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iPHAR1V][ACOGNOSY

PISONIA GRANDIS R.Br-AMEHICINAL
A., EILUIMlALAI*'r 1M.CHININA

PLANT: A REVIIE\"\'
RAIHMAN

ESWAIRAIAIHlI AND' HAIBIIBlJR

Department

of Pharmacegnosy,

Anurag Pharlmacy CoUege, AnaIiJJtbag~1'i (v), Kodad (l\t), Na~g@nda (DT), Andhea Pradesh, Indfa, 50:8 20(ii .

.A. IEUJ IMALAl,
IDep<Jdmel!lt cfPharuaacognosy,

IVII. .P!lruarm

Al!l.lu'ag JIfI.h;ll.I·macy

N a I.gond)a (DT), Andlira

Collegp, Allllll!l.t!lruagiiri (v),. K.(}d;lld) (I\.1i), Pradesh, Iudia, 50;8 106.

ABSTRACT
Pisoniagrandis R.Br (Nyct8 ginaceae) is widely disftlriibliil:ecllthmuglhmJ~ lndis and is a w~d!espr!eadle,ve,rgr!eel1l tree commonly known as 'Leecih,ai k.o~taiii eerar, Le,aves" k stemsand roots of fhis speciesare extensively used by thetribals ill1l the preparation of several folk medicines. The plant is hadliUonallliyusedas anti-rheumatic and an~ifUll1.g,al .. Tlhl~splant is also pharmacolopicelly studied tor its an~i-flijj:nglall, enti-oxidant. anfl-mlcreblal, antl-lntlamrnetory, anti:-d~,abeitic, clliiuretiic, n,algesiic and wound healling a properties. Furt.hlerstu:dli,es reveal tne presence of venous phlytod11emicalconstituents maiilnly allka.IIO:ids, phenojic compoundsand ~Iavanloid's,. his will be h,ellpfullto create T interesttowards Pisonia grandis and may be uSeftll1in d'ieveloping new forrnulatjons w~mh ore U'llerapeU[ic8.ndeconorntcel value,.. m
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KEY WORDS
Pisonia grandis anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, diuretics.

INTRODUCTION
Pisonia grandis R.Br (Nyctaginaceae) commonly usually unequal obtuse at the base and acute apex. It has a long petiole with prominent known as 'Leechai kottai keeral" is distributed throughout India from the Himalayas down to reticulate venation and minutely puberulous in the axils of the nerves. Flowers are small, Ceylon. The plant is used traditionally as an antifungal and anti-rheumatic". Leaves are useful in greyish, funnel shaped, dioecious with perianth chronic rheumatism, wound healing and also about 3 mm long, present in corymbose terminal used as vegetable 3-5. The plant is an evergreen cymes. Each flower has 5 toothed with 6-10 stamens and filaments were connate below into tree, all parts are glabrous and the young shoots are minutely puberulous. The leaves are ovatea tube. Fruits are club shaped, five angled. oblong to oblong 15-25 cm long, 5-7 cm wide Figure 1 Pisonia grandis plant

TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICA TlON: Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Tracheobionta Superdivision: Spermatophyta Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Subclass: Caryophyllidae Order: Caryophyllales Family: Nyctaginaceae Genus: Pisonia Species: Pisonia grandis R. Br. VERNACULAR NAMES: English: Lettuce tree Tamil: Leechai kottai keerai Telugu: Lanchamundaku Gujarat: Velati salet

Kannada: Sulesoppu DIFFERENT VARITIES OF PISONIA GENUS: Pisonia aculeata Linn Pisonia albida Britton Pisonia ambigua Heimerl Pisonia capitata Standi Pisonia flavescens Standi Pisonia floribunda Hook Pisonia grandis R. Br Pisonia macranthocarpa Donn.Sm Pisonia pedicellaris Heimerl Pisonia umbeflifera Seem Pisonia zapallo Griseb

