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A toolbox for Education and Research in Electric Power Engineering

Luigi Vanfretti

vanfrl@rpi.edu

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

ECSE Department

Fall 2006

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 1 / 94

Outline I

1

Motivation

Acknowledgment

Main goals of this presentation

Note

2

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

PSAT Basics

Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

Power System Model

Power Flow

Bifurcation Analysis

Optimal Power Flow

Small Signal Stability

Time Domain Simulations

Case Studies

PSAT Routines

GAMS and UWPFLOW Interfaces

3

The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 2 / 94

Outline II

PSAT in learning, education and research

Summary of the main subjects discussed in this talk

Thanks!

References

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 3 / 94

Motivation Acknowledgment

Acknowledgment

Many, many thanks!

This talk is mostly based on the course Power System Analysis in

an Electricity Markets Environment lectured by Dr. Federico

Milano [1] of the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain; the

PSAT Documentation [2], the PSAT Version 1.3.4 [3] and in [4, 5].

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 4 / 94

Motivation Main goals of this presentation

Main Goals of this presentation

PSAT in your everyday life: an Educational and Research Tool

To give a broad view of the PSAT and it’s capabilities

To demonstrate the use of some of the routines and models which

are currently in the PSAT

To show the capabilities of the PSAT through examples

To present the use of the PSAT as a tool suitable of education and

research

To encourage YOU to use the PSAT as an everyday tool!

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 5 / 94

Motivation Note

Note

This presentation was elaborated using previous PSAT (Power

System Analysis Toolbox) versions (older than 2.0).

Even thought most of the contents of this presentation still apply

for version 2.0., there might be differences with the latest

distribution.

... therefore, complaints will be sent to /dev/null

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 6 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

PSAT 1.3.4

Power Analysis Toolbox

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 7 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

What is the PSAT? I

Power system analysis and control at your ﬁngertips!

PSAT is an open code Matlab based toolbox for electric power

system analysis and control.

PSAT can handle a wide variety of Power Systems: from small

scale educational networks to medium size realistic power

systems.

PSAT is also GNU Octave compatible in it’s command line version.

Being PSAT and open code software it is suitable for research

since it allows to modify the existing models/routines and/or to

include new models/routines.

The GUIs and Simulink library make it easy to use, thus, it’s

adequate for educational purposes such as teaching and self

study; besides being free!

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 8 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

What is the PSAT? II

Power system analysis and control at your ﬁngertips!

PSAT makes a full use of Matlab vectorized computations and

sparse matrix functions, this gives an optimal performance.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 9 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

Structure of the PSAT

Scheme of the PSAT

Synoptic scheme

The ﬁgure presents the synoptic scheme of the PSAT. It

can be observed that the Power Flow algorithm is used as

the PSAT kernel, thus, this routine is needed to initialize

the dynamic models for:

1 CPF (Continuation Power Flow)

2 OPF (Optimal Power Flow)

3 SSS (Small Signal Stability)

4 TDA (Time Domain Simulations)

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 10 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Available Routines in the PSAT

PSAT has a wide number of available routines, such as:

Power Flow

Bifurcation Analysis (i.e. Continuation Power Flow)

Optimal Power Flow

SSS (Small Signal Stability Analysis)

Time Domain Simulations

Phasor measurement unit (PMU) Placement

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 11 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Available Models in the PSAT

PSAT also has a broad number of static and dynamic models in

order to perform thorough power system analysis:

Power Flow Data

Market Data

Switches

Measurements

Loads

Machines

Controls

Regulating Transformers

FACTS: SVCs, TCSCs, SSSCs, UPFCs

Wind Turbines

Other Models

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 12 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

PSAT’s Additional Tools

Tools:

In addition to the mathematical algorithms and

models available, the PSAT also provides a variety of

tools:

1 User friendly graphical user interfaces

2 A Simulink library useful to built one-line

network diagrams

3 Data ﬁle conversion to and from other

formats

4 User deﬁned model editor and installer

5 Command line version

Due to the current limitation of GNU/Octave not all

the tools are available for use in this platform.

Available Tools in Matlab and GNU/Octave

Function Matlab GNU/Octave

Continuation power ﬂow yes yes

Optimal power ﬂow yes yes

Small signal stability analysis yes yes

Time domain simulation yes yes

GUIs and Simulink library yes no

Data format conversion yes yes

User deﬁned models yes no

Command line usage yes yes

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 13 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Main GUI

Main GUI Features

Once the PSAT is launched by typing »

psat in the Matlab Command Window the

Main GUI will be launched. By typing the

above command all the required structures

required by the toolbox are created.

This GUI provides easy access to all the

tools of the PSAT. This GUI provides also the

possibility of assigning the main settings,

such as: No. of iterations of the NR methods,

system base values, etc.

Moreover, PSAT does not rely in this GUIs

and uses global variables to store the setting

parameters of the routines and data for the

models. Thus, allowing the PSAT to run in

the command line version.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 14 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Data Format Conversion (DFC) Features

DFC Features

Both the DFC tool and the UDMs tool are

aimed to promote contributions from the

users, to enhance research capabilities and

to ensure portability.

The DFC functions are handled by means of

a user friendly GUI (Matlab only)

The DFC functions allow data ﬁle conversion

from commonly used power system analysis

commercial and research/educational

formats to the PSAT and IEEE CDF formats.

Currently, the PSAT can convert the data ﬁles

of many programs, such as: IEEE CDF,

CYME, MatPower, PST, EPRI WECC,

SPP/E, PSAP, Eurostag, EPRI BPA,

Tsinghua University, INPTC1 (Enel), VST,

Simpow, Neplan, DigSilent, PowerWorld,

PET and GE.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 15 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features I

UDM (User Deﬁned Models) GUI

User Deﬁned Models (UDM) Features

Both the DFC tool and the UDMs tool are aimed to promote contributions from the users, to enhance research

capabilities and to ensure portability.

The main aim of the UDM tool is to extend the capabilities of PSAT and assist end users with little programming

capabilities to build and set up their own models.

The UDM is only available in Matlab platforms since it makes use of the Symbolic Math Toolbox of Matlab.

The ﬁrst step is to introduce the variables and the system of Differential-Algebraic-Equations that describe the new model

in the GUI of the UDM.

PSAT then automatically compiles the equations, computes the symbolic expression of the Jacobian matrices and writes

a Matlab function ﬁle for the new component.

The user can save the model deﬁnition and/or install the model in PSAT.

The UDM also has a Model Uninstaller, thus, when the model is not longer needed it can be safely uninstalled.

This tool is at an early stage, but it’s conception ensures remarkable future capabilities.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 16 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features II

UDM (User Deﬁned Models) GUI

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 17 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Simulink Library

Simulink Library Features

PSAT provides a Simulink graphical model library that enables the user to

draw one-line network diagrams using pictorial blocks.

The PMC (Physical Model Component) library of PSAT provides a complete

set of Simulink blocks for network design, which are grouped as follows:

connections,power ﬂow data, OPF & CPF data, faults & breakers,

measurements, loads, machines, controls, regulating transformers, FACTS,

wind turbines, other models, and sub-transmission equivalent areas

respectively.

The PSAT is Matlab based and the Simulink environment is used only as a

graphical tool.

Thus, running time domain simulations from the Simulink model menus

produces no effect, since no Simulink dynamic model is associated with PSAT

blocks.

Simulink network models built with the PCM library are read by PSAT to

exploit the network topology and extract component data.

An advantage of this approach is that the PSAT can run on GNU/Octave,

which doesn’t provide a Simulink environment.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 18 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Simulink Library

Displaying Results in

Simulink Models

After solving the power ﬂow, there are many

ways in which the results can be visualized.

The PCM allows to display results such as

the bus voltage magnitude and angle, and

the power ﬂow values within the Simulink

model of the system.

This is done through a user friendly GUI.

This GUI also allows to export the Simulink

models to EPS (Encapsulated Post Script)

ﬁles.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 19 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Command Line Usage

The command line version of PSAT is an adequate option when

using the available routines (such as power ﬂow) inside user

deﬁned routines.

Thus, this allows the user to custom made routines that not rely on

the PSAT GUI’s, making it ﬂexible and adequate for research.

This feature allows using PSAT in the following conditions:

If is not possible or slow to visualize the graphic environment

When the user needs to write scripts that include the use of PSAT

routines within custom made programs

When running PSAT on GNU/Octave, which currently does not

provide a Simulink-like environment.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 20 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with GAMS

PGI (PSAT-GAMS Interface)

PSAT provides a graphical interface with GAMS

(Generalized Algebra Modeling System) with the following

purposes:

To set up large scale power system test cases

To solve OPF problems

To visualize results by means of a user friendly

GUI.

Also, the PGI has several improvements in comparison

with the interface presented in [7]:

The PGI is platform independent

The PGI has a user friendly GUI

The PGI does not require the user to have

knowledge of Matlab or GAMS programming.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 21 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with GAMS

PSAT-GAMS Interface Gui

In order to make friendly the use of

the interface between the PSAT

and GAMS a GUI is used to

perform the following tasks:

Select the market clearing

model

Set the market model

parameters

Display the results from

GAMS

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 22 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with GAMS

Details of the use of the PGI:

The ﬁrst step is producing the data that describes the power

system, this can be done by creating an on-line diagram with the

Simulink library, writing a data ﬁle with the appropiate data format

or loading a predeﬁned model from the PSAT test cases.

Next, the power ﬂow routine must be runt in order to store all the

initial values and useful results.

After running the power ﬂow, the PSAT-GAMS interface can be

opened to run the GAMS solver.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 23 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with GAMS

Internal functioning of the PGI:

The system information is translated to a GAMS ﬁle named:

psatdata.gms.

The user settings as market clearing model, and global variables as the

number of bus are written to the ﬁle psatglobs.gms.

Once this data ﬁles have been written, GAMS is launched and the

market clearing mechanism is solved.

The routine fm

g

ams.gms used for solving the market procedures was

designed to be general and without any limits except those derived from

the GAMS solver and the computer memory.

The output of the results from GAMS are stored in the ﬁle psatsol.m

which is sent to Matlab in order to visualize the results and to perform

further analysis with PSAT routines or custom user code.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 24 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with GAMS

Market Clearing Mechanisms Models

Currently, the PGI provides ﬁve optimization problems:

Simple Auction

Simpliﬁed market clearing mechanism

Standard Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSC-OPF)

Maximization of the maximum loading condition

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 25 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with UWPFLOW

UWPFLOW Interface Features)

UWPFLOW is a "commercial-grade" continuation power

ﬂow program, that can be used to research static

voltage stability phenomena in detailed

AC-HVDC-FACTS power system models. As PSAT, is

open code and of free distribution, it can downloaded

from: http : //thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/

UWPFLOW consists of a set of C functions and libraries

designed for voltage stability analysis of power systems,

including voltage dependent loads, HVDC, FACTS and

secondary voltage control.

The UWPFLOW can be installed in Linux, Unix and

Windows platforms; the installation in Windows is not

straight forward, nevertheless, help is provided in the

documentation and PSAT Forum.

The UWPFLOW-PSAT Interface comes with an GUI.

This GUI allows the user to set the desired settings and

then run the UWPFLOW routines.

This GUI also can be used to generate the command

line used by UWPFLOW.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 26 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics

PSAT Forum

Get Help and Report Bugs

Features of the PSAT Forum

Currently, there is a PSAT Forum at:

http : //groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum

This Forum is used also as a mail list and data

repository.

The member list of the Forum keeps growing, currently

there are 540 members.

You can use this Forum to report bus, ask questions

related to the PSAT; to download the latest PSAT

distribution, data ﬁles, and to make your own

contributions!

