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Ch 1: Tnh chia ht trong tp hp s nguyn A. Kin thc c bn - Nm c tnh cht chia ht trong tp hp s nguyn - Vn dng tt tch cht lm cc bi tp B.

p B. Ph ng php chung I. Chng m inh tnh chia ht trong tp hp s nguyn Gi A(n) l mt biu thc ph thuc vo n (n n Z) chng minh A(n) chia ht cho mt s m, ta th ph tch A(n) thnh tha s, trong c mt tha s n l m. Nu m l mt hp s ta ph tch m thnh tch n cc tha s mt nguyn t cng nhau, ri chng minh i A(n) chia ht cho tt c cc s Nhn xt: Trong k s nguyn lin tip bao gi cng tn ti mt bi ca k V d 1: n Gii: Ph tch ra tha s: 5040 = 2 n Ta c: A = n[n 2(n 2 - 7) = n[(n = n(n Ta li c: n3 - 7n - 6 = (n + 1)(n + 2)(n - 3)
1
3 3 2 4

N hoc ng

Chng m inh rng:


2

A = n 3(n 2 - 7)

- 36n ch ht cho 5040 vi mi s t nhin

.3 2.5.7

- 36]
3

- 7n)

- 6 2] - 7n + 6)

- 7n - 6)(n

n3 - 7n + 6 = (n - 1)(n - 2)(n + 3) Do A = (n - 3)(n - 2)(n - 1)n(n + 1)(n + 2)(n - 3) : chnh l tch ca by s nguyn lin tip. Trong y by s nguyn lin tip - Tn ti mt bi ca 5 nn A chia ht cho 5 - Tn ti mt bi ca 7 nn A chia ht cho 7 - Tn ti hai bi ca 3 nn A chia ht cho 9 - Tn ti ba bi ca 2, trong c mt bi ca 4 nn A chia ht cho 16 A chia ht cho cc s 5, 7,9,16 mt nguyn t cng i nhau nn A chia ht cho 5.7.9.16 = 5040 p dng: Chng minh rng vi mi s nguyn a th
a) a2 - a chia ht cho 2 b) a3 - a chia ht cho 3 c) a5 - a chia ht cho 5 d) a7 - a chia ht cho 7

Gi : Ph tch thnh tch ca cc s nguyn lin n tip, khi tn ti cc s l bi ca 2, 3, 5, 7 V d 2: S chnh ph ng ng chia cho 3 ng chia cho 4 bng 0 hoc 1 bng 0 hoc 1 ng A = n
2
2

a) Chng minh rng mt s chnh ph ch c th c s d ch c th c s d Gii: Gi A l s chnh ph a) Xt cc tr ng hp: b) Chng minh rng mt s chnh ph

(n N)

n = 3k (k d1 Vy s chnh ph bng 0 hoc 1 b) Xt cc tr n = 2k (k

N) A = 9k

chia ht cho 3
2

n = 3k 1 (k N) A = 9k

6k +1 chia cho 3

ng chi cho 3 ch c th c s d

ng hp
2

N) ) A = 4k 1

chia ht cho 4
2

n = 2k + 1 (k chia cho 4 d 0 hoc 1 p dng:

N) A = 4k

+ 4k +1 = 4k(k + 1) + 1 bng

Vy s chnh ph

ng chi cho 4 ch c th c s d

Trong cc s sau c s no l s chnh ph M = 1992 N = 1992 P=1+9


2 2

ng khng?
2

+ 1993 + 1993 + 94

2 2

+ 1994 + 1994 + 1994

2 2

+ 1995

100

100

100

Lu : Cc hng ng thc hay dng chng minh tnh chia ht ca mt lu tha. an - b n = (a - b)(a vi n N * an + b n = (a + b)(a (a + b)
n n-1 n-1

+ a n-2 .b + a

n-3

.b 2 +....+ a.b

n-2

+b

n-1

- a n-2 .b + a

n-3

.b 2 - .... - a.b

n-2

+ b n-1 )

vi mi n l Cng thc Niu-tn = a n + c 1an-1 b + c 2an-2 b2 + ... + c


i n-1

ab n-1 + b n

Cc h s c

c xc nh bi tam gic Pa-xcan b) - b)

p dng vo tnh cht chia ht ta c: a n - b n Chia ht cho a - b (a a2n+1 + b


2n+1

Chia ht cho a + b (a
3

(a + b) V d:

= BS a + b

(BS a l bi s ca a)

Bi tp p dng: 1/ Cho A = 11
100

-1
n

Chng minh rng A chia ht cho 10, chia ht cho 1000 2/ Chng minh rng vi mi s t nhin n, biu thc 16 1 chia ht cho 17 khi v ch khi n l s chn 3/ Chng minh rng vi n
a) 11 n+1 + 12 b) 34n+2 + 2.4 c) 3.5 2n+1 + 2
2n+1 3n+1 3n+1

N:

chia ht cho 133 chia ht cho 17 chia ht cho 17


100

II. Tm s d V d: Tm s d a) Cho 9 b) Cho 25 c) Cho 125 Gii:


a) Lu tha ca 2 st vi bi ca 9 l 2
3

khi chia 2

=8 =9 - 1

Ta c: 2

100

= 2.(2
100

3 33

= 2.(9 - 1)

33

= 2.(BS 9 - 1) = BS 9 - 2

= BS 9 + 7 S d khi chia 2 cho 9 l 7


10

b) Lu tha ca 2 st vi mt bi s ca 25 l 2

1024 = BS 25 - 1 Ta c: 2 Vy s d
100

= (2

10 10

= (BS 25 - 1)
100

10

= BS 25 + 1

khi chia 2

cho 25 l 1
50.49 2 .5 2 - 50.5 + 1

c) Dng cng thc Niu-tn: 2100 = (5 - 1)


50

= 5 50 - 50.5

49

+ ... +
4

Ta thy 48 s hng tin cha lu tha ca 5 vi s u m ln hn 3 nn chia ht cho 125. hai s hng tip theo cng chia ht cho 125, s hng cui cng l 1 Vy s d khi chia 2
100

cho 125 l 1 =1 n +2
n

Bi tp p dng: a) Tm s d ca php chia S


n

+ 3 n + 4 n cho 4

b) Chng m inh rng: 52n + 5 n + 1 chia ht cho 31 vi m n khng chia ht cho i 3 III. Tm ch s cui cng trong biu din thp ph ca m s n t Ph ng php: Xt s t nhin A = n Cch 1: Mun tm ch s cui cng ca A ta ch cn biu din A d i dng: A = 10a + b = Ta vit A = n cng ca r
k k k

vi n, k N

ab

Th b l ch s cui cng ca A = (10q + r)


k

= 10t + r

Th ch s cui cng ca A cng chnh l ch s ca

- Nu A = 100b +

ab = abc th bc l hai ch s cui

cng ca A - ............... Cch 2: Khi ly k ln l t nhng gi tr t nhin khc nhau th


k

trong biu din thp ph ca s A = n n


5

ch s cui

cng hoc mt ch s cui cng xut hin tun hon. Ta ch cn tm chu k ca hin t no vi gi tr k cho Cch 3: Dng php chia c d V d: Tm 3 ch s tn cng ca 2 thp ph n Gii: Ba ch s tp cng ca 2 cho 1000 Theo v d trn ta c 2 376, 626 hoc 876 M 2
100 100 100 100

ng ny v A tr

ng hp

khi vit trong h

l s d ca php chia 2
100

100

= BS 125 + 1, m 2

l s

chn, nn ba ch s t cng ca n ch c th l 126, n chia ht cho 8 nn ba ch s tn cng ca n

cng phi chia ht cho 8. Trong bn s trn ch c 376 tho mn iu kin Vy ba ch s tn cng ca 2 Bi tp:
1) Tm 4 ch s tn cng ca 5
1994 100

l 376 khi vit trong


1983

h thp ph n.
2) Tm ch s hng n v ca s 17

+ 11

1983

- 7 1983
3) Tm ba ch s cui cng ca s A = m
100

trong

m l mt s t nhin khc 0 IV. Tm iu kin chia ht V d: Tm s nguyn n gi tr ca biu thc A chia ht cho gi tr ca biu thc B A=n B=n
3 2

+ 2n -n

- 3n + 2
6

Bin i n3 + 2n
2

- 3n + 2 = (n

- n)(n + 3) + 2
2

Mun A chia ht cho B th 2 phi chia ht cho n hay n(n - 1) do 2 phi chia ht cho n n n-1 n(n - 1) 1 0 0 Loi Vy n = -1 ; n = 2 Bi tp:
1) Tm s nguyn d

