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GIAI TOAN HINH HOC KHONG GIAN BANG PHlJONG PHAp TO~ DO
Chung ta biet rang, n6i chung, moi sir kien cua Hinh hoc khong gian deu c6 the the hien theo each tlurc cua Hinh hoc gild tfch. Do d6, c6 the giai mot bai roan Hinh hoc khong gian bang each toa do hoa de chuyen thanh bai toan Hinh hoc giai tich. Vice chuyen d6i nay bao gom nhirng buoc sau :

BII6'c 1 : Chon he toa do
Biroc nay se de dang thirc hien neu trong bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian dang xet c6 san g6c tam dien vuong, hai mat phang vuong g6c voi nhau hay c6 cac quan he vuong g6c khac, Tuy vay, khong it tnrong hop ta phai tv ke them dirong phu de gay nen g6c tam dien vuong. Trong khi chon g6c tam dien vuong de gao voi he toa do, ta cling can hru cac biroc sau diroc thuan loi.

y de

BII6'c 2 : Tinh toa d9 cua cac diem trong de bai theo he toa d9 vita chon. Thuc ra chi can tfnh toa d9 cua nhimg diem lien quan toi gift thiet va ket luan cua bai toan. Doi voi nhirng bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian rna trong de bai da c6 san so lieu thi viec tinh toa do cua tirng diem n6i chung la dua tnrc tiep vao hinh ve. Doi voi nhtrng bai roan rna de bai chua cho so lieu thi tnroc het can tv dua so lieu vao bai toan va sau d6 dua vao hinh ve de tinh toa do cac diem dua theo so lieu d6 .. BII6'c 3 : The hien gift thiet cua bai toan theo each thirc cua Hinh hoc giai tich. N6i chung rnoi sir kien cua Hinh hoc giai tich deu diroc tim ra bang con Quang tinh toano Do do, gift thiet cua Hinh hoc giai tich nen de i:J dang rang bU9C cua cac so lieu. BII6'c 4 : Giai quyet ket luan cua bai roan theo each thirc cua Hmh hoc giai
tich. 6 day, cling nhu Buoc 3, mot Ian nfra can phai "phien dich" tir ngon ngfr cua bai loan Hinh hoc khong gian sang bai roan Hinh hoc giai tich. Can hru y rang mac du cac su kien cua Hinh hoc khong gian n6i chung deu c6 the the hien theo each tlurc cua Hinh hoc giai tfch, tuy vay rmrc do kh6, de khac nhau. Dieu d6 d<in toi viec c6 rat nhieu bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian g<;ipnhieu kh6 khan khi chuyen sang bai roan Hinh hoc giai tich. Phuong phap toa do hoa bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian kha hiru hieu trong viec giai toan Hinh hoc khong gian, tuy vay khong nen tuyet doi hoa n6.

207

Tnroc khi quyet dinh giai quyet mot bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian e1;1 bang th~ phirong phap toa d¢, ta nen xet nhtrng kh6 khan e6 th~ g~p trong nhirng buck tren, D~ lam ro binh luan tren, ta xet vi d1;1 : sau Vi du 1. Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Cac diem M, N Ian hrot thay d6i tren cac doan thang BD va AD' sao eho DM = AN. a) Xac dinh V! tri cua hai diem M, N d~ MN nho nhat. Chung minh rang khi d6 M N vuong g6e voi BD va AD'. b) Chung minh rang MN vuong g6e voi mot dirong thang eo dinh. L&i gidi (h.65) Chon he true toa do Oxyz e6 goc 0 trung diem A, cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia AB, AD, AA'. Gia sir canh hinh lap phuong e6 do dai bang a. D~t AN Khi do ta e6 A(O; 0; 0), B(a; 0; 0), D(O; a ;0), D'(O;a; a),
D'I---t-----f
\ \ \ \ I I I I

= DM = t(o

~ t ~ aJi).

Nf~--------_-,r
_ .... 1_- I .... I

liM

............

M( Jz ;a Do do :

Jz;

0).