Figure: August 16, 2005

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 27 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines

PSAT Routines

As pointed out earlier, the PSAT has the following available routines:

Power Flow

Bifurcation Analysis (Continuation Power Flow)

Optimal Power Flow

SSS (Small Signal Stability Analysis)

Time Domain Simulations

Phasor measurement unit (PMU) Placement

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 28 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines

Static and Dynamic Models Available in the PSAT

As pointed out earlier, the PSAT has the following static and dynamic

models in order to do thorough power system analysis:

Power Flow Data

Market Data

Switches

Measurements

Loads

Machines

Controls

Regulating Transformers

FACTS: SVCs, TCSCs, SSSCs, UPFCs

Wind Turbines

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 29 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines

Static and Dynamic Models Available in the PSAT

Other Models: synchronous machine dynamic shaft,

sub-synchronous resonance model, solid oxide fuel cell, and

sub-transmission area equivalents

Each of the models mentioned have an explications in the PSAT

Documentation [2], since the aim of this talk to give a broad view of

the PSAT, these models will not be discussed in detail.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 30 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Power System Model

The power system model is formed by a system of Differential

Algebraic Equations (DAE):

˙

x = f (x, y, p)

0 = g (x, y, p)

(1)

where x are state variables, y are the algebraic variables, p are the

independent variables, f are differential equations, and g are algebraic

equations. PSAT makes use of (1) in all the algorithms (routines)

mentioned earlier.

The algebraic equations g are obtained from the sum of all the active

and reactive power injections in each bus:

g (x, y, p) =

_

g

p

g

q

_

=

_

g

pm

g

qm

_

−

c∈C

m

_

g

pc

g

qc

_

∀m

∈ M (2)

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 31 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Power System Model

where g

p

m and g

q

m are the power ﬂows in the transmission lines, M is

the set of network buses, C

m

and

_

g

T

pc

g

T

qc

¸

T

are the set and the

power injections of the power system components connected at bus m,

respectively.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 32 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines III

Power System Model

One of the most important characteristics of PSAT is that is

component-oriented, this means that any component is deﬁned

independently of the rest of the program as a set of nonlinear

differential-algebraic equations:

˙

x

c

= f

c

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

P

c

= g

pc

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

Q

c

= g

qc

(x

c

, y

c

, p

c

)

(3)

where x

c

are the component state variables; y

c

the algebraic variables

such as the voltage V and the angle θ at the buses where the element

is connected; and p

c

are independent variables.

Afterwards, the differential equations f of (1) are built

concatenating f

c

of each of the components of the Power System.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 33 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines IV

Power System Model

The equations presented in (3) simultaneously with the Jacobian

matrices are deﬁned in a function which is used for static and

dynamic analysis by means of a structure, which contains data,

parameters and the interconnection & grid topology.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 34 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines V

Power System Model

As an example of the above mentioned, let us consider the

mathematical model of an AVR. The PSAT has three types of

models for different kinds of AVRs, for this example, we can

consider a very simple AVR that can be modeled and simulated by

the AVR Type III model provided by PSAT.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 35 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines VI

Power System Model

The differential Algebraic Equations of the model are the following

[2]:

˙

v

m

=

(V−v

m

)

T

r

˙

v

r

=

µ

0

1−

T

1

T

2

(v

ref

−v

m

)−v

r

T

2

˙

v

f

=

v

r

+µ

0

T

1

T

2

(v

ref

−v

m

)+v

f 0

V

V

0

−v

f

T

2

(4)

The next slide presents two tables. The ﬁrst presents the

parameters for the AVR Type III, the other presents all the ﬁelds of

the structure Exc.con that deﬁnes the AVRs inside the PSAT.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 36 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines VII

Power System Model

Exciter Type III Data Format (Exc.con)

Column Variable Description Unit

1 - Generator number internal

2 3 Exciter type internal

3 v

f

max

Maximum ﬁeld voltage p.u.

4 v

f

min

Minimum ﬁeld voltage p.u.

5 µ

0

Regulator gain s

6 T

2

Regulator pole s

7 T

1

Regulator zero p.u.

8 v

f

0

Field voltage offset p.u.

9 V

0

Bus voltage offset -

10 - not used -

11 T

r

Measurement time constant s

Fields of the Exc.con structure

1 con : data chart of the Exc components.

2 n : total number of AVRs.

3 syn : generator numbers.

4 vrif : reference voltage v

ref

.

5 vrif0 : reference voltage v

ref

0

initial value.

6 vr1 : indexes of state variable v

r1

.

7 vr2 : indexes of state variable v

r2

.

8 vr3 : indexes of state variable v

r3

.

9 vm : indexes of state variable v

m

.

10 vf : indexes of state variable v

f

.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 37 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Power Flow

PSAT provides several options to solve power ﬂow, namely:

Newton-Raphson method

Fast Decoupled Power Flow (XB and BX)

Power Flow with a distributed slack bus model

The theory of these methods, in which PSAT bases the models and

routines, are presented in [16, 25, 26].

The distributed slack bus model power ﬂow is a feature which it’s only

available in PSAT among other Matlab based power system programs.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 38 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Power Flow

The power ﬂow problem is formulated as (1) with zero ﬁrst time

derivatives

˙

x:

0 = f (x, y, p)

0 = g (x, y, p)

(5)

Differential equations are included in 5; some dynamic components as

synchronous machines are initialized after the power ﬂow analysis, this

is due to the fact that the user does not know the input parameters of

it’s dynamic model. Other models, such as load tap changers, can be

included in the power ﬂow as one typically knows the input parameters

of the dynamic model.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 39 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines III

Power Flow

The distributed slack bus model is based in the concept of generalized power centers and consists in distributing losses

among all generators, the theory behind this method is presented in [26].

The loss distribution among the generators is obtained by rewriting the active powers P

G

of the slack bus and PV

generator as following:

P

G

= (1 + k

G

γ) P

G

0

(6)

where P

G

0

are the desired generator active powers, k

G

is scalar variable which distributes power losses among all

generators and γ are the participation factors of the generators to the total losses.

k

G

is an unknown insofar as losses are unknown.

If (6) can be written for all the generators, k

G

is balanced by the phase reference equation.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 40 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Bifurcation Analysis - Continuation Power Flow (CPF)

The PSAT includes a CPF function which is a novelty among the Matlab-based packages for power system analysis.

The CPF algorithm consists in a predictor step which computes a normalized tangent vector and a corrector step that can

be obtained either by means of a local parametrization or a perpendicular intersection.

The theory behind the method is presented in [24]

The images below present the method to obtain the predictor by means of a tangent and by means of local

parametrization.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 41 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Bifurcation Analysis - Continuation Power Flow (CPF)

The CPF problem is deﬁned based on 1:

0 = f (x, y, λ)

0 = g (x, y, λ)

(7)

Where λ is the loading parameter, which is used to vary the base

case generation and load powers, P

G

0

, P

L

0

and Q

L

0

respectively:

P

G

= (λ + γk

G

) P

G

0

[P

L

, Q

L

] = λ

_

P

L

0

, Q

L

0

¸

(8)

The PSAT also provides Direct Methods (DM) for computing

Saddle-Node Bifurcation (SNB) points and Limit-Induced

Bifurcation (LIB) points; this option will not be discussed here.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 42 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

The Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is deﬁned as a nonlinear

constrained optimization problem. PSAT uses the Interior Point

Method (IPM) with a Mehrotra’s predictor-corrector method to

solve the OPF problem.

PSAT is the only Matlab-based program that provides an IPM

algorithm to solve OPF based market clearing mechanisms.

PSAT also provides several objective functions:

the maximization of the social beneﬁt

the maximization of the distance to the maximum loading condition

A multi-objective approach

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 43 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

Here it will only be discussed the "standard" OPF which uses the

maximization of the social as objective function.

Nevertheless, it should be noted that it the VSC (Voltage Stability

Constrained) OPF that maximizes the distance to the maximum

loading condition and the multi-objective approach are also

available to perform analysis in the psat

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 44 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines III

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

Standard OPF Model

The standard OPF commonly has the goal of maximizing the

social beneﬁt. The modes is represented in PSAT as follows:

Minimize

(y,p)

F (p)

Subject to g (y, p) = 0

h

min

≤ h (y) ≤ h

max

p

min

≤ p ≤ p

max

(9)

where g and y are deﬁned as in 1, the control variables p are the

power demand and supply bids P

D

and P

S

, while F and h are the

inequality constraints, respectively.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 45 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines IV

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

The goal is to maximize the social beneﬁt, thus, the objective

function F is deﬁned as:

F = −

_

i

C

D

i

_

P

D

i

_

−

i

C

S

i

_

P

S

i

_

_

(10)

where C

S

and C

D

are quadratic functions of supply and demand

bids, respectively.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 46 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines V

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

The physical and security limits h included in PSAT are similar to

what is used in [12], and take into account the following limits:

Transmission line thermal limits

Transmission line power ﬂow limits

Transmission line power ﬂow limits

Voltage security limits

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 47 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Small Signal Stability (SSS)

PSAT is also capable of performing SSS analysis, it has the option to

perform both dynamic analysis and QV sensitivity analysis.

PSAT is able to compute and plot the eigenvalues and the participation

factors of the system, once the power ﬂow has been performed.

The eigenvalues are computed in the dynamic analysis from the state

matrix of the dynamic system, for the QV sensitivity analysis they are

computed from the Jacobian matrix

A remarkable feature of this options is that the eigenvalues are

computed using analytical Jacobian matrices, ensuring high precision

results.

Here, it will only be discussed the Dynamic Analysis, but it should be

noted that the routine to perform QV sensitivity analysis is also available.

Dynamic Analysis

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 48 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Small Signal Stability (SSS)

The Jacobian matrix A

C

of a dynamic system is deﬁned by

linearizing 5 around an operation point:

_

∆

˙

x

0

_

=

_

F

x

F

y

G

x

J

LFV

_ _

∆x

∆y

_

= [A

C

]

_

∆x

∆y

_

(11)

where F

x

= ∇

x

f , F

y

= ∇

y

f , G

x

= ∇

x

g and J

LFV

= ∇

y

g.

Then the state matrix A

S

is obtained by eliminating ∇

y

, and

implicitly assuming that J

LFV

is non-singular:

A

S

= F

x

−F

y

J

−1

LFV

G

x

(12)

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 49 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines III

Small Signal Stability (SSS)

The computation of all eigenvalues can be a lengthy process if the

dynamic order of the system is high. Thus, PSAT is able to

compute a reduced number of eigenvalues based on sparse

matrix properties and eigenvalue relative values (i.e. larges or

smallest magnitude, etc.)

PSAT also computes the participation factors using right and left

eigenvector matrices, as proposed in [16]

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 50 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines I

Time Domain Simulations

PSAT also provides the option to perform time domain simulations.

For this it uses two different integration methods (Trapezoidal rule

and backward Euler) to solve 1 together using the SI

(Simultaneous-implicit) method, this is also an option only

available in PSAT among other Matlab-based packages for power

system analysis.

The SI method is more stable than the partitioned-explicit method

which solves the differential equations and the algebraic equations

separately as presented in [16].

PSAT is able to introduce common disturbances by means of

embedded functions. This embedded functions are useful to

simulate common perturbations for transient analysis such as

faults and breaker operations.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 51 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

PSAT Models & Routines II

Time Domain Simulations

Step perturbations can be obtained by changing parameter or

variable values after completing the power ﬂow.

Any other disturbance can be deﬁned through a custom made

perturbation function, this functions can modify and include any

global structure of the system.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 52 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Case Studies

An overview of the capabilities of PSAT through examples!

In this section an overview of the available routines of PSAT is

presented through examples based in small scale power systems. The

routines discussed here are the following:

Power Flow

Bifurcation Analysis

OPF

SSS

Time Domain Simulations

Moreover, due to the fact that the available interfaces with GAMS and

UWPFLOW expand the capabilities of PSAT to solve Optimal Power

Flow and Continuation Power Flow problems, a simple example on the

use of each of this interfaces is given.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 53 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow I

Power Flow Example

4 bus system

Let us now solve a power

ﬂow example from [27].