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DESCR'.'PTION OF THE .PlANT: M,acl'loscop.ic,al c,ba.r;ac:ters6: The I~,eave,s are ovale-oblbng h) oblong, 15-2:5 em Iiong, 5-7 em w~de usually unequal obtuse at 'the base and aCI~ite' apex. It has a Ibng pe'[iidlle wiit~ prominent refleulste venation and minutelly puberulous ln theexlls of the nerves .. Flowelrsare smallll, 'gre'yish, funnel shaped, dioeclous witth perianth abmd 3 mm I(lng. Each flower has 5 toothed with 6-10 stamens and filame':~It:swers ODIrlIr1,at,e below into a tube .. Micr>osco,pic,al char;acters: The leali has th~ck midrib with fairliy promment lateral vein ,c:mdthin biilallera.1 1!'SJmina. lii lihe A vascular bundles are celleteral with lnner xylem

with several d Ulsters ,oli s~,eve·el~,emen,ts..The lateral vein is 26q~m.Lamlina iiis ull1ll~formly smooth and evsn on both surfaces ..The lamina was 150IJim thick. It is hvpostomatlc on title abax~,al epiiidermis and the' adiaxia.1 ,ep'idlermis was apestomatlc, Tile a daxiiiaI and abaxial ep:id,ermall layers are ,eqlU,allythii:ek wiith wilde redangullar or tubular cells .. The epiderrnal ceilis are 15IJm thick. P,HfOCH.EM.I'CAL

Pisani€)} grandis have n umarous biio active compounds includes Pirmatol, Allantoin, ~Siiitostem II,a-Spi nastsrcl, ~-Sitos~erdl glucoside, OctlOcos,SJnat lDullciitol., flavonoids and QlUlercetiiin.IUtU,ework iis done in,tlhe fii:elldl f o phytochemical inv,estig'ation of the leaves of

srutne«

and outer phloem. The xylem elements ars
w~de, angullar,tihlii:ek. d~ffusle iin dlstrlbutlon, walled Phloem and somewhat ~s ~n thick band Chemic,al

Pisanis} grandi57.

Struc:ture of P,j,rJna:tol

Figure 2.

OH

Figure 3 Chemical Structure o:fAU,anto;,1]

TRADITIONAL PROPERTIES: The diiff:erent parts of .Pisonia grandls are ,extiel'l.sivlely used by the ~riball's ill1lfthepreparaticn ot several folk med~cine's .. U is ledens~vely used in Ilnd~an ~radlitional medicine as ananti d~abet~ic,

ainU inflammatory, alnalges!iic,fil!ari.as!is, diiisordersll.

