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Experimental Stress Analysis
By Prof. K. Ramesh Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras.
Course Outline The course covers the basic aspects of experimental stress analysis
that includes exhaustive treatment of the most versatile techniques like photoelasticity and strain gauges and also a brief introduction to the emerging techniques like digital image correlation. In addition it also provides the fundamental aspects of six different experimental techniques such as Moiré, Brittle Coatings, Holography, Speckle Methods, Thermoelastic Stress Analysis and Caustics.

Prerequisite Strength of Materials Text/References
1. K. Ramesh, e-Book on Experimental Stress Analysis, IIT Madras, 2009. URL: http://apm.iitm.ac.in/smlab/kramesh/book_5.htm 2. K. Ramesh, Digital Photoelasticity – Advanced Techniques and Applications, Springer, 2000. 3. W.N. Sharpe (Ed.), Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics, Springer, 2008 4. J.W. Dally and W.F. Riley, Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1991 5. L.S. Srinath, M.R. Raghavan, K. Lingaiah, G. Gargesa, B. Pant, and K. Ramachandra, Experimental Stress Analysis, Tata Mc Graw Hill, 1984.

Suggested Additional Reading
Articles from the journals: Experimental Techniques, Experimental Mechanics, Strain, Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design and Optics and Lasers in Engineering etc.

Course Organisation
Modules
Module -1 Module -2 Module -3 Module -4 Module -5 Module -6

Title
Overview of Experimental Stress Analysis Transmission Photoelasticity Introduction to Three Dimensional Photoelasticity and Digital Photoelasticity Photoelastic Coatings and Brittle Coatings Strain Gauges Discussion Session

Lectures
10 13 2 5 10 1

Photoelasticity and Moiré 5 Introduction to Moiré. Naming of experimental methods. Beam under pure bending. Specific domain of these approaches. Shearography. Geometric moiré. Optical methods work as optical computers. DIC and Caustics Hologram interferometry. Photoelasticity. Stress. Brief introduction to Speckle interferometry. Brittle coatings and Holography. Fringe contours from various experimental techniques. dimple formation. Direct information provided by various experimental methods – brief description.2 Module -1. Steps in a double exposure hologram interferometry. Class demonstration of Caustic experiment. Formation of speckles due to illumination by a laser. comparison with photoelastic fringes. . TSA. Advantages and disadvantages. Difference between normal photography and holography. Stress analysis – Analytical. Fringe patterns – Richness of qualitative information. Subjective speckles. Key technologies that have influenced Experimental Mechanics. Visual appreciation of field information – Listing of various problems of different complexity. Strain and Displacement Fields 4 Physical Principle of Strain Gauges. Information provided by fringe thickness. Fringe contours from various experimental techniques. Brittle Coatings and Holography 6 Hologram Interferometry. 3 Stress. Numerical and Experimental approaches. Disc under diametral compression – Analytical solution. Speckle Methods 7 Introduction to Shearography. Discussion on selection of an experimental technique. Grids for determining plastic strains. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA). Clamped circular plate under a central load – Analytical solution. Objective speckles. Strain and Displacement fields for various problems. Rainbow hologram. Analytical solution. Overview of Experimental Stress Analysis Lecture 1 Overview of Experimental Stress Analysis 2 Optical Methods Work as Optical Computers Concepts Covered Overview of experimental stress analysis. Speckle methods. 8 Fringe Patterns – Richness of Qualitative Information 9 Multi-Scale Analysis in Experimental Mechanics Multi-scale analysis in experimental mechanics. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Caustics. density. Brief introduction to Moiré. Spanner tightening a nut – completeness of a numerical solution. Demonstration of fringes due to translation and rotation of gratings of various types. Optical methods for quality inspection. Trends in experimental mechanics. grating details – u and v displacements. Coherent gradient sensor. Visualising the depth information. Fringe contours from various experimental methods. Comparison of various designs – Streamline fillet. Strain Gauges. Physical principle behind various experimental techniques. Caustics in a tea cup.

