. All of the other passengers (board. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . 1.(start) 3. not)_______________________________ him in years. not) ______________________ _______ _______________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. The show (begin. Tom had already left the office. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. (steal) 7. I (see. 4. Jane had seen that movie twice. 3. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. an old friend of mine. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. They´d already spent all the money. 4. It was raining hard.already) __________ ____________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. The children had already had supper. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. The students (see. 9. 5. 3. the rain (stop) _____________ _________ 6. (disappear) 5. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. 2. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. (go) 2. 1. Millions of years ago. (take) 8. (put out 10. 10. As soon as he opened the door. Gloria almost missed her plane. 6.(finish) 4. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. 2. 2.EXERCISES Ex.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. but they (become. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. 3. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. (go) Ex. 1. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. 7. (leave) 9. When the police arrived. 1. but by the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. Paul had already sent her a fax. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. (be) 6. The teacher (give.Yesterday at a restaurant. She said she ______________________ there several times before. At first. Ex. By the time the firemen arrived. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ________________ ______ the art gallery. I (recognize.

________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general.Ex. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a USA. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. The girl had studied French at school. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. 10. 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. 9. Paul had sold his house the previous year. They´d spent over US $ 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Bill had made the same mistake three times. 5. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . How.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. How long. John had visited them that evening. 7. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 4. 4. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no había leído ese libro aún. 7. Dr. Ask questions using question words like What. 1. 5. 8. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. Black had studied at Harvard University. etc. 2. When. Where. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. Translate the following sentences into English 1.

I got up a little earlier than usual today. hard /ha:rd/ duro. vimos que. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. tempranamente. This train is very slow. difícil. They took the early (adj. I have to study hard (adv. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately .) train.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . FORMATION OF ADVERBS. A dog runs faster than a horse. Mr Blake will call later tonight. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. atrasados) 2. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos.PART II. LATE y HARD. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /sε:rten/ cierto ´ safe /séif/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /sε:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj. EARLY. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio.). es decir. A. Bob works harder than any of the other students. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. Peter hardly works on Saturday. intenso/intensamente. (casi no. We arrived there early (adv.). COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. He drives carefully (adverbio). early /ε:rli / ´ temprano. + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. A bus runs more slowly than a train. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. FAST. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /fæst/ ´ rápido/rápidamente. Con los adverbios SOON.) lesson.

Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. 10. 9. as usual. 3. (fast). 2. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. (wise) 12. She speaks English____________________________ (beautiful). 3. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________ (beautiful). Bill behaves badly in class. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. They went very far. He did the work____________________________. (easy) 5. 4. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________ (fast) Ex. 11. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening (early). I go there ____________________________ he does. He certainly acted ____________________________ (foolish). He always does his work ____________________________ (good) He speaks very ____________________________ (fast). 6. 12. (frequent) 6. He studies ____________________________ Mary. He can run much ____________________________ I. He is a very careful student. (beautiful) 7. John left the office quickly that afternoon. (careful) 2. 8. 2. They acted ____________________________ in doing. 5.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. They get up every morning ____________________________ we. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. (wise) 11. EXERCISES Ex. (good). (good) 7. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. He always does his work ____________________________ (careful). Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. He always drives ____________________________ (careful). (often) 3. He comes here ____________________________ he did before. 8. We went farther. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. She plays the guitar ____________________________ anyone else. 2. This is an ____________________________ exercise. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________ (easy). He gets up as early as I do. John works more carefully than I. He comes here ____________________________ she. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. 4. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. 7. 3. John works ____________________________ I (hard) 9.(regular) 4. 10. She works very ____________________________ every day. 6. John was very ____________________________ (foolish). (easy). La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. 9. 8. (bad) Ex. She prepares her lessons ____________________________ (careless). (quick). (hard). (early) 5. He learns his lesson ____________________________(quick). John works better than William. We walked very ____________________________ (quick). that.

using equality of comparison: 1. (fast) 12. using equality of comparison: 1. Se usan para expresar énfasis. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (late) 11. (bad) 9. (careful) 7. (good) 4. (early) 5.. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could.10. She can’t play ____________________________ she can sing. She sings ____________________________ she plays. 4. He didn’t arrive ____________________________ we expected him. Bob cut himself with the knife. (hard) B. (good) 4. (regular) 10. He works ____________________________ he can. He can’t come ____________________________ we. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. She doesn’t speak ____________________________ her sister. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. Express in full form. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . (soon) 12. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated areas. Express in full form. (hard) 7. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. (good) 8. (fast) 3. He came ____________________________ he could. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /δemsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. I go to bed ____________________________ you. (easy) 5. John speaks English ____________________________I. (early) 3. (early) Ex. He doesn’t walk as / so fast as I do. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. He goes to bed ____________________________ I (late) 2. (fast) 2. They came to work ____________________________usual. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. (quick) 8. (easy) 5. He will arrive____________________________ they. (early) 6. He came here ____________________________ he could. (soft) 10. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she. He can run ____________________________ his brother. (beautiful) 6. Speak ________________________________________________________ possible. (early) 11. You can do it ____________________________ I . (bright) 9.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”.

3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell. The baby cannot dress ______________________________. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ Do you like to talk about______________________________? The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man killed ______________________________. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. We ______________________________ will wait for you. The President ______________________________ attended to the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. You ______________________________ must speak to him, Peter. You ______________________________ have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She likes to study alone. 3. I went to the movie alone. 4. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. He likes to walk alone in the park. 6. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 7. He works alone in a small office. 8. He prefers to work alone. 9. I do not like to eat alone. 10. I do not think he can do it alone. 11. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 12. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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C. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (subject + was / were going to + infinitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razón. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didn´t. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didn´t . _________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ La Naturaleza a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ geografía air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:rθ/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /íθmas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, bahía cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shóar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spriη/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satélite nat. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcán agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ vegetacióin branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ Animales ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ant /ænt/ ´ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ búfalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/, cockerel /kókerel/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave, pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /máηki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono
A short course in english for adult students

rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /traηk/

planta raíces semilla arbusto, mata árbol tronco

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cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dóηki/ dragonfly /drægonflai/ ´ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flæmíηgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco

mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/

ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - finished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadn´t gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. She´d worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small office 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie first but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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3. /δéid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de 2 horas. escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day /δ mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. 7. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1.UNIT 15 PART 1. 4. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. 1. Lea. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. báut tú: áuarz/ Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædnt/. (walk) Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. They´d played soccer for about two hours. /δéi had nót bi:n wé:rkiη o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. /δ mæn had bin wé:rkiη o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día.?) EXERCISES Ex. 2. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours.(fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. (rain) What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. 6. The man had been working all day. /δéid bi:n pléiiη sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had δéi bi:n pléiη sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu lóη had δei bi:n pléiη sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:iη/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. (watch) The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. 5. (drink) We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York.

She´d been reading a magazine. Where. etc. Bob had been sleeping since 8. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years.Ex. 4. and b) the interrogative 1. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. La Sra. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 1. 3. 5. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. They´d been studying the report that evening. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y se sentía cansada. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. 3. Mr. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. 2. The patient had been feeling better. How long. Ask questions using question words like What. The students had been practising Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.30. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . Change the following sentence into a) the negative. 2.

Smith yesterday You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. You telephoned him at his office. 8.) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. 11. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. He left the books in Room 10. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. 2. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . 10. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. 1.PART II. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. but you came late. but I did not. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1.) 2. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. He started to study English last month. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. It was very interesting. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. He studied engineering in college. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. He invested his money in real estate. He sent the package by regular mail. A. It was excellent. as usual. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). Compare: I should start to study French now. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. 5. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. We sent her a fax. 3. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street.OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. 4. 7. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. expresa un reproche o crítica. We went to Mexico on our vacation. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. She gave the money to John. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . 9. . (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. Ex. Complete the following in your own words. 2. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. 12. 6. but they should ____________________________________________ B. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. but he should _______________________________________________________ 9.

En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción. 9. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. 9. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. Ex.. 10. 8. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. 8. (You’d better come back later. ________________________________________ Ex. 7. When I’m hot and thirsty. When I’m hot and thirsty. 2. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. EXERCISES Ex. 4. 4. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. I like rock ‘n roll ______________________________ classical music. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. 2. 3. She prefers to come back later.. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if he takes private lessons. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. 6. 206 When I’m hot and thirsty.. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. 5. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. They prefer to speak to him at his home. (I’d rather wait here. BETTER THAN or TO.. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. What had I better do. 10. I prefer not to go to the party alone. 2.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. 3. A short course in english for adult students . 2. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you rest a while. It will be better if you come back later. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. 3. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. 9. 7. 6..) It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 7. They prefer not to wait outside. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. He´d better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. 5.. TO o LIKE. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. When I choose a book. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t mention it to him... I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. 8. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. 1. I prefer to wait here . 5. What would you rather drink.. 4. 1. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. 6.

etc. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. • The phone´s ringing. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. 15. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. You could have stayed with us. 16. 17. • I listened. Mr. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). They enjoy their jobs. 12. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. no se realizaron o no sucedieron.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. • It´s a nice day. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. podríamos. • Jim: If you need money. 14. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . ser capaz de) • Listen. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. • When you go to New York next month. 11. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. He could have hurt himself badly. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. I can hear something. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. 13. En este caso COULD significa podría. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara.10. C. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. It could be Tim. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. podrías. I could hear something (Podía oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. 18.

5. EXERCISES Ex. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. We could go to the cinema. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. but it ______________________________ be in the car. 1. Sometimes either word is possible. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. Ex. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. 5. 8.’ Peter is a keen musician. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. 5. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 208 A short course in english for adult students . 4. 1. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. we ______________________________ have dinner now. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. 4. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. 6. Answer the questions with a suggestion. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 3. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. 7. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. 3. 1. We ______________________________ watch that’. 2. 2. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. 1. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. I’m really hungry. Ken was short of money last week. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. Complete the sentences. Use COULD. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. 2. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. You ______________________________ for it. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). 6. So he didn’t do any of these things. • The trip was cancelled last week. I ______________________________ eat a horse! If you’re very hungry. Ex. 1. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. A: The phone is ringing. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. Ken had to work on Friday evening.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. 4. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. It’s so nice here. 3. ‘I can’t find my bag. 3.

Ex. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. que no puede ser cierto. You got here very quickly. It’s always empty. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. 1. 2. He must have been watching the news on TV. MUST. You must be very tired. You. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. They can’t _____________________________many people. Congratulations on passing your exam. I must have been asleep. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. 8. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. They haven’t lived here very long. It rained every day during their holiday.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. You ___________________ be very pleased. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. You can´t be hungry already. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. 1. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. 3. 4. She does the same thing every day. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchiδη tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:piδη/ EXERCISES Ex. Ted isn’t at work today. MUST HAVE.. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 5. He must _____________________________ ill. 3. You’re going on holiday next week. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. es decir. 6. CAN´T. Ted wasn’t at work last week. You’ve been travelling all day. 1. It’s always full of people. A short course in english for adult students 209 . Tom was in his bedroom. Put in MUST or CAN’T. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. You ___________________ be very tired.___________________ have walked very fast. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. so they ___________________ be short of money. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. They can´t know many people. She can´t have seen me. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. /δei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me.5. I’ve lost one of my gloves. 2. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. 7. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. He must ___________________________ ill. debemos usar CAN´T. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. o conclusión. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. 4.

the light was on. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 210 A short course in english for adult students 5.. B: She may have been asleep. Ex. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. 7. 2. (I/asleep) 1 must have been asleep. 3.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. 10. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. Carol knows a lot about films. He must _____________________________ us. B: He may not have been feeling well. He must _____________________________ out.) She might know (Ella podría tal vez saber. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. She knew everything about our plans. 6. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. 8. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. Jane walked past me without speaking. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. 1. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. There is a man walking behind us. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). Jack is putting on his hat and coat. Look. . Ann was in a very difficult situation. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa. She’s still at work at this time. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE.Somebody must _____________________________ it. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. It can’t ____________________ Mary. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9... When I woke up this morning. B: She might not have known about it. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is..) what happened. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. I may not have enough. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. I can’t find my umbrella. 9. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money..