-n

-1 -2 2

2 1 2

-2 -3 6 Loi

ng n n

+ 1 chia ht cho n

1 2) Tm s t nhin n sao cho


a) 2n - 1 chia ht cho 7 b) 2n - 1 chia ht cho 7 c) n2 - 3n + 6 chia ht cho 5 d) n3 - n + 1 Chia ht cho 7 e) 2.3 n + 3 chia ht cho 11 f) 10 n - 1 chia ht cho 81 g) 10 n - 1 chia ht cho 11 h) 10 n -1 chia ht cho 121

V. Tnh chia ht vi thc i a 1. Tm s d chia Ph ng php: * a thc chia c dng x - a vi a l hng s S d ca php chia thc f(x) cho x - a bng gi a tr ca thc f(x) ti x = a a * a thc c bc t bc hai tr ln
7

ca php chia m khng thc hin php

Cch 1: Tch thc b chia thnh nhng thc a a chia ht cho thc chia a Cch 2: Xt cc gi tr ring Ch : an - b n Chia ht cho a - b (a a2n+1 + b V d 1: Chng minh rng nu thc f(x) c tng cc h a s bng 0 th thc y chia ht cho x - 1 a Gii: Gi f(x) = a
0 2n+1

b) - b)

Chia ht cho a + b (a

xn + a 1xn-1 + ... + a
0

n-1

x +a

Theo gi thit: a r = f(1) = a V d 2:

+ a 1 + .... + a

n-1

+a n =0 =0

S d ca php chia f(x) cho x - 1 l


0

+ a 1 + .... + a

n-1

+a

Vy f(x) chia ht cho x - 1 Chng minh rng nu thc f(x) c tng cc h s a lu tha bc chn bng tng cc h s lu tha bc l th f(x) chia ht cho x + 1 2. Tm th ng v s d Ph ng php: - t php chia - Dng s Hoc-ne a thc b chia ca php chia cc thc a

a0xn + a1xn1 + a2 xn2 +... + a 1 x + x n


a thc chia l x - a th s d r
8

b0 xn1 + b xn2 +... + b 2 x + b 1 1 n n ng l

Vi b0 = a 0 b1 = a.b b2 = a.b
0 1

+a +a

1 2

.................. bn-1 = a.b r = ab


n-1 n-2

+ a n-1

+a n

3. Chng m inh mt thc chia ht cho mt thc a a Ph ng php: * Ph tch thc b chi thnh nh t, trong n a n c mt nh t l thc chia n a V d 1: Chng minh rng x Gii: x8n + x 4n + 1 = (x = (x = (x = (x Vy x
8n 8n

+ x 4n + 1 chia ht cho x

2n

+x n

+ 1 vi mi mt s t nhin n. = x 8n + 2x
4n 4n 4n

+1- x
4n 2n

4n

+ 1)

- (x 2n )2 - x 2n +1) +1- x - (x n)2


2n

+ x 2n +1) (x
2n 2

x4n + x 2n +1 = x 4n + 2x
2n 2n

+ 1)

+ x n +1) (x
2n

- x n +1)

+x

4n

+ 1 chia ht cho x

+x n +1

* Bin cc thc chia thnh mt tng cc i a thc chia ht cho thc chia a a V d 2: Chng minh rng x Gii:
9
3m +1

+ x 3n+2 + 1 chia ht cho thc a

x2 + x + 1 vi mi s t nhin m, n

x3m+1 + x +1

3n+2

+1=x = x(x
3m

3m +1

- x+x
2

3n+2

+1 - x
2

+x 2 +x

- 1) + x

(x 3n - 1) + x
3 2

+x +1

Ta thy x Do x Vy x
3m +1

3m 3m

- 1 v x

3n 3n

- 1 chia ht cho x

-1
2

- 1 v x

- 1 chia ht cho x

+x+1 +x+1

+ x 3n+2 + 1 chia ht cho thc x a

* S dng cc bin t i f(x) + g(x) chia ht cho g(x) hoc f(x) - g(x) chia ht cho g(x) V d 3:

ng ng, chng hn

chng minh f(x) chia ht cho g(x), c th chng minh

Chng minh rng f(x) chia ht cho g(x) f(x) = x g(x) = x Gii: f(x) - g(x) = x
99 99 9

