Table of Contents

Acknowledgements Abbreviations 0.1 Location and number of speakers 0.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language 0.3 Dialects 1. Phonology 1.1 Orthography 1.2 Phonemic inventory 1.3. Vowels and Prosody 1.4 Consonants 1.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St. Petersburg 1.7 Tongue twisters and diction 2. Morphology 2.1 Inflectional morphology 2.2 Declension 2.3 Indeclinable Nouns 2.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2.5 Declensional desinences: plural 2.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural 2.7 The semantics of the Russian case system 2.8 Adjectives 2.9 Pronouns 2.10 Numerals 2.11 Time expressions 2.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions 2.13 Derivational Morphology 2.14 Verbs 3. Syntax 3.1 Syntax and syntactic categories 3.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals 3.3 Grammatical particles 3.4 Verbal government 3.5 Impersonal constructions 3.6 Proverbs and collocations 3.7 Use of profanity in CSR Bibliography 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 9 13 17 20 21 22 22 24 29 30 31 32 34 41 49 56 62 64 67 82 123 123 123 124 125 125 127 127 129


This project would not have been possible without the reviews and criticisms of several respected colleagues, including Ron Feldstein, Elena Maksimova and Irina Guliakova. My special thanks to Troy Williams for his assistance in editing, glossing and preparing a camera-ready manuscript.


A adj adv anim arc C CSR CSCR D f, fem G I inan L m, masc N n, neut pl sg V n/s PPP Ø // [] {} '' accusative adjective adverb animate archaic consonant Contemporary Standard Russian Contemporary Standard Colloquial Russian dative feminine genitive instrumental inanimate locative masculine nominative neuter plural singular vowel non-syllabic past passive participle zero desinence phonemic transcription phonetic transcription morphophonemic and morphological transcription English glosses


Isačenko suggests that the name “Russian” be used for the written language only after the Tartar invasion and the destruction of Kiev (1980: 124). Recently ranked as the 4th most influential language in the world (Weber 1999: 22). Mixail Vasiljevič Lomonosov. one during the 11th-13th centuries and another during the Second South Slavic influence (also referred to as “Re-Bulgarization”) in the 14th century. a South Slavic language. in fact.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language Russian. Russian continues to be one of the official languages of Kyrgyzstan and Belarus.”] Isačenko argues convincingly that one may begin to speak of a Russian literary language (which will later give rise to CSR) during a period from 1760-1825.0. Socio. Over the past 200 years. This period of diglossia lasted well into the 18th century. morphological and lexical changes. Karamzin was perhaps the most influential. 246) demonstrate the importance of French influence as a model of constructing a literary language in Russia and argue that it was.1 Location and number of speakers Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation and was the primary official language of the Soviet Union (cf. The most significant of these changes is found in the lexicon. played a significant role in the development of the Russian language throughout its history with two periods of intensification. but the overall number of lexical 4 . Old Church Slavonic. is one of three contemporary East Slavic languages. 0. but certainly reflects a number of phonological. dates that generally correspond with Karamzin’s life [1766-1825] (1980: 132-139). Since the breakup of the USSR. and may be used for official purposes in Kazakhstan and Ukraine.CSR) has remained generally stable. Lotman and Uspenskij (1975: 196-7. kofe (m > n)). However. it has often been the case in Russian and Soviet scholarship that Puškin has been given most of the credit for the creation of a literary language and style (Vinogradov 1990: 6-7). belonging to the Indo-European language family. where not only declensional and agreement gender have been (or are being) renegotiated (cf. [Prior to this period. One may characterize the coexistence of Old Church Slavonic and the East Slavic vernacular as diglossic. While the contributions of all 3 were significant. Nikolaj Mixailovič Karamzin and Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin were critical contributors to the development of what can be referred to as the modern Russian literary language. the Russian literary language (henceforth Contemporary Standard Russian . Maps 1 and 2). Russian is the first or second language of over 455 million speakers (Crystal 1997: 449).and geolinguistic situation 0. the “Russian language” of the aristocracy that made the greatest impact on the Russian literary language. the other two being Ukrainian and Belorussian. German also plays an important role in the formation of scientific terminology and lexicon during the 18th and 19th centuries (Isačenko 1980: 135). lebed’ (f > m). he suggests the term “East Slavic recension of Church Slavonic.

Olonec. Those studies that exist include most notably the 1915 study by Moscow Dialectological Commission.3 Dialects In order to appropriately introduce a description of the Russian dialects. Western. Kiparsky (1979: 21-25) divides the dialects of Russian into 3 major groups with a total of 8 subgroups: I. 0. The general trend in linguistics conducted in the Russian Federation of the late 20th century is to emphasize the assimilation of dialects to the standard literary language and to characterize the remaining differences as either disappearing or substandard. North Great Russian dialects: Northern. Eastern.000 per year have been registered since 1986. Vladimir-Volga II. and a major survey of the Russian dialects under the direction of Edward Stankiewicz. Eastern.borrowings has become significantly increased. Northern CSR is considered to be formed from a combination of north and south Russian dialects (Meščerskij 1972). South Great Russian dialects: Southern. especially in terms of consonant palatalization (cf. while almost 2. Central Great Russian dialects III.000 lexical borrowings into CSR are registered for the period 1960-85. 9. 1. Such a massive influx of new lexical items has impacted areas of the phonological system of CSR. but are also restricted stylistically and occur primarily in media. a study published in 1965 by Avanesov and Orlova. According to Verbickaja (2001: 5). The large majority of these lexemes are restricted not only to specialized vocabulary in areas like economics and technologies. it is necessary to point out that there has not been an adequate amount of scholarly study of the Russian dialects in the 20th century (Kiparsky 1979: 21).4). 5 .3-1.

4. The “name” of a particular letter is included below only for those graphemes that do not have phonetic value. CYRILLIC А О У IPA a b v g d e/je o/jo1 ž z i j k l m n o p r s t u f x c č š šč The grapheme ё/ is not generally used in Russian texts printed in the USSR and Russian Federation. consisting of 33 graphemes.1. Phonology 1.2-1. 1 6 . and associates each grapheme with the appropriate IPA symbol. The relationship between the alphabet and pronunciation in CSR is not phonemic as is found in Serbian Cyrillic (e. Note that the features of Russian vocalic and consonantal phonemes will be discussed in 1.g. compare Serbian српски and Russian сербский).1 Orthography The following table gives the contemporary Cyrillic alphabet of CSR.

ж. ц. что -'what. In CSR texts printed in Russia. ц. Group II vowels (я. х. и. ч. During the last decade of the 20th century. ш. ы. No Russian lexeme. unstressed O may not occur in desinences (but may occur in roots) -. щ.7. 2 7 . г. ш. Note also that rule (2) is qualitatively different for velars (phonetic) vs. ё. may begin with a hard sign. (2) Following the 7 consonants к. [The rules as stated directly above are given in terms of graphemes. ж. not . ю) indicate the presence of jot in word initial position. it was possible to find the use of “hard signs” in word final position in some newspaper titles and signs as a chic reminder of pre-revolutionary times and status. hushers (graphemic). and the “hard sign” was returned in that particular context. not phonemes. ю) obligatorily palatalize any preceding paired consonant. The role of jot in CSR pronunciation will be discussed in detail in 1. у). ь). ч.Ъ Ь Э Ю Я твёрдый знак -'hard sign' 2 π (еры) мягкий знак -'soft sign' e u/ju a/ja Group I vowels are represented by five graphemes (а. not я or ю. ё. write а or у.] Capitalization rules are simple: (1) Only capitalize the first word in a sentence and the first word in a title. (2) Nationalities. write . (3) Following the 8 consonants к. strong mobile stress. ч. jirπ or a soft sign (ъ. stress is only marked in those cases that may be ambiguous (e. все/всё -'everyone/everything'). The 3 major CSR vocalic-based spelling rules are: (1) Following the 5 consonants ж. г. щ. indicate the presence of jot when preceded by a vowel. и.write e. Note that the “hard sign” was eliminated in all positions after the 1917 Russian revolution and replaced by a double apostrophe (“) before group II vowels (я. э. е. о. CSR has distinctive. ш. х. plural] (вы)may be capitalized as a sign of respect ( ы) in official documents and correspondence. and 4 of the group II vowels (я. the names of the months and days of the week are NOT capitalized in Russian unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence. (3) The pronoun 'I' (я) is only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence.g. The double apostrophe was a short-lived phenomenon. and the grapheme ё is seldom marked even when ambiguous (cf. щ. ё. that' as a relative pronoun vs. whether native or borrowed. е. interrogative pronoun). ы. е. ю)2 following prefixes or in compound words. (4) The pronoun 'you' [formal.

(x’) v. 4 The term “liquid” may be dropped in favor of two other terms to describe the Russian consonantal phonemes. t’ k.1 below: FRONT CENTRAL BACK _____________________________________________ i u HIGH________________________________________ o ´ MID_________________________________________ a LOW_________________________________________ Note that the phonemes /o/ and /u/ are obligatorily lip-rounded. r’). Unlike American and European Slavic linguists. The 33 (or 36) consonantal phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1.2.2. namely “lateral” (for l. 3 8 . (g’) _______________________________________________________________________ FRICATIVE f.1 The 5 vocalic phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1.2 Phonemic inventory 1. most Russian phonologists and phoneticians in the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation insist that there are 6 vowel phonemes. d’ g. m’ n. r’ Some Russian phonologists use the symbol /š’:/ for /šč/. p’ t. they are not given here as distinct phonemes. b’ d. However. ы is phonologically predictable and these sounds do not occur in contrastive distribution.2. Until the 1990’s. z’ ž _______________________________________________________________________ AFFRICATE c č _______________________________________________________________________ GLIDE j _______________________________________________________________________ NASAL m. where the 6th is /π/ (ы). v’ z. (k’) b. f’ s.2. l’) and “trill” (for r. resulting in a total of 35 consonantal phonemes (Verbickaja 2001: 43).1. some sources do not recognize /šč/ as a phoneme while giving full phonemic status to the palatalized velars. n’ _______________________________________________________________________ LIQUID4 l. Given the fact that the occurrence of и vs.2 below: Place of articulation _____________________________________________________________________ bilabial labiodental dental palato-alveolar palatal velar Method of Formation _______________________________________________________________________ STOP p.2. 1. Leningrad-based phonologists opposed the Moscow school and supported a 5-phoneme model as given above. s’ š šč 3 x. l’ r.

(unstressed relative pronoun что ) 'I heard that you don't want [to go] to school. that' /čto/ 'what' is not stressed.' Other terms that are useful in the context of the Russian consonantal system are: (1) obstruents . However. unstressed vowels. desinence).1.3. The relative pronoun что 'what. No stress on negative particles Я с ними давно не говорила. fricatives and affricatives. glides. and liquids.3. {na s’eb’a} . they never like anything that I do. but stress may retract to a prefix or even preposition. рука/руку запить/запил 'table' 'hand' 'to drink down/chase with a drink' город/ за город/ за городом год/ на год).including stops. Compare the following: Я слышал. 'city' 'year' Prepositions do not typically carry separate stress in CSR. 'I haven’t spoken with them for a long time.'toward/onto oneself' => [nas’ib’a]). There is no vowel length nor vocalic tone/pitch in CSR. there is phonemic stress. This implies that there will be a marked difference in the realization of stressed vs. что ты не хочешь в школу. 1. 'I don’t have the slightest wish to meet with her.'in the garden' => [fsadu]. им всё равно ничего не нравится! 'No matter how hard I try. and that the stress may shift from one part of the lexeme to another (including prefix. Compare: стол/стола.1 Stress CSR has strong.>) or ending to stem (< --). suffix. and (2) resonants (or sonorants) including nasals.' У меня нет ни малейшего желания встречаться с ней. Compare the following examples: A. they are pronounced together with the prepositional object as one form (cf. The most common stress shifts are from stem to ending ( -.' ак я ни стараюсь. {v sadu} . mobile phonemic stress. Vowels and Prosody There are 5 vowel phonemes that occur under stress in CSR and a reduced system of 3 vowel phonemes that occur without stress in CSR.' Я не понимаю. root. 9 . rather. but /n’e/ may when used in certain impersonal constructions. что тебе надо!? (stressed interrogative pronoun что ) 'I don't understand what you need!?' The negative particles /n’e/ and /n’i/ do not typically carry stress.

masculine first declension nouns with a nominative plural in /a/ are always end stressed (cf.3. (2) singular vs. see Feldstein 1996: 199-215). It is possible to derive a stress model that adequately describes both nominal and verbal forms. будешь ли ты на заседании кафедры? 'Zhenya is asking whether you will be at the faculty meeting?' There are many elaborate stress systems that describe CSR.2 Vowel Reduction in CSR: akan’e and ikan’e The vowel system of CSR is reduced to 3 phonemes (/a. Examples of minimal pairs based on stress: она/Анна [ana] vs. but there are exceptions [cf.B. plural. ‘pee’ ‘flour’ vs. All of these systems have in common the following distinctions: (1) mobile and fixed paradigms. учитель/учителя -'teacher/s'. Stress on negative particle ам с тобой не о чем говорить! 'You and I have nothing to talk about!' Other word forms that do not ever carry stress are the interrogative and subjunctive (en)clitics /l’i/ and /bi/ (ли. [p’isat’] [muka] vs. когда будет электричка? 'Do you know when the next train will arrive?' 2. The following chart shows the phonemes and allophones that occur in a 4syllable grid: 10 . ‘torture’ писать/писать мука/мука 1. i.4]) [p’isat’] vs.4. (For examples of these systems. launch/(e)s'. доктор/доктора -'physician/s' etc.). In certain declensions.and post-tonic syllables. ‘Anna’ (CSR does not typically show consonantal length. профессор/ профессора -'professor/s'. The placement of the interrogative (en)clitic requires it to occur between the first and second stressed word forms in the sentence (examples 1 & 2) or in the subordinate clause (example 3): 1. u/) in pre. [muka] ‘write’ vs. 1. катер/катера -'motor boat. бы). еня спрашивает. stress is directly correlated with the desinence. е знаете ли ы. For example. очешь ли ты пойти на выставку? 'Do you want to go to the exhibition?' 3. [ana] ‘she’ vs.

лена 'still/yet'. поле. unstressed я may participate in akan’e or ikan’e. 1. depending on the preceding consonant with the grapheme e (not with the grapheme я). 'field'.[ks\žal’´niju] or [ks\žπl’´niju]). the graphemes a and o may also participate in ikan’e (cf. Later.6). but Verbickaja claims that the akan’e forms are more statistically frequent (2001: 115-122).'two steps' . Grapheme я: Here. depending on its function in the word: Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: word -initial [ji] язык 'language/tongue' Grapheme е: Here. щ). ш. естественно здание. These forms are in free variation. ч. время 'brothers'.[dva šaga] or [dva šπga]. к сожалению -'unfortunately' . desinence [\] братья. we will note the occurrence of ekan’e (where unstressed /´/ is pronounced as /´/) in positions where ikan’e would be expected (cf. unstressed e may function in the word: word -initial [ji] or [i] ещё. many definitions of akan’e and ikan’e mention orthographic renderings for clarity. 5 11 . This alternative formulation is a more precise linguistic definition. 6 Either и or ы occur. хорошем 'wife'. 'despair' participate in akan’e or ikan’e. 'time' depending on its Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: pre-tonic or post-tonic desinence [i]6 [\] (or [i]) жена. o) \ ______________________________________________________________________ Front vowels5 (´) i i ´ i* /\ in endings ______________________________________________________________________ The first row is an example of akan’e and the second row is an example of ikan’e. 'good' (L) Following sibilants (ж. ц. Another way to characterize the two rows would be to substitute “non-high after hard consonants and word-initial” for “back vowels” and “non-high after palatalized consonants” for “front vowels”. отчаяние 'to explain'. Because of the relationship between orthography and vocalic phonemes (where there are 10 vowel graphemes for 5 vowel phonemes). 'naturally' 'building'. Akan’e (pronunciation of /a/) and ikan’e (pronunciation of /i/) are primarily of the nature of a phonological alternation in CSR.PRE-PRETONIC PRETONIC TONIC POST-TONIC ______________________________________________________________________ Back vowels a a/o \ (a. два шага . 'Elena' pre-tonic or post-tonic [i] объяснить. but they do include morphophonemic characteristics in certain desinences.

it is restricted to the following environments: (1) In native Slavic words. see Verbickaja (2001: 71-80). наука . C’ = palatalized consonant. Exceptions There are also borrowed lexemes that do not allow for standard vowel reduction. паук 'spider'. V = any vowel. (2) In some foreign borrowings. /kaf´/ = [kaf´]. especially in the case of /o/ (cf. Other important examples that illustrate the range of allophonic realization due to the effects of palatalization are: это эти чуткий чуть пятка пять 'this' 'these' 'sensitive' 'almost' 'heel' 'five' /eto/ /et’i/ /čutkij/ /čut’/ /p’atka/ /p’at’/ [´t\] [et’i] [čutk’ij] [čüt’] [p’ætk\] [p’æt’] For a detailed discussion on the degrees of impact of palatalization on stressed and unstressed vowel. phonological alternation. thus resulting in an automatic. rad’io pronounced [rad’io]. it is possible to speak of four degrees of phonetic vocalic variations due to palatalization in the following environments: (Note: C = nonpalatalized consonant.3. never in the root.'science'). V2 = group II vowel) Least palatalization CVC CVC’ C’VC Most palatalization C’VC’ А 'obscenity' А Ь 'mother' Я 'wrinkled' Я Ь 'wrinkle' /mat/ /mat’/ /m’at/ /m’at’/ [mat] [mat’] [m’æt] [m’æt’] In these instances.Although the combination vowel + vowel (meaning two group I vowels in a row) is permitted in CSR. and others). poet pronounced [po´t]). 1. /xr’izant´m/ = [xr’izant´m]. 12 . /s´ks/ = [s’´ks] or [s´ks]. v + v may occur within the root (cf. /t´nn’is/ = [t´nn’is].3. Note that the phoneme /´/ is the only vowel that obligatorily palatalizes any preceding paired consonant. Due to the impact of palatalization on the phonetic realization of the vowels which their precede or follow. v + v may occur on morpheme boundaries only. the vowel becomes more raised and fronted as the degree of palatalization increases. V1 = group I vowel. The only exceptions to this rule are some (not all) foreign borrowings (cf. with no restrictions.

palatalized/nonpalatalized: p/p’. However. voiced/voiceless: p/b. ткать -'to spin. but on occasion is still realized as [š’č] (cf.2). We maintain the same principle as articulated for vocalic phonemes. f/f’. š. Also note that due to “spelling pronunciation.4 Consonants As noted above (1.2. weave': тку. The unpaired consonants (also called sibilants) in CSR (c. v/v’. Stops are not aspirated. but [\]. его -'his'. ткёт. The grapheme g is pronounced /v/ in genitive desinences and the genitive singular nonfeminine personal pronoun (cf. дрожжи -'yeast' [drož’ž’i]. [For more information on the differences in Moscow/Petersburg pronunciation of CSR. i. In addition. The two most important distinctions in CSR consonants are: a.. ž) [nonpalatalized] or palatalized (č.ткут ) and other examples in foreign borrowings. splashes' [brπž’ž’\t] {vs. š. account'. č. s/z. The consonant /šč/ (щ) is generally pronounced [š’:] (cf. there are isolated word forms where the nonpalatalized sibilants are pronounced as if palatalized (cf. etc. the palatalized variants are given in parentheses to acknowledge that there is one example where /k’/ occurs (cf. šč ) are either hard (c. a. it is commonly noted that Leningrad/Petersburg pronunciation demonstrates limited palatalization of /č/ compared to the rest of CSR (ibid. see section 1. (2) {mor’-o} pronounced [mor’\] or [mor’i] in the nominative singular). n/n’. z/z’. грузчик 'loader'. l/l’. where ikan’e might be expected. b. morphophoneme {o} (cf. especially names (cf. счёт -'bill.1 Aspects of consonant realization in CSR 1. we only list as full-fledged phonemes those sounds that occur in contrastive distribution. 1. сегодня -'today'. r/r’ (12 pairs [or 15 pairs if the velars are included]) 4.] 13 . первого -'first'. more normative [dažd’a] and [brπžž\t] (Verbickaja 2001: 61-2). щётка -'brush'. or basic. may occur with graphemes сч/зч: исчезнуть -'to disappear' may be pronounced as [iš’:´znut’] or [isč´znut’]). 3.6. šč). брызжет -'sprays. the desinence is an underlying. счастье .e..'fortune. t/t’. b/b’. ž. there is some controversy over the exact number of consonantal phonemes in CSR. k/g (6 pairs) b. t/d. The consonant /r/ is a trill. but not in the first. d/d’.” the variant with ikan’e does occur in the speech of many speakers of CSR in the second example. 5. f/v. In the case of the velars. 1. š/ž . ёте -'Goethe'). ткёшь. 2. not a flap. but the actual result is not [i].). ).. m/m’.In those desinences.4. Moscow norms дождя -'rain' [daž’: a]. s/s’. luck'). yielding a total of 33. (1) {zdan’ij -o} 'building' pronounced [zdan’ij\].

/s’s’/. /z’m/. /tj/. esp. /tv’/. /zj/. modern'. esp. vb’/ dental + palatal. However. шоссе -'highway'-[šas´]. /čv/. /n’d’/. /t/ and /t’/ may not combine in roots with /c/. or [vot]. Jot + consonant never occurs in word initial position ix. /čt/. /z’/ may not combine in roots with /š/. mj/ v. there are some Slavic based lexemes as well as foreign borrowings that require the voiced velar fricative [©] (cf. Of all of the possible combinations of vowels and consonants (CC. VC. /žž/) viii. /dv’/. /s/. /zz/. Foreign borrowings do not generally violate the pronunciation of consonants (as sometime occurs with the unstressed vowels).6. Although CSR does not have phonemic consonantal length. and /č/ iv. CSR shows considerable growth in the flexibility of consonant clusters if the type CC’. /pj/. / č/ iii. the first consonant cannot be a labial or velar (esp. [vo:t]. /z’z’/. dj/. /ss/. CC is the most well-defined by a series of phonological rules. /s’k/. CV. sv’/. VV). /n’s’/. r’k/) vi. Type C’C is statistically infrequent and in those instances where it does occur. 7. /bj/. There are fewer consonant clusters in stem final position. /fj/. /vj/. Consonant clusters are very restricted at the beginning of a word such that only those consonants that occur in prefixes may occur (cf. 14 . These rules include (Verbickaja 2001: 46-8): i. /n’t/. /s’t’/. CC is the most frequent type. /vv/. осподи . Word initial /v/ may be realized as more of a [w] in one specific lexeme: /vot/ (вот -'here') => 4 potential phonetic realizations in CSR speech [wo:t]. /mb’/. esp. especially the following: dental + labial. 8.'Lord'. /ž/. /z/. /sm’/. bookkeeping').[sovr’´m’´nπj]). /sp’/ labial + labial. alveopalatals or palatals (esp. /n’z’/. /n’t’/. 9. Type C’C’ most often occurs when both consonants are dentals. obligatory voicing assimilation (except for /v/ and /v’/) ii. /v’v’/. /n’č/. and of those that do occur. современный -'contemporary. /z’d’/. /n’k/. length is manifested as a delayed release of the velar stop) The majority of examples of lexemes in CSR with double consonants do not demonstrate any length in pronunciation (cf. /zv’/. бухгалтерия -'accountancy. бухгалтер -'bookkeeper'. there are occasions where one or two consonants are extended and exhibit length in pronunciations: юный песчаный к кому 'youthful' 'sandy' 'to/toward whom' [junnij] [p’i š:annij] [k:amu] (here. /z’b/. /n’šč/) vii. /šš/. /bv’/. /s’/. /bm’/. [wot].

