NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver

NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver


Introduction Equipment Procedures and Precautions Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive 4 4 4 6 7 8

40 41 44 46

Learning Goals Becoming a Better Diver How to Have More Fun The NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course Continuing Your Diving Education How to Use This Text

Learning goals Introduction Possible hazards Equipment Preparation Procedures and Precautions Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive

50 50 50 51 53 55 58

Learning Goals Getting Your Act Together Dive Planning Advance Planning Getting Ready Planning for the Dive Buddymanship Buoyancy Control Closing the Dive Recognizing and Handling Stress in Diving Preparedness and Training

12 12 12 12 14 15 18 20 22 23 24

Learning goals Aquatic Life Studies Activities Equipment Procedures Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive

62 62 62 62 64 68

Learning Goals Introduction Equipment Measuring Distances Underwater Natural Navigation Compass Navigation Surface Positioning Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive

28 28 28 30 32 33 36 37

Learning goals Introduction General procedures Basic Procedures of Search and Recovery Equipment Techniques and Precautions Overview of a Typical Search and Recovery Introductory Dive

70 70 70 72 72 73 77

Learning Goals


Learning Goals Introduction Possible hazards

80 80 81

Table of Contents

Equipment Procedures Legal and Ethical Issues of Wreck Diving Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive

82 83 84 85

Getting the most out of this book
Throughout this study book there will be sections that require your special attention. The following icons are used to mark these sections.

Learning Goals Introduction Getting Started Some Fundamentals Equipment Basic Principles Picture Taking Techniques Overview of a Typical Introductory Dive

88 88 88 89 90 91 93 93

Indicates a warning or safety information.

Indicates responsible diving practice.

Learning Goals Something for Everyone Underwater Hunting Collecting Choices, Choices

98 98 99 101 103

Index 104

CHAPTER Introduction .

comfortable diver. but you have a motivating reason to dive and can experience exhilaration when you succeed. Discover how to best utilize this textbook. What you want to do is to discover an underwater pursuit and become proficient enough in it to ensure a reasonable degree of success. Diving is really just a means to allow you to pursue endeavors in the world beneath the water. 4. There was a lot to learn just to get started. and you will have fun as you are accomplishing these objectives.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. You will be able to do more. You have chosen the correct route by seeking training to increase your qualifications and. and the diving conditions approximate those in which the diver was trained." A newly certified diver is considered competent to dive without supervision provided the activities. the diving area. This can make diving even more fun. however. Learn what to expect in your Advanced Scuba Diver Course. more experienced diver (figure 1-1). search for a wreck. FIGURE 1-1. Some of these may be appealing to you. your opportunities." HOW TO HAVE MORE FUN You may have discovered by now that diving is not really an end in itself after the initial learning experience. THEY ARE "LICENSES TO LEARN. your instructor probably congratulated you and also admonished you with words of caution such as: "You are now certified to continue learning how to dive. . BECOMING A BETTER DIVER Welcome to the NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course. Your instructor also told you that there were courses available to help you learn much more about underwater activities and to become a safer. 3. is that diving is most enjoyable when you have a dive objective. In your entry-level course you gained access to the underwater world. Understand the value of continuing your education. Learn what your advanced training will prepare you to do. studying aquatic life and the environment. learn how fish and other creatures live. 2. thereby. You know of many of them: photography. You acquired a basic knowledge of this other world and how it affects you. YOUR NAUI DIVER CERTIFICATIONS ARE MORE THAN EVIDENCE OF ACHIEVEMENT. and you have every right to be proud of being a certified diver. The important point. or seek some trophy. You learned about the equipment that you use. to dive in areas other than those associated with entry-level training. You may just want to explore a new area. wreck diving. and others may seem far beyond anything you think you'll ever attempt. and you mastered the skills necessary to manage diving's risks and be a competent. exploring. As you finished the course. This is what the NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course is all about. etc (figure 1-2).

. During your Advanced Scuba Diver Course you may be introduced to a variety of good diving locations in your region.Chapter 1. You will be introduced to night diving.. such as photography or bottle collecting. These introductions plus discovering new dive . These sites will add to your enjoyment for years to come. The Advanced Scuba Diver course will also introduce you to more advanced "tools" of diving such as deeper water diving and underwater navigation skills. OBSERVING AQUATIC LIFE OR EXPLORING WRECKS IS A FASCINATING ACTIVITY MADE MORE ENJOYABLE BY ADVANCED TRAINING. If you are not sure which activities might provide enjoyment and satisfaction for you. You will have more fun in a diverse. Your instructor will give you opportunities to experience several of the popular activities.Introduction FIGURE 1-2. read on and find out more about the Advanced Scuba Diver course. can be adapted to sub-surface activities. deep diving. a NAUI specialty course on the subject can quickly provide the education to help you successfully adapt your hobby to the diving environment. or other local interests. sterile one. If this is the case. you are in for the excitement provided by the NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver and Master Scuba Diver courses. So. (figure 1-3). You can then decide which of them you would like to further develop by completing the respective NAUI Specialty courses. underwater navigation. Another way to have fun is to dive at sites that offer a variety of things to see and do. interesting area than you will in a boring. The first step in selecting an underwater activity is to determine if any above-water hobbies.

The course consists of at least six open water dives. . Exploration and Underwater Mapping 9. this is the course for you. all at the same time (figure 1-4). continuing education certification course for divers who have successfully completed a NAUI Scuba Diver course or have equivalent training or experience. If you have recently moved into a new diving area or are certified through another agency and would like to obtain a NAUI certification. navigation.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 11 DIVING A VARIETY OF SITES AND TRYING NEW DIVING ACTIVITIES WILL EXPAND YOUR OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUN AS AN ADVANCED DIVER. Fresh Water or Ocean Diving Orientation Upon successful completion of the course. the NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course is also perfect for you. to learn to enjoy diving even more. It is an all-open water mid-level. Search and Recovery 5. and having fun. you will be certified as a NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver and will be considered competent to plan dives and to accomplish underwater tasks similar to those contained in the THE NAUI ADVANCED SCUBA DIVER COURSE If you are a new diver wanting to gain experience while increasing your diving abilities. sites are fine ways to have fun. Research Diving 11. and dive safety. Light Salvage 7. getting oriented to new dive sites. dive planning. Navigation 2. and to become a better diver. Hunting and Collecting 8. Boat Diving 6. learn much more about the environment. Night or Low Visibility Diving 3.. Deeper Diving 4.. The course is likely to include an orientation to some of the following subjects: 1. Non-Penetration Wreck Diving 10. You will review basic skills.

You will also be qualified to enroll in the NAUI Master Scuba Diver course and in all NAUI Specialty Diver courses.. NAUI ADVANCED SCUBA DIVER TRAINING WILL INTRODUCE YOU TO A VARIETY OF FUN DIVING ACTIVITIES. But you will have a good idea of the interests you would like to pursue and be qualified to participate in NAUI Specialty Diver courses (figure 1-5). you will not receive enough training to be considered proficient in them.. you should have a good idea of one or more underwater activities in which you . After your Advanced Diver Course or Master Scuba Diver training. you may wish to take a NAUI Master Scuba Diver Course to further expand your capabilities and to develop more detailed general diving knowledge and further experience diving specialties.Introduction FIGURE 1 3 . course. While you will receive an introduction to some of the specialty areas of diving. CONTINUING YOUR DIVING EDUCATION After your NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course.Chapter 1.

The Table of Contents and the index can help you locate information on a specific topic. according to the schedule arranged for your course. it usually gives the test before the lesson. you gain experience under supervision. and finally pursue your interest or interests confidently and enjoyably. You'll quickly learn the correct procedures and will soon be achieving your desired goals. While experience is said to be a good teacher. There are only two ways to become proficient in a specialty area: you can learn through trial and error-the experience method-or you can be taught by someone who has the expertise to help you avoid errors and get desired results right away.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 1 5 . Pick out the specialty you want. After you learn the basics. Each of the chapters provides information on popular diving topics that may be introduced in your course. . Later you increase your knowledge and skills while being introduced to special interest areas. Your NAUI Instructor may assign various chapters for you to study. AN ADVANCED SCUBA DIVER CERTIFICATION CARD NOT ONLY SHOWS YOUR ADDITIONAL EXPERTISE BUT MEETS PREREQUISITES FOR MASTER SCUBA DIVER AND OTHER COURSES. That is why we recommend learning from a NAUI instructor. you may want to read about and familiarize yourself with them. This text will also serve as a fine diving reference book for your library. You will develop proficiency in the specialty. would like to engage. then enroll in a NAUI course for that particular interest. The aim of NAUI is to educate people to have fun while diving as safely as possible. HOW TO USE THIS TEXT This book is designed to serve as resource information for the NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Course. Whether or not all of the topics in the book are included in your course.

CHAPTER Continual Improvement .

If you are susceptible to seasickness. So. A buddy does not have to have the same skill level as you. Commercial dive boats will not operate if the seas are too high or conditions are adverse. As you advance your diving skills. What will you need? Check your diving equipment.G. you will be taking more and more responsibility for your own dives. The time of day can make a difference as well. Shore divers must be especially wary of winter conditions when waves and surf are more likely to prevent diving (figure 2-1). If you GETTING YOUR ACT TOGETHER You may be entering the Advanced Scuba Diver course directly from your entry-level training. Review the buddy system and its benefits to diving enjoyment and safety. when. and further acquainting yourself not only with specialized equipment but also with your general diving gear. Learn about stress and stress management and the role that fitness. A location that requires only a shorty wetsuit in the summer may need a full 6. 7. Review S. training and preparation have on diving safety. cise. what. Can you locate everything? Don't wait until the last minute. Review buoyancy control techniques and methods for fine tuning buoyancy and ballast. and how method of planning a dive. In the course you will be expanding your horizons with a series of at least six dives that introduce you to a variety of diving activities.A. Just as importantly. 3. advance preparatory planning and planning for the dive itself. and its use as a memory device for pre-dive equipment checks. before we begin specific diving activities of this course. 2. when. increasing your ability to plan and execute safe and enjoyable dives.B. There are two parts to this exer- . where. but with whom you will dive is an important decision. or it may be booking a week-long diving vacation to an exotic remote destination. Are rough seas a possibility? You are more likely to encounter adverse conditions in the winter. Your objectives should be similar. and how of your dive. techniques. 5. Learn the benefit of continual improvement of your diving skills. Easier diving in calmer water is more likely in the morning before winds increase and cause chop.planning. what. Make a checklist. The proper buddy can mean achieving your dive objective. When are you diving? What water conditions should you prepare for? Water temperatures and dive-conditions vary with the season. but it should be adequate to the planned dives. DIVE PLANNING Planning for safe.5-mm suit in the early spring. Your buddy should be someone compatible and trustworthy.A.E. or you may have had some additional diving experience. with each dive you will be improving your general diving skills. let's look at the more general skills of scuba diving . Review the processes of advance and immediate pre-dive planning. Preparing for your diving should start immediately. Do you need to acquire some additional or special equipment? Is your equipment in good condition? Does it need repairs or annual preventive maintenance? Repairs will take time. Be prepared to not dive if conditions are bad. where. 6. be prepared. and safe diving. Advance planning Advance or long-term dive planning begins when you decide to make the dive.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. Be introduced to a who. A good buddy can make the difference between having fun and not having fun. Who will be your buddy? The decision may be a matter of course. Perhaps you are here to refresh your skills after a long period of not diving. Begin by listing the who. enjoyable dives demands care and attention to detail. It may be as simple as you and your buddy deciding what you want to do on a weekend day. so you must plan ahead. 4.

The times of high and low tide change from day to day with the phases of the moon. Visibility will be better at high tide when clean water is coming towards shore. Wherever you are diving. Be sure that you allow enough time to arrive well ahead of scheduled departure. For example. especially in the summer when the beaches are crowded with swimmers and parking is scarce. Do you need some special clothing? Should you take an extra supply of any required medications? Thinking ahead avoids problems later. Is taking game. such as lobsters. some decisions. Some of the other things you must consider about where you dive have already been discussed. your choice of dive time may be affected by the tide. Can you car-pool? Where will you park? If you are boat diving. Consult local tide tables to help find optimal conditions. such as choice of dive site and appropriate . Tidal currents are influenced by the state of the tide. knowing the departure time is important. If you are traveling to your destination by air or if you are diving from a commercial dive boat. How are you diving? Will your diving platform be the shore or a boat (figure 2-2)? Organize your plan for getting there. IT MAY BE WISER TO WAIT FOR ANOTHER DAY. in many places shore access for diving is permitted only at certain times of the day. This will also provide some contingency time in case you are delayed by traffic or a minor mishap on the way. permitted and are licenses necessary? You need to know and comply with relevant laws and ordinances. do you have a valid passport? Without one. your dive will end at the airport check-in because you won't be allowed to board the plane. Another general consideration is departure time. and the captain of a dive boat has commitments to the other divers on board and is not likely to delay sailing because you are late. A beach that is an easy entry point at high tide may be dangerously rocky or slippery at low tide.Chapter 2. remember that everything you need has to go on board with you. Your flight will not wait for you (unless it is your private airplane). are ocean diving.Continual Improvement FIGURE 2-1. If you are diving with a group. Low tide usually means lower visibility especially near the mouth of a harbor or other geographic restriction that produces tidal flow. Where are you diving? If you will be traveling abroad. CHECK CONDITIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE MAKING THE DECISION TO DIVE. you need to be aware of local regulations.

conditions. Even if your dive bag has a dry section. Check the weather (figure 2-3). If they are liable to be placed in an unpressurized luggage compartment. either carry them with you or place them in an airtight container. the National Weather Service maintains a web site and broadcasts 24 hours a day on dedicated radio frequencies. You may want to develop an accessories checklist to help you remember everything. and they therefore tend to be forgotten. divemaster. If you have a dive computer. windproof jackets. Make your personal checklist. This will make your dive preparation at the site more organized. These will not be on your dive equipment checklist. drinks. dry clothes. It often helps to pack the night before your departure and "sleep on it.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 2-2. hats. In many areas. into a hard case. HOW YOU GET TO YOUR DIVING LOCATION MAKES A DIFFERENCE IN THE PLANNING PROCESS. read the manufacturer's instructions about safe transport. Most dive computers will be turned off and unaffected by pressure changes. If you are packing for the dive itself. Many other agencies and companies offer global weather information on the Internet. and you will not have to spread your gear all over the boat. may be group decisions or will be made by the boat captain. Don't wait until the last minute to pack. But remember that their decision to dive does not remove from you the responsibility to not dive if you do not feel comfortable with the diving choices and the skills and ability required of you." You may wake up remembering something you left out. Don't forget to take those extra important items. If you have to rush. protect any instruments that are sensitive to pressure changes. Protect any equipment that is liable to breakage by padding around it or putting it . and basic first aid supplies. If you are packing for an airplane trip. In the United States. pack your gear in the dive bag in the reverse order that you will use or assemble it. it is a good idea to pack the items that must stay dry in a separate bag or daypack. Getting Ready Final preparations will go more smoothly if you allow enough time to accomplish them easily. sunscreen. or group leader. you are more likely to forget some essential item. such as food.

If you cannot find acceptable conditions. current. Evaluate the conditions when you arrive at the dive site.Chapter 2. ask yourself whether the dive is within the skill level of yourself and your buddy. the terrain. has low waves and surf. even waterfront business establishments for current conditions. there are still many tasks to perform before you actually dive. consider not diving. seek an alternate site-one that is out of the wind. Know how you would contact emergency services in the event of an accident. Make certain that you and your dive buddy are physically and mentally prepared for the dive. surf conditions will also be posted. Look for currents. call them if the conditions are at all questionable. If either of you is not feeling well.the depth. do not dive. Remember. As with shore Planning for the Dive When you arrive at the destination. the captain will make the decisions about the dive location based on your safety and his or her knowledge of the dive location and the conditions. dive boats and fishing boats. find an alternate location or cancel the dive. The captain can make you aware of many factors. Have at least one additional exit site in case some situation. or whatever will improve the conditions that make you hesitant about diving at your first selected site. If you have any doubts. offers easy entry and exit. If the dive requires greater strength or stamina than either of you possess. or if either of you is apprehensive about the dive. You will be briefed about what to expect .Continual Improvement FIGURE 2-3. You can watch for drift of swimmers or floating objects to determine longshore currents. Rip currents often show as foam. the decision to dive is still your responsibility. Determine the size and duration of wave sets. areas of dirty water. You can telephone harbors. but you must be the judge of your own abilities and your preparedness. Now that you can see . If you are on a chartered dive boat. the dive site. If you are diving with a charter dive boat company. lifeguard services. has negligible current. If you are diving from the shore. Ask yourself whether it is safe and prudent to dive. The call can save you a lot of frustration if they have canceled the trip. Choose your entry and exit points. There is always another day to dive. or disturbances in wave patterns. choose a good vantage point from which you can observe entries and exits as well as water conditions. such as a change in wind. any current or hazards and what you can expect to see. ANY DIVE SITE CAN CHANGE RADICALLY FROM DAY TO DAY AND SOMETIMES FROM HOUR TO HOUR. or tide height eliminates your first choice.

Your dive objective. assemble and don your equipment and conduct a thorough buddy check (figure 2-4). The boat will deploy a trail line off the stern in case you surface down current. your training. and chop and plan your dive accordingly. emergency plans. Begin your dive into any current so that you can return to the boat with the current in your favor. Either of you should be able to assist the other with equipment problems if needed. or your comfort level may be the determining factors if you are diving on a wall or a drop-off. The turnaround point should be based on the diver with the higher air consumption. is operational before entering the water. planning for the safest utilization of currents. The three parts of depth. You may have learned a mnemonic. Determine how would you add air. The maximum depth of the site may determine the depth of your dive. Turn the dive while you still have enough air remaining for your swim back. The planned duration of the dive will be limited by the time allowed by your dive tables. Pace yourselves as you assemble your equipment and don your thermal protection so that you do it in tandem. In drift diving. A safer procedure is one which is used in advanced dive situations. and gear. Whether you are diving with a new dive partner or an old friend. in your entry level course to help you remember the steps of dive planning and equipment checks. and the boat will follow. such as method of entry. you will dive with the current. time. There are no air fill stations underwater for the recreational diver." the divers turn the dive after one-third of the available air is used. Pause with your buddy at the bottom of the anchor line to organize yourselves before proceeding with the dive. you and your dive partner need to plan the details together. When you have agreed on your dive plan. it is important that the group stay together and surface together. waves and swell. Another way to perform a buddy check is to begin at your heads and together match each piece of equipment as you work your way towards your feet. Whatever you use to remember the process. SEA refers to dive planning and stands for site survey. Once you have decided to make the dive. Compass bearings and the general pattern of the dive should also be decided together. It lets you discuss contingencies such as handling an out-of-air situation while you are looking at your equipment. visibility. you will check several specific points in order to be sure everything is present and operational. The buddy check is an essential part of every dive. It is an opportunity to double-check that your own. as well as your buddy's equipment. and air are the foundation of any dive plan. There are other factors. not scatter all over the bottom. Buoyancy Compensator: 1. For simple dives. Called the "rule of thirds. You should establish the depth for the dive and its duration. You should also agree on your air management plan. Technical divers engage in elaborate gas management plans in which their gas consumption at every stage of the dive is factored into the dive plan. The buddy check has several purposes. Remember that most dives are round trips. and activity. The Dive Plan is an essential part of every dive. you will be able to return to your exit point underwater without a long surface swim. take note of currents. It familiarizes each of you with the other's equipment and its configuration. If you rush to get ready. a thorough pre-dive check is fundamental to a safe dive. You must also take your available air into account. such as SEABAG. that have already been discussed. With good air planning. and contingency exit points. many divers will begin their return when half of their available air remains (allowing an appropriate amount for reserve air). too. If you are drift diving or live-boat diving. Push the inflator button on your buddy's BC to make sure you know how to operate it. This allows one-third for return and onethird for contingencies. you will normally descend on the anchor line. you may be standing in your wetsuit in the hot sun for an extended period. waiting for your buddy to finish getting ready. both orally and using the low-pressure inflator. If you are diving from an anchored boat. Compare the operation of your BC inflation systems. and you will exit at or near where you entered the water. It could also be determined by the cylinder size and your knowledge of your air consumption rate. . BAG refers to the points of a buddy check and refers to buoyancy system.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver diving. air.