EXERCISES Ex. She might not have seen you. I can’t find George anywhere.’ ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. 10. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. B: Yes.. 2. I can’t find my umbrella. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.’ ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. 2. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. 4. Perhaps she is working. A: Tom loves parties. be having lunch. Perhaps Margaret is busy. Use MAY or MIGHT. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. 5. 1. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. She couldn´t have seen me 2. Perhaps she had to go home early. 3.’ ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. B: Well. she was too far away. 7. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. it´s possible. Perhaps she went home early. 1. 11. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . Perhaps she didn´t see me. COULDN’T. 1. I wonder where he is. It might ________________________________________ her brother. Perhaps she wants to be alone. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. Perhaps she isn’t working today. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello.’ Ex. 3. B: I agree. 1. MIGHT NOT or COULD. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. It might ______________________ her brother.. A: I wonder how the fire started. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. the police aren´t sure. They might ________________________ for a bus. B: That´s possible. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. Do you think it was an accident? B. Perhaps she was working yesterday. 9. I’m looking for Helen. 4. He might.’ ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. He might ___________________________________ it already. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. 5. 6. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. 3. 1. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. She might be in her office. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). 4. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 8.

eléctica) tornado tromba. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ scattered shower /skæterd sháuer/ ´ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /θánder/ thunderbolt /θánderboult/ thunderstorm /θándersto:rm/ thundery /θánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. remolino tifón remolino viento con viento 212 A short course in english for adult students . aluvión de agua neblina.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e wé(er/ El tiempo Atmosférico blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpoar/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ flashflood /flæshflad/ ´ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitniη flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente.

She hadn`t been reading. have gone to Tahiti 10. 1.. 10. have given it to Jane 4. 6. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV.. 9. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5.. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. 11. can / could 6. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. than 13.. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. You ought to have telephoned. 1. than 10. We could have fish 3. have studied medicine.. 4. had . I´d rather go to South America on my vacation.could have gone 5. You´d better not work so hard after your illness.. had been studying 4. could Ex. 6.. She´d been working on that report since last week / the previous week. can / could 2. 5. 4... to 16. to 12. 3.. 1. 4. He ought to have come. have sent it by air mail 3. Smith been saving money? 4. You´d better rest a while 4. 4. 5. 9.. 2. to have invested it in stocks / shares. Ex.The patient hadn´t been feeling. could 3. can 7. 3. to 17. had been flying Ex. 2.been doing 6.. Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired..? 4. can / could 4. 8. Ex. 2. 10... 12. PART II A. / Had it been raining. 8. 1. The students had not been practicing.. / Had I been working. 5.. Ex. We´d better send him an e-mail right away.? 3.? Ex. It hadn`t been raing. We could hang it in the kitchen. 7.. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. had been watching 2.. 7.? 5. 3. We´d rather not say anything to him about it.what had they been doing that evening? 2. They´d rather not wait outside 5.. She´d better spend more time on her homework.. He´d better go to a doctor at once. Ex. to have telephoned him at his home 6. John would rather go to the party with Helen. better than C.. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time.. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. You could phone her now ..1. We could go and see him on Friday. had been raining 5. could apply 4.. better than 11. She´d rather come back later. You should have gone. had been walking 3. You should have told. 3. have sent her an e-mail.. He ought to have started. have left them in Room 11.? 6. than 7. Ex.could have gone 3. 7. What had the boy been watching? 3. 2. 5. 3... 9. They´d rather speak to him at his home. to 8. Ex. I ought not to have gone. could 5.. 4.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. 3. You should not have given. It´d been raining all morning .. 9. 6.. 2. 3.. than 18. 10. Why had Mr. . 1. You should have attended.. 7. better than 6..? 2. had . The sky was clear and the sun was shining. We´d better not mention it to him. He´d better take private lessons.. to 5.. 2. 1. 2.. than 15.. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived. better than 14.. 7..been drinking 7.. 1. I hadn´t been working. 6. / Had Bob been sleeping. / Had she been reading. Ex. / Had the students been practicing. 5. What had you been doing that morning? 2. 8. 2.. (Possible answers) 2.. could come A short course in english for adult students 213 .. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex. / Had the patient been feeling. 1. could 8. Mrs. better than 9. 6. Helen had better begin more time on her English. I´d rather not go to the party alone. You ought to have given. 1.. 8. You should not have told l her. You could give her a book.

have bought Ex. It must have been very expensive 4. 3.Ex. She must have listened to our conversation. 6.The neighbors must have been having a party . 3. Ex. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work.2. 5. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . go 7. 6. be 6. have taken / stolen 9. 5. 4. 3. The driver can´t have seen the red light.They must have gone away.She can´t have seen me. She may / might have gone home early 7. 8. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. She may / might be working 4. have been 4.She may / might have been working yesterday. She may / might have gone out 3a. might have come if he´d been invited. I must have forgotten to turn it off. have been 10. must 2. He may / might not have heard the bell. She may / might have been ill yesterday . 3. She may / might have had to go home early 8. 5. He may / might have been in the bathroom. Ex. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. She may / might want to be alone 5. She can´t have understood what I said. 3. 1. 1. 4. can´t 4. 4b. She may / might not want to see me. 6. (Possible answers)2. 6. C. 2b. must 5. 9. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. 10. might not have been invited. She may / might not be working today 11. 4. 10. know 3. 2. must 8. She may / might be busy. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. 3. can´t Ex. (Possible answers) 1. Ex. It may / might be in the car. b e 3. 3b. must 3. be following Ex. 1. 4. 2. might have been an accident. 2. 2. She may / might be watching TV in her room. be going 8. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. 11. C. 3. have left 2. 2. 9. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. Ex. 2a. I must have left it in the restaurant last night.. be 4.must 7. can´t 6. have been 5. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. be waiting 5.

etc. Cuando tú vengas acá mañana. When Peter gets home tonight. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th. I have the information now Yo tengo la información ahora When I have the information this afternoon. /if auar tí:m winz δe nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar θerd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. etc..UNIT 16 PART I. Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30.. Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez. by the end of this month. we will have gotten our third trophy.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day Tú vienes acá todos los días When you come here tomorrow... /bai disémber δe fift:nθ wi wil hav lívd in δis kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter.. A short course in english for adult students 215 . She is free now. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. /wen wi gét tu δæt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld móar δan tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. Ella está libre ahora When she is free next time. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas.. by this time next week. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo. I will have had dinner already. /bai δi énd ov δis mánθ δe spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllúpiter/ Hacia fines de este mes...... When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. ´ If our team wins the next game. we will have lived in this country five years.. Escuche. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. lea y aprenda : By December 15th. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. Escuche. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud.

(forget) When he becomes a man. 5. (go) If he doesn´t hurry. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. 9. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 4. (learn) By this time next month. 3. 4. 2. they ________________________ and ________________________ . 7. 1. (complete) I________________________ in this country two years next October. 1. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. they ________________________ home. (come . By two o´clock. (have) By December. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. I will have finished reading this book. the weather ________________________ considerably. 2. Si no tomamos un taxi. (visit) 12. (be) By tomorrow. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. Antes de las seis de la tarde. 1. we ________________________ the work. (finish) If he gets here at 6 o´clock. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 216 A short course in english for adult students . 1. 2. 4. 2. 5. the students ________________________ their first course. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. 5. 4. 8. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. 11. they ________________________ dinner when he gets there. 6.go) Ex. 3. they________________________ the most important places of interest. you ________________________ from your illness. I will have completed this course in English. the Johnsons ________________________ already.EXERCISES Ex. he ________________________ many things. 5. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. a) By the end of this month. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. (leave) By the end of March. I ________________________ all these grammar rules. 10. 3. 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire.

may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. have / has. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . could. Escuche. Hacia fines de este curso. might. muy pronto Ud. had to. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. do / does. would. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. will. can. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. did. A. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. had. must. De acuerdo con esta regla.) He says that his first name is Robert. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. SUBORDINATE VERB Present Future Past Conditional a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. se habrá recuperado de su operación. los verbos modales am / is / are. Antes de la medianoche. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO.

Change to past tense. could) do it easily. 3. 218 A short course in english for adult students . 8. I told him that I (cannot. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. If it rains (no.EXERCISES Ex. The weather man predicts it will rain. 13. He says he has to work. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). 4. Choose the correct form: 1. 5. Bob wants to know how many people there are. meant). AFTER (después que). 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. BEFORE (antes que). 10. 5. was) trying to do. 14. He asked me where 1 (live. 7. I don´t know where Mary is. would) be here. He said he (will. could not) go. u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro. 7. Escuche. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF. 6. He says he will be here at noon. I didn’t know what the word (means. She said she (was going. He said he (has been. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. 1. would) rain. He wants to know where she is. 3. 4. 11. lea y aprenda : If John comes (no. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. I think I can meet you. might) be late. 20. The young man tells us he is married. 17. He thinks he (can. 16.hard every day I know where she lives. “will rain”) next Sunday. She said she (may. He says he is very sorry. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando). I think he will be there by ten o´clock He believes he can do it. lived). 18. had been) a soldier. is going) away. 6. She said she (does not. 10. 12. was). 9. Del mismo modo. 2. following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. The newspaper says it (will. 19. 8. “will come” ) tomorrow. they will not go to the beach. UNLESS (a menos que). UNTIL (hasta que). did not) feel well. 9. I don’t know what his name (is. 15. he will see Mary. 12. I didn’t know what he (is. 2. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. The girl says she is studying for a test. The boy says he has seen the movie.

I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. BEFORE. any other person. 2.: 1. I will give him your message. 8. 7. él vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow.Escuche. Escuche. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. we will have to leave without him. 6. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. 8. we will go to the beach. anything. 6. WHILE. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. USE OF “ELSE” Y “OR ELSE”. somewhere. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. they will not wait for him. any other thing. please give him the message. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. no other person. we may go to the beach. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives. 4 5. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. he can go with us on the city tour. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue. some other thing. etc. 2. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. anybody / anyone. he will keep it. 9. 9. ANY y NO (somebody / someone. nothing.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week. 10. he will see Mary. A. 1. nobody / no one. Ex. 12. AS SOON AS. 3. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. 10. 11. Please wait here ____________________________ the doctor arrives. etc. They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. within ten or fifteen minutes. 5. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. AS LONG AS. too. 4. 7. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. anywhere. 2. 3. Do not leave before I ____________________________:____________________________ (tell) you to go . I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. WHEN. please let me know. something. Don´t start moving. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning.(within a few minutes) I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III.

You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. Mrs. you won’t pass the course. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. you will soon forget it.B. You must do as your mother says. If she doesn’t. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). 1. If you don’t. I must go home right away. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. 3. 6. We must hurry. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. my mother will be angry with me. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Let’s do some other thing tonight. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. you’ll wake the baby. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . Helen must rest more. 9. You must ask some other person about it. we´ll miss the train. Did they go any other place? 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 8. If you don’t. 11. Smith? 10. Put the dog outside. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. You must practice your English every day. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I didn’t tell any other person about it. If we don´t. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. Join the following pairs of sentences. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If you don’t. If I don’t. she may have a nervous breakdown. Can I show you any other thing. No other person helped him with the work. There was no other person in the room at that time. If you don’t. If you don’t. she´ll punish you. we´ll be late. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. If we don’t. You must study hard. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. 4. EXERCISES Ex. We had better hurry. Turn off the radio. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. Save your money.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Repeat the previous exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(δ axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /leiδ/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /mélloriη téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ El Taller serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderiη áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldiη tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. otherwise we´ll be late 2. We must hurry. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.

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or else you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day. 1. 5. You must ask somebody else about it. 8. lived 4. Ex. I didn´t know where Mary was. A short course in english for adult students 223 . telephones 10. 11. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. will have learnt (or learned) 10. A. was 12. comes 5. Ex. 9. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. tell 7. as soon as 3. will 6. will have been 8. unless 2. 4. 1. 3. 8. will have recovered 11. He said he was very sorry. did not 10. 17. 11. otherwise we´ll be late. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. otherwise you won’t pass the course. 8. would 2. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Helen must rest more. Nobody else helped him with the work. I thought I could meet you. 5. 7. 6. 1 1. 13. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 7. or else my mother will be angry with me. 5. gets 6. as long as 5. Put the dog outside. is 4. 6. does . 1. Ex. arrives 2. 2. You must study hard. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. I knew where she lived. He believed he could do it. 6. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Save your money. He hoped he could be there. 1. 3. will have changed 3. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. 18. will have gone 5.hard every day. was going 7. Mrs.come Ex. when / as soon as 8. You must study hard. 4. Helen must rest more. We had better hurry.rain 3. we´ll have processed all the information. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 1. or else she may have a nervous breakdown. I you follow your doctor´s advice. 4. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. before 9. will have left 2. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5.9. likes 8. comes 11. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. 2. meant 5. 2. 1. You must do as your mother says. 10. or else you will soon forget it. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. until 6. go 12. 1. otherwise we´ll miss the train. 8. He said he would be here at noon 2.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. Put the dog outside. Before 6 this evening. does . 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 6. He said he had to work. 7 You must practice your English every day. 9. is 9. 1. or else we´ll be late. 3. 3. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. is 11. will have had 6. 19. 1. will have forgotten 9. (Open answers) Ex. Ex. Turn off the radio. 15. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 3. otherwise she´ll punish you. Ex. had been 9. Ex. will have come . until 10. or else you’ll wake the baby. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon. will have visited 12. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock.(will have ) gone Ex. The boy said he had seen the movie. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. 1. I thought it might rain this evening. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. 20. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. can 3. 2. You must do as your mother says. might B. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 4. until 4. 4. The weather man predicted it would rain. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. will have finished 4. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. Can I show you anything else. 1. Smith? 10. Before midnight. 12.16. Save your money. could not 8. 3. when / as soon as PART III. 2. 2. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. The young man told us he was married. or else she´ll punish you. 1 must go home right away. We must hurry. will have completed 7. 1 must go home right away. 9. 10. 2. We must hurry. 14. Let’s do something else tonight. Turn off the radio. or else we´ll miss the train. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. 10. The girl said she was studying for a test. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. We had better hurry. 3. He wanted to know where she was. otherwise you will soon forget it. 5. while 7.

