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IDlineeliDI
22782
Se r ...ce 'ExaminatioD. i
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AGUGKNFA
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
PaperI
( Conventional )
\ Time Allowed: Three Hours
I I Maximum Marks
any FIVE questions.
200
I
INSTRUCTIONS
Candidates should attempt
Each question
carries 40 marks.
The number of marks carried by each subdivision of a question is indicated at the end of the subdivision. Answers must be written only in ENGLISH. Assume suitable data, if necessary the same clearly, For air, R "I
I
and indicate
=
=
0'287 kJ/kg·K, Cp "" 1'005 kJ/kgK, 1· 4, M = 28· 966 kg/kg~mole.
Unless otherwise indicated, symbols and notations have their usual meanings. 1. (a)
10 kg of pure ice at 10°C is separated from 6 kg of pure water at + 10°C in an adiabatic chamber using a thin adiabatic
membrane. Upon rupture of the membrane, ice and water mix uniformly at
constant pressure. At this pressure, the melting temperature of ice is 0 °C and /14 [ r.r.o
L
before and What is the final equilibrium temperature of the system after the . evaluate the claim using energy and entropy balances. Neglecting any changes in kinetic and potential energies of the streams at inlet and exit sections and using ideal gas model with Cp and R for air. (i) Iii) Sketch the systems after mixing. The mean specific heat at constant pressure for ice and water are respectively 2'1 kJ/kgK and 4·2 kJ/kgK. respectively of 5 bars and 39°C and leaves the device as cold airstream at 21 DC and as hot airstream at 79 DC each at a pressure of 1 bar. completion of the mixing process? (iii) Estimate the change of entropy of the universe due to the mixing. (iv) Is the final phase of the system solid ice. liquid water or icewater mixture? 10 (b) An inventor claims to have developed a device requiring no energy transfer by heat or work. Steadystate test data provided by the inventor indicate that the air enters the device at a pressure and temperature. respectively at 1·005 kJjkgK and 0·287 kJ/kgK. Further. 2 10 AGUGKNFA/14 . it is also noted that 40% of the mass of air is entering the device as cold stream. Sketch the device as a control volume.the latent heat of melting is 335 kJ /kg. yet able to produce hot and cold streams of air from a single stream of air at an intermediate temperature.
rn. 10 A fourcylinder engine of an automobile is converted to run on propane (C3H 8) fuel.O. Flame termination Occurs.T. 4·90% and 2'45%.) p tip coefficient aT Il . p (iii) There is no change in temperature when an ideal gas is made to undergo JouleThomson expansion. It takes 8° of rotation to start combustion and get into flame propagation mode. show the following : (i) Tds = c.p. rd) 10 Describe the stepbystep procedure to experimentally determine the calorific value of a solid fuel using bomb calorimeter.= _1 J Cp  {ii} JouleThomson [r ( av) . respectively at 9'79%.(e)   Using Maxwell's relations and the thermodynamic definitions for Cp and Cv in terms of gradients. .ar + T ( ~~) v du = CpdTT(~. ° 10 (b) The spark plug is fixed at 180 before top dead centre (TDC) in an SI engine running at 1800 r. ra) gives volumetric percentage of CO. Write the resulting chemical reaction and find the equivalence ratio. 0 AGUGKNFA/14 3 [ P. Draw a sectional view of the calorimeter. at 12 after TDC.v] . A dry analysis of engine exhaust 2. CO2 and 2.