. Half wave and Full wave plates. Class experiment on showing crossed polarizers. Maximum stress information obtainable by photoelasticity. Sheet polarisers Sheet polarisers contd. Passage of Light Through a Crystal Plate 14 Retardation Plates. Summary of photoelastic fringes.3 10 Selection of an Experimental Technique Discussion on selection of an experimental technique contd. Circular polariscope. References. Storage of photoelastic materials. Module -2. Eigen value approach or use of Mohr’s circle. Steps in Tardy’s Method of compensation. Light ellipse. Time-edge effect. Light ellipse (contd. Intensity of light transmitted by Jones calculus. Babinet–Soleil compensator in detail. Retardation plates and wave plates. advantage of circular disk. 16 Jones Calculus 17 Circular Polariscope 18 Determination of Photoelastic Parameters at an Arbitrary Point 19 Tardy’s Method of Compensation Review of colour code. Representation of a retarder. Various branches of photoelasticity. Logical explanation of formation of fringes. Passage of light through crystalline media. Rotation matrix. Use of white light.). Plane polariscope.. Colour code. Calibration of photoelastic model materials. Brief exposure to digital photoelasticity. Demonstration of a commercial polariscope. Compensation techniques. Demonstration of birefringence effect of Calcite prism. Tardy’s method of compensation. ambiguity in associating the correct value of principal stress direction to the magnitude of the principal stress. Circular polariscope (contd. Retardation matrix. Stress-optic Law 15 Plane Polariscope Concepts Covered Physical principle. Various optical arrangements possible.) Retardation plates and wave plates. . Shear distribution in a three point bend specimen. Review of solid mechanics. Historical development on polarization optics. Elements of the polariscope. Tint of passage. Birefringence. Determination of photoelastic parameters at an arbitrary point. Understanding polarization. isoclinics. Transmission Photoelasticity Lecture 11 Introduction to Transmission Photoelasticity 12 Ordinary and Extraordinary Rays 13 Light Ellipse. Stress-optic law. Methods to get polarized light. Stress field in a circular disc under diametral compression. Influence on the role of optical axis of the crystal. Analysis of plane polariscope by Jones calculus. Historical development. definition of free surface. Jones calculus. Snell’s laws. Need for calibration of photoelastic materials. Polarisation. Dichroism. Passage of light through isotropic media. Dark and bright fields. Understanding isochromatics. Intensity of light transmitted in a plane polariscope by trigonometric resolution. Quarter wave. Nature of light.

Image sampling and quantization. Use of colour information for quantitative analysis. Historical development. Theoretical reconstruction of fringe pattern. Correction factor for pressure vessel. Three Fringe Photoelasticity (TFP). Role of elastic constants on stress field. Introduction to Three Dimensional Photoelasticity and Digital Photoelasticity Lecture 24 Three Dimensional Photoelasticity Concepts Covered Three dimensional photoelasticity. Determination of the sign of the boundary stress. Combined in-plane and bending loads. Application to a complex problem. Role of principles of solid mechanics in fringe ordering. Comments on fringe ordering (contd. Global fringe thinning algorithm. Positive and negative isotropic points. Correction factor for bending. Introduction to the use of Image processing techniques. Importance of accurate evaluation of material stress fringe value. Understanding phasemaps. Thresholding to find fringe areas. Introduction to digital photoelasticity. Slicing. Integrated photoelasticity. 25 Overview of Digital Photoelasticity Module -4. Fringe thinning methodologies. Experimental evaluation. Correction factor for torsion. Optical arrangements. Strain-optic relation for coating. Chen & Taylor algorithm for one scanning direction. Sampled least squares. Fringe skeletonisation. Photoelastic Coatings and Brittle Coatings Lecture 26 Introduction to Photoelastic Coatings 27 Correction Factors for Photoelastic Coatings Concepts Covered Photoelastic coatings. Paradigm shift in data processing. Binary based and intensity based algorithms. Evaluation of coating and specimen stresses. Correction factors for photoelastic coatings. . Compatibility conditions. Stress freezing. Opening remarks on comments on fringe ordering. Ten-step method. Principle of optical equivalence. 21 Fringe Thinning Methodologies 22 Fringe Ordering in Photoelasticity 23 Miscellaneous Topics in Transmission Photoelasticity Module -3. Features of isochromatic and isoclinic fringe field. Global fringe thinning – summary. Identification of zeroth fringe order. Refined TFP (RTFP) to solve slow time variant problems. Overview of digital photoelasticity. Resolving the ambiguity on the principal stress direction. Photoelastic strain gauges.). Properties of photoelastic model materials. Model to prototype relations.4 20 Calibration of Photo elastic Materials Conventional approach to calibration. Linear least squares analysis. Processing of intensity data for photoelastic data extraction.

