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Mobility Management: From GPRS to UMTS
Yi-Bing Lin 1 , Yieh-Ran Haung, Yuan-Kai Chen, and Imrich Chlamtac Abstract This paper describes mobility management for the third-generation mobile networks. We focus on the evolution from General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) to Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). In this evolution, the radio access network UTRAN has been introduced, and radio-related management is moved from the core network to UTRAN. We elaborate on how this architecture change affects the mobility management functionality, including the attach and detach procedures, location update, serving radio network controller relocation and intersystem change between GPRS and UMTS. Keywords: GSM, GPRS, Mobility Management, UMTS, UTRAN
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile network evolved from the second generation systems such as GSM and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). In this paper, we consider an evolution path GSM!GPRS!UMTS. We assume that the readers are familiar with the GSM and the GPRS systems, and the terms such as International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI), Packet TMSI (P-TMSI), Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), Short Message Service (SMS), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Home Location Register (HLR), and Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The reader is referred to [13, 6] and the references therein for the details of GSM and GPRS. The terms used in this paper are listed in the Index section at the end of the paper. The network architecture of the GSM/GPRS/UMTS systems are shown in Figure 1. In this ﬁgure, the dashed lines represent signaling links, and the solid lines represent data and signaling links. The Core Network (CN) consists of two service domains, a circuit-switched (CS) service domain (i.e., PSTN/ISDN) and a packet-switched (PS) service domain (i.e., IP). In the CS domain, an Mobile Station (MS) is identiﬁed by IMSI and TMSI. In the PS domain, an MS is identiﬁed by IMSI and P-TMSI. This paper will emphasize on the PS related topics. To be simpliﬁed (but may be misleading), GPRS is evolved from GSM by introducing two new core network nodes Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). Existing GSM nodes (BSS, MSC/VLR, and HLR) are upgraded. GPRS BSS consists of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC) where the BSC is connected to the SGSN through frame relay link. The BTS communicates with the MS through the radio interface Um based on the TDMA technology. Three operation modes are deﬁned for GPRS MS: Class A MS allows simultaneous CS and PS connections. Class B MS provides automatic choice of CS or PS connection, but only one at a time.
Contact author: Yi-Bing Lin, Dept. Comp. Sci. & Info. Engr., Natl. Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Class C MS only supports PS connection. UMTS is evolved from GPRS by replacing the radio access network. The UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) consists of Node Bs (the 3G term for BTS) and Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) connected by an ATM network. The RNC and the Node B serving an MS are called the Serving Radio Network System (SRNS). The User Equipment (UE; the 3G term for MS) connects with Node Bs through the radio interface Uu based on the WCDMA (Wideband CDMA) technology . Three operation modes are deﬁned for UMTS UE: PS/CS mode UE is equivalent to GPRS Class A MS. PS mode UE is equivalent to GPRS Class C MS. CS mode UE can only attach to the CS domain. For the description purpose, the remainder of this paper will use the term MS to represent UE. In UMTS, every Node B is connected to an RNC through the Iub interface. Every RNC is connected to an SGSN through the IuPS interface, and to an MSC through the IuCS interface. An RNC may connect to several RNCs through the Iur interface. Unlike RNCs in UMTS, the BSCs in GPRS/GSM do not connect to each other. The IuCS, IuPS, Iub, and Iur interfaces are implemented on the ATM network. In terms of the core network evolution from GPRS to UMTS, both SGSN and MSC need to be modiﬁed. Other core network nodes such as HLR (speciﬁcally, HLR packet domain subscription data), VLR (specifically, VLR and SGSN association), and GGSN (speciﬁcally, PDP contexts) are basically the same. The SGSN and the MS are modiﬁed (speciﬁcally MM and PDP contexts and the related procedures), which will be elaborated in Section 4. Figure 2 (a) and (b) illustrates the control planes (speciﬁcally for mobility management) between the MS and the SGSN for UMTS and GPRS, respectively. Note that in the early GPRS version, control plane was called signaling plane. In Figure 2, details of GPRS protocol stacks such as Logic Link Control (LLC), Radio Link Control (RLC), and BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) are given in . We focus on the differences between the GPRS and UMTS control planes. For example, unlike GPRS, the LLC layer is not supported in UMTS. In GPRS, reliable communication between MS and SGSN is guaranteed by LLC. In UMTS, Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol is responsible for reliable connection between MS and UTRAN, and Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is responsible for reliable connection between UTRAN and SGSN. Speciﬁcally, radio resources are managed by RRC exercised between the MS and the UTRAN. On top of SCCP, the Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) protocol supports transparent mobility management signaling transfer between the MS and the CN which are not interpreted by the UTRAN. RANAP is also responsible for serving RNC relocation (see Section 7), radio access bearer (RAB) management, and so on. In both GPRS and UMTS the GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) protocol supports mobility management functionality, which is the focus of this paper. In , GMM for UMTS is also referred to as UMTS MM (UMM). The GMM procedures will be elaborated in the subsequent sections. The mobility management (MM) messages are exchanged among GPRS/UMTS nodes through various interfaces described as follows: MS and SGSN. In GPRS, the mobility management (MM) messages are delivered through the Gb and the Um interfaces. In UMTS, the MM message transmission is performed through the Iu and the Uu interfaces. Speciﬁcally, an LLC link provides signaling connection between the MS and the SGSN in GPRS. In UMTS, the signaling connection consists of an RRC connection between the MS and UTRAN, and an Iu connection (“one RANAP instance”) between the UTRAN and the SGSN. 2
PSTN BSS Abis Um GPRS/GSM MS BTS BSC A Gb Core Network MSC/VLR HLR UTRAN Iub Node B Uu UE RNC IuCS IuPS IuCS IuPS Gs Gr Gc GGSN Iur RNC SGSN Gn Data Network Iub BSS: Base Station Subsystem HLR: Home Location Register MS: Mobile Station Node B: Base Station RNC: Radio Network Controller UE: User Equipment VLR: Visitor Location Register BTS: Base Transceiver Station GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node MSC: Mobile Switching Center PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Figure 1: GSM/GPRS/UMTS Network Architectures 3 .
GMM Relay RRC RLC lower layer protocols MS RRC RLC lower layer protocols RANAP SCCP lower layer protocols GMM RANAP SCCP lower layer protocols SGSN Uu IuPS RNS (a) Control Plane for UMTS Mobility Management GMM LLC Relay RLC lower layer protocols RLC lower layer protocols BSSGP lower layer protocols BSSGP lower layer protocols GMM LLC Um Gb MS BSS SGSN (b) Control Plane for GPRS Mobility Management Figure 2: Control Planes for UMTS and GPRS 4 .