знаешь -'you know').2. and across lexical boundaries. мои -'my'. vowel + /i/. город -'city' [gor\t]). Orthography does not generally reflect those assimilations (as in Serbian-Croatian) except with the prefixes /raz-/. Voicing assimilation occurs within words. Loss of jot in word initial and intervocalic positions: One of the most marked changes in the phonological system of CSR is the increased loss of /j/ in word initial position and intervocalic position. Some of the most common examples include words beginning in /je/. The loss of /j/ is variable from speaker to speaker. 7. This type of assimilation is regressive (cf. but the occurrence of /j/ loss in CSR speakers is continually increasing. /iz-/. 5. футбол -'football' [fudbol]. твой -'your' [tvoj]). /vz-/ (where the grapheme z > s) when followed by voiceless consonants. 3. one of the phonemes may not be pronounced in conversational CSR. lucky' прелестный 'darling. (b) exceptions to voicing assimilation The consonants /v/. where only one phoneme is not pronounced. Word final devoicing: All paired consonants demonstrate an alternation of voiced > voiceless in word final position (cf. 1st and 2nd plural of nonpast first conjugation (cf. attractive' поздно 'late' сердце 'heart' 15 .1. Compare: счастливый 'fortunate. 6. In most cases. and the 2nd and 3rd singular. сад -'garden' [sat]. There are isolated examples where stem final paired consonants show a hard/soft alternation in specific declensional forms (cf. автобус -'bus' [aftobus]. /v’/ may block assimilation (cf. лена -'Elena'. как дела -'how are things'[kagd’ila]). across morpheme boundaries. (a) spelling of assimilations in prefixes Normal assimilation rules apply to prefix/stem boundaries. столб -'stump' [stolp]. 2.4. In consonant clusters consisting of 3 phonemes. ещё 'still. it will be the middle one. Nsg > Npl: сосед/соседи -'neighbor/s'. Nsg > Gpl: песня/песен -'song/s'). Epenthetic /n/ occurs with any third person possessive pronoun that follows a preposition Compare: его/у него ей/ о ней 'his/ he has' 'to her/ about her' её/ про неё ему/к нему 'hers/ regarding her' 'to them/ toward them' 4. Paired consonants automatically palatalize (soften) before /´/ except in a restricted list of borrowings and acronyms. yet'. Phonological rules 1.

судья -'judge'. объём -'volume. the general properties of the consonantal system of CSR were introduced. feeling'. mischievousness'). /n’ + t’. but отъезд -'departure by vehicle'). there may be considerable reduction in the number of phonemes actually pronounced in given lexemes (cf. including preliminary remarks about standard consonant clusters. although normal word length is 2-3 syllables (cf. č/.4. 16 . вообще -'in general' [vaš’: ´]. страница -'page'.) (Vinogradov 1960: 81). Note that if one of the sounds is not pronounced. /z’d’/. ванович -'Ivanovich' [Ivanπč]). it will always be the second phoneme of the cluster (t or d).] [konsk’ij] здесь 'here' [z’d’es’] пенсия 'pension' [p’en’s’ij\] Verbickaja (2001: 86) notes that there is a marked tendency in CSR to pronounce the first consonant of clusters with a final palatalized consonant as hard. etc. баловство -'over-indulgence. In conversational CSR. z’. the initial /v/ may not be pronounced. It is quite often the case that labials preceding /j/ are pronounced hard (cf.but солнце 'sun' [drop the /l/] 1. 1. /vstv/ in чувство -'emotion. etc.3 Consonant clusters In section 1. She further points out that in over 80% of clusters tested in a recent study of 298 consonant clusters. we are dealing primarily with adjectives in -sk. интересовавшимися -'with those who were interested'). d’. In conversational CSR. здравствуй -'hello'. while dentals + /j/ are palatalized on stem/ending boundaries but not on the prefix/stem boundary (cf. гигантский -'gigantic'. здравствуйте -'hello' [zdrast’´]. consonant loss and compatibility of palatalized with nonpalatalized consonants. Word length can extend to include as many as 8 syllables (primarily in relfexive participles in oblique case form). load'). Permissible clusters and maximum length CSR allows up to 4 consonants in a row (cf. The occurrence of consonant clusters with 2 or 3 consonants is quite common in CSR (cf. сейчас -'now' [š’:as]. The exceptions to this trend were found in lexemes with the clusters /s’t’/. пью -'I drink'.1. assimilation. Other 4-phoneme consonant clusters include /stsk/. аспирантский 'graduate student'. s’. финляндский -'Finnish'. удостоверение -'proof. and /ndsk/. семья -'family'. educated speakers are pronouncing the first consonant of the cluster as hard. Palatalization of consonant clusters CSR allows for consonant clusters to show varying degrees of palatalization such that CC” may be realized as C’C’ or CC”. 2. In each of these cases. строительство -'construction'.). Compare the following: дверь 'door' [dv’er’] пью 'I drink' [pj’u] степь 'steppe' [s’t’ep’] конский 'steed' [adj.(cf. вороньё -'carrioncrows'. /ntsk/. evidence'.4.

C/j + ^) Examples: гостий -'guest' [adj. /j/ or /c/ (C/C’ + ^) Examples: день -'day'. /i/ (where /i/ is quite infrequent). 5. trace back' vs.4. Epenthetic /o/ in prepositions and prefixes The phoneme /o/ is added to prepositions and prefixes when followed by consonant clusters. земель -ground. ascend' 'to descent. семей -'families'. Basic rules for vowel/zero morphophonemic alternation: Fill vowel /e/: When consonant at end of stem is soft. it is nonetheless true that they are morphophonemic. воскресений -'Sunday' 17 . Earths'.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1. See section 1.1 Vowel/zero alternations in CSR 1. 2./o/.])(from гостья -'guest' (f.5. 4.5.In truth He is risen!'. 1. dismount' 'to/toward everything/ everyone' An additional /o/ may also appear in Old Church Slavonicisms that appear in CSR (cf.2. The following is only one version of how the rules may be stated: I. not phonological alternations that are initially triggered within certain parts of speech and in terms of derivation and/or inflection.оистину воскрес! -'Christ is risen! .1 Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) in nouns: There are three fill vowels in the nouns of CSR . всходить -'to ascend'). no. Voicing assimilation of consonant clusters .5 below for details.see 1. восходить -'to go back.).1.3. Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) Although vowel/zero alternations are often defined in terms of the syntagmatic environment. друзей 'friends' Fill vowel /i/: When consonant at end of stem is /j/ and stress falls on preceding syllable (‘ . /´/. Compare: ко мне во вторник во всём разойтись обойти изогнуть 'to/toward me' 'on Tuesday' 'in everything' 'to disperse' 'to circumvent' 'to bend' во ранции ото всего/ всех взойти сойтись ко всем/ всему 'in France' 'away from everything/ everyone' 'to mount. ристос воскрес! .

the remaining consonant mutations are: d > ž.Fill vowel /o/: When consonant at end of stem if hard (C/C + ^) (i. If the final consonant of CC is a velar.1. Other vowel/zero alternations in the conjugation and derived imperfective verbs of CSR will be discussed in the section on morphology. see Townsend 1975: 60-80).3 Verbs in CSR have only the fill vowels /o/ and /e/ in inflection (cf. conjugation and synthetic comparative adjectives.e. zvat’ -'call' .but never in conjugation as a mutation of /d/} t > č. Exceptions to vowel/zero rules stated above: 1. {žd occurs in imperfective verbs in -aj. (b)The first consonant in CC automatically palatalizes before the fill vowel if it is a paired consonant. 1. n/s verb class: brat’ -'take' .5.2 Short form adjectives in CSR only have the fill vowel /o/ (except for one exception given above). Additional rules for vowel/zero MP alternation: (a)Fill vowel /o/ (not /e/) if first consonant in CC is a velar. softening of the first consonant of CC is blocked. šč (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS) z>ž s>š 7 Here.b’eru -'I take'.]/'full' [short form adj. The most important set of mutations in CSR involves a velar/palatal alternation where: K >Č G > Ž (g > z occurs in one nominal form) X>Š In addition to the velars. the fill vowel is underlying /o/ but written with the grapheme e due to the spelling rule.5.2 Consonant alternations in CSR Consonant mutations/alternations occur in word-formation.] достойный/ достоин 'deserving' [adj. досок -'boards'.5. Three forms in CSR defy all of the rules given above: яйцо/яиц 'egg/s' полный/полон 'full' [adj. everywhere else) Examples: окон -'windows'.] (For more examples of vowel/zero alternations in CSR. девушек7 -'girls' II. 18 . žd (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS). 2.zovu -'I call'). or the root is monosyllabic. 1. 1.]/'deserving' [short form adj.1.

*Also note there some forms are exceptional. shit' [ > šč st > šč c>č b > bl v > vl p > pl m > ml f > fl Consider the following examples of the mutations listed above: (Note in the case of comparative adjectives that in some instances the -k.] сук/сучья 'bough/s' молоко/молочко ‘milk’ Note that palatalization of the stem-final consonant may be gained or lost with certain suffix types: кресло/креслице дверь/дверца зеркало/зеркальце ‘armchair/armchair [endearing]’ ‘door/door [endearing]’ ‘mirror/small compact mirror’ 19 .) Verbs: видеть/вижу 'to see/ I see' платить/плачу 'to pay/ I pay' сказать/скажу 'to say/ I say' писать/пишу 'to write/ I write' хлестать/хлещу 'to whip/ I whip' искать/ищу 'to seek/ I seek' конец/кончить 'ending/ to end' могу/можешь 'I can/ you can' пеку/печёшь 'I bake/ you bake' махать/машу 'to wave/ I wave' любить/люблю 'to love/ I love' спать/сплю 'to sleep/ I sleep' сломить/сломлю 'to break down/ I break down' готовить/готовлю 'to prepare/ I prepare' графить/графлю 'to draw lines/ I draw lines' побеждать/победить 'to defeat' [imperfective]/ 'to defeat' [perfective aspect] посещать/посетить 'to visit' [imperfective]/ 'to visit' [perfective aspect] Nouns (plural declensional alternations and derivational forms): друг/друзья 'friend/s' собака/собачка/собачонка/собачоночка/собачина/собачища 'dog' [with other derivative forms] бляха/бляшка 'belt buckle.]/'buckle' нога/ножища 'leg/ leg' [aug.suffix is dropped.

хлеб -'bread' generally refers only to black bread}. way' [n. ‘sugar’ (сахар. путный 'path. проездной [билет]).]/ tsar' [adj. and ‘transportation cards/passes’ ([единая] карточка. harsh/ sharper. usually identifies as many as 50 orthoepic and orthophonic differences between the two centers (Verbickaja 2001: 58). occurring in at least 68% of speakers tested. higher' 'wide/ wider' 'sweet/ sweeter' There are also many examples of palatalization being lost or gained in stem final position in word-formation: царь/царский 'tsar [n.] степь/степной 'steppe' [n. high/ taller. see Verbickaja 2000: 58-69). песок). Petersburg and Moscow. For a complete listing of the differences with accompanying analysis. Petersburg.]/ 'path. [dažd’a] becoming the norm for both St. especially in declensional and conjugational desinences and in the first pretonic syllable. (3) the specific pronunciation of the words дождь/дождя -'rain' as [došt’]. булка) {in St. only three are maintained with any regularity. way' [adj. including the usage of the words for ‘bread’ (хлеб. near/ closer. Petersburg area. Petersburg and Moscow. St.церковь/церквушка мороз/морозец Comparative adjectives: тихий/тише близкий/ближе молодой/моложе резкий/резче редкий/реже громкий/громче высокий/выше широкий/шире сладкий/слаще* ‘church/church [endearing] ‘freezing weather/freezing weather’ 'quiet/ quieter' 'close.] путь/путёвый.]/ 'steppe' [adj. 20 . Petersburg and Moscow. These differences are: (1) more ekan’e in the St. harsher' 'rare/ rarer' 'loud/ louder' 'tall. at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Petersburg The literature on phonological variants between the two historical Russian capitals.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St. (2) more instances of non-palatalized consonants preceding /e/ in foreign borrowings in St. nearer' 'young/ younger' 'sharp. I would add that there are still lexical differences between St. However.] лесть/лестный 'flattery/ flattering' коммунальная квартира/коммуналка 'communal apartment/ communal apartment' ( аша)/ аня/ анька 'Sasha/ Sanya/ San'ka' аня/ анька 'Vanya/ Van'ka' 1. Petersburg pronunciation.

7 Tongue twisters and diction There are numerous examples in CSR of the use of tongue twisters (скороговорки) and pronunciation exercises (разминка . but Karla stole a clarinet from Karl. 'Mother was washing Mila with soap. 'From the pounding of hooves.' The following are common articulation exercises for actors: му-мо-ма-мэ-ми-мы 'mu-mo-ma-me-mi-my' лу-ло-ла-лэ-ли-лы 'lu-lo-la-le-li-ly' пту-пто-пта-птэ-пти-пты 'ptu-pto-pta-pte-pti-pty' бду-бдо-бда-бдэ-бди-бды 'bdu-bdo-bda-bde-bdi-bdy' сту-сто-ста-стэ-сти-сты 'stu-sto-sta-ste-sti-sty' зду-здо-зда-здэ-зди-зды 'zdu-zdo-zda-zde-zdi-zdy' врлу-врло-врла-врлэ-врли-врлы 'vrlu-vrlo-vrla-vrle-vrli-vrly' 21 . Below are some examples of the more commonly used forms: От топота копыт пыль по полю летит. а лара у арла украла кларнет. the heron expired. цапля сохла. the heron was parched.' ама мыла илу мылом.' апля чахла.'technique'. Mila didn't like soap. цапля сдохла. 'Sasha was walking along the road and sucking on a sushka. 'Karl stole some coral from Karla. техника .'speech') in order to improve diction (including speed and articulation) for native speakers.1. 'The heron sneezed.' арл у лары украл кораллы. dust rises in the field.' ла аша по шоссе и сосала сушку. ила мыло не любила.'warm ups'. actors and second language learners. речи .

псина -'dog flesh'. and potentially signal either masculine or feminine gender (cf. Agreement plays a significant role in signaling gender in nouns. but rather is a characteristic of masculine and feminine nouns that generally includes those lexemes that have human or animal referents.1. 2. adjectives.4.) 2. N туз. убийца -'murderer'. where ‘judge’ is often used with feminine agreement by educated urban speakers]: Она хороший судья! ‘She’s a good judge.).2 Animacy and gender Animacy in CSR is not coincident with biological animacy. yielding a realignment in N and G inflectional endings in the accusative. CSR verbal conjugation signals number.0 Morphophonemic alternations For a complete list of the possible consonantal and vocalic morphophonemic alternations with examples.1 Nouns The declinable nouns of CSR are marked for gender (masculine. Note that one may encounter certain masculine nouns that are semantically inanimate but behave decline like animate nouns in the accusative singular (cf. 2. conjunctions. уродищ(е) -'freak'. pronouns and past tense verb forms. [Note that although several Russian dictionaries list only masculine gender for ‘judge. The gender of nouns may shift in derivation and in diachrony (see 2.’ this is not reflective of the norm in CSCR. see sections 1. старина -'antiquity.4). 2. Nondeclinable forms include adverbs. dative. gender and person such that the past tense signals gender and number. plural [which includes forms that may only exist in either singular or plural]). and conjugation of verbs. городище -'site of an ancient town'. The declensional system of CSR distinguishes gender. participles.4-1. adjectives. уродище -'freak'. and pronominals. Finally. genitive.5.1. and case (nominative.’ удья нам попалась хорошая! ‘We got a good judge!’ (if the judge is a woman) In derivation. where G=A.2.1. пьяница -'drunkard'. numerals. animacy is signaled in the accusative case. locative [also called prepositional]. Animacy is distinctive in singular declension only in masculine I declension forms. Some Declension II nouns are epicene. Morphology 2. feminine. etc.‘ace’). number (singular. While all neuter nouns are treated as inanimate in the singular.3 Agreement and declensional gender It is not sufficient to look at the nominative case form of a noun to ascertain its gender. In plural declension. some nonderivational lexemes have competing 22 . instrumental). the present and future tenses signal number and person. судья -'judge'. accusative.2 in chapter one.1 Inflectional morphology The inflectional morphology of CSR includes declension of nouns. neuter). nouns may also exhibit two possible genders (m/f or m/n) (cf. чудовищ(е) -'monster'. A туза . old man'). жадина -'greedy person'. Gender distinctions are not signaled in agreement in the plural number. number and case. some inanimate neuter nouns may behave as animates in the plural and exhibit G=A (cf.1. and a restricted list of substantival borrowings. prepositions.

curtain lace' шампунь 'shampoo' фильм(а) 'film' (fem. in fem. A=G. The following list gives some of the more frequent lexical examples: Masculine or feminine глист(а) 'tape worm' лебедь 'swan' тюль 'tulle. haze' туфля/туфель 'shoe/shoes' Masculine or neuter (in CSCR) кофе 'coffee' какао 'cocoa' такси 'taxicab' Some nouns are suppletive or exhibit non-productive consonant changes at the stem boundary when comparing singular and plural forms. лес/в лесу -'forest'. рис/риса/рису -'rice'.genders in CSR that may or may not involve a formal difference. animate nouns. Note that although two endings potentially exist in the locative. in masc. III declension. II declension. The correlation between the three declensions and gender in CSR is as follows: 23 . u} cases (cf. Substantival case declensions in CSR display varying degrees of syncretism (e. in fem. народ/народа/народу -'folk. G=D=L). people'. inanimate nouns.4 Gender and declension There are three declensions for nouns in the singular. N = A. чай/чая/чаю -'tea').1. The most frequent examples include the following: человек/люди ребёнок/дети судно/суда друг/друзья сын/сыновья 'person/people' 'child/children' 'ship/s' 'friend/s' 'son/s' сук/сучья муж/мужья брат/братья сосед/соседи 'bough/s' 'husband/s' 'brother/s' 'neighbor/s' 2. нос/в носу -'nose'. Ist declension masculine nouns will have two possible desinences in the locative {e. берег/на берегу -'shore'. was used up until the early 20th century) рояль 'grand piano' занавес(ь) 'curtain.g. In some instances. and the general rule states that if an adjectival modifier is added to the noun phrase the /e/ ending must be used. is archaic) зал(а) 'hall' (fem. L=D. сад/в саду/ в детском саду (саде) 'garden'. N=A. in most cases the /e/ desinence is not used in CSR (в нашем саду -'in our garden'.u} and genitive {a. в собственном соку -'in one's own juice'). in masc. drape' вуаль 'veil.

but does require a different grapheme (cf. Morphophonemic consonant mutations of the type commonly found in the West Slavic languages are not a principle of Russian nominal declension.стол/столе -'‘table’). which automatically softens preceding paired consonants (cf.2. this distinction does not affect the actual desinence morphophonemically (except in the genitive plural where the desinences are morphophonemically distinct). that desinence must be dropped before adding the case ending. . anim=A -u -Ø G -a -i -i D -u -e -i L -e/-i -e/-i -i I -om -oj -ju ________________________________________________________________________ 24 . Examples will also include stem/ending stress and mobile stress. Nominal declensions in CSR include both fixed and mobile stress paradigms. there is the locative singular desinence’ig-a = книга -‘book’. However. 2. Nominative feminine singular -a desinence: .1 Formation rule for cases of nouns The desinence is added directly onto the nominative stem. Note that although the examples display both hard and soft stem nouns.2 Declension The endings for these three nominal declensions are given below in morphophonemic transcription and then followed by examples in Cyrillic of each type.t’ot’-a = тётя -‘aunt’). 2. In those instances where the nominative form has a desinence other than zero. N/L .I declension masc/neut II declension fem/masc III declension fem only The zero desinence occurs in some first declension and all third declension nouns in the nominative case. Also. there will instances where consonants may be modified or lost in declension. ________________________________________________________________________ SG I declension II declension III declension N -Ø/-o -a -Ø A inan=N. Vowel-zero alternations are very common in nominal declension.

anim=A inan=N.4) 25 .masculine paired consonants 'student' 'table' 'bullock' 'teacher' 'dictionary' N студент стол вол учитель словарь A студента стол вола учителя словарь G студента стола вола учителя словаря D студенту столу волу учителю словарю L студенте столе воле учителе словаре I студентом столом волом учителем словарём PL N студенты столы волы учителя словари A студентов столы волов учителей словари G студентов столов волов учителей словарей D студентам столам волам учителям словарям L студентах столах волах учителях словарях I студентами столами волами учителями словарями I declension .masculine unpaired consonants 'person' 'pencil' 'hero' человек карандаш герой человека карандаш героя человека карандаша героя человеку карандашу герою человеке карандаше герое человеком карандашом героем люди людей людей людям людях людьми карандаши карандаши карандашей карандашам карандашах карандашами герои героев героиев героям героях героями 'American' американец американца американца американцу американце американцем американцы американцев американцев американцам американцах американцами 'scenery' сценарий сценарий сценария сценарию сценарии сценарием сценарии сценарии сценариев сценариях сценариям сценариями N A G D L I PL N A G D L I 8 -Ø occurs in some exceptional genitive plurals (cf.2. 2. anim=A inan=N.PL I declension II declension III declension N -i/-a -i -i A inan=N.1. anim=A -Ø/-ej -ej G -ov/-ej8 D -am -am -am L -ax -ax -ax I -am’i -am’i -am’i/’m’i ________________________________________________________________________ 2.2 Examples I declension .

neuter 'field' поле поле поля полю поле полем поля поля полей полям полях полями .feminine only 'church' 'square' 'door' церковь площадь дверь церковь площадь дверь церкви площади двери церкви площади двери церкви площади двери9 церковью площадью дверью 9 в/на двери but о двери 26 .feminine 'sister' сестра сестру сестры сестре сестре сестрой 'building' здание здание здания зданию здании зданием здания здания зданий зданиям зданиях зданиями 'freak' чудовище чудовище чудовища чудовищу чудовище чудовищем чудовища чудовищ чудовищ чудовищам чудовищах чудовищами 'lecture' лекция лекцию лекции лекции лекции лекцией лекции лекции лекций лекциям лекциях лекциями 'daughter' дочь дочь дочери дочери дочери дочерью N A G D L I PL N A G D L I II declension 'room' комната комнату комнаты комнате комнате комнатой комнаты комнаты комнат комнатам комнатах комнатами (and some masculine and epicene) 'murderer' 'article' 'book' убийца статья книга убийцу статью книгу убийцы статьи книги убийце статье книге убийце статье книге убийцей статьёй книгой статьи статьи статей статьям статьях статьями 'mother' мать мать матери матери матери матерью книги книги книг книгам книгах книгами сёстры убийцы сёстры убийцы сестёр убийц сёстрам убийцам сёстрах убийцах сёстрами убийцами N A G D L I III declension .N A G D L I PL N A G D L I I declension 'window' окно окно окна окну окне окном окна окна окон окнам окнам окнами .

'path' (N/A: путь.3 Exceptions within declensional paradigms: The major exceptions to the I declension given above are (1) the word путь . cafeteria' ванная 'bathroom' булочная 'bakery' пирожковая 'meat/vegetable pie shop' 27 . темя -'crown of the head' (3) masculine family names with the suffixes -ov. бремя -'burden'. семя -'seed'. Note the following examples: столовая 'dining room.2. племя -'tribe'. пламя -'flame'. I: временем. G: времён. PL: N/A времена. I: путём) (2) neuter nouns ending in the grapheme я: (SG: N/A: время. ванов/ вановым -'Ivanov') (4) feminine family names with the suffixes -ova. Included in this group are many Russian family names. G/D/L: времени. L: временам. I: временами -'time') Other neuter nouns with this declension include: имя -'name'. вымя -'udder'. -ina utilize the pronominal declensional paradigm: 'this' 'Akhmatova' 'Axmadulina' N эта Ахматова Ахмадулина A эту Ахматову Ахмадулину G этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной D этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной L этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной I этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной (5) Plural family names require adjectival desinences in all non-nominative case forms: 'Bulgakovs' N улгаковы A улгаковых G улгаковых D улгаковым L улгаковых I улгаковыми (6) There are several word forms in CSR that are formally adjectival but semantically behave as nouns. D: временам.PL N A G D L I церкви церкви церквей церквям церквях церквями площади площади площадей площадям площадях площадями двери двери дверей дверям дверях дверьми матери матерей матерей матерям матерях матерями дочери дочерей дочерей дочерям дочерях дочерьми 2. стремя -'stirrup'. G/D/L: пути. знамя -'banner'. -in require the adjectival desinence in the instrumental singular ( ушкин/ ушкиным -'Pushkin'.

