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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

Vn nhim mi trng nc ang l mt ti nng bng ca ton nhn loi.N , ang v s lm nguy hi n ton th loi ngi chng ta. N b xm hi v tn thng nghim trng. Nguyn nhn ch yu l do tc ng ca con ngi, do s th thiu thc, do nhng nhu cu tc thi ca c nhn, tp th Gy ra hu qu v cng nghim trng cho loi ngi trong in hnh l Vit Nam. Chc c l iu ny s gy mt s ch hay c th l mt suy ngh trong mi chng ta nh! Chng ta vi trch nhim ca mt cng dn sng trong mt t nc ha bnh, yu chung t do v cng l, yu chung mi trng xanh, l mt con ngi b nh ca tri t trong v tr bao la.Chnh v th, chng ta cn chn ch g na! Hy hnh ng thi, hy gi ly mu xanh ca t nc, mu xanh ca tri t, hy gp mt phn sc lc d l nh b, hy tip thm vo mt t ti nng d l khng ln lm bo v mi trng cho ngy hm nay v mun i sau. Ti thit ngh bn l ngi quan tm n mi trng nc. Xin hy hnh ng!!!

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

A.PHN M U I. L DO CHN TI Trong mi trng sng ni chung, vn bo v v cung cp nc sch l v cng quan trng. ng thi vi vic bo v v cung cp nc sch, vic thi v x l nc thi trc khi vo ngun l mt vn bc xc i vi ton th loi ngi. Trong nhng nm gn y,cng vi s pht trin ca nn cng ghip nc ta, tnh hnh nhim mi trng cng gia tng n mc bo ng. Do c th ca nn cng nghip mi pht trin, cha c s quy hoch tng th v nhiu nguyn nhn khc nhau nh: iu kin kinh t ca nhiu x nghip cn kh khn, hoc do chi ph x l nh hng n li nhun nn hu nh cht thi cng nghip ca nhiu nh my cha c x l m thi thng ra mi trng. Mt khc nc ta l mt nc ng dn, c mt dn c cao, nhng trnh nhn thc ca con ngi v mi trng cn cha cao, nn lng cht thi sinh hot cng b thi ra mi trng ngy cng nhiu.iu ng quan tm l do php lut vit nam cha c nhng hnh pht xc ng v bin php ng ng bo v mi trng nc. Chnh l dn ti s nhim trm trng ca mi trng sng, nh hng n s pht trin ton din ca t nc, sc khe, i sng ca nhn dn cng nh v m quan ca khu vc. Trong , nhim ngun nc l mt trong nhng thc trng ng ngi nht ca s hy hoi mi trng t nhin do nn vn minh ng thi. Ngy nay vn x l nc v cung cp nc sch ang l mt mi quan tm ln ca nhiu quc gia, nhiu t chc x hi v chnh bn thn mi cng ng dn c. V y cng l mt vn cp bch cn gii quyt ca nc ta trong qu trnh cng nghip ha, hin i ha t nc.Nhm mc ch gp phn vo vic bo v mi trng sng ca con ngi,nn em chn ti PHP LUT VI NHIM MI TRNG NC.Em hy vng qua bi tiu lun ny s tc ng mt phn no vo thc ca ton th loi ngi v mi trng nc, s

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

thng vo t tng v gip h c mt ci nhn thng thong hn v mi trng nc. II.MC CH, YU CU 1. Mc ch 1.1Mc ch - Nhm pht huy tnh tch cc hc tp ca sinh vin - Tp cho sinh vin bc u lm quen vi nghin cu khoa hc - Cho thy tm quan trng ca mi trng nc - Lm r hn v php lut vit nam vi mi trng nc 1.2Yu cu - Nu ra phn tng quan v thc trng mi trng nc hin nay - a ra ng li ca ng v php lut ca nh nc - Gii php bo v mi trng nc III. I TNG NGHIN CU i tng nghin cu ca ti l cc vn nhim mi trng nc, php lut i vi nhim mi trng nc v bin php kht phc. IV. PHM VI NGHIN CU Tim hiu mi trng nc vi php lut trong phm vi c nc c bit quan tm nhiu hn i vi cc thnh ph ln V. NHNG NG GP CHNH CA TI - Nng cao nhn thc ca con ngi v vn nhim mi trng nc - Gip hiu bit thm v php lut vi mi trng nc VI. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU - Phng php nghin cu l thuyt nh: phn tch, tng hp, phn loi - Phng php quan st - Phng php tim kim, thu thp thng tin

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

B. NI DUNG I. C S L LUN V THC TIN 1C s l lun 1.1Khi nim nhim mi trng nc Theo hin chng chu u v nc, nh ngha: nhim nc l s bin i ni chung do con ngi i vi cht lng nc, lm nhim bn nc v gy nguy him cho con ngi, cho cng nghip, nng nghip, nui c, ngh ngi, gii tr, cho ng vt nui v cc loi hoang d. nhim nc c ngun gc t nhin: Do ma, tuyt tan, gi bo, l lt a vo mi trng nc cht thi bn, cc sinh vt v vi sinh vt c hi, k c xc cht ca chng. nhim nc c ngun gc nhn to: Qu trnh thi cc cht c hi ch yu di dng lng nh cc cht thi sinh hot, cng nghip, nng nghip, giao thng vo mi trng nc. 1.2. ng li ca ng Quan im ch o ca ng Ngh quyt i hi ln th XI ca ng nhn mnh: Bo v mi trng nc l trch nhim ca c h thng chnh tr v ton x hi; Kt hp cht ch gia ngn nga, khc phc nhim vi khi phc v bo v mi trng ; Pht trin nng lng sch, sn xut sch v tiu dng sch; Coi trng nghin cu, d bo v thc hin cc gii php ng ph vi qu trnh nhim mi trng nuc; Bo v v s dng hp l, c hiu qu. c bit ch trng pht trin nhanh gn lin vi pht trin bn vng, pht trin bn vng l yu cu xuyn sut trong Chin lc... Trong bi hc kinh nghim v pht trin nhanh v bn vng, ng ta ch r: pht trin nhanh phi i i vi nng cao tnh bn vng, hai mt tc ng ln nhau, c th hin c tm v m v vi m, c tm ngn hn v di hn; Tng trng v s lng phi i lin vi nng cao cht lng, hiu qu v sc cnh tranh ca nn kinh t. Trong khi khai thc cc yu t pht trin theo chiu rng, phi c bit coi trng cc yu t pht trin theo chiu su, pht trin kinh t tri thc; Phi gn tng trng kinh t vi pht trin vn ha, pht trin ton
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 4

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

din con ngi, thc hin dn ch, tin b v cng bng x hi, to nhiu vic lm, ci thin i sng, khuyn khch lm giu hp php i i vi xa i, gim ngho; Tng bc thu hp khong cch pht trin gia cc vng; Phi rt coi trng bo v v ci thin mi trng ngay trong tng bc pht trin... Vi chin lc pht trin nhanh gn lin vi pht trin bn vng, ng ta ra cc quyt sch gn nhim v bo v mi trng vi pht trin kinh t-x hi; i mi c ch qun l ti nguyn v bo v mi trng; Thc hin nghim l trnh x l cc c s gy nhim mi trng. Hon thin h thng php lut v bo v mi trng; xy dng ch ti mnh ngn chn, x l cc hnh vi vi phm. Nh nc tng u t ng thi c cc c ch, chnh sch u i y mnh x hi ha, huy ng cc ngun lc bo v mi trng nc. Bo v mi trng l s nghip ca ton ng, ton dn v ton qun. Bo v mi trng l mt ni dung c bn khng th tch ri trong ng li, ch trng v k hoch pht trin kinh t - x hi ca tt c cc cp, cc ngnh, l c s quan trng bo m pht trin bn vng, thc hin thng li s nghip cng nghip ha, hin i ha t nc. Coi phng nga v ngn chn nhim l nguyn tc ch o kt hp vi x l nhim, ci thin mi trng . Kt hp pht huy ni lc vi tng cng hp tc quc t trong bo v mi trng v pht trin bn vng. Bo v mi trng cn c gn vi trch nhim ca mi t chc, c nhn v mi ngi dn theo nguyn tc "mnh v mi ngi, mi ngi v mnh" l tuyt i ng. Vn ha mi trng cn c sm hnh thnh bn cnh vn ha cng s, vn ha thn xm, vn ha doanh nghip. Thnh cng ca cng tc bo v mi trng l gii quyt tt hng lot mu thun gia li ch trc mt v lu di, cc b v tng th. Cng tc ny i hi phi tp trung, kin tr, gii quyt mt cch hi ha mi quan h gia tng trng kinh t, bo m cng bng x hi v bo v mi trng, tin hnh ng b cc bin php mt cch thng xuyn, lin tc vi quyt tm cao