In UMTS.SGSN and other CN nodes. To save radio resources. In both GPRS and UMTS. GSM Mobile Application Part (MAP) is used to interface SGSN and the GSM nodes. Like GPRS BSS. the cells (i. SGSNs and GGSNs communicate by using the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) through the Gn interface. Examples are combined PS/CS attach (see Section 5) and combined RA/LA update (see Section 6). a Gs association can be created between SGSN and MSC/VLR by storing the SGSN number in the VLR and storing the VLR number in the SGSN. For example. procedures such as attach. the cells in the group covering the MS will page the MS to establish the radio link. Note that an extra network mode (Mode III) is deﬁned for GPRS when the Gs is not present. 5 . routing area update. Details of the MAP protocols and GTP can be found in [13. Gr for HLR and Gs (the BSSAP+ protocol or BSS Application Protocol+) for MSC/VLR. user plane was called transmission plane. the UTRAN does not coordinate mobility management procedures that are logically between the MS and the CN. 2 Concepts of Mobility Management In order to track the MSs. The GPRS (UMTS) network is in Network Mode I if the Gs interface exists. With this association. a GTP tunnel is established between two GPRS nodes to deliver the packets. Protocols for user data transmission are deﬁned in the user plane. the UMTS radio network parameters and radio resources are managed in the UTRAN. Initiated by SGSN. BTSs/Node Bs) in GPRS/UMTS service area are partitioned into several groups.e. the Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) carries out N-PDU transmission on top of the RLC connection between the MS and the UTRAN.. an IP address and a UDP port number. execution of similar procedures for both CS and PS can be combined. Speciﬁcally. These procedures include location management. If the comparison indicates that the location has been changed. These procedures include attach. In the early GPRS version. In GPRS. activities such as CS paging can be performed by using the PS mechanism. In both GPRS and UMTS. IMSI is used as the common user identity. The MS periodically listens to the broadcast cell identity. To deliver services to an MS. Otherwise. and common MAP signaling is applied to both systems as well as GSM. and compares it with the cell identity stored in the MS’s buffer. In GPRS and UMTS (R’99 release ). temporary identity management and equipment identity check. The above optimizations are achieved only if the Gs interface exists so that SGSN and MSC/VLR can communicate to combine the PS and CS activities. This tunnel is identiﬁed by a tunnel endpoint identiﬁer (TEID). The cells broadcast their cell identities. This network mode has been removed from UMTS. LA update is performed for CS and RA update is performed for PS. 1] and the references therein. paging and location update are deﬁned separately for CS and PS. The location change of an MS is detected as follows. and the GTP-U (GTP for the user plane) protocol carries out transmission of N-PDUs on top of the UDP/IP link (Iu link). so that the MS only needs to monitor single paging channel. then the MS sends the location update message to the network. messages regarding CS activities can be passed between the VLR and the SGSN. authentication. We will elaborate more on these activities later. The Gs interface merits further discussion. it is in Network Mode II. Packets of user data transmission may be lost when some MM signaling procedures are executed. and authentication. Furthermore. the Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) carries out transmission of N-PDUs (Network Packet Data Units) on top of the LLC link between the MS and the SGSN. A brief summary for GPRS and UMTS architectures are given as follows. Unlike GPRS. For example.
SGSN. an RRC state machine is executed [3. In the RRC Idle mode. If.e.MSC VLR1 MSC VLR2 SGSN2 SGSN1 BSC1/RNC1 BSC2/RNC2 BSC3/RNC3 BSC4/RNC4 BTS/Node B UMTS only B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15B16 B17 B18 B19B20 B21B22 B23 B24 URA1 URA2 URA3 RA1 LA1 URA4 RA2 LA2 URA5 RA3 URA6 URA7 URA8 URA9 URA10 URA11 RA4 RA5 LA3 Figure 3: LAs. Its state diagram is shown in Figure 4. no PDUs are transmitted before an inactivity timer expires. In the PS domain. the SGSN also tracks the cell of an MS in PS connection (i. and UTRAN are listed in Table 1. The areas controlled by VLR. and the MS is tracked by the UTRAN at the cell level. RA. the UTRAN tracking is triggered by the establishment of the RRC connection. Figure 3 illustrates an example of LA. the state moves from RRC Idle to RRC Cell Connected. when packets are delivered between the MS and the SGSN). 6 . In GPRS. The LA of an MS is tracked by the VLR. cells are partitioned into location areas (LAs). the cells in an RA are further partitioned into UTRAN RAs (URAs). the cells are partitioned into routing areas (RAs). the state moves from RRC Cell Connected to RRC URA Connected. An RA is typically a subset of an LA. RAs. and URA layout. 7]. In UMTS. The RA of an MS is tracked by the SGSN. and URAs MSC/VLR GPRS UMTS no no – no no no yes yes SGSN GPRS UMTS yes no – no yes yes no no UTRAN UMTS yes yes no no Cell URA RA LA GSM no – – yes Table 1: Areas Tracked by the Network Nodes In the CS domain. When the RRC connection is established. no RRC connection is established. The URA and the cell of an MS are tracked by the UTRAN. and the MS is tracked by the SGSN at the RA level. In the MS and the UTRAN. In UMTS. The mobility management functions emphasizing PS-based services are listed below. for example. and the MS is tracked by UTRAN at the URA level ..
we elaborate more on P-TMSI signature. These procedures are elaborated in Section 6. for example. GPRS ciphering is performed between the MS and the SGSN. UMTS-GPRS intersystem change procedures allow a dual mode MS to move between GPRS and UMTS systems. for example. the service request procedure is not needed and is not deﬁned in GPRS. When the SGSN allocates the P-TMSI to an MS.. The SGSN forwards the signaling messages to the non-GSM MSC/VLR using the BSSAP+ protocol in the Gs interface. the PS attach procedure must be executed before the MS can obtain access to the PS services. when the MS replies a page from the UMTS network or when the MS attempts to request resource reservation. Tunneling of non-GSM signaling message procedures support communication between GPRS/UMTS and non-GSM systems such as EIA/TIA IS-136. after the MS is powered on. user identity conﬁdentiality (e. On the other hand. Therefore. 7 . the MS sends the P-TMSI signature to the SGSN for comparison. For example. 8]. e. P-TMSI reallocation and P-TMSI signature) and ciphering. it may also send the P-TMSI signature to the MS. the authentication procedure must be used by the SGSN to authenticate the MS. we will use the terms PS attach and CS attach in this paper. inactivity timer expires) Cell Connected URA Connected Enter the Cell Connected State (PDU transmission) Figure 4: RRC State Diagram PS attach procedure allows an MS to be “known” by the PS service domain of the network. If the comparison fails..g. PS detach procedure allows the MS or the network to inform each other that the MS will not access the SGSN-based services. UMTS ciphering is performed between the UTRAN and the MS. This procedure is used.Connected Mode RRC Connection Establishment Idle Mode RRC Connection Release Enter the URA Connected State (e. Similarly. in the attach procedure (see Step 2 in Figure 6). Security procedures include authentication. The details will be given in Section 8. In GPRS. Location management procedures track the location of an MS. at Step 8 of the location update procedure in Section 6.g. PS attach and detach will be described in Section 5. This procedure is needed. Details of security procedures can be found in [11. Here.. For the discussion purpose. Note that the term “PS attach” is used in UMTS and the term “GPRS attach” is used in GPRS. Then when the next MS identity checking is performed. Service request procedure (UMTS only) is used by the MS to establish a secure connection to the SGSN.g. Subscriber management procedures are used by the HLR to inform the SGSN about changes of the PS subscription data. we have the term “CS attach” for UMTS and “IMSI attach” for GPRS. so that the MS can send uplink signaling messages or user data. LLC link is always established between the MS and SGSN after the attach procedure.
