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Nu y l ln u tin bn tham gia din n, xin mi bn xem phn FAQ bit cch dng din n. c th tham gia tho lun, cc bn phi ng k{ lm thnh vin ng k lm thnh vin trc khi tham gia tho lun trong din n. Bottom of Form + Tr Li Ti kt qu t 1 ti 1 trn 1 ti: C bn v anten

iu Chnh To trang in Email trang ny Theo di ti ny Display Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode 18-05-2011 12:35 PM #1 trumhaichum Xem H S View Forum Posts Nhn Tin Ring Xem bi vit ca blog

Tham gia Sep 2009 Ni C Ng Long Hi, Ph Qu, Bnh Thun Bi gi 685 Cm n 232 c cm n 274 ln/131 bi vit

C bn v anten Tnh hnh l ang lm kha lun tt nghip v anten, trong qu trnh i tm ti liu v anten thy c nhiu bi hay m bi vit ny th kh c bn nn post ln cho anh em tham kho. Hi vng anh em c th tm c nhng kin thc c ch cho hc tp trong din n mnh. C bn v Anten IEEE nh ngha anten l phn ca h thng truyn hay nhn c thit k bc x hay nhn sng in t. Ni cch khc, anten ly tn hiu RF (c sinh ra bi radio) v bc x n vo trong khng kh hay anten c th nhn sng in t cho radio. Mt khi nim quan trng cn phi bit l anten ng hng (hay bc x ng hng - isotropic). Theo phng din ton hc, y l trng hp l tng khi mt anten khng b suy hao (lossless anten) pht ra tn hiu theo mi hng mt cch bng nhau. Xt mt hnh cu v b bc x ng hng nm trung tm ca hnh cu, lc trng in t s bng nhau tt c cc im trn b mt hnh cu. Anten ng hng l mt im tham chiu hu ch khi chng ta xem xt cc loi anten khc nhau.

1. Nhng thuc tnh ca anten c th chn la c anten ng n th iu quan trng l bn phi hiu c mt s thuc tnh m t v anten. Chng bao gm dng bc x ca anten, hng tnh ca anten, li, tr khng u vo, s phn cc, v bandwidth. Hng tnh ca anten (directivity of anten) Hng tnh ca anten m t cng ca mt bc x theo mt hng xc nh tng ng vi cng bc x trung bnh hay ni cch khc, n cho bit mt cng sut bc x tng ng vi cng sut bc x c phn tn mt cch ng dng. li (gain) Gain cng din t cng mt khi nim nh directivity nhng n cn bao gm c s mt mt (v cng sut) ca chnh bn thn anten. Bn c th nh ngha bc x hiu dng c s dng m rng directivity gip xc nh c li; mt b bc x hon ho s c bc x hiu dng bng 1. n v dng biu din li c th l dBi ( li tnh theo dB ca anten ng hng) hay dBd ( li dB ca anten half-wave dipole). chuyn i gia dBd v dBi th ta ch cn cng thm 2.2 vo li dBd c c li dBi. Vic ghi nh quy c ny l quan trng bi v mc d hu ht cc nh sn xut u biu din li theo dBi nhng mt s khc li biu din theo dBd. Hnh di minh ha mt dng bc x ca anten nh hng. Lu l s bc x ny tn ti trong khng gian 3 chiu.

Dng bc x (radiation pattern) Dng bc x ca anten m t s khc nhau v gc bc x mt khong cch c nh t anten. N thng c din t bng thut ng hng (directivity) hay li (gain) ca anten. Anten thng c main lobe hay beam (vng bc x), chnh l hng c li ln nht, v minor lobe m c th hn l side lobe hay back lobe ty thuc vo hng ca minor lobe so vi main lobe. Cc nh sn xut thng m t anten bng li hay main lobe, h cng thng xc nh thm beamwidth ( rng ca vng bc x) ca anten.