Mil

Ta co: MN'

h; = (- Jz)'
= (-

+;Jz; Jz}
tJi - a;

y

D
Hinh 65

hJ
+

+ (,)2
2Jiat

- a)'

(Jz)' =

3t' - 2,{iat + a2

Xet ham so f(t)

=

3t2

-

+ a2. Ham so nay e6 d6 thi la mot parabol
h" , hi non ha khi1 va ell khi t at aJi = --. 3

, quay be 1- le phiia tren. D 0 de e om en 0 Vi a~ [0, aJi]

f()t

E

nen MN nho nhat khi t = a~

<=> M, N thuoc doan

BD, AD' urong irng sao eho DM

=

!BD, AN 3

=

!AD'. 3

208

a) Chirng minh ding AM. 0 .AD' ~ = (a) 0 + (a) a + 3. = O. z) MN. Cac diem M...AN khong doi.BD = --> (-~}(-(l) (-~}a (x.h) + y(tJ2 (h) = 0 Vt ¢:> 0 Vt E [O. Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A va duong thang i\ vuong goc voi mat phang (ABC) tai diem A. y. -3· :f. b) Tnroc het ta tim phuong -.a) + . I). a a a) -3. a -3.ya = E [0. aJ2] h =0 {x = z y ya Chon -. :v : Ta co ket Iuan luang tu la M N Iuon song song voi mot mat phang Vi du 2. b) Xac dinh vi trf cua M.aJ2] . MN. 0 .aJ2] ¢:> ( - ¢:> {- hh= + yJ2 + + yJ2 + /i} . 3 . C 1111 eo dinh. = Dieu 0 vuong goc voi vecto MN. = (I . Khl. a ..MN = ¢:> [O. =0 (I . I) lam vecto chi phirong. Bi3 = (-a. AiY = (0. do nrong dirong voi 0 Vt E -. a) nen + + ~. Vay MN vuong goc voi BD va AD'.o = 0. V ~y M N vuong goc voi mot duong thang co dinh nhan -. '4· BTNC&MSCEJHH12 209 . N nho n h' ta co : t = -3M at Mat khac aJ2 nen M ---->N( -3.r(. N de tv dien MNBC co the tich nho nhat. N thay doi tren duong thang t\ sao cho (MBC) j_ (NBC). a . 0).a = o.

jm.1 = 0 co phap vecto 1. M(O. 11). Oz Hin luot trung cac tia AB. 0 .AM. m). B(h.nl = ~ . = iIIiC.(-n) 210 .bc(m .O).O).O. Vay M va N nam v~ hai phia cua A. ap ~( 1) co pha vecto a 1 1 m .m).b(n. .bc. (NBC) ¢::> p(\_h c . Taco (MBC): x +I+~-l b (' m =0 Hlnh 66 . m). ¢::> m. c.Loi gidi (h. c khong A(O. Z Dat AB Khi do = b. AC = c. 0. = -3 / 1 b2 ('2 + c2 . 0). c . 0 . cac tia Ox. Oy. BN] = ilhc(n . liN = (-b .2. AM = m (h. \j b2 Ap dung bat dang thirc Cauchy ta co : 1 1 VMNBC = (. doi).1/) ~ (. _!_.n = _h2('2 2 a) Ta co: b) Ta co : AM.Ii ~~ = 0 ¢::> 2" + 2 + b 1 = 0 b +c Mat khac m > 0 nen 11 < O. 0.-!n 1 1 c rnn 2· Vay (MBC) a. n). (NBC) :~ t:-:. 0).-!-).66) Chon he true Oxyz co g6c 0 trung diem A. Vay VMNBC [liM. C(O.[liM. IiC = (-b liM b +c 22 c2 khong d6i.O.O). B x Gia sir N = (0.m)l. = (-b .AN = Iml. AC. hen + I + ~ . liN] = (O.1nI = Im.

SMBC 3 1 = -(AM 3 = -bc(m . 211 . = A N = AB. I D irng d oan SD = -2.0 -4- a16) ..SMBC 1 1 + -AN. IC. N' nam ve'h' ai p hf cua A va AM ' ia . Ila trung diem cua BC. tia z s Oz song song va cung chien voi tia DS.Dau dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi m = -n = V ~y VMNBC non h' C h fA . .J be . -.AC Be Y : Co the tinh the tich nr dien M NBC theo each : VMNBC = VMABC 1 + VNABC = -AM. cac tia Ox. VO"l mat p h'ang (ABC) . Cho tam giac deu ABC c6 canh a. Lui gidi (h./ M cua SA . Oy Ian Iirot trung cac tia ID. Chirng minh rang: a) (SAB) b) (SBC) l_ l_ (SAC) (SAD). Khi d6 Hinlz 67 SA cat z tai trung di . T'a co: M "I' ' rem = (0 .. D la diem doi xung 01 xu .n).SMBC 3 + AN). VO"l A qua. 6 Vi du 3.67) Chon he tTl:ICOxyz c6 goc 0 trung diem I. b2 + ("2 h'at khi1 M .vuong goc a16 ".