The SGSN may perform paging procedure. Figure 5 illustrates the MM state diagrams. In this case. In this section. In this case. That is. The MS is attached to GPRS (UMTS/PS). the states in the machine are IDLE. PMM-IDLE and PMM-CONNECTED. In UMTS. READY or PMM-CONNECTED. The MM states are described as follows.. a PS signaling connection is established between the MS and the SGSN (that is. In UMTS. the MS is considered detached. possibly in response to a page from the SGSN. This transition may also be triggered by SGSN when the SGSN receives a Cancel Location message from the HLR. that is. This transition is triggered by the MS. STANDBY or PMM-IDLE. In GPRS. the MS is in RRC Connected mode). The MS is not known (i. The SGSN tracks the MS with accuracy of the RA level. these states are renamed as PMM-DETACHED. In this state. STANDBY ! IDLE (PMM-IDLE ! PMM-DETACHED). serving RNC relocation (see Section 7) is executed in this state. Note that the MS will be associated with the new SGSN in this case. In GPRS. not attached) to GPRS (UMTS/PS). The ﬁgure indicates that the MM state machines for both GPRS and UMTS are basically the same. If the SGSN does not receive RA update request message from the MS after the timer expires. This timer is used only when the MM state is STANDBY/PMM-IDLE.e. but not for GPRS. In this state. the MS is not reachable by the network. STANDBY and READY. This transition is triggered by the MS when the MS performs implicit detach due to removal of the SIM card or the battery. The transitions among the MM states (see Figure 5) are described as follows. both the MS and SGSN have established MM contexts. For UMTS PS service domain. IDLE ! READY (PMM-DETACHED ! PMM-CONNECTED). and the serving RNC is responsible for cell level tracking. In UMTS. SGSN performs an implicit GPRS/PS detach. the MS may perform the detach and location update procedures. IDLE or PMM-DETACHED. The MS is tracked by the SGSN at the RA level (see Table 1). This case is deﬁned for UMTS. an MM ﬁnite state machine is exercised in both SGSN and MS to characterize the mobility management activities for the MS. This transition is triggered by an MS when the MS performs GPRS/PS attach. this transition occurs when the MS sends an LLC PDU to the SGSN. the SGSN tracks the MS at the cell level. Details of the MM context will be given in Section 4. STANDBY ! READY (PMM-IDLE ! PMM-CONNECTED). In GPRS. we describe the MM states and the transitions among these states. This transition is triggered by the SGSN when tracking of MS is lost. and the contexts in the old SGSN can be deleted. the MS may perform attach procedure. respectively.3 Mobility Management States In GPRS and UMTS. This transition can be triggered by MS or SGSN. PDUs can only be delivered in this state. this transition occurs when the service request procedure is 8 . The MM states are stored in the MM contexts maintained by the MS and the SGSN. the MM and the PDP contexts are already moved to the new SGSN that serves the MS. A mobile reachable timer is maintained in the SGSN to monitor the periodic RA update procedure (see Section 6).
Implicit Detach.RAU Reject PS Signaling PS Attach Reject Connection Establish Implicit PS Detach PMM IDLE (B) MS MM States for UMTS READY timer expiry. or Cancel Location (C) SGSN MM States for GPRS Serving RNC Relocation PS Attach PMM DETACHED PS Detach. RAU Reject. Force to STANDBY. or Abnormal RLC Condition GPRS Attach IDLE GPRS Detach. GPRS Attach Reject or Cancel Location READY PDU reception STANDBY GPRS Detach. RAU Reject PS Attach Reject or Cancel Location PMM CONNECTED PS Signaling Connection Release PS Signaling Connection Establish PMM IDLE PS Detach (D) SGSN MM States for UMTS Figure 5: MM State Diagrams 9 .GPRS Attach READY timer expiry or Force to STANDBY IDLE GPRS Detach RAU Reject GPRS Attach Reject READY PDU transmission STANDBY (A) MS MM States for GPRS PS Signaling PS Attach PMM Connection Release PMM CONNECTED DETACHED PS Detach.
If no LLC PDU is transmitted before the timer expires. it only has one MM context. In UMTS. Details of these ﬁelds can be found in [13. In UMTS. or the last known cell in STANDBY or IDLE state) and cell identity age (time elapsed since the last LLC PDU was received from the MS at the SGSN). 9]. new SGSN address.g.. while Packet Data Protocol (PDP) context provides information to support packet delivery between an MS and the network. 4 MM and PDP Contexts Mobility Management (MM) context provides mobility information of an MS. or when the SGSN rejects a RA update or an attach request from the MS. P-TMSI. VLR number. GPRS SGSN maintains cell identity (current cell in READY state. P-TMSI signature.1 Contexts in SGSN The following ﬁelds in the MM context are maintained in both GPRS SGSN and UMTS SGSN: IMSI. The PDP contexts are maintained in MS. RRC connection failure).executed (possibly in response of a page from the SGSN) to establish the PS signaling connection between the MS and the SGSN. and GGSN. Mobile Station ISDN Number (MSISDN). The following MM context ﬁelds are different in GPRS SGSN and UMTS SGSN: Location Information. In GPRS. SRNC relocation occurs at the PMM-CONNECTED state. This MM transition may also occur when the SGSN forces to do so. 4. While an MS may be associated with several PDP contexts. speciﬁcally the differences between GPRS and UMTS. In GPRS. SGSN. authentication triplets. This transition is triggered by SGSN when the SGSN receives a Cancel Location message from the HLR. and several ﬂags. a READY timer is maintained in the MS and the SGSN. LLC link is removed after this transition. This transition is triggered by either SGSN or MS. routing area. or when the URA update timer at the RNC expires. This section describes the MM and PDP contexts. READY ! IDLE (PMM-CONNECTED ! PMM-DETACHED). 10 . then this MM transition occurs. the PS signaling connection is released after this transition. This transition can be triggered by MS or SGSN. or when abnormal RLC condition is detected during radio transmission. These two ﬁelds are not maintained in UMTS SGSN because cell tracking is performed by the serving RNC. This transition is triggered by MS or SGSN when the MS or the network-initiated GPRS/PS detach is performed. MM state. READY ! STANDBY (PMM-CONNECTED ! PMM-IDLE). In UMTS. The MM context is maintained in MS and SGSN. Kc (currently used ciphering key). MS network access capability. Speciﬁcally. subscribed charging characteristics. The length of the READY timer can only be changed by the SGSN. this MM transition occurs when the PS signaling connection is released or broken (e. International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The MS is informed of the READY timer value change through messages such as Attach Accept and Routing Area Update Accept. both RRC and SCCP connections are released. selected ciphering algorithm.
1. In the latest version. and /or hot billing. In UMTS. WAPPIE. The reader is referred to  for more information.COM). and thus extra security parameters are maintained in the UMTS SGSN MM contexts. IK (currently used integrity key). and PDP address. during the GPRS attach and RA update. Charging information includes charging id.. PDP state. GGSN address in use. The SAC is used to uniquely identify an area consisting of one or more cells belonging to the same location area. PDP type. Security Information. DRX parameter was not shown in the SGSN MM context in 3G TS 23. On the other hand. The following PDP context ﬁelds are different in GPRS SGSN and UMTS SGSN: 11 . However. Access Point Name (APN) information includes APN subscribed and APN in use. the radio resources are controlled by UTRAN and are not known to the SGSN. TI. Transaction identiﬁer (TI) is used to represent NSAPI for some session management signaling messages. prepaid. KSI in UMTS corresponds to CKSN in GSM. the above ﬁelds are not kept in the UMTS SGSN MM context. GPRS SGSN maintains CKSN (ciphering key sequence number of Kc). The CK parameter in UMTS is equivalent to Kc in GPRS. TEID for Gn/Gp. In Version 3. QoS information includes QoS proﬁle subscribed. An APN represents an external network that can be accessed by the MS (i.0. The following ﬁelds in a PDP context are maintained in both GPRS SGSN and UMTS SGSN. VPLMN speciﬁes the GPRS/UMTS networks visited by the MS. Other routing information includes NSAPI. or packet data protocols. DRX usage is independent of the MM states. In the early GPRS/UMTS version. radio priority SMS (the RLC/MAC radio priority level for uplink SMS transmission). Thus. the MS may specify the DRX parameters that indicate the delay for the network to send a page request or a channel assignment to the MS. charging characteristics for PDP contexts are maintained in the SGSN. These ﬁelds are not maintained in GPRS SGSN because the concept of SAC does not exist in GPRS. ﬂat-rate.6. N-PDU information includes GTP-SND and GTP-SNU. Radio Resource Information.2. PDP route information includes PDP context identiﬁer. Subscribed Charging Characteristics can be normal. CK (currently used ciphering key). Network layer Service Access Point Identiﬁer (NSAPI) is used by LLC (in GPRS) or RLC (in UMTS) to route the N-PDUs to appropriate higher layer protocols such as signaling. SAC and the location reporting procedure are used in UMTS for location service (LCS) and other services such as emergency calls . charging characteristics are included in SGSN MM context. Speciﬁcally. QoS proﬁle requested and QoS proﬁle negotiated. In UMTS. and the elapsed time since the last SAC was received at the SGSN. and they have the same format. and VPLMN address allowed.UMTS SGSN maintains the last known service area code (SAC) when initial MS message was received or when location reporting procedure was executed. GPRS SGSN maintains radio access capability (MS’s GPRS multislot capabilities and so on) and discontinuous reception (DRX) parameters. The GTP-SND (GTP-SNU) parameter is the GTP sequence number of the N-PDU to be sent from the SGSN to the MS (GGSN). UMTS provides enhanced security functions over GPRS.060 Version 3.e. and KSI (key set identiﬁer). DRX allows discontinuous radio transmission to save the power consumption of the MS. UMTS SGSN maintains authentication vectors. this parameter is added in UMTS SGSN MM context . SMS. the GPRS MS shall not apply DRX in READY state. In GPRS if DRX mode is selected.