2. If you needed air. as you take breaths and see if the indicator needle is stable. Open it fully and check it again. IT REQUIRES A CERTAIN DISCIPLINE TO ALWAYS DO A PRE-DIVE EQUIPMENT CHECK. 2. Some divers attach their gauge consoles to the opposite side of the front of their BC. Make sure that any other special gear is functional. If it rotates or indicates lower cylinder pressure with each breath you take it may mean that your tank valve has been closed or is only partially open and is interfering with the flow of air. You should not assume that you will always find a "standard" lever buckle. Look for any twisted. 3.Chapter 2. Watch your S. Look for this. Final Check: 1. waist belt. trapped. would you breathe from your buddy's secondary scuba or would you use the primary second stage? Is your buddy planning to hand over a contingency scuba unit in the event you need an air supply? Weighting System: Familiarize yourself with your buddy's ballast system. 2. You and your buddy should breathe from your regulators to verify that they are properly functioning. . It will be one more release you must make if you have to help with equipment removal. Air Supply: 1. How does it operate? Discuss how you would use it in an out-of-air situation. chest clip.Continual Improvement FIGURE 2-4. Many types of weight belt release systems are available.G. Locate your buddy's alternate air source or contingency scuba. or entangled hoses and free them. Make sure all releases are accessible. Is it integrated into the BC. Discuss your turnaround pressure and your back-at-surface pressure while considering your actual cylinder contents. and shoulder releases. Familiarize yourself with the closures and releases of the BC.P. Check the operation of all lights if you are night diving. Make sure the air is turned on. and if so how does the release operate? Is it a weight belt? Examine the release. Check the existing pressure in your cylinders. Look for a cummerbund.

and so should your buddy. In buddy diving. It requires an exceptional team member to keep track of two divers. You should consistently be able to glance to one side and see your buddy." If you want to change position.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Each member of the team should be a self-reliant buddy. both divers must be committed to its principles. and you should maintain the same position relative to one another. You should behave towards your buddy as you would want them to behave towards you. Your buddy is doing the same. follow your plan. 3. In that event. It is also common to become complacent about one's responsibility to the others and inattentive to the whole team. such as photography or fish watching. inform him or her of your dive plans. Too often a threesome finishes the dive as a twosome and a missing. The buddy is an extra set of eyes and hands that can provide assistance. you are accepting the responsibility of trying to assure a safe and comfortable dive for you both. Decide who will be the nominal leader for the dive. and conduct a thorough pre-dive buddy check. As we have already discussed. Maintaining position FIGURE 2-5. Once the buddy check has been completed. A large part of being a good buddy is a matter of courtesy. solo diver. The other team member should remember to keep up and get the leader's attention and signal before stopping. Nevertheless. Step back and ascertain that everything looks right. you should plan the dive together. agree on its parameters and objectives. you should feel confident in your own ability to engage in the dive activity. it can cause an anxious moment when you turn up "missing. A thorough pre-dive buddy check as well as a conscientious and observant buddy during the dive can help prevent a mishap or an accident. There are several techniques that will help you perform as a team. you can proceed to the water. During the dive. EVERY BUDDY NEEDS SOMEBODY THEY CAN LEAN ON. As a team member. One diver is likely to be forgotten. decide on a predetermined signal during your dive planning. if needed (figure 2-5). The leader has the responsibility to not out-swim the other team member and to allow time for any activities. This may be the point at which you discover a loose tank strap. signal your buddy of your intentions. only one of the team members has someone who can provide assistance. a buddy team is no place for a dependent relationship. Buddymanship The buddy system increases the fun of diving. The other might as well be diving alone. Communicate with one another frequently and especially prior to changing direction or halting progress. if appropriate. . If you fall behind or drift above your buddy. He or she should be capable of diving safely and conducting the planned dive. For the buddy system to work. You are not giving up responsibility for your own actions and safety. Threesome teams should be avoided if at all possible. The optimal buddy team position is shoulder-to-shoulder. Inform the divemaster or other responsible person that you are entering the water and. If you will want to change leader.

follow the bubbles downward to rejoin your buddy. If necessary. Avoid areas that could cause problems. Changing the dive changes all of the parameters you and your buddy had so carefully agreed to. The signal to end a dive should never be questioned. If your buddy is not at the surface. below. .Continual Improvement FIGURE 2-6. It is unwise to significantly alter the plan in the midst of the dive. should have been discussed as part of your predive planning. and above. Pay attention to your navigation. Communicating the change underwater is difficult and usually incomplete or impossible. In relatively clear water. continuing to turn in a circle as you look around. return to your exit point and make a normal exit if possible. It could be because you are low on air. inflate your BC fully to raise yourself higher in the water and look for his or her bubbles breaking the surface. watching for your buddy's bubbles. If the dive is called early. or it could be because something just does not feel right. Follow your dive plan. the usual lost buddy procedure is to look around from side-to-side and in a complete circle. You can discuss the situation in your post-dive debriefing. relative to your buddies is even more important and that much more difficult in a three-member team. begin a normal ascent to the surface.Chapter 2. Any diver should feel free to end the dive at any time and for any reason. As you dive think ahead. Ascend several feet and look in a circle again. but remain observant during the dive. Potential problems can be avoided if you and your buddy stay aware and look ahead. If you do not locate your buddy within one minute at the most. remembering to look above as well as on the bottom (figure 2-6). Examine channels and swim-throughs before entering. Your dive planning will have covered many contingencies. Your buddy should be using the same procedure. Keep your fins high as you enter silted areas. Remain aware for signs of current change. and you should surface within a short distance of one another. including your safety stop. Swim over to the bubbles and wait a minute or so for your buddy to surface. What you do in the event of separation from your buddy. LOOK IN ALL DIRECTIONS TO LOCATE A LOST BUDDY.

and allow you to descend without effort. very slight adjustments of your kick.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Buoyancy Control Finely tuned buoyancy control is the mark of a skilled diver (figure 2-7). have greater control. if you do not have enough weight. Whether you breathe with your lungs fuller or emptier can make a difference of as much as 3 kg (7 pounds) in buoyancy. If you are properly weighted. cylinder material and size. depending on lung volume. Comfortable. you will be able to achieve neutral buoyancy at depth with a minimal amount of air in your BC. you will have to add greater amounts of air to your BC underwater. You will expend much more energy than necessary just moving through the water. Muscle and bone mass. You will expend less energy. it is a constant struggle to get beneath the surface and stay at depth. You will be able to control your vertical motion in the water with breathing control. the air cells in neoprene wetsuits compress due to increasing pressure as you descend. you may still need to make minor adjustments to your weighting to dive comfortably. both personal and equipment related. or negative buoyancy easily. You will not be able to streamline your movement through the water because your weighted waist and buoyant BC will position your body at an angle. and be able to avoid stirring up silt (figure 2-8). and you must compensate for this loss of volume by adding air to your BC. With practice. neoprene padding on weight belts. you will have to vent this air from your BC. positive. Remember to perform a buoyancy check whenever you change your equipment or exposure suit configuration. A surface buoyancy check is an approximation. During ascent. Longer exhalations will reduce your lung volume FIGURE 2-7. all affect your buoyancy. enjoyable diving is directly related to the ability to achieve neutral. you can use the amount of air in your lungs to fine-tune your buoyancy. After setting your weighting with a buoyancy check. If your buoyancy is adjusted properly. Individual buoyancy is affected by many factors. The guiding principle in weight adjustment is to . On the other hand. it is hard to keep your head above water at the surface or to control your descents and ascents. To counterbalance the excess weight. Deeper breaths will slow your descent or actually allow you to rise in the water column. Moreover. as your wetsuit and the air in your BC reexpand. and you will be able to easily maintain a horizontal position as you swim. If you are over-weighted. backpacks and cummerbunds. FINE TUNED BUOYANCY CONTROL IS THE MARK OF A SKILLED DIVER. will control your trim as you breathe and swim underwater. wetsuit or dry suit buoyancy.

The criteria for a surface buoyancy check is that you should float at eye level with all of your equipment in place. the air in your cylinder is depleted. use the minimum amount of weight that will enable you to be neutrally buoyant with an empty BC during your safety stop at 5 meters (15 feet).Continual Improvement FIGURE 2-3. you would add 2 kg (4 pounds) to your ballast weight when you move from fresh water diving to ocean diving. you would remove 3 kg (6 pounds) when transferring from the ocean to a lake. Ocean water is two-and-a-half percent heavier than fresh water. you must add or subtract enough ballast weight to change your density by two-and-a-half percent. and that a fresh water diver needs more weight for ocean diving. Take time on your next dive to check your buoyancy during your safety stop and make adjustments. a standard surface buoyancy check may leave you a few pounds buoyant at the end of the dive. and the cylinder will be significantly more buoyant. Here's how. your BC empty. plus one-half kg (one pound) for the weight of your equipment. so it provides two-and-a-half percent more buoyancy than fresh water. When moving from fresh water diving to the ocean or vice versa. You can use a rule of thumb estimate how much weight to add or to remove when the same equipment is being used. if you weigh 52 kg (115 pounds). you should add or subtract about one-half kilogram for every 20 kilograms that you and your equipment weigh (about one pound of weight for every 40 pounds). a good place to begin is to add or subtract one-half kg (one pound) for every 20 kg (40 pounds) of body weight. . This is reasonably accurate for a fully wet-suited diver (wetsuit compression at 5 meters offsets the increased cylinder buoyancy at the end of the dive). MAINTAINING NEUTRAL BUOYANCY AND TRIM IMPROVES DIVING EFFICIENCY. Using this rule of thumb.Chapter 2. You know that the removal of weight is required when an ocean diver wants to dive in fresh water. Since most of us have not weighed ourselves with all of our dive gear. As you end the dive. In other words. If you weigh 93 kg (205 pounds). But if you are dressed only in a diveskin. and your lungs full. Round to the closest half kg (pound). Enter your proper weighting for your equipment configuration in your log book.

How was your buoyancy? What did each of you see in the others who were also diving that could be made better. Entering water temperature may be useful to decide how much thermal protection you will want on a future dive. Debrief with your buddy. keep your area clear and stow your equipment (figure 2-9). and enter the dive in your logbooks. relax. Exchange your observations on how well you functioned as a buddy team. Your logbook provides the place where you can record any diving information you may need in the future. Depending on circumstances you may put your equipment away. don't forget to drain the extra water from your BC and to dry and replace the protective cap on your regulator first stage. EVEN ON LARGE VESSELS DECK SPACE IS LIMITED. Use it to enter information on dive sites and their location. STOW IT OUT OF THE WAY WHEN YOU'RE ON A BOAT. change into dry clothes and warm yourself. or you may set it up for the next dive. If you are disassembling your equipment. Did you accomplish it? If so. no-caffeine drinks to hydrate yourself. Talk about your objective. The debriefing will help you focus on important aspects of the dive that you may want to enter. what can you do differently next time. Drink plenty of nonalcoholic. Debriefing with your buddy after your dive is a required activity to become a better diver. record it in your logbook. Keep it out of the way of other divers if you are boat diving and out of the sand and dirt if you are beach diving. AFTER YOU RINSE YOUR REGULATOR AND DRAIN YOUR BC IN BETWEEN DIVES. debrief one another.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Closing the dive You have completed the dive successfully and had a great time. On a boat. it is time to disassemble your equipment. Discuss what went well and what you could do better next time. Avoid heavy exercise immediately after the dive. If you are cold. Rinsing your equipment may have to wait. Your logbook also provides a reference when a FIGURE 2-9. and decide how you want to change your buddymanship next dive. Talk about the dive. either to recall memories later or for future reference. and if not. what helped you do this. . the amount of weight you wear with different exposure suits. After you have discussed the dive. the success of various equipment configurations and so on. When you exit the water. but you should keep your equipment as clean as possible. your air consumption using different cylinder sizes.

or fixation on equipment. uncomfortable situation. a person will respond to a stressful situation by concentrating on the cause. It should evoke an effort on your part to maintain or restore your sense of control and equilibrium. Life is stressful. nervousness. one of the surest signs of excessive stress is a change in breathing pattern from smooth. If handled positively. "A ship underway in under stress. Just as you may be reluctant to admit to your own stress. Most of us recognize stress in ourselves. A person experiencing . In diving. others may try to deny and hide it. repeated errors. When getting ready for the dive. Canceling a dive that you believe may be too demanding should always be an option. exhilaration and achievement. but also to admit to it. A positive outcome can give a feeling of pleasure. It is not necessarily always bad. Advance planning for your dive can do much to prevent or control stress so that it doesn't become excessive and harmful. you are more likely to encounter dives or environments that can cause excess stress in you or your buddy.Continual Improvement future trip takes you to a location with a dive operator who wants to know your diving experience. looking for a solution. As you enter the water. As a diver you should know how to recognize signs of excessive stress in yourself and in your buddy and be prepared to act to avoid. On the other hand. apparent inability to assemble equipment. RECOGNIZING AND HANDLING STRESS IN DIVING As you expand your diving horizons. or difficulty controlling descent may be signs of excessive stress. Denying feelings of stress is an invitation to a steadily worsening situation. or excess talking and humor. even breathing to rapid. The anxious person is impaired in their ability to function. especially gauges. As we say in the NAUI Scuba Rescue Diver textbook. The anxiety can be followed by distraction as more and more concentration is placed on the anxiety rather than finding a solution. over-breathing. you must learn not only to recognize stress. During the dive." Excessive stress occurs anytime there is an imbalance between the demands placed on you and your ability to respond. A ship run aground is in distress. FIGURE 2-10.Chapter 2. and very little extra is required to push them over into a state of distress and panic-a total loss of control. The stressor can lead to anxiety-fear or apprehension experienced in the face of a real or imagined danger. stay aware for such behaviors as stalling. THOROUGH PLANNING AND REHEARSAL CAN SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE STRESS. reduce. or alleviate it. ear-squeeze problems. Watch for inability to control buoyancy. ignoring stress or denying its presence can have just the opposite effect. and acting to remove the cause of the stress or solve the problem. Recognizing excessive stress in your buddy requires observation. jerky movements. reluctance to descend. Deciding to be aware and observant as you dive can help you avoid getting into a stressful. you must practice being observant of your buddy's behavior as well as your own. withdrawal. To develop your ability to avoid the negatives of excessive stress.

Apply it now. Ascend to a shallower depth? Stop the particular activity until a later dive? End the dive? When you find you are not having fun. During the dive. . think. At the surface. the first thing you should do is ask yourself what you must do to make it fun again. it is especially important to act promptly. will you be able to drift dive with the current. don't head immediately to the surface. think about the problem and solve it. you will be subjecting yourself to additional problems of flotation. to face the problem and find a solution. While it is true that experience is a good teacher. If the problem persists. it frequently gives you the test before the lesson. Stop your activity and breathe deeply. you can end the dive safely. especially if responsibly planned. Being responsible for your own safety also means that you must assess your own physical ability to conduct any dive. it is time to end the dive. If you and your buddy have things under control. Most of your diving will be enjoyable and not stressful. Engaging in a new activity may mean that instruction or training is advisable. formulate a plan of action. Try to get control of yourself underwater.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver excessive stress begins to exclude normal awareness as they turn inward on their own anxiety. you are probably well outside your skill level also. If you react hastily. If you can solve the problem. then act is what you learned in your entry-level class. Think in terms of solutions. As a responsible and safe diver you should dive aware. People are more likely to panic when they run out of options (figure 2-10). and act upon it to minimize or eliminate the problem. and realize it only after you are there. go to the next step. Decide what you should do to restore your sense of assurance. One of the reasons you are in this course is because it offers opportunity to advance your skills under supervision. If you see signs of stress in your buddy. This is especially the case in scuba diving. It may be possible to learn some advanced diving skills by reading and private practice or by trial-and-error. Stop. you may only cause further complications. then return to dives that are within your ability and comfort level. What is the distance to the dive site? Will it require a long surface or underwater swim? Is there a current? If so. you should take the time to prepare yourself for safety. In diving we speak of staying within one's "comfort envelope. When you acquire new diving skills or techniques. you may decide to continue the dive. but not hastily. Sometimes rehearsing the dive in greater detail will open possible solutions to the perceived stress. breathing. it is possible to venture deeper than you feel comfortable or to get into a task-loading situation. Underwater you have plenty of air. build on your new abilities carefully. try to determine the reason for the stress and change the dive plan. Still. such as you are cold or you simply can't feel comfortable. If you feel stress or see signs of it in your buddy. waves. Un-fun is usually unsafe. or will you be required to move against the current? Are you recovering from a recent illness or injury that will affect your stamina? The wise diver does not willingly place him or herself in a situation where the environment will place excessive demands on his or her capabilities." If you find you are outside of your comfort envelope. Seek out additional training to prepare you for more complex and demanding dives. remember that good preparation and planning are necessary elements in diving safety. If the stress is a result of your being inadequate to the demands of the dive. Do not dive beyond your fitness level. be watchful for stress and take steps to control it. When you get your breathing under control. Stop your activity and take stock. You may decide to explore some in greater depth with specialty course training. The activities of your Advanced Scuba Diver course will introduce you to many tools that you will use in your future diving career. PREPAREDNESS AND TRAINING Any activity requires preparation. Whatever the activity for your dive. Before the dive. breathe. As a responsible diver. get them to do the same. etc. but this is not the safe way to proceed. you have the option of not diving. You can also talk about the dive. act immediately to allay the problem.

CHAPTER Navigation .

set. limited visibility diving. Learn about the equipment used for underwater navigation. To get to an unfamiliar place on land. all trees and hills look the same. Review basic underwater navigation. After a couple of trips. INTRODUCTION One way to perform like an excellent diver is to navigate effectively. 2. Learn how to "fix" your position on the surface. you will apply your navigational skills in the other dives of your Advanced Scuba Diver course. Be introduced to more complex navigational patterns and advanced techniques. this variation is not critical for diving since you are navigating within a limited area. can provide information. the ends of the needle will point towards the earth's magnetic poles. Along the way you become acquainted with various landmarks. and then follow a course to reach your destination. In order to do this.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. It is best to follow a predetermined course on your dives and use underwater landmarks to help you maintain your bearings. But you have aids. determine where you are and where you want to be. including the techniques for "natural" and compass navigation. you probably consult a map. With a compass as your guide. you can also use depth to help determine where you are. 5. 3. you swam a reciprocal course. and a diving compass for navigation underwater. Also. as shown by the compass. An arrow printed on the card indicates magnetic north. even in the best of conditions." A compass is a magnetized needle that rotates on a pivot point. and even if there were the distance you can see is limited to 60 meters (200 feet) or less. you not only feel good. When you can end a dive at a predetermined location. Although there are no streets for you to follow. you should get a feeling for where you are. The other piece of required equipment is a clear. you can travel to the same location without a map. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course navigation dive. 4. . and searching. EQUIPMENT For most applications. Learning to navigate underwater is similar to learning to find your way in the woods. In your entry-level course you practiced a basic use of a compass. Several navigational techniques will be introduced in this chapter. Charts. You will have an opportunity to practice these in one or more navigational dives. you can use a compass as a directional reference. returning to your starting point. but you conserve a lot of time and energy. Learn various methods to accurately measure distance underwater. you will use a depth gauge. and true north is normal. your compass can tell you in which direction you are going. you need to know more about compasses and their features than "point. Many compasses have a disc mounted on the needle or on a magnetic ring. As an Advanced Scuba Diver. For the most part. so some variation between north. there are no street signs or distinctive architectural structures underwater. After making a couple of dives in an area. Let's expand on the navigational principles you learned as a beginning diver and add some new ones. which are nautical maps. night diving. Normally. and the entire "compass card" rotates. swim. you will learn to take bearings with a compass and use bearings and distance swum to navigate more complex patterns. You also benefit from increasing your navigational abilities because they are part of other diving activities such as finding an offshore reef. In diving. At first. Your depth gauge can tell you where you are on the bottom contour. Similar principles can be used for underwater navigation. When it can swing freely. aware mind. You will learn more about magnetic variation in your Master Scuba Diver course (figure 3-1). a timing device. The earth's magnetic poles are not in the same location as its geographic poles. 6.

