This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Simana Basu Corey Dixon Carla Fereday Allison Muehe Tamika Perry
Transport Lab March 2003
the heat transfer coefficients of aluminum cylinders of radius 1. h.5 for aluminum. 3.25 * 10-2 m and plexiglass cylinder 2.1.5 * 10-2 m.9 W/M2*K.5 * 10-2 m. 1068 W/M2*K. The relationship between h and diameter was determined to be h ≡ D0.63 W/M2*K. copper. a lumped sum analysis was performed.25 * 10-2 m.1. and plexiglass cylinders and the correlation of h to changes in diameter and thermal conductivity.2 * 10-2 m.5 * 10-2 m in diameter were found to be respectively 1650 W/M2*K.81 * 10-2 m are respectively found to be 641. copper 1.ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment was to determine the heat transfer coefficients. No such relationship could be determined for brass. 1690 W/M2*K. 3. brass. When the Biot number was greater than 0. brass 1. 2 . 2. The heat transfer coefficient of steel 1. In cases when the Biot number was less than 0. It was also determined that there was a trend between thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient. the Heisler charts and Bessel function were used to determine h. 3. although this was not expected. of aluminum.714 W/M2*K.9 * 102 m.8 * 10-2 m. 1218 W/M2*K. 844. 1. 2.9 * 10-2 m. 1360 W/M2*K. 1044. and 1320 W/M2*K. 1354 W/M2*K. Experimentally.49 W/M2*K and 2.25 * 10-2 m.
6 Results ……………………………………………………………………………… 7 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………. 16 3 .10 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………13 Future Experimentation ………………………………………………………………13 Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………………14 References ………………………………………………………………………….TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction …………………………………………………………………………3 Theory ……………………………………………………………………………… 3 Experiment …………………………………………………………………………..15 Appendices ………………………………………………………………………….
heat transfer between solid objects and a surrounding fluid can be investigated through experimentation. To determine h and the rate of heat flow. also known as unsteady state. no heat generation. THEORY Heat transfer in this experiment occurred between a liquid and a solid object of different temperatures as a result of conduction and convection. the heat transfer coefficient. such as a lump-sum analysis. After assuming: only radial heat flow to reduce the laplacian form. The process Technomics uses claims to reduce the time for heat treatment. Using these methods. it must first be heated to about the melting temperature and then as it becomes soft and malleable. The main purpose of quenching is to alter the intensive properties of the metal by rearranging the molecular structure. we will soon find how h can be related to the geometry and thermal conductivity of the material used. Because of its applications in unsteady-state heat transfer. hardness. the energy equation obtained is: 4 . the internal temperature and overall heat flux are not constant with time. is then immersed in a fluid to cool the object quickly. Mechanical strength. h. h. k. The thermal conductivity. The experimental procedure (see EXPERIMENT section) emphasizes the rate of heat transfer in a material for a small range of temperatures to focus on the heat flow through the solid objects. an energy balance was derived. An example of the importance of quenching was done by Technomics. There are many ways to calculate h. and microstructure can be altered by h. quenching and the aging cycle while making it a continuous system that eliminates the disruption caused by batch processing. Minnesota for their work on aluminum alloy components with a fluidized bed. In order to quench a metal. and the Bessel function. One component involving unsteady-state heat transfer is the quenching of metals. a constant thermal conductivity. In order to determine the characteristics of an unsteady state heat transfer environment. For unsteady-state conditions. it has reduced production time and maximized quality to lower costs and in effect has saved companies millions of dollars (WPI site). is caused by the heat transfer of adjacent molecules and the convective heat transfer coefficient. and including surface boundary conditions. LLC in Plymouth.INTRODUCTION Unsteady-state heat transfer between solid and liquid materials is very important in the industrial world. must be determined. the heat transfer coefficient (Lisscic). the Heisler charts. occurs when a fluid interacts with a solid of a different temperature. In this experiment.