PDP address. On the other hand. 12 . 4. Security Information. power control. These ﬁelds are not kept in UMTS SGSN. In UMTS. MM state. The UMTS maintains the TEID for the Iu interface and the IP address of the RNC currently used. QoS proﬁle negotiated. The following PDP context ﬁelds are different in GPRS MS and UMTS MS: Radio Resource Information. The GPRS MS maintains the MS radio access capability. Receive N-PDU number (SNDCP sequence number of the next uplink N-PDU to be received from the MS). CKSN/KSI. The GPRS SGSN maintains radio priority (the RLC/MAC radio priority level for uplink user data transmission). We note that in both GPRS and UMTS. cell identity is not maintained in the MM context of the MS. In UMTS. the SMS as well as signaling are delivered through dedicated control channels. and the radio priority is not kept separately in the MS.Core Network to Radio Access Network Connection. NSAPI. The reason is the following. SMS is delivered through the control plane by using common channel. Details of other ﬁelds can be found in [13. APN requested. The following MM context ﬁelds are different in GPRS MS and UMTS MS: Location Information. On the other hand. multislot capability and power class) while the UMTS MS maintains UE capability (e. Thus the radio priority is not maintained in the UMTS MS . Thus. UMTS SGSN maintains PDCP-SND (the next PDCP sequence number to be sent to the MS) and PDCP-SNU (the next PDCP sequence number expected from the MS). the radio priority for data delivery is determined by QoS proﬁle. GPRS MS maintains radio priority SMS. P-TMSI. through the control plane. Some of these ﬁelds were described in Section 4. the same SMS transfer procedure is used for both CS and PS domains ..1. Thus. UMTS MS maintains extra security parameter CK next. MS network access capability. and DRX parameters. TI. while the radio resource information for user data is maintained in the PDP context. UMTS MS maintains PDCP-SND and PDCP-SNU. These two ﬁelds are not maintained in the GPRS SGSN. it is maintained between the MS and the UTRAN. P-TMSI signature. and a ﬂag. and PDCP capability).g.(e. PDU Information. PDU Delivery Information. routing area.2 The Contexts in the MS The following ﬁelds in the MM context are maintained in both GPRS MS and UMTS MS: IMSI. Instead. In UMTS. The PDP context is deﬁned for data transfer in the user plane.. the MM context is deﬁned for mobility management signaling in the control plane. QoS proﬁle requested. GPRS SGSN maintains Send N-PDU number (SNDCP sequence number of the next downlink N-PDU to be sent to the MS). GPRS MS maintains cell identity. ciphering algorithm. GPRS MS maintains BSS packet ﬂow identiﬁer. 9]. the radio resource information for SMS is kept in the MM context.g. PDP state. the radio resource information for SMS is kept in the MM context. The following ﬁelds in a PDP context are maintained in both GPRS MS and UMTS MS: PDP type. Radio Resource Information. UE mode. Radio Resource Information. dynamic address allowed. Furthermore. packet ﬂow identiﬁer and aggregate BSS QoS proﬁle negotiated. The GPRS MS maintains radio priority. which is more efﬁcient than delivery through the user plane. Send N-PDU number and Receive N-PDU number. code resource. On the other hand. cell tracking is not conducted at the mobility management layer between the MS and the SGSN.
besides the MS network access capability. In this case. The MS initiates the attach procedure by sending the Attach Request message to the SGSN. the MS may initiate PDP context activation and deactivation.g. when the PDP context is activated in this state. –: The context does not exist. In this state. valid MM contexts are maintained in the MS and the SGSN. Relationship between the MM states and the contexts is summarized in Table 2 and is described as follows. 5 Attach and Detach With the attach procedure. Furthermore. In UMTS. then these two contexts shall not be deleted. the security parameters for UMTS and for GPRS are different. the PDP context in the GGSN is deleted. This ﬁeld is not needed in GPRS because the Iu interface does not exist. the MS informs the network of its presence. the UMTS message includes the “follow on request” ﬁeld to indicate if there is pending uplink trafﬁc that needs Iu connection after the attach procedure is completed. no Iu/radio connection is established between the MS and the network because PDU delivery is not allowed in this state. In this state. As in the STANDBY/PMM-IDLE state. READY/CONNECTED MS SGSN GGSN – = = = Table 2: Relationship between the MM States and the Contexts 4. In each step. valid MM contexts are maintained in the MS and the SGSN. : The current context is maintained.. the MS is temporarily out of the GPRS/UMTS coverage). the message includes parameters such as MS radio access capability. we point out the differences between GPRS and UMTS. 13 . On the other hand. Figure 6 illustrates the message ﬂow of the combined PS/CS (GPRS/IMSI) attach procedure. Step 1. In the STANDBY/PMM-IDLE state. These radio related parameters are not included in UMTS Attach Request message. In the READY/PMM-CONNECTED state. : The context is removed. If the MM state moves from STANDBY/PMMIDLE to IDLE/MM-DETACHED because the mobile reachable timer expires (e. the signaling connection is established in UMTS.3 Relationship between MM States and the Contexts The status of an MM/PDP context is affected by the MM states. the location and routing information is stale. In GPRS the LLC link is connected. In GPRS. The MM and PDP contexts in MS and SGSN may or may not be deleted. In the IDLE/PMM-DETACHED state.Context MM PDP IDLE/DETACHED STANDBY/IDLE MS SGSN GGSN MS SGSN GGSN =4 =4 – – =4 =4 = = = 4: The context is kept but is stale. the PDP context can be activated and deactivated.
If the Gs interface does not exist. RA Update Procedure 6.. Otherwise the IMSI is returned to the new SGSN. then the RA update procedure is executed so that the new SGSN can obtain the current MM context of the MS. and Step 3 is executed. The LA update is required so that the SGSN-VLR 14 . Otherwise (the MS is not known by the old and the new SGSNs). The equipment (IMEI) may be optionally checked. Attach Complete 9.MS UE BSS UTRAN New SGSN Old SGSN GGSN New VLR HLR Old VLR 1. Attach Accept 8. IMSI) form the old SGSN. and Step 4 is executed. If the MS has moved from the old SGSN to the new SGSN since last detach or if the MS is performing the ﬁrst attach. LA Update Procedure 7.e. then Step 3 is executed. then LA update is performed. Figure 7. Identity Request & Response 4. Step 6. Identification Request & Response 3. there are several possibilities: If the MS has changed SGSN since last detach. then steps 2-6 are skipped. The details are given in Steps 6-9. If attach type indicates (1) combined PS/CS attach or (2) PS attach and the MS is already CS attach. Step 2 (the MS is known by the old SGSN). the attach type in Step 1 is checked. Authentication is mandatory if the MM context of the MS has been deleted since last detach. The P-TMSI is used to obtain the IMSI and authentication information from the old SGSN. If the old SGSN cannot ﬁnd the MM context for the MS. The new SGSN sends the Identiﬁcation Request message to the old SGSN.e. If the MM context has not been deleted since last detach (i. If the MS has not changed SGSN. Security Functions 5.. Attach Request 2. The new SGSN asks the MS to supply IMSI through the Identity Request and Response messages exchange. Otherwise (Gs exists). Step 2 is skipped. then Step 2 is executed so that the new SGSN can obtain the MS identity (i. then the received P-TMSI is used by the SGSN to identify the MM context of the MS. Step 3 (the MS is unknown in both the old and the new SGSNs). Step 4. Step 5. then this step is skipped. and Step 7 is executed. TMSI Reallocation Complete Figure 6: Combined PS/CS (GPRS/IMSI) Attach Procedure When the SGSN receives the attach request at the end of Step 1. the MS is known by the new SGSN).