A direct reading compass is marked 0° to 359° around the edge in a clockwise direction. magnetic north) is 0°. rotate the compass to line up the compass needle and the bezel index. FIGURE 3-1. PARTS OF A COMPASS Compasses have other common features that you may remember. Conversely. north (that is. The way you take or set a bearing is different for each (figure 3-2). east is 90°. For reference. The single essential feature that allows a compass to be used in diving is that its case is liquid-filled. If the bearing to the objective is known. south is 180°. increasing pressure on descent would compress the case and prevent the needle from rotating freely. YOU WILL PROBABLY HAVE AN OPPORTUNITY TO USE DIFFERENT COMPASS DESIGNS DURING YOUR DIVING CAREER. To determine a bearing with a direct reading card compass. and side reading. By aligning the lubber line with your body and your direction of travel and then rotating the bezel marks to align with the needle. and the lubber line will show the desired direction. The lubber line is a reference line that is etched or marked somewhere on the compass. On a card compass. they will be marked directly on the card with the card's north arrow marked 0°. indirect reading. On a needle compass. A bezel or rotating collar on the compass will have a set of index marks that can be aligned with the pointing end of the needle or card. and west is 270°.Navigation bearing from the compass. . it indicates the course or bearing the user will follow. the bearing can be set on the compass and the lubber line followed. When the lubber line is aligned with the axis of the boat or the user. point the lubber line towards the target point and read out the FIGURE 3-2. There are three basic compass design models: direct reading. If you want to obtain a bearing to a destination.Chapter 3. you are able to read your bearing as well as mark the reference position of the needle. the degrees will be marked on a rotating bezel. if you set the bearing. If the compass had an air-filled case.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT READING COMPASSES . let the needle point to magnetic north. the compass needle or the compass card points to the bearing in degrees. you should know when you have traveled that distance. In a side reading compass. One of the sinking feelings FIGURE 3-3. and you need only remember the bearing or note it on your slate for later reference. except that you rotate the bezel to align 0° with the north end of the needle. the compass card has a skirt around its edge that is marked 0° to 359° in a counterclockwise direction. A side reading compass is preferred by many divers for its ease of use (figure 3-4). If you find one type easier to use. An indirect reading compass has fixed markings of 0° to 359° in a counterclockwise direction around the edge of the compass body. A window in the side of the compass body is in line with the lubber line and displays the degree readings on the skirt to the user. When folCard-Direct Compass lowing a general course. With an indirect reading compass. and your bearing is read directly under the lubber line. Your bearing is Needle-Direct Compass shown in the window. A needle compass is similar. and estimating the distance for each leg of the course is another. When you take a bearing. and you will probably encounter all three in your diving career. the bezel index marks are used to register the relative position of the needle so that you can easily realign the compass later in the dive (figure 3-3). To obtain a bearing you look across the compass and through the window. maintaining correct headings is one requirement. The Indirect Compass reading is "indirect" because 0° is always in the direction of travel.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver 150° point the lubber line in the direction you want to travel. 150° MEASURING DISTANCES UNDERWATER To navigate effectively. If your dive site is a hundred yards or a hundred meters offshore. The degree markings do not rotate. you should look for it when you acquire your own compass. and 0° is permanently aligned with the lubber line. and the compass needle points to the bearing. Your bearing is read at the lubber line. Each of the three types of compass has its devotees. you need to be able to estimate the distance you have traveled.

Most of us do not carry a long tape measure in our BC pocket. "My heading must be wrong. Since measuring by kick cycles is an estimate. distances must be measured accurately. The most common way to estimate distance is by counting kick cycles.Chapter 3. Let's look at some. you might want to round this number to something that you can easily remember and use in your head. Several methods may be used to estimate distance. Even if we did. WITHOUT TAKING YOUR EYES OFF OF YOUR TARGET. 1 meter per kick is probably close enough. If you are in an open water setting you could use a measured length of line. A SIDE READING COMPASS HAS THE ADDITIONAL BENEFIT OF LETTING YOU CHECK Y O UR HEADING AT A GLANCE. in diving. But most of us like to take time out to examine interesting sites. (A measured distance is easy to establish in a swimming pool. If you are 180 cm (5' 11") tall. What other. Another way to estimate distance is the time it takes to swim the distance. For general diving. you have to establish the length of your personal kick cycle by swimming a measured distance as you count kicks.) One kick cycle is counted each time the same leg comes down as you swim. For most people the distance between the fingertips of their outstretched arms is about equal to their height. easier measuring methods do we have available? Probably the most accurate way to estimate distance is arm spans. but good estimate of short distances can be made by stretching your arms out alternately from touch-down point to touch-down point as you swim. so timed swimming tends to lose accuracy. Establishing the length of your kick cycles is likely to be an exercise you will perform in your Advanced Scuba Diver Course. When measuring your kick cycle.Navigation FIGURE 3-4. If your calculation is 94 cm per kick. do not try to rush or use an exaggerated kick. use a kick that you can easily repeat just as you do when measuring by paces on land. then this is about the distance you can reach. This works if you are swimming directly to your goal. say 30 meters (100 feet). This is similar to counting your paces on land." For some situations such as searching. deploying and retrieving it would take a lot of time away from the enjoyment of our dive. The same can be said about using air consumed (psi or bar used) to measure distance. and anchor it to the bottom. To use the air . A quick. To use this method. and objects. Divide the distance swum by the number of kicks to find your distance per kick cycle. is swimming a course and wondering as you approach the end. aquatic life. I 'know' I must have passed it. approximations of distance will usually suffice.

Also. such as a rock outcropping. You are familiar with the use of environmental aids for references. Whatever method you choose. . There is more to natural navigation underwater. effectively. It is not necessary to follow the general course precisely. also apply the following procedures: 1. Natural navigation is much more effective when a pattern is followed than when you dive randomly. OBSERVING YOUR STARTING POINT CAREFULLY AT THE BEGINNING OF YOUR DIVE CAN MAKE IT EASIER TO RECOGNIZE LATER. 2. or simply out-and-back. Some deviation is FIGURE 3-5. you can even take advantage of a bird's-eye view as you approach the bottom. formations of reefs and sand ripples. Following a planned course will better enable you to return to a starting point or to relocate a specific area during subsequent dives. It helps to study charts of the area where you will be diving so you can form a mental picture of the overall area. To be most effective. many divers are able to use just a "feel" for distance covered." depth. you will be along the same contour as the anchor. With experience. You should not only use a "standard" kick and speed but also adjust your measurements as your air consumption rate changes with depth. carefully note your point of origin after you descend and before you swim off to begin your activity. a rectangle. If you are diving from a moored or anchored boat. Examples include the direction of light. depth and bottom contour. remember that your air consumption rate increases both with depth and with exercise level. such as a square. a triangle. the most important concept is to pay attention to distance in order to find your dive site or to navigate a pattern. and other visual aids to establish your position. or you may plan to follow a depth contour. it will be easier to return to an area by starting at the known reference on subsequent dives. Use starting references. If you return to that depth as you navigate back to the boat. however.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver consumption method to measure distance. Concentrate on being able to recognize your starting point underwater without having to surface to reference the boat (figure 3-5). note the depth of the anchor point at which you begin. Keen observation of such aids can help you recognize areas you have visited previously and can serve to help in determining where you are. Follow a pre-planned general course. currents and surge. NATURAL NAVIGATION Natural navigation is the use of "landmarks. than merely taking note of a few environmental aids. If your dive site is on a slope. Your course may be a square. In clear water. If you start at a known point. and self-made references such as silt trails and rock piles. you must resolutely proceed toward your destination and not dillydally along the way.

then you and your buddy should agree on a new general heading to maintain your pattern. you can. your progress will be more easily repeated. and little details to help you navigate more accurately. be careful to note landmarks and the distance you have deviated from your course. perception. Only seldom does a diver use one to the exclusion of the other. .Navigation FIGURE 3-8. your awareness. and then repeat the process. By moving from known point to known point. If you want to remember natural aids.Chapter 3. This will be its appearance on your return. Work your way to that object. FROM TIME TO TIME. You are familiar with how a compass works. These procedures help you become much more familiar with an area than just merely noting underwater landmarks from time to time. Develop a desire to remember. Move forward by moving from aid to aid. and look back frequently (figure 3-6). DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF A REEF FORMATION CAN LOOK ENTIRELY DIFFERENT ON YOUR RETURN . starting points. you will be able to develop the ability quickly with practice and concentration. COMPASS NAVIGATION Good compass use is essential to most underwater navigation. If the desire is there. When you depart from your planned course. Pick out a distinctive object along your general heading and as far away as visibility will permit. You will usually use a combination of compass navigation with natural navigation techniques in diving. 4. glance back along the way you have come to see what the previous aid looks like when approached from the opposite direction. and memory will be much greater than if your interest is lackadaisical. As you reach each point. By wanting to navigate well. You should want the ability to navigate well. You should try to maintain direction in a general heading for a roughly estimated distance. permissible to investigate items of interest. 3.LOOK BACK THE WAY YOU CAME.

The direction isn't as important as having a direction of reference. During natural navigation you were instructed to move from one environmental aid to the next. Just as in natural navigation. Instead. including . The compass is especially useful in areas devoid of natural aids. Most of the time you will not use a compass as a constant reference to follow an exact heading. The difference between compass navigation and natural navigation is that compass navigation is more accurate. you and your buddy can remain together more easily and you will be better able to navigate if you follow a pre-determined general course. other magnets. but the advantages of adhering to even a rough pattern will become obvious with experience (figure 3-8). When using the compass. 2. ALIGNING THE COMPASS PROPERLY IS CRITICAL TO ACCURATE NAVIGATION UNDERWATER. Be aware that the compass will not provide an accurate reading when in close proximity (usually less than a meter) to large attracting objects. The compass is a magnet. Except in extremely limited visibility. and electrical fields. Move to that object and repeat the process. and you can spend more time enjoying your dive.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 3-7. Have a starting heading and follow a general course. you should set an initial bearing as a point of reference. The following procedures will be helpful to learn the practical application of the compass for diving: 1. WHETHER WRIST OR CONSOLE MOUNTED. and you know how to set a course on a compass and follow it (figure 3-7). At the outset of every dive. Again. look over it and along the bearing and select the most distant object you can see for your heading. the direction opposite to any current. By using this "leap frog" technique. such as sandy bottoms. 3. Be aware of the effects of deviation. the same principle applies to compass navigation. the course need not be exact. the instrument will serve as a general reference. and it is attracted to ferrous metal objects. This bearing may be the direction of shore. Navigate from point to point. or simply arbitrary. it will not be necessary to look constantly at your compass.

STAYING TOGETHER WITH YOUR BUDDY IS EASIER IF YOU HAVE PREDETERMINED A GENERAL COURSE FOR YOUR DIVE. the current will push you sideways. or dive lights. . you will cover more distance than when moving against it. other magnets. noting its bearing. If you are swimming across a current. When moving with a current.Chapter 3. You must swim slightly into the current to compensate for its downstream push (figure 3-9). REMEMBER TO COMPENSATE FOR CURRENT BY S W I M M I N G SLIGHTLY UPSTREAM. Remember to compensate for currents. Uncompensated Compensated FIGURE 3-9. You can test the effects of your own equipment on your compass by placing the compass on the floor. and seeing if deviation occurs as you bring other pieces of your gear in proximity to the instrument. You will then know how far away you will need to keep various items in order to prevent deviation and incorrect readings. 4. and your actual direction of travel (your heading) will not be the same as your indicated compass course (your bearing).Navigation FIGURE 3-8. not only shipwrecks but also steel scuba cylinders.

Your ranges and bearings taken to "fix" a surface position should be written on a slate and transferred to a permanent record after the dive. you may wish to visit the wreck and return to your starting point without having to make a surface swim. which. you could surface over the wreck and take some bearings to "fix" the position. AN ACCURATE "FIX" OF YOUR POSITION CAN BE OBTAINED BY USING TWO RANGES (OBJECTS IN LINE). the more accurate the range will be. A range is established when you are able to line up two permanent objects from you position. For example. Ranges are sets of in-line objects. Imagine that you are looking for a wreck that is shown on a chart and that the wreck is located a few hundred feet from a reef that is directly offshore from a rocky point. At the end of the dive you can surface directly over the wreck and take a "fix" so you can swim directly to the wreck for your next dive. and should be used whenever possible. Now let's see how all of the navigational skills can be combined to make you a more effective diver. you simply follow a reciprocal compass course from the wreck to the FIGURE 3-10. Bearings are simply course directions taken with a compass." but the most common ones are with bearings and ranges. A range is more accurate than a bearing. indicate a precise direction (figure 3-10). The objects used for a range must be permanent struc- tures. You can use both a compass heading and natural aids to navigation to guide you from the rocky point to the reef. The greater the distance between the objects used for a range. Any combination of ranges and bearings can be used to establish a fix. From your position determine two visual lines to permanent objects. The intersection of the lines exactly "fixes" your location. when aligned. sunbathers on the beach will not do. . if you came across a wreck near the end of a dive and wanted to return to it. Or. You could then return to the same position at the surface by using your bearings and descend directly onto the wreck. Memory should not be relied upon for dive site relocation. This procedure allows you to "fix" a position at the surface so you can relocate an underwater site precisely. There are several means to take a "fix. You can then follow a compass heading that you obtained from the chart as a guide to lead you to the wreck. The angle between them should be as close to 90° as possible when taking a fix. To do this.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver SURFACE POSITIONING Another navigational technique is surface positioning. but try to have the intersecting lines as close to a right angle as possible.

It is usually more successful for one member of the buddy team to concentrate on being compass navigator while the other keeps an eye out for landmarks. it involves learning the theory. use natural navigation skills to locate yourself throughout the dive. Like most diving skills. The second could be a compass navigation dive in which you swim set patterns. You and your buddy should plan the dive together rso that you both are familiar with its objectives. Set yourself a goal to become a good diving navigator. The first could be a natural navigation dive in which you learn to measure distances. and fix a location using two ranges. It is also a good idea to walk though your compass navigation on land in order to fix it in your mind and work out any problems while you can easily discuss them. There are many options for navigation dive challenges. A fun way to practice your navigation skills is an orienteering treasure hunt in which you find your next bearings and distances at each point over a predetermined course. and course markers.Chapter 3.Navigation reef. These are skills you can use on every dive and ones that you will need for future diving activities. . Navigation is challenging. and becoming proficient through practice. such as squares and triangles using your compass. and it is fun to be able to navigate successfully. reference points. Natural aids also help keep you on course. practicing the skills under the supervision of an instructor. OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE Your instructor may have more than one navigation dive planned for you. Decide who will fill which role during the dive. then another reciprocal course from the reef to the point where you entered.

CHAPTER Visibility Diving Night and Limited .

artifacts. Because such dives are usually conducted in clear. Limited visibility diving may not seem as attractive as night diving. Understand the precautions associated with limited visibility and night diving.wrecks. at a protected. . you also get to see animals that you might not encounter during daytime dives. 2. 6. Understand the attraction that limited visibility and night diving have for many divers. Visibility under water is considered limited when you cannot distinguish another diver at a distance of 3 meters (10 feet) or less in a horizontal direction. Learn about the equipment used in limited visibility and night diving activities. but this only supplements the real motives for descents into darkness. Your night diving ability will be limited to circumstances similar to those in which you make your introductory dive.and the only way to get to see them is to know the procedures for diving under these conditions. By using a dive light at close range. 5. When you find out why. calm water. previously INTRODUCTION You may be wondering why anyone would want to plunge into inky black waters at night or dive when the visibility is hardly arm's length. the colors appear more intense than at any other time. . you may become just as excited about night and limited visibility diving as the thousands of enthusiasts who enjoy these activities regularly (figure 4-1). There are many things of interest in murky waters . but in many areas visibility is always FIGURE 4-1. Because much of the life under water is nocturnal. 3. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course limited visibility and night dive. 4. With no dilution from natural lighting. NIGHT DIVING IS AN ACTIVITY REGULARLY ENJOYED BY THOUSANDS OF DIVERS. but the animals that abound make diving in such areas exciting and enjoyable (figure 4-2). Turbid water is frequently nutrient-rich water. limited. Learn the special signals and communication challenges of limited visibility and night diving. One attraction of night diving is the opportunity to view aquatic animals. vibrant colors of the sub-aquatic world at night. but don't expect to be proficient at either as a result of this orientation. Night diving has a special fascination and mystique. Night diving is an excellent way to enjoy the beauty of the underwater world. Your narrow beam of light also focuses your attention so your awareness of detail is increased. Many of them that flee upon sight or keep their distance during daylight hours can be approached quite closely during nocturnal dives. Learn the basic procedures for limited visibility and night diving.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. you also get to appreciate the rich. fossils. etc. Life is often abundant in areas where the visibility is reduced by the vast amount of nutrients. Your instructor will introduce you to the techniques for diving at night and for diving in turbid water.

and lights are often available for rent so you can find out which type you prefer before purchasing your own.night and limited visibility diving. additional training is recommended. FIGURE 4-3. dived site and with a well-known dive buddy. There are many quality lights available at your local dive store. A smaller back-up light is also useful to make a safe exit in the event your primary light fails during the dive.Chapter 4. First let's examine the gear recommended for night diving. As with all special interest areas of diving. The light must be designed to operate not only in water but also under pressure. The principal requirement is a broad beam main or primary dive light. Make sure it will be comfortable to hold for a long period of time. then we'll note a few suggested items for limited visibility diving. . but you may not be aware that several different types are available. A light which is simply waterproof will not work well. Lights are an obvious requirement for diving at night. Especially EQUIPMENT Much of the extra equipment needed is common to both of the topics of this chapter . It may be a pistol grip or it might be designed to be held by the body of the light itself. you have much experience to be gained before you are proficient. The lights you use for diving must be designed specifically for the purpose. DIVE LIGHTS COME IN A VARIETY OF STYLES TO MEET JUST ABOUT ANY NEED. Dive store employees or your instructor can help you select the appropriate ones for your area (figure 4-3).Night and Limited Visibility Diving FIGURE 4-2. MANY TIMES THE NUTRIENTS THAT FOSTER AN ABUNDANCE OF INTERESTING AQUATIC LIFE LIMITS THE VISIBILITY. Pay particular attention to the handle configuration.

While you need not have additional dive lights for the topside use. the more practical it becomes to pay the extra expense for rechargeable batteries. Amber or yellow is a good alternative. A neoprene glove's tendency to resist forming a fist (such as would be required around the handle of a dive light) can cause fatigue and a hand cramp over time (figure 4-4). Also. Rechargeable lights are also more ecologically friendly. Lights to mark the entry/exit point on a shore dive can be anything from lanterns to a pair of roadway flasher types. green. Two lights arranged in a line perpendicular to the shoreline can form a range for you to follow on your return. even your topside flashlights should be of the "waterproof" type in case they accidentally fall into the water (figure 4-5). some dive lights will overheat unless cooled by immersion in water. especially flashing red. FIGURE 4-4. Good ideas also include buying spare bulbs at the time you purchase your dive lights and keeping them with your dive equipment so they're at hand if you need them.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver when diving in colder waters and wearing neoprene gloves. WEAR A GLOVE AND CHECK TO SEE IF THE LIGHT WILL BE COMFORTABLE TO USE THE WAY YOU WILL BE USING IT. It is recommended that you use regular flashlights for above-water use. or white lights. In addition to the dive lights designed for use underwater. This conserves the batteries and bulbs in your dive lights. Another consideration is for them to be distinctive so they won't be readily confused with other lights in the dive area. A stretch able lanyard should be attached to your dive light and your wrist in order to prevent its loss. Be careful to avoid the use of lights that might resemble navigational aids. . The more often the light is used. The stretchable feature (usually looped around your wrist) is important so your hand can pull free in case the light becomes entangled. you will need lights for above water use. These include lights to use for dive preparations as well as marker lights to help you locate the entry/exit location at the end of the dive. Whether you choose a light that uses disposable batteries or is rechargeable should be detennined by how frequently you intend to use the light.

