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Chi-Square

Heibatollah Baghi, and

Mastee Badii

2

Different Scales, Different Measures of

Association

Scale of Both

Variables

Measures of

Association

Nominal Scale Pearson Chi-Square:

χ

2

Ordinal Scale Spearman’s rho

Interval or Ratio

Scale

Pearson r

3

Chi-Square (χ

2

) and Frequency Data

Up to this point, the inference to the population has been

concerned with “scores” on one or more variables, such as

CAT scores, mathematics achievement, and hours spent on

the computer.

We used these scores to make the inferences about

population means. To be sure not all research questions

involve score data.

Today the data that we analyze consists of frequencies; that

is, the number of individuals falling into categories. In

other words, the variables are measured on a nominal

scale.

The test statistic for frequency data is Pearson Chi-Square.

The magnitude of Pearson Chi-Square reflects the amount

of discrepancy between observed frequencies and expected

frequencies.

4

Steps in Test of Hypothesis

1. Determine the appropriate test

2. Establish the level of significance:α

3. Formulate the statistical hypothesis

4. Calculate the test statistic

5. Determine the degree of freedom

6. Compare computed test statistic against a

tabled/critical value

5

1. Determine Appropriate Test

Chi Square is used when both variables are

measured on a nominal scale.

It can be applied to interval or ratio data that have

been categorized into a small number of groups.

It assumes that the observations are randomly

sampled from the population.

All observations are independent (an individual

can appear only once in a table and there are no

overlapping categories).

It does not make any assumptions about the shape

of the distribution nor about the homogeneity of

variances.

6

2. Establish Level of Significance

α is a predetermined value

The convention

• α = .05

• α = .01

• α = .001

7

3. Determine The Hypothesis:

Whether There is an Association

or Not

H

o

: The two variables are independent

H

a

: The two variables are associated

8

4. Calculating Test Statistics

Contrasts observed frequencies in each cell of a

contingency table with expected frequencies.

The expected frequencies represent the number of

cases that would be found in each cell if the null

hypothesis were true ( i.e. the nominal variables

are unrelated).

Expected frequency of two unrelated events is

product of the row and column frequency divided

by number of cases.

F

e

= F

r

F

c

/ N

9

4. Calculating Test Statistics

¿

(

¸

(

¸

÷

=

e

e o

F

F F

2

2

) (

_

10

4. Calculating Test Statistics

¿

(

¸

(

¸

÷

=

e

e o

F

F F

2

2

) (

_

11

5. Determine Degrees of

Freedom

df = (R-1)(C-1)

12

6. Compare computed test statistic

against a tabled/critical value

The computed value of the Pearson chi-

square statistic is compared with the critical

value to determine if the computed value is

improbable

The critical tabled values are based on

sampling distributions of the Pearson chi-

square statistic

If calculated _

2

is greater than _

2

table

value, reject H

o

13

Example

Suppose a researcher is interested in voting

preferences on gun control issues.

A questionnaire was developed and sent to a

random sample of 90 voters.

The researcher also collects information

about the political party membership of the

sample of 90 respondents.

14

Bivariate Frequency Table or

Contingency Table

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat 10 10 30 50

Republican 15 15 10 40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

15

Bivariate Frequency Table or

Contingency Table

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat 10 10 30 50

Republican 15 15 10 40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

16

Bivariate Frequency Table or

Contingency Table

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat 10 10 30 50

Republican 15 15 10 40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

R

o

w

f

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

17

Bivariate Frequency Table or

Contingency Table

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat 10 10 30 50

Republican 15 15 10 40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

Column frequency

18

1. Determine Appropriate Test

1. Party Membership ( 2 levels) and Nominal

2. Voting Preference ( 3 levels) and Nominal

19

2. Establish Level of Significance

Alpha of .05

20

3. Determine The Hypothesis

• Ho : There is no difference between D & R

in their opinion on gun control issue.

• Ha : There is an association between

responses to the gun control survey and the

party membership in the population.

