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C02 Wireless Transmission

C02 Wireless Transmission

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Mobile Communications Chapter 2: Wireless Transmission • Frequencies • Signals, antennas, signal propagation • Multiplexing • Spread spectrum, modulation • Cellular


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller


MC - 2008


Frequencies for communication
• • • • •
VLF = Very Low Frequency LF = Low Frequency MF = Medium Frequency HF = High Frequency VHF = Very High Frequency UHF = Ultra High Frequency SHF = Super High Frequency EHF = Extra High Frequency UV = Ultraviolet Light

• Frequency and wave length
• λ = c/f
• wave length λ, speed of light c ≅ 3x108m/s, frequency f

twisted pair 1 Mm 300 Hz 10 km 30 kHz

coax cable

optical transmission

100 m 3 MHz

1m 300 MHz

10 mm 30 GHz

100 μm 3 THz

1 μm 300 THz









MC - 2008

visible light UV

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller



Frequencies for mobile communication

• VHF-/UHF-ranges for mobile radio
• simple, small antenna for cars • deterministic propagation characteristics, reliable connections

• SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite
• small antenna, beam forming • large bandwidth available

• Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF range
• some systems planned up to EHF • limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules (resonance frequencies)
• weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall etc. 2.3

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller


MC - 2008

Frequencies and regulations • ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages frequency
bands worldwide (WRC, World Radio Conferences) Europe
GSM 880-915, 925960, 1710-1785, 1805-1880 UMTS 1920-1980, 2110-2170 CT1+ 885-887, 930932 CT2 864-868 DECT 1880-1900 802.11b/g 24122472 27, 128, 418, 433, 868

Examples Cellular phones

AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, GSM 824849, 869-894 TDMA, CDMA, GSM, UMTS 1850-1910, 1930-1990 PACS 1850-1910, 1930-1990 PACS-UB 1910-1930 802.11b/g 24122462 315, 915

PDC, FOMA 810-888, 893-958 PDC 1429-1453, 1477-1501 FOMA 1920-1980, 2110-2170 PHS 1895-1918 JCT 245-380

Cordless phones Wireless LANs Other RF systems

802.11b 2412-2484 802.11g 2412-2472 426, 868

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen H. Schiller


MC - 2008


frequency f=1/T.de MC .Signals I • physical representation of data • function of time and location • signal parameters: parameters representing the value of data • classification • • • • continuous time/discrete time continuous values/discrete values analog signal = continuous time and continuous values digital signal = discrete time and discrete values • signal parameters of periodic signals: period T.2008 2.-Ing. Jochen H. amplitude A.jochenschiller.5 . Dr. Schiller www. phase shift ϕ • sine wave as special periodic signal for a carrier: s(t) = At sin(2 π ft t + ϕt) Prof.

2008 2.6 . Jochen H.Fourier representation of periodic signals ∞ ∞ 1 g (t ) = c + ∑ an sin( 2πnft ) + ∑ bn cos( 2πnft ) 2 n =1 n =1 1 1 0 t 0 t ideal periodic signal real composition (based on harmonics) Prof. Schiller www. Dr.de MC .-Ing.jochenschiller.

Schiller www.Signals II • Different representations of signals • amplitude (amplitude domain) • frequency spectrum (frequency domain) • phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase ϕ in polar coordinates) A [V] t[s] A [V] Q = M sin ϕ ϕ I= M cos ϕ ϕ f [Hz] • Composed signals transferred into frequency domain using • Fourier transformation Digital signals need • infinite frequencies for perfect transmission • modulation with a carrier frequency for transmission (analog signal!) Prof.jochenschiller. Jochen H.de MC .7 .-Ing.2008 2. Dr.

Antennas: isotropic radiator • Radiation and reception of electromagnetic waves. Jochen H.8 . coupling of wires to space for radio transmission • Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions (three dimensional) . Dr.-Ing.de MC . Schiller www.only a theoretical reference antenna • Real antennas always have directive effects (vertically and/or horizontally) • Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around an antenna y z y x z x ideal isotropic radiator Prof.jochenschiller.2008 2.