EXTRA LIGHTS TO ILLUMINATE THE STAGING AREA ARE NECESSARY AFTER THE SUN HAS SET. Safety lights make it easy to spot divers in and under the water.Night and Limited Visibility Diving FIGURE 4-5. they are really only "marker" lights and do not produce sufficient light to be useful for other purposes.a safety light to mark you and your position. The glow tube produces "cold" light through chemical reaction (figure 4-6). FIGURE 4-6. Bending the outer plastic tube until the glass tube inside breaks. usually on or near the tank valve. They are available as battery-powered strobe lights or with a long. A glowing or flashing light is attached to each diver. and their use is highly recommended on all night dives. Be sure to wait to activate the safety light until just before you begin the dive.Chapter 4. COLD LIGHT FROM A CHEMICAL GLOW STICK MAKES AN EXCELLENT NIGHT DIVER LOCATOR. A glass tube of one chemical is sealed inside a plastic tube containing another chemical. These help divers keep track of one another in the water and also allows a dive boat to spot a diver at the surface even if the diver's other lights have failed. However. translucent front lens or as chemical glow sticks. . In many locations using them is standard practice and considered a requirement. A special type of light is also recommended for night dives . allows the chemicals to mix and produce light.

allows buoyancy to be controlled with just one hand. A surface float with a "down" line is also recommended unless you are diving from a boat. PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONS Night diving can be every bit as enjoyable as diving in the daytime. is often helpful to prevent separation in murky water (figure 4-7). and your light allows you to be seen as well as to see. gloves. a diving compass. The use of a "Buddy Line. It is not a good idea to carry additional gear such as a camera until you have acquired training and are comfortable while night diving. it is helpful and advisable to have someone remain above water during night diving activities as a contingency against mishap. since one of your hands will be occupied with a dive light. No matter where the dive is based. you do need to abide by the following procedures and be aware of a few new hazards. that has become standard equipment. rock strewn entry areas profuse with plant life that makes the footing treacherous even in daylight should be avoided at night. limited visibility diving equipment needs are the same. It is unusual to find gauges that do not have luminescent properties or. unobstructed entry. but shore dives are perfectly acceptable. Luminescent gauges are preferred for night diving. Because of the heightened excitement from anticipating a night dive and the added challenge of working in the dark you should be . There are even advantages to diving at night. but back-up lights. which is helpful. Consider attaching a glow light to the float.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 4-7. surface marker lights. However. The planning process for a night dive is even more important than for regular dives. Except for the use of dive lights. In order to enjoy the underwater world. in the case of dive computers. an ability to illuminate the display. It is cooler for gearing up. Night diving is usually better when done from a boat. Diving in familiar areas is recommended. it is a good idea to dive the known area the same day prior to a night dive to evaluate the conditions and to reacquaint yourself with the site. IN CASE OF ENTANGLEMENT. Other useful equipment includes items that are hopefully part of your regular gear set. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT BUDDY LINES BE HAND HELD AND NOT MADE FAST WITH A KNOT OR CLIP. and a whistle for surface signaling." a short line held between two divers to maintain contact. and chemical glow lights are not required. A luminescent gauge will "store" light energy from a dive light that is shined on it and glow for many minutes. Even then. The best shore diving areas are those where reefs are just offshore from a smooth. A low-pressure inflator. These items include a good dive knife. there usually are fewer divers to stir up an area. however. A dive light might be helpful.

Discuss and agree on the general course to be followed to improve buddy coordination. Before you enter the water to begin your night dive. Agree in advance which buddy will navigate for the first half of the dive as the partner points out things of interest.Chapter 4. This will keep you from bumping into the reef or bottom dwelling animals and stirring up silt (figure 4-8). Adjust for neutral buoyancy so you can stay clear of the bottom. exaggerated 180 degree arcs overhead. When using shore lights that are already in place. Rapid wiggling of the light from side to side is often used to signal. street lamps are usually reliable. It is neither necessary nor wise to cover large areas during a dive at night. you and your buddy should be practiced at successfully staying together during daytime dives." Distress is signaled by extending the light out to one side and moving the light rapidly in long. Be sure to note some distinctive feature on your buddy like the color of his or her mask. Experienced night divers facing a long swim usually want to leave their lights off until they reach the dive site. Signaling with your dive light is unique to night diving. Enjoy the small things. Make sure your dive lights have fresh batteries or a full charge. Your depth gauge should also be checked frequently as you descend. The line serves as a reference and prevents the problem. With no external references at night. A large "O" formed by moving the light in a slow circle is the long distance version of the "OK" signal. Dive preparations also include checking your gear for proper adjustment. Keep excursions short. double check to be sure your light is attached to your wrist by a stretchable lanyard. Before you attempt a night dive. but remember that they must be given in front of a light in order to be visible to others.Night and Limited Visibility Diving sure to give extra attention to all aspects of your dive plan. only lights that are fixed and can be relied upon to remain on until after diving operations end should be used. but a residential porch light might be switched off. so you can easily recognize him or her underwater at night. The roles can then be reversed on a reciprocal course during the second half of the dive. It is not uncommon for dive teams encountering one another to accidentally switch partners during a dive or even return to a different boat! Other preplanning items are the same whether day or night diving is being conducted. it is easy to become disoriented. Whenever possible descents should be made on a line or on a gradually sloping shore. This will help avoid having the light flashing about on the surface and from depleting your batteries prior to the dive. Standard hand signals can be used. These light signals are useful both at the surface and underwater. lights should be set up to help you identify the exit point prior to your dive. The disorientation can range from not knowing which way is up. As you prepare to dive. As stated earlier. . Once submerged and on your way. be sure to review signals with your buddy. MAINTAINING NEUTRAL BUOYANCY WILL ALLOW YOU TO AVOID LANDING ON THE BOTTOM !N THE WRONG PLACE. and setting a compass heading for reference. If you have set up your own pair of lights as a range. "Attention" or "Look here. Buoyancy control is just as important as on any daylight dive. consider it another good reason to have someone remain on shore to ensure the lights are still in place at the end of the dive. the following procedures and precautions become important: 1. For example. FIGURE 4-8. This will prevent it from being dropped after your entry and while you make last minute preparations at the surface. to extreme dizziness and must obviously be avoided.

but it may help to hold the light to one side to reduce the glare from light reflected off particles suspended in the water ("backscatter"). If your buddy is not located within one minute. and buddy more frequently than usual. If separated from your buddy. 5. This will help prevent the loss of gear. You and your buddy can then ascend and terminate the dive. As you become interested in things. and a dive should be aborted if the visibility is that poor. Be sure to surface with an adequate reserve of air in your cylinder in case your underwater navigation is off. it is best to do so on the line you used for descent. You may see a surprised animal trying to get away from the brightness of your lights. Once at the surface. Other limited visibility procedures include moving slowly and with one hand extended in front of you. make sure your primary light is really defective by checking the switch and by shaking the light. Your buddy has a light and you should both have back-up lights. OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE Your night dive may be preceded by a daytime dive at the site. Both techniques help you avoid being in mid-water with no reference. but diving in such conditions is not usually enjoyable. If the line can't be found. switch to your back-up light and finish the dive. But this can be half the adven- ture! Moving shadows created by your light will soon cease to startle you. Your buddy should be duplicating your actions. Do this for one full rotation at the surface and again while looking underwater toward the bottom. When you shine a light toward other divers. remain stationary and turn slowly in a circle while looking for your buddy's light or glow light. you can ascend without becoming disoriented by holding your depth gauge in front of you in one hand and shining your light on the gauge and your exhaust bubbles as you ascend. A dive light can be useful in murky water. You might engage in a social activity while . The use of a descent/ascent line or following the contour of the bottom to and from shore is suggested. you can still make a normal ascent. By remaining calm on the bottom and allowing your eyes to adjust to the darkness for a couple of minutes you will find that there is usually enough available light to allow you to see things dimly. It is easier to stay together than it is to find each other at night. Use of a buddy line or holding hands can help prevent separation. 6. Monitor your air supply. If your light fails while diving. continue to look for your buddy while turning completely around with your light off. First. point it toward their waists. Control your anxiety. Even if all of your lights fail. Night diving may seem spooky at first. and the bubbles provide an up and down reference. Shining your light in their eyes compromises their night vision for a short period. direction. your anxieties will lessen. move in the direction in which your buddy was last seen. there is no cause for alarm. 4.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver 2. so you should be able to reunite quickly and continue your dive. In extremely turbid water. The gauge helps you determine your ascent rate. all of your equipment should be kept in place until you are clear of the water after a dive. It will be easier to see the glow of your buddy's locator light or glow stick with your dive light turned off. stop and look again for light. If unsuccessful. If the light is inoperative. it is necessary to feel your way along the bottom. 3. Disorientation can be even more of a problem in turbid water than in clear water at night. looking about as you ascend. As a general rule that applies to most dive excursions. The procedures and precautions for night dives also apply to limited visibility dives except for use of lights. Perhaps the best use of a light in limited visibility is for examining objects at close range. Take it easy and enjoy yourself. Be sure to keep your light beam out of the eyes of other divers. ascend to the surface. When you and your buddy agree to ascend.

Depending on your instructor's preference. After discovering what either or both of these activities is like. Your opportunities to dive can be increased once you are trained to dive competently at night or in limited visibility. remain motionless. A lot of attention will be given to your equipment and your lights. Your instructor may have you settle to the bottom. you can probably rent/hire one from you local NAUI affiliated dive center. A limited visibility introductory dive usually consists of dive teams following an assigned heading or course underwater. even the discussion of the dive is special at night. Your instructor will brief you on the particulars and recap the main points to keep in mind.Chapter 4. Either way.Night and Limited Visibility Diving waiting for darkness or you may reassemble at the staging area after dark. During the actual dive your instructor may choose to lead all of the dive teams as a group. and turn off your lights to see what it is like without them. Until then you should remain motionless on the bottom. The objective is to be familiar with the area. If there is insufficient light to allow you to fill out your logbook. you will probably want to develop your abilities further so you can take advantage of opportunities that may arise. your descent will probably use down-line or follow the contour of the bottom so you will have a continuous reference. you may need to use a chemical light or battery powered locator light. Your primary goals will be to navigate accurately and to maintain buddy contact. Afterwards. Your instructor will turn on his or her light as a signal for you to turn your lights back on and resume the dive. Your ascent will also be controlled via the line or bottom contour. Soon you will be able to make things out and will discover that the glow lights put out quite a bit of light when they are the only source. be sure to complete it at the earliest opportunity and to have it signed by your buddy and by your instructor. The underwater tour follows your descent. and time passes quickly as you become engrossed in the way things appear as your dive light cuts into inky dark. If you do not own or are not ready to purchase a good dive light for this dive. Ask your instructor about a Night Diving specialty course or one for Limited Visibility Diving. why not have some more fun and gain the training and experience that will enable you to engage in them safely without supervision? . The use of buddy lines may be introduced. Now that you know it is fun to do these activities. or you may be assigned to dive by teams in a specified area. Surface lights will help you recognize the exit area.

CHAPTER Introduction to Deeper Diving .

In this chapter you will become acquainted with each of these areas. safety. Learn about the hazards of deeper water diving and how to mitigate their potential to cause problems. Divers are often tempted to dive deeper for adventure and for the challenge. In addition to these physical considerations. such as wrecks. POSSIBLE HAZARDS As you already know. you can increase your safety and your enjoyment whenever you dive to deeper depths. It can be exciting and rewarding to descend farther below the surface to observe and explore new places. Learn the steps of planning and preparing and the procedures and precautions for a deeper water dive. Poorly maintained regulators can easily amplify this problem and cause feelings of "air starvation". Satisfactory completion of the NAUI Advanced Diver course can prepare you to undertake no-requireddecompression dives at depths up to 40 meters (130 feet) as long as the diving occurs under circumstances similar to those experienced during your training. but it will acquaint you with deep diving procedures and will help you appreciate why additional training for deeper diving is a good idea. Deeper diving is generally defined as dives to depths greater than 18 meters (60 feet). A single experience will not necessarily qualify you to make deeper dives without leadership supervision. therefore. When wet suits are worn in colder waters. nitrogen breathed under higher pressures can produce Nitrogen Narcosis. increasing and decreasing pressure can also cause significant changes in buoyancy due to compression and expansion of the gas trapped in the neoprene rubber. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course deeper water dive. proper training. and special procedures. This demands more thorough planning and preparation. you must be aware of the hazards of deeper diving and be prepared to cope with them. extra equipment. By knowing and applying deep diving techniques. Higher nitrogen levels contribute to a greater likelihood of decompression sickness occurring. Wet suit compression reduces insulation and increases heat loss. But you must know what to do and how to do it. 3. which happen to be located in deeper water. increased heat loss can quickly lead to chilling. Learn the basic procedures for deeper water diving. which affects judgment and. pressure increases with depth. Also. special equipment. Combined with the colder water usually found at depths. Be introduced to the equipment used for deeper water diving. and not done just for the sake of going deep. but more meaningful objectives are encouraged. or photographing exotic sites. This information will help you prepare for an introductory experience at a depth greater than 18 . The increased density of the air increases the effort needed to exchange air in the lungs. meters (60 feet). greater caution must be used when diving deeper. experience and special procedures. This results in an increased rate of air usage due to the greater density of the air you breathe. studying aquatic animals. This involves careful planning and preparation. INTRODUCTION As you gain experience in diving. you are almost certain to be encouraged to dive at sites that have depths in excess of your qualifications. As the suit expands during ascent the increasing buoyancy must be compensated for in order to control your ascent rate. 2.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. However. Good objectives might include exploration. 5. The point is that deeper diving should be justified. and you must exercise the necessary self-discipline to follow the recommended practices. 4. knowing that you are diving deeper can lead to increased levels of stress or feelings of anxiety. Since the risks and potential hazards increase with depth.

Chapter 5- Introduction to Deeper Diving

We recommend that your regular diving equipment include an extra second stage on your regulator, a low pressure inflator on your buoyancy compensator, a dive computer and backup instrumentation, and an underwater slate. Your equipment should also be in good condition and in excellent working order. An extra second stage can simplify air-sharing situations underwater, but for deeper diving a complete backup scuba system such as a "pony bottle" with its own regulator is recommended (figure 5-1). Your instructor will probably show you a back-up system, which has the advantage of being a completely separate source of air for either the person wearing the unit or for another diver in need of air. Since you are only being introduced to deep diving you will not be required to have a back-up unit, but you should be familiar with them and know of their desirability for dives to greater depths. Instruments are important for diving, but they are essential for deep dives. First and foremost-as always-is the submersible pressure gauge. It is required on all dives, but is critical for deep dives to help you avoid running out of air. Depth gauges are also essential, as are watches or dive timers (figure 5-2). A reliable depth gauge is absolutely necessary for dives planned using dive tables.



NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver

The best accuracy is usually achieved with a dive computer (figure 5-3)- A dive computer is not only more accurate, it also continually monitors your dive status and provides essential information including remaining dive time based on calculations of your absorbed nitrogen levels. Dive computers help divers avoid decompression sickness by providing reliable and accurate measures of depth and time. If you use a dive computer is important to have read the manufacturer's instructions for its use. It is also a good idea to have used the computer on shallower dives to familiarize your self with its operation. It is essential that each member of the dive team be able to independently monitor his or her own depth and dive time, whether with a depth gauge and a watch or timer or with a dive computer. Sharing depth and time instruments with your dive buddy is risky and should be avoided on all dives regardless of depth. Another useful, but not critical, instrument is the compass. The ability to use the compass to navigate effectively underwater can be valuable on deep dives. It is not easy or wise to surface for bearings, therefore, a compass for each diver is recommended as well as competency in its use. Having extra cylinders available for deep dives is highly recommended. Divemasters some times place an extra cylinder with an attached regulator in the water to


Chapter 5- Introduction to Deeper Diving

be used in the event of an out-of-air emergency. When diving from a boat, the spare cylinder/regulator is hung below the vessel at a depth of about 5 meters (15 feet). It is wise to also have a couple of spare cylinders of air readily available at the surface (figure 5-4). When diving in poor visibility or when making training dives, a descent/ascent line, sometimes referred to as a "down line," is recommended. The line should be at least one centimeter (three-eighths inch) in diameter, weighted at the bottom, and marked at 3 meter (10 foot) intervals. This line provides reference, control, and a base for the extra scuba unit and for decompression. The set-up procedures for the line and recommendations for its use will be covered in the procedures section of this chapter. Many specialized forms of diving are best undertaken from a boat, and usually deeper diving is no exception. A boat is an excellent surface support station. It is a good idea for the boat to be equipped with a radio for emergency communications and with a depth sounder. Emergency equipment is recommended for all dives, but it is even more strongly suggested that a first aid kit and oxygen be at the dive site for deeper dives (figure 5-5). Oxygen is of significant value in the event of decompression sickness. It is not unusual for low light levels to be encountered in deeper water, so a dive light might be another useful item. The chapter on night and limited visibility diving explores the many considerations when using or choosing an underwater light. As you can see, there are quite a few equipment requirements for deep diving. You may not be required to have all of the gear just described when you make your introductory dive because you will be under the supervision and direction of your instructor, but you should be aware that this equipment is necessary whenever you and your buddy plan to dive "deeper" without the benefit of an instructor being present.

The deeper you intend to dive, the more preparation required. You begin by making sure that you have yourself prepared for the dive with proper training. You must also have a good, confident feeling about the dive.

It is not surprising that they were the first to embark on "extreme" dives and develop training protocols for those who wish to follow. You have already read that your equipment needs to be in proper working order. NAUI members have been pioneering diving since 1960. For the diver who plans to exceed the limits of traditional recreational diving. Extra equipment is needed. You must be able to use the tables correctly when the dives you are making are actual dives rather than just problems posed on paper. NAUI's Technical Diving Division qualifies instructors who deliver "cutting edge" training (figure 5-6). Abstinence from drugs that alter your physical or mental state or affect your decompression obligation is essential. it is fine to suggest an alternative dive. Finally. how to make arrangements for any needed treatment and how to get someone there who is in need of treatment. TECHNICAL DIVING IS A DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO OVERTAKING DIVING THAT HAS A MUCH HIGHER DEGREE OF RISK THAN TRADITIONAL DIVING. . You need to feel fit. currency in skill proficiency. You need to know the location of the nearest operational recompression chamber. Your instructor will probably review them as part of your Advanced Scuba Diver Course. but we are re-emphasizing the point here due to the importance of properly functioning gear at depth. NAUI Scuba Diver. Personal preparation also includes general good health and physical fitness. adequate rest the night before the dive. A more thorough review plus some new information on the dive tables is included in the NAUI Master Scuba Diver and Deep Diving Specialty courses.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 5-6. Planning for the dive needs to be more thorough than usual. how to contact the appropriate medical and/or chamber facility. when intending to make a deeper dive. Emergency preparedness requires more attention. Re-familiarize yourself with them by reading the information on the dive planning and the dive tables in the NAUI text. A review of the NAUI Dive Tables or your dive computer manual is in order. and proper nutrition prior to the dive. your necessary agreements need to be exacting and well understood. both physically and mentally. If you are apprehensive about the situation.