The images present the

one-line diagram of the

system and data from [27]

The power system consists

of four buses with PV and

PQ generators.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 54 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow II

Power Flow Example

Building the system in PSAT

The Simulink model library

can be used to reproduce

the same one-line diagram

from [27].

The images shows the

resulting diagram created

with the Simulink library.

After loading the case and

running the power ﬂow

routine, the results can be

visualized in different ways.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 55 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow III

Power Flow Example

The results can be viewed with the Static Report GUI, as depicted

in the image below.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 56 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow IV

Power Flow Example

The Static Report GUI also allows to view the results in a

graphical manner by plotting the results of each ﬁeld in individual

graphics as depicted in the image below.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 57 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow V

Power Flow Example

The PSAT can also produce a detailed report and export it to

L

A

T

E

X, Excel or plain ASCII ﬁles. The following tables, exported to

a L

A

T

E

Xﬁle, show the power ﬂow solution for the system.

Table: Network statistics

Buses: 4.00000

Lines: 4.00000

Generators: 2.00000

Loads: 4.00000

Table: Solution statistics

Number of iterations: 3.00000

Maximum p mismatch [mw] 0.00000

Maximum q mismatch [mvar] 0.00000

Table: Power ﬂow results

Bus V Phase P gen Q gen P load Q load

[kv] [rad] [mw] [mvar] [mw] [mvar]

Abedul 230.00000 0.00000 186.80318 114.53962 50.00000 30.99000

Arce 234.60000 0.02657 318.00000 181.38862 80.00000 49.58000

Olmo 225.95685 −0.01704 0.00000 0.00000 170.00000 105.35000

Pino 222.87705 −0.03269 0.00000 0.00000 200.00000 123.94000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 58 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow VI

Power Flow Example

Table: Line ﬂows

From bus To bus Line P ﬂow Q ﬂow P loss Q loss

[mw] [mvar] [mw] [mvar]

Abedul Olmo 1.00000 38.70012 22.29678 0.22677 −8.93757

Pino Arce 2.00000 −102.92301 −60.33156 1.83502 −3.44370

Abedul Pino 3.00000 98.10306 61.25283 1.02607 −2.35561

Arce Olmo 4.00000 133.24197 74.92076 1.71533 0.80512

Table: Line ﬂows

From bus To bus Line P ﬂow Q ﬂow P loss Q loss

[mw] [mvar] [mw] [mvar]

Olmo Abedul 1.00000 −38.47336 −31.23436 0.22677 −8.93757

Arce Pino 2.00000 104.75803 56.88786 1.83502 −3.44370

Pino Abedul 3.00000 −97.07699 −63.60844 1.02607 −2.35561

Olmo Arce 4.00000 −131.52664 −74.11564 1.71533 0.80512

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 59 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow VII

Power Flow Example

Table: Total generation

Real power [mw] 504.80318

Reactive power [mvar] 295.92823

Table: Total load

Real power [mw] 500.00000

Reactive power [mvar] 309.86000

Table: Total shunt

Real power [mw] 0.00000

Reactive power (ind) [mvar] 0.00000

Reactive power (cap) [mvar] 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 60 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Power Flow VIII

Power Flow Example

Table: Total losses

Real power [mw] 4.80318

Reactive power [mvar] −13.93177

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 61 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Bifurcation Analysis I

Continuation Power Flow Example

IEEE 14 Bus System

The CPF can be computed

using the CPF routine in

PSAT.

In this example we will

compute the CPF for the

IEEE 14 bus case.

The Simulink model for this

case is presented in the

ﬁgure. Note that this data

ﬁle is available with the

current PSAT distribution.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 62 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Bifurcation Analysis II

Continuation Power Flow Example

IEEE 14 Bus System

The graph on the right presents the nose

curves of the voltage magnitude at bus 12,

bus 13 and bus 14.

Also, the PSAT is also capable of computing

the N −1 Contingency analysis which is

based in the CPF.

The following tables illustrate the results of

the N −1 contingency analysis for the

14-bus test system. The output is organized

in four columns

The ﬁrst column depicts the transmission line

or transformer while the second one shows

for which line outage it has been found the

minimum power in that line.

The last two columns depict the actual power

ﬂow and the power ﬂow limit, respectively, in

the transmission line or transformer.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 63 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Bifurcation Analysis III

Continuation Power Flow Example

Table: Power ﬂow limits (1)

line line pij pij max

outage [p.u.] [p.u.]

2-5 3-4 0.41710 0.54883

6-12 1-5 0.08037 0.09970

12-13 5-6 0.01857 0.02231

6-13 1-5 0.18272 0.22162

6-11 2-5 0.08180 0.10049

11-10 6-11 0.04565 0.05683

9-10 2-4 0.04487 0.05405

9-14 4-9 0.08719 0.10655

14-13 1-2 0.06371 0.07546

7-9 1-5 0.27203 0.37929

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 64 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Bifurcation Analysis IV

Continuation Power Flow Example

Table: Power ﬂow limits (2)

line line pij pij max

outage [p.u.] [p.u.]

1-2 5-6 1.57122 1.94547

3-2 5-6 0.73462 0.92663

3-4 7-9 0.23472 0.31835

1-5 7-9 0.75460 1.01484

5-4 3-4 0.60190 0.78458

2-4 5-6 0.55939 0.72114

5-6 1-5 0.45689 0.55747

4-9 1-5 0.15504 0.21438

4-7 1-5 0.27203 0.37929

8-7 1-5 0.00000 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 65 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Optimal Power Flow I

OPF Example

6 Bus Test Case

Let us now perform an OPF

routine calculation.

The example, in this case, is the

6 bus test case available in the

current PSAT distribution that

appear in the image.

The standard OPF results with

Active power limits appear in the

following tables, note that not all

the results from the routine are

presented due to space

restrictions.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 66 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Optimal Power Flow II

OPF Example

Table: Network statistics

Buses: 6.00000

Lines: 11.00000

Generators: 3.00000

Loads: 3.00000

Supplies: 3.00000

Demands: 3.00000

Table: Solution statistics

Objective function [$/h]: −121.64928

Active limits: 8.00000

Number of iterations: 13.00000

Barrier parameter: 0.00000

Variable mismatch: 0.00000

Power ﬂow equation mismatch: 0.00000

Objective function mismatch: 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 67 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Optimal Power Flow III

OPF Example

Table: Power supplies

Bus Mu min Ps min Ps Ps max Mu max

[mw] [mw] [mw]

Bus1 0.65773 0.00100 0.00100 20.00000 0.00000

Bus2 0.00000 0.00100 24.99999 25.00000 0.17662

Bus3 0.00000 0.00100 20.00000 20.00000 2.09680

Table: Power demands

Bus Mu min Pd min Pd Pd max Mu max

[mw] [mw] [mw]

Bus4 0.00000 0.00100 25.00000 25.00000 2.30396

Bus5 0.00000 0.00100 10.00000 10.00000 0.42491

Bus6 0.00000 0.00100 8.06936 20.00000 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 68 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Optimal Power Flow IV

OPF Example

Table: Reactive powers

Bus Mu min Qg min Qg Qg max Mu max

[mvar] [mvar] [mvar]

Bus2 0.00000 −150.00000 76.20599 150.00000 0.00000

Bus1 0.00000 −150.00000 44.62333 150.00000 0.00000

Bus3 0.00000 −150.00000 72.08442 150.00000 0.00000

Table: Voltages

Bus Mu min V min V V max Mu max Phase

[p.u.] [p.u.] [p.u.] [rad]

Bus1 0.00000 0.90000 1.10000 1.10000 1.36003 0.01405

Bus2 0.00000 0.90000 1.10000 1.10000 0.69913 0.00000

Bus3 0.00000 0.90000 1.10000 1.10000 0.29865 −0.02463

Bus4 0.00000 0.90000 1.02114 1.10000 0.00000 −0.05066

Bus5 0.00000 0.90000 1.01295 1.10000 0.00000 −0.07318

Bus6 0.00000 0.90000 1.04035 1.10000 0.00000 −0.06760

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 69 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Optimal Power Flow V

OPF Example

Table: Power ﬂow

Bus P Q Rho p Rho q Ncp Pay

[mw] [mvar] [$/mwh] [$/mvarh] [$/mwh] [$/h]

Bus1 90.00100 44.62332 9.02037 0.00000 −0.04872 −812.00000

Bus2 164.87536 76.20598 8.98048 0.00000 0.00000 −1481.00000

Bus3 80.00000 72.08440 9.14550 0.00000 0.07648 −732.00000

Bus4 −115.00000 −76.66499 9.56297 0.39306 0.20737 1100.00000

Bus5 −109.99999 −76.99999 9.65348 0.40762 0.29043 1062.00000

Bus6 −98.06933 −62.68975 9.42843 0.21472 0.23945 925.00000

Table: Totals

Total losses [mw]: 11.80700

Bid losses [mw] 11.80700

Total demand [mw]: 43.06936

Ttl [mw]: 323.06936

Imo pay [$/h]: 62.12194

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 70 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability I

SSS Example

WSCC 9 Bus System

Now we will address a small signal stability example.

For this example we will simulate the WSCC 9 Bus

System presented in [22]

The Simulink network used to simulate the system is

presented in the image. This model is available in the

PSAT distribution.

The following ﬁgures, and the small signal stability

report depict the eigenvalue analysis for the WSCC

9-bus test system and have been generated with the

Eigenvalue Analysis interface. The results of the

detailed report are not presented here due to space

limitations.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 71 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability II

SSS Example

Figure: S-domain Eigenvalue Analysis Figure: Z-domain Eigenvalue Analysis

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 72 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability III

SSS Example

Table: State matrix eigenvalues (1)

Eigevalue Most associated states Real part Imag. part Frequency

Eig as 1 Omega_syn_2, delta_syn_2 0.33825 0.88207 0.14039

Eig as 2 Omega_syn_2, delta_syn_2 0.33825 −0.88207 0.14039

Eig as 3 Delta_syn_1, omega_syn_1 −0.04559 0.97483 0.15515

Eig as 4 Omega_syn_1, delta_syn_1 −0.04559 −0.97483 0.15515

Eig as 5 Vr1_exc_2, vf_exc_2 0.11928 0.51904 0.08261

Eig as 6 Vr1_exc_2, vf_exc_2 0.11928 −0.51904 0.08261

Eig as 7 Vr1_exc_3, vf_exc_3 0.10297 0.53025 0.08439

Eig as 8 Vr1_exc_3, vf_exc_3 0.10297 −0.53025 0.08439

Eig as 9 Vr1_exc_1, vf_exc_1 0.11253 0.52758 0.08397

Eig as 10 Vr1_exc_1, vf_exc_1 0.11253 −0.52758 0.08397

Eig as 11 E1d_syn_1 −0.21238 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 12 E1d_syn_2 −0.40303 0.00000 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 73 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability IV

SSS Example

Table: State matrix eigenvalues (2)

Eigevalue Most associated states Real part Imag. part Frequency

Eig as 13 E1q_syn_3, vr2_exc_3 −0.85684 0.26655 0.04242

Eig as 14 E1q_syn_3, vr2_exc_3 −0.85684 −0.26655 0.04242

Eig as 15 E1q_syn_3, e1q_syn_1 −0.88164 0.16504 0.02627

Eig as 16 E1q_syn_3, e1q_syn_1 −0.88164 −0.16504 0.02627

Eig as 17 E1q_syn_2, vr2_exc_1 −0.89257 0.11161 0.01776

Eig as 18 E1q_syn_2, vr2_exc_1 −0.89257 −0.11161 0.01776

Eig as 19 Delta_syn_3 −1.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 20 Omega_syn_3 −1.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 21 Vm_exc_3 0.98413 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 22 Vm_exc_3 0.98413 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 23 Vm_exc_1 0.98413 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 24 E1d_syn_3 −0.42529 0.00000 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 74 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability V