+ x 88 + x 77 + ... + x

11

+1

+ x 8 + x 7 + .... + x + 1 - x 9+ x 88 - x 8 +... + x
8 11

-x
10

= x 9(x 90 - 1) + x m x
10

(x 80 - 1) + ... + x(x

- 1)
10

Cc biu thc trong ngoc u chia ht cho x - 1 chia ht cho g(x) Vy f(x) chia ht cho g(x) * Chng t rng mi nghim ca thc chia a u l nghim ca thc b chia a V d: Cho f(x) = (x Gii:
2

- 1,

+ x - 1)

10

+ (x
2

- x + 1)

10

- 2 chng

ming rng f(x) chia ht cho x

-x

10

a thc x f(x)

- x c hai nghim l x = 0 v x = 1. Ta s

chng minh x=0 v x = 1 cng l nghim ca thc a

11

Ch 2: Gii ph A. Kin thc c bn - Nm c khi nim ph ph ng trnh tch, ph - C k nng gii ph B. Ni dung

ng trnh

ng trnh bc nht mt n,

ng trnh cha n mu. ng trnh mt cch thnh tho

I. Ph ng trnh bc nht m n t V d 1: Gii ph ng trnh a Gii: a2x + b = a(x + b) a 2x + b = ax + ab a 2x - ax = ab - b ax(a - 1) = b(a - 1) (1) Nu a 0, a 1th ph ng trnh c nghim duy nht
2

x + b = a(x + b)

x=

b a
ng trnh nghim ng trnh nghim 0

Nu a = 1 th (1) c dng 0x = 0, ph ng vi mi x Nu a = 0 th (1) c dng 0x = -b, ph ng vi mi x nu b = 0, v nghim nu b Kt lun:

Nu a 0, a 1th ph ng trnh c nghim duy nht

x=

b a

12

Nu a = 1 hoc a = 0 v b = 0, ph ng vi mi x Nu a = 0 v b

ng trnh nghim

0, ph ng trnh v nghim

Bi tp p dng: Gii ph ng trnh:

a+ a x x 3a = 2 a-1 a + 1 a 1 x-a x b x c b) + + =3 b+ c + a a + b c x-a x b x c 3x c) + + = b+ c + a a + b a+ b+ c c a+ b-x a+ c-x b+ c-x 4x d) + + = 1 c b a a + b+ c a)


II. Ph ng trnh tch nh ngha: Ph ng trnh tch mt n l ph A(x).B(x)... = 0 (1) Trong A(x), B(x), ... l cc thc a Cch gii: Gii tng ph Ch : Vic ph tch thc thnh nh t c vai tr n a n quan trng trong vic ph V d 1: Gii ph ng trnh:
13

ng trnh c dng:

ng trnh A(x) = 0, B(x) = 0, .... ri ly

tt c cc nghim ca chng.

a ph ng trnh v dng ph ng php n t

ng

trnh tch. Ngoi ra ta cn dng ph

(x + 3) Gii: (x + 3)
3

- (x + 1)
3

= 56

- (x + 1)
2

= 56
3

x 3 + 9x

+ 27x + 27 - x

- 3x

- 3x- 1 = 56

6x 2 + 24x -30 = 0 6(x 2 + 4x - 5) = 0 x 2 - x + 5x - 5 = 0 x(x - 1) + 5(x - 1) = 0 (x - 1)(x + 5) = 0 Kt lun: S = {1; -5} Ch : C th dng ph V d 2: Gii: t x - 7 = y, ph (y + 1) Rt gn ta t y 7) = 0 Ph ng trnh ny cho z Vi z = 1, nn y = T x Ch :
1 1 2 4

ng php n ph x + 2 = y (x + t

2 l trung bnh cng ca x + 3 v x + 1) Gii ph ng trnh: (x - 6)


4

+ (x - 8)

= 16

ng trnh tr thnh: + (y - 1) - 7=0


2 4

= 16

c: y4 + 6y
2

= z (z 0), ta c z

+ 6z - 7 = 0

(z - 1)(z +

= 1, z

= -7 (loi)