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

nht. Bo v mi trng nhm bo m quyn con ngi c sng trong mi trng trong lnh, an ton. An ninh sinh thi l mt b phn ca an ninh quc gia. Bo v mi trng, bo m an ninh sinh thi v ch ng ng ph vi bin i kh hu l gp phn gi vng v tng cng an ninh quc gia. V vy, bo v mi trng l nhim v thng xuyn, lu di, kh khn mang tnh ton cu; l yu t bo m n nh chnh tr v an ninh quc gia, nng cao kh nng cnh tranh ca cc sn phm v dch v, y mnh qu trnh hi nhp kinh t quc t. Bo v mi trng v pht trin bn vng i hi phi thay i t thi quen, np ngh, tm l n hnh ng ca tng ngi, cng ng ca tng quc gia v ton th gii. Chnh nhng iu hnh thnh nn o c v nhn vn mi trng v l tiu ch quan trng ca x hi vn minh trong thi i mi. 1.2. Php lut ca nh nc
THEO LUT BO V MI TRNG CA NC CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM S 52/2005/QH11 NGY 29 THNG 11 NM 2005 QUY NH NH SU:

iu 57. Kim sot, x l nhim mi trng bin 1. Ngun thi t t lin, c s sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v, th, khu dn c ven bin, trn bin, trn o phi c iu tra, thng k, nh gi v c gii php ngn nga, hn ch tc ng xu i vi mi trng bin. 2. Cht thi v cc yu t gy nhim khc t hot ng sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v, xy dng, giao thng, vn ti, khai thc trn bin phi c kim sot v x l t tiu chun mi trng. 3. Du, m, dung dch khoan, ho cht v cc cht c hi khc c s dng trong cc hot ng thm d, khai thc ti nguyn bin sau khi s dng phi c thu gom, lu gi trong thit b chuyn dng v phi c x l theo quy nh v qun l cht thi nguy hi. 4. Nghim cm mi hnh thc cht thi trong vng bin nc Cng ho x hi Ch Nghi Vit Nam iu 59. Nguyn tc bo v mi trng nc sng

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

1. Bo v mi trng nc sng l mt trong nhng ni dung c bn ca quy hoch khai thc, s dng v qun l ti nguyn nc trong lu vc sng. 2. Cc a phng trn lu vc sng phi cng chu trch nhim bo v mi trng nc trong lu vc sng; ch ng hp tc khai thc ngun li do ti nguyn nc trong lu vc sng mang li v bo m li ch cho cng ng dn c. iu 60. Kim sot, x l nhim mi trng nc trong lu vc sng 1. Ngun thi trn lu vc sng phi c iu tra, thng k, nh gi v c gii php kim sot, x l trc khi thi vo sng. 2. Cht thi t hot ng sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v, xy dng, giao thng vn ti, khai thc khong sn di lng sng v cht thi sinh hot ca cc h gia nh sinh sng trn sng phi c kim sot v bo m yu cu v bo v mi trng trc khi thi vo sng. 3. Vic pht trin mi cc khu sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v, th, dn c tp trung trong lu vc sng phi c xem xt trong tng th ton lu vc, c tnh n cc yu t dng chy, ch thu vn, sc chu ti, kh nng t lm sch ca dng sng v hin trng sn xut, kinh doanh, dch v v pht trin th trn ton lu vc. iu 61. Trch nhim ca U ban nhn dn cp tnh i vi bo v mi trng nc trong lu vc song 1. U ban nhn dn cp tnh trn lu vc sng c trch nhim sau y: a) Cng khai thng tin cc ngun thi ra sng; b) Kim sot ngun thi vo nc sng v x l cc trng hp vi phm tiu chun mi trng; c) Phi hp vi c quan hu quan trong vic xc nh i tng gy thit hi v mi trng v gii quyt bi thng thit hi v mi trng trong trng hp i tng b thit hi thuc cc a phng khc trn lu vc. 2. U ban nhn dn cp tnh trn thng ngun dng sng c trch nhim phi hp vi U ban nhn dn cp tnh trn h ngun dng sng trong vic iu tra

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

pht hin, xc nh ngun gy nhim nc sng v p dng cc bin php x l. Trng hp c thit hi v mi trng, U ban nhn dn cp tnh ni xy ra thit hi c trch nhim phi hp vi cc c quan hu quan t chc vic iu tra, nh gi v mc thit hi v yu cu cc i tng gy thit hi phi bi thng. 3. U ban nhn dn cp tnh ni pht sinh ngun thi c trch nhim p dng cc bin php cng ch buc i tng gy nhim mi trng trn a bn phi thc hin ngha v khc phc v bi thng thit hi theo quy nh ca php lut. iu 62. T chc bo v mi trng nc ca lu vc sng 1. Vic iu phi hot ng bo v mi trng nc ca lu vc sng nm trn a bn nhiu tnh, thnh ph trc thuc trung ng c thc hin theo quy nh ca Th tng Chnh ph. 2. U ban nhn dn cp tnh trn lu vc sng c trch nhim thc hin cc bin php bo v mi trng nc ca lu vc sng. 3. B Ti nguyn v Mi trng ch o v hng dn thc hin quy nh ca Th tng Chnh ph v bo v mi trng nc ca lu vc sng. iu 63. Bo v mi trng ngun nc h, ao, knh, mng, rch 1. Ngun nc h, ao, knh, mng, rch phi c iu tra, nh gi tr lng, cht lng v bo v iu ho ngun nc 2.Khng c t, , ct, si, cht thi rn, nc thi cha qua x l t tiu chun mi trng v cc loi cht thi khc vo ngun nc mt ca h, ao,knh,mng, rch. 4. U ban nhn dn cp tnh c trch nhim t chc iu tra, nh gi tr lng, cht lng v lp quy hoch bo v, iu ho ch nc ca h, ao, knh, mng, rch; lp v thc hin k hoch ci to hoc di di cc khu, cm nh , cng trnh trn h, ao, knh, mng, rch gy nhim mi trng, tc nghn dng chy, suy thoi h sinh thi t ngp nc v lm mt m quan th. iu 65. Bo v mi trng nc di t
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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

1. Vic bo v mi trng trong thm d, khai thc nc di t c quy nh nh sau: a) Nghim cm vic a vo ngun nc di t cc loi ho cht, cht c hi, cht thi, vi sinh vt cha c kim nh v cc tc nhn c hi khc i vi con ngi v sinh vt; b) C bin php ngn nga nhim ngun nc di t qua ging khoan thm d, khai thc nc di t; c s khai thc nc di t c trch nhim phc hi mi trng khu vc thm d, khai thc; cc l khoan thm d, l khoan khai thc khng cn s dng phi c lp li theo ng quy trnh k thut trnh lm nhim ngun nc di t. 2. D n khai thc khong sn, d n khc c s dng ho cht c hi, cht phng x phi c bin php bo m khng r r, pht tn ho cht, cht thi c hi, cht thi phng x, sinh vt nhim bnh vo ngun nc di t. 3. Kho cha ho cht, c s x l, khu chn lp cht thi nguy hi phi c xy dng bo m an ton k thut, c bin php ngn cch ho cht c hi ngm vo ngun nc di t. 4. B Ti nguyn v Mi trng c trch nhim ch o vic t chc iu tra, nh gi, quan trc nh k tr lng, cht lng nc di t. 2. C s thc tin Trong nhng nm qua,cc hnh vi gy nhim mi trng nc ln mc bo ng. C l con s khin nhiu ngi lo lng hn c l c quan chc nng pht hin n hn 3.000 v vic, ti phm vi phm php lut v mi trng tng n 275% so vi cng k nm trc. Theo , c 1.034 doanh nghip, 2.096 c nhn c hnh vi vi phm php lut bo v mi trng. 62 v b khi t vi hn 106 b can.Tht ra, ti phm v mi trng ang gia tng n mc bo ng khng phi l chuyn cy kim trong bc lu ngy li ra. Bi hu nh khng