5 Grammatical Peculiarities of the Russian Noun 2.5. Examples (also see Vingradov 1960: 109): пьяница брюзга заика неряха ровня подлиза зевака бродяга злюка грязнуля тупица задира разиня лежебока ворюга тихоня 'drunkard' 'grumbler' 'stutterer' 'someone who is always losing things' 'equal' 'toady' 'idler' 'vagrant' 'shrew' 'dirty creature' 'fool' 'teaser' 'gawker' 'lazybones' 'thief' 'demure person' судья егоза калека юла соня растяпа гуляка хапуга плакса сластёна ханжа невежа недотрога зубрила растеряха 'judge' 'fidgeter' 'cripple' 'whirligig.1 Gender Some Russian nouns. cf.5. 2. Анненский -'Annensky' Many Russian adjectives in the neuter nominative form may also behave as nouns semantically: прошлое 'the past' настоящее 'the present' будущее 'the future' 2.). called epicene.2. spinning top' 'sleepyhead' 'blunderer' 'reveler' 'greedy pig' 'crybaby' 'sweet tooth' 'bigot' 'boor' 'untouchable' 'crammer' 'someone who is always losing/ forgetting things' 2. see Vinogradov 1960: 193-208 and Feldstein (1996:199-216). страшилище/страшилищ -'horrible thing' 28 .2. олстой -'Tolstoy'.примерочная парикмахерская 'fitting room' 'beauty salon' Family names: олстая. яземский -'Vjazemsky'.2.2. орький -'Gorky'.2.2 Animacy There are some neuter nouns that behave as animates in the genitive plural: чудовище/чудовищ -'monster'. 2. (For other types of gender shifts and examples of multiple gender agreement that are possible in derivational morphology.4 Stress in noun declensions For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in the singular and plural declensions of the Russian noun. may signal either masculine or feminine agreement.

These nouns. also Vingradov 1960: 116-18): алименты Альпы Афины лизнецы боты будни весы вилы ворота горелки деньги дети дрова дрожжи каникулы качели люди макароны мощи ножницы носилки 'alimony' 'Alps' 'Athens' 'Gemini' 'galoshes' 'workdays' 'scales' 'pitchfork' 'gate(s)' 'catch (game)' 'money' 'children' 'firewood' 'yeast' 'holiday(s)' 'swing' 'people' 'macaroni.5.2. Examples (cf.3 Number Nouns that only exist in singular form (primarily collective common nouns) Examples (also see Vinogradov 1960: 113-4): бельё 'linens' листва 'foliage' 'professorate' старьё 'old things' профессура 'strawberries' виноград 'grapes' клубника 'sugar' зелень 'greens' сахар родня 'kin' картошка 'potatoes' 'coal' мелочь 'small things' нефть Nouns that only exist in plural form (including common nouns. -e or -o. pinchers' 2.3 Indeclinable Nouns There is a substantial number of Russian nouns. -u. railing' 'Pleiades' 'funeral' 'hide-and-seek' 'kin' 'sledge' 'sweets' 'bridal shower' 'dusk' '24 hour period' 'moustache' 'trouble(s)' 'flake(s)' 'mansion' 'clock.The masculine inanimate noun ‘ace’ behaves as an animate noun in the accusative singular: туз/туза 2. pasta' 'relic(s)' 'scissors' 'stretcher. the majority of which are foreign borrowings. and constellations). that do not decline. This group includes both common and proper nouns and abbreviations. reflect case function syntactically via adjectival and verbal modifiers: ателье аку 'atelier' 'Baku' купе мадам 'train compartment' 'madam' 29 . most generally ending in -i. toponyms. litter' обои перила леяды похороны прятки роды санки сласти смотрины сумерки сутки усы хлопоты хлопья хоромы часы чернила шахматы щи щипцы 'wallpaper' 'banister. watch' 'ink' 'chess' 'cabbage soup' 'tongs.

2 Genitive -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the genitive in -u (cf. учеренко -'Kucherenko'. идти на поводу -'to be lead around by the nose' 2. нарзану -'mineral water'. вид/виду -'view. also Vingradov 1960: 143-5): ад/аду -'hell'.‘on. рису -'rice'.N.' 'greatcoat' 'bet. бред/бреду 'delirium'.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2. берег/берегу -'shore'. народу -'folk'. Compare the following examples: Я ел сыр. перцу -'pepper'.1 Locative -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the locative in -u after the prepositions B . сахару -'sugar'. дыму 'smoke'. мидт -'Schmidt'). весу -'weight'. быт/быту -'domestic life'. сыру -'cheese'. творогу -'tvorog cheese' Note that the -u genitive desinence cannot be used with non-negated imperfective verbs. ‘I was eating the cheese. цвет/цвету -'flower' There are also a number of set expressions that require the -u locative desinence: на лету -'in the air'. соку -'juice'. хеидзе -'Mkheidze').‘in. чесноку 'garlic'. бок/боку -'side'. мост/мосту -'bridge'. лимонаду -'lemonade'. быть на хорошем счету -'to be in good standing'. sight'.’ 30 . апиро -'Shapiro'. оваленко -'Kovalenko'.безе ессмертных бра ёте жалюзи жюри интервью кафе кенгуру кино кофе 'meringue' 'Bessmertnyx' (last name . хрену -'horseradish'. свету -'society'. песку -'sand'. снегу -'snow'. борт/борту -'shipboard'. салату -salad'. табаку -'tobacco'. at’ and HA . нос/носу -'nose'. шуму -'noise'. коньяку -'cognac'. снег/снегу -'snow'. at’ (cf. рай/раю -'heaven'. смеху -'laughter'. сад/саду -'garden'. wager' 'radio' 'AIDS' 'USA' 'taxicab' 'Tbilisi' 'grand piano' The entire class of foreign feminine family names does not decline in Russian ( арко 'Sharko'. жиру -'fat'. ход/ходу -'motion'. чайку -'tea'. чаю -'tea'. Masculine family names borrowed from Ukrainian or non-Slavic languages that end in a vowel generally do not decline (cf. бал/балу -'ball'. also Vingradov 1960: 141-143): бензину -'gasoline'. 2. бой/бою -'battle'.4. винограду -'grapes'.4. пот/поту -'sweat'.‘the immortal one’) 'wall lamp' 'Goethe' 'venetian blinds' 'jury' 'interview' 'cafe' 'kangaroo' 'cinema' 'coffee' У метро ОО пальто пари радио А такси билиси фортепиано 'Moscow State University' 'metro' 'U.

5 Declensional desinences: plural 2. Plato)/teachers'. breath' 'to lose perspective from excess wealth' 'there is no argument' 2. профессора 'professors'. паспорта -'passports'. бока -'sides. директора -'directors'. из. but each form represents a distinctive shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): учители/учителя -'teachers (e. катера -'launches'. города -'cities'.3 There are some examples where the standard. паруса -'sails'. глаза -'eyes'. also Vinogradov 1960: 142-143): из виду со смеху с голоду с испугу от ветру без спросу без шуму мало толку с жару дать маху говорить без умолку 'out of sight' 'from laughter' 'from hunger' 'from fright' 'from the wind' 'without permission' 'without noise/bother' 'senseless' 'from the heat' 'to miss a chance' 'to speak incessantly' из дому со страху с полу из лесу без разбору без риску ни слуху. колокола -'bells'. повара -'cooks'. literary nominative plural form allows either the -ы or -á desinences. Я не ел сыра. ни духу не хватило духу с жиру беситься спору нет 'out of the house' 'from fear' 'from the floor' 'out of the forest' 'indiscriminately' 'without risk' 'nothing has been heard' 'didn't have enough strength.5. поясы/пояса -'belts (geog.g. векселя -'drafts'. без and in set expressions (cf. доктора -'doctors'.)/belts (clothing)'. but the colloquial form may demonstrate the occurrence of -á: договоры/договора -'agreements'. номера -'hotel rooms'.Я поел сыру/сыра. рукава -'sleeves'. поезда -'trains'.’ The -u genitive desinence may also used in conjunction with the prepositions с. literary plural form requires -ы. цветы/цвета -'flowers/colors'. мастера -'masters'. шелка -'silks' 2.5. свитеры/свитера -'sweaters' 2.’ ‘I didn’t eat any cheese. 31 . Christ. приговоры/приговора -'sentences/condemnations'. ‘I ate some cheese.2 There are some examples where the standard. сорта -'sorts/types'.5. голоса 'voices'. образы/образа -'images/icons'. сторожа -'watchmen'. от. берега -'shores'.1 Masculine nominative plural -a Masculine nouns that have a stressed -á nominative plural desinence (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 146-148): адреса -'addresses'. снега 'snows'.

G.6. лагери/лагеря -'camps'. Pay special attention to the frequency of vowel-zero alternations in those forms with a zero desinence. levels' 10 -ov is represented in Cyrillic as -ов. N. If there is a zero ending in the nominative singular. ёв 32 . There are some notable exceptions (cf. отпуски/отпуска -'work leaves'. /identification cards'. For a detailed description of the vowelzero alternation. 2. -ej10 The desinence -ov is selected if the stem-final consonant is hard (excluding ж. -ej). This principle was originally discovered by R. -ев. 2.проводы/провода -'seeing someone off/wires'. absence of a desinence in the nominative singular. The complexity of the genitive plural involves not only a broader range of desinental choices than is typical of the CSR case system (3 endings: zero. слесари/слесаря -'lathe workers' 2. literary nominative plural form is in free variation and allows either the -ы or -á desinences without a shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): годы/года -'years'. волосы/волоса -'hairs'. ш) or jot. listing below for both regular forms and exceptions). крендели/кренделя -'krendel biscuits'. if there is a non-zero ending in the nominative singular. -ov. Jakobson (1956/1984: 135-140). листы/листья . pl.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural The genitive plural is considered to be the most complex of the Russian cases in terms of formation. level' этажей -'floors. but also the principle of selection that is determined by the presence vs.‘sheets of paper/leaves’. кузовы/кузова -'baskets'. корректоры/корректора -'proofreaders'. then there will be a zero ending in the genitive plural. see 1.1.1 Examples Note the following examples.5.5. счёты/счета -'abacus/bills.4 There are some examples where the standard. accounts'.O. ш. sg. студент -'student' студентов -'students' герой -'hero' героев -'heroes' стол -'table' столов -'tables' учитель -'teacher' учителей -'teachers' рубль -'ruble' рублей -'rubles' карандаш -'pencil' карандашей -'pencils' этаж -'floor. редакторы/редактора -'editors'. пропуски/пропуска -'blanks. Note the following diagram: Desinence: NOMINATIVE SINGULAR GENITIVE PLURAL -a/-o -0 -0 -ov. then there will be a non-zero ending in the genitive plural. The desinence -ej is selected if the stem-final consonant is soft (palatalized or palatal) or the nonpalatalized hushers ж.

6. occasion/s' ботинок ботинки ботинок 'high shoe/s' солдат солдаты солдат 'soldier/s' грузин грузины грузин 'Georgian/s' англичанин англичане англичан 'Englishman/men' мать матери матерей 'mother/s' дочь дочери дочерей 'daughter/s' 33 .] карта -'map' лампа -'lamp' девушка -'girl' копейка -'kopeck' кухня -'kitchen. ground' деревня -'village' отец -'father' словарей -'dictionaries' африканцев -'Africans' платьев -'dresses' доньев . ground' деревень -'villages' отцов -'fathers' 2. pl.2 A list of the more frequent irregular genitive plurals is given below. ребёнок дети детей 'child/children' человек люди людей 'person/people' сын сыновья сыновей 'sons/s' муж мужья мужей 'husband/s' брат братья братьев 'brother/s' сосед соседи соседей 'neighbor/s' раз разы раз 'time.] карт -'maps' ламп -'lamps' девушек -'girls' копеек -'kopecks' кухонь -'kitchens. missives' кресел -'easy chairs' озёр -'lakes' сестёр -'sisters' дочек -'daughters' досок -'boards' студенток -'students' [f. sg. N. glass.‘bottom (of ocean. pl.‘bottoms’ буёв -'buoys' писем -'letters.словарь -'dictionary' африканец -'African' платье -'dress' дно . cuisines' статей -'articles' семей -'families' зданий -'buildings' лекций -'lectures' площадей -'squares' мышей -'mice' церквей -'churches' воскресений -'Sundays' дней -'days' земель -'Earths.)’ буй -'buoy' письмо -'letter. missive' кресло -'easy chair' озеро -'lake' сестра -'sister' дочка -'daughter' доска -'board' студентка -'student' [f. etc. N. G. cuisine' статья -'article' семья -'family' здание -'building' лекция -'lecture' площадь -'square' мышь -'mouse' церковь -'church' воскресенье -'Sunday' день -'day' земля -'earth.

глаз чулок сапог судно море поле тётя дядя песня спальня друг имя время деньга ------- глаза чулки сапоги суда моря поля тёти дяди песни спальни друзья имена времена деньги каникулы глаз чулок сапог судов морей полей тётей дядей песен спален друзей имён времён денег каникул 'eye/s' 'stocking/s' 'boot/s' 'boat. 2.1 Nominative The nominative case functions primarily as the naming case. 2. For a detailed discussion of the markedness values of the Russian cases. то это за глупость? -'What kind of nonsense is this?').7 The semantics of the Russian case system The category of case in Slavic is a phenomenon that indicates the relationship between nouns and noun phrases to verbs. to other noun phrases and to other parts of the syntagm. the nominative case is used in apposition (where a common noun is followed by a more specific proper name). see Jakobson (1935. 1958). but this is no longer a viable option in CSR. there will be a short discussion of the so-called vocative form in CSR. namely 'Let him smoke' . and may be used after the preposition за (cf. There is one particular syntactic context where the nominative is required that may seem counter intuitive to the English speaker. In these instances.) Finally.. килограмм/килограммов. only nouns and adjectives signal case via a group of well-defined desinences. (Historically. Although rarely mentioned. The nominative form is typically given as the dictionary form of the word. vessel/s' 'sea/s' 'field/s' 'aunt/s' 'uncle/s' 'song/s' 'bedroom/s' 'friend/s' 'name/s' 'time/s' 'money [sg.]/money' 'holidays' There are also examples of free variation in genitive plural forms where two endings are possible (cf. помидор/помидоров). The case system is one of the most robust structures of the grammar of CSR.усть он курит. Specific verbs and prepositions may require a particular case or set of cases. penetrating both morphology and syntax. In order to achieve a deep understanding of the Russian case system.7. it is often used as the simple predicate with verbs 'be'. Formally. the proper name may be in the nominative regardless of the case form of its antecedent common noun (cf. ёва 34 . depending on the semantic focus. it is imperative to become acquainted with the range of reference and meaning that is available to each of the cases and to the system as a whole. The fundamental functions of the Russian cases will be given below in the order of the direct (N/A) and oblique (G/D/L/I) forms.. an accusative/genitive was possible.coll. It is used for most (but not all) grammatical subjects.

engage' 'turn into. gaze' соглашаться смотреть указывать 'gesture. 'The children always obey the teacher. 2. indicate' жаловаться обижаться 'become offended' preposition в -'in/into' играть влюбляться поступать 11 'influence' 'act. there will occasionally be instances that seem counterintuitive to L1 speakers of nonSlavic languages (cf.' Common verbs that require the accusative case (with a preposition): preposition на -'on/onto' 'throw/foist oneself' влиять. Forms in the accusative are acted upon. suggest' разделять 'divide' размениваться 'look.мать. бросаться действовать 'act' поступать доносить 'inform. the verbal government changes to HA + locative case. The accusative case is highly correlated with motion towards or onto an object and is the primary case for time expressions covering the smallest units of measured time to periods as large as weeks.2 Accusative The accusative case gives a meaning of directionality or extension. denounce' злиться 'become angry' накрывать сердиться полагаться намекать 'refer.7. 'Vova fears Ira. мама and ‘dad’ . treat' 'become mad' 'cover' 'rely upon' 'squander' 'agree' 'complain' 'play'11 'fall in love' 'act' бросаться вступать превращаться 'throw oneself' 'enter. become' When playing an instrument. ‘Listen to me!’ requires an accusative in CSR: лушай меня!).' ова боится ру.работает в газете « анкт. However. 35 . Verbs with the particle -ся are not used with the accusative case. namely the verbs 'obey' (only accusative forms are possible with animates) and 'fear' (accusative form is required when used with names or certain common nouns like ‘mother’ . moved upon or created as a result of the verbal process. целую неделю -'for an entire week'. there are 2 notable exceptions to this rule. каждую среду -'every Wednesday'). The accusative case is one of the most prevalent forms for the objects of transitive verbs in CSR.папа): ети всегда слушаются воспитательницу.етербургские ведомости» -'Lyova works at the newspaper "Saint Petersburg Times"'). repetitions of a time frame and following quantifiers of time like 'all' and 'every' (всю неделю -'for the whole week'. Although the use of the accusative case following most transitive verbs in CSR is trivial.

с -'from. many'. 3. off of'. over. 'She’s a student of our university' Another construction showing possession requires the preposition followed by a genitive case form. behind'.3 Genitive The genitive case is dominant in signaling three basic concepts: possession. немного -'a little'. сколько -'how much. through' сквозь 'through' The following prepositions may be used with the accusative when motion or directionality is involved or comparison: в -'in. 'He doesn’t have money to buy a bike' У нас с тобой много общего. The verb иметь -‘have’ does occur in CSR. Possession is designated by putting the possessor or the object one belongs to in the genitive case: Это книга брата. 'Whose books is this? .7. 'That’s brother’s book' Она студентка нашего университета. 2. but its range of usage is much more restricted than the у construction.The following prepositions must be used with the accusative: через 'across. 'I recently had a book appear in print' У него нет денег на велосипед. 4 and any numerals ending in 2. 5-10 and any numerals ending in 5-9 or 0 require that the following noun phrase be in the genitive plural. into'. за -'for. adjectives in the genitive plural [except adjectives modifying feminine nouns may be in the nominative plural]. 'You and I have a lot in common' BUT: Я имею в виду два возможных варианта. over'. few'. 3. несколько -'a few. This prepositional construction у with the genitive case is the predominant form for expressing ownership or ‘having’. 'He’s a momma’s boy' Nouns modified by adverbs of quantity (много -'much. 4 require that the following noun be in the genitive singular.Это ашина книга. столько -'so many') and the following numerals must be used with the genitive case: 2.It’s Sasha’s book' Он маменькин/мамочкин сынок. how many'. У меня недавно вышла книга. quantification and negation. под -'under'. мало -'little. о/об 'about. onto'. several'. на -'on. 'I have in mind two possible options' There are restrictions to this usage when the possessor is a member of a class of proper names and/or common nouns ending in -a (both masculine and feminine) that allow for augmentation by the suffix -in-: ья это книга? . 36 .

off of'. Common verbs that require either the genitive or accusative case (without a preposition): дожидаться -'await'. achieve' достигать 'attain' желать 'wish' зависеть 'depend' избавляться 'free oneself' избегать 'run away from. concern' лишаться 'deprive' 'worry. не будет -'will not be' and after many negated transitive verbs. не было -'was not'. cautious' бояться 'fear' беречься добиваться 'obtain. хотеть -'want'. отставать 'remain behind' differentiate' состоять 'consist. 37 .7. вокруг -'around'. до -'up to'. especially verbs of perception (seeing. наесться 'have one's fill of food'). натерпеться -'be through withstanding. нахвалиться -'extol. flee' касаться 'touch on. Common verbs that require the genitive case (with or without a preposition): 'be careful. take пугаться composed of' fright' страшиться 'be in fear of' спасаться 'escape. без 'without'.With the negative нет -'is not'. be 'be startled. including modals). not ‘onto’. вследствие -'as a result of. following'. доставать -'reach. напиваться 'drink one's fill' мучиться torment oneself' наслушаться 'hear one's fill' опасаться 'fear. наслушаться -'have one's fill of listening'. save oneself' Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix на.and the reflexive particle -ся require an object in the genitive case (cf. мимо -'past'. alongside' The following prepositions may be used with the genitive case: с -'from. and more broadly in constructions where a verbal infinitive is required.-ся is the instrumental (cf. the genitive case is required. искать -'seek. бояться -'fear' The following prepositions must be used with the genitive: из -'out of'. около -'in the vicinity of'. напиться -'have one's fill of drink'. praise'). be cautious' освобождаться 'liberate. вместо -'in place of'. following'. внутри -'within'. ждать -'wait for'. touch'. требовать -'demand'. or the goal of a verb of motion where the focus is on motion ‘toward’ or ‘along’. надышаться -'inhale'. search'. у -'near'. free oneself' остерегаться отделяться 'separate. avoid' 'beware. после -'after. hearing). the secondary object of a transitive verb (often animate). от -'away from'.4 Dative The dative case functions primarily as the case of the actor in impersonal constructions (especially in the semantic context of physical and psychological human states. shake off' oneself' отличаться 'stand out. просить -'request'. The other common case found with на. между -'between' 2. вдоль -'along. suffer. nature and weather. distance отделываться 'get rid of. снаружи -'from the outside'.

' 'The bus doesn’t usually run on our street.не нездоровится. report' Common verbs that require the dative case of the experiencer (which appears as the logical subject in English translations of these Russian verbs): нравиться -'be pleasing to'. отправлять -'send off. to mix (accusative)' 38 . сообщать -'inform. предлагать -'suggest'. indicate'. надоедать -'become bored'. 'You have ruined his life. 'She stepped on my foot. посылать -'send'. дарить -'give. показывать 'show. ‘He happens to be my brother. понадобиться -'become necessary'. аме холодно. alter' подчиняться 'submit' перемениться 'become accustomed' противоречить 'contradict' привыкать радоваться 'be glad (about)' симпатизировать 'sympathize' 'empathize' советовать 'counsel' сочувствовать удивляться 'be amazed at' улыбаться 'smile' Common verbs that require the dative case of the receiver and the accusative case of the thing received: давать -'give. where the possessor is expressed as a personal pronoun in the dative case (and not a possessive pronoun or a genitive case form): Она наступила мне на ногу. казаться -'seem. to change (accusative)'.' ы испортил ему жизнь. appear' Common verbs that require either the dative case or the accusative case resulting in a different meaning of the verb: изменять -'to cheat (dative). рату очень плохо. direct'.’ Common verbs that require the dative case (with or without a preposition): 'applaud' верить 'believe' аплодировать звонить 'call' мстить 'avenge' 'be dangerous' готовиться 'prepare oneself' вредить возражать 'object' завидовать 'envy' отвечать 'answer' объяснять 'explain' относиться 'relate to' охладеть 'grow cold. lose interest' 'change. hand over'. 'I’m not well' 'Mom is cold' 'My brother is doing badly' 'Can I help you?' 'Who bought you that book?' 'We’re going to our friends’ dacha tomorrow.' Он мне приходится братом. ам помочь? то купил тебе эту книгу? автра мы едем к друзьям на дачу. Автобус обычно не ходит по нашей улице. present'. мешать -'to bother (dative). говорить -'speak.' There are syntactic constructions in CSR that require a dative of possession. say'.

associate') The following prepositions must be used with the dative: к -'to. reverberate' 'admit. присоединяться -'join. despite' The following prepositions may be used with the dative case: по -'along' 2. confess' 'be disappointed' основываться отражаться специализироваться 'play' (instrument) 'be based. agree' 'reflect. приучать -'train. The list of prepositions used with the locative is relatively more restricted than with the other cases. founded' 'reflect.5 Locative The locative case (also referred to as the prepositional case) is the only case in CSR that is realized exclusively in conjunction with prepositions. прислушиваться 'listen attentively to'. приближаться -'get closer'. reverberate' 'specialize' в: заключаться отражаться признаваться разочаровываться нуждаться ошибаться разбираться состоять 'need' 'err. присматриваться -'inspect. acclimate'. dissemble' 'be composed' 39 . об followed by a. and only one of the five prepositions is used exclusively with the locative. during the reign of. make a mistake' 'understand. concentrate' 'conclude.(both with and without the reflexive particle -ся) may require an object in the dative case (cf.7. concerning' (о followed by consonant or jot. придираться -'nag. look closely'. about' used with the verbs скучать -'be bored'. обо followed by a pronominal with initial consonant cluster [cf. toward'. remain' 'specify. обо всём . тосковать -'be melancholy' при по Common verbs that require the locative case (always with a preposition): на: играть жениться. o. find fault'. at' 'about. due to' 'along. e. благодаря 'thanks to. u. обо мне -‘about me’. harass'. вопреки -'in spite of. owing to'. приставать 'impose.‘about everything’] 'in the presence of. 'marry' (for males) настаивать останавливаться сосредоточивать(ся) 'insist' 'stop. The meaning of the locative case is related directly to the meaning of the preposition with which it is used: на в о/об/обо 'on.Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix при. at' (nouns derived from verbs or nouns denoting processes often require на instead of в) 'in. i.