1
2

=8; x

=6

14

Khi gii ph ng trnh bc bn dng (x + a)

+ (x +

b) 4 = c ta th ng n ph t p dng: Gii ph
a) (x + 3) b) (x + 1) c) (x - 2)
4 4 4

y= x+

a+ b 2

ng trnh:
4 4 4

+ (x + 5) + (x - 3)
4

=2

= 82
4

+ (x - 3)

=1 =1

d) (x - 2,5)

+ (x -1,5)

* Ph ng trnh xng (cc h s c tnh i i xng) Trong ph ng trnh xng nu a l nghim th i cng l nghim + Ph ng trnh xng bc l bao gi cng c mt i trong cc nghim l x = -1 + Ph ng trnh xng bc chn 2n i ph ng trnh bc n bng cch n ph t V d 3: Gii ph ng trnh:
a) 2x 3 + 7x b) x4 - 3x
3 2

1 a

a c v

y = x+

1 x

+ 7x + 2 = 0
2

+ 4x

- 3x + 1 = 0

Gii: a) Bin ph i ng trnh thnh: (x + 1)(x + 2)(2x + 1) = 0 Ph ng trnh c ba nghim: x


15

= -1 ; x

= -2 ;

x3 =

1 2

b) Cch 1: a ph ng trnh v dng: (x + 1) Ph ng trnh c mt nghim x = -1 Cch 2: Chia c hai v ca ph khng l nghim ca ph ng trnh cho x ng trnh) ta
2 2

(x 2 - x + 1) = 0

(v x = 0

c:

1 2 1 x + 2 3 x + + 4 = 0 x x
t Vi y
y= x+

1 1 x2 + 2 = y2 2 x x th , ta c:
1

y2 - 3y + 2 = 0 nn y
1

= 1; y

=2

= 1, ta c x
2

- x + 1 = 0, v nghim

Vi y = 2, ta c x Bi tp p dng:

- 2x + 1 = 0 nn x = 1

Gii ph ng trnh
a) x4 + 3x c) x4 - 3x
3 3

+ 4x
3 2

+ 3x + 1 = 0
2

b) x5 - x 4 + 3x d) 6x 4 + 5x
3

+ 3x
2

- x+1=0

+ 4x

- 3x + 1 = 0 +5 +6=0

- 38x

3.

Ph ng trnh cha n m u ng trnh ng trnh ri

Cc b c gii: - Tm iu kin xc nh ca ph - Quy ng mu thc hai v ca ph kh mu thc - Gii ph ng trnh va nhn - Nghim ca ph n tho mn iu kin xc nh.
16

c c ca

ng trnh l cc gi tr tm

V d 1: Gii ph

ng trnh:

x1 x + 3 2 + = (1) x 2 x 4 (x 2)(4 x)
Gii: KX ca ph Bin ph i Thu gn ph Ngim ca (2) x Vy S = {0} Bi tp: Gii ph ng trnh vi cc tham s a, b ng trnh l x 2, x 4 c: (2) ng trnh (1) ta ng trnh ta
1

(x - 1)(x - 4) + (x + 3)(x - 2) = -2 c: 2x(x - 2) = 0 =0; x


2

=2

x1 = 0 tho mn KX; x

= 2 khng tho mn KX

1 1 1 1 + + = a b x a + b+ x x+ x 3 a b) + =2 x+ x a 3 a)
4) Gii bi ton bng cch lp ph a) Cc b c gii bi ton bng cch lp ph Bc 1: - Chn n v t iu kin cho n. - Biu din cc l i ng bit. - Lp ph ng trnh biu th s t l ng. i Bc 2: Gii ph ng trnh. Bc 3: Chn kt qu thch hp v tr li V d 1:
17

ng trnh: ng trnh:

ng ch a bit theo n v cc l i ng quan gia cc

Vo th k th III tr

c cng nguyn, vua x Xi-ra-ct

giao cho Ac-si-met kim tra xem chic m bng vng ca mnh c pha thm bc hay khng. Chic m c trng l ng 5 niutn (theo n v hin nay), khi nhng ngp trong n c th trng l ng gim 0,3 niutn i c, vng gim
1 20 trng l ng,

Bit rng khi c trong n n

bc gim niutn) Gii:

1 10 trng l ng. Hi chic m cha bao nhiu gam

bc (vt c khi l

ng 100 gam tr trng l

ng bng 1

Gi trng l ng bc trong m l x (niutn) (0 < x < 5). Trng l ng vng trong m l 5 - x (niutn) Khi nhng ngp trong n c, trng l ng bc gim
5 x 20 (niutn) x 10

(niutn), trng l

ng vng gim

Ta c ph ng trnh: Gii ph ng trnh ta Vy trng l Ch : Chic m cha 100 gam bc.

x 5 x + = 0,3 10 20

c x = 1

ng bc trong m l 1 niutn.