SSS Example

Table: Participation factors (euclidean norm) (1)

Delta_syn_1 Omega_syn_1 E1q_syn_1 E1d_syn_1 Delta_syn_2

Eig as 1 0.08515 0.08515 0.00541 0.00557 0.38073

Eig as 2 0.08515 0.08515 0.00541 0.00557 0.38073

Eig as 3 0.30863 0.30863 0.01439 0.00623 0.04895

Eig as 4 0.30863 0.30863 0.01439 0.00623 0.04895

Eig as 5 0.00099 0.00099 0.01352 0.00162 0.00037

Eig as 6 0.00099 0.00099 0.01352 0.00162 0.00037

Eig as 7 0.00012 0.00012 0.00222 0.00117 0.00035

Eig as 8 0.00012 0.00012 0.00222 0.00117 0.00035

Eig as 9 0.00004 0.00004 0.00170 0.00058 0.00133

Eig as 10 0.00004 0.00004 0.00170 0.00058 0.00133

Eig as 11 0.00756 0.00756 0.00728 0.48124 0.01199

Eig as 12 0.00105 0.00105 0.00090 0.44933 0.00518

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 75 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Small Signal Stability VI

SSS Example

Table: Participation factors (euclidean norm) (2)

Delta_syn_1 Omega_syn_1 E1q_syn_1 E1d_syn_1 Delta_syn_2

Eig as 13 0.00079 0.00079 0.16025 0.01101 0.00046

Eig as 14 0.00079 0.00079 0.16025 0.01101 0.00046

Eig as 15 0.00082 0.00082 0.18937 0.00949 0.00021

Eig as 16 0.00082 0.00082 0.18937 0.00949 0.00021

Eig as 17 0.00066 0.00066 0.13694 0.00901 0.00145

Eig as 18 0.00066 0.00066 0.13694 0.00901 0.00145

Eig as 19 0.09334 0.09334 0.00000 0.00000 0.04432

Eig as 20 0.09334 0.09334 0.00000 0.00000 0.04432

Eig as 21 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 22 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 23 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Eig as 24 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 76 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Time Domain Simulations

Disturbance Example

WSCC 9 Bus System

In this example we will perform a time domain

simulation with PSAT.

For this example we will simulate the WSCC 9 Bus

System presented in [22]

The Simulink network used to simulate the system is

presented in the image. This model is available in the

PSAT distribution.

The system will be subject to a disturbance, in this case,

the speed of of one of the generators is changes to 0.95

p.u.; this is done after the power ﬂow has been

calculated as following:

DAE.x(Syn.omega(2)) = 0.95

After this, the time domain simulation can be performed.

The results due to the perturbation are presented in the

next ﬁgure.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 77 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

Figure: Results of the time domain simulation.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 78 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

GAMS Interface I

Clearing Mechanisms - Electricity Markets Example

Simple Auction Example

Let us now consider the use of the PSAT-GRAMS

Interface (PGI)

In this example we will compute the results of a single

period simple auction.

The Simulink network used to simulate the system is

presented in the image. This model is available in the

PSAT distribution.

Once the network has been loaded and power ﬂow has

been performed, one is able to run the PGI and set the

appropiate values for the maket model.

Afterwards, the market problem can be solved by GAMS

within PSAT.

The ouput ﬁle generated by the PGI, that shows the

results of solving the single period simple auction, is

presented in the next ﬁgures.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 78 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

GAMS Interface II

Clearing Mechanisms - Electricity Markets Example

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 79 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

UWPFLOW I

Continuation Power Flow Example

6 Bus Test System

In this ﬁnal example we will perform CPF with the

UWPFLOW-PSAT Interace.

For this example we will simulate the some 6 Bus Test

System used in the OPF example.

The Simulink network used to simulate the system is

presented in the image. This model is available in the

PSAT distribution.

After computing the power ﬂow, the UWPFLOW-PSAT

Interface can be initialized

After this, CPF can be performed. The results of the

CPF routine are presented in the next ﬁgure.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 80 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies

UWPFLOW II

Continuation Power Flow Example

Figure: Results of CPF using the UWPFLOW-PSAT Interface

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 81 / 94

The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool PSAT in learning, education and research

PSAT as a learning & teaching tool

PSAT can be effectively be used in teaching. The GUIs and the

Simulink graphical network environment are user friendly and self

explaining, this will enable the students to focus in interpreting the

results rather than in learning to use a package or program their

own routines.

Learning can be enhaced through the use of What if? examples.

This is possible to do in PSAT because is easy to change the

network topology, physical component model parameters and/or

algorithms.

PSAT can also be widely used for self study. You can reproduce

the results given in your text books and in technical papers, thus,

enhancing your learning experience.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 82 / 94

The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool PSAT in learning, education and research

PSAT as a research environment

PSAT is an excellent ally to do research. Since PSAT is open

source, it is possible to modify or/and add new component models

or routines.

Also, you can use the command line version of PSAT to build your

custom made code and solve particular problems, without relying

in the GUIs.

PSAT has been used and it’s been used by many people to do

their thesis and scientiﬁc research.

It’s a good idea that you consider to use PSAT as a research tool

to do your thesis or research; and maybe even share your custom

made code and results with the rest of the user’s of the PSAT

worldwide!!!

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 83 / 94

Summary Summary of the main subjects discussed in this talk

Summary I

An overview of PSAT was given in order to demostrate it’s main

features, available routines, models and additional tools.

A broad number of examples were presented in order to show the

capabilities of the PSAT and it’s interfaces.

The PSAT was presented as a learing, teaching, self study and

research tool; and you were encouraged to use PSAT as an

everyday tool.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 84 / 94

Summary Thanks!

Thank you for your attention! I

Are you ready to start using the the PSAT?

To download the PSAT...

Please, feel free to dowload

the latest verion of the PSAT

here:

http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/ fmilano

Also, we would like to hear

from you in the PSAT Forum:

http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 85 / 94

Summary References

References I

For further reading

The references have been divided in several categories:

References on the PSAT

References on Power System Operation, Control and Electricity

Markets

References on Power System Control and Stability

References on Power System Analysis

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 86 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Analysis Toolbox I

References

[1] F. Milano, F. Milano Website. http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/ fmilano

[2] F. Milano, Power System Analysis Toolbox version 1.3.4.

Documentation. http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/ fmilano

[3] F. Milano, PSAT Version 1.3.4. http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/ fmilano

[4] F. Milano, "An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox", IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, August 2005.

[5] F. Milano, "A Graphical and Open Source Matlab-GAMS interface for

Electricity Market Models", Noveno Congreso Hispano-Luso de

Ingeniería Eléctrica, 29 June - 2 July, Marbella, Spain.

[6] F. Milano, PSAT Forum. http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 87 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Analysis Toolbox II

References

[7] M. C. Ferris, "Matlab and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and

Visualization Software", Computer Sciences Department, University of

Winsconsin-Madison, Aug. 1999.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 88 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Operation, Control and Electricity

Markets I

References

[8] Narayan S. Rau, Optimization Principles: Practical Applications to the

Operation and Markets of the Electric Power Industry. USA: IEEE

Press - Wiley Interscience, 2003.

[9] James A. Momoh, Electric Power System Applications of Optimization.

New York: Marcel Dekker, 2001.

[10] Allen Wood and Bruce Wollenberg, Power generation operation and

control. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

[11] M. Shahidehpour, Mantenance Scheduling in Restructured Power

Systems. Mssachusets: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 89 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Operation, Control and Electricity

Markets II

References

[12] K. Xie, H.-H. Song, J. stonham, Erkeng Yu, and Guangyi Liu,

"Decomposition Model and Interior Point Methods for Optimal Spot

Pricing of Electricity in Deregulation Enviorments", IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 39-50, Feb. 2000.

[13] F. Milano, C. A. Cañizares, and M. Invernizzi, "Multiobjective

Optimization for Pricing Sytem security in Electricity Markets", IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 596-604, May 2003.

[14] Reliability Test System Task Force of the Application of Probability

Methods Subcommitee, "The IEEE Reliability Test System - 1996",

IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 42-47, Feb.

2003.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 90 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Control and Stability I

References

[15] Jan Machowski et. al., Power system dynamics and stability. West

Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

[16] Peter Sauer and M.A. Pai, Power system dynamics and stability. USA:

Prentice Hall, 1998.

[17] M.A. Pai, Power system stability: analysis by the direct method of

lyapunov. USA: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981.

[18] Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas, Voltage stability of electric

power systems. London: Kluwer International, 1998.

[19] Graham Rogers, Power system oscillations. USA: Kluwer Academic

Publishers, 1999.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 91 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Control and Stability II

References

[20] E. Gómez et. al., Análisis y operación de sistemas de energía

eléctrica. Madrid: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

[21] P. Kundur, Power system stability and control. USA: McGraw-Hill,

1994.

[22] P.M. Anderson and A.A. Fouad, Power system control and stability.

USA: IEEE Press, 2003.

[23] G. K. Morison, B. Gao, and P. Kundur, "Voltage Stability Analysis

using Static and Dynamic Approaches", IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1159-1171, Aug. 1993.

[24] C. A. Cañizares (Editor), "Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts,

Practices and Tools", IEEE/PES Power System Stability

Subcommitteee, Final Document, Tech. Rep., Aug. 2002.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 92 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Analysis I

References

[25] R. A. M. van Amerogen, "A General-Purpose Version of the Fast

Decoupled Loadﬂow", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 4,

no. 2, pp. 760-770, May. 1989.

[26] W. R. Barcelo and W. W. Lemmon, "Standardized Sensitivity

Coefﬁcients for Power System Networks", IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1591-1599, Nov. 1988.

[27] J. Grainger and W. D. Stevenson Jr, Power System Analysis. USA:

McGraw-Hill, 1994.

[28] A. Bergen and Vijay Vittal, Power system analysis. USA: Prentice

Hall, 2000.

[29] I.J. Nagrath and D.P. Kothari, Modern power system analysis. India:

Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 93 / 94

Appendix References

Power System Analysis II

References

[30] H. Saadat, Power system analysis. USA: McGraw-Hill Higher

Education, 2002.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 94 / 94

Outline I

1

Motivation Acknowledgment Main goals of this presentation Note The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

Power System Model Power Flow Bifurcation Analysis Optimal Power Flow Small Signal Stability Time Domain Simulations

2

Case Studies

PSAT Routines GAMS and UWPFLOW Interfaces

3

**The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool
**

Introduction to PSAT

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

Fall 2006

2 / 94

Outline II

PSAT in learning, education and research Summary of the main subjects discussed in this talk Thanks! References

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

Introduction to PSAT

Fall 2006

3 / 94

many thanks! This talk is mostly based on the course Power System Analysis in an Electricity Markets Environment lectured by Dr. the PSAT Documentation [2]. Luigi Vanfretti.Motivation Acknowledgment Acknowledgment Many. Federico Milano [1] of the University of Castilla-La Mancha. Spain.4 [3] and in [4.3. the PSAT Version 1.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 4 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi. 5].

Motivation Main goals of this presentation Main Goals of this presentation PSAT in your everyday life: an Educational and Research Tool To give a broad view of the PSAT and it’s capabilities To demonstrate the use of some of the routines and models which are currently in the PSAT To show the capabilities of the PSAT through examples To present the use of the PSAT as a tool suitable of education and research To encourage YOU to use the PSAT as an everyday tool! Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 5 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.