Nguyn l half-power beamwidth c nh ngha bi IEEE nh sau: trong mt radiation pattern ta ct phn c cha main lobe, gc gia 2 hng ct trong cng bc x ch bng mt na ca gi tr ti a. V d, ta ly dng bc x ca anten trong hnh trn v i n im c 2 pha ca main lobe ni m li thp hn 3 dB (gim mt na) so vi im ln nht ca lobe, im ny chnh l halfpower point. Khi , gc gia chng chnh l half-power beamwidth. Hnh di minh ha iu ny.

Trong khi nim radiation pattern ca anten th t s front-to-back ca anten s so snh li ln nht ca anten trn main lobe vi li ln nht trn back lobe. Trong v d trn th t s front-to-back l

20 dB v main lobe l 15 dBi, back lobe l -5 dBi; S khc nhau gia 15 dBi (-5 dBi) = 20 dBi chnh l t s front-to-back.

Cng sut bc x (radiated power) By gi chng ta s kim tra cng sut tht s c pht ra bi radio ni vi anten. Cng sut bc x hiu dng (ERP = Effective Radiated Power) c tnh bng cch ly li ca anten tnh theo dBd (tng ng vi half-wave dipole) v nhn n vi cng sut m transmitter cung cp cho anten. Tuy nhin, hu nh bn phi thng xuyn thc hin nhng tnh ton ny bng cc hm log, dB, iu ny c ngha l bn cng thm li ca anten vo cng sut t transmitter. Thng th li ca anten

c biu din theo n v dBi, mt thut ng khc thng c s dng cho cng sut bc x l Cng sut bc x ng hng hiu dng (EIRP = Effective Iotropic Radiated Power; c sch gi l Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power), n hon ton tng t vi ERP nhng li ca anten c biu din tng ng vi b bc x ng hng. S phn cc (polarization) Sng in t c pht ra bi anten c th to ra nhng dng khc nhau nh hng n s qung b. Cc hnh dng ny s ty thuc vo s phn cc ca anten, c th l phn cc tuyn tnh (linearly) hay phn cc vng (circularly). Hu ht cc anten trn th trng WLAN u s dng phn cc tuyn tnh, c th theo chiu ngang (phn cc ngang) hoc theo chiu dc (phn cc dc). Nu theo chiu ngang th vector trng in s nm trn mt mt phng thng ng, nu theo chiu dc th vector trng in nm trn mt phng nm ngang. Phn cc dc l ph bin hn mc d i khi phn cc ngang li hot ng tt hn. Mc d s l khng ph hp nu bn s dng anten phn cc vng cho kt ni trong nh, nhng nu bn s dng wireless bridge th bn c th dng anten phn cc vng. Cng ging nh anten phn cc tuyn tnh, anten phn cc vng cng c 2 trng hp: Phn cc tay tri v phn cc tay phi. Nu nh vector trng in quay theo chiu kim ng h khi n tin gn n bn th c gi l phn cc tay tri. Tng t, nu vector quay ngc kim ng h th gi l phn cc tay phi. Anten phn cc vng l bt bin (hoc l phn cc tri, hoc l phn cc phi) khi n quay trong khi anten phn cc tuyn tnh c th chuyn t phn cc ngang thnh phn cc dc khi n quay. Ni chung, i vi kt ni LOS (Line Of Sight) th bn nn s dng cng cc c 2 u kt ni. Tr khng (impedance) S bc x hiu dng ca mt anten l t s ca tng cng sut pht ra bi anten so vi cng sut t transmitter (ni vi anten) c chp nhn bi anten. Anten bc x mt s cng sut dng nng lng in t. Tt c cc thit b RF radio, ng truyn (cable), anten u c tr khng, chnh l t s gia in p v dng in. Khi anten c kt ni vi mt on cable, nu tr khng u vo ca anten trng khp vi tr khng ca radio v ng truyn th tng cng sut c truyn t radio n anten l ti a. Tuy nhin, nu tr khng khng ging nhau th mt s nng lng s b phn x ngc tr li ngun v s cn li s c truyn i n anten. T s sng ng in p (VSWR = Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) m t s phn x ny. Nu nh khng c phn x th VSWR s bng 1. Khi VSWR tng ln th s phn x s cng nhiu. Nu VSWR cao v cng sut cao th c th gy ra tnh hung nguy him nh khi ta s dng in p cao trong ng truyn, trong trng hp ti t nht, n c th bn ra tia la in. Tuy nhin, tnh hung ny s khng xy ra nu bn s dng cng sut thp khi trin khai mng WLAN. Bandwidth Bandwidth ca anten nh ngha vng tn s m anten cung cp hiu nng c th chp nhn c,