' 'That novel was written by my sister. горь любит играть с ирой в теннис.' 'My father was a soldier during the war. manner or means of performing an action. meet with' владеть 'command. render' работать 'work as' пользоваться 'use.специализироваться участвовать 'specialize' 'participate' убеждаться 'be certain' The following prepositions must be used with the locative: при -'near. Этот роман был написан моей сестрой.” The instrumental is often used with verbs of being and becoming and is prominent in giving the agent in passive constructions. enjoy' общаться 'converse. appear' махать 'wave' хлопать 'slam' 'reconcile oneself' наблюдать 'observe' мириться насмехаться 'mock. итя хочет стать президентом. ельзя есть суп вилкой! аша пишет карадашом. rule' встречаться 'be proud' делиться 'share' гордиться 'treasure. have' 'date.' 'Vitya wants to become president. advise' смеяться 'laugh' 40 . fraternize' обмениваться 'exchange places' переписываться 'correspond' оказываться 'grant. utilize' развлекаться 'amuse oneself' ругаться 'curse' руководить 'govern. обо -'about' The following prepositions may be used with the locative case: по -'about. знакомиться 'become acquainted' excuse oneself' 'be interested' издеваться 'mock' интересоваться любоваться 'admire' казаться 'seem. busy жертвовать oneself' извиняться 'beg forgiveness.7.' Common verbs that require the instrumental case (with or without a preposition): болеть 'be sick. in the vicinity of'. о/об -'about'.6 Instrumental The instrumental case is used for the agent of an action. value' драться 'fight' дорожить 'sacrifice' заниматься 'study. The use of the instrumental without a preposition is often translated as “by means of” versus the use of the instrumental following the preposition с meaning “together with. ill' обладать 'possess. Отец был солдатом во время войны. rule' служить 'serve as' следить 'watch after' следовать 'follow' советоваться 'counsel. Этот вопрос обсуждается историками.' 'That question is being discussed by historians. 'Igor’ likes to play tennis with Kira. на -'on' 2.' 'You can’t eat soup with a fork!' 'Masha writes with a pencil. regarding'. в -'in'. jeer' наслаждаться 'savor.

a special morphological form with a zero ending used as an address form. in front of'. brag' 'be' становиться торговать(ся) управлять ухаживать хвалиться быть (infinitive or past tense) 'become' 'barter. number and gender. In the plural forms.1 Adjectives of positive degree Adjectives of positive degree in CSR fall into two major types: long forms and short forms.8 Adjectives 2.‘Uncle Petya’ ёть аш! . под -'under. Katyusha' иш! -'Misha' ит! -'Rita' юсь! -'Lyusya' сюш! -'Ksyusha' арин! -'Marina' ядь еть! . above' The following prepositions may be used with the instrumental case: с -'with'. in fact. над -'over. The following paradigms demonstrate the range of possibilities of adjectival declension. Short form adjectives only exist in the predicate nominative form and inflect for gender and number. за -'behind.8. look after' 'boast. swagger' 'be' The following prepositions must be used with the instrumental: перед -'before.соревноваться считаться увлекаться править хвастаться являться 'compete.7 Vocative There is generally no mention of a vocative case in the literature on CSR. emulate' 'consider oneself' 'divert oneself' 'rule. command' 'boast. Long form adjectives inflect for case. for'. deal' 'govern' 'nurse. This zero desinence is used only with a limited list of derivative proper names (usually having no more than 2 syllables) and a very restricted list of common nouns. 41 .‘Aunt Masha’ 2. However. underneath' 2.7. only number and case are reflected. еночка) р! -'Ira' ам! -'mama' ап! -'papa' ёнь! -'Lyonya' юд! -'Lyuda' вет! -'Sveta' аль! -'Valya' ен! -'Gena' ёш! -'Lyosha (for Alyosha)' ать! атюш! -'Katya. ашок) ен! енусь! енуль! -'Lena' (but never with related forms like Алёна. there is. аш! ань! ур! ашуль! -'Sasha' ( but never with related forms like анёк.

Long form adjectives: SINGULAR Hard-stem masculine 'big' 'good' N большой хороший A N/G G большого хорошего D большому хорошему L большом хорошем I большим хорошим Hard-stem N A G D L I Soft-stem N A G D L I feminine 'strong' сильная сильную сильной сильной сильной сильной/ сильною masculine 'evening' вечерний N/G синего вечернего синему вечернему синем вечернем синим вечерним 'blue' синий 'strong' сильный сильного сильному сильном сильным feminine 'big' большая большую большой большой большой большой/ большою neuter 'big' большое большое большого большому большом большим 'good' хорошая хорошую хорошей хорошей хорошей хорошей/ хорошею ‘strong’ сильное сильное сильного сильному сильном сильным 'good' хорошее хорошее хорошего хорошему хорошем хорошим feminine 'autumn' осенняя осеннюю осенней осенней осенней осенней/ осеннею 'strong' сильные сильных сильным сильных сильными neuter 'morning' утреннее утреннее утреннего утреннему утреннем утренним Long form adjectives: PLURAL Hard-stem 'big' 'good' N большие хорошие A N/G G больших хороших D большим хорошим L больших хороших I большими хорошими 42 .

adj.больнó. 2. less’ + positive adjective. denote temporal qualities.Soft-stem N A G D L I 'blue' синие синих синим синих синими 'evening' вечерние N/G вечерних вечерним вечерних вечерними 'autumn' осенние осенних осенним осенних осенними 2.8. or end in the suffix -sk.8. For more information on restrictions in the formation of comparative adjectives. Note the following examples более интересный роман 'a more interesting novel' менее толстая книга 'a less thick book' более широкое окно 'a wider window' менее приятные люди 'less pleasant people' 43 . adverb . . great' хорош/хороша/хорошо/хороши -'good' силён/сильна/сильно/сильны -'strong' Soft-stem синь/синя/сине/сини -'blue' Note that the neuter short form adjective is formally indistinguishable from the typical adverb except in those instances where the word stress may differ (cf. consisting of two parts: более/менее ‘more. the comparative adjective is analytic in nature. painful'). denote animal names. Hard-stem masc/fem/neut/pl велик/велика/велико/велики -'large. see Vinogradov 1960: 292-93.2 Short form adjectives: singular and plural nominative Adjectives that give ordinal numerals. Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: намного In attributive usage. Adjectives that give ordinal not form comparatives.бóльно -'sick.3 Comparative degree of adjectives Comparative adjectives have distinct forms in order to express attributive versus predicative syntactic functions. or end in the suffix -skdo not have short forms.

ей. к » ч. ст » щ. т » ч. An older form of the desinence. д » ж. в » вл): жаркий » жарче 'hot/ter' большой » больше 'big/ger' громкий » громче 'loud/er' толстый » толще 'fat/ter' 44 . consonant cluster or -k.ы говорили про намного более серьёзную проблему 'We talked about a much more serious problem' There are four synthetic comparative adjectives that occur in attributive usage: лучший 'better' худший 'worse' меньший 'smaller' больший 'bigger' [Note that the stress is distinctive between the positive большой and comparative больший] In predicative usage. is also possible and occurs in CSR in songs and poetry: круглый » круглее 'round/er' трудный » труднее 'difficult/ more difficult' красный » краснее 'red/der' светлый » светлее 'light/er' (color) прямой » прямее 'straight/er' острый » острее 'sharp/er' интересный » интереснее 'interesting/more interesting' глупый » глупее 'dumb/er' симпатичный » симпатичнее 'nice/r' серьёзный » серьёзнее 'serious/ more serious' приятный » приятнее 'pleasant/ more pleasant' сильный » сильнее 'strong/er' дружный » дружнее 'friendly/ier' быстрый » быстрее 'fast/er' холодный » холоднее 'cold/er' новый » новее 'new/er' умный » умнее 'smart/er' тёплый » теплее 'warm/er' весёлый » веселее 'happy/ier' добрый » добрее 'good/better' старый » старее vs. старше 'old/er' [of things] vs.suffix: (г » ж. older [of people] худой » худее 'thin/ner' красивый » красивее 'pretty/ier' (2) -e ending with accompanying consonant mutation of stem-final consonant. х » ш. the comparative is synthetic and has two possible forms: (1) -ee desinence with accompanying stress shift to the ending in roots of two syllables or less (with some exceptions) and no stem modification.

‘Ol’ga is smarter than Tanya. з » ж): плохой » хуже 'bad/worse' старый » старше 'old/er' хороший » лучше 'good/better' малый/маленький » меньше 'small/er' высокий » выше 'tall/er' мелкий » мельче 'shallow/er' далёкий » дальше 'far/farther' долгий » дольше 'long/er' близкий » ближе 'near/er' редкий » реже 'rare/r' узкий » уже 'narrow/er' сладкий » слаще 'sweet/er' широкий » шире 'wide/r' глубокий » глубже 'deep/er' When comparing two things using predicative forms.лёгкий » легче дорогой » дороже строгий » строже тихий » тише простой » проще частый » чаще молодой » моложе (или младше) дешёвый » дешевле резкий » резче тугой » туже сухой » суше богатый » богаче крутой » круче густой » гуще чистый » чище 'light/er' (weight. the following constructions are possible: (1) Он старше моего отца. or more unexpected consonant mutations (including с » ш. чем атьяна. 45 . including suppletive forms.’ (the object compared may be in any case and is obligatorily preceded by -'than') Note that type 1 may only be used when the head phrase of the comparison is in the nominative case. complexity) 'dear/er' 'strict/er' 'quiet/er' 'simple/r' 'frequent/ more frequent' 'young/er' 'expensive/ more expensive' 'sharp/er' 'tight/er' 'dry/ier' 'rich/er' 'steep/er' 'thick/er' (viscosity) 'clean/er' Some comparatives with the -e desinence are more exceptional in their formation. suffix loss. In those instances where either type 1 or 2 are syntactically possible. ‘He is older than my father.’ (the object compared is in the genitive case) (2) Ольга умнее.

х » ш): широчайший 'widest' высочайший 'tallest' мельчайший 'shallowest' глубочайший 'deepest' мягчайший 'softest' редчайший 'rarest' сладчайший 'sweetest' тончайший 'thinnest' тишайший 'quietest' величайший 'greatest' строжайший 'strictest' For more information on restrictions in the formation of superlative adjectives. when comparing qualities that are more intrinsic to the objects (age.4 Superlative adjectives exhibit both analytic and synthetic formation patterns. (1) The rules and desinences for synthetic superlative adjectives (which are also sometimes treated as comparatives meaning ‘ a most. see Vinogradov 1960: 296.. Synthetic superlative adjectives also utilize on occasion a prefix наи.8.(г » ж. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' Possible: горь играет лучше аши. к » ч.there may be semantic constraints that will dictate preference. g.. type 1 is preferred. Type 2 is preferred when the head phrase contains a verb other than the zero copula ‘to be’: Preferred: горь играет лучше. чем аша. height. x/ require the suffix . etc. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' 2.. For example. x/ require the suffix .to intensify the degree: наиважнейший наикрасивейший наичистейший наистрожайший (устар. The synthetic forms are more restricted than was seen with comparative synthetic forms.’) are: (a) stems ending in a consonant other than /k.) 'most important' 'most beautiful' 'cleanest' 'strictest' (archaic) 46 .ейш-: красивейший 'prettiest' прекраснейший 'most excellent' великолепнейший 'most splendid' добрейший 'nicest' богатейший 'richest' приятнейший 'nicest. g.айш. kindest' отвратительнейший 'most despicable' (b) stems ending in /k.).

Beyond these two major options. -ин. 2.Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: наиболее наиболее интересный роман 'a much more interesting novel' наиболее удобный диван 'a much more comfortable couch' наиболее необходимое из одежды 'a much more necessary piece of clothing' In addition to the forms given above.. pronominal adjectives obligatorily have one of the following suffixes: (1) a stem-final jot suffix (2) a possessiving suffix in /-ov/ or /-in/ (Cyrillic -ов. there is a third class of adjectives that can show possession. CSR has a full complement of possessive pronouns that can also be used instead of the genitive case. where the desinence is -j. the genitive case can be used to show possession in specific constructions. In addition to the use of the genitive case.based on comparative adjectival forms: наилучший наихудший наибольший наименьший 'best' 'worst' 'biggest' 'smallest' (2) Rules for analytic formation of superlatives (available in all cases. the second of which is used primarily in verse.8. 47 .5 Pronominal possessive adjectives As was noted in the discussion on case. -ев.’): самый + positive adjective самый красивый самая умная самое большое самые приятные 'most attractive' 'most intelligent' 'largest' 'most kind' Stress in adjectival declensions: For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in all degrees and forms of adjectives. numbers and genders and often translated as ‘the most. (3) the /i/ in the masculine singular desinence is a fill vowel. see Vinogradov 1960: 321-325. The pronominal possessive adjectives in CSR are called as such based on their declensional paradigm. -ын) Note that the instrumental feminine singular has two potential forms. Unlike the qualitative and relational adjectives discussed above.. there are four forms with the prefix наи.

садовничий -'gardener'). sg. мужичий -'manly'. sg. sg. медвежий -'ursine'. nationality. собачий -'canine'. волчий -'lupine'. one may find potentially competing adjectival forms with very specific. отцово отцово отцова отцову отцовом отцовым neut. отцова отцову отцовой отцовой отцовой отцовой/ отцовою fem. other possessive adjectival forms: мамин друг/мамина подруга 'mom’s friend' материнская любовь 'a mother’s love' 48 . sg. sg. кошачий -'feline'. божье божье божьего божьему божьем божьим neut. заячий -'rabbit'. sg. sg. plural божьи N/A божьих божьим божьих божьими plural отцовы N/A отцовых отцовым отцовых отцовыми plural N A G D L I N A G D L I мамина мамины мамину N/A маминой маминых маминой маминым маминой маминых маминой/ мамиными маминою Other common possessive pronominal adjectives include forms derived from animal names (cf. рыбачий -'fish'. sg. овечий -'sheep'.N A G D L I masc. In some instances. щенячий -'puppy'. 'maternal' мамин N/A мамина мамину мамином маминым neut. 'godly' божий N/A божьего божьему божьем божьим masc. sg. 'paternal' отцов N/A отцова отцову отцовом отцовым masc. non-overlapping meanings. and some common nouns relating to professions. мамино мамино мамина мамину мамином маминым fem. божья божью божьей божьей божьей божьей/ божьею fem. лисий -'leonine'. коровий -'bovine'. птичий -'bird'). or male/female (девичий -'girlish'. казачий -'Cossack'. лягушачий -'froggy'. Note the following semantic differences in pronominal adjectives vs.

9. there are also examples of suppletive forms. plural.1 Personal and reflexive pronouns The Russian pronouns distinguish three persons (first. three genders in the third person only. 2. and people of one’s own age up through high school and including university.2. Children refer to all adults beyond the immediate family as вы. Note that the third person singular and plural forms require an epenthetic /n/ following a preposition (cf. there is among certain groups a more relaxed attitude about the usage of the familiar form instead of the formal one. all locative case forms. second.9. In school. professors and employers. (Refer to the section of reflexive verbs to find a more detailed discussion of the semantic differences between the reflexive personal pronoun себя and the bounded reflexive verbal particle -ся). Once adulthood is reached. Note that the reflexive personal pronoun never occurs in the nominative case and always refers back to the subject of the sentence or clause. definite. Examples of each type will be given below. one of the parties verbally requests permission to change from the 2nd plural вы to the 2nd singular ты. university or the work place.2 The use of the second person pronouns In addition to its generic meaning as the second person singular pronouns. two numbers (singular. pronominal usage may be negotiated as mentioned directly above. negative and indefinite. possessive. demonstrative. third) and a reflexive (oneself) that refers to all persons. The full declensional paradigms of the CSR personal and reflexive pronouns are given below. The traditional presentation of pronouns in the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 385-406) include 8 categories: personal. N A G D L I 'I' я меня меня мне мне мной 'you(sg)' ты тебя тебя тебе тебе тобой 'he/it' он его его ему нём им 'it' оно его его ему нём им 'she/it''we' она мы её нас её нас ей нам ней нас ей нами 'you(pl)' вы вас вас вам вас вами 'they' они их их им них ими 'self' --себя себя себе себе собой 2. many of the so-called pronouns given below are of a mixed nominal-adjectival declension. reflexive. genitive. In the case of the personal pronouns. Formally. the use of вы is required when speaking to teachers. ты is also used as the “familiar” form. In recent years. 49 . The basis for inclusion in this category is primarily a semantic one. interrogative-relative. In many instances. The second person plural is also used as a singular in “formal” discourse. Once a relationship between interlocutors has been established. some accusative. The sociolinguistic parameters of its usage include referents that are children. members of the immediate family (regardless of age). it is less trivial to determine appropriate 2nd person pronominal usage. dative and instrumental forms).9 Pronouns The following section describes pronouns in CSR. and 6 cases (with some syncretism).

её -'her'. gender.3 Capitalization of the second person formal pronoun In writing. it is also possible to find reflexive pronouns in instances where the reflexive modifies the grammatical subject (cf. The masculine and neuter forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic. Он свой человек -'He’s one of us/our kind of guy'. It is typical for English speakers to overuse possessive pronouns in Russian. including reflexive possessive pronouns.2.9. их 'their') and do not further decline.9.4 Possessive and reflexive pronouns The possessive pronouns (also referred to as possessive pronominal adjectives) reflect all three persons including the reflexive. In normal Russian speech. 'my' 'our' 'one’s own' m n f m n f m n f N мой моё моя наш наше наша свой своё своя A N/G моё мою N/G наше нашу N/G своё свою G моего моей нашего нашей своего своей D моему моей нашему нашей своему своей L моём моей нашем нашей своём своей I моим моей нашим нашей своим своей 'your' (sg) m n f твой твоё твоя N/G твоё твою твоего твоей твоему твоей твоём твоей твоим твоей 'your' (pl) m n ваш ваше N/G ваше вашего вашему вашем вашим f ваша вашу вашей вашей вашей вашей 'his/its' 'her/its' 'their' m/n f pl его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их N A G D L I 2. 50 . ать не разрешает мне пить пиво -'My mother won’t let me drink beer'). number and case. Он поехал на своей машине -'He took his own car'). The third person possessive pronouns are formally identical to the accusative/genitive form of the third person personal pronouns (его -'his'. воя рубашка ближе к телу -'One’s own shirt is closer to the body'. The use of a capital letter in the second person ы is unique in Russian pronouns. The first singular я is never capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence. dative. locative and instrumental. Feminine forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic in 4 cases: genitive. However.9. воя ноша не тянет -'One’s own burden is not heavy'. possessive pronouns are omitted in instances where possession is obvious. the formal ы must be written with a capital letter wherever it occurs in a sentence. especially when speaking of family members (cf. У тебя есть своя машина? -'Do you have your own car?').5 Usage of the reflexive possessive pronoun The reflexive pronoun is required most specifically in predicates when referring to third person pronominal forms as subjects (cf. 2.

ети рассказали об их планах 'The kids told about their own plans.Which one?' какой: акая прекрасная погода! 'What fabulous weather!' ай мне какую-нибудь книгу! 'Give me a book' (any one). Also in colloquial Russian.оторая? '-That’s my sister.' 'The kids told about their (someone else’s) plans. BUT: ети рассказали о своих планах. . In colloquial Russian.6 Interrogative personal pronouns Note the declension of the Russian pronouns 'who' (кто) and 'what' (что). о котором говорит ева? 'Do you know the student Seva is speaking about?' .There is more flexibility is the use (or non-use) of the reflexive possessive pronoun in Russian with third-person plural subjects. the syntactic agreement with кто may on rare occasions be feminine (cf. not the expected [што] (spelled что).9.9. case and number. Compare the following examples: рузья обсуждали свои планы. The interrogative personal pronoun что may also function as a relative pronoun (see the following section).' 'The friends discussed their (common) plans.Это моя сестра. 'Who is that' (fem) кто такая?). the genitive form of что may be used as a subject or object and the pronunciation of the nominative form may be [чо] (spelled чё) .7 Interrogative possessive pronouns and relative pronouns The interrogative possessive pronoun 'whose' reflects gender. N A G D L I 'who' (always masculine) кто кого кого кому ком кем 'what' (always neuter) что что чего чему чём чем 2. The other interrogative and relative pronouns include the following: который: ы знаешь студента. рузья обсуждали их планы. 51 . .' 2.' 'The friends discussed their (individual) plans. These pronouns are gendered (masculine and neuter respectively).

entire'.' чей: ья это книга? .и в коем случае! 'Ma! I want to go skiing with friends! . whole.8 Definite pronouns Of the several lexemes for 'all. Note the difference in stress. 'I know that he wants to call you.9. 'I am the same now as before. Due to formal syncretism. 'Give him what he wants.' 'whose' m n f чей чьё чья N/G чьё чью чьего чьей чьему чьей чьём чьей чьим чьей 'which. 'Whose book is this? .' каковой: ерестов отвечал с таким же усердием. one of them (весь/всё/вся/все) has a pronominal declension (given below). that' m n f pl какой какое какая какие N/G какое какую N/G какого какой каких какому какой каким каком какой каких каким какой какими N A G D L I Although generally restricted to set expressions. there is semantic ambiguity between the personal pronouns 'everything' (всё) and 'everyone' (все) and the neuter singular and plural forms of 'all. 'Berestov answered with the same conviction as a chained bear that bows to the gentlemen at the command of his master. что он хочет. что он хочет тебе позвонить.каков: аков я прежде был. с каковым цепной медведь кланяется «господам» по приказанию своего вожатого ( ушкин). entire'.It’s Sasha’s book. the archaic кой is also used in CSR: ы всё делаешь кое-как! 'You do everything half-assed. the stem-final consonant (palatalized vs. nonpalatalized) and in usage between the intensifiers 'self. [See section on superlative adjectives for the meaning of 'most' with самый.' что: ай ему (то). таков и ныне я.Это ашина книга. the very' (сам/самый).No way!' 2.' Я знаю.' ам! Я хочу поехать с друзьями кататься на лыжах! .] 52 .

'self' m n сам само N/G само самого самому самом самим f сама саму самой самой самой самой pl сами N/G самих самим самих самими f самая самую самой самой самой самой 'all/entire' m n f весь всё вся весь всё всю всего всей всему всей всём всей всем всей pl самые N/G самых самым самых самыми pl все N/G всех всем всех всеми N A G D L I N A G D L I 'the very' m n самый самое N/G самое самого самому самом самым Other examples in this class include всякий -'any'.what’s her name? She used to live below us. However. with 'something' . section on indefinite pronouns for more information]) know -. I’ll wash them myself. -'Let me help you with the dishes. These forms translate as both 'this' and 'that' or even 'the' in English. всяческий -'all kinds of'. 'about some kind of . the occurrence of тот implies a second element (or an этот) to which it is being compared. In some grammars. the contemporary Russian demonstrative pronouns form a specific class of two distinct forms (immediate and more distant).9. Macedonian toj).' Я пожала руку самому арышникову! 'I shook the hand of Baryshnikov himself!' чера я видел эту самую ..' ачинай с самого начала.с чем-то.ну как её зовут? ы знаешь кто . and while many contemporary Slavic languages still maintain this connection (cf. 53 .9 Demonstrative pronouns Although the third person personal pronouns in CSR were historically derived from the class of demonstratives. 'someone' . -No need. 2.' . .' ..кто-то.то (cf. and additionally form compounds with the neuter nominative form . 'Start from the very beginning. каждый -'every'. 'Yesterday I saw -. Я сама всё помою.она жила этажом ниже. one will find demonstrative pronouns called demonstrative pronominal adjectives because of their declension.о каком-то [cf.е надо.авай я тебе помогу с посудой.