and constant material properties.T∞) (6) (Geankopolis. object’s cross-sectional area. 1993) With: h.hA(T ∞ . negligible internal resistance. or with Bessel functions.1. liquid heat capacity. Cp. a lumped sum analysis can be used with an error of 5% or less.T∞ ) ( T0 . liquid temperature. The Heisler charts and the Bessel function should produce about the same Biot number because the Bessel function is merely an equation that corresponds to the Heisler 5 .T∞ ) If ln(Y) is plotted against t. T. and x1 = V/A. liquid density. the slope of the function would be: ∆y = ∆x ∆ln ( T . The Biot number is calculated from: NBiot = hx1 k (5) (Geankopolis. A. or less than 0. thermal conductivity. the Heisler charts or Bessel function can be used because internal resistance cannot be neglected and the conduction that occurs in the cylinder must be taken into account.T)dt = Cp ρVdT (1) (Geankopolis. object’s volume Integrating Equation 1 with an initial temperature value yields: ln ( T . or Heisler charts. A lumped sum analysis stems from the following equation: (T .1.A h t = ln (Y) ρ Cp V ( T0 . heat transfer coefficient. When the Biot number is small.T∞ ) ∆t (2) (3) Where T0 is the initial temperature and (∆y/∆x) is the slope. V.T∞ ) = . ρ.T∞) = exp (-hAt/Cp ρV) (T0 . Concluding the relationship between h and the slope using equations (2) and (3): h = -slope ρ Cp V A (4) With the h obtained from (4). the Biot number can be determined with a lumped sum analysis. 1993) With: k. object’s temperature. T∞. 1993) When the Biot number is greater than or equal to 0.
but at a slower rate. the Nusselt number can also be used to show the relationship between h and the radius. The Bessel function are determined from applying (6) with the following boundary conditions and applied to form the following (9): at t = 0 T = T0 (7) at r = 0 6 dT/dr = 0 (8) (9) (-βn)2 (κt/r2) T . and k. 1993) 6 . Assuming only radial heat flow.332 Re. is more accurate than reading the Heisler charts because of human error. Also.T∞ [(βn)2 + (rh)2] Jn(βn) With: βn. The Bessel function defines the temperature as a function of time and the radius of the cylinder or sphere. 1993) Also. when finding h. The Bessel function method.333 k Re = d ρ υ µ (13) (14) (Geankopolis. the roots of the equation. The Nusselt number equation and the Reynolds number equation is: NNu= (hx) = .T) (T∞ . the heat transfer coefficient increases. the thermal conductivity.5 Pr0. the temperature at any radius can be determined using the Heisler charts or Bessel function. as the Biot number increases.Ti) m= k h x1 n = xi x (10) (11) (12) (11) (Geankopolis.charts. the nth order of the Bessel function.T∞ = Σ e * (2* r*h) n=1 T0 . The Heisler charts are developed by plotting the solution of the lumped sum analysis and can be determined with: X=αt x1 2 Y = (T∞ . Jn.
Prandtl number. Noticing the Labview data. d. and small plastic spheres that float on the surface of the water. The hot water bath is similar to the cold water bath with an electric heat source instead of ice. the cold water bath has a motorized stirrer. However. EXPERIMENT Thermocouples Potentiometer Computer Cold Bath Hot Bath Fo r this experiment. the thermocouple was very sensitive to any touch and when moved. and µ. Therefore.With: Re. The plastic spheres at the top of the water surface serve to reduce water evaporation and external temperature differences that could affect the experiment. 7 . ice cubes. Reynolds number. The stirrers are made to try and keep the water at a uniform temperature. the current produced by the stirrers makes the heat flow non-uniform. From the potentiometer. length of object. Equation (13) also emphasizes that h is not dependent on k because k is not imbedded in the Reynolds or Prandtl number equation. (13) and (14) shows that h should be dependent on the square root of d. the data is sent to a computer and the software used is called Labview. Pr. it would alter the recorded temperature in Labview by creating non-ideal curves in the temperature data. Thermocouples that are placed in the center of the object have a connector piece (the box near the thermocouple arrow) that brings two various metals together which produce a thermoelectric voltage between them when there is a temperature difference. To reduce error the objects were placed in approximately the same spot in the baths relative to the stirrers. liquid’s viscosity. since heat transfer depends on the fluid surrounding the material. The signal produced by the thermocouples is sent to a potentiometer to convert to temperature data.