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

ngy no m bo ch khng c thng tin v tnh trng xm hi mi trng. Do vy, con s hn 3.000 v vic m c quan cnh st nu khng phi l con s kinh hong. Trn thc t s v vic vi phm c l cn cao hn rt nhiu nhng v nhiu l do cha b pht hin. iu ng lo l bn cnh s v vic vi phm trn, d khng thy con s thit hi tnh bng tin, nhng ai cng bit mi nguy hi v cng ln m chng ta ang gnh chu. Thit hi khng ch dng li kinh t m cn l sc kho cng ng v lng tin ca nhn dn. N cng cho thy mt nn kinh t pht trin thiu tnh bn vng khi mt b phn khng nh c nhn, doanh nghip v li nhun m xem nh s trng tn ca mi trng. 62 v vic b khi t so vi con s 3.000 v vic b pht hin li tim n mt mi lo khc. l s thiu cng quyt ca php lut i vi loi ti phm v cng nguy him ny. N khin ta lin tng n v Vedan, mt v vi phm php lut v mi trng in hnh b pht hin qu tang nhng ch b x l hnh chnh. Hai nm qua, nhng ngi c tnh vi phm php lut khng ch nhn nh ngoi vng php lut m cn mc sc k ko tr gi vi nhng ngi nng dn ng thng v s tin bi thng. Hay mt Ho Dng (TPHCM) nhiu ln vi phm, b pht hin, nhng tip tc ti phm. C cht trng ao h, rung vn khng canh tc c, sng sui b bc t Ngi nng dn th trng tay, cha k sc kho cng ng b xm hi nghim trng. Tt c nhng thit hi hin hin ngay trc mt chng ta v sao khng th l bng chng chng minh ti phm? Tht ng rng mnh nu trong hng ngn v khng b khi t c mt vi v ging Vedan. S so snh ny c v khp khing. Th nhng, n cng cho thy mt thc t l php lut v mi trng ca chng ta cn qu nhiu k h. l vic bnh thng, bi php lut phi va chm vi cuc sng th mi c b sung, iu chnh cho ph hp. iu khng bnh thng l hn 2 nm tri qua, chng ta dng nh vn cha lm g ngn chn s xut hin ca nhng Vedan khc. Nhng khim khuyt ca

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

php lut ngy cng b nhng i tng vi phm, c tnh vi phm tn dng trit trc s bt lc ca ngi dn. Tnh trng v sinh mi trng nc nhn chung cn rt yu km v ang xung cp nghim trng. Cc dch bnh my nm gn y bng pht trn din rng, lm nh hng n sc khe cng ng v cn tr tc pht trin kinh t- x hi. l kin ca Th trng B Xy dng Trn Ngc Chnh a ra ti Hi tho "V sinh mi trng vi qun l tng hp ti nguyn nc" - do Hi Cp thot nc Vit Nam thuc Lin hip cc Hi khoa hc v k thut Vit Nam t chc ngy 6/6/2010 ti H Ni. Mc d vn qun l v sinh mi trng nc, c bit l cc lu vc sng, nc ta c a ra nhng vic thc hin cha ng b v trit . Chnh v th nn cht lng nc nhiu con sng nh sng Nhu, sng y, sng ng Nai... suy thoi nhanh. Hu qu l khng th cung cp nc sinh hot cho nhn dn cng nh khng th cung cp nc cho sn xut cng nghip v cc hot ng dch v khc. Bn cnh , cn do thc gi gn v sinh mi trng ca con ngi ang sinh sng trong lu vc cng lm cho cc dng sng nhanh chng xung cp. Ti Hi tho, nhiu kin cho rng ng trn phng din qun l tng hp ti nguyn nc, vic x l hiu qu cc dng sng ch trong phm vi ranh gii hnh chnh l rt kh, v cha c bin php x l ch ng. II. THC TRNG V GII PHP 1 THC TRNG 1.1.Thc trng hin nay Nc l mt trong nhng ti nguyn quan trng khng th thiu, v l ngun sng ca bt c mt loi sinh vt no sinh sng trn tri t, c th hn n quyt nh s tn ti ca mt quc gia, mt dn tc. Th nhng, ngy nay, x hi ngy cng pht trin, cng nghip ha, hin i ha ngy cng cao th dng nh ngi ta ang qun i vic gn gi v bo tn ngun nc sch, quyt nh n
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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

s sng ca mi chng ta. Vic lm dng cc loi ha cht trong sn xut, ch bin, s dng v ti v cc loi thuc bo v thc vt trong nng nghip khin ngun nc ca chng ta ang b nhim nghim trng. Theo cng b kt qu kim tra ca B Ti Nguyn v Mi trng, hin c n 40% cc khu cng nghip trn c nc vi phm php lut v mi trng. min Bc, ngoi cc khu cng nghip Ph Minh, Quang Minh (H Ni), Thy Vn (Ph Th) gy bc xc trong d lun v hnh vi x thi ra mi trng, th ring trong nm 2010, cc on kim tra ca Tng cc Mi trng pht hin, c bn khu xy dng h thng x l nc thi tp trung, nhng cha t yu cu v by khu cng nghip x nc thi cha t tiu chun. Mt iu tng nh mu thun, nhng li rt... hp thi, l tnh trng nhim nc xy ra c bit nghim trng cc th ln ca chng ta nh H Ni v Tp. H Ch Minh. y l hai th ln vi rt nhiu sng ngi, knh rch chy trong v xung quanh thnh ph. Tuy nhin, 2 thnh ph ny, nc thi sinh hot phn ln khng c h thng x l tp trung m u x trc tip ra sng, h, knh, mng. Tng lng nc thi ca thnh ph H Ni, theo bo co ca UB KHCN v MT ln ti 300.000-400.000 m3/ngy cng vi lng rc thi sinh hot cha thu gom c... ang ngy ngy c v t x xung cc khu t, ven h, xung sng, h, knh, mng trong ni thnh. V vy ch s BOD, oxy ha tan, cc cht NH4, NO2 cc sng, h, knh, mng ni y u vt qu quy nh cho php gp nhiu ln. Cng theo bn bo co ca y ban ny th: Lng nc to ra trong lnh th nc ta ch chim khong 37,5%, s cn li ph thuc vo ngun nc t lnh th cc quc gia trn thng ngun sng M Kng, sng M, sng Hng... chy vo. Ring tr lng ngun nc ngm cng ch mc trung bnh so vi cc nc trn th gii ng ch , mt n v x nc thi vt quy chun trn mi ln v ba n v x thi vt quy chun t hai ti di nm ln.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

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Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