However. the prefixes ни. Note the following examples: никто: икто не хочет об этом думать! 'No one wants to think about that!' ы ни с кем не общаемся.are detached when used with prepositions. there is the so-called archaic сей that occurs in many expressions in CSR. in some grammars.N A G D L I 'this/that/the' m n f pl этот это эта эти N/G это эту N/G этого этой этих этому этой этим этом этой этих этим этой этими 'that/that kind of' m n f такой такое такая N/G такое такую такого такой такому такой таком такой таким такой pl такие N/G таких таким таких такими 'this/that/the' m n f тот то та N/G то ту того той тому той том той тем той pl те N/G тех тем тех теми N A G D L I In addition to these forms. 2.10 Negative and indefinite pronouns To complement the interrogative and definite pronouns there are two groups of negative and indefinite pronouns. о сём сию минуту не от мира сего до сих пор на сей раз 'this and that' 'about this and that' 'this very minute' 'not of this world' 'until now' 'for/at this time' For more information on contemporary usage of ‘sej’. is characterized as a double negative. Each of these forms requires a negated verb form that. see Dolgova and Maksimova (1996: 217-233). 'We don’t hang out with anyone.' 54 . No new declensional types are introduced in this section.9.and не. Note some of the more common ones: то да сё о том.

'He isn’t thinking about anything.' ничей: . 'A certain strange citizen approached me with a question.' екто по имени орис тебе звонил сегодня. 'He saw something unusual.' -нибудь: то-нибудь мне звонил вчера? 'Did anyone call me yesterday?' 55 . 'Some people think that they are always right. ничто не забыто! 'No one and nothing is forgotten!' ничто: Она ничего не понимает! 'She doesn’t understand anything!' Он ни о чём не думает.акой счёт? чью пользу? . что они всегда правы.' екоторые люди считают. а потом пошла спать.' некий: екий престранный гражданин обратился ко мне с вопросом.' никакой: воё мнение не имеет никакого значения в этом деле.' некто/нечто: Он видел нечто необычное.' ечего нам заниматься! ас всё равно провалят.икто не забыт.ичья. 'I sat for a while. and then I went to bed. 'Someone by the name of Boris called you today.' некоторый: Я сидела некоторое время.' некого/нечего: екому позвонить! 'There’s no one to call. They’re going to flunk us anyway. 'There’s no point in studying.It’s a tie. 'Your opinion is absolutely irrelevant in this matter. -'What’s the score? Who’s winning? .

Most other numerals ('five' to 'twenty. 'I can’t meet with you now.' 2. 'Bring us something from France. but is still found in dictionaries when listing verbal government. The numeral 'one' is pronominal in form and occurs in 3 genders and 2 numbers. одноразовый шприц .' 'thirty. I’ve already made plans to meet someone else. is not used often in CSR. the word form раз (which also means 'once. звини.' -либо: ы слышали что-либо об этом фильме? 'Have you heard anything about this movie?'12 -то: то-то должен знать ответ на мой вопрос! 'Someone should know the answer to my question.' The adjectival form. разовый. three.' 'forty. although very popular in literary texts through the early 20th century.] One numerical symbol will be given to the left for both cardinal and ordinal numerals instead of English words for both (cardinal: one. feminine and is similar in declension to 'three' and 'four' (although 'three' and 'four' do not distinguish gender). disposable' [cf. One other unique feature of compound numerals is the fact that all parts decline. one time') is used for 'one.' -О чём думаешь? .' Я не смогу с тобой встретиться сейчас .ривези нам что-нибудь из ранции.О чём-то очень важном. but excluding 'ninety' and 'one hundred') are third declension feminine nouns. Note that 'third' is the only ordinal numeral in CSR that has a pronominal declension. distinguish case. ordinal: first).я с кем-то уже договорилась о встрече. four'. number and gender. Ordinal numbers are required in a different range of contexts that one might expect coming from a non-Slavic language perspective. means 'one-time. and correspond to each of the cardinal numbers. Ordinal numerals are adjectival in form. agree with the head noun of the phrase. 'two' distinguishes masculine/neuter vs. Sorry. Note the following examples using ordinals: This form.' акой-то маньяк меня преследует. [Refer to the section on hard-stem adjectives for examples of ordinal declension.10 Numerals Cardinal numerals in CSR are declined and have a unique declension for 'two. 'What are you thinking about? .' etc. Note that although listed by the Russian Academy grammar as an indefinite pronoun.Something very important. In counting.'disposable syringe']. these forms are often quite specific and definite: 12 56 . 'There’s some maniac following me.

третье. раз два/две три четыре пять шесть семь восемь девять десять одиннадцать двенадцать тринадцатый четырнадцать пятнадцать шестнадцать семнадцать восемнадцать девятнадцать двадцать двадцать один двадцать два/две двадцать три двадцать четыре двадцать пять тридцать сорок пятьдесят шестьдесят семьдесят восемьдесят девяносто сто сто один/одна/одно сто два/две сто три сто четыре сто пять сто десять ORDINAL первый. первая. третьи четвёртый пятый шестой седьмой восьмой девятый десятый одиннадцатый двенадцатый тринадцатый четырнадцатый пятнадцатый шестнадцатый семнадцатый восемнадцатый девятнадцатый двадцатый двадцать первый двадцать второй двадцать третий двадцать четвёртый двадцать пятый тридцатый сороковой пятидесятый шестидесятый семидесятый восемидесятый девяностый сотый сто первый сто второй сто третий сто четвёртый сто пятый сто десятый 57 . 'Olya arrived on the evening of the fifth.' Оля приехала пятого вечером.автра будет семнадцатое августа. 'I graduated in 2001. первые второй третий. 'Tomorrow is the 17th of August.' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 102 103 104 105 110 CARDINAL один/одно/одна/одни. первое. третья.' Я окончил университет в две тысячи первом году.' Уже восьмой час! 'It’s after seven (o’clock).

000.000.000 сто двадцать двести триста четыреста пятьсот шестьсот семьсот восемьсот девятьсот тысяча две тысячи три тысячи десять тысяч сто тысяч миллион миллиард сто двадцатый двухсотый трёхсотый четырёхсотый пятисотый шестисотый семисотый восьмисотый девятисотый тысячный двухтысячный трёхтысячный десятитысячный стотысячный миллионный миллиардный Cardinal numeral declensions: N A G D L I N A G D L I N A G D L I m n один одно N/G одно одного одному одном одним пять пять пяти пяти пяти пятью f одна одну одной одной одной одной pl одни N/G одних одним одних одними двенадцать двенадцать двенадцати двенадцати двенадцати двенадцатью m/n f два две N/G двух двум двух двумя двадцать двадцать двадцати двадцати двадцати двадцатью три N/G трёх трём трёх тремя сорок сорок сорока сорока сорока сорока четыре N/G четырёх четырём четырёх четырьмя сто сто ста ста ста ста восемь восемь восьми восьми восьми восьмью/ восемью пятьдесят пятьдесят пятидесяти пятидесяти пятидесяти пятьюдесятью восемьдесят восемьдесят восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмьюдесятью девяносто девяносто девяноста девяноста девяноста девяноста тысяча тысячу тысячи тысяче тысяче тысячью/ тысячей тысячи тысячи тысяч тысячам тысячах тысячами 58 .000 100.000 1.000.000 1.120 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 10.

compound numerical expressions. then the case following the numeral must match the case of the numeral itself: с пятью моряками 'with five sailors' о десяти рефератах 'concerning/about ten research papers' между ста щенками 'in between a hundred puppies' In CSR.' If the numeral is in an oblique case. thousand.N A G D L I двести N/G двухсот двумстам двухстах двумястами триста четыреста N/G N/G трёхсот четырёхсот трёмстам четырёмстам трёхстах четырёхстах тремястами четырьмястами пятьсот восемьсот пятьсот восемьсот пятисот восьмисот пятистам восьмистам пятистах восьмистах пятьюстами восьмьюстами 2. 4 + genitive plural adjective and genitive singular noun (Note: If the referent of 2/3/4 is feminine. especially in complex. respectively) may be used after numerals (never людей) and some adverbs of quantity (сколько. An addition tension occurs in case choice in phrases with a large numerical value (hundred. 35-40. see Andrews 1996b: 131-140.' In the first case.10. etc. million) between the genitive and the case of the phrase itself. the following rules apply: 1 + nominative singular adjective and nominative singular noun 2. 'They left for Israel at the end of the 1970’s. This tendency is recognized and noted in the 1960 Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 369). people' and 'years. only the form человека/человек (gen.) 5-20.] 1. Note the following examples with case forms given in the order of their frequency based on a survey of 100 educated urban speakers of CSR: [For more information on this point. 25-30. с миллионом друзей/кошек/долларов 'with a million friends/cats/dollars' (all nouns following the numeral are genitive plural) 59 . what remains most stable is the obligatory reflection of case in the final numeral of the phrase. while the use of the distinct forms of 'years' (лет/годов) is semantically determined: ы живём на улице ороховой уже тридцать лет. 'We’ve been living on Goroxova Street for 30 years. then the adjective may be nominative plural. However. несколько). there is a growing disparity in the way in which speakers decline or fail to decline numerals. + genitive plural adjective and genitive plural noun There are two distinct genitive plural forms for the word 'persons.1 Case usage with numerals When a cardinal numeral is in the nominative form (including accusatives that are identical to nominatives).' Они уехали в зраиль в конце семидесятых годов.

the Russian Academy Grammar notes that collective numeral forms may occur as high as 18 (1960: 379).'two watches'. All collective numerals used in non-oblique case forms require the genitive plural of the noun phrase that it modifies.'two children') and are optional when talking about male groups or animals (cf. с тысячью кошек/кошками 'with a thousand cats' (genitive form is preferred slightly over instrumental) 4. Other commonly used expressions of collectives include the following prepositional phrases that are now written as one word and some other collective numerical forms are given below. These examples are merely the tip of the iceberg: 60 . All collective numerals are end-stressed in the oblique cases.2.2 Collective numerals Collective numerals refer to groups of something as one whole. двое детей . со ста друзьями/кошками/долларами 'with a hundred friends/cats/dollars' (instrumental form is obligatory with animates and preferred with inanimates) 2. оба/обе . When consulting literary works for examples. although in speech the forms for 2-8 are the most common. двое часов . The use of collective numerals is obligatory when modifying nouns that only exist in the plural (cf.n / f оба/обе N/G обоих/обеих обоим/обеим обоих/обеих обоими/обеими '4' четверо N/G четверых четверым четверых четверыми '5' '7' пятеросемеро N/G N/G пятерых семерых пятерым семерым пятерых семерых пятерыми семерыми Обои is the commonly heard substandard form of 'both' in colloquial speech. there are also 2 forms for 'both' (where one is masc/neuter and the other feminine). с тысячью долларов 'with a thousand dollars' (genitive form is preferred almost to the exclusion of the instrumental) 5.‘both’ In addition to the typical collective numerals with no gender distinctions. Collective numerals are never used to refer to exclusively female groups. '2' N двое A N/G G двоих D двоим L двоих I двоими '3' трое N/G троих троим троих троими 'both' m.трое братьев и пятеро щенков 'three brothers and five puppies'). с тысячью друзьями/друзей 'with a thousand friends' (instrumental form is preferred over genitive) 3.10. Notice that the forms for 'both' are also not end-stressed in oblique-case forms like all other collective numerals and require the genitive singular in the nominative/accusative cases.

there is a single form -.' 'for several months at a time' 'six people to a row' 61 .'no less than one and a half 24-hour periods').полтора/полторы. while the oblique cases require plural agreement in the oblique case (cf.3 Fractions and halves The numeral 'one and a half' in CSR.) 'three fifths' 'three fifths' три пятых три пятых трёх пятых трём пятым трёх пятых тремя пятыми Distribution of quantities is used with the preposition по followed by the dative case with 'one' and по followed by the accusative (which looks nominative) case with quantities larger than one: аждый получил по одному карандашу. In all oblique cases. a grade of 'C'' 2. like 'both' and 'two.S. “dozen”) 'three rubles' 'three-horse carriage.] The nominative/accusative forms require that the following noun be in the genitive singular. non-feminine (m/n) -. по нескольку месяцев по шесть человек в ряд 'Everyone got one pencil. one may still see and hear the older genitive form полуторы when used with feminine nouns.feminine vs. three-piece suit.' не меньше полутора суток . [In some instances.' distinguish two genders in the nominative/accusative -. Fractions are expressed in a combination of cardinal and ordinal numeral types. Note the following examples: одна десятая девять пятнадцатых половина три пятых N A G D L I 'two thirds' две третьих две третьих двух третьих двум третьим двух третьих двумя третьими 'one tenth' 'nine fifteenths' 'one half' (which declines like a regular 2nd decl.полутора.вдвоём втроём вчетвером впятером вдвойне втройне пяток пятак десяток яйц трёшка/трёха тройка 'the two of us together' 'the three of us together' 'the four of us together' 'the five of us together' 'two times more' 'three times more' 'five of a kind' (usually eggs) 'five kopecks' 'a box of ten eggs (metric for the U. полтора часа 'one and a half hours.10.

Hours' A. When seen from this perspective. D. years. centuries) where the locative case is required. акого числа? (gen. and from a week to larger units (months.] A. there are two conventions: (1) schedule time using the 24-hour clock used in media.00 with a period. not a semi-colon) шесть двадцать/двадцать минут седьмого девять тридцать/ полдесятого/половина десятого четыре сорок пять/ без четверти пять/ без пятнадцати пять B.' 3. where the accusative case is required.) Note the following examples: 1. B. The seasons of the year and times of the day generally require the instrumental case. еделя . neuter) егодня девятое. When telling time.'Seconds.' 'On what date?' 'On the 3rd. 'What day is it?' 'Today’s Wednesday.) о вторник. Minutes. month and year. and (2) normal time telling used by speakers in everyday life. train stations. ень и число . C. час . including the obligatory use of the genitive case in dates that include the day. there is a clear correlation between units of time up to a week. airports.' 'On what day?' 'On Tuesday. колько времени? ( оторый час?) 'What time is it?' 5:00 6:20 9:30 4:45 Nominative case of numeral: пять часов (CSR uses 5.) егодня среда. there is the addition of certain genitive constructions. (Both conventions will be listed under 1 A and B in the order given above. When actual dates are involved. минута.' 'What is the date?' 'The 9th. екунда. акой сегодня день? (nom. акое сегодня число? (nom. о сколько? ( котором часу?) 'At what time?' 2:00 4:15 10:30 1:50 B + accusative case: в два часа в четыре пятнадцать/в четверть пятого/в пятнадцать пятого в десять тридцать/в пол-одиннадцатого/в половине одиннадцатого в час пятьдесят/без десяти два 2.] HA + locative а какой неделе? 'In/during what week?' на этой неделе 'this week' 62 .11 Time expressions Expressing time in CSR is best presented as a progression from smaller to larger time units.'Days and Dates' [Note that CSR does not capitalize months or days. какой день? (B + acc.'Weeks' [The most commonly missed time expression by English-speaking L2 learners of CSR.2.) ретьего. etc.

Day.He was born on January 20th (or February 1st in the old style). spring.] B + locative каком месяце? 'In which month?' феврале 'In February' ноябре 'In November' апреле 'In April' 5.) по понедельникам 'on Mondays' Other time expressions using different prepositions (or no preposition) with the accusative case: 63 . at night' BUT: на заре. winter' утром. 'I had an strange dream last night. in the evening. Seasons and times of the day (instrumental) осенью.Он родился двадцатого января (или первого февраля по старому стилю) тысяча восемьсот восемьдесят четвёртого года. од . зимой 'in the fall.' The dative plural is also possible for times of day or days of the week: по вечерам 'in the evenings' по утрам 'in the mornings' по ночам 'late at night' по средам 'on Wednesdays' (Note the stress variation in this form. ночью 'in the morning. на рассвете 'at dawn/dusk. at dawn' (HA + locative) Also note that Russian is very specific about the difference between 'evening' and 'night. summer.' 7. днём. 'When was Evgenij Ivanovich born? . на закате. весной.'Months' [The months from September to February are end-stressed. during the day. at dusk. year combined (genitive) огда вгений ванович родился? .на прошлой/той неделе на следующей/будущей неделе 'last week' 'next week' 4. летом. вечером. есяц .' where 'night' is after midnight until dawn: егодня ночью мне приснился странный сон. month. March to August are stemstressed.'Years' B + locative каком году? (тысяча девятьсот) девяностом году две тысячи первом году две тысячи седьмом году 'In which year?' 'In 1990' 'In 2001' 'In 2007' 6. 1884.

) ы едем в итер на неделю. pronouns and numerals. or formed from verbs or verbal adverbs. 'How many times a day?' 'Five times a month.. Note the following examples: пулей 'like a bullet' налево 'to the left' певуче 'song-like' вшестером 'all six together' лёжа 'while lying down' молча 'silently' шутя 'jokingly' по-твоему 'in your opinion. 'Zhenya finished writing the letter in 30 minutes. Some of these forms are declined nouns. Petersburg a week already. according to you. adjectives.' еня написал письмо за полчаса. искренне 'sincerely' It is common practice is the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 611-626) to consider a broad range of forms in the adverbial class. the locative is used in colloquial CSR. rudely' вслух 'out loud' наяву 'in the flesh' где 'where' всегда 'always' навсегда 'forever' всюду 'everywhere' наотрез 'abruptly' 64 . 'We’ve been on the road to St. Petersburg for a week. the way you do things' по-свински 'like a pig. аз в год(у).' ы едем в итер через неделю.and soft-stems: искренний/искренно. 'We are going to St. 'Liza answered us in two seconds. others are combined with prepositions. until’ от ушкина до улгакова с девяти до пяти с пятого по десятое сентября ‘from Pushkin to Bulgakov’ ‘from nine to five’ ‘from September 5th through the 10th’ 2. adverbs may have forms with hard..'We are going to St.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions Adverbs are formed very simply from adjectival stems by merely dropping the desinence and adding -/o/: красивый/красиво 'pretty' простой/просто 'simple' трудный/трудно 'difficult' In some instances.' иза ответила нам в две секунды.' ы едем в итер уже неделю.' Time spans: ‘from .колько раз в день? ять раз в месяц.' 'Once a year' (Here. Petersburg in a week.

no spare time' 'a little bit. not at all. much' 'few. Consider the following examples: отите ещё винца? 'Would you like some more wine?' ай мне ещё чаю/чая. немного. how much' 'several' 'not any' 'so many. not many. немножко сколько несколько нисколько столько У меня мало работы. intentionally' (negative meaning) 'like a hothead.' ного детей плавало в бассейне. just a bit' 'barely' 'on purpose.' ай нам ещё десять минут поиграть.' 'I have a bit of work/ just a little. not much' 'how many. yet' also acts as an adverb of quantity in some contexts.' Here. without thinking through' 'quietly on the side' 'many. so much' 'I have very little work/I haven’t got enough work.' Adverbs of quantity много мало. a little. Adverbs of quantity require the genitive case (usually plural. 65 . 'No. немножко. the second answer is neutral. есять человек мне звонили сегодня вечером. The adverb ещё -'still. 'Give use another 10 minutes to play. 'Ten people called me this evening. 'No. 'Give me some more tea. У тебя много работы? 'Do you have lots of work?' ет.' ет. but the plural may be possible in some instances where a greater emphasis is on the individuality of the members of the group. немного. but the singular is also used with certain lexemes that are reluctant to pluralize).напрямую впритык чуть-чуть еле-еле назло сгоряча втихаря 'directly' 'really tight. У меня немного работы. while the first one is more evaluative and characterizes the amount of work as much less.' Remember: The genitive plural of ‘people’ after cardinal numerals and the adverbs of quantity сколько and несколько is человек.' Adverbs of quantity and verbal agreement: The singular is generally used (which means neuter past tense and 3rd person singular for present and future). 'Lots of kids were swimming in the pool. not much.

Prepositions play a major role in verbal government. over' I согласно про 'about. onto. (2) prepositions that are not preverbs.'What’s up with this idiot?'). all over' вз/воз/вс/вос'upward' вы'out' 'for' (the sake of) G 'pass' (by) G 'across. see the sections on the individual cases and the section on verbal government.Prepositions Prepositions in CSR are nondeclinable forms. around. near. at the moment of. The largest group of prepositions taking multiple cases is determined by static/locational (locative case) vs. Some prepositions are restricted and used with only one case. (3) preverbs that are not prepositions. upon' [in distribution . but there is one usage of the preposition за that requires a nominative form (singular or plural) of the noun phrase (cf.'10 each'] D/L/A для под(о) 'under' I/A мимо о/об(о) 'about. having' G сквозь с(о) 'together with. during' L вопреки над(о) 'above. at.'What kind of nonsense is this?' то это за идиот? . 1 Prep meanings в(о) на за по 'in. at' 'on.' 'right before' cases D I/G I 'along. concerning' A 3 Preverb meanings пере/пре're-. and (4) examples of compound prepositional phrases. into. in' [time] A 'through' A 'around. but certain ones do modify (with the addition of the /o/ vowel) when combined with lexemes beginning in consonant clusters. in the presence of. until. near' 'along. то это за глупость/глупости? . while others may be used with multiple cases to express different meanings. after. about' 'along side' 'thanks to' G G G D 'in spite of' D 'according to' D 13 All prepositions require some case other than the nominative. against' L/A через/чрез у 'at.] Below is a list of commonly used prepositions divided into three types: (1) prepositions that are also preverbs. 66 . [For more information on prepositions in verbal government. at' 'behind. for' cases L/A L/A I/A/ (N)13 2 Prep к между перед meanings 'towards' 'between' 'in front of. across' раз'in multiple directions. motion (accusative case) expressions. down from' [in comparing equals] I/G/A около от(о) 'from' G вдоль из(о) 'from' G возле до 'up to. to a point' G благодаря при 'affiliated with.

Vinogradov (1960). adjectival. invest' ________________________________________________________________________ на 'on(to)' налог нарядный нашить 'tax' 'dressed up' 'sew on.13 Derivational Morphology Russian derivation occurs primarily by means of prefixation and suffixation. adjectives and verbs (native Slavic) with examples Prefix в(о) 'in(to)' Verb вкладывать 'deposit. The following sections will give an overview of word formation in CSR with examples of prefixation and suffixation in nouns. (For more information on the specifics of Russian derivational morphology. The root serves as the base and center of derivation and may or may not occur without its word-formative components. Compound prefixes and suffixs are allowed in CSR. In some instances a root may be identified as predominantly substantive (nominal). or verbal.13. The following section will list all of the Slavic prefixes and suffixes and many of the borrowed prefixes and suffixes. for a while' побережье повсюду поплавать 'shoreline' 'all over' 'swim a little' ________________________________________________________________________ под(о)'under.) 2. Townsend (1977) and Andrews (1994). In word-formation. cf. sew a lot of' ________________________________________________________________________ за 'follow. adjectives.1 Prefixes for nouns. consonants and vowels may shift. sub-' подмышки подземный подкупить 'underarms' 'underground' 'buy with a bribe' Noun Adjective/Adverb въезд впервые 'entrance' (by vehicle) 'for the first time' 67 . adverbs and verbs. mutate or drop. Many prefixes and suffixes can be shared by more than one part of speech while others cannot. from behind' 'in correspondence/conjunction with' cases I G I 2.4 Prep рядом с из-за в соответствии с meanings 'next (door) to' 'because of (smthg bad). go wild and be irresponsible' ________________________________________________________________________ по 'set off. begin' закат закусочная загулять 'sunset' 'snack shop' 'lose one’s way.

________________________________________________________________________ о/об(о) 'around. until. judge' обсудить 'discuss' ________________________________________________________________________ у 'leaving.'re-. sauce' 'appropriate' 'pretend' ________________________________________________________________________ над(о) 'above.'in multiple directions. add on' приправа приличный притворяться 'spice. logical' 'analyze. un-' разряд разумный рассмотреть рас'spark. well'beat up badly' conceived' ________________________________________________________________________ до 'up to. consider' 68 . edge' 'wonderful' 'betray' ________________________________________________________________________ пред 'pre-' предложение предвыборный предупредить 'proposition. down from. across. sentence' 'pre-election' '(fore)warn' ________________________________________________________________________ раз. co-' сокурсник смежный созвониться 'college classmate' 'mixed' 'call each other' ________________________________________________________________________ от(о) 'away from' отгул отдельно отличиться 'time off work' 'separately' 'distinguish oneself' ________________________________________________________________________ из(о) 'from inside to out' излишки искусный избить ис(о) 'excesses' 'tasteful. scraps' 'limited' 'condemn. moving away' улёт (coll.) ухоженный угнать 'wow!' 'well-groomed' 'hijack. перекур переходный передать over' 'a smoke break' 'crossing' 'pass on' предел прекрасный предать 'boundary. to a point' добавка договорный довести 'second helping' 'contractual' 'lead to. over' надпись надкусанный надрезать 'sign' 'showing teeth-marks' 'make a cut on top' ________________________________________________________________________ про 'through' (time or space) промах прохладный продумать 'a miss' 'cool' 'think through' ________________________________________________________________________ пере/пре. make angry' ________________________________________________________________________ при 'arrive. carjack' ________________________________________________________________________ с(о) 'together. discharge' 'intelligent. circumscribe'объедки ограниченныйосудить 'left-overs.