0.Motivation Note Note This presentation was elaborated using previous PSAT (Power System Analysis Toolbox) versions (older than 2. . Even thought most of the contents of this presentation still apply for version 2. complaints will be sent to /dev/null Luigi Vanfretti..edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 6 / 94 . therefore. vanfrl@rpi..0).. there might be differences with the latest distribution.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 7 / 94 .3.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT 1. vanfrl@rpi.4 Power Analysis Toolbox Luigi Vanfretti.

thus. PSAT can handle a wide variety of Power Systems: from small scale educational networks to medium size realistic power systems. Being PSAT and open code software it is suitable for research since it allows to modify the existing models/routines and/or to include new models/routines.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 8 / 94 . it’s adequate for educational purposes such as teaching and self study. The GUIs and Simulink library make it easy to use. PSAT is also GNU Octave compatible in it’s command line version. besides being free! Luigi Vanfretti.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics What is the PSAT? I Power system analysis and control at your ﬁngertips! PSAT is an open code Matlab based toolbox for electric power system analysis and control. vanfrl@rpi.

this gives an optimal performance.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics What is the PSAT? II Power system analysis and control at your ﬁngertips! PSAT makes a full use of Matlab vectorized computations and sparse matrix functions. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 9 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti.

It can be observed that the Power Flow algorithm is used as the PSAT kernel.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics Structure of the PSAT Scheme of the PSAT Synoptic scheme The ﬁgure presents the synoptic scheme of the PSAT. this routine is needed to initialize the dynamic models for: 1 2 3 4 CPF (Continuation Power Flow) OPF (Optimal Power Flow) SSS (Small Signal Stability) TDA (Time Domain Simulations) Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi. thus.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 10 / 94 .

such as: Power Flow Bifurcation Analysis (i.e.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Available Routines in the PSAT PSAT has a wide number of available routines. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 11 / 94 . Continuation Power Flow) Optimal Power Flow SSS (Small Signal Stability Analysis) Time Domain Simulations Phasor measurement unit (PMU) Placement Luigi Vanfretti.

UPFCs Wind Turbines Other Models Luigi Vanfretti. SSSCs. TCSCs.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Available Models in the PSAT PSAT also has a broad number of static and dynamic models in order to perform thorough power system analysis: Power Flow Data Market Data Switches Measurements Loads Machines Controls Regulating Transformers FACTS: SVCs.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 12 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.

the PSAT also provides a variety of tools: 1 2 3 4 5 User friendly graphical user interfaces A Simulink library useful to built one-line network diagrams Data ﬁle conversion to and from other formats User deﬁned model editor and installer Command line version Available Tools in Matlab and GNU/Octave Function Continuation power ﬂow Optimal power ﬂow Small signal stability analysis Time domain simulation GUIs and Simulink library Data format conversion User deﬁned models Command line usage Matlab yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes GNU/Octave yes yes yes yes no yes no yes Due to the current limitation of GNU/Octave not all the tools are available for use in this platform. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features PSAT’s Additional Tools Tools: In addition to the mathematical algorithms and models available.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 13 / 94 .

By typing the above command all the required structures required by the toolbox are created. such as: No. PSAT does not rely in this GUIs and uses global variables to store the setting parameters of the routines and data for the models. Moreover. system base values. vanfrl@rpi. This GUI provides easy access to all the tools of the PSAT. Luigi Vanfretti. Thus. This GUI provides also the possibility of assigning the main settings. allowing the PSAT to run in the command line version. of iterations of the NR methods.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Main GUI Main GUI Features Once the PSAT is launched by typing » psat in the Matlab Command Window the Main GUI will be launched.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 14 / 94 . etc.

PowerWorld. Eurostag. PET and GE. such as: IEEE CDF. Currently. Neplan. the PSAT can convert the data ﬁles of many programs. Simpow. MatPower. to enhance research capabilities and to ensure portability. PST. EPRI WECC.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Data Format Conversion (DFC) Features DFC Features Both the DFC tool and the UDMs tool are aimed to promote contributions from the users.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 15 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. SPP/E. VST. PSAP. EPRI BPA. The DFC functions are handled by means of a user friendly GUI (Matlab only) The DFC functions allow data ﬁle conversion from commonly used power system analysis commercial and research/educational formats to the PSAT and IEEE CDF formats. DigSilent. vanfrl@rpi. Tsinghua University. INPTC1 (Enel). CYME.

The UDM is only available in Matlab platforms since it makes use of the Symbolic Math Toolbox of Matlab. The user can save the model deﬁnition and/or install the model in PSAT. This tool is at an early stage. thus. but it’s conception ensures remarkable future capabilities. when the model is not longer needed it can be safely uninstalled. The main aim of the UDM tool is to extend the capabilities of PSAT and assist end users with little programming capabilities to build and set up their own models. PSAT then automatically compiles the equations.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features I UDM (User Deﬁned Models) GUI User Deﬁned Models (UDM) Features Both the DFC tool and the UDMs tool are aimed to promote contributions from the users. Luigi Vanfretti. computes the symbolic expression of the Jacobian matrices and writes a Matlab function ﬁle for the new component. to enhance research capabilities and to ensure portability. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 16 / 94 . The UDM also has a Model Uninstaller. The ﬁrst step is to introduce the variables and the system of Differential-Algebraic-Equations that describe the new model in the GUI of the UDM.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features II UDM (User Deﬁned Models) GUI Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 17 / 94 .

wind turbines. Luigi Vanfretti. regulating transformers. which doesn’t provide a Simulink environment. since no Simulink dynamic model is associated with PSAT blocks. machines. FACTS. The PSAT is Matlab based and the Simulink environment is used only as a graphical tool. running time domain simulations from the Simulink model menus produces no effect. Thus. Simulink network models built with the PCM library are read by PSAT to exploit the network topology and extract component data. which are grouped as follows: connections. vanfrl@rpi. An advantage of this approach is that the PSAT can run on GNU/Octave. loads.power ﬂow data.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 18 / 94 . other models. controls. The PMC (Physical Model Component) library of PSAT provides a complete set of Simulink blocks for network design. OPF & CPF data. faults & breakers.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Simulink Library Simulink Library Features PSAT provides a Simulink graphical model library that enables the user to draw one-line network diagrams using pictorial blocks. and sub-transmission equivalent areas respectively. measurements.

Luigi Vanfretti. This is done through a user friendly GUI. there are many ways in which the results can be visualized. vanfrl@rpi. The PCM allows to display results such as the bus voltage magnitude and angle. and the power ﬂow values within the Simulink model of the system.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 19 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Simulink Library Displaying Results in Simulink Models After solving the power ﬂow. This GUI also allows to export the Simulink models to EPS (Encapsulated Post Script) ﬁles.

which currently does not provide a Simulink-like environment. This feature allows using PSAT in the following conditions: If is not possible or slow to visualize the graphic environment When the user needs to write scripts that include the use of PSAT routines within custom made programs When running PSAT on GNU/Octave. vanfrl@rpi. this allows the user to custom made routines that not rely on the PSAT GUI’s. making it ﬂexible and adequate for research. Thus. Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 20 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Command Line Usage The command line version of PSAT is an adequate option when using the available routines (such as power ﬂow) inside user deﬁned routines.

Also.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Interface with GAMS PGI (PSAT-GAMS Interface) PSAT provides a graphical interface with GAMS (Generalized Algebra Modeling System) with the following purposes: To set up large scale power system test cases To solve OPF problems To visualize results by means of a user friendly GUI. vanfrl@rpi. the PGI has several improvements in comparison with the interface presented in [7]: The PGI is platform independent The PGI has a user friendly GUI The PGI does not require the user to have knowledge of Matlab or GAMS programming.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 21 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Interface with GAMS PSAT-GAMS Interface Gui In order to make friendly the use of the interface between the PSAT and GAMS a GUI is used to perform the following tasks: Select the market clearing model Set the market model parameters Display the results from GAMS Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 22 / 94 .

Next. After running the power ﬂow. the PSAT-GAMS interface can be opened to run the GAMS solver. Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 23 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Interface with GAMS Details of the use of the PGI: The ﬁrst step is producing the data that describes the power system. vanfrl@rpi. writing a data ﬁle with the appropiate data format or loading a predeﬁned model from the PSAT test cases. the power ﬂow routine must be runt in order to store all the initial values and useful results. this can be done by creating an on-line diagram with the Simulink library.

Once this data ﬁles have been written.m which is sent to Matlab in order to visualize the results and to perform further analysis with PSAT routines or custom user code. GAMS is launched and the market clearing mechanism is solved.gms. The output of the results from GAMS are stored in the ﬁle psatsol.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Interface with GAMS Internal functioning of the PGI: The system information is translated to a GAMS ﬁle named: psatdata. vanfrl@rpi. The routine fmg ams.gms. Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 24 / 94 . The user settings as market clearing model.gms used for solving the market procedures was designed to be general and without any limits except those derived from the GAMS solver and the computer memory. and global variables as the number of bus are written to the ﬁle psatglobs.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 25 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) PSAT Basics PSAT Features Interface with GAMS Market Clearing Mechanisms Models Currently. the PGI provides ﬁve optimization problems: Simple Auction Simpliﬁed market clearing mechanism Standard Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSC-OPF) Maximization of the maximum loading condition Luigi Vanfretti.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

PSAT Basics

PSAT Features

Interface with UWPFLOW

**UWPFLOW Interface Features)
**

UWPFLOW is a "commercial-grade" continuation power ﬂow program, that can be used to research static voltage stability phenomena in detailed AC-HVDC-FACTS power system models. As PSAT, is open code and of free distribution, it can downloaded from: http : //thunderbox.uwaterloo.ca/ UWPFLOW consists of a set of C functions and libraries designed for voltage stability analysis of power systems, including voltage dependent loads, HVDC, FACTS and secondary voltage control. The UWPFLOW can be installed in Linux, Unix and Windows platforms; the installation in Windows is not straight forward, nevertheless, help is provided in the documentation and PSAT Forum. The UWPFLOW-PSAT Interface comes with an GUI. This GUI allows the user to set the desired settings and then run the UWPFLOW routines. This GUI also can be used to generate the command line used by UWPFLOW.

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Introduction to PSAT

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The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

PSAT Basics

PSAT Forum

Get Help and Report Bugs

**Features of the PSAT Forum
**

Currently, there is a PSAT Forum at: http : //groups.yahoo.com/groups/psatforum This Forum is used also as a mail list and data repository. The member list of the Forum keeps growing, currently there are 540 members. You can use this Forum to report bus, ask questions related to the PSAT; to download the latest PSAT distribution, data ﬁles, and to make your own contributions!

**Figure: August 16, 2005
**

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT

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The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

**PSAT Models & Routines
**

PSAT Routines

As pointed out earlier, the PSAT has the following available routines: Power Flow Bifurcation Analysis (Continuation Power Flow) Optimal Power Flow SSS (Small Signal Stability Analysis) Time Domain Simulations Phasor measurement unit (PMU) Placement

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

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edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 29 / 94 . SSSCs. UPFCs Wind Turbines Luigi Vanfretti.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines Static and Dynamic Models Available in the PSAT As pointed out earlier. the PSAT has the following static and dynamic models in order to do thorough power system analysis: Power Flow Data Market Data Switches Measurements Loads Machines Controls Regulating Transformers FACTS: SVCs. vanfrl@rpi. TCSCs.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 30 / 94 . sub-synchronous resonance model.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines Static and Dynamic Models Available in the PSAT Other Models: synchronous machine dynamic shaft. and sub-transmission area equivalents Each of the models mentioned have an explications in the PSAT Documentation [2]. vanfrl@rpi. since the aim of this talk to give a broad view of the PSAT. Luigi Vanfretti. solid oxide fuel cell. these models will not be discussed in detail.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Power System Model The power system model is formed by a system of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE): ˙ x = f (x. p) = Luigi Vanfretti. y . f are differential equations. p) (1) where x are state variables. The algebraic equations g are obtained from the sum of all the active and reactive power injections in each bus: g (x. p are the independent variables. y . PSAT makes use of (1) in all the algorithms (routines) mentioned earlier. and g are algebraic equations. p) 0 = g (x. vanfrl@rpi. y . y are the algebraic variables.edu (RPI) gp gq = gpm gqm − c∈Cm gpc gqc ∀m ∈ M Fall 2006 (2) 31 / 94 Introduction to PSAT .