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Mr. She broke the plate on purpose. He took the money last Monday evening. 12. He will have fixed the car. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. People will forget it in few days. 18.V) (D. 8. 5. 2. 9. 16.S. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be más el participio pasado del verbo principal. THE PASSIVE VOICE Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva. 17. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante.O). She ate the cake this morning. (P. 10. He will do the work this afternoon. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb).p. He will fix the car.UNIT 17 PART 1.) (doer) (P. 13. He had fixed the car.Jackson saw the accident. 225 . They had finished the work by noon. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut.V) (D. The car had been fixed. En la voz pasiva. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. (be + p. They fought a big battle here many years ago. The car has been fixed. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. They have found the child at last. 6. The car will be fixed. 14. 1. 7. (S) (Tr.) (be + p. Mrs. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. Change to passive voice: 1. The wind blew the smoke away soon. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer).O).) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river.) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. The car will have been fixed. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. 4. Somebody has taken my book. 15. He fixed the car. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). es decir. 11. Mr. Smith wrote the book last summer.S.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. Smith teaches that class on Friday. He has fixed the car. (P. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. 3.V) (D. Peter wrote the letter last year. (S) (Tr. They will bring the boy tomorrow.O).S. They will leave the tickets for you. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). People speak English all over the world.) (be + p. He will deliver the merchandise today.p.p. She has just taken the newspaper. The car was fixed.

13. The dish was broken by the maid. __________________________________________________ He was struck by an automobile. 21. Smith. 2. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . Smith. 22. The money has been found. 3. 2. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. They made this gun by hand. 24. Mary found the book. The book was found by Mary. The work will be completed tomorrow. 15. 20. 15. 10. The cries of the child were heard clearly. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. 9. The money was stolen by a thief. He broke his leg in an accident. ___________________________________________________ The work had been finished by June. The book was written by Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 8. 11. The work won’t be done by Mr. 10. The book will be published in June. 8. 14. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. The book has been returned by John. 4.19. 3. The e-mail was sent this morning. 6. 14. 5. The work will be done by Mr. ___________________________________________________ America was discovered in 1492. 12. Smith. ___________________________________________________ The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. Scott. 13. America was discovered in 1492. 3. 7. Change to active voice: 1. Longmans _________________________________________ The lecture was attended by many people. 6. The city was destroyed by bombs. Thompson. 12. ___________________________________________________ Ex. They ______________________________________________ The house was built in 1910. 5. 7. Will the work be done by Mr. 4. 23. ___________________________________________________ This book was written by Mr. He _______________________________________________ The town will have been captured by Wednesday. ___________________________________________________ The book will be published next spring. They will send the book next week. The house was struck by lightning. They ______________________________________________ The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). Change to negative and to question form: 1. Smith. 9. Columbus _________________________________________ Our class is taught by Mr. My grandfather _____________________________________ The books will be brought by John. They left the wounded soldiers behind. 11. ___________________________________________________ Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. The lesson is taught by Mr. 2.

La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos. 13. _____________________________ because of bad weather. ________________________________________about 10:30. 4. 14. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. 6. 5. 6.. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. _________________________________________ in Chicago.. ___________________________________________ in 1492. was. should. 5. Answer these questions: 1. 12. 16.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? The book will be published in June.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. may. are. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? The house was built in 1945. have to. _________________________________________ in the safe. (Who. etc. _________________________________________ in the park. is. (In what year) __________________________________________________? The money was stolen by one of the servants. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. (Active) They have to send this report today. 7. __________________________________one of the servants. 4. (What time) ______________________________________________? He was injured in an automobile accident. A short course in english for adult students 227 . 7. ____________________________________ by our instructor. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child finally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. ________________________________________ in Scotland. ____________________________________________in 1999. _____________________________ by the end of the month. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. (Who. (How) __________________________________________________? The work will be completed next month. 3. may. (Active) They must finish this job today. (When) __________________________________________________? The child was finally found in the park. 11. Change to question form. 3. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. 9.Ex. were + being). 17. 5. más el pasado participio del verbo principal. ________________________________________ by the maid. a la voz pasiva. 10. 8. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. America was discovered in 1492. 9. (Where) __________________________________________________? The tree was planted by my father. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. 15. must. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by fire. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am. (When) __________________________________________________? The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. must. should. 8.. 10. 2.. se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal. 2. 4. _________________________________________by the chef. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours.

John brings the mail every day. We can finish this right away. 10. We must lose no time. They have to deliver the books today. John brought the mail yesterday. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. 4.Ex. John has to bring the mail every day. 12. 7. 3. They are sending the material today. 12. He cannot finish this today. Change to passive voice: 1. Change to negative and to question form. They may send the fax tomorrow. We must help him. You can use this room for the lesson. 6. 12. John is bringing the mail now. 4. This can be finished (by us) right away. He should send this right away. 2. etc. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. This must be checked twice. We are using this room. Where. Change to passive voice: 1. They are defending the city well. By whom. 11. 9. 7. He was killed in an accident. They are sending the merchandise today. 6. 10. The material is being sent (by them) today. The story is being published today. John has brought the mail every day. He sent the e-mail last week. The police may hold him for several days. They are transferring him to another class. They have put the chairs in the room. They are considering that question now. 11. 8. 9. They were cleaning the office this morning. They are sending troops there today. How. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 228 A short course in english for adult students . 3.: 1. They were discussing the question when I went in. Change to passive voice : 1. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. John will bring the mail tomorrow. We have to write these exercises at home. 3. 6. We must find him immediately. They are holding the meeting today. He has to do it immediately. 6. State each question twice. 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 7. He wasn’t killed in an accident. The mail is brought by John every day. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 9. 2. 9. 4. 8. He is finishing the work now. 8. 2. 10. They are examining him now. They cannot put those things here. She is typing that letter now. 5. John may bring the mail tomorrow. 5. . 8. 7.

Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. It has to be done at once. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “English is spoken in this country”. It should be sent immediately. “A big battle was fought here”. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ El signo “SE” en español En español. 7. Smith. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6.4. This book was published in 1945. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 5. 12. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. 9. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. The money has been sent to New York. lt can be done three or four times a month. 11. 8. lt has to be sent right away. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . The material is being prepared by Mr. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. 10. The class is taught by Mr. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. This room can be used for our meetings.Reese. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. By the end of the 90’s. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. A new type of missile has been tested recently.8. 1. Next time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. 11. Several different techniques may be applied. During this week. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. All kinds of computers are repaired here. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. most goals had been successfully attained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The data was being processed at that moment. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. It is considered that English has become a universal language. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. using the word “SE” in each case. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 230 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness.

En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. 11. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. He was supposed to bring the money last night. We expected him to arrive last night. WHERE.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 10. (Passive Voice) 13. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry.: 1. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. (Passive Voice) 15. We expect our lesson to last one hour. 2. He ______________________________ (know) her well. 10. 9. 3. (They at ten o’clock. 6. Change to negative and to question form. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. 3. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. (Passive Voice) 14. Se supone que él está aquí ahora. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. They´re supposed to start the work soon. 3. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. State each question twice. We expect the bus to stop here. 1. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado.) 2.. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. 2. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. They expect the train to arrive at four ‘clock. They expected the war to be over sooner. 9. 5. 12. We expect John to come at six o’clock. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. 7. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. WHAT TIME. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. 4. 3. He ______________________________ (be) here now. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 12. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. We expect the parade to begin soon. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. etc. 7. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. 6. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. 11. 8. 8. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 5. 4. (Passive Voice) Ex. 2.PART II. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 231 . We expect her to bring the book with her. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night.

The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. 6. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday.. 10. They´re suppposed to finish the job tomorrow. 8.A. 9. The book is supposed to be published in June. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 232 A short course in english for adult students . We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. 5. 7.4.

proyectil Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ Propellant /propélant/ propelente o polvora Primer /práimer/ Shrapnel /shræpn l/ ´ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ Armas Tácticas Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ Gun /gan/ cañón.) batallón brigada cuerpo Platoon /plδtú:n/ Company /kámpni/ Battery /bæteri/ ´ Regiment /rédlliment/ División /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi Artillería Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado Teniente General Brigadier General Teniente Coronel Capitán Subteniente Cadete Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado pelotón compañía batería (art. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/ramas o servicios ´ Infantry /infantri/ Infantería Artillery /a:rtílori/ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Signal /sígnal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endlliníarz/ Transportation /transportéishon/ Transportes Medical /médikal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ material de guerra COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ Oficiales Comisionados Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Major /méidllor/ Mayor Captain /kæptin/ ´ First Lieutenant /f :rst luténant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Ensign /énsin/ Alférez (en la marina) Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ Suboficiales Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent férst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /práivit/ Recruit /rékrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skuódr n/ Battalion /batælion/ ´ Brigade /brigéid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tácticas pelotón escuadrón (cab.blin.) grupo (cab.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ Ranks /ræηks/ ´ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:dinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræηk/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /só:rd/ espada Dagger /dæger/ ´ Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mortar /mó:rtar/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Flame-thrower /fléim θróuer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mízil/ Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/ arma de destrucción masiva Bullet /búlit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil.) regimiento división Ejército vainilla estopin ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ Tiro de munición Bullet /búlit/ bala. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 . grado Oficial superior ARMS /á:rmz/armas.

gatillo Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Tank commander /tæηk komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Wheel /wi:l/ plancha de blindaje tubo del cañón comandante del tanque orugas rueda posición sentada posición encuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiariη posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /stændiη/ position ´ posición de pie Sitting /sítiη/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /ní:liη/ position posición arrodillada 234 A short course in english for adult students .TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ Vehículos Tácticos ´ Tank /tæηk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hélicopter/ helicóptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones ´ Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihéivior/ conducta Commander /kománder/ comandante Control /kontróul/ control Courage /káridll/ valor. coraje Decisiveness /disáisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Enthusiasm /enθusiázn/ entusiasmo Initiative /iníshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllástis/ justicia Morale /morá:l/ moral Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ámbito de control ´ Tact /tækt/ ´ tacto. criterio Willing obedience /wíliη obí:diens/ obediencia espontánea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ráifl/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /éimiη mécanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing pin /fáiariη pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lókiη lag/ asegurador Rear sight /ríar sáit/ alza Sighting mechanism /sáitiη mekanízm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK /δ tδk/ El Tanque Armor /á:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gáner/ Tank driver /tæηk dráiver/ ´ Turret /tárit/ blindaje cañón artilllero conductor del tanque torreta APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Airplane /éarplein/ avión Bomber /bómer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæηk/ tanque de combate ´ Command /komænd/ ´ Confidence /kónfidens/ Cooperation /kouoperéishon/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiúarans/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Integrity /intégriti/ Leader /lí:der/ Pride /práid/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Trait /tréit/ mando confianza cooperación cadena de mando confiabilidad dignidad resistencia espíritu de cuerpo integridad líder. comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo. característica Barrel /bærel/ ´ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fáiariη mékanízm/ Follower /fólouer/ Hammer /hæmer/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sling /sliη/ Trigger /trigger/ cañón culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador.