wound h,ealiing, dilUre~ic, dyslente'ry and rheurnefte

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WOUND HEALING Acnvlry13: Prabu etall., rs po rtsd the wound he,alingl potential of methenollc extract ,o,fPi's,onia gn:mdiis leaves" Ths extract was mcorporated in slmple ointment base end e'lJalluated using! two types of ELECTRO CHEMICAL BEHAVIOR1@; wound model in Wiistar rats-excision wound and Shubashini et 811." Ire'iP,orted ~he,antii cxldant lrrcislon wound. The results were significantly diiffer,ent {p<n.(5) when compared with control adMil:y om aqueoustracfton of ethenol extract of pis,ol1l~a gl'1andiis was analysed by its electro group for wound CO II1t racf 0 111 tensile strength, , chemical behavior, Gydc voltarnejry of the h istopathologicalland bio,logi,cal param etlers. aqueousfnadiiol1l of the ,ethall1lolextradat gla.ssy AlnlUbacterial stud ies agaiiill1st different baderiall carbonelectilrode with KCL as SIIUIPPo,rtill1lg straiins of the test sample's were performed by lelectroliyt,e r,eveal,ed a reversible and an thle disk diffusion method and weor,e compared ~rnevers~ble andian lrrevsrsl bl,e redox reaction with standard Ofl a xaci 1111 and Erythlromycin. Test which is due to. the prssenee of OIl1,e or more samip,lles showedl compereble zone Oof inhibition seccndary metabolites lik,eflavarlloids, phenols to the standards, It ls hypothesi'zed thet the presence of phytoconstltuems wiith the, and tri terpenolds, which are l1aviilng anti oxidant antibacterial e,ff.ect helps in wound h,ealingl. properties .. ANn DM BETJCA GENT P'tN,NITOl .FRO~ T.HE lEAVES OF PISONM. ,GR.'ANDIS' 11.: Sripath~ ,et al., I18porte,dl[ih,e phytochemicel ~lI1vlest~:gationoiftlhle I~e,av,es.of plsonla 'grand~s aff,olrdied thr,ee compounds, fiirst one is Pinlnitol an ann-diabetic compound, Alllarlitoinall1ld hydrogen bonded isomeric crystalilline torm (Allanitoin). Its structure was established as plnnltol based on specfrcscooic data .. It lsthe firstHme report of isolation of Pinn~t!olla.lI1Idl Allantol n from Pisoni« ,grandis. ANALGESIC~, .A,.NTltN.FlA,MMA,rORY .A.ND D.I·URETJ'.C ACfl'VITy12: Anballagan et.al reported ~he analqeslc. an~ii inflammatory (acuta and chronic) and diuretic adivity attwo dose Ilev,els (.250 and 500mglk.g) iin Wis[a ra.llbino miiice (25:-;30gm )andlW lsta raloino ra'[s for vaeu Urn! dried ch lorotorm {GE) and methanol (ME.) extracts of Pisonia grs'rJdis " BIOASSAY - GUI'DED FR'ACnONAnNGAND A..NTI FU,NGA tACTtVlrr4; Sl'iipa[h~i let all., reported the Bioassay - Guided IFractio,nating of ethanol lc extract of I,eaves of plsonla grandlis and anf tungallactivUy agaiinst micro mg'anisms candida albicans,AspergiJIus niger, P,enicillium ciuinum and .Mo.n8scus pu,rpurens by disc d iifuiJUsion ethod" The efhanol m extract showed good antii tunga.1 actiilJiity a.gainst MOfi€lSCUS purpurefls comparable [0 standard C lotrimazole ..

PHA.R'MACOlOGICA,L ACTIVITIES; GHEMOTAXONOMIC .IHVESTIGA flort: Bramadhayalaselvam A and Rajase,karan K have reported the, chernotaxonomlc studles on some soufh ~ndianspedes of Nyctagiilnllaceae .. Six south Indian species of NyctiaginaCieae viz., (.Boerh a via diffusa, B"ef:8'cta, Bo.ug,anvifi,ea gJ,abra, B.speda'.bilis, Mir.ablis jaJ,apa and pisonia gra'ndis) havle beell1 analysed phyitoclh,emiicalilly usingl Gibbs tests f,or chemotaxonomk ~lI1vlestii:gation.The results oota ~1I1,ecll eorroberets the existiiirllg clesslflcation and eva.luatethe useflUllness of Gibbs tests,

Si:gniificantanal~gesic and anf infllammatmy acffvltlas areassoclated wiith GE and ME. GE. at the diose levell of 500mgJlkg was fo.lUndto lexh~bit equliivalernt chronic antii iiinflammatory activity as dlclofenac at 50mgJk.g doss levell. Signiif~cant diuretic ,activity was exhibit,ed by ME graded dose response for alii the activities were observed ror the extracts ..

A..NH INFlAMMAfORY.ACnvlry15:
en both aqueous and alcoholic extract ,of Piso.nla gr:andis Ileav,es in ,carageenan illi1,ducedpaw edema
rats. Preliminary phytochemical s,crreening was performed for both t~e extracts. Tillis study showed vital ~li1Iformation r,egardiingl pharmacologica.llandl phytocherrilcal activttie's of Pisonia' gra'ndis .. IRadha el al, reportedtheantl inliilammatory aciiiivUy