Thanh tra S Ti nguyn v Mi trng Thnh ph H Ch Minh cng cng b hng lot khu cng nghip x thi gy nhim mi trng. in hnh l cc khu cng nghip Ct Li 2, Hip Phc, Tn To, Tn Thi Hip, Ty Bc C Chi v Bnh Chiu, vi lu lng nc x thi trn 1.000 m3/ngy m. Ti Bnh Dng, on thanh tra B Ti nguyn v Mi trng pht hin 14 trong tng s 21 khu cng nghip ti a phng ny x thi gy nhim mi trng. Trong , tm khu x thi vt tiu chun, quy chun k thut v cht thi cho php hn 10 ln gm: Bnh ng, Sng Thn 2, Tn ng Hip A, Tn ng Hip B, ng An 1, M Phc 3, Nam Tn Uyn v Vit Hng 2; 3/21 khu x thi vt chun cho php t 5 n di 10 ln gm VSIP 2, M Phc 1, Mai Trung... Ti B Ra- Vng Tu, on thanh tra B Ti nguyn v Mi trng pht hin 2 khu cng nghip x nc thi vt tiu chun cho php l Ph M 1 v M Xun A2. Ti "im nng" Tn Hi, huyn Tn Thnh, trong 22 doanh nghip ch bin hi sn th ch c 2 doanh nghip c h thng x l c nc thi t yu cu. Trc , t cui nm 2010 v u nm 2011, khi ti kim tra 19 c s ch bin hi sn, S Ti nguyn Mi trng B Ra- Vng Tu pht hin 17 doanh nghip cha hon thnh h thng x thi bo v mi trng v x pht cc DN trn 911 triu ng Theo mt lnh o V Qun l cc khu kinh t, B K hoch v u t, vn cn nhiu bt cp trong vic tun th php lut bo v mi trng ca

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 13

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

mt s khu cng nghip, cng nh cng tc qun l nh nc v bo v mi trng, c bit l vic x thi ra mi trng. thc tun th php lut v bo v mi trng ca doanh nghip cn yu, vic x l cht thi rn, cht thi nguy hi, nc thi ti mt s khu cng nghip cha nghim tc, gy nh hng xu ti mi trng sng ca ngi dn xung quanh. ng Nguyn Vn S, Trng khoa Kinh t pht trin, Hc vin Chnh tr Hnh chnh, cho rng: i vi cc khu cng nghip ang trong qu trnh xy dng, cn r xt li quy hoch b tr sn xut theo chui sn phm, xy dng kt cu h tng mi ng b; kin quyt khng cho php hot ng khi cha c h thng x l ph liu, ph thi tp trung ng tiu chun. Vi cc d n khu cng nghip mi, cn c ph duyt cht ch, ng b; tm ngng cp php xy dng i vi a phng c qu nhiu c s khu cng nghip gy nhim mi trng nc. Theo bo co gim st ca U ban khoa hc, cng ngh v mi trng ca Quc hi, t l cc khu cng nghip c h thng x l nc thi tp trung mt s a phng rt thp, c ni ch t 15 - 20%, nh B Ra - Vng Tu, Vnh Phc. Mt s khu cng nghip c xy dng h thng x l nc thi tp trung nhng hu nh khng vn hnh v gim chi ph.Nhn chung, hu ht cc khu, cm, im cng nghip trn c nc cha p ng c nhnh tiu chun v mi trng theo quy nh. Thc trng lm cho mi trng sinh thi mt s a phng b nhim nghim trng . Cng ng dn c ang phi i mt vi thm ha v mi trng nc. S v t ca con ngi Chng ta rt s hi khi thng tin mt lot h thng h trong thnh ph b nhim phy khun t, ni s ny s tng ln gp nhiu ln nu ngi ta c chng kin, sinh sng bn cnh nhng dng sng en c cht thi v mi hi thi ca H Ni. Nu mc mt cc nc h Linh Quang (h u tin b pht hin nc c phy khun t H Ni) bn cnh mt cc nc sng T Lch hay sng Kim Ngu th ngi ta s thy, nc h Linh Quang cn...
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 14

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

nc en ngm. Thc t, c hng chc ngn h dn ang sng cnh nhng con sng m khng th ni l sng ny. Tr mt vi ni c nc my, cn li hu ht u s dng nc ging khoan, t n ung, tm ra,... nc ch c lc qua mt h thng lc rt th s ri em vo s dng ngay. Bn thn h, khng thc c (hay khng mun thc) v vic qun l ngun nc sch cho bn thn. Bn cnh s vi phm ca cc n v sn xut trong vic x nc thi ba bi xung sng h, ngi dn cng gp mt phn khng nh vo vic nhim ngun nc khi cng v t x nc bn sinh hot ra ngoi m khng thc c rng ang lm hi chnh mi trng sng ca mnh. C kin cho rng, su 100m th nc ngm vn m bo cht lng, tuy nhin vi iu kin ca nhng h gia nh th t ai c iu kin c th khoan ging su n mc y mong c ngun nc sch cho gia nh mnh. Trung bnh cc ging khoan cc h gia nh khoan ch c su t 30 ti 50 mt l nhiu - theo anh Long mt chuyn gia v khoan ging nc ngm phng Vnh Hng, qun Hong Mai cho bit. c bit, Hong Mai l n v ang s hu rt nhiu sng, h c vn v cht lng nc nh sng Kim Ngu, mt phn sng T Lch v cc ao h vi din tch mt nc kh rng. V Hong Mai cng l mt trng im ca dch tiu chy cp kinh hong va qua. Tc cng nghip ho v th ho kh nhanh v s gia tng dn s gy p lc ngy cng nng n di vi ti nguyn nc trong vng lnh th. Mi trng nc nhiu th, khu cng nghip v lng ngh ngy cng b nhim bi nc thi, v cht thi rn. cc thnh ph ln, hng trm c s sn xut cng nghip ang gy nhim mi trng nc do khng c cng trnh v thit b x l cht thi. nhim nc do sn xut cng nghip l rt nng. V d: ngnh cng nghip dt may, ngnh cng nghip giy v bt giy, nc thi thng c pH trung bnh t 9-11; ch s nhu cu xy sinh ho (BOD), nhu
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 15

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

cu xy ho hc (COD) c th ln n 700mg/1 v 2.500mg/1; hm lng cht rn l lng... cao gp nhiu ln gii hn cho php. Hm lng nc thi ca cc ngnh ny c cha xyanua (CN-) vt n 84 ln, H2S vt 4,2 ln, hm lng NH3 vt 84 ln tiu chun cho php nn gy nhim nng n cc ngun nc mt trong vng dn c. Mc nhim nc cc khu cng nghip, khu ch xut, cm cng nghip tp trung l rt ln. Ti cm cng nghip Tham Lng, thnh ph H Ch Minh, ngun nc b nhim bn bi nc thi cng nghip vi tng lng nc thi c tnh 500.000 m3/ngy t cc nh my giy, bt git, nhum, dt. thnh ph Thi Nguyn, nc thi cng nghip thi ra t cc c s sn xut giy, luyn gang thp, luyn kim mu, khai thc than; v ma cn tng lng nc thi khu vc thnh ph Thi Nguyn chim khong 15% lu lng sng Cu; nc thi t sn xut giy c pH t 8,4-9 v hm lng NH4 l 4mg/1, hm lng cht hu c cao, nc thi c mu nu, mi kh chu Kho st mt s lng ngh st thp, c ng, nhm, ch, giy, dt nhum Bc Ninh cho thy c lng nc thi hng ngn m3/ ngy khng qua x l, gy nhim ngun nc v mi trng trong khu vc. Tnh trng nhim nc cc th thy r nht l thnh ph H Ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh. cc thnh ph ny, nc thi sinh hot khng c h thng x l tp trung m trc tip x ra ngun tip nhn (sng, h, knh, mng). Mt khc, cn rt nhiu c s sn xut khng x l nc thi, phn ln cc bnh vin v c s y t ln cha c h thng x l nc thi; mt lng rc thi rn ln trong thnh ph khng thu gom ht c l nhng ngun quan trng gy ra nhim nc. Hin nay, mc nhim trong cc knh, sng, h cc thnh ph ln l rt nng. thnh ph H Ni, tng lng nc thi ca thnh ph ln ti 300.000 400.000 m3/ngy; hin mi ch c 5/31 bnh vin c h thng x l nc thi, chim 25% lng nc thi bnh vin; 36/400 c s sn xut c x l nc thi; lng rc thi sinh hoi cha c thu gom khong 1.200m3/ngy ang x vo
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 16