2. 7. The mail has been brought by John every day. The city is being defended by them well 11. Mr. This gun was made (by them) by hand . 21.? 3. 19. 12. 6. 8. 2. / Has the money been found? 13.? 4. It was hidden in a wooden box. A short course in english for adult students 235 .? 12. 3. He´s being transferred by them to another class. 1. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6.? 8. / Was the book written by. No time must be lost by us. When will the book be published? 7.. 5. He must be helped by us . / Was the house struck by. 12.. 11... 11. The office was being cleaned by them this morning. 11.The book hasn´t been returned by John. Ex. Smith teaches our class.. 10.. The book was written by Mr. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. It has to be done by him immediately. Ex. 2.. He had finished the work by June. He was held for about two hours. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. 6.. 2.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. 17. Smith on Friday. 16. She was born in Scotland. This room is being used by us.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. 3. 4. 9. How was the house destroyed? 3. The work will be done by him this afternoon.? 5. 3. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 20. 6. Ex. The book will be sent by them next week.. It was stolen by one of the servants. 4. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). 18. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 2. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. 3. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. The child has been found by them at last 15.. This cannot be finished by him today. It will be prepared by the chef. 14. It was released at about 10:30 12.? 14. / Was the city destroyed by.. 15. 10. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 8. 7. They were married in Valparaiso. 12. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9. 4. 13. 8. 2.. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. 11... Those things cannot be put by them here. Ex.? 10. A thief stole the money. It was published in 1999. He´s being examined by them now. 6. 10.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. That question is being considered by them now. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4.. 17. 16. That class is taught by Mr. 9. 7. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6.. This should be sent by him right away. 13..? Ex. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. The mail is being brought by John now. The book wasn´t written by Mr. It was discovered in 1492. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. / Was the telegram delivered. 5. 8.? 11. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow.. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. The work is being finished by him now. 5.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. My book has been taken by somebody. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. Longmans will publish the book next spring. Smith. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 6.The book won´t be published in June. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. Ex. John will bring the books. 7. This room can be used by you for the lesson. Mr. 4. They´re corrected by our instructor. The mail was brought by John yesterday.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. 13. 10. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. It was put in the safe. 14.? 15. 6 Many people attended the lecture. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions.. My grandfather built the house in 1910. The accident was seen by Mrs. 5./ Is the lesson taught by.In what year was the house built? 10. 24. / Was the dish broken by. 8. 14. Jackson.Scott wrote this book. The tickets will be left for you by them.. Where was the child finally found? 5. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident..? 6. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. The plate was broken by her on purpose. / Was it discovered by. / Had the money been stolen by. The meeting is being held by them today. 23. 12. 3. 4. Ex.. The work had been finished by them by noon. 2. 9.The house wasn´t struck by lightning. 3. 9. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. When will the work be completed? 4. / Was America discovered in. / Has the book been returned by. 5. Thompson. 1./ Will the work be completed. 4.. 7. It was broken by the maid. He may be held by the police for several days. It will be completed by the end of the month. / Will the book be published in. 22. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. It was published in Chicago.. 10. 2. The enemy has destroyed the city. 8.? 9. 2. That letter is being typed by her now. An automobile struck him 9. 15.The money hasn´t been found. He was finally found in the park. 5. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. Smith last summer.

are supposed to be put Ex.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5.. 8. The e-mail was sent by him last week.. 1. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. 7.. This book wasn´t published in 1945.. It doesn´t have to be sent right away.. was supposed to be 11..? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. It doesn´t have to be done at once. is supposed to meet 10. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. he was supposed to arrive. The weather is supposed to be hot. 3. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. The war was supposed to be over. were supposed to deliver 4. 10. Our lesson is supposed to last. / Was he supposed to telephone. The books have to be delivered by them today. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10.. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years.. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 1. 12... 6. 8. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow.11. The class isn´t taught by Mr. is supposed to call 9.. This room can´t be used for our meetings... 6. 2. 3. She is supposed to bring the. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6. is supposed to come 3. 2.7. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. The money hasn´t been sent to NY.. 8. 5. several important projects have been carried out. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5.. He isn´t supposed to be living. is supposed to have been sent 14. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. Ex... se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas...? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. He wasn´t supposed to bring it. is supposed to be 8. 3.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students . 9.. This mustn´t be checked twice. New methods are being developed to control inflation.. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal.. 2. We aren´t supposed to meet them. 12.. The bank is supposed to open at. 2. 1... / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. 7. 5. is supposed to be 6. 2.. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. 3. This book has been translated into several languages. is supposed to be 7. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. Reese. 4. 4.. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. 6. He wasn´t supposed to telephone. / Was he supposed to bring it. Public transport services should be improved in this city. During that year. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación. / Are we supposed to meet them. The train is supposed to arrive at. The parade is supposed to begin. He must be found by us immediately. 9. 5. 8. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II.. 4...Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day... 11.. The bus is supposed to stop. 7. 2. 11.. is supposed to be sent 13.. La próxima vez.. was supposed to send 5. / Is he supposed to be living. 10. The King isn´t supposed to visit. 9.. 10.. 10. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. 2..? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. It can´t be done three or four times a month. 10.. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. / Is the King supposed to visit. Ex. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. Ex. is supposed to know 12. 9. 9. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. The chairs have to be put by them in the room... He is supposed to leave for. All the invitations were sent by air mail. The mail has to be brought by John every day. The merchandise is being sent by them today. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11.. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. Ex. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex.

(Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. you would have seen him. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. (Si él viene mañana. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. you´ll have an accident. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here.) . FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. you would see him more often. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 .. (Si. she´ll miss her train. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. b.UNIT 18 PART I. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. you will see him... you will see him... (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. (Si te sientas aquí. tú lo verás..) 2. tú lo verías más seguido también) c. (Si él viene mañana. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. If he comes tomorrow. (Si no estudias duro. 4. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. I´ll give him your message. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3.). El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. you will not get a good mark.. tú lo habrías visto) I. too. introducida por la palabra IF. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales.. you will be able to see everything. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party.. listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow. you will see him. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. If he comes tomorrow.. (Si él viene mañana.

12. etc. she would study more. next Monday morning. (lf Mary had more time. AFTER (después que). ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. this evening. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. she would study more. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. she would go to the beach more often. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. 7. (Si John estuviera aquí. If he ________________________ (know) her better. he could go with her to the party. (Si yo fuera millonario. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). BEFORE (antes que). 8. “If Mary will come”). she will see the Prince. Read. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. he would help us. 10. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. 3. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. 6. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. Del mismo modo.1. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. 4. 238 A short course in english for adult students . we would go for a walk. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. 9. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. Si Mary supiera nadar. he will tell us what happened. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). I would buy that suit. If John were here now he would help us. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro.) 2. she would speak English better. etc. UNTIL (hasta que). lf I ________________________ (have) the money. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy.. UNLESS (a menos que). he would be a better student. (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. If I ________________________(be) in your position. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. WHILE (mientras). 11. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). 5. I would study French. como tomorrow. we could study better. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. I will give her your message.

___________________________________________________ Ex. he... She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. we will not go.. but if.) 2. but if.. ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ 7. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan. 4. 11. 2 . If he came to class on time.. he will meet her..... but if.. ___________________________________________________ 3. I.. he will make good progress. If he studied more.. I will read more books. lf he were here.. 3. ___________________________________________________ Mary isn’t here now. he can help us. they will succeed. If l were in Florida now. If I could speak French. I will go to the movie. he will go. 5. ___________________________________________________ 9. If he goes to the party. If he went to bed earlier. would be very happy. 4.. but if. he.. but if. he________________________ (learn) more. he will see her. 3. lf I am free tomorrow.. he.. If he studies hard. 5.) Mary does not prepare her lessons. If he has time. lf I knew her. (If he were here. ___________________________________________________ He has very little practice in speaking. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. 11. 5.. but if.. 8. 12. ___________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________ I can’t speak French. 6..... he ___________________________ (work) harder... 10.. If he is here. If today were a holiday. I. 2. but if. ___________________________________________________ 11. 9.. If I have more time . 10.... we will speak better. lf he had more money. ___________________________________________________ 8. he ________________________ (feel) better... 2.. I ________________________ (speak) to her. he would help us. If he comes... 6. (If he had time. 4. but if.. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1.. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. he. ___________________________________________________ William never comes to class on time. but if. ___________________________________________________ 12. John does not study hard but if. ___________________________________________________ I don’t speak English well. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly. 10. he would go) 2.. 5. If he came to class more often. ___________________________________________________ He has very little free time. 8. 3. If he were stronger . ___________________________________________________ 6. 6. but if. 7. 3. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. 12. he will pass.. I. he ________________________ (help) us. 8. If he prepares his lessons. If I were you...Ex.. If I were free tomorrow. Complete the following: 1. If he came to class regularly. 4. 7. (John does not study hard. lf I don’t have to work. I will go to the beach. he ________________________ (be) a better student. lf John were here. we. I. ___________________________________________________ 5. He would speak better if.. ___________________________________________________ She has very little money. If the weather is cold. If I knew her well. ___________________________________________________ I am not in Florida now. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex.. If today were a holiday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 .. ___________________________________________________ He has very few friends. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. 11. If we have more practice.. 9. If he had more time. __________________________________________________ 10. but if. he. ___________________________________________________ He doesn’t like to study English. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. lf John prepared his lessons every night. 7. lf they try hard. 9.

(Si John hubiera estudiado más.. 2. 10. (lf I were in your position. have) time tomorrow. knew) how to swim. had) the time. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . If you studied harder. he would have passed his examination. If John had studied hard. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. were) in your position. will come) here tomorrow. might) be late. will be) nice tomorrow. 7. 7. I am sure he would. Answer these questions: 1. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. 12. If you knew English perfectly. If you had much money. habría aprobado su examen). could) help us. 3. Ex. he could telephone me. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. 13. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. 4. 15. He would speak better if. John said he (will. If I (know. If I were you. they would have called you up. we may drive to the country. If he (can. would) walk to school. If today were Sunday. I would go swimming every day. knew) my number. When John (comes. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 8.. If today were Sunday. We would go for a walk in the park if.. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. I would.) If the weather (is. 9. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If you had an automobile. 6. He said he (may. I will go to the movie. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 5.. Choose the correct form: 1.. Mary will talk with him.12.. Mary would go with us if.. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If today were a holiday. I (will. If I (was. I would study French. 11. 6. 14. If I (had.. If he (knows. If you could visit any country in the world. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. could) not come. Mary told me that she (can. would) be here soon.. we..

1. he would have come to see you . este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. but if. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . She didn’t come on time. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If I________________________(have) your address. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 10. we would have gone to the beach.En situaciones formales o literarias. 7. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. I would have told him. If you ________________________ (call) me. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Ex. he he would have succeeded. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Had he known that you were ill. 8. he would not have caught cold. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. He didn’t tell me about it. 9. 2. 6. 4. 3. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. I would not have been so angry. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. John didn’t prepare his lessons. If he had not worn his overcoat. 7. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. 8. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. I would have called on you. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He couldn’t speak English at the time. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. If I________________________ (be) in your place. 2. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. (succeed) . I wasn’t in Florida last winter. If he had studied more. they would have gone to the park. Ex. 9. 6. 4. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. 5. 5. I didn’t know his name. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. She didn’t wear her raincoat. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. I wasn’t in his position. 3. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. 10. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. 2. (He would have come to the party if he about it). but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. EXERCISES Ex. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . I didn’t have your telephone number. I didn’t have a car last winter. he ________________________(catch ) cold. I would have been glad to go.

I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he works harder. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.Ex. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he would take part in the game 2. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. she will speak to him. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If I am free next week. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. If you had asked me. If he is here. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. If John is present. If the weather is nice. If he had telephoned me. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. b. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If he came. she would speak to him. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. a. If he were here. If he has the money. he will go with us a. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he has time. If I were you. If he goes there. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. If he comes. If it rains. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . 5. 4. If I see her. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 2. If I can do it. If I had known about it. she would have spoken to him. If he had come. they will go to the beach a. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10.

John looks as though he (was. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. were) the manager of the place. had been) a holiday. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.I feel as if I (ate. If yesterday had been a holiday. I would certainly do it. were) in his position. He acted as if he (was. were) sick. If I had been invited. 3. Choose the correct form: 1. had been) here. will go) too.) 2. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. 13. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. If I (knew. I would certainly do it. If you had had last week off. If I (was. had known) this yesterday. we could have gone to the beach. If I had more time. If he (was. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . had eaten) a large dinner. were) you. I would have acted differently. If you had studied harder. would have come) if we had asked him. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If you had known it was going to rain. had had) a great shock. he would have taken part in the discussion. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.9. 7. we may not go away. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If the weather had been nice. 9. If England had been better prepared for war. If it (rains. 6.He will not go unless she (goes. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. I would not accept the work. Ex.Call me if he (comes. has been. could have gone) if they had asked me. If the weather were nice. He acted as if he (had.If I (would be. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. 4. Answer these questions: 1. 11. I (will.I think he (would come. will come) before noon. 12. 7. were) a holiday. (lf I were you. If you hadn´t had to study last night. 10. will rain) tomorrow. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 15. 8. 14. 5. 16.If today (was. 6. I (could go.If yesterday (was. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. we could go to the beach.