:' Ta co: "1·112 = aJ3' aJ3 j_ + -. va co p ap vecto "2 ___.1= 0 r.. nen co phirong trinh doan chan : . C ( 0. r.3 r. 0 . 2 '2 '2 1.. Mat phang (SAD) trung mat phang toa d¢ (xOz) nen co phap vecto . Ii] = (J6. aJ6] IlfJ->(J3· -1' J6)..2x _ 2y + ~ va co phap vecto III ___. + 2 (2) aJ6' aJ6 4 4 = O.L (NBD).0 phirong trlnh doan chan : (SAC) : -~ .a) Mat phang (SAB) di qua A --2-. . Cac diem M.:' M..6 -2 4) a. 0) II . --..0 ) . Chung minh rang (BMN) 212 .. .. 0)..( -2 a. Cac tia Am va Cn cung vuong goc voi mat ABCD va cung chieu..0 (SA B) : .. nenco .6 -2 r. Vi du 4. -2. ( a) M(O "4 .(0. . N Ian hrot thuoc Am.0.. (aJ3 ] .. Cho hinh vuong ABCD. -J3). .4 . 0). b) Mat phang (SBC) co cap vecto chi phirong la : BC(O. ha ~(-2 2 4) a" 3 a a. CI1. aJ3 + 2y + ~ .2. ..L (DMN) ~ (MBD) . (aJ3 0 .. Do do: (SAB) (SAC).. " V~y (SBC) co vecto phap tuyen ~3 = [.. 0.. c:s(aJ3 . - aJ3 a aJ6 _ 1= 0 a . = 0 nen (SBC) j_ (SAD).0. a a aJ6 M aJ6] (0 0 . ] B 0.(0. a.:tt phang (SAC) di qua A --2-... .. Do -. aJ6] . 1. ~ -2 . -a . .

a a m TiT (1) va (2) ta co dieu phai clurng minh. an. EN = (0. a.n). -a)..a. C(a. EN = (0.CN=II.(2) II ~ (-n . a . B(a. Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia AB. n). 11.a.(11 .a.m . 0 . = (_!_)_. EN] cap = (-am. liN] ---+ = (an.1 (DMN) - [OM.+ ..O.m . a). Gilt sir hlnh vuong ABCD co canh bang a.. M la trung diem cua BB'. _(2) II P.. DN = (a . +!.O. D~tAM=m. a2 (I) Ta co: (MBD) : x + l. Chung minh rang A'M vuong goc voi AC' va CB'. m ).n = 2.Lvi gidi (h. co cap vecto chi Taco: M(O.m). ( chi phuong vecto DM = (0.A'B'C' co tat ca cac canh bang nhau. Do do (NBD) co phap vecto V~y (MBD). n n a a2 2 (2) (NBD) <=> /31.= 0 <=> mn = -. AD. .l [ED.. Do do (BM N) co phap vecto Mat phang (DM N) co [liM. n). Mat phirong phang D(O. -a . aam phuong ED = (-a.I = 0 co phap vecto aam Mat phang (BD N) co cap vecto chi P. a . 213 . Am. ---+ = (-an.O). n). DN] .. (BM N) 0 . -n . _!_)./32 = --+ 0 <=> . Do do (DM N) co phap vecto V~y(BMN) . Cho hinh lang tru deu ABC. 0).O). Vi du 5. am . _(2) II -. an. cac tia Ox. Oy. y Hinh 68 liM = (-a.a).. N(a. <=> al·a2 = 0 <=> m.O).68) Chon he true toa dQ Oxyz co g6c 0 trung diem A.. m).

70) Chon h~ true toa dQ Oxyz c6 goc toa dQ 0 la tam cua hinh vuong ABCD.1. 0 .o) = (-a). % .0. tia Oz song song cung chieu voi tia AA'. Cho hinh ch6p deu S. GQi M. day c6 canh bang a.o.f3 = 0. N lan hrot la trung diem cua SA. Oy. Lui gidi (h.ABCD.~.. 2" (-a) C' = --'O'a. Biet rang BM .o) 214 .h. Oy lfin hrot trung voi cac tia OC. OB.a~ .52. a J II r( -13 .= (a) . OB. Hinh 69 IT ~(.O)' A D=(O. cac tia Ox. Vi du 6. Tinh th~ tich khoi ch6p S. o· o· 2 ' " '2" A . Gilt sir cac canh cua hlnh lang tru bang a.. 2' (aJ3 J. 2).0.y = 0 nen A'M AC' va A'M _j_ CB'. Dat SO = h.oJ B = (o. Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia OA.0).69) GQi 0 la trung di~m cua AB. sc. Khi do B=(O.L DN. Chon he true toa dQ Oxyz c6 cac tia Ox. a. C=(7z.O) =(52. _j_ Do a.ABCD. OS.Lui gidi (h. Khi d6 : C = (aJ3 . 2" B' '2" a z A' A' = O'-'a .