21

4. Calculating Test Statistics

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=30

f

e

=22.2

50

Republican f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=10

f

e

=17.8

40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

22

4. Calculating Test Statistics

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=30

f

e

=22.2

50

Republican f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=10

f

e

=17.8

40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

= 50*25/90

23

4. Calculating Test Statistics

Favor Neutral Oppose f

row

Democrat f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=10

f

e

=13.9

f

o

=30

f

e

=22.2

50

Republican f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=15

f

e

=11.1

f

o

=10

f

e

=17.8

40

f

column

25 25 40 n = 90

= 40* 25/90

24

4. Calculating Test Statistics

8 . 17

) 8 . 17 10 (

11 . 11

) 11 . 11 15 (

11 . 11

) 11 . 11 15 (

2 . 22

) 2 . 22 30 (

89 . 13

) 89 . 13 10 (

89 . 13

) 89 . 13 10 (

2 2 2

2 2 2

2

÷

+

÷

+

÷

+

÷

+

÷

+

÷

= _

= 11.03

25

5. Determine Degrees of

Freedom

df = (R-1)(C-1) =

(2-1)(3-1) = 2

26

6. Compare computed test statistic

against a tabled/critical value

α = 0.05

df = 2

Critical tabled value = 5.991

Test statistic, 11.03, exceeds critical value

Null hypothesis is rejected

Democrats & Republicans differ

significantly in their opinions on gun

control issues

27

SPSS Output for Gun Control

Example

Chi-Square Tests

11.025

a

2 .004

11.365 2 .003

8.722 1 .003

90

Pearson Chi -Square

Li kel i hood Rati o

Li near-by-Li near

Associ ation

N of Val id Cases

Value df

Asymp. Si g.

(2-si ded)

0 cell s (.0%) have expected count l ess than 5. The

mini mum expected count i s 11.11.

a.

28

Additional Information in SPSS

Output

Exceptions that might distort χ

2

Assumptions

– Associations in some but not all categories

– Low expected frequency per cell

Extent of association is not same as

statistical significance

Demonstrated

through an example

29

Another Example Heparin Lock

Placement

Complication Incidence * Heparin Lock Placement Time Gr oup Crosstabulation

9 11 20

10.0 10.0 20.0

18.0% 22.0% 20.0%

41 39 80

40.0 40.0 80.0

82.0% 78.0% 80.0%

50 50 100

50.0 50.0 100.0

100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Count

Expected Count

% within Heparin Lock

Placement Time Group

Count

Expected Count

% within Heparin Lock

Placement Time Group

Count

Expected Count

% within Heparin Lock

Placement Time Group

Had Compilca

Had NO Compilca

Complication

Incidence

Total

1 2

Heparin Lock

Placement Time Group

Total

from Polit Text: Table 8-1

Time:

1 = 72 hrs

2 = 96 hrs

30

Hypotheses in Heparin Lock Placement

H

o

: There is no association between

complication incidence and length of

heparin lock placement. (The variables are

independent).

H

a

: There is an association between

complication incidence and length of

heparin lock placement. (The variables are

related).

31

More of SPSS Output

32

Pearson Chi-Square

Pearson Chi-Square =

.250, p = .617

Since the p > .05, we fail to

reject the null hypothesis

that the complication rate

is unrelated to heparin

lock placement time.

Continuity correction is

used in situations in which

the expected frequency for

any cell in a 2 by 2 table is

less than 10.

33

More SPSS Output

Symmetric Measures

-.050 .617

.050 .617

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

100

Phi

Cramer's V

Nominal by

Nominal

Pearson's R Interval by Interval

Spearman Correlation Ordinal by Ordinal

N of Valid Cases

Value

Asymp.

Std. Error

a

Approx. T

b

Approx. Sig.

Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a.

Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

b.

Based on normal approximation.

c.

34

Phi Coefficient

Pearson Chi-Square

provides information

about the existence of

relationship between 2

nominal variables, but not

about the magnitude of the

relationship

Phi coefficient is the

measure of the strength of

the association

Symmetric Measures

-.050 .617

.050 .617

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

100

Phi

Cramer's V

Nominal by

Nominal

Pearson's R Interval by Interval

Spearman Correlation Ordinal by Ordinal

N of Valid Cases

Value

Asymp.

Std. Error

a

Approx. T

b

Approx. Sig.

Not assuming the null hypothesis. a.

Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. b.

Based on normal approximation. c.

N

2

_

| =

35

Cramer’s V

When the table is larger than 2

by 2, a different index must be

used to measure the strength of

the relationship between the

variables. One such index is

Cramer’s V.

If Cramer’s V is large, it means

that there is a tendency for

particular categories of the first

variable to be associated with

particular categories of the

second variable.

Symmetric Measures

-.050 .617

.050 .617

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

100

Phi

Cramer's V

Nominal by

Nominal

Pearson's R Interval by Interval

Spearman Correlation Ordinal by Ordinal

N of Valid Cases

Value

Asymp.

Std. Error

a

Approx. T

b

Approx. Sig.

Not assuming the null hypothesis. a.

Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. b.

Based on normal approximation. c.

) 1 (

2

÷

=

k N

V

_

36

Cramer’s V

When the table is larger than 2

by 2, a different index must be

used to measure the strength of

the relationship between the

variables. One such index is

Cramer’s V.

If Cramer’s V is large, it means

that there is a tendency for

particular categories of the first

variable to be associated with

particular categories of the

second variable.

Symmetric Measures

-.050 .617

.050 .617

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

-.050 .100 -.496 .621

c

100

Phi

Cramer's V

Nominal by

Nominal

Pearson's R Interval by Interval

Spearman Correlation Ordinal by Ordinal

N of Valid Cases

Value

Asymp.

Std. Error

a

Approx. T

b

Approx. Sig.

Not assuming the null hypothesis. a.

Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. b.

Based on normal approximation. c.

) 1 (

2

÷

=

k N

V

_

Number of

cases

Smallest of number

of rows or columns

37

Take Home Lesson

How to Test Association between

Frequency of Two Nominal Variables

**Different Scales, Different Measures of Association
**

Scale of Both Variables Nominal Scale Measures of Association Pearson Chi-Square: χ2 Spearman’s rho Pearson r

2

Ordinal Scale Interval or Ratio Scale

**Chi-Square (χ2) and Frequency Data
**

Up to this point, the inference to the population has been concerned with “scores” on one or more variables, such as CAT scores, mathematics achievement, and hours spent on the computer. We used these scores to make the inferences about population means. To be sure not all research questions involve score data. Today the data that we analyze consists of frequencies; that is, the number of individuals falling into categories. In other words, the variables are measured on a nominal scale. The test statistic for frequency data is Pearson Chi-Square. The magnitude of Pearson Chi-Square reflects the amount of discrepancy between observed frequencies and expected frequencies. 3

6. 3. Determine the appropriate test Establish the level of significance:α Formulate the statistical hypothesis Calculate the test statistic Determine the degree of freedom Compare computed test statistic against a tabled/critical value 4 . 5. 4.Steps in Test of Hypothesis 1. 2.

All observations are independent (an individual can appear only once in a table and there are no overlapping categories).1. It does not make any assumptions about the shape of the distribution nor about the homogeneity of variances. It assumes that the observations are randomly sampled from the population. 5 . Determine Appropriate Test Chi Square is used when both variables are measured on a nominal scale. It can be applied to interval or ratio data that have been categorized into a small number of groups.

05 • α = .001 6 .2.01 • α = . Establish Level of Significance α is a predetermined value The convention • α = .

Determine The Hypothesis: Whether There is an Association or Not Ho : The two variables are independent Ha : The two variables are associated 7 .3.

4. Calculating Test Statistics Contrasts observed frequencies in each cell of a contingency table with expected frequencies. The expected frequencies represent the number of cases that would be found in each cell if the null hypothesis were true ( i.e. Fe= Fr Fc / N 8 . the nominal variables are unrelated). Expected frequency of two unrelated events is product of the row and column frequency divided by number of cases.

Calculating Test Statistics ( Fo Fe ) Fe 2 2 9 .4.

Calculating Test Statistics ( Fo Fe ) Fe 2 2 10 .4.

Determine Degrees of Freedom df = (R-1)(C-1) .11 5.

Compare computed test statistic against a tabled/critical value The computed value of the Pearson chisquare statistic is compared with the critical value to determine if the computed value is improbable The critical tabled values are based on sampling distributions of the Pearson chisquare statistic If calculated 2 is greater than 2 table value. reject Ho 12 .6.

A questionnaire was developed and sent to a random sample of 90 voters. The researcher also collects information about the political party membership of the sample of 90 respondents. 13 .Example Suppose a researcher is interested in voting preferences on gun control issues.

Bivariate Frequency Table or Contingency Table Favor Democrat 10 Neutral 10 15 25 Oppose 30 10 40 f row 50 40 n = 90 Republican 15 f column 25 14 .

Bivariate Frequency Table or Contingency Table Favor Democrat 10 Neutral 10 15 25 Oppose 30 10 40 f row 50 40 n = 90 Republican 15 f column 25 15 .

Bivariate Frequency Table or Contingency Table Favor Democrat 10 Row frequency Neutral 10 15 25 Oppose 30 10 40 f row 50 40 n = 90 Republican 15 f column 25 16 .

Bivariate Frequency Table or Contingency Table Favor Democrat 10 Neutral 10 15 25 Oppose 30 10 40 f row 50 40 n = 90 Republican 15 f column 25 Column frequency 17 .

1. Voting Preference ( 3 levels) and Nominal 18 . Determine Appropriate Test 1. Party Membership ( 2 levels) and Nominal 2.

19 2. Establish Level of Significance Alpha of .05 .

3. • Ha : There is an association between responses to the gun control survey and the party membership in the population. Determine The Hypothesis • Ho : There is no difference between D & R in their opinion on gun control issue. 20 .

Calculating Test Statistics Favor Democrat fo =10 fe =13.1 25 Oppose fo =30 fe=22.9 Republican fo =15 fe =11.1 f column 25 Neutral fo =10 fe =13.8 40 f row 50 40 n = 90 21 .4.9 fo =15 fe =11.2 fo =10 fe =17.

1 25 Oppose fo =30 fe=22. Calculating Test Statistics Favor Democrat fo =10 fe =13.9 Republican fo =15 fe =11.8 40 f row 50 = 50*25/90 40 n = 90 22 .4.1 f column 25 Neutral fo =10 fe =13.2 fo =10 fe =17.9 fo =15 fe =11.

1 f column 25 Neutral Oppose f row 50 fo =10 fo =30 fe =13.4.8 25 40 40 n = 90 23 .2 = 40* 25/90 fo =15 fo =10 fe =11.9 fe=22.9 Republican fo =15 fe =11. Calculating Test Statistics Favor Democrat fo =10 fe =13.1 fe =17.

Calculating Test Statistics (10 13.11) 2 (15 11.8) 2 11.11) 2 (10 17.89 22.4.89 13.89) 2 (10 13.2) 2 13.11 17.2 2 (15 11.89) 2 (30 22.8 = 11.03 24 .11 11.

25 5. Determine Degrees of Freedom df = (R-1)(C-1) = (2-1)(3-1) = 2 .

Compare computed test statistic against a tabled/critical value α = 0.991 Test statistic.05 df = 2 Critical tabled value = 5. 11.6.03. exceeds critical value Null hypothesis is rejected Democrats & Republicans differ significantly in their opinions on gun control issues 26 .

0%) have expected count less than 5.025a 11. (2-sided) . 27 .722 90 df 2 2 1 Asymp. 0 cells (. Sig. The minimum expected count is 11.365 8.004 .003 Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association N of Valid Cases a.SPSS Output for Gun Control Example Chi-Square Tests Value 11.11.003 .

Additional Information in SPSS Output Exceptions that might distort χ2 Assumptions – Associations in some but not all categories – Low expected frequency per cell Extent of association is not same as statistical significance Demonstrated through an example 28 .

0 10.0% 22.0% 100 100.0 100.0 100.0 82.0 18.0 78.0% 80 80.Another Example Heparin Lock Placement Com plication Incide nce * Heparin Lock Place m ent Time Gr oup Cross tabulation Heparin Lock Placement Time Group 1 2 9 11 10.0% Time: 1 = 72 hrs 2 = 96 hrs from Polit Text: Table 8-1 29 .0% 41 40.0% 50 50.0 100.0% 39 40.0% Complication Incidence Had Compilca Had NO Compilca Total Count Expected Count % w ithin Heparin Lock Placement Time Group Count Expected Count % w ithin Heparin Lock Placement Time Group Count Expected Count % w ithin Heparin Lock Placement Time Group Total 20 20.0% 50 50.0 80.0 20.