Give physical meaning of the expression. 10 3. Calculate the effective flame front speed during flame propagation.p. The engine speed is increased to 3000 r. . Using a layout diagram. Flame development after spark plug firing still takes 81)of engine rotation. Calculate how much engine rotation must be advanced such that the flame termination again occurs at 12D after TDC. describe the functions of various components of a 10 10 (d) turbojet engine.Flame front can be approximated as a sphere moving out from the spark plug which is offset 8 mm from the centre line of the cylinder whose bore diameter is 84 ern.m. Differentiate between fin efficiency and fin effectiveness. (e) Discuss the basic properties that a lubricant should possess to meet the lubrication requirement of internal combustion engines. (a) Explain Reynolds analogy and derive the expression to evaluate the heattransfer coefficient using it. and 'subsequently as a result of which the effective flame front speed increases at a rate such that it is directly proportional to 0·85 times of engine speed. 5 5 (b) AGUGKNFA/14 4    _.
find the configuration of the exchanger and sketch the final design.O. Find NTU. .= 0. d 2 T 2 dT . If the diameter of the tube is 2 em through which the cooling fluid passes and the overall heattransfer coefficient is 200 W 1m 2_K.(e) differential equation governing conduction heat transfer in a solid sphere with heat generation is . If the. Show the general nature of the temperature distribution in this case. q"'. maximum velocity through the tube cannot exceed 2 ta]« and the maximum length of the exchanger is limited to 12 m due to space restriction. heat 1'0 kJ/kgK at 15 "C. Assume density of the cooling fluid is 250 kg/rn3.T. Show that the 5 (d) A counterflow heat exchanger is to be designed to cool 900 kg/hr of oil from 60 "C to 32 "C using a fluid with sp. find the number of tubes required and the tube length. heat of the oil is 0'5 kJ /kgK and the maximum allowable exit temperature of the cooling fluid is 27 "C. The sp. Work out the following: (i) (ii) Sketch the system and show the temperature distribution. gIven by + + . q'" is the heat generated per unit volume and k is the thermal conductivity of the solid sphere. AGUGKNFA/14 15 5 [ P. where TIS 2 dr r dr k the temperature at any radius r. .
heat AGUGKNFA/14 6 . The average water velocity is 2'1 tti] ». Properties of water are given below.m. Find the heat transfer per metre length of the tube for the above case : Density (kg/m3) Sp.. rii) the refrigeration in tons and (iii) COP of the cycle. For ideal cycle) find (i) the ammonia circulated in kg/min. (0C) Thermal conductivity Viscosity x 102 (kg/hr) Pr . {a} Saturated ammonia vapour enters a 15 em dia x 14 em stroke twincylinder Singleacting compressor at 0'2365 MPa whose volumetric efficiency is 79% and speed 420 r.(e) Find the average film coefficient heat transfer on the water side of a singlepass steam condenser. . vx106 (m2/s) x 102 (W/mK) 10 1000 1000 1000 4·192 4183 4·174 57498 59'780 61·345 469 361'892 288·650 9'52 7'02 5'42 1·306 1'006 0'805 20 30 4. heat (kJ/kgK) 10 Temp. The delivery pressure is 1'1672 MPa. Sketch the system and show the temperature distribution.p. Assume sp. Liquid NH3 at 21 QC enters the expansion valve. The inner diameter of the tube is 23 mm and cooling water enters at 15°C and leaves at 25 DC.
For an ideal cycle. Assume Cp for air as 1·005 kJ/kgK. 3. Entropy [kJ/kg·KJ of vap. calculate COP. liq. Properties ofNH3 are given temp.r.O.. liq. Find the cylinder dimensions if the compressor is singleacting singlecylinder with L/D ratio of 1'2 and runs at 600 r. 5'4387 6'1853 Sat. uap. Why a single psychrometric process cannot be applied in winter airconditioning? 10 AGUGKNFA/14 7 { P.rn.of NH3 as 2·19 kJjkgK and density 10 Sp. vap. explain the winter airconditioning system. (c) 10 With a neat sketch. The cooler and refrigerator pressure are 4·2 bars and 1'4 bars.T.p. at sat. theoretical piston displacement of compressor and power required per ton of refrigeration. . mass of air circulated/min. volume 0·77 kg/rn below: Pressure (MPa) Sat. 3 (m /kg) Sat. 1°C) Enthalpy (kJ/kgJ Sat. 831'46 620'70 Sat. 10·526 9·9606 0·2365 1'1672 15 +30 0·5106 0·11084 481·52 523'42 (b) A BellColeman refrigeration system is used to produce 10 tons of refrigeration. Air is cooled in the cooler to 45°C and temperature of air at the inlet of the compressor is 20°C.