~). ~~ BMDN <=> - . ~) trung diem cua SA. SC.1 . Jz .0. aJIO 2 V<.S= N (0.AN = ( - ~a . ON = (2h. a D~t SO = II. Bier rang (AMN) .11). tia Ox cung huang voi tia CA. 0 <=> h = --. ~ ). Khi do : z s M=(O. N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SB.h. LiJi gidi (h. day co canh bang a.7I) Chon he true toa d¢ Oxyz co lit tam tam giac deu ABC. M= (2h .H N=(:\~. Cho hinh chop deu SABC. SC).dt(ABCD) = a3JIO 6 Vi du 7.n .ABCf) = 3S0. Mat phang (AM N) co cap vecto chi phirong c A x AM = ( -. Hinh 71 215 . :fi . Ta co: (2h .2:6. cac tia Oy.1Y VS.~). as.~). _a2 8 -- a2 2' +- h2 4 = . GQi M. BM = 0. (do M. Oz Ian hrot trung voi cac tia OB. = I 0 c Hinh 70 Ta co: . Tinh the tfch hinh chop S.L (SBC).ABC.O. N Ian luot la = (- 2h . 4~ .~).

CD. P. 11) nen co phirong trinh doan chan: K( -. a) Tinh khoang each gifra hai duong thang MK va AP.O)._!_J. a a h Y~y (SBC) co phap vecto Taco: p[-3 .dt(ABC) 3 =- 3 12 H.. N. 0) va di qua B( 0. a a h (AMN) .o.a~} v Hlllh 72 216 . Khi do: Chon he true toa d¢ Oxyz co cac tia Ox. Oz Hin luot A = ( -([) 0'-. = 0 <=> II = H.1 = O.B = 0 <=> 1 1 ---+ ~ -917 . G9i M. K bIn IUo11ft trung diem cua BC. Cho hinh chop S.. -oh .Vay (AMN) co phap vecto [ -M__' .ABCD eo day la hinh vuong canh dcu.AN A ~J = (30/7 t.L (SBC) <=> a. Yay Vs ABC '. 2" B = 0'-'0 . 2' ((/) D . :/J. OS.+ . 5at: J . OB.L (ABCD). SB.«: 8vr3 8 8vr3 2 J II ---+(3011 . 50 <:. 24 Vi du 8. -3x J3y z (SBC) : -+ -.72) G9i 0 la trung diem cua AB. SD. trung cac tia ON. Oy. J3 .O. - IIvr3 + r.s: -(1. 0. LiJi gidi (h. tam giac SAB . . -/ an .r N~(a.-- -i: r::. (/J3 . = -SO. b) Chung minh rang (ANP) (1. 5a 2 hvr3 r::. 0.' . . 12 -(1.'0 . s~(o. 4 = --. a t:: 2 vr3 -n Mal phang (SBC) cat true Ox tai S(O.. 0).

p 2v3.I . [~__'J = (~ ~) a. . aJ3] 2' 4 ' a) Duong thang MK co vecto chi phuong la _____.zr: ~ 2v5 a. Diem M thuoc doan CD sao cho mat phang (A'ME) tao voi mat (ABB'A') goc qJ thoa man tane = 12.~4a AP ~ ( ~ .: 4' . I .0) II ~(1. 0). ~) ~( MK = _. 217 15A. 1 ... -2 . G9i E la diem d6i xtrng v6i A qua B.. ~v'3).._ 2'4' 4 '. v'3) = Do do (ANP) co phap vecto la [. . (-a -a aJ3) I/a 2·1·-v3.a~) II .p b) Mat phang (AN P) co cap vecto chi phirong la NP ~ ( ~..[.(2. . Taco: . ~ . . B'( 1 . AP) - . ~ = ( 0. 1).1Y d(MK. 1 . 2). a~) II p( 2 .. Do ~. Trong he toa d(> Oxyz cho hinh hop ABCD.. = 0 nen (ANP) l_ (ABCD).8J (2J3. D'(O .D = (a .4-' aJ3) 3a AK V<.2v15 . D(O.-4v3. Vi du 9. . 0).8] _ 3J3a _ 3a I[~ __'JI . M~t phang (ABCD) co phap vecto la -.: 2". 0 .BTNC&MSC8HH12 .-.A'B'C'D' co A(O . _IAK.. 2).. 0) P = (!!_ . 1.4. 0 . -4J3 = (0. 0._.0)..0.