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IREFE,REINCES
I~eaves omPisonia grandis {R..Br.), Joumet of Na'tur:atRemedies, 11 (~):39-43, (20111)1, (2007). 12, Anbal1a'garn, IN" Rajinikanlh, KN,,, IKishme: 2, IKR IKr~Ukar KRarlldi IBasu IBD. IllI1Idiall1 Gnalnasam, S." Thomas Leonard, J., Medicinall p~lants. lnternstienel book Balakrishna, K., Ramachandran." S.andi distributors book sleiliers 8: publishers, Sridlhlar" SK.. Ainallg.esiiic, Alli1Itij-ilJ1m~ammatmy Dehradilm, V,o,l~~,PP.11561-1564, {1'984). and Diulre,tiic ActiviUes of Pisonia' grandis. 3.. Aslrna chatterjse and Sa ty,esh chendra Journal of Natural Product scienc«; 8(3):97IPraka.sl~,~, he Tlrleatise an ~ ian Mlediic~inal T nd 99, (21002:). Plants, NlaUonal1 instiiih.JIl:e of science 13,. Prabu, D., INapP'innai, M., Ponnudural, IK. and Prabhu, IK. E\lall~:ation of W,oundicornm Ulnll~:catio'rII, CSIIR, New Delhlii ,4: 1141, (1984) Healling Potential om Pisonia grandis RBr: A 4.. Man:oglcH~an IE. Na~iolrllal symposium 0111 Preclinical St.udy iin Wiistar IR.ats,. The em,ergiiirllgitrends in Indiian msdlclnal plants: int,emationaJ ,Journal of Lower Extremity Wo,unds. 7 (1): 21-27, (200,8).. 10 - 12:, (2002). 5.. The Wea.llth of lndla An Encyclopedia. of 14,. Shubashiilni K. Sriplath~"andl Poong:athai, G. India's Raw material Res:o:ILm::lesEdn 11,VIIIIII, -, bioassayguiid,ed mra.cHonation ,andanH(19 69). fungall activ~ty studies on Pisonie gra.ndis 6.. Jeyakumart S, Malark,odii Ve'~lraj, RlBr. lnternatibns'l Jour:nai of c.urrent Viijayalakshmii A and Arfhanarleswaran p. ReslearcfJ:, ~10:03,5-037" (210110). Pharmacoqnostlcel studies on the leaves of 15, Radha R, Arokiiyanaj S, Agast~ian IP, IBallara~'UI PisorMa grandis R.. Sr.. Reslealrch Journal of K, lMo,han Kumar Rand Bula. IPhy~o,dhlemliical IPharmaceutical, IBiol,ogical and Chlemical anallysis and anti:-iiinflammatory adiviifty om Sdences, 2(2), {2011 ).. Pisoniagrandis IRBr .. Journal of Biomedical 7.. INatarajan RK, R,agothaman P. v1eladhlamy G, end Ph a'rmaco.togy.. 1(1): (2008) .. lBalakriishna. K. chemkal Examiina'[ioll1l of Plsonla gll"andis. iSullle:Un of Medlico-eUmo botanicall research. 11 (4): 110-1111, {1990) .. 8,. Willi McClatchy. The' Ethno Pha.rma:c,opo:e~a of Rotuma. Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 50(3):t47-156. 9.. IBramadh,ayalasellvam A, IR.ajas,elkanan K.. Ctllemo,taxono:m~c sfucles on some south lndian species of Nyct:aginaoeae,.Jm.lmal of Econom~candl Taxenomic Botany, 18(2)49 9500". (1994)., 10., Si1ubashini IK, Sripathii, Subasre,e and Ilalliitha. IP, Elle:Ctro chemical behav~'or o,f thle aq useus fraction of the Ethanol iie extract of lPiisonia ,grarlldiis at Gllassy Carbon Electrode. Aslen journal omreslearch ln chernlstry, 4(5): publicaticns Pvt Ltd, N,ew Delh~i: 502- 503,
»

1.. IKlhare CP. ~lI1ldiaril Medicilnl,all Plants .. Splriingler

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111., hubashinl S K. Sriipath~, Poo:ngothaii G and Ilall~tha.IP..Antii di:abetic agent Piniiitol from the

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