'contra' контрагент контрреволюционный 'contra-agent' 'contrarevolutionary' ________________________________________________________________________ супер-'super' суперобложка супермодный 'book cover' 'super-fashionable' 69 .'great.2 Prefixes for nouns. adjectives. adverbs and verbs (borrowings) The general frequency of most of these forms is not very robust beyond specialized. discharge' ________________________________________________________________________ (о)без. Prefix анти.'auto-' авторучка автомобильный автоматизировать 'ball-point pen' 'automotive' 'automate' ________________________________________________________________________ экс.'half' полубог полуголый полусидеть 'half God' 'half naked' 'half sit. ugliness' 'unfortunate' 'behead' ________________________________________________________________________ не'not' неправда невесёлый нездоровиться 'untruth' 'unhappy' 'to be not well' ________________________________________________________________________ пра. glance.'anti-' Noun Adjective/Adverb Verb_______ антихрист антифашисткий 'Antichrist' 'antifascist' ________________________________________________________________________ авто.'upward' взгляд вздорный взлететь 'view.13. remove' безобразие обездоленный обезглавить 'disorder. sit up in bed' 2.'pseudo' псевдоискусство псевднонаучный 'pseudo-art' 'pseudo-scientific' ________________________________________________________________________ контр.'ex' экс-муж 'ex-husband' ________________________________________________________________________ псевдо.________________________________________________________________________ вз/воз/вс/вос. without sin' ________________________________________________________________________ па.'take off. look' 'foolish' 'take off' ________________________________________________________________________ вы'out of' выстрел выходной выписать 'a (gun) shot' 'day off' 'write out. technical vocabulary. original' прадед праведный 'great grandfather' 'pure.'step' пасынок 'stepson' ________________________________________________________________________ пол(у).

ср . those examples will be noted in the far right column. In the following sections.1 Agentive suffixes in the noun Some of the suffixes given below may also be non-agentive. number of bus/trolley' мойка 'washing.2 and examples in the following sections of specific suffixes. Compound suffixes are given at the end of the list. toe-tip. Consonant alternations are an important part of derivation in CSR. see Andrews 1996a: 36-123.3 Suffixation in Russian Nouns and Adjectives The richness of Russian word formation has produced volumes of scholarship that attempts to describe and explain the formal and semantic aspects of this phenomenon.13. Only suffixes that occur in more than 4 lexemes are included.ультразвук ультрафиолетовый 'ultrasound' 'ultraviolet' ________________________________________________________________________ гипер-'hyper' гипертоник гипертрофированный 'hypertonic' 'hypertrophic' ________________________________________________________________________ квази. they will be marked individually (cf.5.13. For examples. TV with built-in VCR. I will briefly summarize in tabular form the nominal and adjectival suffixes in CSR.). м/ж . suffix -ag-a). see section 1. car wash. washing machine' _______________________________________________________________________ -/о/к сынок носок 'son' 'sock.masculine.'quasi' квазиморфема квазилинейный 'quasi-morpheme' 'quasi-linear' ________________________________________________________________________ 2. 2. Derivation in the verb will be treated in a separate section. м . Where relevant.neuter.masc. ж feminine. For a detailed discussion of the status of individual suffixes as distinct or allomorphs. it will be listed first (cf. nose of tool' _ 70 .3. If other agreement genders are possible above and beyond the obvious declensional ones. Suffix Agentive Noun Non-agentive Noun______ -к-а красотка двойка 'a beauty' '“D” grade. If common gender is the most prevalent form of the class.________________________________________________________________________ микро-'micro' микроклимат микроскопичный 'microclimate' 'microscopic' ________________________________________________________________________ макро-'macro' макроструктура макроаналитический 'macrostructure' 'macroanalytical' ________________________________________________________________________ ультра-'ultra' У . and fem.

Of those 7.both refer to airplanes ['bomber'. The remaining 4 are very restricted technical terms (e. misunderstanding' In Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of Russian. refers to persons involved in resale of products bought abroad in Russia) _______________________________________________________________________ -ик братик домик 'brother' 'house' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак чудак сорняк 'weirdo' 'weed' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак-а коммуняка железяка 'Commie' 'metal piece. mine-sweeper' _______________________________________________________________________ -х-а пряха 'weaver ' неумёха (м/ж) 'someone who can’t do anything right' _______________________________________________________________________ -ах-а деваха 'girl' аняха (м) 'Vanya' (name) растеряха (м/ж) 'someone who is always losing things' _______________________________________________________________________ -их-а пловчиха неразбериха 'female swimmer' 'disorder. 14 71 . -щик. a total of 7 forms are inanimate with the suffix.______________________________________________________________________ -ок игрок челнок 'player' 'wooden boat' (in CSCR.g. 3 are both animate and inanimate. пикировщик . smthg made of metal' _______________________________________________________________________ -ник карманник разговорник 'pick-pocket' 'conversation book' _______________________________________________________________________ -чик счастливчик карманчик 'lucky person' 'pocket' _______________________________________________________________________ -щик изменщик тральщик14 'traitor' 'trawler. бомбардировщик. 'dive-bomber']).

_______________________________________________________________________ -ох-а дурёха суматоха 'fool' 'turmoil.) _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/ц американец венец 'american man' 'crown. unkempt person' _______________________________________________________________________ -аг-а бедняга (м/ж) общага (ж) 'poor thing' 'dormitory' парняга (м) 'fellow' дворняга (ж) 'mixed-breed or stray dog' _______________________________________________________________________ -уг-а хапуга (м/ж) дерюга (ж) 'greedy person' 'sackcloth' парнюга (м) 'fellow' севрюга (ж) 'salmon' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыг-а сквалыга (м/ж) булыга (ж) 'stingy person' 'stone' (arc. metal beam' _______________________________________________________________________ -иц-а волчица вещица 'female wolf' 'thing' _______________________________________________________________________ -ниц-а дачница больница 'women living 'hospital' at her dacha' _______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-а бабища вонища 'old woman' 'horrible stench' 72 . panic' горёха (м) 'Igor’ (name)' выпивоха (м/ж) 'heavy drinker' _______________________________________________________________________ -ух-а сеструха желтуха 'sister' 'jaundice' грязнуха (м/ж) 'dirty.

_______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-е детище винище 'pet project' 'wine' басище (м) голосище (м) 'male bass singer' 'voice' пожарище (м/ср) 'fire' ______________________________________________________________________ -лище страшилище (м/ср) училище 'someone scary.)' _______________________________________________________________________ -бище кладбище 'cemetery' _______________________________________________________________________ -овище кнутовище 'handle of a whip' _______________________________________________________________________ -ин-а гадина горошина 'despicable person' 'a pea' человечина (м/ж) человечина (ж) 'huge person' 'human flesh/meat' _______________________________________________________________________ -щина годовщина ‘anniversary’ _______________________________________________________________________ -ин болгарин 'Bulgarian man' _______________________________________________________________________ -ун врун валун 'liar' 'large. special school (military. round stone' (often near water. boyfriend' 'search light' _______________________________________________________________________ 73 . ugly' 'institute. music. motor' _______________________________________________________________________ -ар ветеринар стационар 'veterinarian' 'hospital' _______________________________________________________________________ -арь глухарь словарь 'deaf person' 'dictionary' _______________________________________________________________________ -ор ухажёр прожектор 'beau. on the shore) _______________________________________________________________________ -тель читатель двигатель 'reader' 'engine. etc.

noise. racket. оня/соня bother' 'Sofia (name)/sleepy-head' _______________________________________________________________________ -ын-я барыня 'baroness' _______________________________________________________________________ -ышн-я барышня 'young lady. stain' (said of persons) 74 .) полюшко 'my little child’ 'field' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш/к-о солнышко пятнышко ‘my sunshine’ 'spot. head (of gov’t)' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-о чадушко (arc. miss. baron’s daughter' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-а девушка верхушка girl' 'top (of mtn)._______________________________________________________________________ -ач лихач тягач 'someone who drives 'tow truck' fast and reckless' _______________________________________________________________________ -ич москвич 'Moscovite' Александрович 'Aleksandrovich' (male patronymic) _______________________________________________________________________ -ш-а кассирша 'female cashier' левша (м/ж) 'left-handed person' папаша (м) 'pop' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш-а вруша (м/ж) 'liar' Андрюша (м) 'Andrej' атюша (ж) 'Kate' _______________________________________________________________________ -н-я родня возня 'relatives' 'fussing around.

3. once' _______________________________________________________________________ -оч/к-а атюшечка подушечка 'Kate' (name) 'pillow' _______________________________________________________________________ -ур/к-а дочурка печурка 'daughter' 'small stove' _______________________________________________________________________ -ень/к-а маменька 'mommie' папенька (м) 'daddy' _______________________________________________________________________ -ал театрал централ 'theatre lover' 'main city prison in Tsarist Russia' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-а здоровила (м/ж) 'big and healthy person' заводила (м/ж) 'leader. the primary suffix types that participate are 3: zero suffixes.13. -от-а.] In terms of deverbalized nouns.2 Non-agentive suffixes in the noun [For more information on these types of non-agentive suffixes. one who takes the initiative' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-о светило пекло 'famous person. −ь-е/-и-e and -к-а. see Townsend (1975: 152200) and Vinogradov (1960: 235-263). The suffixes -ость._______________________________________________________________________ -оч/о/к сыночек разочек 'son' 'one time. and изн-а are most commonly associated with adjectival base forms.) _______________________________________________________________________ 2. 'heat wave' heavenly body' (inan. Suffix Zero suffix Non-agentive noun_________________________ рассказ (m 1st decl) 'story' еда (f 2nd decl) 'food' связь (f 3rd decl) 'connection' 75 .

) музон 'cool music' блузон 'stylish blouse' _______________________________________________________________________ -аж шпионаж 'espionage' персонаж 'character. down pour' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш розыгрыш 'contest' (to win smthg) ________________________________________________________________________ -ик + /о/к дождичек 'rain' _______________________________________________________________________ 2.4 Adjectival suffixes (qualitative and relational) [For a discussion of possessive adjectives and the suffixes -ov and -in._______________________________________________________________________ −ь-е/-и-е открытие 'opening (ceremony)' повторение/повторенье 'repetition' враньё 'lying' _______________________________________________________________________ -ств-о озорство 'mischief' представительство 'office representing a business or political organization'. personage' ________________________________________________________________________ -ель метель 'snow storm' _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/нь ливень 'heavy rain. representative' _______________________________________________________________________ -ость открытость 'openness' солидарность 'solidarity' _______________________________________________________________________ -изм коммунизм 'communism' марксизм 'Marxism' _______________________________________________________________________ -аци-я демократизация 'democratization' _______________________________________________________________________ -от-а красота/лепота 'beauty' высота 'height' _______________________________________________________________________ -изн-а новизна 'novelty. 'representation.] 76 .13. smthg new' _______________________________________________________________________ -он (coll. see the section on possessive adjectives in the previous chapter.

ейск. -/н-. -овн-. -тельн-. clever' застенчивый 'shy' _______________________________________________________________________ -атбородатый 'bearded' _______________________________________________________________________ -оватглуховатый 'pretty deaf' _______________________________________________________________________ -авкровавый 'bloody' слащавый 'sweet.). -льн-. очн-. -ск-. handsome' ленивый 'lazy' _______________________________________________________________________ Suffix -ск- 77 . -ическ-. овск-. ебн-. -ичн-. saccharin' _______________________________________________________________________ -астгорластый 'loud voiced' _______________________________________________________________________ -ивкрасивый 'beautiful. ийск-.and -sk(e.g. -енн-. Petersburg' _______________________________________________________________________ -нкнижный 'book' _______________________________________________________________________ -овзвуковой 'sound' медовый 'honey' _______________________________________________________________________ -истпористый 'porous' _______________________________________________________________________ -енн-/-оннприжизненный 'during one’s lifetime' организационный 'organizational' _______________________________________________________________________ -ньвечерний 'evening' осенний 'autumn' _______________________________________________________________________ -шньздешний 'local' _______________________________________________________________________ -ливговорливый 'talkative' расчётливый 'calculating' _______________________________________________________________________ -чивнаходчивый 'resourceful.For more examples of variations of the basic suffixes given below. ецн-. see Townsend (1975: 216-222) where he gives a detailed set of examples with “enlarged suffixes” in -n. -енск-. инск-. Adjective__________________________________ питерский 'smthg associated with St. -онн-.

Another complication encountered with -ищ-е occurs in case forms other than the nominative.) топорище 'large axe' 'axe arm/handle' The one form in -ищ-е that is both masculine and feminine is уродище ('freak. When -ищ. Feminine agreement is allowed with this form in the nominative case only.' (2) a change in gender is accompanied by a change in meaning. Three generalizations are worth stating at this point: (1) there is never a shift in gender from base noun to augmented form in the meaning of 'large.5 Augmentatives. собачища .13. the gender of the base noun determines whether the ending is -e (masculine) or -a (feminine) (cf. but fails to give the -e form as a possible alternative. Specifically. ugly person'). namely -ищ-а/е and -ин-а. медведище .'dog'). Note the following examples: masculine neuter городище 'large city' 'archeological site. 122 are neuter. 'I saw such a huge bear!' In attempting to state a general meaning of the -ищ-а/е suffix. The -ищ-е suffix. Considering all 180 -ищ-е forms given in Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of Russian.'bear'.] (1) Я видел такого медведищу or (2) Я видел такого медведище. (3) no form in -ищ-е becomes animate if the base noun is not already marked for animacy. Jaroslavo) пожарище 'large fire' 'place where fire occurred' кострище 'large campfire' 'place where campfire had been' судище 'big court (building)' 'court as abstract concept' (arch. 58 are masculine (14 of these are animate) and only 7 forms have gender doublets (where one is feminine). In addition to the meaning of enlargement. diminutives and gender shifts in the Russian noun 2. especially in the accusative case. the feminine form must be уродина. forms in -ищ-е may carry negative connotations. In other case forms. is not productive in terms of potential gender shifts from the substantival base form to the augmented form. remains of city' дворище 'large (court)yard' 'site of former court' (esp. indicate locations and large groups of people or gods. I prefer to speak of a spatially extended range of reference of the signified that is complementary to the 78 added to an animal name. masculine animates in -ищ-е form an unexpected paradigm. Number one below is the preferred form while number 2 is also acceptable. [Zaliznjak (1977: 74) acknowledges the use of the -u desinence in this instance.1 Augmentatives and gender shifts in CSR: A Semantic Excursus There are two productive suffixes that yield a meaning of enlargement in nominal derivation in CSR. The doublets that occur in this suffix class are either masculine or neuter. although productive in general.13.

This feature of the semantic field of -ищ-е is most clearly seen in its usage in the plural. in fact. we find numerous examples that give a meaning of “individuation” of the referent. as well as a clearly-bounded subset of the referential space available. the suffix -ин-а gives enlargement/intensification through individuation (or restricted quantification) of a bounded space. then how can we characterize the differences between these suffixes? A new definition is especially necessary for the . The semantic field of -ин-a is somewhat different from -ищ-а/е in that enlargement and intensification are not the only meanings available. predominantly animate nouns. I would suggest that in contradistinction to the -ищ-е suffix.] The . much like numerals act as quantifiers. In other words. the -ин-a suffix produces a referent that is both maximally visible. In addition.1. while also productive. monster. 79 . examples above). страшилище ('ugly person. they are nonproductive as well. [Compare with the gradation of case usage after oblique case numerals in section 2. Another feature of the -ищ-е suffix that needs to be accounted for is the behavior of neuter nouns like уродище.ин -a suffix. чудовище. is more restrictive in combining with verbal and participial stems. Although there are quite a few gender doublets in -ин-a. Consider the following examples: домина 'large house' человечина 'large person. dog flesh (f)' дубина 'stupid person (m/f). one may explain this so-called exception by acknowledging the way in which -ищ-е behaves semantically as a quantifier. cattle (m)' If enlargement is the central meaning of the two suffixes presented above. night stick (f)' скотина 'scum (m/f).sense of 'large' (человечище . while the suffix -ищ-е gives enlargement/intensification through increasing quantification of an expanded space.'huge person') or 'something stronger' (голосище -'loud voice') in specific speaker interpretations. human flesh' бусина 'one bead' градина 'one piece of hail' морковина 'one carrot' Examples of some of the more common gender doublets include the following: псина 'large dog (m/f). freak') in the accusative plural where they are all treated as animate (using the genitive plural desinence). may have nothing to do with a meaning of enlargement or intensification (cf.ин -a suffix. which.10. Я видел таких уродищ/чудовищ/страшилищ! 'I saw such ugly people/monsters/freaks!' As I have discussed elsewhere (1996a: 134-6).

The so-called augmentative suffixes discussed above are a revealing test ground for demonstrating very vividly that the rules of declension and gender agreement play a significant role in the determination of meaning -- one more confirmation of the important dynamic interactions between categories of grammatical and lexical meaning in Russian derivation. Diminutives in CSR There are numerous thorough accounts of nominal and adjectival diminutives in CSR (including Vinogradov et. al (1960: 264-270) and Townsend (1975: 196-99, 237). In the following comments, I will briefly review in tabular form those suffixes that can have a diminutive or endearing (Russian уменьшительный/ласкательный) meaning. In some cases, these two characterizations overlap, while in others they are quite separate. However, in order to properly contextualize these examples, a few remarks are in order. (1) It is hardly ever the case that a particular nominal suffix is always diminutizing in meaning. Some suffixes are more likely to have a diminutizing meaning, certain compound suffixes are almost always diminutizing, while other suffixes that have traditionally been considered diminutizing are hardly ever so. (2) The only truly diminutizing suffix in the Russian adjective is with some form of еньк- (cf. хорошенький - 'cute, adorable'; малюсенький - 'tiny'; красивенький 'beautiful, adorable'; беленький шарф - 'little white scarf'; слатенький/сладенький 'sweetie'). Note however that even in these examples, a non-diminutive meaning is possible given the appropriate context and intonation: орошенькое дело! 'What a mess!' (when something bad has happened)

(3) One of the most interesting aspects of diminutive forms is how contemporary speakers actually perceive and actively use these forms. Based on a series of studies that I have conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia with over 1000 informants during the past 10 year period, I will include those suffixes that speakers have selected and/or produced independently as characteristic of their speech, as well as state a set of conclusions that were derived from the data collected. [For more specifics of one of these studies, see Andrews 1996a: 138-147.] General principles 1. Adult speakers use complex morphological substantival forms when speaking to small children. 2. Women are more likely to admit to using diminutive forms more than men, but that actual diminutive usage is not clearly determined by speaker gender. 3. The lexical basis for diminutives is highly variable for specific age groups (where age is more salient statistically than speaker/hearer gender). 4. Perception of usage and actual usage are distinct categories that exhibit varying degrees of intersection and overlap depending on a range of sociolinguistic variables (especially age, education, gender, speaker/hearer relationship, and if there are any children and/or grandchildren in the immediate family). 5. The use of proper names with suffixes exhibited a large degree of variation. 80

6. The most popular “diminutizing” suffixes (based on my 1994 survey) were: -к-а -ик -/о/к -ён/о/к -оч/к-а 7. Other commonly produced diminutive forms included the following suffixes: -он/к-а -оч/е/к -уш/к-а -ыш/к-о -ул-я -ун-я -ут-а -ён-а -/е/ц -ц-о -к-о Examples of diminutive lexical items with specific suffixes The morphology of suffixes that are associated with diminutive usage do not demonstrate gender shifts as seen with the augmentative suffixes discussed above. Note that while the forms below may be used as diminutives, this does not mean that the individual suffix itself is primarily a diminutizing one. For example, городок ('city, little city') may refer to a huge city (like St. Petersburg in the well-known television series with that name). The English gloss will not add 'little' to every entry, especially since not all of these words can be used with 'little' in English. Suffix -/о/к -к-а -ик -чик -к-о -ц-а -ц-о -/е/ц -иц-а -иц-е -ин/к-а -ич/к-а -уш/к-а -уш/к-о -оч/к-а -ыш/к-о Noun городок зайка братик диванчик молочко дверца зеркальце винцо морозец сестрица платьице пылинка сестричка избушка полюшко кошечка солнышко English gloss 'city' 'bunny, honey' 'brother' (not necessarily younger) 'sofa' 'milk' 'door' 'mirror, compact' 'wine' 'freezing weather' 'sister' 'dress' 'tiny bit of dust' 'sister' 'hut, cabin' 'field' 'kitty' 'my sunshine' 81

-иш/к-о -иш/к-а -онь/к-а -он/к-а -ул-я -ун-я -он/о/к -ута -ён-а -ш/к-о

письмишко зайчишка девонька сестрёнка сынуля руня поросёнок Анюта сластёна окошко

'letter' 'bunny, honey' 'girl' 'sister' 'son' 'Irina' 'piglet' 'Annie' 'sweetie' 'tiny window'

2.14 Verbs The following categories are represented in the Russian verb: Aspect (perfective, imperfective, biaspectual) Tense (past, non-past) Mood (conditional, indicative, imperative)15 Person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) Voice (passive, active) Gender (feminine, masculine, neuter) Number (plural, singular) Jakobson (1957/1984: 51) also lists the evidential occurring in CSR via the use of the particles мол, де, дескать ('he/she says/said'). In addition to these categories, some Russian verbs (especially verbs of motion) distinguish two forms of the imperfective -- determinate and indeterminate (Russian определённая/неопределённая форма). [This distinction is also referred to as unidirectional/multidirectional, but I will only use determinate/indeterminate in the body of this work given its greater accuracy in representing the actual semantics of the category.] Before moving forward, it is important to note that Roman O. Jakobson produced a series of the most profound articles even written on the contemporary Russian verb system. The following presentation, as is true of a large number of works on the Russian verbs, is based most significantly on Jakobson’s contributions, especially Jakobson 1948, 1956, 1966. 2.14.1 ‘Have’ and ‘be’ languages The verb ‘be’ (быть) does not occur in the present tense in CSR. The old forms есть/суть do occur in CSR but with a different meaning, where есть is used only in statements or questions of ‘existence’ and суть is used as a noun meaning ‘essence’. The verb ‘to have’ (иметь) exists in CSR, but in many cases the prepositional construction у with the genitive case is preferred. Note the following examples: Я студент. ‘I am a student.’

[Jakobson (1957/1984: 50) lists the hortative and imperative as injunctives)


-nn-ij. Infinitive: Past/preterit: -t’. ‘-onn-ij ‘-om-ij. .14. У меня нет денег. -č’ -l. ‘-ot’e.14.šij -šč-ij -t-ij. simply insert the negative word-form не 'not' before the verb. If the sentence has more than one verb.’ ‘That’s not the point.’ .’ ‘I have in mind a new style. е в этом суть. ‘-om.У тебя есть катер? .’ 2.2 Verbal desinences in CSR The following table will outline in morphophonemic transcription the basic endings for all of the forms of the Russian verb. -vši ‘-as’. All verbs with the particle s’a are by definition intransitive. ‘-im-ij (bounded) (unbounded) (bounded with a dash) Participles16: active preterit: active present: passive preterit (ppp): passive present: Particles associated with verbs: reflexive: -s’a conditional: -bi hortative: -ka 2.’ ‘I don’t have any money. -lo. ‘-im. есть. -i (t’e) ‘-a. All present participles (active and passive) are only imperfective. -la.] 1st conjugation: 2nd conjugation: Imperative: Verbal adverbs: -u. The negative prefix ни is not sufficient by itself to give negation of a verb and will always require the presence of the form не (except when it is used in a non-negative sense): Only transitive verbs may form passive participles. 16 83 . -všis’ (with reflexive verbs) -vš-ij. ‘-iš. ‘-ot. Over 99% of all ppp’s are perfective.А у меня есть. -at -Ø (t’e). A single verb may only be negated once.‘Yes. ‘-oš. Я имею в виду новый стиль. . I do. ‘-it. ‘-it’e. -t’i.‘But I do.3 Verb negation in CSR In order to negate any verb in Russian.а. then each verb must be negated. -v. -l’i Non-preterit: [Note that the indicative conjugation of imperfective verbs yields a present tense and the indicative conjugation of perfective verbs yields a future tense. -ut -u. ‘Do you have a boat?’ .