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Power System Model where gp m and gq m are the power ﬂows in the transmission lines. respectively.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 32 / 94 . Cm and gpc gqc are the set and the power injections of the power system components connected at bus m. vanfrl@rpi. T Luigi Vanfretti. M is T T the set of network buses.

yc . the differential equations f of (1) are built concatenating fc of each of the components of the Power System. pc ) Qc = gqc (xc . this means that any component is deﬁned independently of the rest of the program as a set of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations: ˙ xc = fc (xc . yc . yc the algebraic variables such as the voltage V and the angle θ at the buses where the element is connected.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines III Power System Model One of the most important characteristics of PSAT is that is component-oriented.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 33 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. pc ) Pc = gpc (xc . Afterwards. vanfrl@rpi. pc ) (3) where xc are the component state variables. and pc are independent variables. yc .

vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 34 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. parameters and the interconnection & grid topology.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines IV Power System Model The equations presented in (3) simultaneously with the Jacobian matrices are deﬁned in a function which is used for static and dynamic analysis by means of a structure. which contains data.

let us consider the mathematical model of an AVR.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 35 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. The PSAT has three types of models for different kinds of AVRs. vanfrl@rpi. we can consider a very simple AVR that can be modeled and simulated by the AVR Type III model provided by PSAT. for this example.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines V Power System Model As an example of the above mentioned.

Luigi Vanfretti. the other presents all the ﬁelds of the structure Exc. The ﬁrst presents the parameters for the AVR Type III. vanfrl@rpi.con that deﬁnes the AVRs inside the PSAT.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 36 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines VI Power System Model The differential Algebraic Equations of the model are the following [2]: (V −vm ) ˙ vm = Tr ˙ vr ˙ vf = = µ0 1− T1 (vref −vm )−vr 2 T T2 T vr +µ0 T1 (vref −vm )+vf 0 2 T2 (4) V −vf V0 The next slide presents two tables.

p. p. vm : indexes of state variable vm .u.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines VII Power System Model Exciter Type III Data Format (Exc. s Fields of the Exc. 10 vf : indexes of state variable vf . s s p. vrif : reference voltage vref . syn : generator numbers.u.con structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 con : data chart of the Exc components.con) Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Variable 3 vfmax vf min µ0 T2 T1 vf 0 V0 Tr Description Generator number Exciter type Maximum ﬁeld voltage Minimum ﬁeld voltage Regulator gain Regulator pole Regulator zero Field voltage offset Bus voltage offset not used Measurement time constant Unit internal internal p. Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 37 / 94 . vrif0 : reference voltage vref initial value. vanfrl@rpi. 0 vr1 : indexes of state variable vr1 .u.u. vr2 : indexes of state variable vr2 . n : total number of AVRs. vr3 : indexes of state variable vr3 .

vanfrl@rpi. are presented in [16. Luigi Vanfretti.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 38 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Power Flow PSAT provides several options to solve power ﬂow. in which PSAT bases the models and routines. The distributed slack bus model power ﬂow is a feature which it’s only available in PSAT among other Matlab based power system programs. namely: Newton-Raphson method Fast Decoupled Power Flow (XB and BX) Power Flow with a distributed slack bus model The theory of these methods. 26]. 25.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Power Flow The power ﬂow problem is formulated as (1) with zero ﬁrst time ˙ derivatives x: 0 = f (x. can be included in the power ﬂow as one typically knows the input parameters of the dynamic model. Other models. vanfrl@rpi. such as load tap changers.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 39 / 94 . y . p) (5) Differential equations are included in 5. this is due to the fact that the user does not know the input parameters of it’s dynamic model. Luigi Vanfretti. p) 0 = g (x. y . some dynamic components as synchronous machines are initialized after the power ﬂow analysis.

kG is scalar variable which distributes power losses among all 0 generators and γ are the participation factors of the generators to the total losses. kG is balanced by the phase reference equation. The loss distribution among the generators is obtained by rewriting the active powers PG of the slack bus and PV generator as following: PG = (1 + kG γ) PG 0 (6) where PG are the desired generator active powers. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 40 / 94 . kG is an unknown insofar as losses are unknown. If (6) can be written for all the generators.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines III Power Flow The distributed slack bus model is based in the concept of generalized power centers and consists in distributing losses among all generators. the theory behind this method is presented in [26].

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Bifurcation Analysis . The theory behind the method is presented in [24] The images below present the method to obtain the predictor by means of a tangent and by means of local parametrization.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 41 / 94 . The CPF algorithm consists in a predictor step which computes a normalized tangent vector and a corrector step that can be obtained either by means of a local parametrization or a perpendicular intersection. Luigi Vanfretti.Continuation Power Flow (CPF) The PSAT includes a CPF function which is a novelty among the Matlab-based packages for power system analysis. vanfrl@rpi.

QL0 The PSAT also provides Direct Methods (DM) for computing Saddle-Node Bifurcation (SNB) points and Limit-Induced Bifurcation (LIB) points. this option will not be discussed here. PL0 and QL0 respectively: PG = (λ + γkG ) PG0 [PL . y . QL ] = λ PL0 . λ) (7) Where λ is the loading parameter. PG0 . λ) 0 = g (x. y .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Bifurcation Analysis .edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT 42 / 94 . Fall 2006 (8) Luigi Vanfretti. which is used to vary the base case generation and load powers. vanfrl@rpi.Continuation Power Flow (CPF) The CPF problem is deﬁned based on 1: 0 = f (x.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 43 / 94 . PSAT is the only Matlab-based program that provides an IPM algorithm to solve OPF based market clearing mechanisms. vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Optimal Power Flow (OPF) The Optimal Power Flow (OPF) is deﬁned as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. PSAT also provides several objective functions: the maximization of the social beneﬁt the maximization of the distance to the maximum loading condition A multi-objective approach Luigi Vanfretti. PSAT uses the Interior Point Method (IPM) with a Mehrotra’s predictor-corrector method to solve the OPF problem.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Optimal Power Flow (OPF) Here it will only be discussed the "standard" OPF which uses the maximization of the social as objective function.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 44 / 94 . Nevertheless. vanfrl@rpi. it should be noted that it the VSC (Voltage Stability Constrained) OPF that maximizes the distance to the maximum loading condition and the multi-objective approach are also available to perform analysis in the psat Luigi Vanfretti.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

**PSAT Models & Routines III
**

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

Standard OPF Model The standard OPF commonly has the goal of maximizing the social beneﬁt. The modes is represented in PSAT as follows: Minimize(y ,p) F (p) Subject to g (y , p) = 0 hmin ≤ h (y ) ≤ hmax pmin ≤ p ≤ pmax

(9)

where g and y are deﬁned as in 1, the control variables p are the power demand and supply bids PD and PS , while F and h are the inequality constraints, respectively.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

Introduction to PSAT

Fall 2006

45 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

**PSAT Models & Routines IV
**

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

**The goal is to maximize the social beneﬁt, thus, the objective function F is deﬁned as: F =−
**

i

CDi PDi −

i

CSi PSi

(10)

where CS and CD are quadratic functions of supply and demand bids, respectively.

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

Introduction to PSAT

Fall 2006

46 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT)

Available Models and Routines in the PSAT

**PSAT Models & Routines V
**

Optimal Power Flow (OPF)

The physical and security limits h included in PSAT are similar to what is used in [12], and take into account the following limits:

Transmission line thermal limits Transmission line power ﬂow limits Transmission line power ﬂow limits Voltage security limits

Luigi Vanfretti, vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI)

Introduction to PSAT

Fall 2006

47 / 94

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Small Signal Stability (SSS) PSAT is also capable of performing SSS analysis.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 48 / 94 . Here. it has the option to perform both dynamic analysis and QV sensitivity analysis. it will only be discussed the Dynamic Analysis. The eigenvalues are computed in the dynamic analysis from the state matrix of the dynamic system. vanfrl@rpi. once the power ﬂow has been performed. ensuring high precision results. PSAT is able to compute and plot the eigenvalues and the participation factors of the system. Dynamic Analysis Luigi Vanfretti. but it should be noted that the routine to perform QV sensitivity analysis is also available. for the QV sensitivity analysis they are computed from the Jacobian matrix A remarkable feature of this options is that the eigenvalues are computed using analytical Jacobian matrices.

∆x ∆y xg = [AC ] ∆x ∆y y g.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 49 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Small Signal Stability (SSS) The Jacobian matrix AC of a dynamic system is deﬁned by linearizing 5 around an operation point: ˙ ∆x 0 where Fx = xf. (11) Fy = Gx = and JLFV = Then the state matrix AS is obtained by eliminating implicitly assuming that JLFV is non-singular: −1 AS = Fx − Fy JLFV Gx and (12) Luigi Vanfretti. y. vanfrl@rpi. = Fx Gx Fy JLFV yf.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines III Small Signal Stability (SSS) The computation of all eigenvalues can be a lengthy process if the dynamic order of the system is high.) PSAT also computes the participation factors using right and left eigenvector matrices. vanfrl@rpi. larges or smallest magnitude. as proposed in [16] Luigi Vanfretti. Thus. PSAT is able to compute a reduced number of eigenvalues based on sparse matrix properties and eigenvalue relative values (i.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 50 / 94 .e. etc.

Luigi Vanfretti. this is also an option only available in PSAT among other Matlab-based packages for power system analysis. vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines I Time Domain Simulations PSAT also provides the option to perform time domain simulations.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 51 / 94 . The SI method is more stable than the partitioned-explicit method which solves the differential equations and the algebraic equations separately as presented in [16]. PSAT is able to introduce common disturbances by means of embedded functions. For this it uses two different integration methods (Trapezoidal rule and backward Euler) to solve 1 together using the SI (Simultaneous-implicit) method. This embedded functions are useful to simulate common perturbations for transient analysis such as faults and breaker operations.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 52 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Available Models and Routines in the PSAT PSAT Models & Routines II Time Domain Simulations Step perturbations can be obtained by changing parameter or variable values after completing the power ﬂow. this functions can modify and include any global structure of the system. Luigi Vanfretti. Any other disturbance can be deﬁned through a custom made perturbation function.

a simple example on the use of each of this interfaces is given.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 53 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Case Studies An overview of the capabilities of PSAT through examples! In this section an overview of the available routines of PSAT is presented through examples based in small scale power systems. vanfrl@rpi. due to the fact that the available interfaces with GAMS and UWPFLOW expand the capabilities of PSAT to solve Optimal Power Flow and Continuation Power Flow problems. The routines discussed here are the following: Power Flow Bifurcation Analysis OPF SSS Time Domain Simulations Moreover. Luigi Vanfretti.

The images present the one-line diagram of the system and data from [27] The power system consists of four buses with PV and PQ generators. Luigi Vanfretti.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow I Power Flow Example 4 bus system Let us now solve a power ﬂow example from [27].edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 54 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.

The images shows the resulting diagram created with the Simulink library. the results can be visualized in different ways. After loading the case and running the power ﬂow routine.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow II Power Flow Example Building the system in PSAT The Simulink model library can be used to reproduce the same one-line diagram from [27]. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 55 / 94 .

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 56 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow III Power Flow Example The results can be viewed with the Static Report GUI. as depicted in the image below. vanfrl@rpi. Luigi Vanfretti.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 57 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow IV Power Flow Example The Static Report GUI also allows to view the results in a graphical manner by plotting the results of each ﬁeld in individual graphics as depicted in the image below. vanfrl@rpi. Luigi Vanfretti.