The PS detach procedure also inactivates the PDP contexts. LA update is periodically performed for a CS-attached MS that is not PS-attached. Periodic RA update allows the network to detect if an MS is still attached to the network. the MS is in the READY (for GPRS) or the PMM-CONNECTED (for UMTS) state and MM contexts are established in the MS and the SGSN. the VLR relies 15 . the MS performs periodic RA update. and LA update must not be performed. The periodic RA update timer value is set/changed by the SGSN. Figure 7.association is established and the VLR can maintain current LA information of the MS. A periodic RA update timer is maintained in both the MS and the SGSN. the MS informs the network of its location through RA and LA update procedures. the MS sends the Attach Complete message to the SGSN to acknowledge receipt of the TMSIs. radio priority SMS is not maintained in mobility management. For GPRS. P-TMSI is included in the message if the SGSN allocates a new P-TMSI. The network or the MS may request detach explicitly. Step 8. After PS attach. then the SGSN selects radio priority SMS and sends the Attach Accept message to the MS. and the details can be found in [13. the MS will not receive the SGSN-based service. 9]. Step 7. The details are given in Steps 10-12. That is. On the other hand. RA update is periodically performed for a PS-attached MS that is not CS-attached (see Table 3). When PS detach is executed. On the other hand. the SGSN sends the TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the VLR. For a PS/CS attached MS in Network Mode I. two cases are considered: The MS is not engaged in a CS connection (see Table 3). After implicit PS detach is performed. 6 Location Update In location management. In this case. periodic RA update is performed. This value cannot be changed before the MS leaves the RA. implicit PS detach is executed by the network (without notifying the MS) if the mobile reachable timer expires or when radio path is disconnected due to errors. The PS detach procedures are basically the same for both GPRS and UMTS. if attach is successful. the MS’s MM context is deleted after an implementation dependent timeout period. If P-TMSI or TMSI have been changed. Normal location update is performed when the MS detects that the location has been changed. Every time this timer expires. this parameter is still reserved in the UMTS Attach Accept message in order to support handoff between UMTS and GSM networks . However. Periodic location update is exercised even if the MS does not move. In UMTS. The update procedures are executed in two situations. For a PS/CS attached MS. If TMSI has been changed. Step 9. the MS periodically reports its “presence” to the network. and is sent to the MS through the RA Update Accept or the Attach Accept messages when the MS visits an RA.
then at the end of the CS connection. This parameter does not exist in GPRS. the MS does not execute any RA/LA updates. During CS connection. In UMTS. periodic RA update. the LA update is always performed before RA update. In each step. 16 . we point out the differences between GPRS and UMTS. if there are inter-LA crossings during CS connection. During a CS connection. and no periodic location update is performed. LA update is performed. the RNC adds the routing area identity information (including RA and LA identities). then at the end of the CS connection. In GPRS. the network knows that the MS is attached. The MS is engaged in a CS connection. Suppose that only inter-RA crossings occur during CS connection. During CS connection.Network Mode PS Attached CS Attached PS/CS Attached Mode I RA update LA update RA update (periodic) combined RA update (normal) Mode II RA update LA update Separate LA and RA updates Table 3: RA/LA Update (The MS is not engaged in CS connection) on SGSN to receive periodic RA updates. at the end of the CS connection. RA update is performed if inter-RA or inter-SGSN crossings occur in CS connection. the update type can be RA update. it adds the cell global identity information (including cell. if there are inter-SGSN or inter-LA crossings during CS connection. Steps 2-9 are executed. For normal location update. combined RA/LA update is performed when the MS changes locations. The “follow on request” parameter is used in UMTS to indicate if the Iu connection should be kept for pending uplink trafﬁc. For Network Mode II. For Network Mode I. If the SGSN detects that the MS is lost. For Network Mode II. RA update is performed if inter-RA crossings occur in CS connection. In terms of normal location update. before the BSS passes the message to the SGSN. combined RA/LA update. LA update is performed if inter-LA crossings occur in CS connection. For inter-SGSN update. at the end of the CS connection. RA update is exercised when the MS changes RAs. In this case. The MS sends the Routing Area Update Request message to the new SGSN. RA and LA identities). Class B MS (GPRS only). no action is required. and combined RA/LA update is performed if inter-SGSN or inter-LA crossings occur in CS connection. two cases are considered (see Table 4): Class A MS (GPRS) or PS/CS MS (UMTS). For both GPRS and UMTS. This message is not ciphered so that the new SGSN can process the message. then at the end of the CS connection. the RA update (to the SGSN) and LA update (to the VLR) are performed separately. these steps are skipped. Otherwise (intra-SGSN update). Figure 7 illustrates the message ﬂow of the combined RA/LA update. or combined RA/LA update with IMSI attach. In Network Mode II. the SGSN detaches the MS. combined RA/LA update is executed to modify the SGSN-VLR association. Step 1. and notiﬁes the VLR of this detach by the IMSI Detach Indication message. For Network Mode I. LA update is not performed when the MS changes LAs.
Update PDP Context Request & Response inter-SGSN RA Update 6. Cancel Location & Ack 8. SGSN Context Ack 4a. Routing Area Update Request 2. Figure 7: Combined RA/LA Update 17 .MS Mode Movement Type During CS Connection Connection Terminates (Mode I) Connection Terminates (Mode II) MS Mode Movement Type During CS Connection Connection Terminates (Mode I) Connection Terminates (Mode II) Inter-RA RA update no action no action Class A (PS/CS) Inter-SGSN Inter-LA RA update no action Combined Combined RA/LA update RA/LA update no action LA update Class B (GPRS only) Inter-SGSN Inter-LA no action no action Combined Combined RA/LA update RA/LA update RA update LA update Inter-RA no action RA update RA update Table 4: RA/LA Update (The MS is engaged in CS connection) MS UE BSS UTRAN New SGSN Old SGSN GGSN New VLR HLR Old VLR 1. Routing Area Update Complete 15. Security Functions 4. Routing Area Update Accept 14. Update Location Ack 10. Update Location 7. Location Update Accept 13. Insert Subscriber Data & Ack 9. GSM Location Update Proc. SGSN Context Request & Response 3. Location Update Request LA Update 12. TMSI Reallocation Complete 11. Forward Packets (GPRS only) 5.