Khi gii bi ton bng cch lp ph n chn khi ng i

ng trnh, ngoi ng

i ta cn biu th nhng l i

ch a bit khc bng ch. iu l th l cc ch tuy

18

tham gia vo qu trnh gii ton nh c mt trong s ca bi ton. p V d 2: Mt ng i na qung i trung bnh ca ng Gii:

ng chng li khng

ng AB vi vn tc 20 km/h, ng.

v phn cn li vi vn tc 30 km/h. Tnh vn tc i i trn c qung

Gi vn tc trung bnh phi tm l x (km/h). Ta biu th mt na qung Thi gian ng ng AB l a km (a > 0). ng l
a 30 gi, a 20 gi,

i na qung i u

thi gian ng

i na sau qung i
a a 2a + = 20 30 x

ng l

Ta c ph ng trnh: Gii ph ng trnh ta ng l 24km/h. Bi tp:

c x = 24 i trn c qung

Vy vn tc trung bnh ca ng

1) Mt khch du lch t A i n B nhn thy c 15 pht li gp mt xe but cng chiu v i pht li gp mt xe but chy ng t qua, c 10 c li. Bit rng cc xe

but u chy vi cng mt vn tc, khi hnh sau nhng khong thi gian bng nhau v khng dng li trn ng (trn chiu t A n B cng nh ri bn? chiu ng c t li). Hi c sau bao nhiu pht th cc xe but li ln l

19

2) Trn qung

ng AB ca mt thnh ph, c 6 c li. nhau.

pht li c mt xe but theo chiu t A i n B v cng c 6 pht li c mt xe but theo chiu ng i Cc xe ny chuyn ng u vi cng vn tc nh Mt khch du lch b t A i n B nhn thy c 5 pht li gp mt xe t B v pha mnh. Hi c bao i nhiu pht li c mt xe t A v i t qua ng i ?

20

Ch 3: Chng m inh bt ng thc A. Mc tiu Hc sinh nm thc, nm c cc tnh cht ca bt ng ng c cc hng bt ng thc, cc ph

php chng minh bt ng thc Bit chng minh bt ng thc mt cch thnh tho. B. Kin thc c bn I. Cc tnh cht ca bt ng thc a>b; b>c a > c - Tnh bc cu:

- Cng hai v ca bt ng thc vi cng mt s a > b a + c b + c - Nh hai v ca bt n ng thc vi cng mt s: a>b; c >0 a>b; c <0 a>b; c >d ac > bc ac < bc a + c > b + d c chiu, c

- Cng tng v ca hai bt ng thc cng chiu, - Tr tng v ca hai bt ng thc ng a>b; c <d v khng m a>b 0; c >d ng thc: a>b>0 an > b n a > b a n > b n vi n l
21

bt ng thc cng chiu vi bt ng thc b tr: a - c > b d - Nh tng v hai bt n ng thc cng chiu m hai 0 ac > bd ng hai v ca bt

- N ln lu tha bc nguyn d ng

a>b

a n > b n vi n chn ng: a > 1 am > a n a = 1 am = a n 0<a <1 am < a n

- So snh hai lu tha cng c s vi s m d Nu m > n > 0 th:

- Ly nghch hai v v chiu bt o i ng thc nu hai v cng du a > b , ab > 0 II.