95685 222. exported to A a LTEXﬁle.00000 0.00000 0.00000 Q gen [mvar] 114.03269 P gen [mw] 186.00000 Table: Power ﬂow results Bus Abedul Arce Olmo Pino V [kv] 230.00000 4.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow V Power Flow Example The PSAT can also produce a detailed report and export it to A LTEX.60000 225.87705 Phase [rad] 0.53962 181.00000 0.38862 0. vanfrl@rpi.58000 105.00000 P load [mw] 50. Table: Network statistics Buses: Lines: Generators: Loads: 4.00000 Q load [mvar] 30.00000 2.00000 170.35000 123.00000 0. Excel or plain ASCII ﬁles.00000 4.00000 200.00000 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 58 / 94 .99000 49.94000 Luigi Vanfretti.00000 80. show the power ﬂow solution for the system.80318 318.00000 Table: Solution statistics Number of iterations: Maximum p mismatch [mw] Maximum q mismatch [mvar] 3. The following tables.02657 −0.01704 −0.00000 234.00000 0.

02607 1.22677 1.23436 56.25283 74.02607 1.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 59 / 94 .11564 P loss [mw] 0.00000 P ﬂow [mw] 38.00000 4.71533 Q loss [mvar] −8.93757 −3.07699 −131.70012 −102.83502 1.92076 P loss [mw] 0.00000 4.24197 Q ﬂow [mvar] 22.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow VI Power Flow Example Table: Line ﬂows From bus Abedul Pino Abedul Arce To bus Olmo Arce Pino Olmo Line 1.52664 Q ﬂow [mvar] −31.00000 P ﬂow [mw] −38.80512 Table: Line ﬂows From bus Olmo Arce Pino Olmo To bus Abedul Pino Abedul Arce Line 1.10306 133.35561 0.00000 2.60844 −74.88786 −63.92301 98.44370 −2. vanfrl@rpi.44370 −2.47336 104.22677 1.83502 1.71533 Q loss [mvar] −8.29678 −60.33156 61.93757 −3.35561 0.00000 2.75803 −97.80512 Luigi Vanfretti.00000 3.00000 3.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 60 / 94 .92823 Table: Total load Real power [mw] Reactive power [mvar] 500.00000 Luigi Vanfretti.86000 Table: Total shunt Real power [mw] Reactive power (ind) [mvar] Reactive power (cap) [mvar] 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow VII Power Flow Example Table: Total generation Real power [mw] Reactive power [mvar] 504.00000 309.00000 0. vanfrl@rpi.00000 0.80318 295.

80318 −13.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 61 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Power Flow VIII Power Flow Example Table: Total losses Real power [mw] Reactive power [mvar] 4.93177 Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Bifurcation Analysis I Continuation Power Flow Example IEEE 14 Bus System The CPF can be computed using the CPF routine in PSAT. The Simulink model for this case is presented in the ﬁgure.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 62 / 94 . Note that this data ﬁle is available with the current PSAT distribution. Luigi Vanfretti. In this example we will compute the CPF for the IEEE 14 bus case. vanfrl@rpi.

The last two columns depict the actual power ﬂow and the power ﬂow limit. the PSAT is also capable of computing the N − 1 Contingency analysis which is based in the CPF. bus 13 and bus 14. The output is organized in four columns The ﬁrst column depicts the transmission line or transformer while the second one shows for which line outage it has been found the minimum power in that line.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Bifurcation Analysis II Continuation Power Flow Example IEEE 14 Bus System The graph on the right presents the nose curves of the voltage magnitude at bus 12. The following tables illustrate the results of the N − 1 contingency analysis for the 14-bus test system. Also. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 63 / 94 . in the transmission line or transformer. respectively.

41710 0.u. vanfrl@rpi.04565 0.08719 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Bifurcation Analysis III Continuation Power Flow Example Table: Power ﬂow limits (1) line 2-5 6-12 12-13 6-13 6-11 11-10 9-10 9-14 14-13 7-9 line outage 3-4 1-5 5-6 1-5 2-5 6-11 2-4 4-9 1-2 1-5 pij [p.18272 0.06371 0.54883 0.10049 0.10655 0.08037 0.27203 pij max [p.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 64 / 94 .07546 0.u.04487 0.] 0.05405 0.01857 0.08180 0.37929 Luigi Vanfretti.09970 0.02231 0.05683 0.] 0.22162 0.

31835 1.72114 0.01484 0.] 1.00000 pij max [p.27203 0.57122 0.15504 0.00000 Luigi Vanfretti.94547 0. vanfrl@rpi.21438 0.] 1.45689 0.u.55939 0.92663 0.37929 0.73462 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 65 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Bifurcation Analysis IV Continuation Power Flow Example Table: Power ﬂow limits (2) line 1-2 3-2 3-4 1-5 5-4 2-4 5-6 4-9 4-7 8-7 line outage 5-6 5-6 7-9 7-9 3-4 5-6 1-5 1-5 1-5 1-5 pij [p.u.23472 0.75460 0.78458 0.60190 0.55747 0.

The standard OPF results with Active power limits appear in the following tables.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 66 / 94 . in this case. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi. The example. is the 6 bus test case available in the current PSAT distribution that appear in the image. note that not all the results from the routine are presented due to space restrictions.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Optimal Power Flow I OPF Example 6 Bus Test Case Let us now perform an OPF routine calculation.

00000 0.64928 8.00000 Table: Solution statistics Objective function [$/h]: Active limits: Number of iterations: Barrier parameter: Variable mismatch: Power ﬂow equation mismatch: Objective function mismatch: −121.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 67 / 94 .00000 3.00000 13.00000 3.00000 0.00000 11.00000 Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.00000 3.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Optimal Power Flow II OPF Example Table: Network statistics Buses: Lines: Generators: Loads: Supplies: Demands: 6.00000 0.00000 0.00000 3.

00100 0.00000 Ps min [mw] 0.30396 0.00000 8.00100 24.00000 0.00000 Mu max 2.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 68 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.00000 10.00000 0.00000 25.00100 Ps [mw] 0.00000 0.00000 0.06936 Pd max [mw] 25.09680 Table: Power demands Bus Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 Mu min 0.00100 Pd [mw] 25.00000 Ps max [mw] 20.00100 0.00100 0.00100 0.42491 0.17662 2.99999 20.65773 0.00000 10.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Optimal Power Flow III OPF Example Table: Power supplies Bus Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Mu min 0.00000 Pd min [mw] 0.00000 Mu max 0.00000 20.00000 Luigi Vanfretti.00000 20.

06760 Luigi Vanfretti.00000 V min [p.10000 1. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 69 / 94 .10000 1.00000 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Optimal Power Flow IV OPF Example Table: Reactive powers Bus Bus2 Bus1 Bus3 Mu min 0.u.10000 1.10000 Mu max 1.02463 −0.90000 0.00000 0.00000 0.u.90000 0.00000 −150.00000 0.10000 1.00000 −0.10000 1.00000 0.00000 150.00000 Table: Voltages Bus Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 Mu min 0.00000 0.08442 Qg max [mvar] 150.] 0.02114 1.04035 V max [p.00000 150.] 1.] 1.00000 0.69913 0.00000 0.00000 0.10000 1.20599 44.10000 1.90000 0.00000 Phase [rad] 0.07318 −0.u.00000 Qg min [mvar] −150.90000 0.90000 V [p.90000 0.00000 Qg [mvar] 76.36003 0.00000 0.62333 72.00000 Mu max 0.10000 1.00000 −150.01405 0.05066 −0.01295 1.29865 0.00000 0.

12194 Luigi Vanfretti.39306 0.20598 72.20737 0.68975 Rho p [$/mwh] 9.00000 0.80700 11.07648 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Optimal Power Flow V OPF Example Table: Power ﬂow Bus Bus1 Bus2 Bus3 Bus4 Bus5 Bus6 P [mw] 90.02037 8.00000 −109.00000 Table: Totals Total losses [mw]: Bid losses [mw] Total demand [mw]: Ttl [mw]: Imo pay [$/h]: 11.06936 62.00000 0.06936 323.29043 0.80700 43.98048 9.40762 0.14550 9.00100 164.00000 1062.00000 0.06933 Q [mvar] 44.65348 9.04872 0. vanfrl@rpi.99999 −98.23945 Pay [$/h] −812.00000 1100.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 70 / 94 .66499 −76.00000 0.00000 −732.56297 9.00000 925.21472 Ncp [$/mwh] −0.42843 Rho q [$/mvarh] 0.99999 −62.08440 −76.00000 −1481.62332 76.87536 80.00000 −115.

Luigi Vanfretti. The following ﬁgures. The results of the detailed report are not presented here due to space limitations. vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability I SSS Example WSCC 9 Bus System Now we will address a small signal stability example. and the small signal stability report depict the eigenvalue analysis for the WSCC 9-bus test system and have been generated with the Eigenvalue Analysis interface. This model is available in the PSAT distribution.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 71 / 94 . For this example we will simulate the WSCC 9 Bus System presented in [22] The Simulink network used to simulate the system is presented in the image.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 72 / 94 . vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability II SSS Example Figure: S-domain Eigenvalue Analysis Figure: Z-domain Eigenvalue Analysis Luigi Vanfretti.

53025 0.11928 0. part 0.08261 0.97483 0.11928 0. vf_exc_2 Vr1_exc_3.08261 0.00000 Frequency 0.15515 0.00000 0. delta_syn_1 Vr1_exc_2. omega_syn_1 Omega_syn_1.52758 0.10297 0.14039 0.33825 0.08397 0.04559 −0.14039 0.33825 −0.21238 −0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability III SSS Example Table: State matrix eigenvalues (1) Eigevalue Eig as 1 Eig as 2 Eig as 3 Eig as 4 Eig as 5 Eig as 6 Eig as 7 Eig as 8 Eig as 9 Eig as 10 Eig as 11 Eig as 12 Most associated states Omega_syn_2. vf_exc_2 Vr1_exc_2.08397 0.51904 −0. vf_exc_1 E1d_syn_1 E1d_syn_2 Real part 0. vf_exc_1 Vr1_exc_1.04559 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 73 / 94 .00000 0.88207 −0.11253 −0. vf_exc_3 Vr1_exc_1.00000 Luigi Vanfretti.10297 0.53025 −0.08439 0.51904 0.40303 Imag.52758 −0.88207 0.97483 −0. vf_exc_3 Vr1_exc_3. delta_syn_2 Delta_syn_1. delta_syn_2 Omega_syn_2. vanfrl@rpi.11253 0.15515 0.08439 0.

vr2_exc_1 Delta_syn_3 Omega_syn_3 Vm_exc_3 Vm_exc_3 Vm_exc_1 E1d_syn_3 Real part −0. e1q_syn_1 E1q_syn_2.00000 0.89257 −0.26655 −0.00000 0.11161 0.00000 0.16504 −0.98413 −0.26655 0.01776 0.00000 Frequency 0.02627 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 74 / 94 .00000 0.04242 0.85684 −0. vr2_exc_3 E1q_syn_3.88164 −0.00000 Luigi Vanfretti. part 0. e1q_syn_1 E1q_syn_3.04242 0. vr2_exc_1 E1q_syn_2.00000 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability IV SSS Example Table: State matrix eigenvalues (2) Eigevalue Eig as 13 Eig as 14 Eig as 15 Eig as 16 Eig as 17 Eig as 18 Eig as 19 Eig as 20 Eig as 21 Eig as 22 Eig as 23 Eig as 24 Most associated states E1q_syn_3.01776 0.98413 0.00000 0.42529 Imag. vr2_exc_3 E1q_syn_3.00000 0.89257 −1.11161 −0.00000 0.88164 −0.98413 0.00000 0. vanfrl@rpi.16504 0.00000 −1.02627 0.85684 −0.00000 0.00000 0.