2008 Prof. Jochen H. Dr. dipoles with lengths λ/4 on car roofs or λ/2 as Hertzian dipole shape of antenna proportional to wavelength λ/4 λ/2 • Example: Radiation pattern of a simple Hertzian dipole y x side view (xy-plane) side view (yz-plane) y z top view (xz-plane) z x simple dipole • Gain: maximum power in the direction of the main lobe compared to the power of an isotropic radiator (with the same average power) www.-Ing..g. Schiller 2.9 .jochenschiller. e.Antennas: simple dipoles • Real antennas are not isotropic radiators but.de MC .

-Ing. radio coverage of a valley) y x side view (xy-plane) side view (yz-plane) z y z top view (xz-plane) z x directed antenna z x x sectorized antenna top view. Dr.. Jochen H.jochenschiller.Antennas: directed and sectorized • Often used for microwave connections or base stations for mobile phones (e.2008 2. 6 sector Prof. Schiller www.g. 3 sector top view.10 .de MC .

Antennas: diversity • Grouping of 2 or more antennas • multi-element antenna arrays • Antenna diversity • switched diversity. Schiller www.-Ing.2008 2.11 . Dr.de MC .jochenschiller. selection diversity • receiver chooses antenna with largest output • diversity combining • combine output power to produce gain • cophasing needed to avoid cancellation λ/2 λ/4 λ/2 λ/4 λ/2 λ/2 + ground plane + Prof. Jochen H.

Jochen H.jochenschiller.-Ing. Dr.Signal propagation ranges • Transmission range • communication possible • low error rate • Detection range • detection of the signal possible • no communication possible sender transmission distance detection interference • Interference range • signal may not be detected • signal adds to the background noise Prof.12 .de MC .2008 2. Schiller www.

Signal propagation • Propagation in free space always like light (straight line) • Receiving power proportional to 1/d² in vacuum – much more in • • • • • • • real environments (d = distance between sender and receiver) Receiving power additionally influenced by fading (frequency dependent) shadowing reflection at large obstacles refraction depending on the density of a medium scattering at small obstacles diffraction at edges shadowing reflection refraction scattering MC .-Ing.13 .de 2.2008 diffraction Prof. Dr. Jochen H. Schiller www.jochenschiller.

jochenschiller.Real world example Prof.de MC . Schiller www.14 .2008 2. Jochen H. Dr.-Ing.

Multipath propagation • Signal can take many different paths between sender and receiver due to reflection. Jochen H.2008 2. Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) • The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase shifted • distorted signal depending on the phases of the different parts Prof.de MC . Schiller www.jochenschiller. diffraction multipath LOS pulses pulses signal at sender signal at receiver • Time dispersion: signal is dispersed over time • interference with “neighbor” symbols.-Ing. scattering.15 . Dr.

16 . Dr. Schiller www.Effects of mobility • Channel characteristics change over time and location • signal paths change • different delay variations of different signal parts • different phases of signal parts • quick changes in the power received (short term fading) • Additional changes in • distance to sender • obstacles further away • slow changes in the average power received (long term fading) power long term fading short term fading t Prof.jochenschiller. Jochen H.2008 2.-Ing.de MC .

jochenschiller. Schiller www.Multiplexing • Multiplexing in 4 dimensions • • • • space (si) time (t) frequency (f) code (c) channels ki k1 c t c t k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • Goal: multiple use s1 of a shared medium c f s2 f • Important: guard spaces needed! s3 t f Prof.-Ing.17 .2008 2. Jochen H.de MC . Dr.

Jochen H.2008 2.18 .jochenschiller.de MC . Dr.-Ing. Schiller www.Frequency multiplex • Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands • A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time • Advantages • no dynamic coordination necessary • works also for analog signals k1 c f k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • Disadvantages • waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly • inflexible t Prof.

Dr.19 .de MC . Jochen H.2008 f 2.jochenschiller. Schiller www.Time multiplex • A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time • Advantages • only one carrier in the medium at any time • throughput high even for many users c k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • Disadvantages • precise synchronization necessary t Prof.-Ing.

20 . Dr.de MC .Time and frequency multiplex • Combination of both methods • A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time • Example: GSM • Advantages • better protection against tapping • protection against frequency selective interference c k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 f • but: precise coordination required t Prof.-Ing. Schiller www. Jochen H.2008 2.jochenschiller.