If the old P-TMSI signature checking at Step 2 fails. Through a table lookup technique. the SGSN compares if the received “QoS subscribed” value is the same as the value of the QoS negotiated parameter. then the old SGSN continues as if the SGSN Context Request message is never received and this procedure exits. the old SGSN validates the old P-TMSI signature. BSS/UTRAN. the SGSN should initiate the PDP context modiﬁcation procedure to adjust the QoS parameters of the context. The old SGSN will forward buffered packets to the new SGSN at Step 4a. the SGSN translated RA identity (RAI) into the VLR number and sends the Location Update Request message to the VLR (after Step 8 is executed). the GGSN PDP contexts are modiﬁed. Basically. Steps 10-12 are executed if the new SGSN detects that the LA has been changed or the update type in Step 1 indicates combined RA/LA update with IMSI (CS) attach. If not. security function involving MS. The old SGSN then tunnels the buffered N-PDUs to the new SGSN. Steps 8 and 9. Note that no packets are forwarded from the old SGSN to the new SGSN in UMTS. the old SGSN stops assigning SNDCP N-PDU numbers to downlink N-PDUs received. Step 5. the temporary logical link identity (TLLI) included in the GPRS SGSN Context Request message is not found in the UMTS message. This timer mechanism ensures that if the MS initiates another inter-SGSN routing area update before the current update procedure is completed. With this message. Step 10 (LA Update). The VLR creates or updates the SGSN-VLR association by storing the SGSN number. which is used to inform the old SGSN that new SGSN is ready to receive the buffered packets to be forwarded from the old SGSN. The HLR and the old SGSN exchange the Cancel Location message pair. the new SGSN sends the SGSN Context Request message to the old SGSN. the old SGSN still keeps the MM context. The new SGSN sends the Update PDP Context Request message to the corresponding GGSNs. Also. Step 3. the new SGSN checks if the context is new. The old SGSN starts a timer. new SGSN. Otherwise (security check successes). If the PDP context is active. which invalids the SGSN-VLR association in the old MM context.Step 2. The MM and the PDP contexts in the old SGSN is not deleted until the timer described in Step 2 expires. and returns the MM and the PDP contexts of the MS using the SGSN Context Response message. and the HLR is performed. Step 4 is executed. and the old SGSN receives the Cancel Location message from the HLR. Step 4a (GPRS only). active. For example. The new SGSN sends the SGSN Context Acknowledge message to the old SGSN. The new SGSN address is not included in the UMTS SGSN Context Acknowledge message. Step 4. The MM context in the old SGSN is deleted when both of the following conditions are satisﬁed: the timer expires. 18 . In GPRS. this message includes the address of the new SGSN. or inactive. In UMTS. Step 7. If this security procedure also fails. For each PDP context. To obtain the MM and PDP contexts of the MS. Step 6. The SGSN issues the Update Location message to inform the HLR that the SGSN for the MS has been changed. then extra tasks are performed by the SGSN. The GGSNs return the Update PDP Context Response messages. packet forwarding is not performed between the SGSNs. The HLR inserts the subscriber data to the new SGSN. In GPRS.
the new SGSN also conﬁrms all mobile-originated N-PDUs successfully transferred before the start of the update procedure. an MS is allowed to transmit signal through multiple radio paths connected to different Node Bs. the packet routing path may be changed.Step 11. In GPRS. Step 12. and forwards it to SGSN1. For a pure inter-SGSN RA update. Steps 10-12. The details can be found in [13. The new VLR allocates a new TMSI and responds with Location Update Accept to the SGSN. and the signals are merged in a network node (RNC1 in Figure 8 (a)). In WCDMA [12. packet forwarding is handled at the RNC level. which is not needed in GPRS. RNC1 then combines the signals from B2 and B3. This information is used by the new SGSN to check if the packets forwarded from the old SGSN have been received by the MS. packets are routed between the MS and the GGSN. Suppose that the MS moves away from B2. and the radio link between B3 and the MS is added (Figure 8 (b)). Step 1 in Figure 7). In a packet routing path between the core network and the MS. If so. when the MS moves toward Node B3. RNC1 is the serving RNC. the MS does not communicate with any Node Bs connected to RNC1. The MS sends the Routing Area Update Complete message to the new SGSN to conﬁrm the reallocation of the TMSI. Step 14. RNC1 is the SRNC. the UMTS MS may determine if the Iu connection should be maintained (cf. DRNC. In this case. In this ﬁgure. DRNC transparently routes the data through the Iub and the Iur interfaces. packet forwarding is performed between old and new SGSN during RA update. and an Iur link between RNC1 and RNC2 is established so that the signal received by B3 can be forwarded to RNC1 through RNC2. in Figure 8 (b). The new SGSN sends the Routing Area Update Accept message to the MS. and SRNC Relocation In UMTS. Steps 2-12. 4]. and RNC2 is called the drift RNC (DRNC). In UMTS. the MS also conﬁrms all received mobile-terminated N-PDUs before the RA update procedure started. the RLC connections are deﬁned between the SRNC and the MS. 9]. B3 is connected to RNC2. and the DRNC is bypassed. Step 15. Note that for a pure intra-SGSN RA update. An example of the routing path is illustrated in Figure 8 (a). If the MS moves during packet transmission. Step 13. MAC for common and shared channels). 14 and 15 in Figure 7 are not executed.g. In the RA update. the major differences between UMTS and GPRS are the following: In GPRS. the radio link between the MS and B1 is removed due to radio path loss. In terms of RA update. the MS communicates with two Node Bs (B1 and B2). 7 SRNC. In Figure 8 (a). If a new TMSI has been received by the MS. and the radio link between the MS and B2 is disconnected. these redundant packets are discarded. the RNC that directly connects to the SGSN is called the serving RNC (SRNC). In this case. and the SGSN is not involved. In this case. The standard GSM location update procedure is performed.. In GPRS. and 15 are not executed. The routing path is now MS$ B3 19 . Allocation of TMSI is optional if the VLR is not changed.. It only performs Layer 1 and partial Layer 2 functionality (e. In the above example. Thus. then the TMSI Reallocation Complete message is sent to the VLR.
GGSN GGSN SGSN1 SGSN2 SGSN1 SGSN2 RNC1 RNC2 RNC1 RNC2 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3 (a) (b) GGSN GGSN SGSN1 SGSN2 SGSN1 SGSN2 RNC1 RNC2 RNC1 RNC2 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3 (c) Figure 8: PS SRNC Relocation (d) 20 .
the radio link connected to the MS is switched from B2 to B3. it does not make sense to route packets between the MS and the core network through RNC1. and the relocation procedure proceeds to Step 5. the communication path is GGSN $ SGSN2 $ RNC2 $ B3 $ MS. the packets are routed to the GGSN through RNC2 and SGSN2 (Figure 8 (d)). SRNC relocation may be performed to remove RNC1 from the routing path. and the MS is not connected to any Node Bs of RNC2. The details are given below. Step 3. Before relocation. 21 . Step 1. before the relocation. Steps 2-4 are skipped. If both RNC2 and RNC1 are connected to SGSN1 (intra SGSN relocation). At this point. As shown in Figure 9 (a). and exchange routing information required for packet delivery. the call path is MSC1 $ MSC2 $ RNC2 $ MS. Then SGSN1 sends the MM and the PDP contexts of the MS to SGSN2 by using the Forward Relocation Request message. The SRNC relocation procedure for PS is illustrated in Figure 11. Step 2. This procedure is only performed for an MS in PMM-CONNECTED state. SGSN2 and RNC2 exchange the Relocation Request and Response message pair to establish the Iu user plane transport bearers between SGSN2 and RNC2. RNC1 determines that RNC2 is the target for relocation. RNC2 becomes the serving RNC. $ RNC2$RNC1$ SGSN1$GGSN as shown in (Figure 8 (c)). After the relocation. it is an inter-SGSN SRNC relocation. and informs SGSN1 of this decision through the Relocation Required message.GGSN GGSN SGSN1 SGSN2 SGSN1 SGSN2 RNC1 RNC2 RNC1 RNC2 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3 (a) Before SRNC Relocation (b) After SRNC Relocation Figure 9: Combined Hard Handoff with SRNS Relocation In this case. Otherwise. the communication path is GGSN $ SGSN1 $ RNC1 $ B2 $ MS. The SRNC relocation procedures for PS and CS services are different. and MSC1 becomes the anchor MSC. After the relocation. SRNC relocation may also be executed when hard handoff  occurs (and the MS is in the PMM-CONNECTED state). the call path is MSC1 $ RNC1 $ RNC2 $ MS. suppose that RNC2 connects to SGSN2. Then after RNC relocation. During hard handoff and SRNC relocation. Suppose that RNC2 connects to SGSN2. Figure 10 illustrates the CS connection before and after SRNC relocation. In this case.