thng thng c nh ngha bi tn s gii hn trn hay tn s ti a v tn s gii hn di hay tn s ti thiu. Trong trng hp ny, hiu nng c th chp nhn c c ngha l cc c im ca anten nh dng bc x v tr khng u vo khng b thay i khi hot ng trong dy tn s . Mt s anten c xem nh l broadband (bng rng) trong t s gia tn s ln nht v tn s nh nht l ln hn 2. Tuy nhin, bi v anten bng rng thng c hiu nng km v bi v s phn b tn s 802.11 hin ti khng yu cu anten bng rng nn trng hp duy nht m bn c th s dng anten bng rng chnh l khi bn mun s dng c 2 bng tn 2.4 Ghz ISM v 5 Ghz UNII trong 1 anten duy nht. Khi chn la anten bn s thy c nhiu thuc tnh ca anten c lin quan n vi nhau, v th mc d dng nh l ti u khi chng ta chn anten c tt c thuc tnh u ti a hoc ti thiu, iu ny thng l khng th. V d, Nu bn chn beamwidth rt rng th bn phi hy sinh li. Nu bn chn anten bng rng th bn c th thy rng dng bc x ca chng l rt khc nhau. V th, iu cn thit l bn phi xc nh c thuc tnh no l quan trng cho vic trin khai ca bn. 2. Cc kiu Anten Hnh di minh ha nhiu loi anten khc nhau

Vi anten half-wave dipole th chiu di t u cui n u cui s bng na bc sng tn s . Anten omni-directional cung cp li bng nhau theo mi hng trn mt mt phng, thng l

mt phng ngang. Anten dipole thng l omni-directional. Anten Omni-directional thng c s dng khi trin khai mng WLAN bi v chng cung cp vng bao ph theo mi hng. Anten Yagi-Uda c xy dng bng cch hnh thnh mt chui (array) tuyn tnh cc anten dipole song song nhau. Anten Yagi l loi anten nh hng rt ph bin bi v chng kh d ch to. Cc anten nh hng nh yagi thng cung cp vng bao ph nhng vng kh vi ti hay nhng ni cn vng bao ph ln hn vng bao ph ca anten omni-directional. Mt loi anten nh hng khc l anten Patch c hnh thnh bng cch t 2 vt dn (conductor) song song nhau v mt ming m (substrate) gia chng. Vt dn pha trn l mt ming ni (patch) v c th c in trn bng mch in. Anten Patch thng rt hu ch bi v chng c hnh dng mng. Ngoi ra cn c nhiu loi anten khc nh broadside anten (c main beam song song vi mt phng ca anten); fire anten (main beam nm trong mt phng ca anten); v pencil beam anten (cung cp 1 tn hiu duy nht, rt hp (narrow) v li cao cho anten. Chc cc bn hc tt. Ngun: 4tech.com.vn Xem thm nhng bi vit cng chuyn muc: Th H Di ng Th 3 (3G) 20/11/2010 Gio trnh thng tin v tinh 29/11/2010 Giao thc nh tuyn IS-IS 02/06/2011 Mt s bi lab v mng microsoft 25/05/2011 K thut OFDM v ng dng trong truyn hnh s mt t DVB 10/11/2010 Bo Co Mn Hc ADSL 16/11/2010 Mt s lun vn tt nghip su tm 16/05/2011 Sile tp hun an ninh mang 25/11/2010 Cc k thut iu ch s 08/07/2011 Ti liu Hc Matlab 12/11/2009 Sng trong i sng cn c mt tm lng. Hy cho tht nhiu v mong mun t i cuc sng ca bn s mi l thin ng.

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