Mary is not here now. I have no car but I wish 2. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish 4. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo. 4. A. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish 6. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. I cannot swim but I wish 3. 8.. (I wish John were here now. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8.) I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. 2. I´d certainly invite her to the party. John won’t do it for us but I wish 9. Mary isn’t here but I wish 10. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. I wish I weren´t so busy. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. o “Me habría gustado.. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. 12. 1. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday.. es decir.I can’t speak English well but I wish 244 A short course in english for adult students ( I had one. 5. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales.. 9.I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional Ex. John wishes she were here now.”. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish 5. 7. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish 7. 11.PART II. 3. “Me gustaría. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. I wish it would stop raining soon. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. I wish I knew how to swim. It´s been raining hard for about five hours.. 10.”. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday.. 6. I wish I had seen her. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. Complete the following sentences: 1.” I don´t know how to swim. 2.

etc.) He suggested that John______________________________(wait) a few minutes.) I suggested that you see the manager today.. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. 5. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ (be) finished today? He insisted that she ______________________________ (go) on with the work. 2. 10. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. 9.”.. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater.. 8. I recommended that you ______________________________ (come) back later. (I wish he spoke English well. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. He asked that it______________________________ (be) done right away. EXERCISES Ex. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. 2. 4. 4. 9. 10.. 1. TO ASK. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética. 3. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. She asked that we should be there before midday. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. A short course in english for adult students 245 . 3.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. 3. 6. TO REQUIRE. 7.12.”. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday.. TO DEMAND.) En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas. They insisted that we ______________________________ (visit) them again. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach.. “It´s imperative that.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara. Smith ______________________________ (take) a long vacation. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. 8. “It is necessary that. 5.. He proposed that John ______________________________ (be) chairman.. He recommended that she ________________________ go) with him.. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. I´m sorry John is not here with us. I suggested that you should see the manager today. TO SUGGEST. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. 6. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. It is imperative that they ______________________________ (be) there on time.. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: 1. “It´s essential hat. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better.”. “It´s advisable that.. The doctor suggested that Mr. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. 7.. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are. (He recommended that she go with him. I’m sorry that you can’t swim..”.

Which would you prefer. Had I known your number. is sitting) at this desk. If you come too early. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. 2. I ______________________________ (do) it. me). he would spend it at the beach. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. 11. comes) soon. He asked me to be there on time. If he had felt better. 4. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. John said he (will. 2. comes) back later. He suggested that John (come. 9. had seen) that movie. I (may sleep. 4. I wish I (were. 12. has been living) here many years. 4. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. He (is living. 5. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). 6. he would have spent it at the beach. would) be here tomorrow. If he had been well. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 246 A short course in english for adult students . I (saw. 11. 8. If John were here. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. 3. Ex. may be sleeping). I asked John to wait for me. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. 2. 10. We asked them to go with us in our car. had gone) with you to the party last night. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. 10. I wish I (went. have seen) John yesterday. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. John asked me to take a walk with him. Ex. 6. 7. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. If I (were. 8. 3. 8. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. Choose the correct form: 1. 13. 14. 7. to be sent) tomorrow. If he (will come. I suggested that John wait for me. would be) in Florida now. He recommended that I (am. Had I had more time. I asked her to come back later.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I would go swimming. 9.Ex. 4. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). it (would be) (be) much easier for us. The merchandise is supposed (to send. John always (sits. 3. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. Which would you prefer. 5. would be) in Florida now. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. be) there early. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. If he felt better. Which would you prefer to be. 7. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? Were I you. 12. He asked me to lend him the money. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. please let me know. Which would you prefer. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. John sat between Mary and (I. He said he already (saw. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 9. 6. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. 3. Which would you prefer to study in the future. 2. 10.

Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /δi á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atækiη iunit/ ´ Barrack /bærak/ ´ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /defénsiv æktchn/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæηk/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuórterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíliη/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espía estrategia lucha rendición vigilancia táctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue /priémptiv æktchn/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchn/ ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /réindller/ Rear /ríar/ Rear position /ríar posíshon/ Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ Relief /rilí:f/ Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rése:rvist/ Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ Retreat /ritrí:t/ Review /riviú:/ Revolt /rivólt/ Riot /ráiot/ Salute /saliút/ Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sló:ter/ Spy /spái/ Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ Struggle /strægl/ ´ Surrender /sarénder/ Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wiθdróal/ 248 A short course in english for adult students . auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. bajas maniobras Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:piη fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva acción preventiva prisionero incursión comando retaguardia posición de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha.

estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar A short course in english for adult students 249 . asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. pelear disparar rendirse invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wiθdró:/ To inspect /inspékt/ matar guiar.Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kónker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To invade /invéid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar.

Bl 250 .

first. 3. / If he´d been here. would feel 8. Ex... 9.. I´d speak a lot better . were 12. she´d be able to travel abroad more often.could go on a picnic.. 7. knew Ex. they would go to the beach.... comes 10.he´d learn more. 5. If they tried hard. 4. 2. (Possible answers). he came to class on time he´d be a better student. he´d enjoy living here. would take 9. would have been 5. 11.. 5. 9. 8. would go 10. 8. would speak 3. had been Ex. he might have helped us. could 7.. had Ex. / If he had had time. I´d would visit..If the weather were nice.would invite her out to dinner. were 9.. is 3.. I would have included it in the list of guests 7. 9.. had told 10. 8... I´d drive to. 12. I had known it. If he prepared his lessons. 10.she had more money.she had wore it. he´d speak it better.would visit Epcot Center 7.I had been there. had called 5.. would make 5. 2. 8... Yes. had had 3.. might 12.. could 6. were 8. 8. If I didn´t have to work. had been 8. 6. Oh yes.. If I saw her.. / If the weather had been nice. had 11. were 7. 3. 10. 2.. If he were here. I´d give her the message. they would have gone to the beach. she had come. she wouldn´t have caught cold. 3. 7. Ex. 2. he would play tennis more often. If I had more time. Yes. I´d go to the beach. 2. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better.. If A short course in english for adult students 251 . 7. If I were free tomorrow... had known 7. I´d buy. would have caught 3.. If 1 could do it.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. they would succeed. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera... we would not go. 6.. (Possible answers) 2. 10... would work 11.. 1. he ´d have gotten a better job. If we had much practice. 2.he had more friends. 10. 3. would have come 6... would have gone 10.. / If 1 had been free yesterday. prepared 10. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean.. 4.. I would have called you up.. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss.. 5. he would have gone with us. I´d have given her the message. had 11. 4. would 4. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). I´d go to..she had the day off / free... he could help us. 2.. would have helped 4. he studied harder 3... If the weather were cold... / If I´d been able to do it. would speak 6. 14.. were 3. 12. If he went. If he came... 9. he would see her. 11. 12. would go 12.. 7.. would visit Ex.. would go to the beach. have 9. 4. would learn 4. would 5... 1 would do it gladly.he had been there. 6. 6. 4. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime .. he would pass 5.I had been in his position... 3. 6. we would speak better. 15. knew 4. 1. Ex... 9....he´d be a better student.. had 5. C) Ex. If he were here. 6.he liked to do it. if he studied hard. had gone 9. Ex. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. he´d make good progress... / If I´d seen her.. had worn 6.. would have driven Ex... would have told 9. If he had time. 2. he had told me. If 1 were free now.. 3..would buy a modern car.I could speak it. (Suggested answers) 1.. 5. she would have taken part in the competition.. would have written 8.he had more free time. you would have seen him.Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. I ´d have done it gladly. 11. he might he1p us. 3.. would have been 7.he had spoken it.I had had one. I´d go to. were 6. he would meet her. would learn faster 4. she had come on time..I spoke it well.. 7.. He´d certainly speak better. I´d be planning a trip to France. 5.. had been 4..it were not so cold. I´d beging to study. 4... 8.. And I´d. 2. I´d go to the movie.. I´d getter better marks.he had more practice in conversation.. I´d have acted differently... 2 .. he would go with us. I´d have called you up.. 4.. would be 7. of course. 13..I had had it. / I´d go to. I´d read more books... 12. (Possible answers) 2..she were here I would be talking with her now.would plan a trip to France.would do more things every day. 5. knew 8. 11.. 2. 6... I would call you up.

Yes. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. I would have gotten a better mark. were 6. Yes. I wish today were a holiday. go 10. Ex. they would have stayed at home. I would have gone. If he´d gone there. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him. 11. I wish I knew her better 7. I´d have gone to.. would go 9.. come 6.... Yes. of course. / No. You´d be right or wrong. he wouldn´t have gone. 6. had 11. 5.. he would have let us know. had been 8. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3.. 8. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. to be sent 10. it were nice 7. 3. he would do it 9. could Ex. 2. be 9. were 11. comes 8.had been invited 4. had the day off . He loves sports / No. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. 9. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. had been 12. Yes. If he worked harder. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. 10. I think. they would stay at home. 5. 2.. 1..we had asked him to help us. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. goes 15.. (Suggested answers) 1... had gone 6. 3.were 4.. she were. 2. 5.. 12. No. 6. 3.would have attended the conference. 3. visit 7. (Suggested answers) 2. had studied 4. 13. I´d have gone to a concert instead. it would have been the same 8. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 7.. he might have gone with us. I love the rain. 10. he had worked harder during the term. I´d be very sorry to hear that. sits Ex. 10. 5. were 7.. 1. 4. were 10. rains 6. 10. You´d be very wrong if you said that.. 2. the meeting would be good. would have done 7. I´d be sorry to hear that. If it rained.. 4. 2. He hates sports. / If John had been present. I´d be pleased to hear that. I would have gone all the same. 8. has been living 12. 2. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. I would have gone to. be 8. 6. / . me 9. I would have certainly helped him. had known it started today. had eaten 16. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. 5. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful.he went there. he would have been promoted. 2 .. be 5. 12. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. I wish John were here with us. 5. .. would buy a Japanese car. 9. 9. comes 13. 8. I didn´t have to work. come 5.. 9.. I´d prefer to be in good health. she were here. If John were present.. I´d prefer to be rich.. be 4. would have phoned you 3. wait 3. 5. of course / No. were 14. would go out for a walk 14.. 5.. 7. of course. / . 16. would have helped you 6. were 3. 2. would have telephoned 3. be 4. (Possible answers) 1. 6. knew Ex. Of course he would have gone. he will let us know.. had hurried 6. could have gone 7. 7. were 9. I were 8.. had had 4. were 11. 252 A short course in english for adult students . I wish he had gone with us last night. Ex. You´d be wrong if you said that. I hate the rain / Yes. 4. were 2. would watch TV every day 11. If he had the money. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. I´d be very sorry to hear that. I wouln´t have gone.. would 7.. PART II A) Ex.. If he´d worked harder. Ex.. of course. of course. 4. had known 5. 9. had been 12. If it had rained. would have come 8.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. It depends. were 5. would have come Ex. I wouldn´t have helped him. may be sleeping 11.. of course. 2. had gone 3. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night... I could speak it . of course. 2.. Ex. 4. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. had had 12. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. I was too busy at that moment. had already seen 14.. 7. 12. it were a holiday. it had been a holiday 6. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. 1. take Ex. would have gone out for a walk 15. he would be promoted.. 7. 11. 3.. 12. 6. would 10. 1.. 10. would have gone 10. 2. of course. would begin 5. would 8. 11. I had studied 4. I could swim 3. I like riding horses. I´d prefer to own a horse. / .. would have I´d have told him you were here. saw 13. 10. the meeting would have been good. My English is not very good. of course.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air.. could 3. had known 9. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies.. 8.

pidió o advirtió hacer. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont.” He said that he had to do the job well. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. (Indirect Speech) I. He said. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. He said. “I have worked very hard. He said.” He said that he had worked very hard. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York.” He said that he had worked very hard. He said.” He said that he was busy then. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés).” He said that he would work hard all day. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said.” He said that it might rain again. “I can use a computer.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). “I like New York. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. “I will work hard all day. “I´m busy today.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. He said. “I always work hard. He said. “I´m very busy. He said. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. “I´m working very hard.” He said that he had to do that again. John said. “I´m busy at this moment. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 . o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy.” He said that he always worked hard.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. He said. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés). He said. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. “I worked very hard. “I have to do that again. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. “I must do the job well. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona. “I´m busy now. “It may rain again.” ➙ He said that he was working very hard.” He said that he could use a computer.” He said that he had been busy the day before. “I was busy yesterday. He said. He said.