if 10 (P . volume of vapour (m3/kg) 43'40 7798 Enthalpy (kJ /kg) Sat.1.01078 0·01002    The following expression necessary : may be used. The following properties of water may be assumed: Sat. liq.wb~ x 1· 8 v = (Pvsat }twbt .Pvsat)(dbt .  . 62·94 Sat vap. 8 AGUGKNFA/14 ~. pressure (bar) Temp.2854 . 325 (18 tdbt + 32) P 5. (b) Air at 1 MPa and 600 "C enters a conserving nozzle with a velocity of 150 ta] «. (a) Considering the Ts diagram of Rayleigh flow and using the differential forms of the conservation equations and property relations.(d) Calculate all the psychrometric properties of air at 1 bar and 25 "C dbt and 15°C wbt. show that the (i) Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy and (ii) Mach number is . (DC) Sp. Determine the mass flow rate through the nozzle for a nozzle throat area of 50 em 2 when the back pressure is (i) 0'7 MPa and (ii) 004 MPa. _.Jy at the point of maximum 15 temperature. 25473 25 15 10 0 0·03166 0'01703 0.
density of fluid (.T.740 0.729 . obtain the expression for the specific speed for a turbine. diameter of turbine (D). 10 6.r  TO 0·901 0·896 0·892 0·887 0·881 A1·068 1·057 1·047 1·038 1'030 A M* 0·770 0.771 0·761 0. Discuss various methods of controlling boundary layer separation.788 0. (a) Explain what you mean by the specific speed of a turbine.807 0·825 0·843 (c) Explain the phenomenon of boundary layer separation over a curved surface. head (H). Using Buckinghamit theorem and variables such as power (P). 15 AGUGKNFA/14 9 [ P. speed (N).Assume that the flow through nozzle is steady) onedimensional isentropic. Po 0.0) and acceleration due to gravity (g). . the and You may use the following table for onedimensional isentropic flow {fO'T an ideal gas with y = 1· 4) : M 0·74 0·76 0·78 0·80 0·82 P 15 Po 0·695 0·682 0'669 0·656 0.643 .e.O.750 0.
The velocity distribution in a pipe is given by ~=(lR =.::local velocity along r of the pipe correction factor. (d) Distinguish. 10 10 AGUGKNFA/14 . 15 Find the momentum = 0·20. ti) Define degree of turbulence. for boundary layer flow. (ii) Explain. with the help of neat sketches. 5 5 7. With the help of a neat sketch. Write the salient features of this system with reasonings for selecting its main parts. of (b) 10 Discuss the need of governing of steam turbine.radius if n (c) .r where. between a hydrodynamically rough surface and a hydrodynamically smooth surface.(b) Explain what you mean by momentum correction factor. discuss the working principle of hydromechanical speedgoverning loop of a steam turbine by showing the characteristics on torque and frequency versus time and torque or load versus frequency. (a) Give a neat sketch of practical feed heating arrangement of a 660 MW unit steam turbine.. whether the curve representing 8 (boundary layer thickness) as a function of X over a flat plate is a streamline of flow or not. U = maximum velocity at the centre of the pipe u .