0.(1. 1 . phang (A"ME) vecto chi phuong PfM eo cap 2). 0).. t-2. =" 'I - eos tp 2 = ~2 + (t _ 2)2 .0) = 0 2= o. J2 Vay Fz = lanq> = It ~21 "'" It . 1.(x . 0.. -1)=(-1. Do do (A"ME) eo phap vecto Mi.2) hay (A"ME) : x + 1. eo phap vecto -.(Y . 1. C(I. B".\t phang (ABB"A ") Hlnh 73 [PfM.(0. LIJi gidi (h. Khi do M = (t. 1) va di qua diem E(2 . t . Dat DM = t (0 ~ t ~ 1). - D M -- A'E = (2. 73) D~ dang suy ra diroc toa do cua eo tam thuoc mat phang cac diem A"(O. 15B-BTNC&MSC8HH12 218 . -1).2.'~ = ~ .(z . -1.0. 2). 2).0). 0). D" va (A"ME)..a) Viet phirong trinh mat phang (A"ME).0. 1.21= 1 "'" t = 1 (vi O ~ t ~ 1).0.~ 2 + (t - 2) suy ra smtp . 0 . Mat 1. Vay M a) Mat phang (A"ME) eo phap vecto ~ =(-1. B(I. b) Viet phirong trinh mat cau (S) di qua C.It . 0) nen eo phuong +y + z- trinh (A"ME) : 1..-2)1/.0).. Y = (t . E(2 . 1 .-1).. -1) II (1. C(I.. 1 . 0) (trung vai diem C). = (l .. 0).0) + 1. 2' Ta co cose = Icos(..] = ~ (-1.

2. Cho nr dien OABC vuong tai O. y nrong irng.. -2). (OAB) tao voi mat phang (ABC) cac goc 0. Chung minh ding: 2 2 (~~)' + (:~)' + (~~)' = 2 + cotan2~ 219 . Diem P bat ki thuoc mat phang (ABC).I) eo phap vecto 0 ~ IYC = (I.2 + (z - Bal tap 1.(z . 0.4z + 3 = O. (OCA). (a) di qua trung diem (jJ) lan lirot la cac K(I. CD'. 2). mat phang trung true cua CB'. a) H la hinh chieu vuong goc cua 0 b) So = S/ + SB + S/ c) sin2 a + sin2 f3 + sin2 r = 2. ~2 1)2 = 3 2" Vay (S): (x - 112 2) ( 1)2 + y. -1. I) cua CB' va eo phap vecto ~ 2y-4z+3=0. B'. I) cua CD' va . C cua nr dien. Cho tt! dien OABC vuong tai O. G9i So' SA' S8' Sc Ian hrot la dien tfch cac mat d6i dien voi cac dinh 0.b) (S) di qua C. /3.4z + 3 = 0 Mat cau(S) co ban kinh R = IC = . (/3) : I. /3. I. 2. Cac mat phang (OBC). B.(y -I) = 2x . A.(X -~) + O. V ~y toa d¢ cua I la nghiem cua he X+Y+Z-2=0 { 2y .4z + 3 = 0 2x . Chung minh rang: _1_ = _1_ + _1_ + _1_ voi OH2 OA2 OB2 OC2 tren (ABC). v~y(a):-(Y-~)+2(Z-I)=0 (jJ) di qua trung diem Do do L(~. G9i rp la goc gitra duong thang OP va mp(ABC). ~. Cii' = (0. D' nen eo tam I thuoc cac mat phang (a)..