” Mary said to me. en el discurso indirecto. Bob asked his friends. ADVERTENCIAS.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Infinitive. Smith said. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. III. The teacher asked the students.” Mary said to me. He said. “I have to work tonight. Bob said. ‘’I will be back later.” He said.” He said that he was very happy there. He said. etc. ETC. “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. “l have known him a long time. “I cannot go with you tonight. “I have no money. 5. 8. según vimos en la Unidad 8. “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party.” Mr. Smith said. “I like New York. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto.” He said that she was very busy that night.” He said. 254 John said. “John is a very sick man. “I hope she comes soon. un requerimiento. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. “I´ll be busy tomorrow. no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura afirmativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me. “I´m very busy tonight.” He said. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación. REQUERIMIENTOS. 10. “I don’t know her well. advertencia.” Bob told us that he liked New York. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. “We will finish this tomorrow. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun).” He said that he would be busy the following day.” A short course in english for adult students (John said that he had to work tonight. 6. 4. “I´m very happy here. “We may have an exam. 2. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex. 7.” The doctor said. He said. 9. Cuando se desea expresar una orden. 3.” He said.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. 1.” Mr. II. Bob asked me.

. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. He said to me.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. Take your feet off the desk. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. 4. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. ) (I don’t know where John is.” (John told me to wait five minutes for him. She said to him. He asked me. John said. -) How much does it cost? (He wants to know . 2. Sit down and read the story.” Ex. Wait outside in the hall. (The teacher told me to sit in the first row.) Where is she going? (She didn’t say. 5. “Sit down for a few minutes. ‘’Please don’t be late. . 5. I asked her. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. 7. “Where does John live?” (Mary asked where John lived. 9. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. 11.) 2. The teacher asked. Mary asked. .) Where does she live? (Can you tell me. The teacher said to us.. He asked me. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. 6.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Come back later. “Wait five minutes for me. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. 3.. I asked him. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. Helen said to me.. I asked him. “Don’t make the same mistake again.” ___________________________________________________ 3.. He asked me. Change to indirect form: 1. Sit in the first row. 10. “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3. Sit up straíght. Give this message to Mrs.” ___________________________________________________ 6. John said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 7.. 4.” ___________________________________________________ 9.” __________________________________________________ 10. 4. 12. ) Is he in the building? (She wants to know. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. “Don’t cross the road.11. “Don’t write in pencil. “He is supposed to be here now. 2.Mr Smith asked us. “Be more careful. He warned the child.” 12.” ___________________________________________________ 4. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. He said to me.He asked me.? Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. I asked her. 8. “I am going away tomorrow. “Don’t forget what I told you. Go to the whiteboard. “Try to come on time.. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3. Prepare your lessons more carefully.. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. He asked me. 5. I asked John. Answer the following questions in indirect form.” ___________________________________________________ S. ‘’Please send me the money at once. Smith. 3.. He said to me. Where´s John? (I don’t know.) 2. He said to me. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. 6. He begged me. Change from direct to indirect form: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 1. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. 2. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1. Don’t waste so much time.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 . Do your exercíses in ink.” ___________________________________________________ 5. He said to me. She said. He asked me.

7. Jones wanted to know. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. can I) do it. 4.. He told her to leave the room..) ___________________________________________________ How tall is he? (I don’t know. He said he (can. . He said he would be back soon. He said that he could not meet us. 12. Can you tell me what time (it is. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . was). is it)? He said he (will. 6. 9.. He said he was busy. She said she was going out of town. 11. I asked her whether she (is.. lived). 12.. (He said.) ___________________________________________________ Where does he live? (Ask him.. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students . Smith here? (I’d like to know.7. 10. I´m not sure whether (he is. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. She said her last name was Smith. 15. He asked how much it cost. He didn’t say where he (is. 2. 9. (He asked me where I lived... He (told me. Choose the correct form: 1. meant). could) meet us easily. 6. 3. 5. was) married. Change from indirect to direct form: 1. would) come here soon. .) _________________________________________________ Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me. 4. 10.. 8. 12. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 13. 6. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I asked him what the word (means. Answer these questions: 1.) ___________________________________________________ Where is he now? (Can you tell me. He told me not to wait for him.) How is he getting along? (Mrs. 14. 11. ) ___________________________________________________ Is he very tall? (I really don’t know. is he) here now. He asked me what time it (is. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. He asked her whether she liked New York. ) ___________________________________________________ Is Mr. 10. 7. 5. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 3. “I am busy. He asked me where I lived.) ___________________________________________________ When will he get back? (I´d like to find out. 11.) ___________________________________________________ Ex. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.. it is).) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. was) going.. said to me) that he was busy.. 9. 7.. 8. I don’t know whether (I can. 8. He asked me where I (live. I’d like to know where (is it.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. 8.

localizar mirar A short course in english for adult students 257 . Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. gustar terminar odiar. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. o cons+cons+vocal+cons. responder llegar preguntar. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchiη/ working /wé:rkiη/ loving /láviη/ playing /pléiη/ studying /stádiiη/ fitting /fitiη/ stopping /stopiη/ guiding /gáidiη/ repeating /ripí:tiη/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. 3. el gerundio. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares.rd δis íar/ We are working hard now. Escuche. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. /δéir spí:kiη íηglish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). -d. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. /wí: hav wé:rkt há. 2. el pasado. /δéi spóuk íηglish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish.BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el infinitivo. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t. -te. pedir transportar. /δéi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar. lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. el pasado participio. Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ Spanish contestar. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. no gustar ayudar esperar. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. /wí:r wé:rkiη ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /δéi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/.

utilizar visitar esperar. funcionar B. mantener saber. encontrar olvidar conseguir. esforzarse usar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. atender caminar querer lavar observar. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener.conocer A short course in english for adult students . haber oir guardar. fabricar reunirse. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. salir. servirse.enterarse partir. dejar prestar perder. partir quedarse. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar.To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ amar. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ 258 Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Spanish empezar. arreglar repetir solicitar. mirar desear trabajar. extraviar hacer. pedir fumar comenzar. conocer aprender.

narrar pensar. llevar enseñar decir. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 . colocar leer correr.To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ sang /sæη/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /θiηk/ thought /θo:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn pagar poner. comprender vestir.pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. creer entender. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar.

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I asked him when he had read that book. 6. 12. would 5. Mr. He said to me. “My last name´s Smith 6. She said. 9. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 6. 7. He asked me. “Do you like New York?” 4. Ex. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. 4. “How much does it cost?” 10. Ex. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. He wants to know how much it costs. was Ex. He said to her. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 7. 14. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 6. 12. I asked John what time it was. 11. 2. She said. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. He asked.She said. I told him to be more careful. “Don´t wait for me. Mr. 2. told me 6. 4. 8. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 5. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 2. 13. 2. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. He begged me to send him the money at once. He asked her. The teacher told me to come back later. He said. “I can´t meet you . 5. He asked me how I was today. “I´ll be back soon. 4. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. She wants to know how he is getting along. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 1. it is 10. 4. 8. 2. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. 8. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 13. Smith. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. Ask him where he lives. 6. “Where do you live?” 3. 3. it is 4. 3. (Possible Answers) . He said he´d seen it.” Ex. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. 7. 5. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. 2. 3. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. Mrs. 7. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story.” 5. 3. I asked her where it was. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. 10. 6. He asked me what the word meant. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. She didn´t say where she was going . Ex. 2. He asked me to meet him outside the station. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . I can 3. I don´t know how tall he is. 14. 10. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. was 9. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. 10. 9. meant 8. He politely asked me not to be late. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. was 7. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. He told me not to make the same mistake again. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. 7. 8. He told me to write a short story in English. 11. 9. 1. 7. he is 12. He said (that) he had no money. 6. 2. A short course in english for adult students 261 . The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. 15. 4. 12. 8. 10. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. He said. He told me not to forget what he had told me.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. 5.” 8. 8. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. . “My maiden name was Jones. 5. Smith is here. 2. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight.” 9. Ex. I asked her whether / if John was here. He said (that) he had known him a long time. He warned the child not to cross the road. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. could 11. Ex. Mr. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 3. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. 9. John asked whether / if it was raining. 15. 3. 6. 5. He asked me to try to come on time. 8. 4. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. 7. He asked me. “ 11. “I´m going out of town. “Leave the room. 12. 3. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. 7. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. 5. 9. Because there was too much traffic at that time.

Bl 262 .

... bat ai spí:k spænish and íηglish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a. mi nombre es..? ¿De dónde es Ud.. No entiendo francés Es Ud... Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No. Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud.. . francés/alemán/italiano? No.? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud...? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago..? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students 263 ..? ¿Tiene Ud. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. My name is....../ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéiiη æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado.... Please let me introduce myself... Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente.UNIT 20 USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. Permítame presentarme.. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well.. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor... I don´t. My name is. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército..Chile ¿Vive ud. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræηk /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt... thank you I´m fine./ /δis iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.? Vengo de Stgo.. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórniη/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vniη/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: δis i:vniη/ /θækiu:/ /θækiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel θæηkiu/ /aim fáin θæηks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento.. Mi nombre es. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud. Este es el o la Sr.... But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do. un/a../Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr./ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.

please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. please Don´t open the window. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wiδ pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:tiη iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn δe wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts δe déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu háηgri/ /a:r iu θé:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r róη/ /ai agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt θiηk sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai θiηk sóu/ /ies δæts ráit/ /δæts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai δæt/ /wót daz δis wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts δe mí:niη ov δis wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. No concuerdo con Ud. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. Concuerdo con Ud. Sí.. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. creo que sí Sí. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. por favor No abra la ventana. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. I think so Yes. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud.. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. come in and sit down Wait a moment. está equivocado. razón. por favor. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . of course/certainly/sure No. por supuesto No. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. No lo creo así. Ud. Así lo espero. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. I don´t mind.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta.

. ¿Podría Ud. ¿Qué (hace.)? estaba 2.(ayudarme.Remember: 1. Sentémosnos aquí (vamos.. etc.)? 7.. please.. etc. 5. address. ¿Puedo yo. por favor.(help me..etc.etc... No vaya allá (hable. ) 7..) A short course in english for adult students 265 .etc.)? Can Will 6..( haciendo..)? UD? 4. (.. Let´s sit here.)UD? did 3..etc) (hará.. etc..(nombre dirección. 8.....(come here.(fumo..(do. Don´t.).(smoke.... ¿Le molesta a UD si yo. ¿Cuál es su. etc. Siéntese aquí (venga. etc) ....etc)? 9...)? were you 2.....)? Recuerde: 1... What´s your.. Do you mind if I. What are you will you be .. etc.) please. etc.. etc. spell it? (.(name....)... etc. 8. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.etc. (sit here.. etc) 3.)? Would 5.)? will 4.. etc . por favor. go there ( speak. etc)? 9... Sit here.. etc.. ¿Qué está estará (hizo. etc.)? ¿Querría Ud.)....(doing..)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6. Could you. Can May I.. What do you. go....... help you. Shall I.(sentarme aquí.

My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido.. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi.. please I need to make an international call to Chile.. por favor. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas. por favor. por favor? ¿Donde está el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. I want to check out at.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik δe sé:rvis/δe fu:d/δe rú. me parece.. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación¡ ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis. a mi habitación. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. por favor. Yo no cené aquí anoche. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from δe houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spánish plí:z/ /iz δer e suímiη pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in δe houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz δer e máni ekstchéindll in δe houtél/ /kud iu bríη e. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check.. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. please? There´s an error in my bill/check. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo.... por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. Is there a barber´s shop here.. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this... Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz δe réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz δe bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz δer e télifoun in δe lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /δérz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai θiηk/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/driηk/órder δis/ /iz δer a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust δí:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r δe lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik δe líft/elevéitor tu δe ténθ fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at..B. 266 A short course in english for adult students . to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik δis sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz δér e kólor tí: ví: in δe rú:m/ /δe séntral hí:tiη/éar kondíshoner íznt wé: rkiη wél/ /mai béd háznt bí:n méid iet/ /ai ní:d anáδer blæηkit/ /kud iu tchéindll δe táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts δe vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz δear a kóin operéitid wóshiη mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv δi:z klóuδz wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and δe kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha.