9 2. the object is placed in the hot bath.1.09 0. h.49 Brass Copper Steel PlexiGlass Table1.072 0. and Biot number obtained. Labview.81 1. and steel cylinders. the Labview program is manually stopped and the values are saved as an excel file.5 HTC(W/M2*K) 641. After an object reaches an equilibrium temperature in the cold bath.49 1650 2.To begin the experiment. heat transfer coefficient. copper.2 *0.25 1.018 0.085 *0. infinitely long cylinders were assumed.06 0. the hot and cold baths have to be heated or cooled previously to a temperature of zero degrees Celsius and about 50 degrees Celsius. The software. The values with a star (*) required the use of the Heisler charts and Bessel function to determine h due to a Biot number greater than 0.63 1218 1320 1360 1068 1690 1354 844. The temperature data was obtained with Labview software.5 3. One trial was done for plexiglass.5 3. This table includes experimental results found from the unsteady state heat transfer trials.2 3. begins to read the potentiometer readings. Since h is independent of the cylinder length and thermal conductivity.25 1. 8 . Table 1 lists the data in terms of radius.9 2. The following graph illustrates the raw data obtained with all aluminum trials. RESULTS The following tables and graphs summarize our findings. Once the temperature is at equilibrium again.16 0. After a few seconds at the equilibrium cold temperature. they are not mentioned.087 0. MATERIAL Aluminum RADIUS(M*102) 1.9 1044.014 *0.59 *370.714 BIOT# 0. Also.8 1. the object’s thermocouple is connected to the potentiometer.25 2.
5"b 3.5" 1.0.0. positively increases and then again reaches steady state. Temperature versus time graph of the experimental raw data for the Aluminum trials.5. Ln (Y) versus time graph for all aluminum cylinder trials. Y is equal to (T-T∞)/(To-T∞).0" 2. Once h was found it was used to calculate the Biot number in lumped sum analysis. 9 . Aluminum Trials 0 -1 0 -2 ln(Y) -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 t (sec) 50 100 150 200 250 300 d=1.0.0" 80 70 60 Temperature (C) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time (s) Figure2.L=9 T1 Figure3.0 L=6 T1 d=2.5 L=6 T1 d=3. L=6 T2 d=1.0"b 2.5.90 Aluminum Raw Data 1" 1.L=6 T2 d=2. For all cylinder trials. The slopes of theses lines were used to find the heat transfer coefficient based on equation (4).5"b 2. L=6 T1 d=1.L=6 T2 d=2. L=6 T1 d=2. the temperature briefly remains at steady state.0.5 2.
1) Figure 4. Experimental heat transfer coefficient values versus cylinder radius. Note the positive correlation between the heat transfer coefficient and the radius. The h for aluminum trials were based on a lumped sum analysis. These heat transfer coefficients were obtained using both the lumped sum analysis and the Bessel function. although it was not expected.5 3 3.1. Radius 1900 HTC(W/m^2 *K) 1600 1300 1000 700 400 1. The brass data was based on calculations from both a lumped sum analysis and use of the Bessel function since some trials showed a Biot number that was less than or more than 0. The error bars were shown to express a 90% confidence interval in the values. h. which the aluminum data shows.5 4 Radius (M*10^2) Brass Bessel Function Data Aluminum (Biot#<0. steel. Only one trial was completed for the copper.5 2 2. 10 . Experimental heat transfer coefficient. The relationship between h and r was expected to be a factor of the square root of 2r. k. Thermal conductivity was considered to be constant in each medium. values versus calculated thermal conductivity. Heat Transfer Coefficient vs Thermal Conductivity Copper Brass Steel Aluminum Plexiglass Coefficient (h [=] Heat Transfer W/m*m) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 Thermal Conductivity (K [=] W/mK) Figure5.Heat Transfer Coefficient vs. for all cylinders. The experimental data shows a slightly negative correlation between h and k. and plexiglass materials. especially for the aluminum trials. More data can be found in Appendix 2 and 4 on the calculation of the Biot number.