This extra tank is often called a "hang-off" tank. When applicable. it is important that you complete the "Dive Plan" section of your NAUI "Dive Planning and Recording Worksheet" on the back of your NAUI Dive Tables (figure 5-7). PROCEDURES AND PRECAUTIONS Upon arrival at the dive site and determining that conditions are suitable for the dive. stay within your "comfort envelope" by advancing gradually towards greater depths. Place the tank and regulator at the precautionary decompression stop depth of 5 meters (15 feet). When planning your deep dive. There are more procedures. more things to be learned and additional training requirements to be met before you should make excursions approaching the maximum recommended 40-meter (130-foot) depth limit for traditional recreational diving. but don't be misled into believing that this is all there is to going to increased depths in diving. set up a "down line" and an air cylinder with a regulator attached. The down line should be vertical and taut. If the line is suspended from a surface float rather than a boat. Telephones or radios are of no value if they do not work.Chapter 5. it is recommended that an expanded contingency plan be written on your slate and taken along on the dive. you should check emergency communications systems and determine that they are functional. This approach is preferred to attempting to reference the dive tables underwater where errors are more likely to occur. This is accomplished by placing weights on the bottom of the line and suspending it above the bottom.Introduction to Deeper Diving TNT = TNT = TNT = FIGURE 5-7. It is important now for you to learn and apply the basics of preparation and planning during this Advanced Scuba Diver course so you can dive with confidence to deeper depths. Diving beyond 40 meters (130 feet) is to enter the realm of "technical diving. and mandatory decompression is a virtual certainty. THE DIVE PLANNING WORKSHEET IS USEFUL TO PLAN AHEAD AND FOR RECORDING DATA AFTER THE DIVE. For deep dives. This contingency information provides instantaneous time limit information in the event that you should exceed your planned depth. These are the minimum preparations for deeper dives. but it should then be turned off to prevent loss of air if the regulator should free-flow while the tank is hanging on the line. This provides previously determined information for various times plus various depths. In your own diving. All of the divers in the group should be informed that they will need to open the valve on the hang-off tank if it is needed." where additional special procedures and gas mixes are employed. You should understand why advanced specialty training is necessary if you desire to dive even deeper. It should be turned on to ensure that it is full and that the regulator is functioning properly. an anchor and line can be rigged from the weights .

at the end of the line to the bottom. your buddy should check it. PRE DIVE EQUIPMENT CHECKS ARE ALWAYS AN IMPORTANT STEP AND EVEN MORE SO WHEN EXECUTING A DEEPER WATER DIVE.). etc. as does drinking alcoholic or caffeinated beverages and taking hot showers. Upon entering the water and agreeing with your buddy to begin your descent on the down line. then check your timing device or computer to make sure it is set to begin measuring elapsed time. you need to add air to your buoyancy compensator. and the surface support person should also look you over before you enter the water. As the dive progresses. It is safer and easier to make corrections to equipment above water than it is underwater. depths. select the desired direction in which to begin your dive and take a moment to orient yourself to the surroundings and to the down line. feet first and eye-to-eye with your buddy. etc. If you are too heavy or too buoyant. it is recommended that surface support personnel be present during deeper dives and that these individuals be divers. test your buoyancy again by letting go of the down line briefly. You should inspect it yourself after suiting up. If there is a difference in the readings on your gauges compared to those on your buddy's gauges. and to do any and all physical work required following the dive (retrieving the down line. pulling the anchor. Stop occasionally to recheck your gear and to test your buoyancy.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 5-8. to keep a record of diving activities (times. use the more conservative . Their function is to assist in the preparations to dive.). you should frequently reference your proximity to the ascent line. The divers should keep physical exertion to a minimum following a deep dive because activity increases the chances of decompression sickness. Note the direction of any current and be aware that the current at the bottom may run in a different direction than the surface current. Next. then test your buoyancy again. Whenever possible and practical. again make a quick check of your gear to make sure it is secure and properly oriented. Upon reaching the planned depth. If you sink with a full breath. Descend slowly. Your descent should be controlled. Also reference both your instruments and your buddy's. It is a good idea to check your equipment three times before entering the water for a deep dive (figure 5-8). Do not leave the descent line until your buoyancy is correct. grasp the line while you make adjustments.

which are for your benefit and safety.Chapter 5. easy pace during deeper dives. and one-third for contingency. Your ascent should be made on the down line." and avoid heavy exertion." IT IS IMPORTANT TO FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS AND THE DIVE PLAN TO AVOID PROBLEMS. end your dive when the more conservative computer reaches its limit. With proper buoyancy control. and you won't be very popular after the dive. keep in mind that one-half of your air supply is for your bottom time.Introduction to Deeper Diving reading. do. and a place to carry out precautionary decompression stops. If you FIGURE 5-9. respond at once rather than trying to communicate that you are still fine. is that anyone can call an end to a dive at any time and for any reason. decompression stop (safety or emergency) and for contingency purposes. There are numerous and various symptoms of narcosis. one-third for ascent and a precautionary decompression stop. At many locations in the Caribbean. you can cause the dive to be shortened for everyone in the group. This type of dive is often led by a divemaster or guide. but those who dive these areas need to follow recommended procedures and practices. In other words. there is a feeling of exhilaration as you hang suspended in space on a wall dive. controlled descent and a slow. An established rule of diving. Avoid "skip breathing. the continental shelf drops off steeply into extremely deep water quite close to shore. A slow. control. You should not go deeper than the guide." This is more important than ever for deeper dives. etc. It is common to anchor the boat near the edge of the drop-off. have time. A good practice is to move away from the boat along the wall at a pre-determined depth and to return to the boat at a shallower depth. or respond to emergency situations. which includes your descent. Remember. Even if you just feel uncomfortable. Pay attention during the briefing and follow the instructions. use the deeper reading gauge for the determination of your present depth. of course. As you monitor your air. you should signal your buddy and ascend until you are again at a comfortable depth. the rule is modified to one-third for descent and bottom time. When in doubt. ascend sooner. The vertical walls of the drop-off offer spectacular diving. Your rate should . which provides a reference. air. Buoyancy must be trimmed precisely before venturing out over the deep water. One of the more popular types of deep diving is "wall" or "drop-off" diving (figure 5-9). ascend and end the deep dive. If your buddy signals you to ascend. then dive your plan. For dives to even deeper depth. you should immediately signal your buddy and ascend until the feelings are alleviated. There are other procedures that will be explained to you. It is important that you proceed at a slow. DEEPER WATER DIVING IS COMMONLY CONDUCTED ON DROP-OFFS OR "WALLS. Breathe continually. to dive shallower. and one which is especially important for deeper diving. "Plan your dive. and one-half is for your ascent. It is important that you adhere closely to your dive plan on deep dives. If you experience any strange or unusual feelings. easy pace on the bottom can also reduce the likelihood of experiencing nitrogen narcosis. If you are both using dive computers. One of the conventions for deeper dives is that a dive plan should not be changed during the dive with the exceptions.

also. A review of the NAUI Dive Tables is usually included. you will need to dive nearby. such as a quick dive to free a fouled anchor. The briefing will also include instructions on activities for the dive. signal the surface support person that you are "OK. in the event that a mandatory decompression stop should ever be required. and its use is common practice for charter dive boats. Before you rush off to make deep dives on your own. which may involve recording the readings of depth gauges for comparison. buoyancy loss measurements. but result in less time at depth because the angled descent requires more time than a vertical descent on a down line." Such dives can increase the chances of decompression sickness occurring and are to be avoided. take it easy for a while. When a dive has very short bottom time. It is better to spend one. but you may be required to prepare it for use. the dive is termed a "bounce dive. should be performed by people who were not involved in the dive. and may be part of the briefing for the dive. Maintain yourself at the decompression stop level and keep activity to a minimum. so monitor your progress by watching your depth gauge and counting slowly or comparing your ascent to elapsed time. You should also wait at least 12 hours. Upon surfacing from the water after completion of your precautionary decompression stop. This is a good safety precaution. longer if your dive is one of a series of repetitive dives. This could be hazardous under conditions that warranted the use of a vertical descent/ascent line. called a "decompression bar" or "deco bar. and drinks containing caffeine. Your deep diving ability as an Advanced Scuba Diver is limited to the depth of your training. an aquatic life sur- . you may be able to swim toward shore and make your safety decompression stop on the bottom in shallow water.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver not exceed 9 meters (30 feet) per minute or the rate specified by your dive computer." and make your way to the exit. Sometimes a weighted bar. you will have to perform a hovering safety stop and surface without the reference and control provided by the line. before flying in an airplane. If you are unable to locate the down line for your ascent. A more thorough review and additional information on dive tables theory and usage is included in the NAUI Master Scuba Diver course. It is good practice. Any hard work. The decompression bar can accommodate more divers than a down line. As you set up and prepare for the dive. This rate is much slower than most people realize. such as pulling the anchor or carrying heavy equipment. remember all of the equipment you need in order to make deep dives and remember your responsibility to the diving community to conduct your recreational dives safely. or you will need to navigate accurately. Equipment such as the down line and the hang-off tank is provided. If a deep dive is being made from shore. noting the effects of pressure on various items. especially following a deep dive or any dive approaching the no-decompression limits. even if your total dive time is well under the no-decompression limits. In order to relocate the down line for your ascent. Plan to obtain additional training if you are interested in deep diving or have a need to make dives to deeper depths. Gradually increase your depths to stay within your comfort envelope and multitasking ability. OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE The planning and preparation for your introductory dive may be assigned to you. hot showers. There is much more you need to know. Avoid exertion. Perhaps you feel that with all of this knowledge and with the experience of a couple of dives beyond 18 meters (60 feet) you are ready to handle any kind of deep dive." is used to provide a better base for decompression than the down line. After exiting the water and removing your gear. It is best to stay close to and in sight of the ascent line. alcohol. Deep dives from shore also allow you to follow the contour of the bottom for descents and ascents. continuous length of time at a depth than it is to spend an equal amount of time at that depth with a couple of trips to the surface included. you do so under the supervision and direction of your instructor. You should stop at 5 meters (15 feet) to decompress for a minimum of three minutes. note the time for the start of your surface interval.

A precautionary decompression stop will be included. or a combination of these.Introduction to Deeper Diving vey. and you may have the opportunity to practice additional precautionary decompression stops on the down line. a guided tour. Find out such details as whether you should go around divers who have stopped on the down line during descent or whether you should hold your position above them. You will learn more about deeper diving during the discussion following the dive. Another review of the dive tables is usually included in the debriefing. It is important for an introductory deep dive to be well organized and coordinated.Chapter 5. . Remember to log the dive and have your log book signed by your buddy and by your instructor. so be attentive during the briefing and ask questions for clarification.

CHAPTER Conservation and Aquatic Life Studies .

Activities Biological study techniques vary. behaviors. This type of diving is also a very interesting way to develop other valuable diving skills such as navigation. anchors. Learn the procedures for conducting biological studies. You will learn how to see things you would otherwise overlook. so a good underwater slate and pencil or a clipboard with waterproof paper is a must (figure 6-1). Typical activities include quantitative counts. are frequently required. 2. controlled observations. and their role in the environment. and you will view hunting. etc. Perhaps the most interesting part of all. establishing transects. You might study all life forms in an area or focus on only one. general and transect surveys. Rulers and measuring devices may also be useful for determining sizes when collecting data. There are plenty of books. and more. measured lines or poles. 4. roles. distinctive characteristics. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course aquatic life study dive. There are benefits from studies of aquatic life. The study of marine plants and animals is known as marine biology. Be introduced to conservation and aquatic life studies. however. you won't be qualified to participate in scientific expeditions. and posi- . but you will have an idea of how much interest you Equipment The equipment for underwater studies of aquatic life ranges from an underwater slate to sophisticated electronic measuring devices. and you will be able to explain some of the aspects of aquatic life to others. dangers. and opportunities for you to learn more and to further develop your ability to do research as a diver. though. The idea is to mark off an area on the bottom and to limit the study to the area that has been defined. classes. A compass is needed for navigation. have in this area. but all divers should at least be able to recognize certain types of animals for safety reasons. is the interest you will develop when learning about relationships between animals. studies involve an organized approach to learning about a particular life form in a designated area. surveys. and preserving. 5. their uses. After your introduction to aquatic life studies. Generally. use of special scientific equipment. tagging. bottom markers. Diving instruments are important. Standard techniques involve the studying of a specific area. their traits. you will learn to identify animals. Be introduced to the equipment used in aquatic life studies. AQUATIC LIFE STUDIES This chapter provides an introduction to conservation and aquatic life studies. 3. It can be fun to learn the habitats. comparison studies. collecting. collecting and preserving of plants and animals from an entirely different perspective. but there are some simple items of gear that you may use and with which you should be familiar. There are millions of species in the waters of our earth. You will learn some of the techniques used by scientists in the fields of limnology and marine biology. special relationships. Professional "research divers" even use waterproof tape recorders with special mouthpieces that enable them to speak underwater. counting grids. You will develop a greater appreciation for nature. lines. You are not likely to be exposed to elaborate equipment during your dives. you will be able to satisfy some of your curiosity about some plants and animals. Techniques include timed or controlled searches and counts. Slates for aquatic studies are usually larger than the general use ones available for recreational diving. Some people are more interested in studying these life forms than others. Learn about biological study techniques. and names of various creatures.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. The study of fresh water animals and plants is known as limnology. The activity usually involves the recording of a lot of data. so equipment such as marker buoys.

collecting bags. By providing artificial light in close proximity. and tagging equipment may be called for. When a large area needs to be surveyed. You will learn more about underwater cameras and photography in the chapter on the topic later in the book. A SLATE WILL BE NECESSARY TO RECORD YOUR FINDINGS ON AN AQUATIC LIFE STUDY DIVE. tion fixing. A dive watch allows activities to be coordinated and findings to be keyed to time. A dive light is helpful for peering into dark places and allowing colors to be observed. Collecting equipment such as nets. a diver's sled or a Diver Propulsion Vehicle (DPV) may be used to allow systematic searching at speeds faster than those FIGORE 6-2. the colors of an object in deep water can be seen.Conservation and Aquatic Life Studies FIGURE 6-1. The deeper the depth. A picture can literally be worth a thousand words when documenting animal behavior or habitat. A PICTURE CAN BE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS. FOR UNDERWATER RESEARCH AND STUDY. A DPV is a battery-operated device with a motor and a propeller that the diver holds onto or rides (figure 6-3). Another device for surveying . A depth gauge is necessary to record data about habitats. possible by swimming." which is a vacuum-type plastic tube that "slurps" animals into a chamber. and a thermometer is useful. traps. An underwater camera can be a useful tool to the research diver (figure 6-2). the more colors are absorbed until only blue or violet light remains. Many colors in the spectrum are removed from natural light by absorption.Chapter 6. One type of collecting gun is the "slurp gun. collecting guns.

some of the following procedures may prove useful. A quick disconnect device is a necessary safety feature. FIGURE 6-4. by discussing it as soon as possible. Communications and coordination are a necessary part of organization. and will need to be introduced and agreed upon. where to look for it. Once you find an animal. what data to obtain. towing speeds must be slow. you may not see many of the creatures you are looking for. Seeking one type of plant or animal to the exclusion of all else is usually preferable to looking for a variety of life forms. Once everyone is organized. and by using a reference book (figure 6-4). Many life forms are experts at camouflage. FIGURE 6-3. Special signals may be used. You should also focus narrowly on things as you come upon them and not let your eyes move idly from one thing to another. note the circumstances. As you look about. in open water? What is the depth? This will help you to find others of the same species. The board can be tilted to provide directional control. As your dive progresses. This is a board with handles which is towed behind a boat and held onto by a diver. Is the creature among rocks. Procedures Organization is a necessary first step. Unless you make a conscious effort to observe and to identify. The participants in the study need to know what to look for. A seat may be attached to reduce the strain on the diver's arms. DIVER PROPULSION VEHICLES (DPV'S) COME IN DIFFERENT DESIGNS AND ARE USEFUL WHEN YOU NEED TO COVER GREATER DISTANCE THAN IS CONVENIENT WHILE SWIMMING. Note the size and color. Light levels are often low as well. keep this contour in mind and you will be surprised at how the creature you seek will seem to jump from its background as its contour matches your imagined one. One key is to impress into your mind the contour of the animal you are seeking. Fix the animal in your mind by naming it.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver large areas is a diver's sled. and should be used only by highly experienced divers. . sometimes referred to as an aquaplane. on sand. The skill of keen observation is one that can be developed. NOTE THE SURROUNDINGS WHEN YOU FIND A SUBJECT FOR STUDY. Since the force on the diver can be quite great. Use of this latter piece of equipment requires training and practice. you will find that it is easy to look at something underwater and yet not see it. and the techniques to be used.

Finally. Dive lights are very useful for peering into holes and crevices and beneath overhangs. the density of the objects being surveyed. The use of lights and bait can help you to achieve this goal. The square is placed over a representative section of the animals being studied and the number of animals inside the square is recorded. and all animals passing beneath the pole are counted. and the more effective you will be on your next dive. and other factors. For increased accuracy. Baiting animals with food is a common practice as a means to observe them. take time to reflect upon the experience. To survey animals on a larger scale. During biological studies. searches for plants and animals are usually controlled. A "Transect" line of a specific length-say 20 meters-is stretched and anchored along a selected heading on the bottom. such as a sand dollar bed. In this way.Conservation and Aquatic Life Studies FIGURE 6-5. One end of the pole is kept next to the line. Leisurely go over it in your mind and picture the significant things you saw. Depending on the underwater terrain. The more you ponder your experience. Writing reinforces your memory. more or less methodical forms of quantitative studies can be used. For high-density situations. After your dive. The divers making the count swim up one side of the line and down the other using a measured pole to delineate the survey area. multiplying the density per known area times the estimated total area can approximate the total population. a different method is used. a square formed from plastic pipe may be used. You must either discover the hiding place of the animal or attract it. transfer your observations and circumstances from your slate and record them in your logbook. SURVEYS SHOULD ALWAYS BE CONDUCTED IN BUDDY PAIRS. such as starfish on a sandy bottom. By measuring or estimating the total area covered by the animal population and multiplying it times the number of animals per area covered by the square. Another method of surveying using the transect method is for divers to follow an assigned heading through an area and count all of a certain species encountered on that course. Much aquatic life is not out in the open where it can be easily viewed. the search line can be moved parallel by two pole lengths one or more times and the survey repeated to determine a more accurate density average. The desire for food is often greater than the fear an animal may have for your presence. the more you will learn and retain. Your goal is to observe the animal within its environment without harming the creature.Chapter 6. the total population can be estimated. The area viewed needs to be .

and will depend on the distance covered. bottom composition. any unusual behavior. are beyond the scope of recreational diving. The more you learn about an animal. By having several teams of divers make parallel transect counts in an area. Also. It is also useful to note any special relationships the animal may have with other animals. and by knowing the dimensions of the area being covered. and logging of the dive. the animal being studied. Post-dive activities include a review of the dive objective and the procedures used. you will learn more and get more enjoyment from your diving. a compilation and examination of the data collected. the visibility. temperature. It is fun to try to determine what role the animal plays in the overall environment. an orientation to the area and a briefing on the dive activity. Your study may consist of finding and identifying a list of plants and animals common to the area. it is usually a good idea for each diver to count separately and for either the higher number or an average of the two counts to be used. You will probably meet at the dive site and receive . and other information whenever you find an animal. fairly accurate estimates of population size can be made. For better accuracy. data recording is also important. Your experience in learning a little about biological studies may provide you with an opportunity to participate as a volunteer diver in a local environmental study. such as comparison studies and tagging projects. You may want to record the depth. and distinctive characteristics. By recording information for later reference. In addition to density studies. It is important that all surveys be performed by buddy teams of divers (figure 6-5). your instructor will provide you with information on the dive and you will need to prepare a dive plan. Some activities. Collecting is usually discouraged in order to conserve aquatic life. Solo diving is not permitted for obvious safety reasons. Aquatic study is frequently one of the most enjoyable dives in the Advanced Scuba Diver Course. the more interesting it becomes. OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE As is usually the case in the Advanced Scuba Diver Course. or you may be asked to conduct a survey of an area for one particular species. but you can imagine the challenges and rewards possible when such undertakings are successful. and other factors. a discussion of any problems experienced during the dive.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver determined. Additional training will increase your capabilities and your opportunities. suggestions from your instructor. teams of divers increase the opportunities for sightings of the plant or animal being sought.

CHAPTER Search and Recovery .