Dr.jochenschiller. Schiller www.2008 2. Jochen H.-Ing.Code multiplex • Each channel has a unique code at the same time • Advantages k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • All channels use the same spectrum • bandwidth efficient • no coordination and synchronization necessary • good protection against interference and tapping c f • Disadvantages • varying user data rates • more complex signal regeneration t • Implemented using spread spectrum technology Prof.de MC .21 .

FSK.-Ing. λ/4) • Frequency Division Multiplexing • medium characteristics • Basic schemes • Amplitude Modulation (AM) • Frequency Modulation (FM) • Phase Modulation (PM) Prof.jochenschiller. PSK ..22 . Schiller www. Dr.main focus in this chapter • differences in spectral efficiency. Jochen H.2008 2. robustness • Analog modulation • shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier • Motivation • smaller antennas (e.g. power efficiency.Modulation • Digital modulation • digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband) • ASK.de MC .

Modulation and demodulation analog baseband signal digital data 101101001 digital modulation analog modulation radio transmitter radio carrier analog demodulation radio carrier analog baseband signal synchronization decision digital data 101101001 radio receiver Prof. Jochen H.-Ing.jochenschiller. Dr. Schiller www.de MC .23 .2008 2.

2008 2.Digital modulation • Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying 1 0 • Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): • very simple • low bandwidth requirements • very susceptible to interference 1 0 1 t 1 • Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): • needs larger bandwidth 1 0 1 t • Phase Shift Keying (PSK): • more complex • robust against interference t Prof. Dr. Jochen H.de MC .24 .-Ing. Schiller www.jochenschiller.

25 . Schiller 2. used in GSM www.jochenschiller. the duration of each bit is doubled • depending on the bit values (even.2008 Prof.-Ing.Advanced Frequency Shift Keying • bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between the carrier frequencies • special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) • bit separated into even and odd bits. odd) the higher or lower frequency. original or inverted is chosen • the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other • Equivalent to offset QPSK • even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian lowpass filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK). Dr.de MC . Jochen H.

jochenschiller. Schiller www.de MC .26 .++ low frequency h: high frequency n: low frequency +: original signal -: inverted signal high frequency MSK signal No phase shifts! Prof.-Ing.Example of MSK 1 data even bits odd bits 0 1 1 0 1 0 bit even odd signal value 0101 0011 hnnh . Dr. Jochen H..2008 t 2.

27 .g.de Prof.-Ing. used e.2008 2.Advanced Phase Shift Keying • BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying): • • • • • bit value 0: sine wave bit value 1: inverted sine wave very simple PSK low spectral efficiency robust. in satellite systems 1 Q 0 I 10 Q 11 • QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying): I • Often also transmission of • 2 bits coded as one symbol • symbol determines shift of sine wave • needs less bandwidth compared to BPSK • more complex 00 A 01 t 11 10 00 01 relative.Differential QPSK (IS-136. not absolute phase shift: DQPSK . Jochen H. Dr.jochenschiller. Schiller MC . PHS) www.

-Ing. but same amplitude. Q 0010 0011 φ a 0001 0000 I 1000 Prof. but less errors compared to comparable PSK schemes • Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol) • Symbols 0011 and 0001 have the same phase φ.Quadrature Amplitude Modulation • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) • combines amplitude and phase modulation • it is possible to code n bits using one symbol • 2n discrete levels.jochenschiller. 0000 and 1000 have different phase. Jochen H. but different amplitude a. Schiller www. Dr.2008 2.de MC . n=2 identical to QPSK • Bit error rate increases with n.28 .

2 most significant determine QPSK • HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit). Jochen H. mobile reception: resolve only QPSK portion • 6 bit per QAM symbol.de 10 I 00 000010 010101 MC . 64QAM Q Example: 64QAM • good reception: resolve the entire 64QAM constellation • poor reception. LP uses remaining 4 bit Prof.2008 2. Dr.-Ing. about 2000 or 8000 carriers QPSK.Hierarchical Modulation • DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a single • • • • DVB-T stream High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority (LP) stream Multi carrier system.29 . Schiller www. 16 QAM.jochenschiller.

Spread spectrum technology • Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the interference • Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal using a special code • protection against narrow band interference power interference spread signal power detection at receiver signal spread interference f • Side effects: f • coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination • tap-proof • Alternatives: Direct Sequence.2008 2. Schiller www.30 . Dr.de MC .-Ing. Frequency Hopping Prof. Jochen H.jochenschiller.