Relocation Required 2. Relocation Commit Downstream Packet forwarding 7. RNTI Reallocation & Complete 9. Relocation Request & Ack Preparation phase at the core network 5. Relocation Complete Resource release of the old connection 11. Relocation Detect 8. Update PDP Context Request & Response 10. Relocation Command 6.PSTN MSC1 MSC2 PSTN MSC1 MSC2 Another call party RNC1 RNC2 Another call party RNC1 RNC2 B1 B2 B3 B1 B2 B3 (a) Before SRNC Relocation (b) After SRNC Relocation Figure 10: CS SRNC Relocation MS RNC1 RNC2 SGSN1 SGSN2 GGSN 1. Iu Release Command & Complete 4. Forward Relocation Request 3. Forward Relocation Response 13. Forward Relocation Complete & Ack 12. RA Update Procedure Figure 11: SRNC Relocation Message Flow for PS 22 .
e.. Before Step 6 is executed. Step 6. RNC2 sends Relocation Detect message to SGSN2 . 23 . and the CN should switch the packet routing path from RNC1 to RNC2. Since the RA has been changed. For inter-SGSN SRNS relocation. Note that the message RNTI Reallocation is not found in 3GPP speciﬁcations (speciﬁcally. RNC2 provides RA. SGSN1 sends the Iu Release Command message to RNC1. can be used by UTRAN to allocate a new RNTI and to convey other UTRAN mobility related information to an MS. The message indicates that SGSN2 and RNC2 are ready to receive the downstream packets buffered in RNC1 (i.. SGSN1 sends the Relocation Command message to RNC1.331 ) by the time when this article was written. In this period. This operation switches the GGSN connection from SGSN1 to SGSN2. Step 11. This is achieved by exchanging the RNTI Reallocation and Complete message pair. and QoS proﬁle negotiated stored in the GGSN PDP context. it starts the data-forwarding timer. Step 10. RNC2 restarts the RLC connections.Step 4. RNC2 sends the Relocation Complete message to SGSN2. This message triggers resource release of the old Iu connection. For intra-SGSN SRNC relocation (i. This message instructs RNC1 to forward the buffered downstream packets to RNC2. and possibly RRC information. For inter SGSN SRNS relocation. SGSN2 is SGSN1). Steps 11 and 12 are executed to release old Iu connection. LA. Steps 1-5 reserve the core network resources for the new path. After the MS has reconﬁgured itself.e. Instead. which provides information about the buffered packets (e. In Steps 6-8. SGSN2 and every corresponding GGSN exchange the Update PDP Context Request and Response message pair to modify the GGSN address. the procedure proceeds to Step 12 to release the old Iu connection. packet exchange between the MS and network is stopped for loss-less relocation.g. sequence numbers) to be tunneled to RNC2. When the data-forwarding timer set in Step 6 expires. RNC2 and the MS exchange information to identify the last upstream packets received by RNC2 and the last downstream packets received by the MS. SGSN2 sends the Forward Relocation Response message to SGSN1. RNC1 stops exchanging packets with the MS. The purpose of this message is to inform the SGSN2 that RNC2 is starting the SRNC operation. RNC1 returns the Iu Release Complete message to SGSN1. In the RNTI Reallocation message. The packet exchange with the MS can start. UTRAN Mobility Information and UTRAN Mobility Information Conﬁrm. After Step 8.. Step 12. the MS also triggers the RA update procedure shown at Step 13. Expiration of this timer will be checked at Step 12. and the old Iu connection is released. the packets are routed through the old path. RNC2 switches all bearers from the RNC1 to the SGSN. it sends the RNTI Reallocation Complete message to the RNC2. we found that two messages. the packets that have not been acknowledged by the MS). the UTRAN connection point is moved from RNC1 to RNC2. SGSN TEID. the SGSN2 switches the user plane from RNC1 to RNC2. and forwards the buffered packets (which are sent from GGSN) to RNC2. Step 7. When RNC1 receives the Relocation Command message. Step 8. Step 9. RNC1 sends the Relocation Commit message to RNC2. SGSN2 instructs SGSN1 to release the old Iu connection by exchanging the Forward Relocation Complete and Acknowledge message pair. After Step 7. 3GPP 25. Immediately after RNC2 is successful switched at Step 6. Step 5.
24 . Step 2. If the MS is not allowed to attach in the RA. If the MS makes the intersystem change decision when it is in the PMMCONNECTED state. At this point. The MS sends the Routing Area Update Request message to the SGSN through the new BSS. This step is exactly the same as Step 1 of Figure 7 initiated by a GPRS MS. at the beginning. and the MS reconﬁgures physical channel immediately after Step 5. Step 4. 8 UMTS-GPRS Intersystem Change When a GPRS/UMTS dual mode MS moves from a cell supporting GSM/GPRS radio technology to a cell supporting WCDMA radio technology (or vice versa). in the combined procedure. In this case. The SRNC relocation procedure (without hard handoff) is initiated by RNC1 without involving the MS. the message ﬂow is similar to the one in Figure 11 with the following differences. PDCP-SNU is used to resume transmission to the MS for loss-less relocation. and starts buffering the packets received from the GGSN. The RA update procedure described in Section 6 is triggered by the MS at Step 8. and cell) and the routing-related information from one system to another. The SGSN exchanges the SRNS Context Request and Response messages with the old SRNS to obtain the following information: GTP-SND and GTP-SNU are used to resume transmission to the GGSN. RNTI relocation at Step 8 is not needed. the SGSN is ready to receive packets. Step 5. which instructs the SRNS to forward the buffered packets to the SGSN. RNC1 decides that the MS is involved. An LLC link is established between the MS and the SGSN. if the MS is in the PMM-IDLE state. mechanisms should exist to derive the area identities (for LA. the packets are tunneled back from the SRNS to the SGSN. For combined hard handoff with SRNC relocation. The SRNS stops sending packets to the MS. then the normal GPRS RA update procedure is executed. For SGSN change from UMTS to GPRS. the SGSN supports both the Gb and Iu-PS interfaces. a UMTS-GPRS intersystem change may take place. we describe UMTS-GPRS intersystem change using simple examples where the GSM/GPRS cells and the UMTS cells are connected to the same SGSN. the Iu connection between the SRNS and the SGSN will be maintained (see Step 6). but have not been sent to the MS. Thus.Step 13. The SGSN sends the SRNS Data Forward Command message to the old SRNS. or if subscription checking fails. To provide this feature. The SGSN converts the PDCP sequence number into the SNDCP sequence number and saved it in the GPRS PDP context. For the packets received by the old SRNS from the SGSN. Step 3. then it stops the transmission to the network. RA. Security functions may be executed as in Step 3 of Figure 7. In this section. and the following steps are executed for intra SGSN change (see Figure 12): Step 1. Also. The SRNS starts a data-forwarding timer. the SRNC context (of RNC1) must be forwarded through the path SGSN1! SGSN2 ! RNC2. For combined hard handoff with SRNC relocation. Before this timer expires. then the SGSN rejects this RA update.
new VLR. then the SGSN sends a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the new VLR (this message is not shown in Figure 12). then the SGSN triggers LA update (see Steps 10-12 in Figure 7) that involves the SGSN. old VLR. Security Functions 2. new VLR. or if the LA has been changed. When the SGSN timer set at Step 4 expires. BSS Packet Flow Context Procedure Figure 12: Intra SGSN Change from UMTS to GPRS Step 6. SRNS Data Forward Command 5. The SGSN sends the Routing Area Update Accept message to the MS.MS new BSS SGSN old SRNS 1. and sends the Routing Area Update Request to the SGSN through the SRNS. then the normal UMTS RA update procedure is executed. then it stops the transmission to the network by disconnecting the LLC link. 25 . Iu Release Command & Complete LA update involving SGSN. New P-TMSI and new TMSI may be allocated. If a new TMSI is allocated to the MS. the SGSN provides the BSS with information related to ongoing user data transmission. In this context. Step 7. Step 9. If the type parameter in the Routing Area Update Request message at Step 1 is combined RA/LA update (for Network Mode I). The MS establishes an RRC connection to the new SRNS. Routing Area Update Request 3. Step 8. Forward Packets 6. if the MS is in the STANDBY state. The SGSN updates the MM and PDP contexts. old VLR and the HLR. The following steps are executed for intra SGSN change (see Figure 13): Step 1. The MS returns the Routing Area Update Complete message to the SGSN if a new P-TMSI is allocated or if the MS needs to acknowledge the packets received from the network. and the HLR 7. the Iu Release Command and Complete messages are exchanged to release the Iu connection. For SGSN change from GPRS to UMTS. Routing Area Update Complete 9. Routing Area Update Acept 8. SRNS Context Request & Response 4. The SGSN and the BSS execute the BSS packet ﬂow context procedure if no BSS packet ﬂow context exists in the BSS. If the MS makes the intersystem change decision when it is in the READY state.