Gauge factor. Crack patterns by refrigeration. Handling mismatch of Poisson’s ratio. Gauge factor desensitization. Karma alloy. 35 Temperature Compensation. Coating stresses. Gauge length error in measurement. Flame spraying Rokide process. Crack patterns by relaxation. Hysteresis and Zero shift. Heat dissipation. Epoxy cements and Polyester cements. Drift. Cements for bonding a strain gauge: Cynoacrylate. Selection of bridge voltage. Advance. Module -5. Industrial Application of Photoelastic Coatings 29 Calibration of Photoelastic Coatings. Strain measurement options. Biaxial and Isotropic stress fields. Strain Gauges: Physical principle. Determination of strain at a point. Methodology of brittle coatings. Twowire and Three-wire Circuits . Strain sensitivity of a conductor as a function of temperature. Isoelastic alloy. Strain gauge linearity. Delta rosette. Bridge sensitivity. Drying. Three-wire circuit. Rosettes 33 Strain Gauge Alloys. Coating selection. Hysteresis. Sensitivity of gauge to temperature. Historical development of brittle coatings. Strain Gauges Lecture 31 Introduction to Strain Gauges Concepts Covered Analysis of Isoentatic data. Nichrome-D. Surface preparation. Selection of Coating Thickness. Development of SR-4 gauges. Accuracy achievable in Foil strain gauges. Calibration of brittle coatings. Bridge factor. Strain gauge carriers. Thermally induced apparent strain. Role of change in temperature. Maximum fringe order obtainable. Nature of coating stress. Strain sensitivity of a strain gauge. Use of photoelastic coatings to solve a range of problems of practical interest. 32 Strain Sensitivity of a Strain Gauge. Historical development. Experimental determination of gauge factor. Properties of photoelastic coating materials. High temperature strain gauge. Stresscoat. Transverse sensitivity factor.5 28 Coating Materials. Bridge Sensitivity. Temperature compensation. Uniaxial. Crack patterns produced by direct loading. Stability. Influence of Poisson’s ratio mismatch. Introduction to Brittle Coatings 30 Analysis of Brittle Coatings Correction factors – Summary. Selection of the coating thickness. Gauge construction. Carriers and Adhesives 34 Performance of Strain Gauge System Ceramic cements. Compact displacement controlled loading jig. Application of the coating. Metallic alloys commonly employed. Calibration of photoelastic coatings. Undercoating. Coating materials. Steps in brittle coating tests. Thumb rule in selection of gauge length. Measurement techniques: Two-wire circuit. Demonstration of photoelastic coating test. Wheatstone bridge. Uniaxial specimen stress. Commonly used strain gauge materials. Benefits of three-wire circuits. Types. Gauge length. Linearity. Allowable power density. Temperature compensated gauges. Three element rectangular rosette. Strain sensitivity of a conductor.

Environmental effects contd. 37 Bonding of a Strain Gauge 38 Soldering. Temperature effects guiding the selection of certain parameters.6 36 Strain Gauge Selection Selection compromises. Summary of the course. Soldering. Guidelines for strain gauge selection. Application of protective coating. Transverse sensitivity. Strain gauge alignment. Masking. Tinning. Layout lines. Evaluation of SIF by strain gauges. Effect of cryogenic temperature. Single element strain gauge to evaluate SIF. Testing the installation. Stress gauge. Neutralizing. Discussion Session 41 Questions & Answers A few questions from the whole course were discussed. T–rosette. . Strip gauge. Solvent degreasing. Surface abrading. Corrections for transverse strain effects for a general case. Environmental effects. Corrections for transverse strain effects for the case of known ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain. Importance of following a bonding procedure. Rectangular rosette. Effect of high temperature. Accounting for Transverse Sensitivity Effects 39 Correction Factors for Special Applications 40 Special Gauges Module -6. Effect of hydrostatic pressure. Effect of strain cycling. Catalyst application. Effect of nuclear radiation. Strain gauge designation systems. Various gauge patterns for different applications. Bonding with adhesive. Please Note The naming of each lecture indicates only the major thrust in that lecture.. Actual and apparent strains. Strain gauge bonding: Strain gauge handling. Surface conditioning. Surface preparation: Strain gauge installation kit. Torque gauge. Single element strain gauge as stress gauge.

co-authored a book on Mechanical Sciences. India. Ramesh is currently a Professor at the Department of Applied Mechanics. IIT Madras. He has also given Video lectures of 40 hrs. President of India Cash Prize (1984). Postgraduate degree from the Indian Institute of Science. U. He has received several recognitions: Zandman Award of Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM). He received his undergraduate degree from the Regional Engineering College. Organizations such as ARDB. Trichy). He has over 120 publications to date of which two have been reproduced in the Milestone Series of SPIE. He has pioneered a new paradigm in Engineering Education by writing innovative e-Books on Engineering Fracture Mechanics and Experimental Stress Analysis published by IIT Madras. He has made significant contributions to the advancement of Digital Photoelasticity. and NSF have funded his research. Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design (2009-10). Fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering (2006).advanced Techniques and Applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag. Distinguished Alumnus Award of NIT. This has resulted in a Monograph on Digital Photoelasticity.iitm.S. Trichy (now NIT.7 About the Author: K. DST.ac. India and has contributed a chapter on Experimental Stress Analysis – An Overview. IIT Kanpur. Springer and a chapter on Photoelasticity in the Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics. Member of the Editorial Boards of the International Journals: Strain (since 2001). and Steering committee member of ASEM. each on Experimental Stress Analysis and Engineering Fracture Mechanics as part of the National Program for Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL). Trichy (2008). Optics and Lasers in Engineering. ISRO. For details see : http://apm. These books are first of their kind in the world and can be truly called as e-Teachers. Narosa Publishing House. in the book on Optical Methods for Solid Mechanics.A (2012). as it’s Chairman during (2005-2009) and formerly a Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering.html . Bangalore and the Doctoral Degree from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras.in/smlab/kramesh/index.

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