DISSUSSION In this experiment. the error bars were shown to express a 90% confidence interval in the values. m=0 for the plexiglass. brass.713 x 10^3 1.47 x 10^3 Steel Brass 2.654 x 10^3 Table 2.571 x 10^3 1. diameter. an infinitely long cylinder length could be assumed. instead. Heat transfer coefficient comparisons with the Heisler chart and Bessel function. CALCULATIONS OF ERROR In Figure 4. plexiglass and steel cylinders. In Figure 5. Heisler Chart Error (+/-) .22x 10^3 1. Trial 1 Brass 3. the Heisler Chart and Bessel function methods were used. Error bars were only calculated for aluminum and brass since there was more than one value for each. copper. The error associated with the Heisler Chart calculations is also shown. Data for aluminum and copper were not included in the above table since the heat transfer coefficients were found using the lumped sum analysis.65 x 10^3 1. The data from all cylinder lengths showed no large differences between h. The diameters and lengths of the cylinders were changed throughout the experiment to measure their effects on the heat transfer coefficient. When analyzing the Heisler charts.391 x 10^3 .0 in diameter. The error value was then compared to the initial heat transfer coefficient.713 x 10^3 . Taking the difference of these new found h values and then dividing by two gave the error value. Table 2 compares the heat transfer coefficients for the steel and brass cylinders. therefore a value could not be obtained from this method for that cylinder. which allowed us 11 . approximately 14 trials were completed measuring the unsteady state heat transfer with aluminum. This was accomplished by drawing a small box around the lines on the Heisler chart that were in close proximity to the m line for the initial value (See APPENDIX 5). diameter Brass 3.598 x 10^3 Bessel Function H [=] W/mK 1.0 in. the error bars for aluminum and brass were calculated using the deviance from the mean value for the heat transfer coefficients.0 in.The following table shows the h values obtained when a lumped sum analysis could not be used. This assumption was made after comparing the h values obtained from various trials of different lengths.873 x 10^3 1. In Table 2 the Heisler chart error was calculated by finding the maximum and minimum heat transfer coefficients from the Heisler charts.337 x 10^3 . After completion of all the trials.69 x 10^3 1. assuming that the thermal conductivity was constant and did not vary with temperature. Trial 2 H [=] W/mK 1. Note that the error associated with the Bessel function was not calculated since it greatly depended on how one compared the two functions and how they were adjusted to overlap each other.
0 inches and the lengths of the cylinders were 4. and 9 inches. a lumped sum analysis could be used for all of the aluminum trials. Figure 3. Steel (d=1. As seen in Table 1.5 inch) was calculated to have a significantly large heat transfer coefficient of 1650 W/m2 K. the brass heat transfer coefficient was calculated to be almost twice that of the aluminum.to lump our data regardless of length. 6. In theory. especially for the aluminum trials (Figure 4). Numerous trials were completed with the aluminum and brass cylinders due to the variety of diameters available. The values were tabulated according to radius. but not all could be lumped (see Appendix 1). plexiglass and steel cylinders.0 inch) was calculated to have a heat transfer coefficient of 844. One trial was completed for the copper. When comparing the heat transfer coefficients for aluminum and brass at 1. The available diameter lengths ranged from 1. The slopes of these lines were used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient (Equation 4). Once h was found. the raw data was shown for all of the trials completed and trials completed at the same diameter were averaged. the temperature of the bath. a positive correlation is shown. heat transfer coefficient and Biot number. it was then used to calculate the Biot number (Equation 5). When transferred from the cold bath to the hot bath there is a sudden and drastic temperature rise over time until steady state is reached once again at T∞.0 inch) was calculated to have the highest heat transfer coefficient 1690 W/m2 K. The aluminum heat transfer coefficients were calculated using the lumped sum analysis and the brass heat transfer coefficients used both methods of lumped sum and Bessel function. The 12 . while brass (d=2. Aluminum (d=1. All of the other trials followed this same linear trend. shows the graph of ln(Y) versus time where Y is equal to (TT∞)/(To-T∞). regardless of method used.49 W/m2 K.0 to 3. Approximately the first 10 seconds the cylinder remains at steady state temperature. based on the raw data results. The relationship between heat transfer coefficients and the various cylinders is demonstrated in the Figure 5 (see RESULTS). respectively. When plotting the experimental heat transfer values versus cylinder radius. Figure 2 demonstrates the raw data obtained for all aluminum trials.0 inch diameters. Based on the Biot number.9 W/m2K.0 inch) was found to have the lowest heat transfer coefficient of 641. whereas the copper (d=1. Figure 4 should demonstrate that the heat transfer coefficients are proportional to the square root of the diameter. All of the other trials followed this same behavior when graphed.