Step 6. new VLR. Step 5. SRNS. A new P-TMSI may be allocated. Security Functions SGSN old BSS LA update involving SGSN. then the SGSN sends a TMSI Reallocation Complete message to the new VLR (this message is not shown in Figure 13). it sends the Service Request message to the SGSN. or if the LA has been changed. Reception of the new P-TMSI is acknowledged by the MS through the Routing Area Update Complete message. and MS. The SGSN requests the SRNS to set up the radio bearer between the SRNS and the MS. Routing Area Update Accept & Complete 4. Radio Path Setup 5. The details can be found in . Routing Area Update Request 2. SRNS. then the SGSN triggers LA update (see Steps 10-12 in Figure 7) that involves the SGSN. packet forwarding will occur from the old SGSN to the new SGSN. new VLR. Step 4. The security functions may be executed among SGSN. 26 . If the type parameter in the Routing Area Update Request message at Step 1 is combined RA/LA update (for Network Mode I). Packet transmission is resumed between SGSN. old VLR and the HLR.MS new SRNS 1. The reason is that in GPRS. old VLR. A major difference between the message ﬂows in Figures 12 and 13 is that packet forwarding is not required in intra SGSN change from GPRS to UMTS. If a new TMSI is allocated to the MS. RAB Assignment Request 5. the packets are buffered in SGSN. The N-PDU sequence numbers in GPRS PDP context of the SGSN is used to derive PDCP sequence numbers for the next packets to be delivered in the UTRAN radio bearer. The SGSN updates the MM and PDP contexts for the MS. Step 3. RAB Assignment Response 6. The SGSN stops the transmission to the old BSS. The SGSN sends the Routing Area Update Accept message to the MS. Note that for inter SGSN change from GPRS to UMTS. Service Request 5. and the HLR 3. and MS. Packet Transfer Resumed Figure 13: Intra SGSN Change from GPRS to UMTS Step 2. If the MS has pending uplink data or signaling.
Lin received 1998 and 2000 Outstanding Research Awards from National Science Council. WCDMA . Programmable. the reader is referred to . and the Lee and MTI Center for Networking Research. Details for the GPRS mobility management can be found in . From 1990 to 1995. InterVideo. NCTU. Biography Yi-Bing Lin received his BSEE degree from National Cheng Kung University in 1983. NJ. Lin is an associate editor of IEEE Network.3gpp. and a Guest Editor for IEEE Communications Magazine special issue on Active. Guest Editor for the ACM/Baltzer MONET special issue on Personal Communications.org. For further reading. Lin is an Adjunct 27 . published by John Wiley & Sons). an editor of International Journal of Communications Systems. National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). he was appointed as a professor of Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering (CSIE). His current research interests include design and analysis of personal communications services network. the readers are encouraged to understand the UMTS radio technology. and 1998 Outstanding Youth Electrical Engineer Award from CIEE. Most radio management functions handled in GPRS core network have been moved to UTRAN in UMTS. The UMTS protocol stacks are introduced in . and performance modeling. The complete 3GPP speciﬁcations can be found in www.9 Summary Based on 3GPP 23. Morristown. Acknowledgement Lin’s work was sponsored in part by MOE Program of Excellence Research. Program Chair for the 8th Workshop on Distributed and Parallel Simulation. Dr. degree in Computer Science from the University of Washington in 1990.D. he was appointed as Deputy Director of Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center. ROC. an editor of IEEE J-SAC: Wireless Series.e.. This architecture change results in a clean design that allows the radio technology and the core network technology to be developed independently. In the UMTS architecture. General Chair for the 9th Workshop on Distributed and Parallel Simulation. and Mobile Code Networking. During 1997-1999. a columnist of ACM Simulation Digest. Ericsson. an editor of Journal of Information Science and Engineering. FarEastone. he was with the Applied Research Area at Bell Communications Research (Bellcore). distributed simulation. this paper describes mobility management evolution from GPRS to UMTS. In 1995. Tahoe Network. an editor of ACM/Baltzer Wireless Networks. ROC. The GPRS mobility management functionality has been signiﬁcantly modiﬁed to accommodate UMTS. For UMTS core network architecture. i. Lin is the author of the book Wireless and Mobile Network Architecture (co-author with Imrich Chlamtac. This paper pronounced the differences between the GPRS and the UMTS procedures. he was elected as Chairman of CSIE. the radio access network UTRAN is introduced. a Guest Editor for IEEE Transactions on Computers special issue on Mobile Computing. NCTU. Program Chair for the 2nd International Mobile Computing Conference. NCTU. National Science Council. an editor of Computer Simulation Modeling and Analysis. an editor of IEEE Personal Communications Magazine. mobile computing. In 1996.060 . an area editor of ACM Mobile Computing and Communication Review. an editor of Computer Networks. and his Ph.
0 (2000-10). 28 . Security Architecture.  3GPP. 2000.5.. 3G TS 24.6. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Services and Systems Aspects. Network Architecture.  Holma. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Radio Access Network.4.  ETSI/TC. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Services and Systems Aspects. 2000.4.  3GPP. A.0 (2000-12).tw References  3GPP. WCDMA for UMTS.  Lin. 2000. 3G Security. Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Speciﬁcation.121 version 3.0 (2000-10).0 (2000-12). 3rd Generation Partnership Project.102 V3. Technical Report 3G TS 23. 2000. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 1993. and Toskala. Architectural Requirements for Release 1999. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Core Network. UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signaling for Release 1999. H. John Wiley & Sons. 3GPP.0 (2000-12).331 version 3. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Core Network. I.171 version 3. 2000. Core Network Protocols .nctu. 3GPP.Stage 3 for Release 1999. Technical Report 3G TS 23. 2000.  3GPP.08.  3GPP.  3GPP. Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures.  3GPP. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Technical report. Technical Speciﬁcation 3G TS 33.0. Lin’s email address is liny@csie. 2001.008 version 3. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Stage 2. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Functional Stage 2 Description of Location Services in UMTS for Release 1999.413 version 3.7. Technical Report 3G TS 23. Y. 3G TS 29.0 (2000-12). 3GPP. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Services and Systems Aspects. and Chlamtac. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Technical Speciﬁcation 3G TS 25.-B. 3GPP.2. 2000.0 (200012). RRC Protocol Speciﬁcation for Release 1999. Technical Report Recommendation GSM 04.5. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Services and Systems Aspects. John Wiley & Sons.6.0 (2000-12).  3GPP. 3GPP. Service Descripton. UTRAN Overall Description. 2000. Technical Speciﬁcation 3G TS 23. 3rd Generation Partnership Project.  3GPP. 2000. ETSI.002 version 4. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Technical Speciﬁcation Group Radio Access Network.401 version 3. Technical Speciﬁcation Group Radio Access Network. Technical Report 3G TS 25. GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp Interface (Release 99).0 (2001-01). 2000. Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 Speciﬁcation. 2000.  3GPP. Technical Report 3G TS 25.Research Fellow of Academia Sinica. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Technical Speciﬁcation Group Services and Systems Aspects..edu.0 (2000-12). 3GPP. (edited).7. 3rd Generation Partnership Project.060 version 3.060 version 3.
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