) please? Recuerde: 1. etc)? 3. etc.. etc.. etc. (telephones.Remember: 1.. / teléfonos. ¿Hay un. I want to..... ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .etc... Could you..etc..) en el hotel? 4.....)? ¿Dónde están los . etc) Desearía. bar.) in the hotel? 4.etc.(wake me up at 7:30..etc.(servirme otro café.(bar...(lift.) 2.(make a phone call.(ascensor.(despertarme a las 7..etc.. bar... ¿Podría Ud.. Is there a. baños. ) 2.(hacer una llamada... etc.etc...( have another coffee. Where is the.. ¿Dónde está el.? 3... toilets.) I would like to..(bar.)? Where are the. Quiero..

por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda.)? How would you like your.etc) Desearía servirme. Recuerde: 1. etc. (drink. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. (tea. How do you want your.)? 3.)? What would you like to. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check...etc.. Puede conservar el vuelto.s mi δe só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sámθiη tu dríηk wáin. I want to have.. etc)? Desearía pedir. etc).. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. ¿Qué quiere Ud. etc.. You can keep the change. (steak. (otro whisky...C. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty. Muchísimas gracias. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. por favor. please? I really enjoyed the meal. (pollo con arroz.)? ¿Me podría traer. La quiere a punto. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? Whisky. mí: dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. etc.. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. almendras saladas o maní. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo.)? I´d like to order.)? 2. cherry.. (another whisky.. Can I have. etc. (beber. bíar or e sóft dríηk/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida.) I´d like to have. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. (comer.... medium or well-done? I want it well done please. Good bye. a sandwich. (some more tea. Quiero servirme. Hasta luego. amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. etc)? 3.. Thank you very much. (chicken and rice.. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. Remember: 1. etc. etc. Fue muy buena en verdad. ¿Desearía algo para beber? Vino. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. It was very good indeed. What do you want to.. etc) ¿Puedo servirme. ) /ai ní:d e téibl for θrí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz δer e téibl in δe non smóukiη éaria níar δe wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rviη lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll δis íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at δe méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:s ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wiη/ /ai θiηk ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ ´ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi anáδer náif δis wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu bríη mi δe bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid δe mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /θæηkiu véri match/iu kan kí:p δe tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor.. (más tea. cerveza o una gaseosa? Podría servirme una cerveza de barril.. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio.? Could you get me.. etc) 268 A short course in english for adult students . un sandwich. cognac. (a beer. salted almonds or peanuts..)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. etc. (eat. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té. (la cuenta. (una cerveza. (the bill. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine.. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area. etc...etc)? 2..). beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. etc. etc. Could you pass me the salt.. .

Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /hériη/ King-crab /kiη kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drésiη/ Fruit /frú:t/ hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto. bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES. TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . plaice /sóul. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kábidll/ Carrot /kárrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS.

rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náaif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular. casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /éiprikot //éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blæberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tcóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /rázberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblkloθ/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral.por favor? Perdón. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. Ask a policeman. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. en la Calle Park Perdón.. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. por favor? Perdón. por favor? Perdón. Perdón. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. No sé. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. please? Excuse me. there´s one in Bridge Street. Necesita tomar el tren. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. óposit δe sínema/ /wót táim du δe bæηks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt rániη/ /wót taim du δe shóps klóuz/ /dáz δe supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. outside the station. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. It´s not very far. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. We are here. dónde está la estación. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. can you tell me the way to the park. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu δe kaθídrl. Excuse me. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. Kan iu shóu mi δe wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz δe póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél me wéar δe bæηk iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar δe stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi δe wéi tu δe pá: rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu δe miu:zíam/ /luk at δe mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid δe stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu δe brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at δe réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k alóη δis strí:t as fá:r as δe træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at δe nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun δe strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik δe θé:rd té:rniη on δe ráit and δén wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv aloη δis róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/δen té:rn ráit and iul sí: δe táuer at δi énd ov δe róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréidller híar maisélf/á:sk e plísman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu δe næ´shional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz δi éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik δe tréin/ /ikskiú:s mi dáz δis bás go tu δe stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu δi óksford houtél in pá:rk strí: t/ /ikskiu:s mi wéarz δe níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz δer e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/δéarz wan in bridll strí:t. You need to take the train. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. Do you know where the station is. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. ¿Sabe Ud. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. Excuse me. Yo también soy forastero aquí. opposite the cinema. por favor? Perdón. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. please? Excuse me. Sorry I don´t know. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. take me to the Oxford Hotel. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. please? Excuse me. hasta el semáforo. in Park Street. frente al cine.D. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. I´m a stranger here myself. Where´s the post office. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. Camine por esta calle.

Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util) City... is. please? 3..... How do I get to. please? Can you tell me where the. Hay un / una. Do you know where the. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a...de aquí? 7. Where is the nearest.. from here? 7..? 6.. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la... Could you show the way to...? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la. near here? Building /bíldiη/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk stó:r/ librería book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /θíater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1.s....... Where is the. How far is the.. ¿Cómo llego a.open / close? 6. I need to buy a / some. /péivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1......? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a..? 2. Could you tell me the way to.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 ... please?... Necesito comprar un / algunos.? Is there a. open / close? What time does the. ¿A qué distancia está el / la. por favor? 4. please? 4.is. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement.... ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las....? 2.por favor? ¿Dónde esta la.. What time do the.? 5.? 5.....por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la.. Which bus do I need to take to go to the..más cercana.. ¿Dónde está la..por favor? 3....

fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld δe téibl and put δe Ajuste su cinturón. bæk ov io:r sí:t in δi apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo 274 A short course in english for adult students . Can you spell it please? ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? /háu mátch is δe bás tíkit tu δe zú:/ ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey /flight take? /háu lóη daz δe dllérni /fláit téik/ ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? What time does the train /plane leave? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin lí:v/ ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? What time does the train /plane /get there? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin get δéar/ ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu loη daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? /du δei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai δe wíndou/ ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in δe non smóukiη éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases /δí:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Estas son mis malaetas Please carry my suitcases with care /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wiδ kéar/ Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado I will carry this handbag myself. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. please? What´s your last name. /wi a:r lændiη /aráiviη in e fiu: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil δe pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. Fasten your seat belt. /ai wil kæri δis hændbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano Where is the luggage /baggage claim? /wéar iz δe lágidll /bægidll kléim/ ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? I have nothing to declare /ai hæv náθiη tu dikléar/ No tengo nada para declarar How many bottles can I take with me? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wiδ mí:/ ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? /iz δer e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? Where is the bar? /restaurant? /wéarz δe bá:r /restorant/ ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? Are we landing /arriving soon? /á:r wi lændiη /aráiviη sú:n/ ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes.E. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto) /kan ai hav ior pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a ritérn tíkit tu lión/ Can I have your passport. Please put your cigarette out now.

Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. Shopping (de compras) I like this /that watch /jacket. We´ll send the items to the plane. guarde este recibo. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sámθiη/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of léδer /plástik /wu:l /kóton /góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. /plí:z kí:p δis risí:t /wí wil sénd δi áitmz tu δe pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz δis wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r δouz glávz/ Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dólares? No me gusta el color. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik δe kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. ¿Tiene Ud. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 .F. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? /ai láik δis /δæt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik δí:z /δóuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: δem/ /kan ai trái δem ón // /háu mátch á:r δei /háu mátch du δei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai péi wiδ amérikan máni /iú: és dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r.

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4.Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas.50. 5... El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma). que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas.Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. antes de comenzar la prueba.Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio...LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B. Preguntas 1 ..READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.. 3.Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 .UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.

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C. know her new address. C. C. C. knew her new address. 3. had dinner that evening. he works hard as a rule. D. C. B. opens the door now. had stolen. somewhere that day. ought to see a doctor today. who Peter sent Mary last week. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. B. anywhere that day. B. C. deberá elegir la alternativa A. C. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. should to go by taxi. is trying to open the door now. a little bored. A. B. very ill now. are having dinner that evening. A. deberá consignarla. B. quite busy at the moment. 5. will give to him your message C. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. C. he often works hard. had to be there very quickly. wants open the door now. can see a doctor today. “What expensive it is!” C. nowhere that day. D. Ud. have just opened the door. should know her new address. D. B. C. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . won’t can see it well. A. 4. 15. C. D. C. he seldom works hard. B. a few difficult for him. are better to go by taxi. B. D. D. everywhere that day. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. might see a doctor today. will be there on time. C. C. were having dinner that evening. 11. D. too difficult for him. had better go by taxi. was stealing. A. A. A. B. were there earlier. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. B. A. A. B. he always works hard. A.15. oirá oraciones incompletas. give him your message. which Peter sent Mary last week. 9.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. o D. D. 12. give your message to him 2. D. too late right now. A short course in english for adult students 279 . En cada caso Ud. A. 6. A. would rather go by taxi. was been stolen. 10. can be there now. A. B. Ud. may see a doctor today. 13. have been having dinner that evening. D. had been stolen. too much difficult for him. 7. would know her new address. whose Peter sent Mary last week. won’t be allowed to see it well. D. B. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. A. D. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. 14. “How expensive watch is it!” D. won’t be possible to see it well A. “How expensive it is!” B. so much difficult for him. C. am going to give him your message D. won’t be able to see it well. B. D. A.

A. He didn’t like hotels very much. 16. A. B. The buses were crowded at that time C. Because they like the rain. Later in the day. 22. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. 29. A. 24. A polite person. B. He wanted to take a walk. oirá oraciones completas y. B. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. A sociable person. He must finish the job sometime. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. C. 25. B. 17. They are a different age.He had no time to travel. At once. B. A kind person. He was away all day long. They go there only when the weather’s fine. C. C. A. D. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. C. A. A. D. He was resting all day. There were too many people there. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. C. C. B. Didn’t care much. They go there when they have time. B. C. He remembered he had a friend. C. C. D. D. A dull person. A. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 280 . D. He stayed in the garden all morning. He wanted to save money. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. D. C. Because they like shopping. He hasn’t told us much about her. A. He was working at home all day. B. C. B. B. A. Ud. D. C. B. The weather was awful. He wanted to get home more safely. Away from the office. He was away almost all day. He would miss his family. Después de cada oración U¡. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. They attended a meeting at the club. o D. Because it’s a busy little town. He preferred to go home by taxi. A. He doesn’t feel like going out today. No escriba en este cuadernillo. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. A. He has to decide what to do soon. He lived in this house until recently. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. que la conteste en mejor forma. He has to work in the evenings too D. B. They are a little younger. D. C. They go there from time to time. C. 20. B. He must order someone to do the job. They are 12 years old. Ud. Didn’t forget. He came to live in this house very recently. He doesn’t see her so often. They go there when they want to have fun. They are 10 years altogether. She’ll show them a map. B. 26. C. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. She’ll call the roll. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40.30. 18. It was a very crowded place. A short course in english for adult students 32. D. 19. D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. A. 21. D. 23. No escriba en este cuadernillo. B. 30. They decided to go home early. Didn’t remember. He hasn’t studied her well. C. D. He hates to be at home during the day. C. A. D. Didn’t make a decision. B. 27. They had dinner at the restaurant. A. On his way to the office. 28. B. He’ s only seen her once or twice. She’ll ring them up. C. A. D. 0 D. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. D. He’d better stay at home all day today. 31 A. D. She’ll go and see them. They went somewhere else together. en cada caso.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . A. B. B. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS.

B. She did everything correctly. 36. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. Robert called to give them a new order. En cada caso. 39. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. deberá elegir la alternativa A. A. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. C. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. C. o D. A. She wanted to buy an air ticket. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. A short course in english for adult students 42. D. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. They worked in a garage in those days. so they ate quickly and left the place. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. Because he was glad to see her again B. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. A. A. B. D.. B. 34. 281 . B. B. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. She did everything as carefully as possible. It wasn’t warm enough inside. Escuche atentamente. He should have gone to the reception. At a summer house they had in the south of France. C.33. 43. C. A. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. B. A. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. C. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. D. 38. El examinador leerá una historia. B. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. D. Because they´d been friends for many years. That area never appears on the maps. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. B. C. A. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. D. D. B. C. She did everything immediately. She did everything following the instructions. B. A. He could not help at the reception. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. Because she told him about her husband´s death. 40. C. They have used that car for a long time. 35. D. A. D. A. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. At an expensive hotel near Paris. 37. Mary telephoned him after she got there. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. D. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. C. A. C. D.. C. D. Robert telephoned them in a given order. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. 41. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. They used to have two cars in those days. C.

50. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people.44. A. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. B. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. C. C. D. D. 49. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. Because India was an amazing country. C. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. B. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. C. D. as usual. B. B. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. A. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. C. D. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. A. C. To a particular holiday place in India. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. B. D. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . 45. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. 46. D. A. B. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. A. D. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. 47. To visit some friends in Portugal. 48. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. To spend her summer holidays abroad. C. A. A. B.

but he remembered that he _________ go and see a A short course in english for adult students 283 . hard enough D. Have . A. What a few B How interesting C. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. before leaving B. along . John. A. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. would rather D. B. José? No. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco.the most highest D. Jim. o D. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. elija la alternativa A. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning.your friends 60. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. before to leave 58. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. What a lot of D. there had been B. most good 54. for . hardest B. I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. A. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. never. C. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A. How often . before you’re leaving D. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. too good B.. Will .drunk A. since . 51. satisfactory 53. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. How much time . must to B. they were having D. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. How much 56. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months.the higher 57. should to C. A. How long . But I know it’s a very strong liquor.been drunk 52. Have . What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. too many C. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. enseguida.your family B. You are getting too fat.the high B. in order to leaving C.drink D.the highest C.them D. valuable C. it was 55. Do – drank B. better D. How many times – theirs C. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. ought to 59. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. there were C. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. during .B. C.

Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A. as B. talk 69.am going to see her 65. A. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. are decreasing B. give to her the letter . John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them.can see her . whose . Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep.An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. who . he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. give the letter to her . are decreased .will produce C.will see her B. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. had been taking – should D. A. in order to 70. A. A. have been prevented . could have been prevented 284 A short course in english for adult students C.Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. was sleeping – still C. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. A.are producing .. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. slept – also B. so to C. both nor and 67. has decreased D. had taken – must B. neither D. A.friend who was in hospital. A. by the year C. had been sleeping – yet 62. Consequently. could be prevented D. have been decreasing . for to B.see her C. give her the letter . I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon.was allowed 61. too heavy D. has slept – already D. don´t talk D. whom .had to C. which . a year D. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. in a year B.mustn´t be C. A.doesn’t have to be D. was going to take .produce . very heavy B. give the letter her D.are talking B.never was able to be B. so that D. The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. either as or C.have talked C. for the year 66. not heavy enough 68.will be producing 63. must have prevented B. would take . too much heavy C. the accident _____________. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A.will never be 64.

we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. He may get angry and reprimand you. He needed the answer urgently. had played C. are going to fly B. will be flying D.will be C. too much everywhere somewhere C. don’t contradict C. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. are using C. yet . had to C. so I sent him an email __________ A. ___________ him. A. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. were allowed to use D. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . used to play D. You _________ do it right now. where did the people go B. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. Sir.should be . have been flying 73. A. was playing B. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. 80. did D. have used B. When I was your age. what time was it exactly 72. don’t you contradict D. are flying C. A. would rather 79. If I had had some extra money. would have had C. At this time tomorrow. any D. A. For the time being. why was sleeping the old man D. Miss Jones? A.71. do contradict 75. It __________ here in a few minutes A. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. so I could go ___________ else. enough B. suddenly 76. I didn’t have___________ extra money. went 74. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . all the same D. right now D. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. you don’t contradict B. A. would better B. at all B. had better D. still B. seldom use 77. some nowhere anywhere 78. I would have visited some other places too. what the young man was doing C. they _________ the old computer. A. I think.Tom. can B. at once C.

What time C. wasn’t allowed to B. and Bill didn’t. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. almost D. was much too old B. D. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. wasn’t very old D. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. without anything to eat. ought to stay D. begins D. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. 91. o D. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. from a distant place. and neither did Bill. too. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. was too very young 87. C. and Bill didn’t either. prefers to read B. have to be B. would like to stay 84. need to remain 85. didn’t want to C. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. dislikes to read 83.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. B. Elija la alternativa A. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. A. A. It’s too cold. A. C. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. became accustomed to 82. John didn’t come to class today. becomes B. How long B. fills C. A. 81. 89. How often D. A. B. was too young C. became sick of C. A. in the right way B. at once C. I think the children would rather stay at home today. punctually 90. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. refused to 88. obtains C. simply couldn’t D. A. doesn’t enjoy reading D. but Bill didn’t also. quietly and secretly. A. completely alone D. got tired of B. somewhere else C. simply . A. got afraid of D. hates reading C. B. D. very often B. and so did Bill. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. There wasn’t anyone else in the house.95. How frequent 86. so he walked home.

” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. report 94.92. “She’s still in the living-room. from time to time B. D. He´ll go back to sleep at once. If the boy wakes up.” Mrs Soames said. 97. He’s told me the same thing over and over. o D. “Make yourself comfortable. 98. The girl had never done baby sitting before. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. Anyway. he’s four years old. a young girl of seventeen. Carol. She’s fast asleep!” 96. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A.” Mrs Soames said. B. C. underline B. They went to visit some friends. You can. so you should not have any trouble. because it’s a nice city. They had some trouble with their baby. because the weather’s good there. with some exaggeration D. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. only a few times 95. B. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. actually C. Please cross out my name. What did the Soames do that evening? A. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being.” “He was looking at the television. es la más adecuada en cada caso. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. many times. leave out D. B. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. A. They saw a program on television. be in that town B. listen to the radio or watch television. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. obtain a room C. leave the city C. It’s on the table. at present. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. B. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. que estime Ud. and the television could just be heard. of course. A. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. “He’s wide awake. 93. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. Before she left. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. Because the boy was going with them as well. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. D. consider C. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. C. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. C. A short course in english for adult students 287 . Because the boy was a newly born baby. C. D. He is too old and is losing his memory. D. I won’t be able to attend the reception. Because the boy was not in good health. get a place D.What time do you think they will get there? A.

Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. planned. 110.our B. C. faster D. Don´t worry about anything.deep B. They were both in the living-room. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 4) A. their E. C. C. waking up C. 115. obviously D. slowly B. D. D. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. 102. careful C. aunt C. age C. 113. sight C. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. D. o E. B. 288 A. B. along E. 111. century E. D. looking at B.butter B. should E. sock C. his C. well E. cotton E. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. shirt A. worse A. tie D. (término excluido). month C. rice A. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. It was only a few minutes past eleven. No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106.99. decided B. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. glove E. ought D.? (line 8) A. He will fall asleep again.would B. looking for D. He will feel sleepy. day D. C. could A. her D. by no means B. perhaps C. among B. juice D. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. It was almost midnight. He will go to his bed. of course. It was just before eleven. promised D. across D. It wasn´t very late. He will go to his bedroom again. however (line 3) 103. fast D. D. 105. Be careful with the neighbours. 114. left (line 10) C.neck B. narrow A. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. B. cousin A. B. 112. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. wide D. 104. meat C. 100. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? (line 6) A. high E. What is the meaning of “holding” A. 107 108. nephew D. C. mine A. hour A short course in english for adult students . sun E.niece B. behind A. happier E. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. 101. clever C. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. throw C. cheaper B. weak B. 109. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. B. quickly A.

forgot D. sometimes D. broke C.116. barber D. seldom A. belt E. arm D. shut E. always E. 120. butcher E. shoulder A. seen B. tired D. bought B. 119. elbow C. grocer A. real C. tailor C. brought C. A.customer B. 118. made A. often B. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . 117. nose B. put E.

Bl 290 .

A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 19. 32. 15. 31. 65. 70. 17. 22. 25. 36. 39. 45. 43. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 47. 27. 38. 41. 52. 18. 44. 20. 42. 13. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 4. 2. 63 64. 60. LISTENING PART 1. 53. 48. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 23. 33. 12. 34. 29. 62. 67. 6. 21. 56. 46. 10. 50. 24. 57. 7. 35. 28. 14. 59. 9. 3.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 16. 66. 40. 58. 5. 8. 69. 11. 55. 68. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 54. 30. 49. 37.

112. 82. 80. 114. 111. 110. 76. 99. 81. 88. 107. 86. 118. 104. 103. 100. 77. 113. 98. 97. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students .71. 106. 79. 120. 85. 75. 95. 102. 72. 87. 89. 84. 108. 94. 105. 93. 73. 90. 117. 78. 115. 91. 74. 109. 83. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 116. 119. 101. 92.

LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 .John was going to work in the garden that morning. so he left the job for the following weekend. Ud. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. oirá oraciones incompletas. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 11. you really don’t look well this morning. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.Jack and Tom are the same age.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. Question: What did they A short course in english for adult students 293 . C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. C. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. 5. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. 15. 3.15. 12. 4. 6. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. He is only ten at present.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. 16. o D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 13. Después de cada oración Ud.30. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. deberá consignarla. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. que la conteste en mejor forma.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . Question: What did John do that morning? 25.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. Jack. Ud. Ud. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. They went to the club instead. 10. B. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. If you take a taxi. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. 14. B. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 7. John.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. 0 D. 2. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. 8.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. En cada caso Ud.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. 9. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. but Bill is two years younger.

do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not fine, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oirá oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. He’d rather stay at home all day today. 32. He got used to living in this house after a few months. 33. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. 34. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. 35. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. 37. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. 38. It hardly ever snows in that region. 39. They used to repair cars in those days. 40. She did everything right away. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. En cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. “A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. I’m sure we can arrange something for you.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. “Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green,” he thought. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husband’s death, back in his office asking about holidays abroad. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. “How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... “ Mrs Green shook her head. “As a matter of fact,” she said, “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. However, at her age...” “India …” he said. “Well, yes. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. “How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. You’ll see the really important places - and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you,” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what 1 don’t want.” The travel agent looked puzzled. “Look,” Mrs Green went on. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here.” She waved it at him. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. What happened a few months ago? 46. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? 47. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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A short course in english for adult students

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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A short course in english for adult students

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day
(Yo escribo una carta todos los días;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.
(Mary escribe una carta todos los días)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.
(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.
(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning
(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.
(Yo escribí una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .
(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE

SIMPLE
A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow
(Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.
(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes
(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE
A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará realizando o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estará ocurriendo en un momento aún no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...o´clock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..o´clock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi_ at __t táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i_ at eit _é: rti _is ívni_ / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, I´m not. I´m studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. She´s reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Don´t worry,. It´s all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasn´t. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Detective: Peter:

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Did I speak with the manager. usually. next month. every week. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive.. in 1986.. I will not speak with the manager... Jane does not speak with the ..? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow. last week. Two days ago.. Am I going to speak with.. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. como todos los sucedió en una fecha u hora determinada días.. etc.. 1997... Am I speaking with .? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day.. I´m not going to speak with ...? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud. sometimes.etc. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói_ tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer . every month. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow....... next Sunday. That day.. next week..etc... Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó o sucede en forma habitual.. Once a day...prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. en el pasado.. twice a week...? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención...? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow... plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad . Will I speak with the manager.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday.. etc. I ´m not speaking with .. I did not speak with the manager... on May 4. Do I speak with the manager ...? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer. several times a year..? 300 A short course in english for adult students . etc Always.. seldom. Does Jane speak with the manager. siempre. etc.. el sábado pasado..? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow... last night.. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud.she it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). el próximo sábado. ten months ago.. como ayer. etc. often. last Sunday. etc.B.. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past. (con He. como mañana. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud.. I do not speak with the manager.....

My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. Did you go alone? No.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. We will go to Cancun again. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. He usually walks. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. When are you going to leave? Well. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . I went with some friends. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. I didn´t. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. We really had a great time there.

Several times.. Jackson has never travelled abroad.. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No. Just. since. She had never been in Paris before. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó: r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud... Your train has just left. we will have had lunch already. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. lately. Sir. before. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. But I had never visited it in the spring. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For...before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. By the end of this month / year. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai δ i énd ov δ is mánθ / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud.. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know.. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today.. He says it´s spectacular. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. many times before.C....etc By this time tomorrow / next month.. twice. Once. Mrs. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. continuado hasta este momento.. never. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . not. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. etc.. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a realizarse Describe una acción que se realizó u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. I have never been there. But one of my brothers has visited it several times.etc. never. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice.. I´ve come here three or four times. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir.yet. three times. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd δ is mó:rniη / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. He had not saved enough money for the tickets.. already .

. / for. A.. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built.. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B.... John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:iη sins iu: arráivd híar δis mó:rniη / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. Peter: You really look tired. / for.. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:iη bai δi énd ov δis mánθ / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud.. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A. when S + Past Since... In the meantime.. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday.. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since.. It will all be over before the end of this month. It´s a shame! Well.... Yes.. I hope they take a stand and vote for it. They´d been dancing and singing. Mary: Yes. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:iη bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud... Anyway.. A short course in english for adult students 303 . hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things.. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning... Peter: Yes. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire... It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March. antes de una fecha futura...... continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. since. we simply have to be patient and wait.D. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. and I have been studying for the final exams. . I´ve been working on my thesis... I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month..

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