The techniques described will also help you in searching for good dive sites. This usually isn't the case unless you have been trained in at least the basics of searching for and recovering objects. however. for example. Having a marker buoy handy in your gear bag at INTRODUCTION You won't be a diver for long before you will lose something and need to find it or before someone asks you to find and recover something they have lost in the water. You will become a better underwater navigator. 5. Be introduced to the general procedures of search and recovery operations. The scope of this introduction is limited to the basics of the topic. Learn about the equipment used on search and recovery. this area during the NAUI Master Scuba Diver course. MARKER BUOYS ARE INDISPENSABLE FOR SUCCESSFUL SEARCH AND RECOVERY OPERATIONS . This is also true of recovery. and will also develop increased underwater awareness. Your initial studies and introductory dive will help make your attempts to locate and retrieve items safer and more effective. Learn the basics of finding and recovering objects lost underwater.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. Finding things underwater requires a proper approach for success and safety. the better the chances for recovery. they are able to relocate and recover objects easily. and lightweight objects found while diving. and you can greatly increase your capabilities in FIGURE 7-1." which will be described later. Some experienced divers carry a marker buoy on all dives just so they can mark the location of an object that has been found or one that might be dropped. You will also find that your search and recovery training involves the application of many diving skills that improve as you apply them for a new purpose. GENERAL PROCEDURES We will divide the general procedures into those for searching and those for recovering. The first fundamental of searching for an object under water is to define the area to be searched and to mark the starting point. Most non-divers assume that because you are a diver you can easily find something that has been lost underwater. Understand the techniques and precautions of search and recovery. and the use of a small "lift bag. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course search and recovery dive. practice of simple searches. 4. In this way. The sooner the point at which an object has been lost can be marked. This chapter will introduce you to this very useful activity area and will provide you with a few basics that will help you find and recover lost equipment. 6. is not intended to prepare you to salvage heavy objects or to engage in search and recovery operations that would be considered commercial or professional. Learn how to rig a found object for lifting to the surface. NAUI Search & Recovery Diver Specialty courses are available to help you learn more complex aspects of this topic. This chapter. 2. . 3. items dropped from a boat while at anchor.

recovery is simply a matter of picking the object up and returning to the surface. define the area to be searched. All too often the object of a search has been located. It is obviously a waste of time to meticulously search the same area twice. especially when it is so easily avoided. the immediate marking of the spot will increase the chance of recovery (figure 7-1). Marker buoys can be used to designate the limits of the search. which is critical to success (figure 7-2). Search techniques are taught in greater detail in NAUI Master Scuba Diver and in NAUI Search and Recovery Diver Specialty courses. Training and experience will help you select ways to keep track of the areas searched. a "lift bag" should be used to raise the item to the surface. the surface is also a good idea. The next step is to select an appropriate search pattern. A marker buoy should be attached to the item and deployed to the surface. If someone drops something overboard. After determining the starting point as accurately as possible.Types of search patterns and how to conduct them will be introduced in the Techniques and Precautions part of this chapter. WITHOUT A STARTING POINT AND BOUNDARIES THE OCEAN IS A LIMITLESS AREA IN WHICH OBJECTS LOST ARE SELDOM FOUND. If an object is small and light. and after the divers have surfaced to report the find they have been unable to relocate it! That can be frustrating. But when the object weighs more than about ten kilograms (twenty-two pounds). you will not be able to search systematically. The boundaries of the area to be searched are sometimes identified with buoys. but unless you define the limits of the search. and the pattern selected. In still water on certain types of bottoms it is even possible to draw lines on the bottom to mark your progress. With the starting point marked. currents. but it is frequently not followed and causes frustration. bottom conditions. This will depend on many factors. the next item of concern is to keep track of the areas that have been searched. the area defined. The ability to choose the best pattern for a given situation may well determine whether or not the objective of the search is quickly met or leads to frustration. The principle is to mark an object once it has been found unless the object is light enough to be recovered immediately. but other limits such as depth can be used. Much of search and recovery training is about learning search patterns and practicing them. For now you need only understand that the type of pattern to be used is affected by visibility.Chapter 7.Search and Recovery FIGURE 7-2. The final basic item to be considered for searching may seem obvious. A typical lift bag is . and other considerations. the size of the object.

Continue reading to learn more about this equipment. Even when the object is properly rigged and when the appropriate size of lift bag is being used. The next salvage fundamental is to match the lifting force of a lift bag to the weight of the object being recovered. your buddy. Even if the object is retained during the ascent. When a lift bag is used to raise an item. If it does. Time can be saved . Underwater slates are useful for communications as well as for information recording. but allow a little slack to accommodate waves and tide changes. More on lift bags will be presented in the Equipment part of this chapter. including yourself. Equipment Many of the items of extra equipment used for search and recovery have already been mentioned. 4." but this is a dangerous practice that should be avoided. Securely rig the object to be lifted. Well-designed marker buoys obtained from a dive center are recommended over homemade. and the lift itself. 6. Marker buoys are available in various sizes and configurations. control is required. Control the lift. You will learn how to estimate the size of the lift bag in the Techniques and Precautions part of this chapter. the bag will be full or nearly full at the start of the ascent. the air inside the bag will expand during ascent. the lifting capacity of the bag should not greatly exceed the weight of the object. Keep track of the areas searched. Match the lift bag capacity to the weight of the object being recovered. Rigging is the term used to describe the attachment of ropes. so knowledge of and the ability to tie several knots will be required. You don't want your marker buoy to be hidden underwater because you made the line taut and the tide has come in when you return to begin the recovery phase. the first step is to "rig" the item securely.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver shaped like a small hot-air balloon. controlled rate. holding onto it occupies the diver's hands and may prevent the diver from controlling buoyancy as the air in the BC expands. a dangerous. between the object to be salvaged and the lifting device. The procedures for doing this are also presented in the part on Techniques and Precautions. 3. Become familiar with these basic principles. No matter how much you learn about search and recovery. By matching the capacity of the bag to the weight of the object being recovered. the excess air will simply bubble out the bottom of the bag. A lift bag is a bag that can be filled with air to provide a buoyant force for the lifting. uncontrolled ascent can occur and result in injury. Adding air to the lift bag provides the buoyancy used to lift objects underwater. The main idea to be kept in mind when rigging an item is that preventing the item from coming loose during the lift is essential for safety. 5. You must control the entire situation. Divers are often tempted to simply grasp the object and inflate their buoyancy compensators and use themselves as "human lift bags. and the lift can get out of control. which are now summarized for you. Mark the position of an object when it has been found. BASIC PROCEDURES OF SEARCH AND RECOVERY: 1. 7. Define the area to be searched and mark the starting point." To salvage an object that has been found and marked. accelerate the lift. Most buoys have nothing to stop their line from completely unraveling (make sure you've checked that the bitter end of the line is secured to the buoy or you can lose the float in the current) when deployed underwater resulting in the excess knotting at the surface or drifting down current. and straps. Once you have regained the surface tie off the line. The next principle of recovery is to maintain control during the lifting process. This can be unavoidable when used to mark an unexpected find. and the ascent will take place at a fairly constant. 2. They are small and compact so they can be easily carried by divers. If the diver with the excess buoyancy accidentally drops the object. you will find that these apply. Select the appropriate search pattern. Never risk being a "human lift bag. other divers present. You may be required to tie a line to an object. cords.

The use of a separate cylinder of air to fill a lift bag is recommended.a manually operated valve that allows expanding air to be vented from the lift bag during ascent. The neck of the bag is fairly narrow and usually has a strap attached for rigging the bag to the object being lifted. do not push your hand up inside the lift bag while adding air. Also. Even better is the use of underwater radio communications so that you and your buddy and others on the team can simply talk to each other. but are larger and more positive indicators than smaller marker buoys designed to be carried by a diver.The bags are made from different materials. This is one way in which a lift can be controlled.Search and Recovery FIGURE 7-3. These are a form of marker buoy. These devices are readily available. TECHNIQUES AND PRECAUTIONS You are now familiar with the basics of what to do. although use of a regulator's extra second stage is permissible if care is taken to avoid the potential for entanglement and adequate air supply is available.Chapter 7. The use of a marker buoy was suggested. Being pulled to the surface with no source of air is a potentially hazardous circumstance and one that can be avoided by use of an extra source of air. and the type of material isn't important as long as the bag holds air under water. Draw the search area on the slate before you start and mark off each area as you search it. The regulator could become entangled in the lift or get caught as the lift begins to ascend. surface floats are often used. This part of the chapter will explore the appropriate techniques to use and will help you learn about potential hazards involved with search and recovery so you can avoid them. LIFT BAGS COME IN A VARIETY OF DESIGNS AND SIZES. Again. Even if there is absolutely . your first step is to mark the starting point. IT IS IMPORTANT TO MATCH THE BAG TO THE ITEM BEING LIFTED and frustration avoided when coordinating with your buddy if you can simply write a message to convey your point. An extra source of air should be used for inflating a lift bag under water. To define an area to be searched or to keep track of what has been searched. However. and can deploy a heavier anchor that provides better holding power. Perhaps the most specialized item of equipment for search and recovery operations is the lift bag (figure 7-3). Use of the diver's primary regulator second stage is not recommended. The potential for entanglement can be reduced if one diver holds the bottom of the lift bag open while the other adds air to the bag. A desirable feature on a lift bag is a "dump valve" . The larger float is easier to see at the surface. but you need information on how to do it. surface floats can be anything from a plastic jug to a specially designed buoy as long as the purpose of defining and maintaining the search area is fulfilled. but what if you don't have one? Then a "fix" of the position as described in the chapter on navigation should be taken as quickly and accurately as possible. reliable and becoming a popular addition to many recreational divers equipment.

PARALLEL SEARCH PATTERN nique you use. A circular search is most useful when the point of loss is rather well defined.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 74.7). In some situations. However. you should still write down any information that can help in establishing the search area. No matter which tech- FIGURE 7-5. The second step is to select an appropriate search pattern.5. snorkeling on the surface is all that is necessary. What is the depth? What time is it? Which way is the current flowing and how strong is it? If you were diving in the vicinity. CIRCULAR SEARCH PATTERN nothing visible that can be used as a reference. Write it down. you don't always have to conduct an underwater search. This can be done by placing FIGURE 7-8. The idea is to extend a line from a marked center point and search in ever-widening circles until the lost object is located. but don't trust it to memory. but your buddy can serve as the anchor point while you make the circular passes. your search needs employ the appropriate pattern and be well planned (figure 7-4. CONTOUR SEARCH PATTERN FIGURE 7 7. The technique usually uses a heavy weight as the hub for the sweeps. There are two basic types of search patterns: circular and straight line. EXPANDING SQUARE SEARCH PATTERN an object on the bottom.6. It is necessary to know when a circle has been completed. marking the bottom. There are countless variations of these basic types. noting a . but we will look at only a few of them that are useful for areas where the bottom is relatively unobstructed. what was the bottom like? Were any underwater landmarks or distinctive features nearby? Information such as this can help a great deal and may lead to successful search.

This way it allows you to discuss the signals and coordination needed before you submerge and are forced to rely on slates and hand signals. During compass course searches. and the team searches back along the line. but fortunately many bags have "dump valves" for venting excess air during lifts. If no marker buoy is available. The buddy team then searches along the length of the line. moving each end of the line in turn until the object is located or the search area has been covered. A more precise variation of a straight-line search pattern uses semi-fixed search line to control the searchers' progress. After executing a pattern and finding nothing. Also note your location in relation to the buoy marking the starting point. As long as control can be maintained by venting expanding air on ascent using a bag with more lift than is necessary is acceptable. It should now be rather obvious why you need to begin at a known point. a 20 kilogram bag will lift 20 kilograms of weight (50 pound bag will lift 50 pounds of weight). It should minimally overlap part of the area covered by the previous search. lift bag capacities are not divided into very small increments. Straight-line searches are used when the exact point of loss is less well known. The pattern is usually executed by following compass headings. its capacity should approximate the weight of the object. and your instructor will explain the exact approach you will use in your training. When they reach an end. This "jack-stay" or "z" search pattern is very thorough because there is extensive overlap as the line is searched back and forth. or by being signaled by a buddy who remains at the hub and signals completion of a circle by tugging on the line. and establish ranges and/or bearings to get a "fix" on the location as quickly as possible upon surfacing. If a lift bag is needed. The process is repeated. It is a good idea to practice a search pattern by walking through it on land before attempting it underwater. The general concept is to sweep back and forth over an area in a systematic pattern until the object is located or until the area has been thoroughly covered. that end is moved sideways a short distance. When possible. employ the same procedures for marking a point of loss. A circular sweep is the easiest and fastest search method available. It is unacceptable to use a bag that is much too large and which has no provision to reduce the excess buoyancy. Distances for various legs of the patterns are measured by time or by counting kicks. and the other can be used to mark the object once it is located. It is important that the line be kept taut during the sweeps. The next step is to rig the object for lifting. The lift bag may have a strap and a clip. You may need to secure the object to the lift bag with line. but the signals used need to be agreed upon in advance. search a known area. Write down pertinent data before surfacing. and this simplifies the rigging procedure.Search and Recovery compass heading. buddy contact can be maintained with line pull signals. place a full wrap or "round turn" of the strap around the object before securing the end of the strap rather than simply passing the strap around the item. the pattern may be repeated by establishing a new starting point and repeating it. The amount of area searched during each sweep depends on the visibility and the size of the object. There are many variations to the basic circular sweep. For example. Unfortunately. but it does require a search line and good coordination between the divers involved.Chapter 7. When the object of a search has been located and the divers need to surface to obtain the lifting equipment. It is a good idea if each member of a dive team has a marker buoy. and you will need to be able to tie some appropriate knots (figure 7-8). Lift bags are usually rated in terms of weight of lift. The line is deployed along the bottom and its ends are weighted in place at the limits of the search area. its position should be marked. but it is also time consuming. the divers should swim together with one diver navigating the pattern and the other doing the searching. There are different ways to accomplish this depending on the type of search. For circular sweep searches. One can be used to mark the starting point for a search. The overlap increases efficiency and helps prevent any of the search area from being missed. As a . It is important that buddy contact be maintained during searches. Only when these criteria have been met can a systematic search be conducted. and finish the search at a known point.

NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver minimum you should be able to tie: Two Half Hitches. Proceed slowly. Remember that desirable features of any knot are not only that it is easy to tie. Two Half Hitches are useful for securing the end of a line to something (also useful is a Clove Hitch) or for making a slipping loop in the end of a line when tied around the line itself. Start the lift on its way when you are ready by simply pushing the object upward a little. You can then check the rigging to make sure it is holding properly when it is supporting the full weight of the object. add air and start again. KNOTS or by trying to add air to it as it descends. . These knots will be useful for you to know for other applications besides diving. let it go. Signal your buddy and make sure the area is clear of other divers. If you just keep adding air until an object Bowline Two Half Hitches starts off the bottom. For most rigging purposes. Because a square knot may work loose if continually flexed by wave Single Sheet Bend action. follow it to the bottom. and a Sheet Bend. but also that it holds well and is easy to untie. and the object will immediately sink. easy-to-untie loop in the end of a line. Use the extra air source to put air into the lift bag. The expansion of air from the pressure reduction will be enough to establish positive buoyancy. With the proper size lift bag rigged securely to the object. adding a small amount of air at a time and noting the effect. It is possible that the bag may clear the water enough to dump air when it reaches the surface.. It is important that you and other divers stay clear of the area below a lift. release it. you are ready to begin the lift. a Bowline. Try to get the object neutrally buoyant so it hovers just off the bottom. A Bowline forms a non-slipping. swim horizontally away from it. If the lift gets out of control by rising faster than it should. You and your partner should ascend with the lift and use the dump valve in the lift bag to maintain a proper ascent rate. a Sheet Bend is often preferable for joining two lines together particularly if they are of different circumferences. and surface. Don't try to support a sinking lift by holding it and swimming Clove Hitch (End of Rope) FIGURE 7-8. you will have more buoyancy than is needed for the lift and it will be difficult to control. You do not want to be underneath if this happens. In the event that you vent too much air and the lift begins to sink. these knots should meet your needs.

it is common to re-sink an item after it has been recovered. your instructor may interrupt your searching.Chapter 7.whatever your instructor directs you to do. for the diver who rigged it to unrig it. You will find that the time goes quickly on this dive because it is interesting and fun. So both members of a buddy team can gain experience. you are only interested in simple operations and in salvaging lightweight objects. but be sure to point out that at present. After the dive you will meet and discuss what you did and how well it went. Your instructor may provide some or all of it or make arrangements for you to obtain it. some line. The salvaged items may be brought to shore or returned to the bottom . Your local NAUI affiliated dive center can aid you in selecting the equipment. Practice as buddy teams and use the opportunity to establish any signals you might need under water. Problems will be reviewed and your instructor will offer suggestions to help overcome them. and have you start again so you will be successful in finding an item and so you will have the opportunity to salvage it. learn about a new dive site and find out how well you like search and recovery as a diving activity. you may see the value of purchasing your own gear for this activity. an underwater slate. place you closer to an object. a marker buoy. Your log books should be completed and signed. If you are unsuccessful in your first couple of searches. You should practice the rigging procedures and the search patterns on land. You will also refine some diving skills. and a lift bag. If you want to always be prepared to recover small items underwater. your instructor will brief you on the area and the dive and explain in detail the search and recovery procedures. The objects to be found and recovered may be known to the instructor or may be placed in known locations in advance with a marker buoy placed nearby to mark the starting point.Search and Recovery OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL SEARCH AND RECOVERY INTRODUCTORY DIVE You will need some extra equipment for this dive. There may be several objects placed in the area so each dive team will have an opportunity to find and salvage something. including a compass. and for the other diver to then rig the object and salvage it again. . When you arrive at the dive site. You will usually begin your dive by swimming to the starting point and then searching by teams.

CHAPTER Wreck Diving .

NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver

In this chapter you will: 1. Be introduced to the popular and challenging activity of wreck diving. 2. Learn the possible hazards of wreck diving. 3. Be introduced to the equipment used by wreck divers. 4. Learn about the procedures used by wreck divers. 5. Understand the legal and ethical issues associated with wreck diving. 6. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course wreck dive.

People dive on wrecks to collect relics and artifacts (where it is legal), to use them as an interesting background for underwater photos, to hunt or observe the abundance of life often found there, to pursue interests in history or archaeology, or just for personal reasons such as curiosity or fascination. There is an awe and mystique about wrecks that seems to keep divers returning to them (figure 8-2). Finding wrecks isn't easy, even if you know their exact location. And finding wrecks that are undiscovered, challenges even to those who devote their lives to it. There is always the possibility that you will come across a wreck by chance, but such findings are rare. Even if you should come upon a wreck site, you might not be aware of it. The classic Spanish galleon wrecks depicted in movies are not to be found in the sea. The elements and the creatures of the ocean soon reduce a wreck to a pile of rubble and hide it with a dense covering of growth. However, shipwrecks can be preserved amazingly well in fresh water. Wrecks often occur because of the geographical area. There are often dangerous reefs and strong currents that contributed to the sinking of the vessel and with which divers must contend if they wish to visit the site. Wrecks are frequently found at deeper depths, requiring careful planning and procedures. In the next part of this chapter you will learn of many other poten-

Nearly everyone has dreamed of discovering an ancient galleon filled with treasure. Just the thought of finding gold and silver, jewelry, money, and other treasures is exciting. The possibility does exist because more than one fourth of all of the gold that has ever been mined has been lost underwater. It is rare that treasure is recovered, but Wreck Diving is one of the most popular diving activities for other reasons. Some ships are even sunk purposely to form artificial reefs and interesting dive sites (figure 8-1).


Chapter 8- Wreck Diving

tial hazards associated with wreck diving. This activity is definitely a specialty, requiring training, special equipment, and experience to ensure enjoyment. You are about to gain some insight into this exciting and challenging pursuit, but you must be aware that you will by no means be qualified to engage in wreck diving activities beyond those to which you are introduced. Penetrations, external surveys, salvage, and similar activities on wrecks require special training.

In addition to the possible environmental conditions of currents, limited visibility, and deep water, other potential problems include silt and hazardous animals. It is common for wrecks to be covered with a layer of silt and sediment that has filtered down upon it for years. The slightest disturbance can raise a cloud that can immediately reduce visibility to zero. Being able to move about without disturbing silt is often a requirement (figure 8-3). Wrecks are artificial reefs-often the only shelter in an area-and are havens for life. This is one of the attractions of wrecks, but it can also present problems because of potentially hazardous animals that dwell in wrecks. You need to know what creatures could be harmful, how to identify them, where they are likely to be encountered, and how to avoid injury from them.


NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver

Being armed with this knowledge and using some caution will allow you to enjoy the animals while helping to prevent injuries. Since fish and other life is abundant, wrecks are popular with fishermen, both anglers and commercial fishers. Expect to encounter fishing line, hooks and even nets on wrecks. Entanglement in these is possible, but getting caught is usually not a danger if handled properly. A sharp knife for cutting line and nets is essential. The greatest hazards of wreck diving are encountered when divers enter the interior of sunken vessels. It is very easy to become disoriented in an unfamiliar maze of passageways, especially when references are at unusual angles because of the orientation of the wreck. Darkness, silt, entanglements, and anxiety compound the problem. Entrapment is also possible should any part of the wreck collapse or move while you are inside or underneath it. There is a great deal you need to know and be able to do before you can penetrate wrecks underwater. Two possible hazards for you to keep in mind for your introductory, non-penetration external survey dive are sharp edges and losing your bearings. Deterioration of metal underwater causes it to become thin, sharp, and jagged. Serious cuts are possible. Heavy gloves are mandatory. It is easy to become disoriented on a wreck unless you follow the procedures that will be outlined.