' 'He’s not ready. while the indicative conjugated form of perfective (CB) verbs gives a future tense meaning.несовершенный вид) and perfective (CB ..' 'Regardless of/no matter what you say.14. or as separate words. то ни говори. how he/she perceives the verbal action and chooses to characterize it. In addition to the future tense CB verbs.4 Verbal aspect The Russian word for aspect is вид. these forms may be written as one word or remain two separate words. 'That’s not true. neut. sg. [From this point forward. 'wasn’t' in masc. не было. Russian verbal aspect choice depends upon the speaker’s viewpoint. meaning 'view. I will use the Russian abbreviations (HCB/CB) to refer to these two aspects.] The relationship between aspect and tense is straightforward and generally explained in the following manner: Past: Present: Future: HCB/CB HCB HCB/CB In order to explain the different usages of non-past here. In short. sg.Олег никогда ни с кем не разговаривает. with a hyphen.' One of the most useful sources to assist in determining if word forms.совершенный вид). the stress may move to the не (cf. Note the following examples: Это неправда. 1992. and pl.. не была. adjective or adverb is negated by не. а поездка была удачной. sg. 'Oleg never talks to anyone. In some instances. is the dictionary entitled литно или раздельно? Опыт словаря-справочника. forms .' Note that the не is pronounced together with the verb as if one word with one stress accent. Он не готов. fem. any word in the sentence may be negated by не. Those 2 choices are called imperfective (HCB . look' and captures the essence of the semantics of verbal aspect in CSR.. the trip was a success. Moscow: Russian Language Publishers. In general. If a noun. the HCB may give a future tense by conjugating the verb 'to be' (быть) followed by the HCB infinitive: 84 . note that the indicative conjugated form of imperfective (HCB) verbs gives a present tense meaning. including negation.не был. 2. не были). are written as one word.

Infinitive: читать ( ) 'read' Present tense: читаю читаешь читает читаем читаете читают Past tense: читал читала читало читали Future tense: буду читать будешь читать будет читать будем читать будете читать будут читать прочитать ( ) 'read' прочитал прочитала прочитало прочитали прочитаю прочитаешь прочитает прочитаем прочитаете прочитают The majority of scholars who study aspect argue that the perfective is the marked form of the oppositions. his or her viewpoint. it is the speaker that almost totally controls the choice of aspect. General remarks on aspectual usage in CSR: 1. bounded aspect. A corollary of this is seen in the use of past tense imperfective verbs referring to something that is no longer in effect: 85 . However. the imperfective has more room for negotiating meanings. it is important to note that this result continues to be relevant up to the moment of speaking. Aside from the restrictions of the present tense. 3. I will provide some general guidelines that have proven to be useful for L2 learners of Russian. it all depends upon what the speakers wants to convey. The specific realization of this boundedness and specificity is often a sense of completeness where the verbal action is bounded in time and space. rather. Having said this. 2. which means that an L2 learner of Russian will nevertheless need to acquaint him. In the end.or herself with the normative aspectual behaviors of competent L1 speakers of CSR. remember that speakers are part of cultural and social communities. What this means is that the meanings generated by perfective aspectual usage have more semantic density that the imperfectives. This does not mean that the imperfective has no meaning. When perfective verbs give the meaning of a completed result. The perfective aspect is the more restricted. I am fundamentally opposed to characterizing the meaning of Russian aspect with a list of rules.

. most important discourse strategy to master in order to achieve appropriate aspectual usage with minimal effort is to remember: A significant amount of language use can be boiled down to questions and answers. is quite problematic. L2 speakers of CSR make a large number of errors due to overuse of the perfective.ет. if the speaker has little information or no real expectations as to what the answer may be. 7.ы читал рассказы елевина? . Whether or not a result was achieved is not excluded here. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that what many linguists have considered to be a psychological and grammatical reality of the Russian verb system. the imperfective gives a very strong meaning of denial. I have. 'I really liked the movie (and still do).' 4. but it is not the major focus of the imperfective aspect. читал. One indication of the continued relevance of the result of a transitive perfective verb in the imperative mood is the general requirement that the direct object must be explicitly given in the sentence: апиши ответ на доске! 'Write your answer on the board!' 5. 9. the question and answer are usually imperfective. 6. In negative answers.14. The imperfective is generally considered to be used more frequently than the perfective. L1 speakers of CSR use the imperfective in a creative and robust way. I haven’t.а. The significance of this phenomenon in the aspect system of CSR is complex and unresolved in the scholarly literature. The imperfective aspect primarily focuses on the process by naming the verbal action.Этот фильм мне очень нравился в детстве. it is generally correct to maintain the aspect given in the question unless the answer involves a strong negation of the question. не читал. The verbal classifier/suffix that is most often encountered in bi-aspectual verbs is -ova-.' 2.'I used to like that movie when I was a kid. When asking a question with a past tense verb.' -'No. especially in the past tense. [For a discussion of 86 . The single. namely paired verbs. When answering a question. -'Have you ever read any of Pelevin’s stories?' -'Yes.5 The role of BI-ASPECTUAL verbs in CSR There is a relatively large group of statistically-frequent verbal forms in CSR that are either uni-aspectual [unpaired] (Russian одновидовый) or bi-aspectual (Russian двувидовый).' Этот фильм мне очень понравился. 8. .

18 For a more complete listing.'need' скончаться . gush. организовывать (HCB) 'organize'. Note the following examples: Verbs requiring a following imperfective: бросать/бросить кончать/кончить надоедать/надоесть 17 ‘quit.'come rushing.] Below is a list of some of the more commonly encountered bi-aspectual verbs and uniaspectual/unpaired verbs of CSR.'expect' 'address' 'attack' 'run (away from a prisoncamp)' 'command' 'vote' 'marry (said of men)' 'use' 'investigate. and in the case of образовывать 'form' and сорганизовать (CB).'die.'regain consciousness' очутиться . Bi-aspectual verbs адресовать атаковать бежать велеть голосовать жениться использовать исследовать казнить обещать образовать организовать17 ранить рекомендовать родить родиться Uni-aspectual18: HCB болеть . CB in all other tenses] 'organize ' [past is exclusively CB] 'wound' 'recommend' 'give birth' 'be born' CB опомниться . 87 . Averjanova. research' 'execute' 'promise' 'form' [bi-asp. when used with a following infinitive.'struggle' выглядеть . Pjadusova 2001: 19-23. form only. the derived imperfectives are achieving more recognition as literary forms (cf. spout' There are some verbs that. Averjanova. specify the aspect of the infinitive.'live' значить . see Andrews. bad)' жить . Pjadusova 2001: 22.the difficulties in determining aspectual pairs in CSR. pass away' хлынуть . finish’ ‘be fed up with’ Some bi-aspectual verbs actually form pairs in colloquial CSR.'find oneself (in a location)' понадобиться .'come to one’s senses' очнуться .'look (good. break (a habit)’ ‘end. see Andrews. Ozhekov/Shvedova Russian-Russian dictionary (1992) Tolkovyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka).'be ill' бороться . give up.'mean' ожидать . in conj.

разучиться хотеться/захотеться. truncate the first consonant) Whether or not a consonant alternation will occur is determined within the individual verbal class. stay. c > č s.14. mere addition) Vowel 1 + Vowel 2 = V2 (i. (3) Compare the remaining stems.e. mere addition) Consonant + Vowel = CV (i. cease’ ‘become accustomed to’ ‘continue’ ‘become’ ‘be weary.e. z. расхотеться Verbs requiring a following perfective: забывать/забыть мечтать оставаться/остаться спешить. (2) Remove the verbal desinence. stop wanting’ ‘forget’ ‘(day)dream’ ‘remain. (5) If the stems are identical in length. (6) Rules for consonant/vowel combinations between stem and desinence: Vowel + Consonant = VC (i. (4) The longer of the stems is THE ONE-STEM. g > ž t.e. lists the classes of Russian verbs determined by one stem. based on Jakobson 1948. start’ ‘become unaccustomed to’ ‘stop. These will be marked in the description of each verbal class. choice the third plural form. i. truncate the first vowel) Consonant 1 + Consonant 2 = C2 (i. be left’ ‘hurry’ 2. торопиться ‘begin. The list of possible consonant alternations in the Russian verb are: d.e. sk > šč b > bl p > pl 88 .начинать/начать отвыкать/отвыкнуть переставать/перестать привыкать/привыкнуть продолжать становиться/стать уставать/устать учиться/научиться. x > š st.e.6 Verbal classes in CSR The following is a summary of all of the verbal classes (suffixed and non-suffixed) of CSR. tire’ ‘learn. The rules for determining the verbal stem of any verb in Russian (excluding no more than 19 irregular verbal stems) are: (1) Determine the infinite and third person plural indicative forms. unlearn’ ‘want. one stem can accurately generate all of the necessary verb forms. This system.

nonpalatalized (or hard) before /o.all remaining classes are 1st conjugation. In the class of second conjugation verbs. 6. Note that only the consonants given above may undergo substitutive softening (i. In the first table. note their productivity or lack thereof. The -a. the productive classes are 1. while the smallest classes have as few as 2-5 stems (essentially all of the nonsuffixed classes and 11. Classes with consonant mutations (Jakobson’s “substitutive softening”) will be marked with an asterisk. they will be marked also with an asterisk. and -a and -ova maintain this alternation in the imperative. Of the remaining non-productive classes. 8. Velar stems generally participate in substitutive softening. The two major divisions are between suffixed and nonsuffixed verbal classes. cluster). i/. Using the numbering of the table below.14.e. and hard or palatal before /a/. I will give all of the verbal classes.: -l -l Correct form: p’isa + l = p’isal (addition) čitaj + l = čital (truncate C1) 2. 4 and 10 are the largest (50-60 verbal roots in each). 89 .m > ml v > vl f > fl Old Church Slavonic influence: d > žd . but yield bare softening before the imperative desinence. The rules for bare softening are as follows: (Jakobson 1948/1984: 22-3) The final consonant of an open full-stem is palatalized or palatal before the vowels /e. If substitutive softening occurs in the ppp or derived imperfective.1 Russian conjugation All verbs in Russian (except for the small number of exceptional verbs) belong to one of the verbal classes given below. 9. 7. conjugated form only. the -i and -e classes have substitutive softening in the 1st sg. Only suffixed verbs may be 2nd conjugation -. t > šč Examples of deriving the one-stem: Verb 'read' 'write' infinitive: čita-t’ p’isa-t’ 3rd pl čitaj-ut p’iš-ut stem: čitaj p’isa 'carry' n’os-t’i n’os-ut n’os 'lead' v’os-t’i v’od-ut v’od Examples of using the one-stem to derive the correct verbal form: Stem: p’isa čitaj Past masc. list the past passive participial (ppp) endings associated with each class and the derived imperfective suffixes associated with each class. -ova and -avaj classes have substitutive softening in all person in the conjugated form. 12 from the suffixed groups). numbers 2. u/. Closed stems end in hard consonants or jot. in full stems where hard consonant + /a/ or /o/ > palatal or cons.6.

/n. -o Nonsuffixed verbs (all 1st conj): 13. t/d 21. /r 20. oj 16.14. The consonant alternations that occur in conjugation according to verbal classes are rulegoverned and exceptionless. -ova 7. -[nu] (disappearing nu) (most are intransitive) 11. v 14.The specific rules for softening and stress will be included in the description of each of the verbal classes with full conjugated forms of a verb from each class in the second table. s/z 22. -nu 10. ij 18. -avaj (always HCB -3 stems) 12.2 One-stem verb system Suffixed verbs: Second conjugation: 1.ja] First conjugation: 4. Townsend includes an additional nonsuffixed class that I will give under the section on exceptional verbs. see Townsend (1975: 85-148). The regularity of consonant alternations will become more variable in the categories of the past passive participle and derived imperfective verb forms. n 15. -i* 2. [For more specific information on all of the verbs in each of these classes and the specifics of derived imperfective verbs. -ej (most are intransitive) 9. /m 19. -a 5.6. non-syllabic -a (n/s-a) 6. b (2 stems) ppp desinence ‘-onn-ij* -nn-ij --------nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -------t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij* ‘-onn-ij derived imperfective suffix aj/ivaj aj/ivaj/vaj ivaj ivaj aj ivaj ivaj vaj ivaj/aj aj -----ivaj vaj vaj vaj vaj vaj aj aj aj aj aj aj 90 . j 17.] 2. -husher a [subgroup . -e* 3. -aj 8. k/g 23.

6. 1st sg. g. r/. d. n. -nu. and -ev-.] (2) Potential consonant mutations occur with perfectives from the -i and -e classes. and (b) the -nu and n/s-a classes (и or ы may occur). v. 2. b/. (4) A fill vowel /i/ occurs in classes with (a) non-syllabic resonants (only и occurs). s. [This type of alternation of the vowels и/ы is additional evidence that they are allophones of each other and not distinct phonemes. [This 2nd part is similar to “deep truncation” in the -[nu] class in the past tense. Resonants in CSR are: /j. These mutations are more frequent in the -i class and rare in the -e class. z.o >a -.] Flier (1972: 236-260) proposes an alternative view of imperfective derivation where the primary suffix is -aj preceded by 3 imperfectivizing suffixes: zero. /m. In any case.14.suffix.before addition of the -ivaj. Non-syllabic resonant classes include -/r and -/n.3 The rules of consonant and vowel alternations in derived imperfectives (1) Normal truncation/addition of one-stem system apply in imperfective derivation with an additional rule: -aj. 3rd pl. Obstruents are: /k. m.4 Exceptional verbs (Forms given vertically: infinitive.] [A terminology reminder.2. imperative) 'sit down' сесть сяду сядешь сядем сядут сел сядь 'swear' клясться клянусь клянёшься клянёмся клянутся клялся клянись 'lie down' лечь лягу ляжешь ляжем лягут лёг ляг 'eat' есть ем ешь едим едят ел ешь 'sing' петь пою поёшь поём поют пел пой 'give' дать дам дашь дадим дадут дал дай 'be' быть буду будешь будем будут был будь 'take' взять возьму возьмёшь возьмём возьмут взял возьми 'go' (on foot) идти иду идёшь идём идут шёл иди 'accept' принять приму примешь примем примут принял прими 'go' (by veh.6. 1st pl. there are many instances where a mutation would be expected and does not occur. (3) A vowel shift -. past. 2nd sg. -iv-. -[nu] truncate entirely. masc. t.) ехать еду едешь едем едут ехал езжай/ поезжай 'shave' бриться бреюся бреешься бреемся бреются брился брейся 91 .14.

.5 Participles and verbal adverbs: Examples: ричастие и деепричастие Infinitive pairs (HCB/CB) читать/прочитать (ай) писать/написать (а) спрашивать (ай)/спросить (и) 'read' 'write' 'ask' pres. For more examples and exercises on participles and verbal adverbs. cry' ошибиться реветь ошибусь реву ошибёшься ревёшь ошибёмся ревём ошибутся ревут ошибся ревел ошибись реви 'grind' молоть мелю мелешь мелем мелют молол мели 'hope' надеяться надеюсь надеешься надеемся надеются надеялся надейся 'want' хотеть хочу хочешь хотим хотят хотел *хоти 'send' послать пошлю пошлёшь пошлём пошлют послал пошли 'run' бежать бегу бежишь бежим бегут бежал беги 'understand' понять пойму поймёшь поймём поймут понял пойми 'drive.] Verbal Class Participle CB/Derived Imperfective 1. active читающий пишущий спрашивающий 'who is reading' 'who is writing' 'who is asking' past active (про)читавший (на)писавший спрашивавший/спросивший HCB 'who was reading' 'who was writing' 'who was asking' CB 'who had read' 'who had written' 'who had asked' pres. -e рассмотренный рассмотреть/рассматривать просидеть/просиживать 3. passive читаемый --------спрашиваемый 'which is being read' 'which is being asked' ppp прочитанный написанный спрошенный 'which was read' 'which was written' 'which was asked' Examples by verbal class: [Note that the participial and derived imperfective examples are not necessarily related.] [The glosses will be given by number following the Russian examples.6.ža ---------отлежаться/отлёживаться 4. -a записанный записать/записывать 92 . Averjanova. rent' снять сниму снимешь снимем снимут снял сними 2. rush' гнать гоню гонишь гоним гонят гнал гони 'remove.'grow' расти расту растёшь растём растут рос расти 'sleep' спать сплю спишь спим спят спал спи 'be mistaken' 'roar. see Andrews.14. Pjadusova 2001: 237-272. -i купленный оставить/оставлять перекусить/перекусывать 2.

14. b Glosses: 1. sketched' 'to make contigent upon' 'which was worked out' 'to work out/off' 'which was warmed up' 'become ripe' 'which was locked. 15. 7. oj 16. k/g 23. избранный нарисованный отработанный согретый замкнутый свергнутый --------проколотый пережитый одетый закрытый надутый выпитый начатый сжатый стёртый переведённый унесённый привлечённый выгребенный 'which was bought' набрать/набирать обусловить/обуславливать. -nu 10. -[nu] 11. /m 19. /r 20. 13. s/z 22. 10. tight' 'push' (a button) 'which was worn (out)' 'wipe off' 93 . 11. recorded' 'to note/jot down. -ova 7. 12. closed' 'lock. 16. close off' 'who was deposed' 'disappear' --------------------'which was pierced' 'pierce' 'which was lived through' 'live through. ij 18. chase' (of drink) 'which has begun' 'begin' 'which was squeezed. 17. survive' 'who was dressed' 'dress' 'which was closed' 'cover. 2. j 17. 18. -aj 8. n/s-a 6. -o 13. 19. обусловливать отработать/отрабатывать созреть/созревать замкнуть/замыкать вздрогнуть/вздрагивать исчезнуть/исчезать ----------проколоть/прокалывать пережить/переживать одеть/одевать накрыть/накрывать сдуть/сдувать запить/запивать начать/начинать нажать/нажимать вытереть/вытирать расцвести/расцветать перегрызть/перегрызать увлечь/увлекать разгрести/разгребать 'leave (behind)' 'have a snack' 'which was considered' 'consider. 6. /n. v 14. get a lot of smthg' 'which was drawn.5. 3. analyze' 'sit through' 'stay in bed and get well' 'which was noted. record' 'chosen. 5. -avaj 12. 4. 9. -ej 9. n 15. set the table' 'which was blown/puffed up' 'let the air out' 'which was drank' 'wash down. t/d 21. 8. elected' 'to dial.

6 One-stem verb system SUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS SECOND CONJUGATION 1. forms).e.(-и-) • Mutation of final root consonant in first person singular form (i. 'which was translated' 'which was carried away' 'who was drawn to' 'which was raked off' 'bloom' 'chew through' 'fascinate' 'clean off.6. • Stress may shift (from 1st sg ending to stem in other conj. 23. "я"form) only. просить (нсв) -’request’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past прошу просишь просит просим просите просят просил просила просило просили проси(те) прося Active просящий просивший Passive просимый (попрошенный) 94 . clear' 2. 22. 21. -i.20.14.

приготовить ( ) -’prepare’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past приготовлю приготовишь приготовит приготовим приготовите приготовят приготовил приготовила приготовило приготовили приготовь(те) приготовив Active приготовивший Passive приготовленный 95 .

• • • -e. There are about 50 verbs in this class ) -’be sitting. sit’ сидеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past посмотреть ( ) ‘watch. Stress can shift. look at’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сижу сидишь сидит сидим сидите сидят сидел сидела сидело сидели сиди(те) сидя Active сидящий сидевший Passive посмотрю посмотришь посмотрит посмотрим посмотрите посмотрят посмотрел посмотрела посмотрело посмотрели посмотри(те) посмотрев Active посмотревший Passive посмотренный 96 .2.(-е-) Mutation of final root consonant in 1st person singular form.

husher -a. бояться]) лежать ( ) -’be in a lying position’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past постоять ( ) -’stand around’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past лежу лежишь лежит лежим лежите лежат лежал лежала лежало лежали лежи(те) лёжа Active лежащий лежавший Passive постою постоишь постоит постоим постоите постоят постоял постояла постояло постояли постой(те) постояв Active постоявший Passive 97 .(-а-) (including all hushers and jot-types [стоять.3.

FIRST CONJUGATION VERBS 4. -a- (-а-) • Mutation of final root consonant all through the present tense. • Stress often shifts from end to stem in all forms of non-past other than 1st sg. • There are about 60 verbs in this class. ) -’wave’ маxать ( Non-Past Form я машу ты машешь он/она/оно машет мы машем вы машете они машут Past Tense Form Masculine махал Feminine махала Neuter махало Plural махали маши(те)/махай(те) (conv./colloq.) Imperative Verbal Adverb махая Participles Active Passive Present машущий Past махавший написать ( ) ‘write, write on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

напишу напишешь напишет напишем напишете напишут написал написала написало написали напиши(те) написав Active написавший Passive написанный


5. non-syllabic -a- (-а-) • No mutations. • A fill vowel is often inserted into stem (o/e) (cf. брать/беру -‘take’, звать/зову ‘name, call’) [Forms without fill vowels include врать/лгать - ‘lie,’ ждать - ‘wait,’ рвать - ‘rip, throw up’) • If stress shift occurs, only in feminine past tense • Restricted occurrence of substitutive softening (g >ž in ‘lie’: лгу, лжёшь) ) -’tear, strip off’ драть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

деру дерёшь дерёт дерём дерёте дерут драл драла драло драли дери(те) деря Active дерящий дравший Passive


набрать ( ) -’push, enter, load on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

наберу наберёшь наберёт наберём наберёте наберут набрал набрала набрало набрали набери(те) набрав Active набравший Passive набранный


/ -eva (-ова. -ova. организовать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past танцевать ( ) -’dance’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past or bi-aspectual) -’organize’ организую организуешь организует организуем организуете организуют организовал организовала организовало организовали организуй(те) организуя Active организующий организовавший Passive организуемый организованный танцую танцуешь танцует танцуем танцуете танцуют танцевал танцевала танцевало танцевали танцуй(те) танцуя Active танцующий танцевавший Passive танцуемый (станцованный) 101 . • Stress does not generally shift from uj (exceptions include совать -‘stick in’ [сую.mostly with foreign roots. суёшь]./ -ева-) • Rule: -ova. • There are thousands of verbs in this class .spit) • Verbs in this class are only imperfective aspect.6.(-ова. плевать ./ -ева-) > uj (уй) in nonpast and imperative./-eva.

• • • -aj. No stress shifts Thousands of verbs in this class.(-ай-) No mutation. make’ делать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past делаю делаешь делает делаем делаете делают делал делала делало делали делай(те) делая Active делающий делавший Passive делаемый деланный отработать ( ) -’work off. ) -’do. work out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отработаю отработаешь отработает отработаем отработаете отработают отработал отработала отработало отработали отработай(те) отработав Active отработавший Passive отработанный 102 .7.

Very few verbs in this group. ) -’have. No stress shifts. • • • -ej.8.(-ей-) No mutations. possess’ иметь ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’become white’ белеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past имею имеешь имеет имеем имеете имеют имел имела имело имели имей(те) имея Active имеющий имевший Passive белею белеешь белеет белеем белеете белеют белел белела белело белели белей(те) белея Active белеющий белевший Passive 103 .

disappears in past tense • 2).9 and 10. reach’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past достигну достигнешь достигнет достигнем достигнете достигнут достиг достигла достигло достигли достигни(те) достигнув Active достигший Passive достигнутый отдохнуть ( ) -’relax’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отдохну отдохнёшь отдохнёт отдохнём отдохнёте отдохнут отдохнул отдохнула отдохнуло отдохнули отдохни(те) отдохнув Active отдохнувший 104 Passive . -nu. -nu.remains in past tense достигнуть ( ) -’achieve. -nu.(-ну-) • Two subgroups: • 1).

11.(-авай.> -aj. -avaj. ) -’give.> -ай-) in the present tense • In the imperative.remains. the -avaj. hand over’ давать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’sell’ продавать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past продаю продаёшь продаёт продаём продаёте продают продавал продавала продавало продавали продавай(те) продавая Active продающий продававший Passive продаваемый даю даёшь даёт даём даёте дают давал давала давало давали давай(те) давая Active дающий дававший Passive даваемый 105 .(-авай-) • Rule: -avaj.

-o. l >l’ in non-past forms) бороться ( ) -’fight’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past борюсь борешься борется боремся боретесь борются боролся боролась боролось боролись борись/боритесь борясь Active борящийся боровшийся Passive 106 .(-о-) (nonproductive.12. restricted class. r > r’.

) -’live’ жить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past живу живёшь живёт живём живёте живут жил жила жило жили живи(те) живя Active живущий живший Passive (прожитый) отплыть ( ) -’swim/float away’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отплыву отплывёшь отплывёт отплывём отплывёте отплывут отплыл отплыла отплыло отплыли отплыви(те) отплыв Active отплывший 107 Passive .NONSUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS (all are 1st conjugation) Syllabic Resonants 13.(-в-) • Consonant /v/ occurs in conjugated non-past form • Stress may shift in feminine past tense. -v.

14.(-н-) • Consonant /n/ occurs in non-past conjugated form. стать ( ) -’become’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past стану станешь станет станем станете станут стал стала стало стали стань(те) став Active ставший Passive встать ( ) -’get up. arise’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past встану встанешь встанет встанем встанете встанут встал встала встало встали встань(те) встав Active вставший 108 Passive . -n.

15. • No stress shifts.(-ой-) • o > y (о > ы) before a consonant. открыть ( ) -’open’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past закрыть ( ) -’close’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past открою откроешь откроет откроем откроете откроют открыл открыла открыло открыли открой(те) открыв Active открывший Passive открытый закрою закроешь закроет закроем закроете закроют закрыл закрыла закрыло закрыли закрой(те) закрыв Active закрывший Passive закрытый 109 . -oj.

-j.(-й-) дуть ( ) -’blow’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past дую дуешь дует дуем дуете дуют дул дула дуло дули дуй(те) дуя Active дующий дувший Passive (сдутый) 110 .16.

17. -ij.(-ий-) • Vowel /i/ is dropped in non-past form and present participle. • /e/ fill vowel in imperative • Stress may shift in feminine past. ) -’drink’ пить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past пью пьёшь пьёт пьём пьёте пьют пил пила пило пили пей(те) Active пьющий пивший Passive (выпитый) убить ( ) -’kill’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past убью убьёшь убьёт убьём убьёте убьют убил убила убило убили убей(те) убив Active убивший Passive убитый 111 .

-n.Non-syllabic 18.(-н./ -m./ -м-) • n / m > a (н / м > а) before a consonant. begin’ начать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past начну начнёшь начнёт начнём начнёте начнут начал начала начало начали начни(те) начав Active начавший Passive начатый 112 . ) -’start. • Stress may shift in the past tense.

• /R > ER before any other consonant. No -l in past tense masculine singular умереть ( ) -’die’ Non-Past Form умру я ты умрёшь умрёт он/она/оно умрём мы умрёте вы умрут они Past Tense Form умер Masculine Feminine умерла умерло Neuter умерли Plural умри(те) Imperative Verbal Adverb умерев Participles Active Passive Present умерший Past стереть ( ) ‘wipe off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сотру сотрёшь сотрёт сотрём сотрёте сотрут стёр стёрла стерло стерли сотри(те) стерев Active стёрший Passive стёртый 113 .19.(-р-) • /R > ER'E before infinitive ending. -r.

• t/d + l > l in past tense (reverse truncation) • Stress shifts to end in past tense./ -d. ) -’lead./ -д-) • t / d > s (т / д > с) before infinitive ending.Obstruents 20. conduct’ вести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past побрести ( ) -’wander off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past веду ведёшь ведёт ведём ведёте ведут вёл вела вело вели веди(те) ведя Active ведущий ведший Passive ведомый (уведённый) побреду побредёшь побредёт побредём побредёте побредут побрёл побрела побрело побрели побреди(те) побредя.(-т. -t. побредши* Active побредший 114 Passive .

донёсши . where the form in -я is literary and the form in -вши is either colloquial or archaic. there is a shift in meaning (cf. -s./ -z.(-с./ -з-) • Masculine past-tense /l/ drops (reverse truncation) ) -’carry’ нести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past несу несёшь несёт несём несёте несут нёс несла несло несли неси(те) неся Active несущий нёсший Passive (занесённый) довезти ( ) -’transport up to (by vehicle)’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past довезу довезёшь довезёт довезём довезёте довезут довёз довезла довезло довезли довези(те) довезя Active довёзший Passive довезённый 115 . In some instances. 21.*Note that with verbs of motion. there are often 2 possible perfective verbal adverb forms.‘having informed on’). донеся .‘having carried to’ vs.

aid. assist’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Non-Past Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past помогу поможешь поможет поможем поможете помогут помог помогла помогло помогли помоги(те) Active помогший Passive испечь ( ) -’bake’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past испеку испечёшь испечёт испечём испечёте испекут испёк испекла испекло испекли испеки(те) испёкши Active испёкший Passive испечённый 116 . • Mutation of consonant in non-past 2nd/3rd singular. 1st/2nd plural ONLY. помочь ( ) -’help./ -g.(-к./ -г-) • Masculine past tense drops /l/. -k.22.

(-б-) выгрести ( ) -’rake/clean out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past скрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past выгребу выгребешь выгребет выгребем выгребете выгребут выгреб выгребла выгребло выгребли выгреби(те) выгребши/выгребя Active выгребший Passive выгребенный скребу скребёшь скребёт скребём скребёте скребут скрёб скребла скребло скребли скреби(те) скребя Active скребущий скрёбший Passive 117 . -b.23.

соскрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past соскребу соскребёшь соскребёт соскребём соскребёте соскребут соскрёб соскребла соскребло соскребли соскреби(те) соскрёбши Active соскрёбший Passive соскребённый 118 .

2.14.7 Verbs with the bound particle -ся All verbs in -s’a are intransitive by definition and occur in 6 basic types: (1) 'reflexive' (возвратный) (2) 'mutual actions' (взаимный) (3) 'passive' (страдательный) (4) 'impersonal' (безличный) (5) verb only occurs with -s’a particle (6) a small group of verbs that have an iterative meaning In some instances, a single verb may belong to several of the 6 types given above. Note the following examples of -s’a verbs. I will give aspectual pairs (HCB/CB) where feasible, but in many instances only one aspect has the -s’a. (1) Reflexive: the verbal action refers back to the nominative subject. In this class, it is possible to occasionally encounter minimal pairs with the non-s’a verbal equivalent + the reflexive, unbounded pronoun себя 'self'. Examples will be included below. заниматься/позаниматься (чем, с кем, у кого) мыться/помыться одеваться/одеться одевать/одеть себя 'occupy oneself, study, spend time doing smthg' 'wash, bathe (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' - emphatic

Compare the following: Он встал в шесть, быстро помылся, оделся и ушёл на работу. 'He got up a six, bathed quickly, got dressed and left for work.' осле аварии брат долго не мог одеваться без помощи, а теперь, год спустя, он сам себя одевает. 'After the accident my brother was unable to get dressed without assistance for quite a while, but now, a year later, he is able to dress himself.' возвращаться/вернуться (куда, откуда) смотреться/посмотреться (во что) естра всё время смотрится в зеркало. ильм хорошо смотрится. латье отлично смотрится на тебе. 'return (oneself)' 'look at yourself; look' (passive) 'My sister is always looking at herself in the mirror.' 'The film is worth seeing.' 'That dress looks great on you.'

(2) Mutual actions: the verbal action is done to 'each other' созваниваться/созвониться (с кем) 'call each other ' целоваться/поцеловаться (с кем) 'kiss each other' встречаться/встретиться (с кем) 'meet with each other, date' видеться/увидеться (с кем) 'see each other' Увидимся скоро! 'See you soon!' 119

знакомиться/познакомиться (с кем) переписываться (с кем)

'become acquainted, meet' 'correspond' (be pen pals)

(3) Passive: the verbal action is done by a “logical” subject that may be given in the instrumental case. The nominative subject is what is generally the object in a transitive construction and is inanimate. кончаться/кончиться 'end, conclude' начинаться/начaться 'begin, start' читаться 'read' (cf. Это книга легко читается ‘That book’s a good read.’) открываться/открыться 'open' закрываться/закрыться 'close' делаться/сделаться 'occur, be happening, become' то тут делается? 'What’s going on in here?' не делается грустно от его поведения. 'I get sad when he acts like that.' (4) Impersonals: there is no nominative subject. The actor of the verb, if expressible at all, is often in the dative case. This category is much broader than -s’a verbs and may occur with a variety of forms (see Impersonal constructions in section 3.5). хотеться/захотеться думаться/подуматься нездоровиться спится, спалось (no infinitive) писаться работаться житься сидеться представляться/представиться ам хочется завести собаку, но нет денег. 'want, desire' 'think' 'be unwell' 'sleep' 'write' 'work' 'live' 'sit' 'imagine' 'We want to get a dog, but we don’t have any money.' не думается, что его вывод неправильный. 'I think that his conclusion is incorrect.' атери нездоровится. 'Mother isn’t well.' ре хорошо спится на даче. 'Ira sleeps well at her summer home.' оле не пишется уже второй год. 'Kolya has had writer’s block for two years now.' ак-то сегодня не работается нам! 'We’re just not in a working mood today!' ак вам живётся на юге? 'How’s life treating you in the south?' ебёнку не сидится. 'The child can’t sit still.'

не плохо представляется её состояние в данный момент 'It’s hard for me to imagine at the moment her state of mind.' 120

(5) These verbs never occur in CSR without the -s’a particle. Below is a list of the most important examples of this category. нравиться/понравиться бояться/(побояться) -/понадобиться ложиться/лечь садиться/сесть присаживаться/присесть 'like' 'be afraid, fear' 'need, become necessary' 'lie down' 'sit down' 'sit down and make yourself comfortable'

(6) This is the smallest set of -s’a verbs. These verbs are very restricted in meaning and this usage should not be generalized to other verbs without checking a reliable Russian dictionary or grammar. кусаться Осторожно! рыться чесаться 'bite' 'Watch out! The dog bites!' 'dig' 'scratch, itch'

обака кусается!

In addition to the six groups given above, there are some forms in -s’a that are either very close in meaning to their non-s’a counterpart (cf. решаться/решиться - 'come to a decision after giving it serious thought', проситься/попроситься - 'ask permission, ask to go potty' (said of a child), 'begging to be done/said') or the semantics of the verb are considerably different from the non-s’a form (cf. полагаться/положиться - 'depend upon someone, put your trust in someone', -/заняться - 'get busy, take care of', браться/взяться - 'get a hold of each other, get a grip on yourself, get busy doing something'). 2.14.8 Verbs of motion The Russian system of verbs of motion has been one of the more popular topics in scholarly and pedagogical works on CSR. I will briefly review the major formal and semantic principles of the category with examples. [For a complete listing of all prefixed and non-prefixed verbs of motion, together with their prepositional government, case usage, examples and exercises, see Andrews, Averjanova, Pjadusova 2001: 124 - 225. There are two imperfective forms of non-prefixed verbs of motion - determinate and indeterminate. The perfective is only possible with a prefix, but not all prefixed verbs of motion are perfective. Determinate verbs 1. Determinate verbs are either irregular in conjugation or belong to the following classes: -aj, -e, t/d, s/z. 2. The meaning of the determinate verb is like a “freeze frame,” i.e. the action characterized is like a snapshot, a moment in the space/time continuum.


‘That dress is becoming to you/looks good on you. ‘I go to the bathroom frequently. The indeterminate may refer to 'using the bathroom.prefix 1. snowing. The determinate form is most often translated as a progressive -ing form.8.’ [also perfective .” чера вечером мы ходили в гости к аше. is almost always accusative.14. a. ‘Yesterday evening we went to Sasha’s house. ой ребёнок уже ходит. ‘My mom’s having trouble walking lately. ‘I was on my way to work when I saw a horrible accident. а чём вы ездили? .' Я очень часто хожу в туалет. ‘I’m going home. ‘Ships and boats are going to the night world’ (lyrics of 2001 T. ‘We set off for the movies.14. The determinate has an embedded goal that.By car. уда ты идёшь? ‘Where are you going?’ Я иду домой.8.’ 2. The po.2 Indeterminate verbs 1. Bulanova song) 5. я видел страшную аварию. Past tense form often gives meaning of a “round trip.’ Я люблю кататься на лыжах. it must mean one of the following: a.сходить] 2. ‘I love to ski. ‘How did you go? . асы пробили двенадцать.’ ождь/снег шёл.’ 6. огда я ехал на работу. ‘It was raining. snow. ‘I like to ride the train. колько идти/ехать? ‘How long does it take on foot/by vehicle?’ ождь/снег идёт.3.’ 122 . когда мы шли по набережной. The indeterminate names the action. If the determinate occurs in the past tense. ‘A new film is playing/showing.3 Simple perfective verbs of motion with po.’] овый фильм идёт.’ ебе это платье очень идёт.’ ать в последнее время плохо ходит.’ 3. Автобус идёт в парк. корабли и катера плывут в краю ночном.а машине. There are exceptions to this generalization (cf.’ 2.’ b.perfective has the following meanings when used with a determinate stem: inception of the action ы пошли в кино. ‘The bus is going down the street. The indeterminate may characterize the action.’ 4. when explicit.’ [Note the following perfective form: ождь/снег пошёл. ‘It’s raining. ‘It started to rain. ‘The clock struck twelve while we were walking along the embankment.’ b. snowing.’ c. ‘My child can already walk. ‘The bus is heading for the park. There are some expressions that may only use a determinate form. Автобус идёт по улице.’ Я люблю ездить поездом.’ 4. example 4c).

' 'He’s about forty years old.пасибо.is combined with an indeterminate stem. boats and some taxis) use the forms ходить/идти. then use летать/лететь. then it is more likely to occur before the verb. only one leg of the trip is completed] 2. the meaning is usually one of duration with no culminating spatial goal: походить ‘walk around for a little while’ поездить ‘drive around for a while’ Note that there are a number of perfectives formed from both determinate and indeterminate verbal stems.1 Syntax and syntactic categories Word order in CSR has typologically been categorized in the context of the world’s languages as SOV and SVO. 'I should tell you something. хорошо! ‘How was your trip? . to a game).4 Different modes of motion Russian verbs of motion will often distinguish between motion ‘on foot’ and motion ‘by vehicle. trams. a change in word order may not only change the tone of the utterance. The orders OSV.' 'I owe him $10. OVS. ак вы съездили? . buses. In terms of these 2 generalizations.Fine.change of speed or direction ойдём быстрее! ‘Let’s go faster!’ 2. trolleys. thanks!’ [here. a round trip meaning is obligatory] ак вы доехали? . сли may also be used together with the hypothetical particle бы. Inanimate and non-pronominal objects often occur after the verb. the verbs ходить/идти are generally used. 2.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals The Russian realization of the conditional mood is straightforward. Syntax 3.' 3. When the prefix po. but may indeed change the referential meaning in a profound way. even when a mode of transportation was engaged.Great..8.ормально! ‘How was your trip? . there is a great deal of variety and flexibility in Russian word order. If flying is involved. му сорок лет. VSO are also possible. Vehicles on tracks or routes (especially trains. The future tense is generally required in conditional clauses following eсли -'if'.14. 3. if the object is pronominal or an animate common or proper noun. However. Compare the following sentences: Я должен тебе сказать кое-что. 3. When going about town (to work.' 'He’s forty years old. му лет сорок. The particle бы is used either before or after 123 . the traditional description is misleading. Я ему должен десять долларов.’ In fact. Note the following parameters concerning this distinction: 1. to the movies.’ [here. The forms ездить/ехать must be used when going beyond the city limits or between countries. In general.

(то) ты бы не завела эту тему. (то) мы не успеем на концерт. 'If you don’t come on time.' Note the following examples: ариса спрашивает. many of the nuances found in the English verb tenses in conditional constructions are ambiguous in Russian.' 3. есть ли у неё греческий словарь. This means that ли may not be the second word if the first word is a preposition or a negative particle. but shares it with either the word preceding or following it.the verb.' 'If he would have been smart.' 'If he were to have been smart. 'We don’t know whether or not she has a Greek dictionary. Note the following examples: 124 .' ира собирается звонить в девять. что ли? 'Kira is going to call at nine. he’d get in to college on the first try. идут ли ему новые брюки? 'Sasha wants to know if his new pants look good on him.' сли бы он был умным. we won’t make it to the concert. Namely. Not all hypothetical constructions are conditionals and vice-versa. он бы поступил в университет с первого раза. когда будут давать зарплату? 'Larisa is asking if you know when they’re going to be giving out our monthly salary. 'I would call him. right?' Purpose clauses or constructions in which the subject wants someone to do something require the use of чтобы in CSR.' 'If you hadn’t known what I thought about that. he would have gotten into college on the first try. Like all particles in CSR. then he would have gotten into college on the first try.' сли бы ты знала. does not take the stress. 'If he were smart. 'If you (only) knew what I think about that. что я думаю по этому поводу.' аша интересуется.' Я бы позвонила ему. but something is stopping me. ли must follow the first word-form that carries stress in the clause. Because CSR does not have a complex tense system. Note the following examples and their multiple English translations: сли ты не придёшь вовремя. The particle ли is required in reported questions and when evoking the meaning of 'whether [or not].' ы не знаем. there is the interrogative particle ли. you wouldn’t have brought it up. но что-то меня останавливает. you wouldn’t have brought it up. знаете ли ы.3 Grammatical particles In addition to the hypothetical particle бы. The rules for placement of the interrogative particle ли are more rigid than for the other particles. which is obligatorily in the past-tense form.

In order to show the complexity of verbal government in CSR. 'Dad is getting us interested in his work.' ебёнок наконец-то взялся за ум. Substantial lists of verbs and their government are given in the discussion sections of each of the Russian cases. 'I decided to stay with friends in Moscow for another week. 'My kid finally got his head on straight/got his act together. The cases required with verbs in CSR is a rich combination of the entire system. but can occur with the zero-copula 'be' in present tense constructions with adverbs. We have already seen one example of impersonal constructions in connection with a set of verbs with the particle -s’a (cf.тобы все твои мечты сбылись! 'So that all of your dreams come true!' (said as a toast or a wish) Он хочет.5 Impersonal constructions Impersonal constructions play a major role in sentence-level discourse in CSR.'We couldn’t sleep last night'). чтобы ты позвонил сестре. while in other instances multiple cases and prepositional phrases are possible. 'I moved to St. we have seen the importance of syntactic constraints of case usage following particular word forms.' ам сегодня ночью не спалось . 'He wants you to call your/his sister.' Я решил остаться в оскве у друзей ещё на неделю. Petersburg to work. что нельзя пить! 'After watching you I became convinced that no one should drink!' 3. In the present section.' е сбивай меня с толку! 'Don’t get me off track/make me lose my train of thought. consider the following examples: апа вызывает интерес у нас к своей работе.' 3.' а твоём примере я убедился в том. Petersburg in order to find a job.' Я переехала в етербург.'I can’t sit still.' Я переехала в етербург работать. Those truly impersonal 125 . 'I moved to St. Impersonal constructions are not bound only to verbal constructions. as well as in the section on prepositions.4 Verbal government In earlier sections on nouns and prepositions. a verb will require only one object case. I will survey the range of forms that are used as impersonals and the semantic space which they occupy. In some instances. чтобы найти хорошую работу. не не сидится .

не нездоровится. саду благоухает.' 'We’re uncomfortable' (emotionally and/or physically). 'He’s sad.' 'Lucy can’t keep her eyes open.' ебе не дует? 'Is the draft getting you?' орозит. ам неудобно. ахнет хлебом. го бросает в жар. Use of infinitive in simple statements and questions аказать вам такси? ам помочь? е сходить ли нам в кино?! оложить ещё? ать тебе ручку? 'Can I call you a cab?' 'Do you need some help? Can I help you?' 'Would you like some help?' 'What about us going to a movie?' 'Would you like some more?' 'Do you want me to get you a pen?' 'Would you like a pen? Can I get you a pen?' 126 . It’s rainy. У него заложило уши. пока сюша не открыла окно.' ам было тепло.verbs will always have a neuter singular form in the past tense.' 'I’m not well.' 'He’s broken out in a fever.' 'I’ve got chills. 'It’s freezing outside.' 'It smells like bread.' 'He stinks.' 'Everything went dark' (Vanya passed out). юсю клонит в сон. The semantic fields that are generally associated with impersonal expressions include: Weather and nature не холодно. 'it’s awkward for us' 'The child threw up in school.' 'It smells wonderful in the garden. 'It’s raining.' 'She’s going to be bored at that lecture. and a third singular form in the present and future. У ани потемнело в глазах. 'I’m cold. й будет скучно на этой лекции. 'It’s very cold in January.' Psychological and physiological human states (and smells) му грустно.' ебёнка вырвало в школе.' январе очень холодно. 'We were warm until Ksyusha opened the window.' 'I have a pain in my chest. еня знобит. От него воняет. У мамы звенит в ушах.' 'His ears are stopped up.' ует. 'There’s a ringing in my ears. 'There’s a draft. У меня болит в груди.' ождит.

it was impossible to imagine seeing in official print any form of verbal obscenity. especially beyond the immediate family.. For a thorough treatment of proverbs and collocations.. ё-кэ-лэ-мэ-нэ -лин! ё-моё.. а что боролись. (люби и санки возить!) Язык до иева (доведёт!) 'Be careful what you wish for!' 'From your mouth to God’s ear...) юбишь кататься.and die a fool!' 'Old age sucks.use it!' 3. Mixel'son (1994).' 'Live and learn.' 'Slow and steady wins the race. едрёна мать 'Go to the devil!' 'bitch/bastard' 'son-of-a-bitch' 'fiddlesticks' 'Crap! (lit. ёшкин кот.. Permjakov (1970).[А молодость гадость!] ервый блин (комом!) ише едешь. in many instances only a portion of the saying is pronounced. and being young is yucky too. the entire proverb is stated. It is still the case that women are less likely to use profanity than men. I would like to outline the basic trends in the use of obscenity in spoken and written Russian. The situation in spoken Russian is also rather complicated. Because of the frequency of proverb/collocation usage. Until the early 1990’s. and provide some simple euphemisms that are used by a broad range of the population. In the following remarks. 'pancake')' 'Dammit!' 127 . The parts in brackets are potential retorts. and the hearer may add on what could be considered a continuation of the proverb itself.' 'You can’t have your cake and eat it too. but attempts at an English equivalent. Mertvago (1995). ёлки-моталки. ёкси-шмокси . (на то и напоролись!) воими бы устами (да мёд пить!) ек живи.' 'If at first you don’t succeed. contemporary speakers of Russian are more freely using profanity in larger discourse situations than was true in the Soviet era. [а дураком умрёшь!] тарость не радость! . This trend is no longer as true as it once was. In other instances.7 Use of profanity in CSR The subject of profanity in Russian has long been taboo. However.6 Proverbs and collocations The use of proverbs and collocations remains a very important part of normal Russian discourse.. (дальше будешь.3.. Some of the words that one will commonly encounter in media and discourse include: ди к чёрту! сука. Moščevitina (1996). стерва сукин сын ёлки-палки.] My translations are not literal. Mokienko (1999).' 'You have a tongue -. Note the following examples: [The parts in parentheses are optional in the recitation. see Dal' (1862/1957). but it is no exaggeration to state that the Russian media is still more conservative in its use of profanity in public than many of its western counterparts. век учись..

128 . One of the more interesting uses of this type of obscenity (from a purely linguistic point of view) is the ability to replace the root of a given word with an obscene root in order to achieve a mundane meaning like 'steal' or 'bore.' For the curious reader who is interested in this topic.The use of the 3 Slavic roots in various word-formative combinations is often referred to as “three-story obscenity” (трёхэтажный мат)and no examples of that phenomenon will appear here. there are a series of Russian dictionaries of obscenities published both in Russia and abroad that are easily available.

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