00557 0.00012 0.00117 0.00756 0.00518 Luigi Vanfretti.00099 0.00541 0.00756 0.04895 0.30863 0.00035 0.00012 0. vanfrl@rpi.00728 0.00058 0.00004 0.00117 0.00623 0.04895 0.38073 0.00099 0.00058 0.00105 E1q_syn_1 0.44933 Delta_syn_2 0.00037 0.00162 0.00623 0.00012 0.00004 0.30863 0.00099 0.08515 0.00133 0.30863 0.08515 0.00099 0.48124 0.01199 0.00090 E1d_syn_1 0.00105 Omega_syn_1 0.00035 0.00162 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability V SSS Example Table: Participation factors (euclidean norm) (1) Delta_syn_1 Eig as 1 Eig as 2 Eig as 3 Eig as 4 Eig as 5 Eig as 6 Eig as 7 Eig as 8 Eig as 9 Eig as 10 Eig as 11 Eig as 12 0.00541 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 75 / 94 .00133 0.00557 0.01439 0.00222 0.00004 0.08515 0.00012 0.01352 0.08515 0.00004 0.01439 0.01352 0.00037 0.30863 0.00222 0.00170 0.38073 0.00170 0.

00066 0.16025 0.00021 0.00079 0. vanfrl@rpi.13694 0.00079 0.00066 0.00046 0.00000 0.00000 0.00066 0.13694 0.00082 0.00000 0.09334 0.00000 0.00079 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00082 0.00000 0.00901 0.01101 0.00949 0.00079 0.00000 E1q_syn_1 0.04432 0.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 76 / 94 .01101 0.00000 0.09334 0.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Small Signal Stability VI SSS Example Table: Participation factors (euclidean norm) (2) Delta_syn_1 Eig as 13 Eig as 14 Eig as 15 Eig as 16 Eig as 17 Eig as 18 Eig as 19 Eig as 20 Eig as 21 Eig as 22 Eig as 23 Eig as 24 0.00000 0.00000 Delta_syn_2 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 E1d_syn_1 0.00000 0.00021 0.00000 0.18937 0.00082 0.00145 0.00000 Omega_syn_1 0.00082 0.09334 0.09334 0.00000 Luigi Vanfretti.00000 0.00901 0.00000 0.04432 0.00000 0.18937 0.00949 0.00046 0.16025 0.00145 0.00066 0.

For this example we will simulate the WSCC 9 Bus System presented in [22] The Simulink network used to simulate the system is presented in the image.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 77 / 94 . the speed of of one of the generators is changes to 0.95 After this.x(Syn. The results due to the perturbation are presented in the next ﬁgure. vanfrl@rpi. this is done after the power ﬂow has been calculated as following: DAE. Luigi Vanfretti.omega(2)) = 0.u. the time domain simulation can be performed.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Time Domain Simulations Disturbance Example WSCC 9 Bus System In this example we will perform a time domain simulation with PSAT. in this case. This model is available in the PSAT distribution.. The system will be subject to a disturbance.95 p.

The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies Figure: Results of the time domain simulation. Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 78 / 94 .

Afterwards. vanfrl@rpi. the market problem can be solved by GAMS within PSAT. Luigi Vanfretti. The Simulink network used to simulate the system is presented in the image. Once the network has been loaded and power ﬂow has been performed. is presented in the next ﬁgures.Electricity Markets Example Simple Auction Example Let us now consider the use of the PSAT-GRAMS Interface (PGI) In this example we will compute the results of a single period simple auction.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 78 / 94 . that shows the results of solving the single period simple auction.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies GAMS Interface I Clearing Mechanisms . This model is available in the PSAT distribution. The ouput ﬁle generated by the PGI. one is able to run the PGI and set the appropiate values for the maket model.

Electricity Markets Example Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 79 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies GAMS Interface II Clearing Mechanisms .

The results of the CPF routine are presented in the next ﬁgure. For this example we will simulate the some 6 Bus Test System used in the OPF example. The Simulink network used to simulate the system is presented in the image. CPF can be performed. After computing the power ﬂow. the UWPFLOW-PSAT Interface can be initialized After this. This model is available in the PSAT distribution.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 80 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies UWPFLOW I Continuation Power Flow Example 6 Bus Test System In this ﬁnal example we will perform CPF with the UWPFLOW-PSAT Interace.

edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 81 / 94 .The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) Case Studies UWPFLOW II Continuation Power Flow Example Figure: Results of CPF using the UWPFLOW-PSAT Interface Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.

enhancing your learning experience. This is possible to do in PSAT because is easy to change the network topology.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 82 / 94 . You can reproduce the results given in your text books and in technical papers. this will enable the students to focus in interpreting the results rather than in learning to use a package or program their own routines. physical component model parameters and/or algorithms. PSAT can also be widely used for self study. thus. Luigi Vanfretti. Learning can be enhaced through the use of What if? examples.The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool PSAT in learning. education and research PSAT as a learning & teaching tool PSAT can be effectively be used in teaching. vanfrl@rpi. The GUIs and the Simulink graphical network environment are user friendly and self explaining.

education and research PSAT as a research environment PSAT is an excellent ally to do research. vanfrl@rpi. It’s a good idea that you consider to use PSAT as a research tool to do your thesis or research. without relying in the GUIs.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 83 / 94 . and maybe even share your custom made code and results with the rest of the user’s of the PSAT worldwide!!! Luigi Vanfretti. Also. it is possible to modify or/and add new component models or routines.The PSAT as an Educational and Research Tool PSAT in learning. Since PSAT is open source. PSAT has been used and it’s been used by many people to do their thesis and scientiﬁc research. you can use the command line version of PSAT to build your custom made code and solve particular problems.

Luigi Vanfretti. models and additional tools. self study and research tool.Summary Summary of the main subjects discussed in this talk Summary I An overview of PSAT was given in order to demostrate it’s main features. A broad number of examples were presented in order to show the capabilities of the PSAT and it’s interfaces. teaching. vanfrl@rpi. The PSAT was presented as a learing.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 84 / 94 . available routines. and you were encouraged to use PSAT as an everyday tool.

feel free to dowload the latest verion of the PSAT here: http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.com/groups/psatforum Luigi Vanfretti. Please.ca/ fmilano Also. vanfrl@rpi..yahoo. we would like to hear from you in the PSAT Forum: http://groups..edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 85 / 94 .Summary Thanks! Thank you for your attention! I Are you ready to start using the the PSAT? To download the PSAT.

Control and Electricity Markets References on Power System Control and Stability References on Power System Analysis Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 86 / 94 .Summary References References I For further reading The references have been divided in several categories: References on the PSAT References on Power System Operation.

Milano. Marbella. 5] F.Appendix References Power System Analysis Toolbox I References 1] F. Milano. Milano Website. Milano. August 2005. Spain. PSAT Version 1. F.4.uwaterloo.ca/ fmilano 2] F. http://groups. http://thunderbox.uwaterloo.3. "An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox". Documentation. 3. Noveno Congreso Hispano-Luso de Ingeniería Eléctrica.com/groups/psatforum Fall 2006 Luigi Vanfretti. vanfrl@rpi. no. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Milano. Milano.ca/ fmilano 3] F. http://thunderbox.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT 87 / 94 .2 July.4. Power System Analysis Toolbox version 1. 20. vol. http://thunderbox. 29 June .3. "A Graphical and Open Source Matlab-GAMS interface for Electricity Market Models".uwaterloo. 6] F.yahoo. PSAT Forum. Milano.ca/ fmilano 4] F.

"Matlab and GAMS: Interfacing Optimization and Visualization Software". Computer Sciences Department. University of Winsconsin-Madison. C. Ferris. Aug. Luigi Vanfretti. 1999. vanfrl@rpi.Appendix References Power System Analysis Toolbox II References 7] M.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 88 / 94 .

1996. New York: Marcel Dekker. Momoh. Optimization Principles: Practical Applications to the Operation and Markets of the Electric Power Industry. 2003. Control and Electricity Markets I References 8] Narayan S.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 89 / 94 . Mssachusets: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Rau. 11] M. Shahidehpour.Appendix References Power System Operation. 9] James A. Luigi Vanfretti. USA: IEEE Press . USA: John Wiley & Sons.Wiley Interscience. Power generation operation and control. Mantenance Scheduling in Restructured Power Systems. vanfrl@rpi. 2000. 2001. Electric Power System Applications of Optimization. 10] Allen Wood and Bruce Wollenberg.

1996". 14] Reliability Test System Task Force of the Application of Probability Methods Subcommitee. Cañizares. 18. A. Feb. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 15. H. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Milano. "Multiobjective Optimization for Pricing Sytem security in Electricity Markets". Erkeng Yu. Control and Electricity Markets II References 12] K. Luigi Vanfretti. May 2003. J. 596-604. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 13] F. Xie. 2000. vanfrl@rpi. 1. Feb. "The IEEE Reliability Test System . Song. and M.-H. Invernizzi. 18.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 90 / 94 . no. 42-47. 39-50. pp. pp. no. vol. 2. 1. C. vol.Appendix References Power System Operation. vol. and Guangyi Liu. stonham. pp. no. 2003. "Decomposition Model and Interior Point Methods for Optimal Spot Pricing of Electricity in Deregulation Enviorments".

. Luigi Vanfretti. 1981.Appendix References Power System Control and Stability I References 15] Jan Machowski et. USA: North-Holland Publishing Company. Power system stability: analysis by the direct method of lyapunov. 1998. 16] Peter Sauer and M. al. 1998. Power system oscillations. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons. 1998. USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pai. Voltage stability of electric power systems. vanfrl@rpi. 1999. 17] M.A. Power system dynamics and stability.A. 19] Graham Rogers. London: Kluwer International. Pai. USA: Prentice Hall. 18] Thierry Van Cutsem and Costas Vournas.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 91 / 94 . Power system dynamics and stability.

Aug. 24] C. Cañizares (Editor). "Voltage Stability Analysis using Static and Dynamic Approaches". Morison. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. al. Gao. 1993. vol. 22] P. IEEE/PES Power System Stability Subcommitteee. 1994. A. Power system control and stability. Tech. Practices and Tools". K.. 8.M. "Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts. 2002. Análisis y operación de sistemas de energía eléctrica. 2002. Kundur. USA: McGraw-Hill. Gómez et. B. 3.A. pp. Rep. Aug. Kundur. vanfrl@rpi.Appendix References Power System Control and Stability II References 20] E. USA: IEEE Press. no. 23] G. 2003. 21] P. 1159-1171.. and P. Fouad. Power system stability and control. Madrid: McGraw-Hill.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 92 / 94 . Luigi Vanfretti. Anderson and A. Final Document.

4. van Amerogen. D. 1994. Bergen and Vijay Vittal. 29] I. Power system analysis. A. 760-770. USA: Prentice Hall.J. 1989. 2. 27] J.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 93 / 94 . 26] W.P. vol. 3. Power System Analysis. "A General-Purpose Version of the Fast Decoupled Loadﬂow". 2003. 2000. "Standardized Sensitivity Coefﬁcients for Power System Networks". R. Nov. Lemmon. vanfrl@rpi. USA: McGraw-Hill. 28] A. India: Tata McGraw-Hill. M. 1988.Appendix References Power System Analysis I References 25] R. Stevenson Jr. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. W. pp. Luigi Vanfretti. Barcelo and W. 4. Nagrath and D. no. pp. no. Modern power system analysis. vol. 1591-1599. Grainger and W. May. Kothari. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems.

Luigi Vanfretti. 2002.Appendix References Power System Analysis II References 30] H. USA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Saadat.edu (RPI) Introduction to PSAT Fall 2006 94 / 94 . Power system analysis. vanfrl@rpi.

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