Pay particular attention to this area during your studies and during your dive.

Your wreck diving gear includes all your regular gear, such as full instrumentation, an extra second stage on your regulator, a dive knife, and gloves. Having a dive light does not qualify you to enter a wreck. It takes additional equipment, training, experience and practice. Some additional instruments are needed. Minimally, these include a depth gauge or dive computer and a compass. Note that the compass will not perform properly when on or near a metal wreck. In fact, erratic behavior by a compass can sometimes indicate that you are close to a wreck for which you are searching. An underwater slate is always useful for recording observations and for communications. Wreck diving is often done from a boat. The boat may anchor directly on the wreck or in some instances a permanent mooring may be in place. In either circumstance, divers can descend directly to the wreck site using the anchor line as a down-line (figure 8-4). If there is current present a "trail line" or "current line" should deployed behind the boat to be used by divers who surface down current from the vessel.


since anchors can severely damage wrecks. To return. Does the wreck parallel the shoreline or run perpendicular to it? Information such as this can help you locate a wreck and navigate better while you are diving on it. pay attention to the techniques used so you can better understand them. a magnetometer (metal detector). this is preferred. that is the responsibility of your instructor. Be aware that an anchor line can be chafed or cut by a wreck if you anchor on one.Chapter 8. spoiling them for future dives. wreck diving is often done from a boat. but this is a common and reliable way to position a vessel for wreck diving. Watch the anchor as it is lowered to check the visibility. check again for current(s). checked as the boat is being anchored and you set up for the dive. You should obtain drawings. just proceed from landmark to landmark in the reverse order. If diving from a private vessel it is a good idea to check the anchor and make sure it is secure. Upon reaching the landmark. Estimate depth. For this course. This can be done by taking a "fix" as described elsewhere. taking bearings carefully. use the time spent pinpointing its location to evaluate conditions. The next step is very important . and the orientation of the wreck with respect to the bottom and to compass direction for purposes of navigation. Note the dimensions. Find out if the wreck is intact. Remember currents can change in intensity and/or direction during your dive. Other sources include commercial dive boats. and other divers. move carefully so . Pick out a landmark at the far limit of the visibility and work your way to it. record searching. when you arrive in the vicinity you will want to pinpoint the wreck as closely as possible. However. Get a compass bearing so you will be able to return to the anchor line for your ascent. visibility and the stability of the current weather pattern to decide whether or not it is appropriate to dive. Finding a wreck can often be as challenging and rewarding as diving on it. Always be sure the wreck you seek will be within your limits of ability. diagrams. When your instructor or the boat captain locates a wreck for your dive. and watch the trail line float. explore the sheltered portion of the wreck first.that of orienting yourself to the anchor line and to the wreck itself. This gear and its use are covered in the Wreck Diving Specialty course.Wreck Diving Serious external survey or penetration wreck diving at the specialty level requires additional specialized equipment. you will need to carefully mark your location so you can relocate the wreck for future dives. Find out about potential hazards and prepare yourself to be able to identify them and cope with them. Which way is the wreck positioned in relation to the line? What distinguishing features of the wreck can be used to help you recognize the area where the anchor line is located? Use the techniques to which you were introduced on your navigation dive. charts. All of these steps are necessary in addition to all of the regular ones of your dive plan. It is common for wrecks to have a pattern to them. If you only have a general position. As you proceed along the wreck. Conditions can be further PROCEDURES Your first task is to locate a wreck. Your planning for the dive needs to be more involved than usual. commercial fishermen. and/or using a GPS or other electronic navigation equipment. Before beginning your tour of a wreck. the shallowest and deepest depths. If you can quickly identify this pattern. If the direction of the current is not in line with the ship's hull and you can dive along the lee (sheltered) side. You can also see why studying illustrations of the wreck in advance can be very helpful. Consult the tide tables to determine slack water time. When you find a wreck and enjoy diving on it. if you can get on the wreck without anchoring in it. as it pays to check out the strength of the current. look back to view what you have traversed from the opposite direction. it will help quite a bit with your orientation. Upon arrival at the vicinity of the wreck. or by dragging a weighted line or grapple in an attempt to snag the wreck. or pictures of the wreck so you can familiarize yourself with it. work your way to it and so forth. current(s). As mentioned. then look ahead to the next landmark or feature. This may be done with the aid of a depth sounder/finder.

Upon returning to the anchor line at the end of the dive. Avoid turning as this usually makes matters worse. Get your buddy's attention and have him or her untangle you or cut the line. although you may need to remove your scuba unit to free the net. You may also pull a fishhook into yourself. This is especially important if you are up current from the vessel when you reach the surface. and wrecks can be extremely inter- FIGURE 8 5. taking objects is strictly forbidden because these areas have been established as sanctuaries to protect the sites. but this may not be appropriate for a couple of reasons. . INTO INTERNAL PASSAGEWAYS OR AREAS WITH ONLY ONE OPENING MUST BE AVOIDED UNTIL PROPERLY TRAINED. In many areas. Check your instruments and the position of your buddy more frequently than you would on the average dive. such as Tobermory in Ontario. Pull yourself along with your hands as much as possible. You can also try reversing direction in order to maneuver the line in front of you and cut it yourself. Canada and Truk Lagoon in Micronesia. SWIMMING THROUGH A WELL-LIT. Time and air go by unnoticed when you are interested in something. which moves water up and down and can stir things up. OPEN WHEELHOUSE IS NOT CONSIDERED PENETRATION WRECK DIVING. Monofilament line can be extremely strong and will stretch quite a bit before it snaps. Even partially entering the wreck to better view the interior can be dangerous because of potential entrapment. Ascending in contact with the anchor line is recommended so you will surface at the boat and not have to swim to it. The same principles apply to entanglement in fishnets. Then you return to the wreck and examine it more thoroughly with additional training and proper equipment (figure 8-5). VENTURING INTO AREAS WHERE YOU NEED A DIVE LIGHT. LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF WRECK DIVING People are usually interested in taking objects from wrecks.IVIAUI Advanced Scuba Diver removing and replacing equipment when wreck diving. Avoid trying to wedge through narrow openings. rather than the usual flutter kick. If you should become entangled in fishing line. It is easy to see the need for proficiency in basic skills such as esting. If you are so intrigued with the wreck that you want to explore it internally and in greater detail. simply pulling on the line is not an effective means of getting free. Your instructor will take care of this for your introductory dive. Try using a frog or a scissor kick that moves water from side to side. it is wise to again check the anchor to make sure it can be freed when raised. Entering the wreck is definitely inappropriate at the introductory level. Viewing completely intact wrecks such as these is an exhilarating experience that can be appreciated by all who visit them. first complete Penetration Wreck Diver Specialty training. Swim with your fins at a slight upward angle so their thrust will not stir up clouds of sediment. little or no silt will be raised. Kicking up silt can ruin the visibility for you and for other divers and can make your return to the anchor more difficult. Monitor bottom time and remember to include a precautionary decompression stop at the end of your dive just as you would on any other dive. Your dive planning should include discussion and agreement on who will lead which portion of the dive and at what point in time or air pressure you will turn around and make your way back to the anchor line.

will demonstrate your responsibility to the community of divers who also enjoy visiting wrecks. but be sure to call them to the attention of your buddy so he or she will also recognize them and thereby avoid them. You will know firsthand why wreck diving is one of the most popular of all diving activities. not only because of the legalities involved. no matter how small or seemingly inconsequential. since a great OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE Your instructor is likely to assist you with the planning of the dive by providing a diagram of the wreck to be visited and. You should always consult local. you will have to monitor your gauge frequently. the safer and more enjoyable your dive will be. Pay attention and ask questions if any clarification of plans or procedures is required. You may want to locate as many types of aquatic animals as possible and record them on your slate. but because you are also removing part of the reason for the attraction of a wreck site. You may observe and point out other possible hazards to the instructor. Be sure to log the experience and to mark it as your first wreck dive. The better your orientation to the wreck in advance of the dive. Every country in the world has laws concerning the salvage of wrecks. You may be tested on your awareness of your position relative to the anchor line. However. Your instructor will probably point them out in advance. During your tour.Wreck Diving Wrecks in other areas seem to be fair game for salvage. This is fine. but even more importantly. or federal authorities prior to any salvage attempts. Another question may be for you to indicate how much air you have left when signaled by the instructor. Sometimes the instructor will ask various divers to indicate the direction of the anchor line. A simulated decompression or a safety stop will be included. Everyone seems to want to comment and ask questions. Look around and observe the marine life. state. use your dive light deal is learned by discussing everyone's experiences. A stripped wreck is a disappointment. and artifacts include just about anything you might pick up from a wreck. Also keep a lookout for hazards. This is a good way to help develop concentration on orientation. to study colors at close range and to look inside the hull (from the outside of course). and your cooperation will be required. Similar questions can be asked for depth or elapsed dive time. by showing pictures of the wreck itself and the life which lives in and around it. The debriefing following an introductory wreck dive is usually quite enthusiastic. There are many wrecks that were once magnificent dive experiences that have lost their attraction because individuals have irresponsibly removed all items of interest. Especially wrecks that have all of their intrinsic worth preserved. The briefing for your dive will be rather thorough. the taking of artifacts from wrecks can result in complicated legal problems. and the temptation to take a porthole or other artifact may be difficult to resist. The best things to take from a wreck are photographs. Regrouping at the anchor line and ascending on the line will probably complete the dive. Each dive team will be encouraged to share what took place and what was seen on the dive. You might be expected to indicate this before looking at your gauge. Controlling the desire to collect objects will keep you out of legal difficulties. Organization and coordination is important.Chapter 8. You will probably descend as a group by buddy teams on the anchor line and be guided about the wreck by your instructor. To have the correct response. perhaps. The taking of objects from wrecks is discouraged. .

CHAPTER Underwater Photography .

whether they are interested in transferring already award winning photography skills to an underwater application or just desire to record their diving memories. The adage. or excellent pictures can also be obtained quite easily with more expensive amphibious cameras by using highly sensitive film and the natural light. It allows you to share sub-aquatic experiences through images. 5. however. waterproof snapshot cameras. "a picture is worth a thousand words". photography can be a source of profit to those who develop the ability to capture images worthy of being published.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. Understand the basic principles of underwater photography. GETTING STARTED Under the right conditions-namely clear water-it is easy to take photos underwater. The use of wide-angle lenses. 4. UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY APPEALS TO MANY DIVERS AID REQUIRES GOOD BASIC DIVING SKILLS TO BE FULLY ENJOYED. it is still possible to obtain good photographs. artificial lighting (strobes). and proper picture-taking techniques can produce good results. this special activity requires and develops a high degree of proficiency in the fundamental skills of diving. very much enjoy your introduction to this special interest area of diving. "Take nothing but pictures. This chapter will familiarize you with an exciting. and the point-and-shoot technique may not be effective. close-up attachments. is becoming more and more appropriate as an ever-increasing number of people are visiting the underwater world. You can always learn more about photography. where truly. If any or all of the above aspects of underwater photography appeal to you. In addition to all of this. When the water isn't clear. This can be done with simple. then you will FIGURE 9. enjoyable pastime so you can determine if you would like to learn more about it by taking a NAUI Underwater Photography Specialty course.1. but simple cameras usually do not produce good results. 2. Be introduced to the equipment used by underwater photographers. Furthermore. Explore a typical Advanced Scuba Diver course photographic dive. Learn some picture taking techniques that will improve your photographic results. 3. but during the specialty course you can learn the basics and quickly develop your ability to consistently capture high quality images on film or digital format. leave nothing but bubbles". Taking photos in "inner space" is also challenging and rewarding. Learn what it takes to get started in underwater photography. . INTRODUCTION Underwater photography appeals to many. Quality underwater pictures are always in demand (figure 9-1).

the wider the aperture must be opened." or a picture that looks like it was taken in a snowstorm. The light from the surface is absorbed and diffused and is often insufficient for natural light photography. If you open your eye momentarily. the result will be "backscatter.Chapter 9. Both are self-contained and have lenses. light recording surfaces. If it is dark. At times. the iris of your eye opens wider to allow more light to enter and record the image. Without artificial light. the amount of light decreases. It also causes them to appear closer than their measured distance. pictures appear predominantly blue and with minimal contrast. a flash must be used to provide enough light to properly expose the film. Not stirring up silt is an absolute requirement in order to obtain acceptable photos. Bright colors such as red and orange will not be recorded on film unless the water is very shallow because these colors of the natural light spectrum have been absorbed by the water and cannot be reflected from a red or orange object at depth.Underwater Photography FIGURE 9-2. and the less light there is. and if light from your flash unit strikes these particles straight-on and is reflected from them back into your camera. As you learned in your entry-level scuba course. You now know two good reasons for using an artificial light source underwater. but the use of the light source requires certain light-handling techniques for good results. a source of light is needed in order to supply enough light for vision. There are almost always particles suspended in water. causes the familiar magnification of objects. When light rays pass from air into water or from water into air. the greater the problem. which occurs underwater at the face mask/water interface. The more turbid the water. and you will learn how to minimize backscatter through proper light positioning techniques such as side-lighting. The lack of adequate available light often requires light to be supplied artificially with lights. When less light is available. irises (called an aperture in a camera). strobes or flashes. they bend or "refract. and shutters (the eye uses the lid as the shutter). The same principles apply to a camera." The refraction. The principle of photography is to register reflected light rays on film in a controlled and predictable manner. light passes through the iris and is focused by the lens of your eye onto the light-sensitive surface in the rear of the eye. The shutter is opened to allow light to pass through the aperture and be focused onto the film surface by the lens. By illuminating objects at close range with artificial light. The less light present. You are probably aware that white light is comprised of various colors. different colors are absorbed at different depths as the light passes through the water. As a diver descends into the water and depth increases. Another important reason for using artificial light is to add color to photographs. A CAMERA IS DESIGNED TO ADMIT A MEASURED AMOUNT OF LIGHT AND FOCUS IT ON FILM IN ORDER TO PRESERVE A REFLECTED IMAGE SOME FUNDAMENTALS It helps to compare a camera to your eye to understand photography (figure 9-2). Understanding and compensating for this phe- . their colors become visible. the more challenging the task becomes.

The majority of underwater photography is "still" photography. By changing the lenses (the lenses must be changed above water). cinematography and underwater video as well. eras. Both are capable of producing quality pictures (figure 9-3). . and video cameras are all used successfully underwater. the area included in a photograph can be varied. movie cameras. nomenon is important for photography. The capability to interchange lenses is a desirable EQUIPMENT All types of cameras may be used underwater as long as they are housed in waterproof. The lens on a camera must be focused. The two basic types of underwater cameras are amphibious cameras and housed cameras. Still cam- feature found on many cameras used underwater. The advantages and disadvantages of each type are presented in detail in an Underwater Photography Specialty course. pressure-proof containers that allow access to the controls. wide angle. depending on the type of picture wanted and the diving conditions.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 9-3. Lenses are classified as close-up. You will learn how to compensate for this in the Picture-taking Techniques section of this chapter. so we will concentrate on that area. CAMERAS COME IN MANY DESIGNS FROM POINT AND SHOOT DISPOSABLE TO SOPHISTICATED AMPHIBIOUS MODELS USED BY PROFESSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHERS. and if you focus it for the actual distance to the subject. but the principles and techniques of underwater photography for still cameras apply to digital photography. You must focus on the apparent distance as perceived by the eye and as would be seen when focusing through the lens with a single lens reflex camera. your picture may not be sharp because the apparent distance to the subject is less than your setting. Refraction also makes it harder to accurately point a strobe or a flash at a subject.

the less light needed to properly expose the film. and the shutter speed (the length of time the shutter remains open) can also be varied to affect exposures. Another method to control exposure is with the camera controls. arms to hold the strobe. you will become familiar with the advantages and application of more sophisticated strobes. or telephoto. or "ISO. recognize that there is a limited range of focus . like cameras. There are many accessory items for underwater photography. and film speed. The use of an amphibious strobe can provide light in closer proximity and in a greater amount than the available natural light (figure 9-5). shallow water or a complete system for more complex applications. meters to measure light levels. It requires proper. You have just read that different types of films have different sensitivities. the higher the sensitivity rating number. The accessories may be useful or essential. Another means of controlling exposure is by use of artificial lighting. UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHERS USE RACKS ON WHICH TO SECURE THE VARIOUS SEPARATE PIECES OF THE CAMERA AND ITS ACCESSORIES TO MAKE IT EASY TO HANDLE UNDERWATER. and you have some control over the results of your efforts through the selection of the film rating. attachments for taking close-up pictures." of the film. The relationship between the aperture setting and the area in front of the camera in which subjects will be in focus will also be explained in your specialty course. Examples include a viewfinder to help frame the subject. You can use either color or blackand-white film. During your Underwater Photography Specialty course you will learn the relationship between f-stop. Whether you use a camera by itself in clear. strobe. so that is one means of controlling the exposure. A strobe or flash unit has already been identified as an important item of equipment for the underwater photographer. BASIC PRINCIPLES The most important consideration in underwater photography is proper exposure of the film.Chapter 9. careful preparation and care to protect it from the elements it will encounter. shutter speed. the better acquainted you will become with the purpose and use of the various accessories. FIGURE 9-4. water. are amphibious or may be enclosed in a housing. etc. This is controlled in several ways. In underwater camera systems the camera. and various accessories are connected together to form a unit which can be handled effectively while diving (figure 9-4). The underwater strobes of today offer many features such as automatic exposure control and variable power settings. filters and diffusers. All of the components for underwater photography are typically combined into a "system" to allow for ease of handling. Film is rated according to its sensitivity to light. Be very conscious that the equipment you will be using is subject to pressure. This allows more color to be captured on film and for sharper images because a smaller aperture can be used. trays to hold the camera and strobe bracket. As you learn more about photography. The size of the aperture or "f-stop" can be varied to admit more or less light. Basically. and an otherwise harsh environment. unless it is a digital camera. you will need to put film into the camera. and you have your choice of either prints or slides. You will learn more about various types of film as you become better acquainted with photography. The more you learn about underwater photography. and. Strobe units are much more popular today than flash units.Underwater Photography standard. For now.

imagine the area seen in the viewfinder as being divided into three equal parts vertically and horizontally. so remember that the camera can be rotated 90 degrees to better compose vertical pictures for long. Rather than placing the point or points of interest in the exact center of your picture. A STROBE IS NECESSARY TO CAPTURE ALL OF THE COLOR IN PHOTOS TAKEN DEEPER THAN ABOUT THREE METERS. try to position them at one of the four intersecting points in your imaginary grid. As you view a scene to be photographed. . This leads us to the subject of composition. it's longer than it is high. the remaining ingredient required for a good photograph. for underwater photography and that you will need to know this range when taking pictures during your introductory dive. So far you have learned that there are several ways to control the amount of light reaching the film. It is often a good idea to shoot FIGURE 9-6. but we will share just a couple of basic concepts for your immediate use on your introductory dive. vertical subjects. VARYING THE POSITION Of THE CAMERA CAN PRODUCE DIFFERENT EFFECTS IN THE FINISHED PHOTO. there is a great deal to consider regarding the composition of a photograph. that is. 35mm film format is rectangular. This simple rule will help you achieve much more pleasing results than that of "bulls-eye" shots typical of beginning photographers. As with the other topics presented thus far. For your introductory dive you will probably be provided with a camera system which is set up to produce acceptable results at a given distance. so all you will need to do is concentrate on keeping the camera steady and composing a pleasing picture.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 9-5.