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

cc khu t ven cc h, knh, mng trong ni thnh; ch s BOD, oxy ho tan, cc cht NH4, NO2, NO3 cc sng, h, mng ni thnh u vt qu quy nh cho php thnh ph H Ch Minh th lng rc thi ln ti gn 4.000 tn/ngy; ch c 24/142 c s y t ln l c x l nc thi; khong 3.000 c s sn xut gy nhim thuc din phi di di. Khng ch H Ni, thnh ph H Ch Minh m cc th khc nh Hi Phng, Hu, Nng, Nam nh, Hi Dng nc thi sinh hot cng khng c x l nhim ngun nc ni tip nhn nc thi u vt qu tiu chun cho php (TCCP), cc thng s cht l lng (SS), BOD; COD; xy ho tan (DO) u vt t 5-10 ln, thm ch 20 ln TCCP. V tnh trng nhim nc nng thn v khu vc sn xut nng nghip, hin nay Vit Nam c gn 76% dn s ang sinh sng nng thn l ni c s h tng cn lc hu, phn ln cc cht thi ca con ngi v gia sc khng c x l nn thm xung t hoc b ra tri, lm cho tnh trng nhim ngun nc v mt hu c v vi sinh vt ngy cng cao. Theo bo co ca B Nng nghip v Pht trin nng thn, s vi khun Feca coliform trung bnh bin i t 1.500-3.500MNP/100ml cc vng ven sng Tin v sng Hu, tng ln ti 3800-12.500MNP/100ML cc knh ti tiu. Trong sn xut nng nghip, do lm dng cc loi thuc bo v thc vt, cc ngun nc sng, h, knh, mng b nhim, nh hng ln n mi trng nc v sc kho nhn dn. Theo thng k ca B Thu sn, tng din tch mt nc s dng cho nui trng thu sn n nm 2001 ca c nc l 751.999 ha. Do nui trng thu sn t, thiu quy hoch, khng tun theo quy trnh k thut nn gy nhiu tc ng tiu cc ti mi trng nc. Cng vi vic s dng nhiu v khng ng cch cc loi ho cht trong nui trng thu sn, th cc thc n d lng xung y ao, h, lng sng lm cho mi trng nc b nhim cc

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 17

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

cht hu c, lm pht trin mt s loi sinh vt gy bnh v xut hin mt s to c; thm ch c du hiu xut hin thu triu mt s vng ven bin Vit Nam. Tnh trng quy hoch cc khu th cha gn vi vn x l cht thi, nc thi nn nhim mi trng cc thnh ph ln, cc khu cng nghip, khu th ang mc bo ng. Trong tng s 183 khu cng nghip trong c nc, c trn 60% khu cng nghip cha c h thng x l nc thi tp trung. Cc th ch c khong 60% - 70% cht thi rn c thu gom, c s h tng thot nc v x l nc thi, cht thi nn cha p ng yu cu v bo v mi trng...Hu ht lng nc thi cha c x l u thng ra sng, h v d bo n nm 2010 l 510.000m3/ngy. Mt v d au lng ca vic x nc thi, hn khng ai khng bit, l trng hp ca con sng Th Vi b nhim bi ho cht thi ra t nh my ca cng ti bt ngt V an sut 14 nm lin. iu ny khin cho con sng b nhim nghim trng nh hng ti cuc sng ca nhiu ngi dn xung quanh. Mt v d khc chnh l vic nhim h Hon Kim, mt biu tng ca nn vn ho dn tc. Trong nhng nm u thc hin ng li i mi, v tp trung u tin pht trin kinh t v cng mt phn do nhn thc hn ch nn vic gn pht trin kinh t vi bo v mi trng cha ch trng ng mc. Tnh trng tch ri cng tc bo v mi trng vi s pht trin kinh t - x hi din ra ph bin nhiu ngnh, nhiu cp, dn n tnh trng gy nhim mi trng din ra ph bin v ngy cng nghim trng. i tng gy nhim mi trng ch yu l hot ng sn xut ca nh my trong cc khu cng nghip, hot ng lng ngh v sinh hot ti cc th ln. Nhn chung php lut nc ta thiu c ch qun l, gim st ca cc c quan chc nng , c quan nh nc, cha c nhng ch ti mnh x l nhng hnh vi vi phm php lut ca cc nh doanh nghip, ca nhng ngi thiu thc v nhim mi trng nc.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 18

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

Theo Bo co ca B Ti nguyn v Mi trng, tnh n ngy 20/4/2008 c nc c 185 khu cng nghip c Th tng Chnh ph quyt nh thnh lp trn a bn 56 tnh, thnh ph trc thuc Trung ng. n ht nm 2008, c nc c khong trn 200 khu cng nghip. Ngoi ra, cn c hng trm cm, im cng nghip c U ban nhn dn cc tnh, thnh ph trc thuc Trung ng quyt nh thnh lp. Theo bo co gim st ca U ban khoa hc, cng ngh v mi trng ca Quc hi, t l cc khu cng nghip c h thng x l nc thi tp trung mt s a phng rt thp, c ni ch t 15 - 20%, nh B Ra - Vng Tu, Vnh Phc. Mt s khu cng nghip c xy dng h thng x l nc thi tp trung nhng hu nh khng vn hnh v gim chi ph. n nay, mi c 60 khu cng nghip hot ng c trm x l nc thi tp trung (chim 42% s khu cng nghip vn hnh) v 20 khu cng nghip ang xy dng trm x l nc thi. Bnh qun mi ngy, cc khu, cm, im cng nghip thi ra khong 30.000 tn cht thi rn, lng, kh v cht thi c hi khc. Ti Hi ngh trin khai n bo v mi trng lu vc h thng sng ng Nai ngy 26/2/2008, cc c quan chuyn mn u c chung nh gi: ngun nc thuc lu vc sng Si Gn - ng Nai hin ang b nhim nng, khng t cht lng mt nc dng lm ngun cp nc sinh hot. Theo s liu kho st do Chi cc Bo v mi trng phi hp vi Cng ty Cp nc Si Gn thc hin nm 2008 cho thy, lng NH3 (amoniac), cht rn l lng, nhim hu c (c bit l nhim du v vi sinh) tng cao ti hu ht cc rch, cng v cc im x. C khu vc, hm lng nng NH3 trong nc vt gp 30 ln tiu chun cho php (nh ca sng Th Tnh); hm lng ch trong nc vt tiu chun quy nh nhiu ln; cht rn l lng vt tiu chun t 3 - 9 ln... Tc nhn ch yu ca tnh trng nhim ny chnh l trn 9.000 c s sn xut cng nghip nm phn tn, nm xen k trong khu dn c trn lu vc sng ng Nai. Bnh qun mi ngy, lu vc sng phi tip nhn khong 48.000m3 nc thi t cc c s sn xut ny. Dc lu vc sng ng Nai, c 56 khu cng nghip, khu
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 19

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

ch xut ang hot ng nhng ch c 21 khu c h thng x l nc thi tp trung, s cn li u x trc tip vo ngun nc, gy tc ng xu n cht lng nc ca cc ngun tip nhn... C ni, hot ng ca cc nh my trong khu cng nghip ph v h thng thu li, to ra nhng cnh ng hn hn, ngp ng v nhim ngun nc ti, gy tr ngi rt ln cho sn xut nng nghip ca b con nng dn. Theo bo co gim st ca U ban khoa hc, cng ngh v mi trng ca Quc hi, t l cc khu cng nghip c h thng x l nc thi tp trung mt s a phng rt thp, c ni ch t 15 - 20%, nh B Ra - Vng Tu, Vnh Phc. Mt s khu cng nghip c xy dng h thng x l nc thi tp trung nhng hu nh khng vn hnh v gim chi ph.. H phi sng chung vi khi bi, ung nc t ngun nhim cht thi cng nghip... T , gy bt bnh, dn n nhng phn ng, u tranh quyt lit ca ngi dn i vi nhng hot ng gy nhim mi trng, c khi bng pht thnh cc xung t x hi gay gt. Cng vi s ra i t cc khu, cm, im cng nghip, cc lng ngh th cng truyn thng cng c s phc hi v pht trin mnh m. Vic pht trin cc lng ngh c vai tr quan trng i vi s pht trin kinh t - x hi v gii quyt vic lm cc a phng. Tuy nhin, hu qu v mi trng do cc hot ng sn xut lng ngh a li cng ngy cng nghim trng. Tnh trng nhim khng kh, ch yu l do nhin liu s dng trong cc lng ngh l than, lng bi v kh CO, CO2, SO2 v Nox thi ra trong qu trnh sn xut kh cao. Theo thng k ca Hip hi Lng ngh Vit Nam, hin nay c nc c 2.790 lng ngh, trong c 240 lng ngh truyn thng, ang gii quyt vic lm cho khong 11 triu lao ng, bao gm c lao ng thng xuyn v lao ng khng thng xuyn#. Cc lng ngh c phn b rng khp c nc, trong cc khu vc tp trung pht trin nht l ng bng sng Hng, Bc Trung b, Ty Bc b, ng bng sng Cu Long. Ring ng bng sng Hng c 866 lng ngh, chim 42,9% c nc. Hnh thc cc n v sn xut ca lng ngh rt a dng, c th l gia nh, hp tc x hoc doanh nghip. Tuy nhin, do sn xut
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 20

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

mang tnh t pht, s dng cng ngh th cng lc hu, chp v, mt bng sn xut cht chi, vic u t xy dng h thng x l nc thi t c quan tm, thc bo v mi trng sinh thi ca ngi dn lng ngh cn km, bn cnh li thiu mt c ch qun l, gim st ca cc c quan chc nng ca Nh nc, cha c nhng ch ti mnh i vi nhng h lm ngh th cng gy nhim mi trng v cng cha kin quyt loi b nhng lng ngh gy nhim mi trng nghim trng, nn tnh trng nhim mi trng ti cc lng ngh ngy cng trm trng v hin nay mc bo ng . Hot ng gy nhim mi trng sinh thi ti cc lng ngh khng ch nh hng trc tip n cuc sng, sinh hot v sc kho ca nhng ngi dn lng ngh m cn nh hng n c nhng ngi dn sng vng ln cn, gy phn ng quyt lit ca b phn dn c ny, lm ny sinh cc xung t x hi gay gt. Bn cnh cc khu cng nghip v cc lng ngh gy nhim mi trng, ti cc th ln, tnh trng nhim cng mc bo ng. l cc nhim v nc thi, rc thi sinh hot, rc thi y t, khng kh, ting n... Nhng nm gn y, dn s cc th tng nhanh khin h thng cp thot nc khng p ng ni v xung cp nhanh chng. Nc thi, rc thi sinh hot (v c v hu c) th hu ht u trc tip x ra mi trng m khng c bt k mt bin php x l no ngoi vic vn chuyn n bi chn lp. Theo thng k ca c quan chc nng, mi ngy ngi dn cc thnh ph ln thi ra hng nghn tn rc; cc c s sn xut thi ra hng trm nghn mt khi nc thi c hi; cc phng tin giao thng thi ra hng trm tn bi, kh c. Trong tng s khong 34 tn rc thi rn y t mi ngy, th H Ni v thnh ph H Ch Minh chim n 1/3; bu kh quyn ca H Ni v

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 21

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

vng nng thn Vit Nam Theo kt qu tng quan iu tra dn s th dn s nng thn Vit Nam chim 76,5% tng dn s c nc. Tuy nhin nu tnh c dn s cc th loi V chim khong 7% th a bn cp nc v v sinh nng thn phi phc v l hn 83% hay khong 64 triu ngi. D bo n nm 2020 dn s nng thn v cc th nh khong 69 triu ngi. Trong dn s ti cc th nh l 19%. th nh y ch yu l th loi V vi dn s ti 30.000 ngi, l nhng th trn, th t nh nm ri khp v gn b mt thit vi cc vng nng thn. Ngoi gn 9000 x vng nng thn, cn c 520 th trn, th nh. Trong s cc x, xt theo a l c 2.061 x vng cao, 1763 x vng ni, 335 x bin gii, 47 x hi o, 556 x ven bin, 800 x ven . C th ni, nng thn nc ta l ni cung cp nhn ti, vt lc cho t nc. Trong khi i sng nhn dn nng thn vn cn ngho, gp nhiu kh khn, bao gm c vn cp nc, thot nc v v sinh mi trng. Nc sch v v sinh mi trng l nhu cu c bn trong i sng hng ngy ca mi ngi v ang tr thnh i hi bc bch trong vic bo v sc kho v ci thin iu kin sinh hot cho nhn dn. Hin nay thc bo v mi trng nng thn cha tt, vic x rc thi sinh hot hng ngy xung cc ao h t nhin vn cn din ra kh ph bin, gy nhim, e do n cht lng ngun nc ngm do lng nc thi khng qua x l thm xung cc tng nc ngm v mt m quan mi trng sng. Ngoi ra, do khng c u t ng mc nn h thng cng thot nc cha c xy dng hon chnh, hu ht cc cng khng c np nn nhim mi trng l khng th trnh khi. Mi gia nh c trung bnh t 4 5 ngi; chung ln c t 2 4 con; chung tru, b c t 1 2 con; chung g vi khong 10 15 con, 10 20 con ngan vt. C mt n hai ao nh th c. Phn t cn li trng rau v cy n qu.nhim bi.

1.2. Nguyn nhn


SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 22

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

Tnh trng nhim mi trng nc nu trn c nhiu nguyn nhn ch quan, khch quan khc nhau, song tp trung cc nguyn nhn ch yu sau y: Th nht, nguyn nhn gy ra nhim mi trng nc chnh l s thiu trch nhim ca cc doanh nghip. Do t nng mc tiu ti a ha li nhun, khng t doanh nghip vi phm quy trnh khai thc, gp phn ng k gy nhim mi trng. Bn cnh , chnh s cha cht ch trong vic qun l bo v mi trng ca nh nc cng tip tay cho cc hnh vi ph hoi mi trng tip din. Vit Nam thiu nhng chnh sch v quy nh bo v mi trng nghim ngt v do ang thu ht mnh cc ngun vn u t pht trin nn d mc vo "cm by": tr thnh ni tip nhn nhiu ngnh cng nghip "bn". V nh, ngnh cn thp thi ra nhng cht thi nguy hi cho mi trng.Do nhng hn ch, bt cp ca c ch, chnh sch, php lut v bo v mi trng v vic t chc thc hin ca cc c quan chc nng. Theo thng k ca B T php, hin nay c khong 300 vn bn php lut v bo v mi trng iu chnh hnh vi ca cc c nhn, t chc, cc hot ng kinh t, cc quy trnh k thut, quy trnh s dng nguyn liu trong sn xut. Tuy nhin, h thng cc vn bn ny vn cn cha hon thin, thiu ng b, thiu chi tit, tnh n nh khng cao, tnh trng vn bn mi c ban hnh cha lu phi sa i, b sung l kh ph bin, t lm hn ch hiu qu iu chnh hnh vi ca cc c nhn, t chc, cc hot ng kinh t... trong vic bo v mi trng nc. Th hai, quyn hn php l ca cc t chc bo v mi trng nc, nht l ca lc lng Cnh st mi trng nc cha thc s mnh, nn hn ch hiu qu hot ng nm tnh hnh, pht hin, u tranh, ngn chn cc hnh vi vi phm php lut v bo v mi trng nc. Cc c s php l, ch ti x pht i vi cc loi hnh vi gy nhim mi trng nc v cc loi ti phm v mi trng nc va thiu, va cha mnh, dn n hn ch tc dng gio dc, phng nga, rn e i vi nhng hnh vi xm hi mi trng. Rt t trng hp gy nhim mi trng b x l hnh s; cn cc bin php x l khc nh buc phi di di ra khi khu vc gy nhim, ng ca v nh chnh
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 23

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

hot ng ca cc c s gy nhim mi trng cng khng c p dng nhiu, hoc c p dng nhng cc c quan chc nng thiu kin quyt, doanh nghip try nn cng khng c hiu qu. Th ba, cc cp chnh quyn cha nhn thc y v quan tm ng mc i vi cng tc bo v mi trng, dn n bung lng qun l, thiu trch nhim trong vic kim tra, gim st v mi trng. Cng tc thanh tra, kim tra v mi trng ca cc c quan chc nng i vi cc c s sn xut dng nh vn mang tnh hnh thc, hin tng pht tn ti cn ph bin. Cng tc thm nh v nh gi tc ng mi trng nc i vi cc d n u t cn tn ti nhiu bt cp v cha c coi trng ng mc, thm ch ch c tin hnh mt cch hnh thc, qua loa i khi cho th tc, dn n cht lng thm nh v ph duyt khng cao. Th t, cng tc tuyn truyn, gio dc v bo v mi trng trong x hi cn hn ch, dn n cha pht huy c thc t gic, trch nhim ca cc t chc, c nhn, cng ng trong vic tham gia gn gi v bo v mi trng nc. Th nm, trnh chuyn mn, nghip v ca i ng cn b chuyn trch cng tc bo v mi trng nc cn hn ch; phng tin k thut phc v cng tc kim tra cha p ng c i hi ca thc tin. Do , trong nhiu trng hp, on kim tra khng th pht hin c nhng th on tinh vi ca doanh nghip thi cc cht gy nhim ra mi trng 1.3. Hu qu Hu qu chung ca tnh trng nhim nc l t l ngi mc cc bnh cp v mn tnh lin quan n nhim nc nh vim mng kt, tiu chy, ung th ngy cng tng. Ngi dn sinh sng quanh khu vc nhim ngy cng mc nhiu loi bnh tnh nghi l do dng nc bn trong mi sinh hot. Ngoi ra nhim ngun nc cn gy tn tht ln cho cc ngnh sn xut kinh doanh, cc h nui trng thy sn. Cc nghin cu khoa hc cng cho thy, khi s dng nc nhim asen n ung, con ngi c th mc bnh ung th trong thng gp l ung th da.
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 24

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

Ngoi ra, asen cn gy nhim c h thng tun hon khi ung phi ngun nc c hm lng asen 0,1mg/l. V vy, cn phi x l nc nhim asen trc khi dng cho sinh hot v n ung. Ngi nhim ch lu ngy c th mc bnh thn, thn kinh, nhim Amoni, Nitrat, Nitrit gy mc bnh xanh da, thiu mu, c th gy ung th. Metyl tert-butyl ete (MTBE) l cht ph gia ph bin trong khai thc du la c kh nng gy ung th rt cao. Nhim Natri (Na) gy bnh cao huyt p, bnh tim mch, lu hunh gy bnh v ng tiu ho, Kali, Cadimi gy bnh thoi ho ct sng, au lng. Hp cht hu c, thuc tr su, thuc dit cn trng, dit c, thuc kch thch tng trng, thuc bo qun thc phm, pht pho... gy ng c, vim gan, nn ma. Tip xc lu di s gy ung th nghim trng cc c quan ni tng. Cht ty trng Xenon peroxide, sodium percarbonate gy vim ng h hp, oxalate kt hp vi calcium to ra calcium oxalate gy au thn, si mt. Vi khun, k sinh trng cc loi l nguyn nhn gy cc bnh ng tiu ha, nhim giun, sn. Kim loi nng cc loi: Titan, St, ch, cadimi, asen, thu ngn, km gy au thn kinh, thn, h bi tit, vim xng, thiu mu. - Gy ra tnh trng tht nghip i vi nhng ngi lng chi, tuyt ng sinh sng ca h. -e di nghim trng n tnh mng ca ton nhn loi. -Tri t nng ln c th dn n s tuyt chng ca loi ngi chng ta. 1.4. Khen thng v x pht *Khen thng T chc, c nhn c thnh tch trong hot ng bo v mi trng, pht hin sm v bo co kp thi cc du hiu s c mi trng, khc phc s c mi trng, suy thoi mi trng, ngn chn cc hnh vi hu hoi mi trng th c khen thng. Nhng ngi tham gia bo v mi trng, khc phc s c mi trng, nhim mi trng, suy thoi mi trng v u tranh chng cc hnh vi vi phm php lut v bo v mi trng m b thit hi ti sn, sc kho hoc tnh mng th c bi thng theo quy nh ca php lut.
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 25

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

*X pht Ngi no c hnh vi ph hoi, gy tn thng n mi trng, khng tun theo s huy ng ca c quan Nh nc c thm quyn khi c s c mi trng, trong thc hin nh gi tc ng mi trng, vi phm cc quy nh khc ca php lut v bo v mi trng th tu theo tnh cht, mc vi phm v hu qu xy ra m b x pht hnh chnh, hoc truy cu trch nhim hnh s. Ngi no li dng chc quyn vi phm quy nh ca php lut v bo v mi trng, bao che cho ngi vi phm php lut v bo v mi trng, thiu tinh thn trch nhim xy ra s c mi trng th tu theo tnh cht, mc vi phm v hu qu xy ra m b x l k lut hoc b truy cu trch nhim hnh s 2. XUT GII PHP 1.1 i vi c nhn - y mnh cng tc tuyn truyn, gio dc v mi trng trong ton x hi nhm to s chuyn bin v nng cao nhn thc, thc chp hnh php lut bo v mi trng, trch nhim x hi ca ngi dn, doanh nghip trong vic gn gi v bo v mi trng; xy dng thc sinh thi, lm cho mi ngi nhn thc mt cch t gic v v tr, vai tr, mi quan h mt thit gia t nhin - con ngi - x hi. - Cc c nhn khai thc, s dng nc c trch nhim p dng cc bin php bo v hiu qu ngun nc c php khai thc, s dng. - Cc c nhn x nc thi c trch nhim thu gom, x l nc thi t tiu chun, quy chun theo quy nh trc khi thi ra ngoi v tiu, dn nc thi n ni quy nh; thc hin cc bin php phng nga nhim, suy thoi, cn kit ngun nc, ng ph, khc phc s c nhim ngun nc theo quy nh ca Lut ny. - Bn thn mi c nhn phi thc hin tt bo v mi trng nc v tuyn truyn vn ng mi ngi cng tham gia. - Xy dng cc bui hc ngoi kha v bo v mi trng nc - Tch cc tham gia, hng nhng phong tro ny do trng a ra.
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 26

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

1.2. i vi x hi Cn thc hin ng b mt s gii php ch yu sau y: Mt l, tip tc hon thin h thng php lut v bo v mi trng, trong nhng ch ti x pht (cng ch hnh chnh v x l hnh) phi thc s mnh sc rn e cc i tng vi phm. Bn cnh , cn xy dng ng b h thng qun l mi trng trong cc nh my, cc khu cng nghip theo cc tiu chun quc t, ng thi t chc gim st cht ch nhm hng ti mt mi trng tt p v thn thin hn vi con ngi. Hai l, tng cng cng tc nm tnh hnh, thanh tra, kim tra, gim st v mi trng (thng xuyn, nh k, t xut); phi hp cht ch gia cc c quan chuyn mn, nht l gia lc lng thanh tra mi trng vi lc lng cnh st mi trng cc cp, nhm pht hin, ngn chn v x l kp thi, trit nhng hnh vi gy nhim mi trng ca cc t chc, c nhn. ng thi, nng cao nng lc chuyn mn, nghip v cho i ng cn b chuyn trch cng tc mi trng; trang b cc phng tin k thut hin i phc v c hiu qu hot ng ca cc lc lng ny. Ba l, ch trng cng tc quy hoch pht trin cc khu, cm, im cng nghip, cc lng ngh, cc th, m bo tnh khoa hc cao, trn c s tnh ton k lng, ton din cc xu th pht trin, t c chnh sch ph hp; trnh tnh trng quy hoch trn lan, thiu ng b, chng cho nh nhiu a phng thi gian va qua, gy kh khn cho cng tc qun l ni chung, qun l mi trng ni ring. i vi cc khu cng nghip, cn c quy nh bt buc cc cng ty u t h tng phi xy dng h thng thu gom, x l nc thi tp trung hon chnh mi c php hot ng, ng thi thng xuyn c bo co nh k v hot ng x l nc thi, rc thi ti . Bn l, ch trng v t chc thc hin nghim tc vic thm nh, nh gi tc ng mi trng i vi cc d n u t, trn c s , c quan chuyn mn tham mu chnh xc cho cp c thm quyn xem xt quyt nh vic cp hay khng cp giy php u t. Vic quyt nh cc d n u t cn c cn nhc k lng gia li ch em li trc mt vi nhng nh hng ca n n
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 27

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

mi trng v lu di. Thc hin cng khai, minh bch cc quy hoch, cc d n u t v to iu kin mi t chc v cng dn c th tham gia phn bin x hi v tc ng mi trng ca nhng quy hoch v d n .y mnh cng tc tuyn truyn, gio dc v mi trng trong ton x hi nhm to s chuyn bin v nng cao nhn thc, thc chp hnh php lut bo v mi trng, trch nhim x hi ca ngi dn, doanh nghip trong vic gn gi v bo v mi trng; xy dng thc sinh thi, lm cho mi ngi nhn thc mt cch t gic v v tr, vai tr, mi quan h mt thit gia t nhin - con ngi - x hi. Bn l, y nhanh tin xy dng d n Lut Ti nguyn nc v cc vn bn quy phm php lut thuc lnh vc ti nguyn nc theo hng xc lp c ch qun l ti nguyn nc ng b vi th ch kinh t th trng nh hng x hi ch ngha. Xc nh danh mc cc ngun nc b nhim, cn kit nghim trng; x l nghim cc trng hp x nc thi gy nhim nghim trng ngun nc, xut gii php x l, khi phc. y mnh x hi ha, to iu kin cc thnh phn kinh t, cc t chc x hi, mi ngi dn tham gia bo v mi trng, lm kinh t t mi trng. To iu kin, h tr cc t chc phn bin x hi v mi trng, cc hi, hip hi v thin nhin v mi trng hnh thnh, ln mnh v pht trin, ng gp tch cc trong hot ng bo v mi trng.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 28

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

1.3. i vi cc B, Ngnh -Ch tr, phi hp vi cc B, c quan ngang B ch o, phi hp U ban nhn dn cp tnh thc hin cc quy nh v bo v ti nguyn nc theo quy nh ca Lut ny; - Ch o cng tc gim st vic x nc thi vo ngun nc; -Ch o cng tc nh gi tnh hnh nhim, suy thoi, cn kit cc ngun nc; nh k cng b danh mc cc ngun nc b nhim nghim trng v cc t chc, c nhn gy nhim ngun nc; -Quy nh vng bo v ngun nc. -. B Cng an, B Quc phng trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn ca mnh c trch nhim ch o thc hin u tranh phng, chng ti phm trong bo v ti nguyn nc, phng, chng nhim, suy thoi, cn kit ngun nc; bo v cc ngun nc ti khu vc bin gii, hi o hoc khu vc cm khai thc, s dng nc v l do quc phng, an ninh. - Cc B, c quan ngang B c lin quan trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn c trch nhim phi hp vi B Ti nguyn v Mi trng, B Cng an, B Quc phng v y ban nhn dn cp tnh trong vic bo v ti nguyn nc. 1.4. i vi y ban nhn dn cc cp 1.4.1 y ban nhn dn cp tnh trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn ca mnh c trch nhim: - Ban hnh theo thm quyn hoc trnh c quan nh nc c thm quyn ban hnh thc hin cc quy nh v bo v ti nguyn nc ti a phng; - T chc tuyn tuyn, ph bin, gio dc php lut v bo v ti nguyn nc; - T chc bo v ngun nc ti a phng; - Ch o cng tc nh gi tnh hnh nhim, suy thoi, cn kit cc ngun nc; gim st cc hot ng x nc thi ti a phng; - Ch o vic khoanh, cm mc gii v qun l vng bo v ngun nc theo quy nh.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 29

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

1.4.2. y ban nhn dn huyn, qun, th x, thnh ph thuc tnh (sau y gi chung l y ban nhn dn cp huyn) trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn ca mnh c trch nhim: - T chc thc hin cc quy nh v bo v ti nguyn nc ti a phng; - Ch o U ban nhn dn x, phng, th trn (sau y gi chung l y ban nhn dn cp x) thc hin cc bin php bo v ti nguyn nc; phng, chng nhim, suy thoi, cn kit ngun nc; - Huy ng v ch o phi hp cc lc lng trn a bn ngn chn, x l cc hot ng gy nhim, suy thoi, cn kit ngun nc. -. y ban nhn dn cp x trong phm vi nhim v, quyn hn ca mnh c trch nhim pht hin v ngn chn kp thi cc hot ng gy nhim, suy thoi, cn kit ngun nc trn a bn x; phi hp vi cc c quan chc nng bo v ti nguyn nc trn a bn. 1.5. i vi nh nc - Nh nc u t v t chc thc hin quy hoch, iu tra c bn ti nguyn nc; xy dng h thng quan trc, gim st v h thng thng tin, d liu ti nguyn nc; nng cao kh nng d bo l, lt, hn hn, xm nhp mn, nc bin dng v cc tc hi do nc gy ra; xy dng o to, pht trin ngun nhn lc, nghin cu khoa hc, pht trin cng ngh trong cc hot ng v ti nguyn nc. - Nh nc c k hoch u tin u t gii quyt nc sinh hot cho dn c cc vng khan him nc, thng xuyn b thiu nc; u t, h tr pht trin c s h tng v ti nguyn nc. - Nh nc c chnh sch u i, h tr khuyn khch i vi t chc, c nhn u t vo cc hot ng bo v ti nguyn nc; nghin cu, p dng v chuyn giao tin b khoa hc, cng ngh v s dng nc tit kim, ti s dng nc. - Nh nc p dng chnh sch min, gim thu, ph, l ph ti nguyn nc i vi a bn c iu kin kinh t - x hi kh khn v a bn c iu kin
SVTH: V Th Phi Lt Trang 30

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

kinh t - x hi c bit kh khn.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 31

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

C. KT LUN Qua nhng thng tin nghin cu trn v c s l lun ca ng v Nh nc, nhng c s thc tin ,nhng thc trng tn khc ca mi trng nc, v php lut cn nhiu thiu st v ang bo ng trn ton lnh th Vit Nam. Theo kt qu nghin cu trn th vic lm cp bch by gi ca chng ta l phi ngn chn v khc phc nhng hu qu hin c v phi gn lin vi php lut. Trong k hoch nghin cu tip theo ti s i su hn na v php lut ca nh nc vi mi trng trn th gii.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 32

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

D.TI LIU THAM KHO [1, trang 4,5,6] . Vn kin i hi ng ln th XI [2, trang 6,7 8] . Lut Bo v Mi trng ca nc Cng Ha X Hi Ch Ngha Vit Nam S 52/2005/QH11 Ngy 29 thng 11 nm 2005. [3, trang 27,28] .Lut nh nc v bo v mi trng [4].Tp ch Khoa hc Cng ngh- Mi trng. B Khoa hc Cng ngh v Mi trng. [5]. L Minh Ton (ch bin ) Php Lut i Cng. Nxb: Chnh tr quc gia, H Ni, 2003.

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 33

Php lut i cng

GVGD: Bi Phc

MC LC

SVTH: V Th Phi Lt

Trang 34