thang SC tao voi mat phang (ABC) goc 60°. 2 . Tinh Cho hinh chop S. Cho hinh chop d~u S. 1. BC = h.ABC co SA vuong goc voi mat (ABC). Trong khong gian toa do Oxyz cho hinh hop ABCD. vu6ng goc chung (A thuoc 9.1 AN. Xac dinh vi trf cua B va C nho nhat. Cn sao cho (MBD) = a. viet phuong trinh mat phang («) chua AD va tao voi cac mat (ACD). Cac diem M. b sao cho MN = AM + BN. G9i M. 2). C. a) Chung minh rang M N Iuon vu6ng goc voi mot dirong thang co dinh. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua the tich tu dien OABC. Mat phang (a) thay d6i di qua M va cat cac tia Ox. -1 . -1. D(O . day co canh bang a. Cac diem M. (1. 1). Cho hinh chop deu S. 4. day co canh bang (/. b) Khi M la trung diem cua A'B'. Trong khong gian toa d¢ cho cac diem A(O .1 (NBD). a) Chirng minh rang: b) Tinh goc giira M N S. AD = h. 0 .0). Oz Ian hrot tai cac diem phan bier A. Biet BM . vuong goc v6i mat phang (ABCD). SO = M N. viet plnrong trinh mat phang (DM N). b -vuong goc voi nhau. 0). Tam giac ABC vu6ng tai B. 1.1 AN. Cho diem M nam trong goc tam dien vu6ng Oxyz. Oy. B. 7. D'(O. Duong the tich hinh chop va ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop.ABC. Dng voi V! trf do. N Ian hrot thay d6i tren cac doan A'B' va BC sao cho D'M . sc.CN . N Ian luot thay d6i tren cac Chung minh rang AM. Chung minh rang khoang each tir trung diem 0 cua doan AB tci duong thang MN khong doi. 0 la tam cua day ABCD.1 (ABD). co A(O. 6. AB = a. M.ABCD. N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SA va BC. 0). Cac tia Am va Cn cung lurong va khong d6i.3. Cho hinh chit nhat ABCD co AB tia Am.ABC. Biet MN tao voi mat phang (ABC D) goc 30°. Cho hai dirong thang cheo nhau a. Tir do suy ra MN luon tiep xuc voi mat cau dirong kinh AB. 2). Tinh the tich va ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop S. (ABD) nhiing goc bang nhau. 220 . N Ian hrot thay d6i tren a. N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SA. Cac diem B va C thay doi tren true Ox sao cho (ACD) de the tich ur dien ABCD . va (SBD). nhan AB lam doan B thuoc h). Cac diem M. B'(2.A'B'C'D' C(2. 10. 8.

iiCJI = ~ --+ ~b2c2 + c2a2 + a2b2 s'/i = S1BC = S~ S~ S~.O.LUi giai 1. 0= (O. OB = b. Gia sir OA = a. + + c) Ta co : eosa = ~ be I~·OAI = --. OC = c. c).O).::======= HIOAI + + ~b2c2 ('2a 2 22 ab (~ = (_!_.O).O. a) Mat phang (ABC) co phirong trinh : x y z -+-+-=1 abc Hinh 74 => OH = d(O. 0). khi do = (a. (ABC)) = ----. OBC Hi cac tam giac vuong tai 0 nen : 2 SA 2 (1 )2 = SOBC = 20B. 221 .::==== 1 1 -+-+(i b2 ('2 1 1 1 1 =>--=--+--+-2 2 OH OA OB2 1 OC2' 2 2 =-4-' b ('2 => SA b) Do cac tam giac OAB. abc _!_) la vecto phap tuyen cua mat phang (ABC».!--. Chon he toa do Oxyz nhir hlnh 74. 0. b . OAC. C = (0.OC 22 ea Tuong tir ta co : S~ = -4-' Miftt khac : 5MBC => S~ = -4-' 22 ab = ~[AB.A B = (0.

(3) va (4) ta diroc AP)2 ( AO + BO (BP)2 + CO (CP)2 = 2 + eotan 2 tp.CN=n(m.N z Giasu:AM=m. 3. (2). NL3J.--.m)...n). (1 1 1) h mn = ~ n....0) " B = (a ...an. Taco M = (O.a . 0 . NL3 = (-a. -n)..h. 0) '" D = (0'"". Chon he true A tOI. Mat phang (MBD) co vecto phap tuyen : Mat phang (NBD) co vecto phap tuyen : -. liB == (0..--.. -n) nen Hinh 76 -~ = (hn. Dodo 223 .Mat khac : (~~)' BP ( 2 ( Xo . = Do [NB..1 d¢ Oxyz nhir hinh 76.-ah) n' (MBD) .O.. 0) h > 0).a) 2 + Yo + Zo = Xo + Yo + Zo _ 2xo + 1 a2 a 2 ' 2 2 2 2 2 a"2 2 ( (2) = Xu + Yo h2 Xo 2 2 h)2 + Zo )2 2 = Xo 2 + Yo + Zo _ 2 Yo + 1 h2 2 B ) O « (3) :> + Yo + Zo . 111 O. khi do : = (0'.11 = (a.(' c 22' ( = Xo 2 + Yo + Zo _ 2zo + 1 (' c 2 2 (4) ro (1). . --h.L (NBD) abn . h ..n' = 0 ~ -2 + 2 .. 0 . 0) C = (a . = 0.