remember the problems with estimating distance underwater and point the strobe slightly beyond the subject in order to get the light onto it. how to operate the shutter release. As part of the briefing for the dive. OVERVIEW OF A TYPICAL INTRODUCTORY DIVE Your instructor may provide the photographic system for you to use. It is very likely that a camera will have to be shared for the introductory dive pictures or that more than one type of camera system will be used. squeeze the shutter release and inhale very slowly as you release it. You should position yourself for stability. Your instructor may give you an opportunity to take pictures with different types of cameras so you can compare the differences in . When you photograph a single diver alone. photographers have suffered lung over-expansion injuries by accidentally ascending while holding their breath and trying to take a photo. but for some reason do not work easily. wait for that perfect moment. and as you are completing your exhalation. your instructor will show you how to operate the camera system. and how to turn on and off the strobe if one is used. treat it that way. so please. This may make it impossible to unload the camera without ruining the film. you may have the light pass in front of the subject as you point it at the apparent image instead of where the subject actually is. and setting all controls. A properly functioning low-pressure inflation system on your buoyancy compensator is required because it allows reliable one hand buoyancy control. Pay careful attention to these instructions. Remember that underwater photographic equipment is expensive and rather delicate. it should be all set up for your use by a trained and experienced underwater photographer. you can tear the film off the reel. You have a lot to think about when you are trying to dive and take pictures at the same time. assembling any accessory items. If you do this. let the instructor examine the problem and correct it if possible. you will usually want a vertical shot (figure 9-6). a good method is to exhale fully as you pose the picture in the viewfinder. This is one reason why your diving skills improve . Camera movement when the shutter is operated causes many poor pictures. If you want to sharpen your diving skills. To reduce backscatter.Underwater Photography both horizontal and vertical shots of an exceptional subject. or your attempts to capture good pictures will be frustrated. While this is a natural tendency for most people. Rather than force anything. underwater photography will provide an excellent incentive for you to quickly become proficient. Never hold your breath while taking photos underwater.they have to! You will soon develop the ability to move about without stirring up silt. This will include such things as how to advance the film and cock the shutter. or you may rent it from your local NAUI affiliated dive center. Otherwise. Your instructor will show you how to hold and handle the camera system. Your buoyancy control improves because good buoyancy control is needed to hover near a subject as you make final adjustments or ally maintained. This is another reason to have your personal equipment regularly inspected and profession- PICTURE-TAKING TECHNIQUES We have already mentioned that the gear must be properly handled. On most cameras. Treat the gear with loving care! You may not have to hold the strobe or aim it for the pictures you take on your first photo dive. In either case. squeeze the shutter release rather than punching it. but if you do. hold the strobe away from the lens of the camera and angle it toward the subject. Resist the temptation to twist or turn things that you don't understand. it is very important that you not push hard on the shutter-cocking lever when the film reaches the end of the roll. As describe above.Chapter 9. This set up includes selecting and loading the film. You must. The need for this procedure explains why strobes are usually mounted on arms and at some distance from the camera. Don't force any controls that you have been instructed to use.

and can even be financially rewarding. as you are qualified to enroll. don't forget to hold it away from the camera and angle it toward the subject to avoid back scatter and beyond the apparent image to allow for refraction. Your buddy can do the same when you are using the camera. it is always fun to get together to view the results and share your experiences. you may take pictures using available light and a wide angle lens." offer film processing on board. In order to keep track of who took which pictures with which camera. The sooner you can see the pictures you have taken. If the water is clear and bright. We hope you enjoy your introductory experience and all of the photographic dives you are bound to make in the future. so don't wander away so far that you lose sight of your buddy. you may take close-up pictures during your introductory dive. the better. It is quite probable that you will become instantly "hooked" on underwater photography as soon as you produce a good picture. An underwater slate usually accompanies each camera on a photographic dive. Many dive charters. If you have to hold the strobe and point it at the subject. Don't worry about not being allowed to change settings on this first dive. and you should record your name. Have the instructor recheck all of the camera settings just before entering the water. Some film can be processed in a very few minutes right at the dive site. it is necessary to keep a log of the pictures taken with each camera. If the water is dark and turbid.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver their use and in the results. This conserves battery power. rewarding. A good procedure when sharing a camera in any conditions is for you to search for a subject for your photos while your buddy is taking pictures and recording them. the subject and the frame number for every picture you take. Remember also to turn the strobe off when you are through taking pictures. After the dive. Most cameras have a frame counter to show the number of exposures taken. This will help identify which pictures are yours when the film is developed. Just take all of your pictures at that distance and according to the directions of your instructor and you should obtain properly exposed photographs. Your NAUI instructor will provide you with information on NAUI Underwater Photography specialty courses in the area. "One hour" photo labs can also allow you to see the results quickly. . however. it is a lot of fun to view the results as a group. Don't forget the importance buoyancy control and proper breathing. Taking pictures underwater is a wonderful hobby that is challenging. keeping yourself stable and the camera still. The rules of the buddy system still apply. You will have your hands full just handling the equipment. The camera will be set for a proper exposure at a specified distance. and applying the principles of composition. especially "live aboards. Your instructor may even be able to process color slides by means of easy-touse developing procedures. And.

CHAPTER Other Diving Specialties .

2. 3. artifacts and shells. MANY DIVE OPERATIONS OFFER SUCH EXCURSIONS. Unique things are commonly discovered when diving at well-known sites. SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE By this point in your Advanced Scuba Diver course. diving has something special to offer you. lobster and the like. though. . however. If you aren't already convinced. There is much to be said for just sightseeing. excursions to feed them are very popular. These underwater pastimes appeal to many (figure 10-1). such as Stingray City in Grand Cayman. If you want to feed the fish. Maybe you simply enjoy visiting the world beneath the waters. bottles. 4. For many. you have probably already selected an underwater activity you wish to pursue and in which you would like to become more proficient through training and experience. Sightseeing and exploring are special interests just as much as wreck diving or underwater photography. Be introduced to some of the other underwater activities that are available to divers. it is not a good idea to feed animals underwater. Be introduced to underwater collecting of rocks. In addition to the more popular special interest areas presented already. Fish. No matter what your interests. underwater life identification is an ideal way to spend diving time. It also offers opportunities not available to those who are unqualified to visit the underwater world. Understand the precautions associated with feeding fish. and plant identification guides are available on waterproof paper and on plastic cards. being fed by divers. shellfish. remember that these are wild animals that can always react unpredictably. exploring. In some areas. you are about to discover that diving has something for everyone. where the creatures are fed as a matter of course. Also they become habituated to FIGURE 10-1 ENCOUNTERS WITH AQUATIC LIFE CAN BE EXHILARATING.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver LEARNING GOALS In this chapter you will: 1. A great deal of satisfaction can be achieved by identifying animals you observe underwater. there are many other diving specialties. Generally. Although it may be exciting and fun. 5. Diving allows you to engage in many above water hobbies underwater. Be introduced to spear fishing and the need for responsible practices that will preserve the environment for those who follow. Be introduced to underwater hunting of shellfish. Newness is not reserved for far away places. you should learn how and where to do it from others with experience. observing and identifying aquatic life. and some fish have been known to become obnoxious and belligerent when divers appear without food. There is a sense of adventure in diving new locations. Coming across new things keeps many people excited about diving. Some divers are every bit as excited about observing something new as others are about taking something new from our waters.

fresh fish for dinner (figure 10-2). Be sure to familiarize FIGURE 10-2. WHERE SPEARFISHING IS LEGAL IT CAN PROVIDE DIVERS WITH MANY SATISFYING DIVES AND MEALS. the effect will be less because adequate breeding stock will remain. especially in fresh water. . although divers hunt for shellfish as well. Some divers achieve great satisfaction from spearing elusive fish in competition. Spearfishing for certain species is often prohibited. it may be years—if ever-before the life returns. while others are satisfied to have good. Nevertheless. FIGURE 10-3. The game will be more plentiful there. and the more popular diving areas will be preserved for all divers to enjoy. and it is still very popular today.Other Diving Specialties UNDERWATER HUNTING Many divers enjoy hunting for game. among rocks and plants for rockfish and bass. and if regulations are followed and conservation is kept in mind. and even in the open sea for jacks and tunarelated fish. A COURSE IN SPEARFISHING WILL PROVIDE YOU WITH THE KNOWLEDGE TO PARTICIPATE SAFELY AND ETHICALLY. Divers hunt on the bottom for flatfish. marine life will not be decimated by the underwater hunter.Chapter 10. When underwater hunting is mentioned. SPEAR GUNS MUST BE TREATED WITH THE SAME RESPECT GIVEN ANY WEAPON. such as flounders and sole. Spearfishing was the primary activity in the early days of diving. when a heavily dived area is stripped of life by enthusiastic hunters. people usually think of spearfishing. It is suggested that hunters seek remote areas to pursue their interest.

be sure the ones you do catch meet the FIGURE 10-4. Spearfishing is a wonderful sport. Divers hunt for lobsters in rocks and in wrecks. In other areas. and it is difficult to beat a good meal prepared on a boat or a beach after a day of good diving. Etiquette also requires that you respect the rights of line fishermen in an area whether you are spear fishing or not. but others find no objection to using scuba to allow hunting in deeper water. By tapping the lobster on the side of the tail. use of a wooden dowel is permitted. and either gets a quarry of respectable size or waits until another day. only the gloved hand may be used. you can guide it to a position where you can reach it. If you return from a dive with a sack full of small. which has claws. Many shellfish take years to reach an adult size and some are immobile. there will be enough of them remaining to propagate the species. Divers also hunt for shellfish. MEASURING YOUR CATCH AND ONLY RETAINING LEGAL SIZES NOT ONLY AVOIDS LEGAL DIFFICULTIES BUT PRESERVES THE YIELD OF CATCH-ABLE GAME. abalone. Taking undersized animals or more than is allowed disrupts the sustained yield principle. Shellfish are delicious. In some areas. Also. and the Shovelnose or Slipper Lobster. and the lobsters are extremely quick. With the popularity of ecology and conservation today. hunts that species exclusively. waters. When all of the animals are removed from an area. including lobsters. it is important that divers not kill fish indiscriminately just for the "sport" of it. In some circles it is felt that spearfishing should be done only while breath-holding. Spearfishing is done with poles. the Langouste type. it is easy to see how that particular species may never be found there again. Spearing lobster is illegal in U.S. crabs. slings. You will learn not only techniques that will increase your chances of success. Obey them to avoid being fined and also to prevent divers from being given an unfavorable reputation. but good sense requires that it be done with the interests of conservation in mind. The major spearfishing competitions are performed while breath-hold diving. shrimp. No matter what your philosophy about underwater hunting. and guns (figure 10-3). There are people who dive just to get their own fresh seafood. The idea of fish and game regulations is that if only a certain number and size of an animal is taken. THIS SPINY LOBSTER OBVIOUSLY EXCEEDS MINIMUM SIZE LIMITS. if you intend to engage in spearfishing. but you will also learn important safety procedures. be sure to complete a NAUI Underwater Hunting Specialty course. easily killed fish. All of these are dangerous weapons and must be handled very carefully. and clams. you are likely to become subject to peer pressure. and fresh shellfish are the most delicious. scallops. which has a spiny exterior but no claws. but the meat of all of them is a delicacy. The same principles of conservation stated for spearfishing also apply to the taking of shellfish. Lobsters can be as difficult to catch as they are good to eat. . The ethical modern underwater hunter chooses the type of fish he wants. Which tastes better is a controversy. There are three types of lobsters: the New England variety. crayfish.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver yourself with the local fishing regulations.

so it is easy to see why they are the objective of many divers. but some species are more tender and tasty than others. In some areas where bottle collecting is popular. use.Other Diving Specialties minimum size requirement. This means that the bottle has been found by another collector who has inspected it and found it to be of no particular value. These animals attach themselves to the rocks with a large. etc.. shells. Tidbits of information such as this can be . is satisfying and educational. They are found in abundance in some areas and during certain seasons. can require conservation practices similar to those presented for hunting.Chapter 10. As with all diving special interests. growing up to a foot in diameter. and the depth to which the animal is buried. it is always a good idea to learn how to do something from instructors experienced in the activity. A knife or diver's tool is required to break the animal loose. you should always consider the impact it will have on the environment and on other divers who may dive in the same area. you may find bottles stuck into the bottom upside down. artifacts. but smaller. Not only are they unusual and a good means to recall memories of diving. and a special tool. You should learn how to take abalone if they are found in your area and you are interested in hunting for them. depending on the visibility. while others are free swimmers in their infancy until they find a suitable location on which to spend the remainder of their lives. they can be of historical and monetary value. and they make an excellent meal. When you think about taking something. Many divers find great pleasure in bottle collecting. algae. but it can still be enjoyable to hunt for them. suction foot. The slightest disturbance usually causes the well-camouflaged shell to close. Researching books to identify specific bottles and document them according to their era. It isn't often that you can take a meal from the ocean and leave one there for another day as well. Attached scallops are visible to the trained eye because the shell is usually slightly open until disturbed. take only what you need so there will be more of the animals for generations to come. They are well known for their flavor. some divers take just one claw from a crab. It is not uncommon to find scallops in abundance in some areas. and the mantle of the animal inside can be detected. No matter how many you may encounter. Collecting can be a non-destructive pastime. and prawns are similar to lobster. bottles. reefs. called an "Ab Iron" is required to dislodge them. Scallops are bi-valves found on rocks. There are several types of abalone. the bottom composition. Since crabs are capable of regenerating lost limbs. however. Shrimp. Abalone are merely giant ocean snails. Some of the largest abalone in the world live in the ocean off the Western coast of the United States. Antique bottles can be worth hundreds of dollars. the lobsters are usually accompanied by a diver who is proud of the catch! (figure 10-4) Crabs are not as difficult to catch. You will learn such things as the importance of not cutting an abalone when you remove it from a rock. Rocks. Bringing home legal-sized lobsters means more than just good food for a meal. The animal will live as long as it has one claw with which to feed and defend itself. Clams are typically found in muddy or sandy bottoms in both fresh and salt water. and the animal becomes almost invisible in its surroundings. Among the most popular items sought by underwater collectors are bottles. Some scallops are free swimmers. it will die if it is cut because the blood of these animals does not clot and they will bleed to death. and other items are sought and treasured by divers who love collecting such items from the realm beneath the waters. They are found on rocks in Pacific waters. If it is undersized and you put it back. Clams may be difficult to locate and hard to get. or the collection of certain things. such as tropical fish and sea shells. crayfish. Part of the fun of hunting. All of them are edible. but they are extremely tasty and considered a gourmet food. Check local fish and game regulations as to the legality of this practice in your area. is in overcoming the obstacles to get a catch! COLLECTING Divers can bring home trophies other than game. wrecks or any solid structure.

even dead shells provide homes for other animals who take over their shells. However. Seeking and finding an object which is thousands of years old can be every bit as challenging and rewarding as any other form of hunting and collecting.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver FIGURE 10-5. COLLECTING SHELLS AND OTHER MATERIAL IS SOMETIMES RESTRICTED. Proper collecting techniques include finding an area in which shells of a particular species are plentiful and then taking only one of them. a find that is brought to the attention of experts and shared with mankind through science and displayed in a museum is much more valuable than a find which is hoarded away by an individual. Many divers make the objective of their dive the finding of artifacts. Also keep in mind that artifacts are often protected by law. As artifact-seeking divers become more zealous in their quest for relics. With any form of collecting in which you may discover something unique. Amateur collectors are encouraged to seek dead specimens. Because it can involve taking living animals. Taking close-up pictures of living shells is preferred . Shell collecting is also very popular (figure 10-5). MAKE SURE YOU HAVE CHECKED BEFORE YOU TAKE ANY THING FROM THE AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT learned and shared with other underwater bottle collectors. so be sure to familiarize yourself with laws and ordinances before you start out after souvenirs of the past. it is extremely important that a willingness to contribute your find for the good of mankind be a prerequisite to your participation in the activity. is selfish and unethical. they frequently become students of archaeology. It would be tragic if such a find were to be kept from making its contribution to our understanding of the past. and significant archaeological contributions have been made by recreational divers who became serious about their pastime of hunting for artifacts. Fossil collecting is an underwater activity that is gaining in popularity in some areas. especially if there is a scarcity of them. Collecting is a great way to meet people and make new friends. it requires conservation-minded participants. The taking of all of the shells located. and a similar object may never be found again. After all. An artifact that is retained privately is one which might provide critical information to an experienced archaeologist. Fossil finds should be shared with archaeologists just the same as artifacts. Divers have achieved recognition and acclaim for sharing fossil finds. traveling to remote areas is recommended because the shelling will be better and because your effect on the shell community may be less harmful. When collecting shells in earnest. Indian artifacts and other products of human workmanship are interesting and can provide valuable historical information. and the diver again has the opportunity to make a contribution to science.

If you want to take coral. .Other Diving Specialties to the collecting of shells. Collecting photographs of shells is an excellent way to combine two very popular underwater activities. including rocks and coral. artifacts. cavern diving. but determined collectors frequently use a suction gun. is illegal. That's what underwater specialties are all about. What a wonderful situation it is to have so many exciting and rewarding activities available. and finding them and preserving attractive pressings can be a source of many years of pleasure. you should seek pieces which have been broken by natural causes rather than adding to the destruction of the environment. Some people like to specialize in just one area. Since algae is plentiful and since only small samples are needed for pressings. whether dead or alive. With this in mind. When you are trained to do what you are interested in doing. and ethical practices in the taking of animals are all required for the diver who pursues this interest. consider algae collecting. Enjoy your collecting. the taking of coral. always consider your responsibility to the environment and to the diving community. and we haven't even mentioned the excitement of ice diving. whether living or dead. but this learning process is usually part of the fun for divers who collect animals for home aquariums. and have a better chance of ensuring success. The animals are actually more beautiful when alive and extended. Divers will collect just about anything they can carry. while the animal remains to propagate the species and provide enjoyment in the future. CHOICES We told you there were many things to do underwater and that diving had something special to offer to everyone. and bottles. enjoyable hobby. The algae is pressed onto paper and dried to form attractive displays that are good for decorations and gifts. while others like to become proficient in several or in as many as they can. called a "slurp gun" to pull small fish from cracks and crevices without harming them. river diving. but always be able to do so in good conscience. No matter what you collect. you will have more fun. CHOICES. be aware that the growth of coral is extremely slow. conservation is not a problem. A form of underwater collecting that is quite enjoyable but less well known than the gathering of shells. Some people like to dive to collect living creatures for aquariums. cave diving. If you would like to have a unique. Education in aquarium maintenance is mandatory. for example.Chapter 10. Nets are often used to catch small fish. It can be a great source of enjoyment to have a little of the underwater world in your home for continuous enjoyment. Note: In Florida and many other places. Conservation. particularly in areas which are heavily dived. There are many types of plants. is accumulation of various types of algae (aquatic plants). be safer. obedience to laws and regulations. etc. The beauty of the shell and the memory of the dive can be preserved with a photograph.

53.101. 58.83 40 21 21 C Cameras Chemical Light Clams Collecting Collecting Equipment Compass Composition Contingency Plan Coral Crabs Currents 63.100.84 82. 54.46 18.35 45.32 101. Hang-off Tank Hazardous Animals Hunting H 58 81 6. 53-59.62. 98.16-19.6.62 66.28-31. 62.76 D Decompression Bar Decompression Safety Stop Decompression Sickness 58 58 50.85 Distance Estimating Dive Lights Dive Planning Dive Tables Diver Propulsion Vehicle Diving Environments Down Line Drift Diving E Emergency Equipment Emergency Preparedness Entanglement 51 46 16.80.101 5. 37. 73. 55 103 100.82 B Back-up Scuba Backscatter Bearings Bottles Bounce Dive Buddy Line Buddy System Buoyancy Control F F-Stop Fix Fossils Freshwater Diving Fresh Water Weighting 91 13.82.99. 70. 57.102 I Instruments 14.84 51. 54.93 Entrapment Extra Second Stage 5.101-103 62. 40-47.50-59 32. 59 63 5 44.65 6 16.84 51.101 70-77 45 28.82 16 A 53 54 44. 52.66. 28.81 .93.84 Knots K 16. 58 L Legal Aspects Lift Bag Light Signals Limited Visibility Diving 81.94 64 103 62 80.103 58 44. 63 16. 71.33-37.83 101.NAUI Advanced Scuba Diver Index Abalone Advanced Scuba Diver Air Consumption Algae Collection Anchor Buoy Line Aperture Aquaplane Aquariums Aquatic Life Studies Archaeology Artifacts Deep Diving Deviation Disorientation 100. 47 100. 34.46 30 35.102 102.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful