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Structure
REAL NUMBERS AND FUNCTIONS
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Introduction
Objectives
Basic Properties of R Absolute Value Intervals on the Real Line Functions
1.5.1 Definition and Examples 1.5.2 Inverse Functions 1.5.3 Graphs o f Inverse Functions
New Functions from Old
1.6.1 Operations on Functions 1.6.2 Composite of Functions
Types of Functions
1.7.1 Even and Odd Functions 1.7.2 Monotone Functions 1.7.3 Periodic Functions
s m ay u mr Solutions and Answers
1.1
INTRODUCTION
This is the first unit of the course on Calculus. We thought it would be a good idea to acquaint you with some basic results about the real number system and functions, before you actually start your study of Calculus. Perhaps, you are already familiar with these results. But, a quick look through the pages will help you in refieshing your memory, and you will be ready to tackle the course.
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In the next three sections of this unit, we shall present some results about the real number system. You will find a number of examples of various types of functions in Sections 1.5 to 1.7. You should also study the graphs of these functions carefully, in order to be able to vistlalise given functions. In fact, try to draw a graph whenever you encounter a new function. We shall , systematically study the tracing of c w e s in Block 2 Unit 4.
Objectives
After reading this unit you should be able to : recall the basic properties of real numbers derive other properties with the help of the basic ones ichtify various types of bounded and unbounded intervals define a function and examine whether a given function is oneonelonto investigate whether a given function has an inverse or not deiine the scalar multiple, absolute value, sum, difference, product, quotien't of the given functions and determine wl$&er a given function is even odd, monotonic or periodic.
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1.2
BASIC PROPERTIES OF R
In the next three sections, we are going to tell you about the set R of real numbers, which is allpervading in mathematics. The real number system is the foundation on which a large part of mathematics, including calculus, rests. Thus,before we actually start leaming calculus, it' is necessary to understand the structure of the real number system. You are already familiar with the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of real numbers, and also withGkqualities.Here we shall quickly recall some of their properties. We start with the operation of addition:
Elements of Differential
Calculus
A1 R is closed under addition. If x and y are real numbers, then x + y is a unique real number. A2 Addition is associative, x+(y+z)=(x+y)+zholdsforallx,y,zinR. A3 Zero exists. There is a real number 0 such that x+OO+x=xforallxinR. A4 Negatives exist. For each real number x, there exists a real number y (ccalled a negative or an additive inverse of x, and denoted by x) such that x + y = y + x = 0. A5 Addition is commutaPlve. x+y=y+xholdsforallx,yinR Similar to these properties of addition, we can also list some properties of the operation of multiplication:
Ml R is closed under multiplication. If x and y are real numbers, then x.y is a unique real number. M2 Multiplication is associative. x.(y.z) = (x.y).z holds for all x, y, z in R M3 Unit element exists. There exists a real number 1 such that x.1= l.x=xforeveryxinR. hZ4 Inverses exist. For each real number x other than 0, there exists a real number y (called a multiplicative inverse of x and denoted by xI, or by l/x) such that x.y y.x = 1

You may have come across a "field", in the course on Llnear Algebra
MS Multiplication is commutative. x.y = y.x holds for all x, y in R. The next property involves addition as well as multiplication. D Multiplication is distributive over addition. x.(y t z) = x.y + x.z holds for all, x, y, z in R
Remark 1: The fact that the above eleven properlies are satisfied is often expressed by saying that the real numbers form afield with respect to the usual addition and multiplication operations. Remark 1 (a): Usually the operator '.' is dropped in expressions, e.g., x.y may be denoted as
xy.
In addition to the above mentioned properties, we can also define an order relation on R with the help of which we can compare any two real numbers. We write x > y to mean that x is greater than y. The order relation '>' has the following properties: 0 1 Law of Trichotomyholds. For any two real numbers a, b, one and only one of the following holds: a>b,a=b,b>a. 02 '>' is transitive. Ifarbandb>c,thena>c, v a , b , c ~ R 03 Addition is monotone. Ifa,b,cinRaresuchthata>b,thena+c>b+c. 04 Multiplication is monotone in the following sense. If a, b, c in Rare such that a > b and c > 0, then ac > bc. Caution: a > b and c < 0 3 ac < bc. Remark 2: Any field together with a relation > satisfying 01 to 04 is called an ordered field. Thus R with the usual > is an example of an ordered field. Notations: We write x < y (and read x is less than y) to mean y > x. We write x I y (and read x is less than or equal to y) to mean either x < y or x = y. We write x 2 y (and read x is greater than or equal to y) if either x > y or x = y. number x is said to be positive or negative according as x > 0 or x < 0. If x 2 0, we say that x is nonnegative.
.u. You will. belongs to the set.. But you will see that 2 is less than any other upper bound.2. in other words.3 . Hence 2 is the supremum or the least upper bound of T.. the 1. .8.5. u + r. of a set may or may not belong to the set.u. Working on similar lines we can also define a lower bound for a given set S to be a real number v such that v I x for all x E S. you know that given any number x E R. we can choose an upper bound u such that u is less than or equal to every upper bound of S.b.I.. But 0 c R.. then it is unique. u + 3. it is possible to find u E R such that u l x for all x E S ? Discuss the special case when S is empty. Note that for both the sets T and Z. which is bounded below. if such a u exists. remember that the g. N = {I. of course.. which is bounded above. x < 0 for all x E Z. if we can find a lower bound for it. Let us see what happens when we take any subset of R instead of a single real number x. From among all the upper bounds of a set S. Or.. we can always find a number y E R such that y l x. namely zero.is negative. are all upper bounds of Z. from among all the lower bounds of a set S. It is easily seen that. if such a v exists. realise that ifu is an upper bound for a set S then u + 1. if there is an upper bound of S. We call this u the least upper bound or the supremum of S. r E E 1) Give examples to illustrate the following : I a) A set of real numbers having a lower bound. then it is unique. let us look at a definition.4. Based on this discussion you will be able to solve the following exercise. We shall say that a set S c R is bounded if it has both an upper bound and a lower bound. c) A set of real numbers whose g.... we obviously will not be able to find an upper bound. We call this v the greatest lower bound or the infimum of S.1. u + 2.3.4.1.. there are infinitely many such real numbers y). 2. You will agree that 1 is the 1. Do you think that. . Before we try to answer this question. does not belong to it. (least upper bound) of Z. we have seen that 0 is an upper bound for Z.. each x E Z. if we consider the set of natural numbers. It is easily seen that. Consider the set of all negative real numbers R.The 1. For example. Check that 1.b. As in the case of l. of this set is 0. (in fact. consider the set Now 2.b. given a set S G R.b. b) A set of real numbers without any lower bound... This may not be true in general. Now we can reword our earlier questions as follows : Is it possible to find an upper bound for a given set ? Now.3. (In fact. where r is any positive number) are all upper bounds of S. It is easily seen that. we are able to find an upper bound.Now.4 + n are all upper bounds for this set.b. Further. For example. Thus N is not bounded above. in this case. Real Numbers and Functions Definition 1: Let S be a subset of R. for our set ZOn the other hand. . We say that S is bounded above..u.= {x :x < 0).u.3.. we can choose a lower bound v such that v is greater than or equal to every lower bound of S.b. An element u in lk is said to be an upper bound of S if u 1 x holds for every x in S. We shall say that a set is bounded below.
e. Ifx+0'=xforallxinR.then0'=0. If xy = 0.thena2<b2wb<a<b.. Ifa<bandc<d. 1 2 Zero is unique. there is a unique y in R such that xy = yx = 1. i. You are already aware of these. then i) a 2 = b 2 w a = b .e. If a > b and c < 0. Addition is cancellative. Similarly. C The order is complete Every nmempty subset S of R that is bounded above.thenac<bc. (We shall use this property in Unit 10). Multiplicative inverse is unique. i. a is positive if and only if a is negative. Note that it is the smallest subset o f R possessing the following properties: i) 1€N . i.e. (x+y)=(x)+(y)forallx. Now we are ready to list a few more properties. then x = y.theny=z. there is a unique y in R such that x + y = y + x = 0..e. (The symbol w is read as 'if and only i f ) ii) a2> b2 w a > b iii) a2 < b2 w a < b Ifb>0. has a supremum.e..theny=z. For each nonzero real number x. Multiplicationis cancellative. Unity is unique. 6 Definitian 2: If x and y are any two real numbers. 3 4 5 Ifx.Elements of Differentiai Calculus d) A bounded set of real numbers. the result of subtraction of y from x is denoted by x . Many more properties are either restatements or consequences of these sixteen properties. If x and y are non zero numbers such that x' = yI. then either x = 0 or y = 0. i.then1'=1. i.l'=xforallxinR. then ac < bc. Additive inverse is unique. (x')I = x for all x t 0 in R. For each x in R. Ifx+y=x+z. a2 is nonnegative for all a in R.. If a and b are positive.thena+c<b+d..yinR. Ifxy=xzandx#O. Ifa<bandc>O.e. the division x + y (also denoted by xly) is defined as xy'. Here is a list of some of them. You are also familiar with the following subsets of R: 1) The set N of natural numbers. provided y # 0. i. But let us quickly recall them. Now we are ready to state an important property of R.y and is defined as x + (y).
A4 and M4. You will realise the importance of this simple concept as you study the later units. 1) k E N if and only if k is a positive integer. 3) The operations on Q satisfy A1 to AS. 5 ) If a is any real number. Now 10. Every nonempty set of real numbers that is bounded below. MI to M5 and 01 to 04. They do not. a) Show that the set of positive real numbers is bounded below. We observe that it is the smallest subset of R possessing the following properties: Real Numbers and Functions 3) 3 Q3Z E Q. But 10.01. t h e n x . we cannot findany y E A such that y > 10. For example. Q is not ordercomplete. y ~ Z . Therefore Q is an ordered field. however. consider the set A = {x E R : 8 5 x c 10). MI. You must have also studied the following properties of these sets. For E =0. E E2) I 1. M5 and D.009. if we are given any E. M2. 7) The exercise below can now be done easily.999 serves our purpose. that is. 10 is the supremum of this set.001. has an infmum. we should be able to find some y E A such that y > 10 . y E Q and y # 0. ii) If x. As you can see. ii) For each E > 0. E (epsilon) is a Greek letter used to denote small real numbers. 3 sLxforallxinS. there is a y in S such that y > s .99. y = 9.~ E Z .01 is also an upper bound for A. A2. E = 0.01 0. k E Z and k > 0. 6) A real number s is the supremum of a set S c R if and only if the following conditions are satisfied. then there is a positive integer n such that nb > a. 2) The operations of addition and multiplication on N satisfy Al. Give an example. What is its infimum? b) Write the characterisation of the infimum of a subset of R. The set Q of rational nhmbers. A5.0. Now.2) ii) k ~ N + k + lE N The set Z of integers.01 = 9. . But C is not satisfied. then xy' We list here some more properties of these sets which you will find useful in our study of calculus: 4) Archimedean Property: Ha and b are any real numbers and ifb > 0. which corresponds to 6) above. say. It is the smallest subset of R possessing the following properties: i) Z 3 N ii) I f x . M3.E.01 is not the supremum of A. that is.001 = 10. satisfy A3.3 ABSOLUTE VALUE In this section we shall define the absolute value of a real number. there is a positive integer n such that n > a (Archimedean property applied to a and 1).
and thexefore.by(i). denoted by I x I (read as modulus of x. Therefore.then(x(=x.x) j  IxI d) =max {x. is defined by the following rules: 11 = x x. ~fx<O. I x l2 = x2.again.x) =(XI. x } ii) If x 0.(0(=0 i It is obvious that 1 x 1 is defined for all x E R.x). (x) + (y) > 0 and we can use the result of (i) forxandy.7.y e) By writing x = ( x . ifx c 0 For example. therefore.x) =O.~othat(x)~=(x)~=x~. important properties of I x 1. for all x G R.then(xI=x.Elements o f Differential Calculus Definition 3 :If x is a real number. then a) b) c) d) (the triangle inequality) e) I ~ + Y I ~ ( I ~ I .Now ( x + yI = I(x+y) I by(b).x). ifx 2 0 x. Let us consider these one by one.then(x(=xandx>. we have 1 x l2 = x2 U e shall consider two different cases according as I X + Y l = x + ~ ~ l x lI.7(=1.(2(=2. then x = 0 =x.ii)x=O. thatis.(1) . by (b).then)x)=x.x) =max {x.Also~x(=O. ( 1. its absolute value. i) Ifx>O. Theorem 1: If x and y be any real numbers.sothat~x~=max {x. because I . x) = x and hence I x 1 =max { x. Thus. Ifx20.)5(=5.I Y I ~ Proof: a) By the law of trichotomy (01) applied to the real numbers x and 0.x) =x.y and y.sothat max {x.x 1 = 1 x 1 by (b).y ) + y and applying the triangle inequality to the numbers x . we have I~I=I(~Y)+YI~I~YI+IY~~ sothat(x((y(<(xy(. Also 1 x l2 = 1 x 12. exactly one of the following holds: i) x>O. From this it follows that x b) c) 1x(=rnax {(x).sothat)x)~=~~.x) Ixl=lxl (x(*=x2=(xI2 Ix+yl5lxl+l~l ' .wegetIx+y 1 5 ( x I + J y1. Thus(x+y(=((x)+(y)(S(XI+(y(. (xl=max(x. Thetefore.Then(x+y)>O.sothat max {x.. (x(=max{x.x. =Ixl+ly I. or mod x). we get 151=5. + l ~ Letx+y<O. mas {x.y E R ( x + y( < ( x ( + (1. Since (I) holds for all x and y in R.oriii)x~O.. by interchanging x and y in (1) we have . iii) Ifx<O. Thuswefindthatforallx.Thus. The following theorem gives some of the .andx>x.
Therefore.l~llxI~l~xl=l(x~)l =Ixyl. . Sothat(1x1)y))S)x. thismeans t h a t x < a + 6 ! (xa)<6. Now if a E R and 6 > 0. then Ixa)<6*xa<6.max(1x11 y 1. But the left hand side of the above inequality is simply ( ( x ( .a / < 6) can be represented geometrically. Thus.lzl ifxz0 Real Numbers and Functions 1.a < 6 .Therefore.wegetthat/xa(<6*a6 < x < a + 6 .( ( x 1 .1 y ( 11x1lYll~lxYl Now you should be able to prove some easy consequences of this theorem.1 y ( and its negative .(1x1I y 1)) I ( x ..thismeansthata6<x. we have E i  d) e) f) e) and f ) can be ex{ended to any number of reals.y l . . lxYl~Ixl+lYl Ix+Y+z)~lxI+lYl+lzl IxYzl=lxl. E 3) Prove the following : a) x = O e ( x l = c b) c) IxYl=ixl.(2) From (1) and (2) we find that ( x / . This practice will come in handy when you study Unit 2.lYl 1l/x~=l/\x~.. x . In the next section.I y 1 are both less than or at the ) mostequa1to)xy ). This means that the difference between x and a is not more than 6. The following exercise will also give you some practice in manipulating absolute values. we shall see how the set { x : ( x .y ) .and(xa)<6.IYl.
contains both its end points and is called a closed interval. so that OQ = 1 y 1 = y : units ( y is negative). + . Because of this onetoone correspondence between real numbers and thg points of a straight line. Similarly L is called a "number line". ]a. we shall associate a unique point on L to each real number and vice versa. b[ and ]a.4 INTERVALS ON THE REAL LINE Before we define an interval let us see what is meant by a number line. OA can now serve as a unit. Each of these sets is called an interval. In other words. is called an open interval. We thus find that to each real number we can associate a point on the line. Figure I : (a) Number line b) Distance between x and y is I x . as they contain only one end point.a 1 can be thought of as the distance between x and a. a] = a. Thus. b]. and z is negative if S is to the left of 0. and a and b are called the end points of the interval. This means I is the set of all numbers x. b] are called halfopen (or halfclosed) intervals or semiopen (or semiclosed) intervals.y 1 denotes the distance between the two numbers x and y [seeFig. This representation of real numbers by points on a straight line is often very useful. 1 x . Consider a straight line L [see Fig.b[= { x : a < x < b ) [a. 1 (a)]. we can.Elements or Dilferential Calculus 1. such that ( z ( = OS. whose distance from a is less than 6. we often call a real number "a point of R . so that OP = 1 x 1 units ( = x units). We choose a point A on L which is to the right of 0. a] = [a. a[ = and [a. Note that the absolute value or the modulus of any number x is nothing but its distance from the point 0 on the number line. The point 0 divides the straight line into two parts. there will be four different sets satisfying this loose condition. In the same way. These are : i) ii) * ]a. If a = b. I (b)]. b[. Also. z is positive if S is to the right of 0. Each of these intervals is bounded above by b and bounded below by a. we have put thick black dots at a and b to indicate that they are included in the set. in which the end points are not included. We shall represent the number 0 by 0 and 1 by A. The interval ]a. A negative real number y will be represented by a point Q lying to the left of 0 on the straight line L.  Distance is always nonnegative. where a I b. We shall use the part to the lefr of 0 for representing negative real numbers and the part to the right of 0 for representing positive real numbers. Can we represent the set I = {x : ( x .b]={x:a<x~b) iii) ] a . each point S on the line reprsents a unique real number z. Actually. To each positive real number x we can associate exactly one point P lying to the right of 0 on L. a[ = ]a. We know that 1 x . Note that in this case we have drawn a hollow circle around a and b to indicate that they are not included in the graph.y ( Now let us consider the set of the real numbers which lie between two given real numbers a and b. The sets [a. The set [a. This fact is also indicated in their geometrical representation. Mark a point 0 on it. In the representation of this closed interval. b [ = { x : a 5 x < b ) The representation of each of these sets is given alongside.a ( < 6 ) on the number line? Yes. The real numbers in the set R can be put into onetoone correspondence with the points on a straight line L. Further. b ] = { x : a < x < b ) iv) [ a .
it merely indicates that an interval extends without  * limits. .. [ = {x : a < x) (open right ray) (closed right ray) (open left ray) (closed left ray) (open interval) b 4  r. is a rule or a correspondence which connects every member of X to a unique member of Y. Similarly. I 1 / . but is not zero.2[ ~ d) 5e15. then all numbers lying between c and d are also elements of S..= [ = R b} As you can see easily. [ is bounded below.  a [a. Real Numbers and Functions I. b] = {x : x I. Thus. These are: la. We shall denote by f(x) that unique element of Y which is associated to x E X. a) 06[1.5.6.5 FUNCTIONS Now let us move over ro present some basic facts about functions which will help you refresh your knowledge. Apart from the four types of intervals listed above.81. but is not bounded above.5 .. We write f: X + Y (read as "f is a function from X to Y) X is called the domain and Y is called the codomain off. a + 61. For instance. but x # a. a function f from X to Y. 1. * +  j 4 I.3.1 ]=..a 1 2 6) is the closed interval [a . = {x : 0 < ( x . a + 6[. 1.. :T. C) 1 ~ [ 1 ...6. . Note that and . ]a. defined by f(x) = x. there are a few more types.. E E4) State whether the following are true or false. We can also say that the distance between x and a is less than 6.  . . from N cannot be connected to any member of Z. 1. 2 1 b) . Example 1: f : N + R.[ E E 5) Represent the intervals in E 4) geometrically. then the distance between x and a is less than 6. We note further that if S is any interval (bounded or unbounded) and if c and d are two elements of S. is a function since the rule f(x) = x associates a unique member (x) of R to every member x of N.. b] is bounded above. =]a6.a I < 6).is the open interval ]a . This means if x E 12. I. . Sometimes we also come across sets like I. Example 2: The rule f(x) = xi2 does not define a function from N + Z as odd natural numbers like 1. b[= {x : x < b)  a .. We shall look at various examples of functions and shall also define inverse functions. Let us start with the definition of a function. =[ = {x : a 2 x} ] a . a + & [ \ {a) . but is not bounded below. none of these sets are bounded. The domain here is N and the codomain is R. . = {x : 1 x .= does not denote a real number.1 Definition and Examples I Definition 4: If X and Y are two sets. The following examples will help you in understanding this definition better..
simply use the word 'function' to mean a real function. 2 4 1 'I w X 1) A constant function: The simplest example of a hnction is a constant function. the rule f(x) = x. we may write f:x+ 1 . It is the line y = 1. then y = f(x) is called the image of x under for the fimage of x. to describe a function completely we have to specify the following three things: a) b) c) the domain the codomain. we choose a system of coordinate axes in the plane. The variable x (or t or u) is also called an independent variable. for example. let f: R +R be defined by f(x) = 1. {f(x) : x E X) is called the range off and is denoted by f(X). Such functions are often called real functions or realvalued functions of a real variable. But it should clearly specify (perhaps by actual listing) the correspondence between X and Y. The role that the graph of a function plays in the study of the function will become clear as we proceed further. The rule which defines a function need not always be in the form of a formula.e. however. Thus. which connects elements of N. you see. and f(x) is dependent on this independent variable. It is easy to see that f(X) c Y. The set of all the points obtained by considering all possible values of x (remember that the domain o f f is X) is the graph of the function f. To draw the graph of a function f : X +Y. b) The variable x used in describing a function is often called a dummy variable because it can be replaced by any other letter. and the wle which associates a unique member of the codomain to each member of the domain. Consider the rule f ( ~= a prime factor of x. Here since 6 = 2 x 3. If fi X +Y. 2).t: function sends all the elements of the domain to just one element of the codomain.. i. u E N. x E N can as well be written in the form f(t) = t. Graph of a function: A convenient and useful method for studying a function is to study it through its graph. 0. Thus. Alternatively. This rule does not associate a unique number with 6 and hence does not give a function from N to N.. The set of fimages of all members of X. In the meantime let us consider same more examples of functions and their graphs. Fig. A const'. Remark 3 a) Throughout this course we shall consider functions for each of which whose domain and codomain are both subsets of R. 3. Fig. 3 . t E N or as f(u) = u.Elements o f Differential Calculus Example 3: Every natural number can be written as a product of some prime numbers.. For example. We shall.V X E R The graph o f f is as shown in Fig. the orderedpair (x. f(x)) determines a point in the plane (see Fig. f(6) has ) two values : f(6) = 2 and q6) = 3. For each x E X.
This function is known as the identity function on X and is denoted by ix.3. x + / x + I 1. we can f ~ n d only one such integer n. Either it is an integer. Therefore. x + ( x j + 1.a+l) This function is known as the exponential function. and denotc it by [x]. for a given real number x.1 1. respectively. It consists of two rays. It is the line y = x. with f R'+4 R such that f(sj iil (xj. say n (so that x = 11) or it is not an intzger. find an integer n: such that n I x c: n + 1. (3. 5 C 4) The Exponential Vunction: If a is a positive real number other than I . i ~ n in~cger such that n < x < n t I .In general.~ 1 ! = 117s b (I L 2 : 4 i 3  5:ig. The range of this function is R .Let 1 s consider the function defined on R by 1 Yetrmg f ( x ) . is often found useful.51 . Fig. If if is not nil integer. . with the positive direct~on the xaxls. and let f be the function on X defined by setting f(x) = x V x E X. 7 . Further. x + ( x. 6) The Greatest Integer Function: Take a real number x.  YA  it!. we can find I by the Archimedea~i property of real numbers. i: : shown in Fig.  2 1 X 1 ) ' 1 2 3 Fig. 6 shows the graph of the function f : R i R such tilai f(x) . of b f E E 6) Given below are the graphs of four functions depending on the notion of absolute value. A special case of this flmction. Its grnp!. for each real number x \ve t. I " / / 0 / / . if x c 0 The graph of this function is shown in Fig. r The functions are x +I x 1.51 = 4. f Let X be any nonempty set. 6 5) The Natural Logarithmic Function: This futictia~:is defined on thc set R ofpositive real numbers. Can you identify them? Fig. For example.~!l n. I Real N u m b e r a n d Functior~h YA . Its range is the set R'of positive real numbers. 7. .x. is shown in Fig. . we call define a function f as: f R 4 R f (x) 2  (a>O./' 3) Absolute value Function: Another interesting function is the absolute value funct~on (or modulus function) w h ~ c h be defined by using the concept of the absolute value of a real can number as: f(x) = I X I = 6 b Fig. This function is also called the natural expo~lrntial function. 4 x. the identity function on R. The graph of i. both starting at the orig~n andmaking angles 7d4 and 3x/4.e x . 5. 4. We say that n is the greatest integer not exceeding x. [?I 3 and 13. 2) The identity function: Another simple but important example of a funct~on a function is which sends every element of the domain to itself. (The domain in each case is R). where a c . thoughnot necessarily in this order. the graph of a constant function f : x + c is straight line which is parallel to the xaxis at a distance of 1 c ( units from it. i f x 2 O .[XI.
#x. Notice that the graph consists of infinitely many line segments of unit length.I Elements o f Differential Calculus This function is called the greatest integer function. namely h. 3 2x1+3#2x. Thus. flx) = fly) 3 x = y. Polynomial Functions fTx)= a. the other. the set of nonnegative real numbers. f(x) = sec x. Thus 2 and 2 are distinct members of the domain R. This opens two possibilities: i) f (X) = Y. that is. where ao . On the other hand. (It resembles the steps on an infinite staircase). but their himages are the same. we often write: f : x 2 Y (or f :X + + Y). consider txe fuilction g: x x 2x + 3 Here you will be able to see that if x. 2xI#2x. c) Fig.1) function or an injective function) if the images of distinct members of X are distinct members of Y. The graph of the function is as shown in Fig. the function g : x + 2x + 3 belongs to the first category. Now. are given real numbers (constants) and n is a positive integer. 8. where g (x) and k (x) are polynomial functions of degree n and m. Definition 6 A function f: X x Y is said to be an onto function (or a surjective function) if every member oEY is the image of some member of X.)#g(x. or ii) f (X) $ Y. From this we get that g(R) = R.x" + a. The following definition characterises this property of the function. Oneone and Onto Functions Consider the function h : x x x2. We give a special name to functions like g above. namely g. f(X) is a proper subset of Y The function h :x + x2 tf x E R falls in the second category. Iff is a fu~ction from X onto Y.) and g ( x l ) are also distinct. then g(x.+ a. all parallel to the xaxis. Let us see what makes them special. While one of them. h is not an onto function. is in the range g(R). y of X. . Trigorlometric or Circular Functions flx) =sin x.We shall d) Hyperbolic Funcions f(x) = coshx = 2 2 study these in detail in Unit 5. . Thus h (R). we find that g(x) = y. whereas h is not oneone. does not always do so. and x2 are two distinct real numbers. Here h(2) = h (2) = 4.flx)=sinhx= . x + y a f(x) t f(y) For every pair of members x. (Can you find some more numbers whose himages are equal?) This may be expressed by saying that 3x. .2 Inverse Functions In this subsection we shall see what is meant by the inverse of a function. These special types of functions will then lead us to the definition of the mverse of a function. 8 '' 1. for which k (x) #O. Remark 4: he condition "the images of distinct members of X are distinct members of Y" in the above dt. Functions which are both oneone and onto are of special importance in mathematics. Since the square of any real number is always nonnegative. f(x) = cos x. Given any y E R (codomain) ifwe take x = (li2)y .+3 Thus the function g above is oneone. whereas g is an onto function.. y such that ?r t y but h(x) = h(y).a. h (R) = R' u { O } .@ R. We have observed earlier that for a func:ion EX x Y. But before talking about the inverse. f(x) =tan x. This shows that every member of the codomain is a gimage of some member of the domain and thus. f(x) = cos x.312.5. Definition 5: A function E x x Y is said to be a oneone function (a (1 . (ex + e' ) (ex ) . f(x) = cosec x. a) b) Rational Functions f(x) = g (x)/k(x). 7) Other Functions The following are some important classes of functions. sends distinct members of the domain to distinct members of the codomain.) We have considered two functions here. This is defined for all real x.a. 3 For. defined on the set R. g(x. y of X.inition can be replaced by either of the follow~ng equivalent conditions: a) b) For evely pair of members x.x.xW'+ . f(X) c Y. let us look at some special categories of functions.
Also. Fig.t. As you will notice. = f(p) p = g (q) (q. The function g so defined is called the inverse of f. since f is oneone. then there exists a unique function g : Y i X such that for each y E Y.t. that of the other can be obtained by reflecting it w. .) the line y x. it follow that. y . the two graphs will exactly coincide. As an illustration. We can see that f is oneone as well as onto.+ 2. the graph of the other can be obtained easily. to each y E E there exists y/2 E N.r. say g. such that f(y/2) = y. q) and (q. Thus.You must have already guessed that the inverse of g is the function f. Consequently.Consider a function f: X + Y which is both oneone and onto. Further. each y E Y is the image of some x E X. p) lies on the graph of g. if g is the inverse off. from E to N such that g (Y)= ~ 1 2 . A point (p. as we shall soon see. the line y = x. iff (x) = . 9. The correspondence y + yi2 defines a function.r. To find the inverse of a given function f. Thus. The inverse of a function f is usually denoted by fI . The function g so defined is called an inverse off. p) are reflections of each other with respect to (w. to each y E E there corresponds. if the graph of one of the functions f and g is given. Consider the function f : N + E defined f(x) = 2x. we can say that the graphs o f f and g are reflections of each other w. and let g : Y +X be the inverse off. if the graph of one of them is known.2)) 1. 9 . we proceed as follows: Solve the equation f(x) = y for x. y cannot be the image of w o distinct members of X. f sets up a onetoone correspondence between the members of X and Y.5.  90you agret that these two functions are inverses of each other? If the sheet of paper on which the graphs have bezn drawn is folded along the line y = x. Therefore.r. Therefore. the function g is also oneone and onto and therefore it will also have an inverse. From this discussion we have the following : '" Real Numbers and Functions Iff is oneone and onro function from X to Y. where E is the set of even natural numbers. the graphs of the fi~nctions = x3 and y = xl" are given in Fig. q) lies on the graph o f f c q. In fact. and the two function f and g are said to be the inverses of each other. g(y) = x w y = f(Xj.3 Graphs of Inverse Functions There is an interesting relation between the graphs of a pair of inverse functions because of which. For this reason g is called the inverse off. Hence f' is the function defined by f (y) = {5(y . Since f is an onto function. 5 5 1 1 xJ x" This gives us x = {5(y . we find that to each y E Y there corresponds a unique x E X such that f(x) = y.t. only one such function g can be defined corresponding to a given function f. we solve . Since. the line y=x. Now the points (p. then f is the inv'erse of g. The resulting expressioil for x (in terms of y) defines the Inverse function.2)) . r Let f: X + Y be a oneone and onto function.+ 2 = y for x. It is this onetoone correspondence between members of X and Y which makes a oneone and onto function so special. a unique x E N such that f(x) = y.
functions as inverse of cosine and tangent functions if we we restrict the codomain to [0. respectively. obviously this hnction is not oneone on R. then we can define ++ fI (x) = sit' (x) = y if sin y = x. we can choose a subset of the domain on which it is oneone. n/2]. g f ( x ) =sin x o x E [n/2. is oneone and onto. f : R + R defined by f (x) = x2 f : R + R defined by f (x) = 1 E E9) Which of the follow~ngfunctions are onto? a) f:R+Rdefinedbyf(x)3x+7 b) f:R"+Rdefinedbyf(x)= Jj. n/2]. Sin~ilarly.Elements o f Differential Calculus E E 7) Compare the graphs of In x and ex given in Figs. E E 10) Show that the function f : X +X such that f (x)  . and then define its inverse function.1 numbers except 1. E E 11)Give ofieexample of each of the follou~ng: a) a oneot:c f ~ n c t i o n uhlch 1s not unto. h) onto funct~on which is not oneone. x/2[. Since we know that sin (x + 2n) = sin x. For example. But if we restrict it F the interval [nf2. consider the function f : x + sin x.where X is the set of all real  x + l x . can define cos' and tan. c) f:R+Rdefinedbyf(x)=x2+1 d) f : X 4 R defined by f (x) = l/x where X stands for the set of nonzero real numbers. Find its inverse. tvhlch 1s ne~ther oneone nor onto c) a fi~nction . n] and]x/2. we find that it is oneone. 6 and 7 and verify that they are inverses of each other.1. If a given function is not oneone on its domain.. ' E E 8) Which of the following functions are oneone? a) b) c) d) f:R+Rdefinedbyf(x)=lx/ f : R + R defined by f (x) = 3x . Thus.
the graphs o f f and ( f ( are reflections of each other w.r. That is. The scalar nlultiple o f f by k is a function with domain D. Also. if f(x) 2 0.for all x c D. We could have taken any real number to construct a new function from f. and that g is a scalar multiple o f f by 2. Here I f (x) / = . denoted by I f I and r e d as Let f be a. 1. Therefore. 1) Given any function f. If k 1. We could as well have taken any other function. f and I f I have the same graph for those value of x for which f(x) 2 0. ( fi ) (x) = i f!X) I.f (x). We say that g = 2f. there is nothing special about the particular function that we have considered. The functiong : x + 2 (3x2+ 1) +jE R is such x that g (x) = 2f (x) tf x E R. The absolute value function o f f . Fig.1 Operations on Functions Scalar Multiple of a Function Consider the function f : x + 3x2 + 1 tf x E R. Now let us consider those values of x for which f (x) < 0. fi~nctioil 111od f is defined by setting. It is denoted by kf and is defined by setting (kf) (x) = kf(x). This suggests the following definition: Let f be a function with domain D and let k be any real number. 0. the xaxis for those values of x for which f (x) < 0. 10 . : Since fix) I = f(x). We give a few such in ways here.t. In the above example there is nothing special about the number 2.f = 0.Real Numbers and Functions 1.6 NEW FUNCTIONS FROM OLD In this section we shall see how we can construct new functions from some given functions. the function kf is called the negative o f f and is denoted simply by f instead of the clumsy If. if k = 0. the function kf turns out to be the zero function. Two special cases of the above definition are important.  ii)  Ahsolute Value Function (or modulus function) of a given function with domain D.6. This can be done operating upon the given f u n c t i o ~ s a variety of ways.
f . We can consider the set. If x # 0. 10 (a). f(x). for all x E D (f . lob). 10 (a) as it is.g(x). and is denoted by f + g. consider the graph in Fig. Therefore. Sum.Elements of Differential Calculus As an example.g(x). f(x)/g(x) = x2/x3 1 1 ~ .Then the functions f + g.g. and replace the dotted portion by its reflection w. . which is an element of Z. of all those values of x for which g(x) a 0.Product and Quotient of two functions If we are given two functions with a common domain. Let f : X + Y and g : Y + Z be two functions. 1. Example 4: Consider the functions f : x + x' and g : x + x3.4 x3= 0 @ x = 0. 11. Composite functions play a very important role in calculus. Uptill now we have considered functions with the same domain. Bg : x + llx. which is the domain of g. the xaxis (see Fig. that is. for all XE D iv) Define a function q on D by setting q(x) = fix)/g(x). we shall consider only nonzero values of x. we can formseveral new functions by applying the four fundamental operations of addition. say D. We then take the g image of f(x). We define a function h : X +Z by setting h(x) = e(qx)).6. the portion for which f(x) < 0) has been shown by a dotted line. Thus. g(f(x)).t. called the product of the functions f and g. This f(x) E Y. ThCus. multiplication and division on them. and define flg on D by setting (flg) (x) = f(x)/g(x) tf x E D. Thus. Remark 5: In case g(x) = 0 for some x E D. We shall now consider a pair of functions such that the codomain of one is the domain of the other. g(x) = 0 e. You will realise this as you read this course further. This scheme has been shown in Fig. All the operations defined on functions till now. (fg) (x) = x2x3. i) Define a functions s on D by setting s(x) = f(x)+ g(x).g) (x) = fix) . Thus. in order to define the function flg. The function q is called the quotient o f f by g and is denoted by flg. fg are defined as (f+gj(x)=x'+x3. In the next subsection we are going to introduce an operation which has no parallel in R.2 Composite of Functions We shall now describe a method of combining two functions which is somewhat different from the ones studied so far. of an element x of X. is denoted by fg. difference. (fg) ( 4 = xS Now. and is denoted by fg. whenever x # 0. subtraction. provided g(x) # 0 for x E D. were similar to the corresponding operations on real numbers. The function p. The function d is the function obtained by subtracting g from f. we first take the fimage. = Therefore flg is the function. (f+ g) (x) = f(x)+ g(x) Define a function d on D by setting d(x) = f(x). ii) iii) Define a function p on D by setting P(x) =f(x)g(x). The hnction s is called the sum of the functions f and g. The portion of the graph below the xaxis (that is. To draw the graph of / f I we retain the undotted portion in Fig.r. To obtain h(x). (f/g) (x) = f(x)lg(x) (g(x) # 0 for any x E Dl.
andg:x+(l/2)~3/2vx~ X R Note that f and g are inverses of each other. ~F 0 X .7.L. Since the domain of gof is X and that of fogis Y. (Fig. I \\. consider the function.7 TYPES OF FUNCTIONS In this section we shall talk about various types of functions. but are different from each other. Note the order.fog= iy.312) + 3 = x. Now let us try to find the composites fog and g f of the functions: f : x + 2 x + 3 ~ E R. Thus. . The concept of composite function is used not only to combine functions. increasing. . . even. we can write this as : gof = ix. 1. Example 5: Consider the functions f :x + x2 v x E Rand g :x + 8x + 1 v x E R.fog(x) * f(g(x)) = qx/2 . Or. but also to look upon a give11function as made up of two simpler functions. is called the composite o f f and g and is written as gof. Also. a function f. 1f we fold the paper along the yaxis. h:x+sin(3x+7) We can think of it as the composite (gooof the functions f :x + 3x + 7 v x E Rand g : u + s i n u v u ~R. fog is a function from y to y. if. We first find thesfimage and then its gimage. then gofand fogare identity functions. in other words. I ~ . 12) ofthis function.Let7$ take a look at the graph. /' 1 / ~ You will noticethatqx)= (x)~= xZ= qx) . namely. f (x) = f(x).n.~. . We find that the graph (a parabola) is symmetrical about the yaxis. decreasing and periodic functions. Thus. Fig. defined above. 1. For example. I I The function h. which will be defined only when Z is a subset of X. Try to distinguish it form fog. odd. . Thus. This fact is often used to test whether two given functions are inverses of each other. Now gof(x) = g(f(x)) = g(2x + 3) Similarly. Consider the functions f defined on R by setting I / f(x)=x2 ~ x E R . The graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the yaxis. defined by (goo(x) = g(f(x)) = g(x2)= 8x2+ 1 Q x E R. for each x E R.Real Numbers and Functions Fig. iff :X +Y and g :Y + X are inverses of each other. each of gof and fogis the identity function on R. defined on R is even. In each case we shall also try to explain the concept through graphs. fogis a func ~ I O I I from R to itself defined by (fog)(x) = qg(x)) = q8x + 1) = (8x + I)*. 12 ' 23 . we see that gof(x) = x and f~g(x) x for all x E R. g f 1s a ' function from R to itself.312) = 2(x/2 . xE R . = What we have observed here is true for any two functions f and g which are inverses of each other. we shall see that the parts of the graph on both sides of the yaxis completely r coincide with each other.Thus gofand fogare both defined. . in that case.1 Even and Odd Functions We shall first introduce two inlportant classes of functions: even functions and odd functions. This is an example ofan even functi0.. We also note that if the \.. Such functions are called even functions.
if the graph of a function is symmetric with respect to the origin. the function must be an odd function. Thus. If we consider another function g glven by g(x) = sin x we shall be able to note agaln that g(x) = sin (x) = sinx = g(x). The fuhction g defined on the set of nonzero real numbers by setting g(x) = Ilx.Flrments o f 1)ifierential Calculus graph of a function is symmetric with respect to the yaxis.. that both the functions are. . x # 0 . if you turn the graph of an odd function through 180" about the origin you will find that you get the original graph again. If (x. 't. YA E E 12) Given below are two examples of even functions. we can use this property. We observe that f(x) (x) = (x)~= x3 = f(x) v x E R. the yaxis to obtain the part of the graph which lies to the left of the yaxis.* a) The identity function on R: 4 3 u ' / /b) .  The functions f and g above are similar in one respect: the image of x is the negative of the image of x. by calculations as well as by looking at the graphs. Qx)) is a point on the graph of an odd function f. indeed. if we are required to'draw the graph of an even function. a function f defined on R is said to be an odd function if f(x) =f(x) v x E R. x b (b) Now let us consider the function f defined by setting f(x) = x3 x E R. \ 9 convince yourself. Conversely. Try to . alongwith their graphs. Such functions are called odd functions. the function must be an even f~~nction. The above facts are often usefui while handling odd functions. f(x)) is also a point on it. 1 ?\.r. This can be exptessed by saying that the graph of an odd function is symmetric with respect to the origin. then (x. Thus. E E 13) We ate giving below two functions alongwith their graphs.  ''V  a)  The absolute value function on R f:x+lx/ The graph o f f is shown alongside. YA YA . find out for each whether it is even or odd.to our advantage. We only need to draw that part of the graph which lies to the right of the yaxis and then just take its reflection w. . The graph of g is shown alongside. A Y /'  . 1 2 3 . In other words.t.1 0 0 b X b) (a) The function g defined on the set of nwzero real numbers by setting g(x) = 1/x2.x # 0. even functions. By calculations as well as by looking at the graphs. 2' * / 3 2 .
and which are neither even nor odd? a) b) L x + x 2 + 1. nor with respect to the origin. the function f:x+(x+1)2 ere f(x) = (x + 1)2= x2.&a Fig.). ~ X 0. while his not a strictly increasing function. Is f(x) = f(x) v x E R? Again. I Functions like g and h above are called increasing or nondecreasing functions. Thus. complementary to that of an IS I t increasing function. > . is a strictly increasing function.) 2 h(x. Now let us see what we mean by an increasing function. (You can verify this by choosing any values for x.) (strict inequality). The same can be seen from the graph of h in Fig. g(x. This fact can also be seen from the graph of g shown in Fig. We shall now study another concept which is. and x. the function g : x + x3 discussed above. Real Numbers and Functions E E 14) Which of the following functions are even. In this case we see that if x. ~f x is rational c) d) v XE RE R 1. The same conclusion coyld have been drawn by considering the graph o f f which is given m Fig. Equivalently. 15. g(x) also increases. 14. . Consider. Conslder the hnction g and h defined by x. Therefore f is not an odd function. then h(x. / I Fg i. we can say that h (x) increases (or does not decrease) as x increases. a function f defined on a domain D is said to be increasing (or nondecreasing) if. which are odd. v X E R x+~)l. Does the of a company increase with production'! Does the volume of gas decrease with increase in pressure? Problems like these require the use of increasing or decreasing functions. in some sense. x2> x I a f(x2)2 f(xl). I .While many of the functions that you will come across in this course will turn out to be either even or odd.2x + 1. there will be many more which will be neither even nor odd. ifxlO if x > 0 Note that whenever x. You will observe that the graph is symmetric neither with respect to the yaxis. 14 g (x) = x3 and h (x) = 1.7. 3 f(q) > f(x. x2E D. Y4 .) > g(x. Clearly. for every palr of elements x. f is not an even function.). Now there should be no difficulty in solving the exercise below. we say that f is strictly increasing if x. Therefore.2 Monotone Functions In this subsection we shall consider two types of functions: i) Increasing and ii) Decreasing Any function which conforms to any one of these types is called a monotone function. > x. the _ answer is 'no'. Let us find out how h(x) behaves as x increases.).. > x. V X E R x+cosx. for example. Further.that is.. > x. if x is irrational 1. as x increases. 13. x+xlx(. we get x~~ xI3. In other words. ISf(x) = f(X) v x E R? The answer is 'no'.
neither increasing nor decreasing: Graph of f.). we can still determine some subsets of the domain on which the function is increasing or decreasing. sound waves.)orf.Further.*f.x2>x. the function. are periodic and we need periodic functions to descrlbe them. is as shown in Fig. strlctly decieasing. You have seen the graph o f f in Fig. Fig. is shown in Fig. light waves.1 01 II 1 . All the four functions (g. 3 X > xI33 q3< xI3 3 f2(x2)< f2(x. 12. while f. f2 is strlctly decreasmg. known as periodic functions. and f2.) Now consider the function f2 :x + x3 (x E R) The graph of f. > x. weather conditions and prices can also be described in terms of periodic functions. \ \ I I E E 15) Given below are the graphs of some funchons. f2(x) : decreases.Elements o f Differential Calculus Consider the function f.3 Periodic Functions In this section we are going to tell you about yet another important class of functions.' / X * o\ \ \ b X \A + a 1. Thatis. 17 ~4 I yA k YA w ' \ o/ /" X 4  .. does not increase. defined on R by setting. (x. (x. 3 f(x2)5 f(x. The phrases 'monotorlically increasing' and 'monotonically decreasing' are often used for 'increasing' and 'decreasing'. f:x+x2(xeR). we find that as x increases. of the two decreasing functions f. Fig. h. there are many others which are not monotone Consider.T 2 t ' * While many functions are monotone. 17. Since x.). ( x J 2 f. f is said to be strictly decreasing if 3>XI 3 f(xz)< We have seen that. The above two examples suggest the follwing definition: \I Graph of f..) discussed above are monotone functions. the function f(x) = x2 is strictly decreasing in ] . is not strictly decreasing. For example. The graph off. Functions like f. If we find that a given function is not monotone. 01 and is strictly increasing in [0. for example. Many phenomena in nature such as propagation of water waves. f. f. f2 are called decreasing or nonincreasing functions. This function is neither increasing nor decreasing. an.  . YA 4 From the graph we can easily see that as x increases f. Periodic functions occur very frequently in application of mathematics to various branches of science. m [. 16. ( x 2 ) l f . Similarly. 16 \ 4 I AY A fbnchon f defined on a domain D is said to be decreasing (or nonmcreasing) if for every pair of elements x.. Look at the following patterns : . i2 2 34 1 \. electromagnetic waves etc. Classify them as nondecreasing. x. respectively.7. x. A function f defined on a domain D is said to be a monotone function if it is either increasing or decreasing on D. > x.
19 In each of the figures shown above the graph consists of a certain pattern repeated infir!itely many times. is the period of the tangent function. i .)\ d 0 .<)x><>. by translating (pushing) the graph through two units along the xaxis. We now give a precise meaning to the tcrnl "a periodic function".1 Ix 5 1. e .. ~ . x k 4.yld : K . The smallest positive ineger p with the property described above is callcd the period off. ~ i e e .. V~\<. ... e .. ~ l . You know already that sin (x + 2nj =sin x.e. x f2. wall papers etc. i ... You wili notice that the portion of the graph between 0 and 2n is repeated both to the right and to h : i Icfc. Look at the graphs in Fig. ~ . if x is any point of [1.. . This portion is being repeated both to the left as well as to the right. The graph therefore represents the function f defined by + The graph in Fig. y x E R. The number p is said to be a pcricd off. x + sin x.e T ... e <<=<<I< ? <:<<<< (:<< < <s<<: z. . % /" I' " l l l Real Numbers and Functions o j .Y.*. >x Fig. e ~ . A similar situation occurs in the graphs of periodic functions. tan (x + nn) = tan x y n E N.. . 18 You must have come across patterns similar to the ones shown in Fig... ee.e i e o . As you know. The smallest of nn.. then the ordinates at x.e. ) e . In each of these patterns a design keeps on repeating itself.. Both these graphs represent periodic functions. . . e e .. See if you can do this exercise. To understand the situation.. 19(a). n E N are all periods of the tangent function. . Consider the graph in Fig.are all equal. I].. Fig. :~. 18 on the borders of sarees. 19. y x E R. The portion of the graph lying between x = 1 and x = 1 is the graph of the function x + I x 1 on the domain . let us examine these graphs closely. That is to say. that is n. A function f defined on a domain D is said to be a periodic function if there exists a positlvc read number p such that f(x +p) = f(xj for all x E D. ld # A J . 19(b) is fie graph of the sine function...4 r. This means that nn.. x 6.
In general. E E 17) Examine whether the following functions are periodic or not. Suppose we want to find whether the function f : x + x2 Q x E R is periodic or not. Thus the given function is periodic and has the period 1. 19(a) and (b)? b) Can you give one other period of each of these functions? As another example of a periodic function.4 being all periods. it may not be easy to decide whether a given function is periodic or not. Therefore. consider the function f defined on R by setting f(x)=x .2. 20 The given function is therefore periodic.3. But sometimes it can be done in a straight forward manner. f is not periodic. we find that 2x + p # 0. Remark 6 Monotonicity and periodicity are two properties of functions which cannot coexist. periodic functions. a) x + cos x c) . and a periodic function can never be monotone. From the graph (as also by calculation) we can easily see that f(x + n) = f(x) Q x E R. This is a contradiction. is the period. Thus. 20.~ Elements of Differential Calculus E E 16) a) What is the period each of the functions given in Fig. the numbers 1. The graph of this function is as shown in Fig. We start by assuming that it is periodic with period p: Then we must have p > 0 and f(x + p) = f(x) Q x Considering x # p/2. A monotoile function can never be periodic. consequently.[XI Let us reaall that [x] stands for the greatest integer not exceeding x. there does not exist may positive number p such that f(x + p) = f(x). Fig. p = 0. namely 1. Write the periods of the .x+sin2x e) x +cos (2x + 5) b)x+x+2 d) x +tan 3x f)x+sinx+sin2x Q x E R and. The smallest of these. and for each positive integer n.
.
then.. ... 1. .. 1.b] = { X ER : a l x l b ) semiopen: ]a... b) The set { .. defined a function and discussed various types of functions along with their graphs: oneone.Hence 0 is a lower bound for the set P of positive real numbers. . b) A real number r is the infimum of a set S c R if and only if the following conditions are satisfied: i) rlxforallx~ S. 2...bofthesetS={l.2.. defined composite of functions and discussed the existence of the inverse of a function.ycO.x)=x. 0. For each e > 0 there is y E S such that y < r + E .g. b E R..b[ = { X E :a<x<b) R closed: [a.)isO...... .8 SUMMARY In this unit we have 1 briefly revised the basic properties of real numbers.... . even.. Suppose x > 0. r ... Its infimum is 0.) has a lower bound.b[ = { x e R : a l x c b ) . monotone. '1 .. E 2) a) A real number p is positive if p > 0.. periodic... y < 0. y 2 0 2) x and y have opposite signs e)x<O...'/.Hencex=O+lxl=Oand (x\=O*max. ~ x ) = m a{x.. . 3... Thus the set P is bounded below.I y/=max{y.. odd.....x). '1.. b) There are three cases 1) x 2 0.. c) Theg. 2.. onto..9 SOLUTIONS AND ANSWERS a E 1) a) The set { 1...0. I We end with summarising what we have discussed in this units.l.Elements o f Differential Calculus E E 19) Is the sum of two periodic functions also periodic? Give reasons for you answer. ii) The set P in a) above has infimum 0. since i) O<pforallp~Pand ii) For each & > 0 there is d 2 E P such that d 2 < 0 + E = E E3) a) Ix(=rnax{x..2.b] ={XER:a<x<b) or [a.} does not have a lower bound..... where a.x ) = O ~ x = O . e.3. 1. 4 5 1. { x .. d) {x : x E R and 1 5 x I 2) is a bounded set as it is bounded above by 2 and below by 1. We take 2)...andO@S...y}=y... defined the absolute value of a real number x as X = / xif x 2 0 Ix if x < 0 3 discussed various types of intervals in R Open: ]a..
putx= p Y+l . c) is not. Q E13) a) f(x) = x 3 f(x) = ..1/X 3 g (.~ ) ~ = g(x). 6x. f is onto. Hence.(xJ=xandl l/x)=l/x= 1/Ix) d)Ixy/=lx+(Y)I~/~I+IYI=I~I+IYI e)Ix+y+zI=((x+y)+z(1(x+y)+)zJS1~I+Jy(+(~J f)lx~zl=lxyllzl=lxlI~llzl E4) a) False E5) a)  b) True 1 8 c) True b) 4 d) False C  2 E 8) b) is oneone E9) a) is onto Hence f is oneone. Hence. Renl Numbers nncl Functions 1 1) and 3) can be proved similarly..xy<O*/xyI=xy=xx(y)=(xJ)yl.For example.Ix)=xand/l / x ( = l / x = l / ( x ) Ifx<O. Other periods are 4x... f is even. 19 a) is 2.... e) Periodic with period x.[x] and 1 sin x I are periodic. d) Periodic with period x/3. Then x E X and y = f(x). E12) a) f(x) = I x I f(x) = ( x 1 = ( x I = qx). nor decreasing b) nondecreasing c) strictly decreasing E l 9 The period of the function in Fig. g is even.x =f(x). Other periods are 4. . ... E15) a) neither increasing.. .. b) g(x) = 1/x29 g(x) = 1 / ( . c and e) are even d) is odd b) is neither even nor odd. f is odd. b) g(x) =. I f y e X. Periodic with period 2x. Y1 Ell) a) f:R++R:f(x)= J. b) not periodic c) Periodic with period x.. E14) a).. Hence.. g is odd. 19 b) is 2x. The period of the function in Fig. Hence. f) b E19) NO.6.8. E17) a) Periodic with period 2x Since cos (x + 2x) = cos x for all x. El8) a) and b) are periodic. x ..x) = l/x =g(x).... c) Ifx>O.... Hence. but their sum is not.
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