31 .2008 2. Jochen H.jochenschiller. Schiller www.de MC . Dr.-Ing.Effects of spreading and interference dP/df i) ii) f sender dP/df iii) iv) f receiver dP/df user signal broadband interference narrowband interference dP/df f dP/df v) f f Prof.

de MC .32 . Jochen H. Dr.2008 2.jochenschiller.Spreading and frequency selective fading channel quality 1 2 3 4 5 6 frequency narrowband channels narrow band signal channel quality guard space 1 2 2 2 2 2 spread spectrum channels spread spectrum Prof. Schiller frequency www.-Ing.

DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I • XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence) • many chips per bit (e. 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal • Advantages • reduces frequency selective fading • in cellular networks • base stations can use the same frequency range • several base stations can detect and recover the signal • soft handover tb user data 0 tc chipping sequence 01101010110101 = resulting signal 01101011001010 1 XOR • Disadvantages • precise power control necessary Prof.g. Dr.2008 2. Schiller www..de tb: bit period tc: chip period MC . Jochen H.33 .-Ing.jochenschiller.

Jochen H. Schiller www.2008 2.DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) II spread spectrum transmit signal signal modulator radio carrier transmitter user data X chipping sequence correlator received signal lowpass filtered signal products X sampled sums decision data demodulator integrator radio carrier chipping sequence receiver Prof.34 .jochenschiller.de MC .-Ing. Dr.

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I • Discrete changes of carrier frequency • Two versions • sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number sequence • Fast Hopping: several frequencies per user bit • Slow Hopping: several user bits per frequency • frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period • simple implementation • uses only small portion of spectrum at any time • not as robust as DSSS • simpler to detect Prof. Schiller www. Jochen H.jochenschiller.de MC .35 .2008 • Advantages • Disadvantages 2. Dr.-Ing.

Schiller td: dwell time MC .2008 www. Dr.FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) II tb user data 0 f f3 f2 f1 f f3 f2 f1 t td t fast hopping (3 hops/bit) 1 td slow hopping (3 bits/hop) 0 1 1 t tb: bit period Prof.de 2.-Ing.36 . Jochen H.jochenschiller.

2008 2.-Ing.37 . Jochen H.de MC . Schiller www. Dr.jochenschiller.FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) III narrowband signal user data modulator modulator spread transmit signal transmitter frequency synthesizer hopping sequence received signal demodulator narrowband signal demodulator data hopping sequence frequency synthesizer receiver Prof.

even less for higher frequencies www. higher number of users less transmission power needed more robust.. 35 km on the country side (GSM) . locally • Problems • fixed network needed for the base stations • handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary • interference with other cells • Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to.38 . Dr.-Ing.jochenschiller. decentralized base station deals with interference.Cell structure • Implements space division multiplex • base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) • Mobile stations communicate only via the base station • Advantages of cell structures • • • • higher capacity. Jochen H.2008 Prof. e.g. transmission area etc.de MC . Schiller 2.

2008 2. Schiller www.-Ing. Jochen H. Dr.Frequency planning I • Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations • Standard model using 7 frequencies: f4 f3 f5 f1 f2 f3 f6 f7 f2 f4 f5 f1 • Fixed frequency assignment: • Dynamic frequency assignment: • certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell • problem: different traffic load in different cells • base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already used in neighbor cells • more capacity in cells with more traffic • assignment can also be based on interference measurements Prof.39 .de MC .jochenschiller.

Dr. Jochen H. Schiller www.de MC .2008 2.Frequency planning II f3 f1 f2 f3 f3 f1 f2 f3 f3 f1 f2 f3 f2 f3 f1 f2 f3 f1 3 cell cluster f2 f4 f3 f6 f5 f1 f2 f3 f6 f7 f5 f2 f4 f3 f7 f5 f1 f2 7 cell cluster f2 f2 f2 f1 f f1 f f1 f h h 3 3 3 h1 2 h1 2 g2 h3 g2 h3 g2 g1 g1 g1 g3 g3 g3 3 cell cluster with 3 sector antennas Prof.jochenschiller.40 .-Ing.

2008 2.-Ing. Dr. Jochen H.41 .jochenschiller.de MC .Cell breathing • CDM systems: cell size depends on current load • Additional traffic appears as noise to other users • If the noise level is too high users drop out of cells Prof. Schiller www.

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