mechanical and generator efficiencies are 87%. The feedwater passing through the feed heaters enters the boiler at 160°C. The dimensions of the riser tubes are 65 mm OD and 3 mm wall thickness while the dimensions of downcomers are 185mm OD and 8 mm thick. Assume no pressure drop and heat loss to the risers. drum.o. risers. and show the process on Ts diagram The generation of rate of steam ignoring the amount of steam bled off to feed heaters in kg/ s (ii) (iii) The rate of fuel flow required in kg/s AGUGKNFA/14 11 r r. The boiler uses pulverized coal having a calorific value of 26 MJ Ikg and yields 92% efficiency. The risers of the furnace are 55 in high while the downcomers are placed outside the furnace for producing natural circulation. downcomers.(e) A steam power plant generating 500 MW of electrical power employs a natural circulation boiler which supplies steam at a pressure of 150 bars and temperature of 550°C. . The quality of steam at the top of the riser is 12% and a minimum exit velocity of mixture leaving the risers and entering the drum is 1·4 m/s. The turbine. 98% and 99% respectively. reheater and economizers. Work out the following: (ij Sketch the layout of natural circulation boiler unit showing furnace. The condenser pressure is 005 bar. superheater.r.
2. What do you mean by cavitation phenomena associated with hydraulic turbomachines? Discuss the causes of cavitation and its prevention with reference to hydraulic turbines. discuss in brief the working principle of steam pressure control system used in modem steam boilers. inlet = Priser. h2s = 1987 kJ /kg hl3 = 137·8 kJ/kg. and give reasons for this. condenser exit. (a) 10 AGUGKNFA/14 ~ . . 3 and 5 denote boiler exit (or turbine inlet). (d) 15 With the help of a neat sketch.. hfs = 675'5 kJ/kg . Mention the location of cavitation in hydraulic turbopumps and turbines. pump inlet and boiler inlet respectively. 12 5 8. top = 396 kg/m 3 Pdowncomer 603 kg/m 3 where suffixes 1.:.(iv) The evaporation (v) (vi) factor ratio The circulation The number of riser tubes of downcomers (vii) The number (viii) State reasons for selecting fewer in number and bigger in diameter as downcomers while more in number and smaller in diameter as nser tubes ill natural circulation boiler Take the following properties hI = 3448·6 kJ /kg.
   _   . The compressor is having 18 stages and the blade speed is kept at 200 tn]« to minimize noise generation.D. The axial velocity of flow is 160 ra] s. show the process on Ts diagram and draw' velocity diagrams All the stage fluid angles of the first (ii) (iii) The hub and tip including blade height diameters (iu) State the reasons why the pressure rise per stage in axialflow compressor is less than that of centrifugal compressor 10 AGUGKNFA/14 13 [ P.(b) An axialflow compressor employed in gas turbine plant delivers air at the rate of 300 kg/ s and develops a total pressure ratio of 20. The stage degree of reaction at the mean blade height is 50%.. Take R = 0'287 kJ/kgK and Cp. The work done factor is 0'88.T. The hubtip diameter ratio is 0'8. Assume actual temperature rise in each stage. The inlet stagnation conditions are 300 K and 1 bar. The isentropic efficiency of the compressor is 87%. Work out the following: (i) Sketch the system. 1·005 kJjkgK.
Total compressor pressure Total ambient conditions ratio = 30 := 1 bar and 300 K Polytropic efficiencies for both compressor and turbine = Og each Total turbine inlet temperature of both turbines > 1600 Keach Pressure loss in both combustors = 2% of entry pressure each Total turbine exhaust pressure ~ 105 bars Mechanical efficiency of assembly = 098 Combustion efficiency of both combustors = 097 Alternator efficiency = 097 Alternator power output = 250 MW Actual airfuel ratio = 25 Lower calorific value of fuel = 42 MJ/kg Take. Cpa =1005 CPg = 116 kJjkgK.fe) A gas turbine power plant developing 250 MW of electrical power employs a singleshaft gas turbine reheat cycle having the following data . Work out the following: ti) (ii) (iii) kJjkgK and Sketch the system and show the process on Ts diagram The plant specific work in kJ /kg The mass flow rate of air required in kg/s AGUGKNFA/14 14 .
(iv) The specific fuel consumption kg/kWh (u) (d) in The actual thermal efficiency 15 With the help of a simple sketch. 5 *** AG UGKNFA/14 15 B838* . discuss in brief the working principle of hydromechanical speedgoverning system (prime control) of a water reaction turbine.
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