Ha: There is an association between complication incidence and length of heparin lock placement.Hypotheses in Heparin Lock Placement Ho: There is no association between complication incidence and length of heparin lock placement. (The variables are independent). (The variables are related). 30 .

More of SPSS Output 31 .

Continuity correction is used in situations in which the expected frequency for any cell in a 2 by 2 table is less than 10.05. 32 .250.617 Since the p > .Pearson Chi-Square Pearson Chi-Square = . we fail to reject the null hypothesis that the complication rate is unrelated to heparin lock placement time. p = .

617 .More SPSS Output Sym me tric Measure s Value -. 33 . Based on normal approximation. Error Approx.100 -. b.617 . .050 -. Sig. Not assuming the null hypothesis.496 .050 100 Asymp. T Approx.050 -. a b Std.621 c . c.496 .050 . Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.621 c Nominal by Nominal Phi Cramer's V Interval by Interval Pearson's R Ordinal by Ordinal Spearman Correlation N of Valid Cases a.100 -.

050 100 Nominal by Nominal Interval by Interval Ordinal by Ordinal N of V alid Cases Phi Cramer's V Pearson's R Spearman Correlation A sy m p. c. but not about the magnitude of the relationship Phi coefficient is the measure of the strength of the association Sym m e tr ic M easu r e s V alue -.Phi Coefficient Pearson Chi-Square provides information about the existence of relationship between 2 nominal variables.050 -. Using the as ymptotic standard error ass uming the null hypothe 2 N 34 . Error . a Std. Based on normal approxim ation.050 -. b.100 . Not ass uming the null hypothes is.100 a.050 .

050 100 A sy m p. a Std. it means that there is a tendency for particular categories of the first variable to be associated with particular categories of the second variable. Sym m e tr ic M easu r e s V alue -. a different index must be used to measure the strength of the relationship between the variables.050 .100 a. Not ass uming the null hypothes is. Using the as ymptotic standard error ass uming the null hypothes V 2 N (k 1) 35 . One such index is Cramer’s V. b. Based on normal approxim ation.100 . c. If Cramer’s V is large.050 -.Cramer’s V When the table is larger than 2 by 2. Error Nominal by Nominal Interval by Interval Ordinal by Ordinal N of V alid Cases Phi Cramer's V Pearson's R Spearman Correlation .050 -.

c. b. Based on normal approxim ation. Error Nominal by Nominal Interval by Interval Ordinal by Ordinal N of V alid Cases Phi Cramer's V Pearson's R Spearman Correlation .100 .050 -. Using the as ymptotic standard error ass uming the null hypothes V Number of cases 2 N (k 1) Smallest of number of rows or 36 columns .050 100 A sy m p. a Std.050 . Not ass uming the null hypothes is. If Cramer’s V is large. Sym m e tr ic M easu r e s V alue -. a different index must be used to measure the strength of the relationship between the variables.100 a. One such index is Cramer’s V.050 -. it means that there is a tendency for particular categories of the first variable to be associated with particular categories of the second variable.Cramer’s V When the table is larger than 2 by 2.

37 Take Home Lesson How to Test Association between Frequency of Two Nominal Variables .

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7.'.042008843 494%089884.-08 .943-09003 706:03.41%4423.. %.

- Sample 3rd Sem
- MB0050
- Chi Square
- Key to Research Methodology
- MB0050 SET_2.odt
- Colorado Results
- Hypothesis
- MB0050- Research Methodology
- business research
- Research Methods ExamI
- Symboisis Statistics
- Vonk Cochrans Q 2011 June 7
- Cross Tabulation
- Interval Scale
- Research 1
- Bivariate Analysis in SPSS_ANOVA
- Nursing Research
- Introduction to Research Methodologies
- class notes
- MB 0050
- MB0050 Slides Unit 09
- Scaling
- AgriComp Case Study
- Medical Computing and Statistics
- Recomender System Notes
- MB0050Assignment Set 2
- scaling-120121081027-phpapp01
- Likert Scale
- Basic Statistic
- Rating Scale
- Chi Square

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