Thermal conductivity in this case was assumed to be constant in each medium because k varies slightly with temperature. While these stirrers were supposed to help the temperature data. However. there does in fact seem to be a relationship between h and k. Since the current produced is from forced convection in an effort to avoid 13 . The error bars in the graph were shown to express a 90% confidence interval in the values. the stirrers also made slight currents which may have slightly affected the data. Possible reasons for this could be that assumptions made in the theory do not necessarily hold true in the experimental setting. but not for the brass data. stirrers were operating in the hot and cold baths in an effort to keep the bath temperature constant using forced convection rather than natural convection. Table 2 is a comparison of the heat transfer coefficients from the Heisler charts and the Bessel function when data could not be lumped (see APPENDIX 3 and 5). based on Figure 5. This only applies to the aluminum and brass trials. Heisler chart error was calculated by finding the maximum and minimum heat transfer coefficients from the Heisler charts. Note that the error associated with the Bessel function was not calculated since it greatly depended on how one compared the two functions and how they were adjusted to overlap each-other. Since the Heisler charts were developed from the Bessel function. the line which corresponded to the data point (X.experimental data shows this is the case for the aluminum. in which we had more than one value for the heat transfer coefficients. Taking the difference of these new found h values and then dividing by two gave the error associated with the trial (see APPENDIX 5). we expected the two values of h to be very close.Y) was below m=0 and therefore an h value could not be obtained by that method for that cylinder. The heat transfer coefficients graphed were the results from using both the lumped sum analysis and the Bessel function method. there should not be a correlation between h and k since the Reynolds and Prandtl number (Equation 14) does not deal directly with the thermal conductivity. There were also many experimental errors that occurred which may have contributed to variation in h (see Error section). When analyzing the Heisler charts for the plexiglass. The error bars on the graph were calculated using the deviance from the mean value for the heat transfer coefficients. Sources of Error While completing the trials. This was accomplished by drawing a small box around the lines on the Heisler chart that were in close proximity to the m line for the initial value. The graph of experimental heat transfer coefficients h versus the thermal conductivity k of the cylinders (Figure 5) shows a relationship between h and k. This value was then compared to the initial heat transfer coefficient (see APPENDIX 3 and 4). As proven in the theory section.