1 1 < a b
2

Cc hng bt ng thc: 1. Ngoi cc hng bt ng thc a 0 ; -a


2

0,

cn nh cc hng bt ng thc lin quan n gi tr tuyt i:


a 0
a a

Xy ra ng thc khi a = 0 Xy ra ng thc khi a 0 0


a b

a+ b a + b a b a b

Xy ra ng thc khi ab

Xy ra ng thc khi ab > 0 v

2. Mt s hng bt ng thc khc c th s dng nh mt b gii ton. a2 + b


2

2ab;
2

a+ b 2 ab Hay (a + b) 1 1 4 + a b a + b vi a, b > 0 a b + 2 b a vi a, b > 0

4ab (bt ng thc C-si);

22

(a 2 + b 2)(x 2 + y 2) (ax + by) nhi-a-cp-xki) III. 1. A- B>0 V d 1: Chng m inh rng: (x - 1)(x - 2)(x - 3)(x - 4) Gii: Xt hiu (x - 1)(x - 2)(x - 3)(x - 4) - (-1) = (x + 6) + 1 t x
2

(Bt ng thc Bu-

Cc ph ng php chng m inh bt ng thc: Dng nh ngha

chng minh A > B, ta xt hiu A - B v chng minh

-1
2

- 5x + 4)(x

- 5x

- 5x + 5 = y ta
2

c 0 -1 ng ng

(y - 1)(y + 1) + 1 = y Vy 2.

(x - 1)(x - 2)(x - 3)(x - 4) Dng php bin i t

V d 2: Cho cc s d ng a v b tho mn iu kin a + b = 1

Chng minh rng: Ta c:

1 1 1+ 1+ 9 a b (1)

a+ b + 1 1 1 1 1+ a 1+ b 9 a . b 9
ab + a + b + 1 a +b+1 2 8ab 1 4ab (a + b)
2

9ab

(v ab > 0) (v a + b = 1)

8ab

4ab

(v a + b = 1)
23

(a - b)

lun ng c chng minh

Vy bt ng thc (1) 3. V d 3:

Xy ra ng thc khi v ch khi a = b Dng cc tnh cht ca bt ng thc

Cho a + b > 1. Chng minh rng: Gii: Ta c a+b+1>0 Bnh ph ng hai v: (a + b) Mt khc (a - b)
2 2

a4 + b4 >

1 8

(1)
2

> 1 a 2 + 2ab + b
2

>1

(2) (3)

0 a 2 - 2ab + b

0
1 2

Cng tng v (2) v (3) 2(a 2 + b 2) > 1 a 2 + b 2 > Bnh ph ng hai v ca (4) a4 + 2a 2b2 + b 4 > Mt khc (a 2 - b 2)2 0 a 4 - 2a 2b2 + b Cng tng v (5) v (6) 2(a 4 + b 4) > 4. V d 4: Cho a Gii:
24
2 4

(4)

1 4

(5)

0 (6)

1 a4 + b 4

>

1 8

Dng ph ng php phn chng + b 2 2. Chng minh rng: a + b 2

Gi s a + b > 2, bnh ph a2 + 2ab + b Mt khc ta c: (a - b) 2(a 2 + b 2) M 2(a


2 2 2

ng hai v ta (1)

c:

>4

0 2ab a 2 + b 2 a 2 + 2ab + b

+ b 2) 4 (gi thit), do a2 + 2ab + b


2

M thun vi (1) u

Vy a + b

2 Chng minh cc bt ng thc sau:

C. Bi tp p dng:

1) Chng minh bt ng thc

a2 b2 c2 c b a + 2+ 2 + + 2 b c a b a c
2) Chng minh cc bt ng thc vi a, b , c l cc s dng: a) b)

( a + b+ c)

1 1 1 + + 9 a b c

a b c + + 1 ,5 b+ c c + a a + b

3) Cho a, b, c l di ba cnh ca mt tam gic. Chng minh rng: a) Gi : p dng bt ng thc


1 1 4 + vi x, y > 0 x y x+ y

1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + a+ b c b + c a c + a b a b c

25

b) c)

a b c + + 3 b+ c a a + c b a + b c
a b c + + <2 b+ c c + a a + b
1 3

4) Cho a + b + c = 1. Chng minh rng

a2 + b2 + c2

5) Chng m inh rng vi a, b, c > 0 th

a2 b2 a b a) 2 + 2 + b a b a a2 b2 c2 b) + + a + b +c b c a a2 b2 c2 a + b+ c c) + + b+ c c + a a + b 2

26

Ch 4: Gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh nht A. Mc tiu - Hc sinh nm c th no l gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh nht ca mt biu thc - Bit cch xc nh gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh nht ca mt biu thc B. Cc khi nim c bn 1. Cho biu thc f(x,y,...) Ta ni M l GTLN ca biu thc f(x,y,...) nu tho mn hai iu kin sau: - Vi mi x, y,... f(x,y,...) xc nh th f(x,y,...)
- Tn ti x
0

M (M l hng s) (2)

(1)

, y 0 .... sao cho

f(x 0, y 0, ....) = M 2. Cho biu thc f(x,y,...)