. _ aJ30]. Khi M 0. ..==h== 5a2 + 21i 8 = 1 4 hay ~ Ii Yay SO = 5a 2 6 h = aJ30.1). 6 aJ30 a2 a2 5a2 8 2 24 Mat khac : -+-+-=--.\0. 4 2 a) Mat phang (ABCD) 11(0. liN 224 = [aJ2. = h = --. 4 ' aJ2.. b) Mat phang (SBD) co phtrong trinh : y = 0 va co vecto phap tuyen 12 .]. [ aJ2 2 II] ~ liN[ aJ2 'aJ2 . 11).Gia siX SO = II (Ii > 0).0. suy ra sm30 . Do do ---. " °_ h 1~·liNl HlliNl /72 z = 0 va co vecto phap tuyen (vi MN tao voi (ABCD) goc 30°). --4-. 0 . V~y SO aJ30 6 = MN. do 5 = (0 . 2' . 6 . _!!. 1.======2==== 2a2 2a2 -+-+16 4 = _!_ ~ 2 ---. 0). '2 co phuong trinh ~ .

GQi R la ban kfnh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop. Gia sir I(xo . khi do : B = (0. Xo a 225 .11iN1 aJ30 6 0. Mat phang (ABC) co phirong trinh : z = o.SC! sm60 -I~I. Do SC tao voi (ABC) goc 600 nen " 0 _!~. s (a . zo) la tam mat cau ngoai tiep hlnh chop. ta co : sina -. ta co: IA2 = IB2 = IC2 = IS2 ~ x6 + Y6 + z6 = (xo . S = (a . C = (0. aJ2 = J15 5 z 5.. 0). 0).i. h . Yo.a = 2' Yo = 2' Zo = h 2 . x Hinh 78 ~ = (0. . II) ~ SC = (-a.FI. Gia sir SA A= = 11.GQi a la goc giua M N va (SBD).a)2 + Y6 + z6 = x6 + Y6 + (zo - = x6 + (Yo - b)2 + z6 J3(a2 + b2)y J3( a + b 2 2 ) ~ Xo .IiN! =! =2 . 0 .ISCI h~ 13( a2 " => ~ a2 + b2 + 112 II ~ Jj => 2 + b'). 1) la vecto phap tuyen cua (ABC). ta co R = 1B = 2 2 -v12 + Yo + Zo = V12 + h 2 . . Chon he toa dQ Oxyz nhir hlnh 78. 0. 0). 0 .h). b .

aJ3 2 3' j_ ---+ . 3 6' 3' 2 Gia sir SO = h (11 > 0). + m = -a . SaJ3 . ~ M= ' = (0' '3.AN = 0 <=> . 1 1 1 = "3SA. d~ thay I E SO nen I = (0 . Chon he toa dQ Oxyz nhu hinh 79 (Oxll BC).a .m J2 a 2 7 2 J42.!!_J 2' ~ EM Do BM = (.!!_J 4' 12 '2 a2 ISa2 h2 J42 AN nen BM. ."oJ 2' 6 S = (0 .BA.G9i V Hi the tfch hlnh chop. khi do : OK = . 2 3 J14 G9i I la . ta co : V 6.!!_J 4' 12 '2 B Hinh 79 (0' - aJ3 6' . z Khi do: 0=(0'0'0) '" B = (a.. N = (-!!__ .!!_J AN =(2' ----+ a.a .aJ42.-+ .m 3 6 3 Sa <=> m = 2J42' <=> - +m 2 Vay R = IA = -+-3 a2 2Sa2 168 =--a. m) . h).--a. aJ3 2' 6 ' A . ta co : V = .' oJ . 8 36 4 6 G9i V la the tich hlnh chop. A C C = (.!AK = aJ3 AO = aJ3 KB = KC = !!__. 9 2J42 226 . a G9i 0 Hi tam cua tam giac deu ABC va K la trung diem cua BC.= 0 <=> h = --a. a J3 = a 3 36 4 24 tam mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop.!SO. aJ3 .aJ3 . 0 .SMBc = 6SA. 0 ..!. Taco IA 2 = IS 2 <=> a + m 2 3 2 2 = (aJ42 -6- .0J . aJ3 .SMBC = .BC = 6ah'V3I (2 + h2) .

liN = (-m . 0). 0.<=> b = 3yo b c 3 { c = 3zo. -mn) 2 '2 ' 227 . OM = ( m . C(O. 0).n > Chon he toa d¢ Axyz nhir hinh 81. M (m . a b c ahc Suy ra 1 Z 33 xoYozo (bat dang thirc Co-si) Dau "=" xay ra . 0. <=> _Q_ x a = Yo = _Q_ = . -i-) ~ [liN . 0. Oz tai cac diem : A( a. mat phang (a) co phuong trinh : ~+I+':'=l. Khi do: A(O. 0. 6 Hlnh 80 x Vi M E (a) nen Xo + Yo + Zo = 1. iJ Hlnh 81 II . AM = m. h).x Theo gia thiet M N = AM + BN nen ta co : ~ m2 + n2 + h2 = m + Ta co: <=> h2 = 2mn.0 . 0). . h.m. h). 0). Gia_strAB=h. n .7.L a. D~ thay Ay . Gia sir M z = (xo . hm. Chon he toa do Oxyz nhu hinh 80. II . Ke Ay//h. Khi do. c). h).OM] = (_ hn . N (0 . 0).0 . a hc Ta co : VOABC = _!_ahc. z z 1 a = 3xo 8.L AB. Oy. 0 . Ay . o( 0 . BN = n (h. zo) va mat phang (a) cat Ox. B(O. Yo. B(O.

Do do M N luon tiep xuc voi mat cau dirong kinh AB. -1 .MN) I[MN. 9. e2 Do (ACD) 1.= 0 Hinh 82 ~Vay ta co OB. "2 .->..+ 1 = 0 ~ be = --. 1).--. ' . Taco: VABCD = VBOAD + VCOAD = -(BO 1 3 + CO).82). 11 Pha tuyen n = ( h. 4 1 4 5 =~ va B. C nam khac phia d6i vci O.O). (ABD) nen ~. = 3J5' 4 ._.SMOD = -(BO 1 3 + CO) ~ 3.. 1 co vecto ph ap tuyen n = ( -.O.O). Gia sir B (ABD) = (b. (h.(5M] = IMNI = 2m 3n 2 rnn 3 --+--+m 22 =~-r========Jm2 + n2 + 2mn 4 4 n = h 2 V~y khoang each tir 0 den M N khong d6i va bang A:. ap Mat phang (ACD) co phirong trinh : x + I + z (' 2 = 1 va D Y . 1) .CO 228 2 . b C 2 = (e.O. Khi do Z co plnrong trlnh : x + I + z = 1 va co vecto ./ BO.OC 1 be + .Dodo d(O.

A2 = (2.2. -1 . 2)..(z - 1) = hay y + 2z .Dau "=" xay ra ¢::> BO = CO = . C'( 2 . 0.(x . Tirong ur. /fIJ] Hinh 83 => ~ = (0. Ta c6 : 1. 8).2. 0). = plurong trinh : [~. M~t phang «(x) c6 vecto phap tuyen -.83). 1. D( 0 . => (ABCD)c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(O. (h. Tir do. 1. (ABD) nhirng g6c bang nhau.0) va AC = B'D' va AC = BD => ABCD la hinh vuong.0). 2). Khi d6.(y - 0) + 2.A'B'C'D' la hinh lap phuong. 0._- I I I C ---- [A2. (AOD) c6 phtrong trinh : x = 0 va c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(1 . 2). => AC . AD] = (0.2 = 0 . 0).1.L B'D' => AC . d~ dang xac dinh diroc toa d¢ cac dinh con lai cua hlnh lap phuong : B( 2 . (ABD) nhirng g6c bang nhau va do d6. A '(0 . => (ABC D) co phuong trinh z = 0 (A'B'C'D') co phirong trinh z = 2. 0 1. ta cluing minh diroc cac mat con lai cua hlnh hop la nhirng hlnh vuong. do d6 ABCD. mat phang (a) qua AD va vuong g6c voi (AOD) cung tao voi cac mat (ACD). 0).L BD /fIJ = (-2. 0. 8). Do d6 (a) c6 O. mp(AOD) tao voi cac mat phang (ACD). -1 ..0) + 10. A'B' c6 phirong trtnh : X = 2t =-1 y { z=2 229 . Gia sir ~'= I A I I I !P------.

N = (2 . suy ra M N vuong g6c voi mot dirong b) Khi M la trung diem cua A'B' thi t = s = !. -1 . N Do M. 2). 1). = (2.4.. -1 .O) Vay (DM N) c6 phirong trinh : 2x + 4y + 3z . 2 Ta c6 M = (1 . -4.----+ Theo gia thiet D'M .. S E lR).I. 0) => => Mil = (1'1' -2) '" DiVi = (1'" -2' 2) [Mil. -2). ______.AN :=: 0 => t = S => Mil = (2 .3).~ = 0 \It. thang u. 230 .4 = O. -3) va co vecto phap tuyen -. => (DMN)qua D(O. DiViJ = (-2. M voi 0 ~ t = (2 . 0 < S~ 1.2t.L AN => D'M. N nam tren cac doan A' B' va BC nen. ta thay e6 phirong Mil. 2). a) Xet ~ dirong = (1. 2t.BC e6 phirong trinh : =2 y = -1 + 2s { z=O X (t. 0 . = (2t . nen MN luon vuong g6c voi cac thang co dinh. -1 + 2s . 0) s 1. 1.

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