was much higher in obtaining h values. our data showed that the heat transfer coefficient can be directly related to the cylinder radius. The end effects were considered as a possible source of error since this experiment assumed infinite cylinders because since plexiglass was placed at the top and bottom of the cylinders. we can see the temperature gradients. This lab can be slightly altered and still utilize most of the present equipment.1. It was not characteristic in the brass trials where a combination of lumped sum and Bessel function methods were used to determine h. 14 . This was shown to be true in the aluminum trials where a lumped sum analysis was used. there should also be multiple trials of each. or pyramids. performing this on a larger scale and noting the effect on h would be interesting. Finally. but for steel. Since the Heisler charts are derived from the Bessel function. copper. With these objects.error the cylinders were placed in the same position with the theory that the same current is at the same spot. the Heisler charts and Bessel function. and plexiglass is close to zero. Although no trend between the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient was expected. there is no way to completely eliminate axial heat flow unless the conductivity is zero. It would also be interesting to experiment with various solid materials in different shapes. and plexiglass also. spheres. like oil. or a salt solution. Based on the Nussult number correlation data. there could also be trials with a different liquid. CONCLUSIONS As expected. Another test that involves solid objects is to place the thermocouples at various locations relative to the center of the object. air. we expected to see the two values obtained to be almost equal. The first addition that could be done to the lab is to have various diameter cylinders for not only brass and aluminum. like cubes. FUTURE EXPERIMENTATION Unsteady state heat transfer is a very broad topic pertaining to experiments. Also. our data showed a slight correlation between the two. to determine the heat transfer coefficient in trials with a Biot number that is greater than 0. However. if contrasted with the Bessel function. Regarding other aspects of the experiment. we projected this relation to be proportional to square root of d. or even to changing the stirrer velocity. with every alteration that can be done to the lab. The error associated with the Heisler charts. It was very instructive to use both methods. which requires more time than this lab allowed.
NOMENCLATURE α k ρ n bn h r t A Bi Cp D Jn NNu Pr Re T T∞ T0 V Thermal diffusivity ≡ k/ρ Cp [=] m2/s Thermal conductivity [=] W/m K Density [=] kg/m3 Fluid velocity [=] m/s Roots of the Bessel function Heat transfer coefficient [=] W/m2 K Radius [=] m Time [=] s Surface area [=] m2 Biot number [=] dimensionless Heat Capacity [=] J/kg K Diameter [=] m nth order of the Bessel function Nusselt number [=] dimensionless Prandtl number [=] dimensionless Reynolds number [=] dimensionless Temperature ( [=] 0C ) at time t Temperature of water bath [=] 0C Temperature at the center of the cylinder before being placed in hot water bath Volume of cylinder [=] m3 15 .
Robert E. B. http://www. WPI Team to Work on ATP Award on Innovative Quenching.html . This reference was used to obtain the diagram of the equipment apparatus. Tom.com/vh/homeLE. “Unsteady State Heat Transfer: The Effects of Radius on Heat Transfer Coefficients”. Ko. 4.html . This reference was used to compare results of experimental data 9. Transport Processes and Unit Operations. and Tensi.M.cheme. Charles E.. Welty. eds.edu/Academics/Research/MPI/News/quenching.com/ .. 2001 This reference was used to compare results of experimental data 16 .cmu. Amish.wpi. Heat. Carnegie Mellon University. 2001. 16 March 2003. Christie J.ni. Lab Equipment Products.omega. 7.Wilson.. Copyright 2001. 7 October 2002..edu/tlab/ussht/ussht. W. Fundamentals of Momentum.. Unsteady State Heat Conduction. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Jason. Theory and Technology of Quenching. 16 March 2003. This reference was used to obtain the diagram of the equipment apparatus 5. and Length to Diameter Ratio”. http://www. James R. Omega Engineering. 1993.. “Unsteady State Heat Transfer in Cylinders: Effects of Material. Luty. Morris. Katie. and Mass Transfer.. Rorrer..REFERENCE 1. Diameter. H. Hakkal. Snell. Carnegie Mellon University. http://www. New York. This reference was used for calculations of the Biot number and heat transfer coefficient 8. NY.pdf . Stephanie. 6. 3. Geankoplis. Copyright 2003 National Instruments Corporation. 3rd ed. Inc.. Measurement and Automation. 2001. New York : Springer-Verlag. John Wiley and Sons. (16 March 2003) 2. Wicks. Chaitra. Hsu-Feng. Lisscic. Berlin. 1991. Hewitt. Bhatt. 16 March 2003. Gregory. http://rothfus. Pratt.