Ta ni M l GTNN ca biu thc f(x,y,...) nu tho mn hai iu kin sau: Vi mi x, y,... f(x,y,...) xc nh th f(x,y,...)
- Tn ti x
0

(1)

m (m l hng s) (2) a

, y 0 .... sao cho

f(x 0, y 0, ....) = m th ni g v cc tr ca mt biu thc Chng hn ta xt biu thc A = (x - 1) Mc d A


2

Ch : Nu ch c iu kin (1) v (1) th ch

+ (x - 3)

0 nh ng ch a th kt lun GTNN ca A =

0 v khng t ti gi tr no ca x A = 0
27

C. Ni dung I. 1. V d 1:
a) Tm GTNN ca A = 2x b) Tm GTLN ca B = -5x
2 2

Gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh nht ca m t biu thc cha m bin t Tam thc bc hai - 8x + 1 - 4x + 1


2

Gii:
a) A = 2x
2

- 8x + 1 = 2(x

- 4x + 4) - 7 = 2(x - 2)

-7

-7 Min A = -7 khi v ch khi x = 2


b) B = -5x
2
2

- 4x + 1 =

4 4 9 2 9 9 5 x2 + x + + = 5 x + + 5 25 5 5 5 5
2 5

Max B =

9 khi v ch khi x = 5

p dng : Cho tam thc bc hai P = ax


2

+ bx + c

a) Tm GTNN ca P nu a > 0 b) Tm GTLN ca P nu a < 0 2. V d 2: Tm GTNN ca Gii: Ta c: A = x(x - 3)(x - 4)(x - 7) = (x 12) t x
2 2

a thc bc cao hn hai A = x(x - 3)(x - 4)(x - 7) - 7x)(x


2

- 7x +

- 7x + 6 = y th
2

A = (y - 6)(y + 6) = y Vy Min A = -36

- 36 -36 x 1 = 1; x
2

x 2 - 7x + 6 = 0
28

=6

3. V d 3:

Ph thc c t l hng s m n u l tam thc bc hai

Tm GTNN ca Gii:

A=

2 6x 5 9x2

A=

2 2 = 9x 6x + 5 ( 3x 1) 2 + 4
2
2

Ta thy (3x - 1) Do A

0 nn (3x - 1)

+4 4

( 3x 1)
1 2

+4

1 2 2 4 ( 3x 1) 2 + 4 4

Min A =

1 1 3x-1 = x= 0 2 3
ng ca m nh t

4. Ph thc c m n u l bnh ph

thc V du 4: Tm GTNN ca

3x2 8x + 6 A= 2 x 2x + 1
Gii: Ta c:
2 2 2 ( x 2) 2 3x2 8x + 6 2x 4x + 2 + x 4x + 4 A= 2 = =2 + 2 2 x 2x + 1 ( x 1) ( x 1)

) (

Min A = 2 khi v ch khi x = 2


29

II.

Gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh nht ca m t biu thc c quan h rng buc gia cc bin

V d 1: Tm GTNN ca A = x =1 Gii: S dng kiu kin cho rt gn biu thc A: A = (x + y)(x =x 2 +y 2 n c nhiu cch gii: ay Cch 1: Biu th y theo x ri x: Thay y = x - 1vo biu thc A ta
2 2
2 3

+ y 3 + xy bit rng x + y

- xy + y
2

) + xy

= x 2 - xy + y

+ xy

a v tam thc bc hai vi i c


2

1 1 1 A = x + ( x 1) = 2 x x + 1 =2 x- + 2 2 2

Min A = Cch 2:

1 khi v ch khi x = 2

1 1 ,y= 2 2

S dng cc iu kin cho lm xut hin mt biu thc mi c cha A: Bi tp: 1) Cho x + y + z = 3 a) Tm GTNN ca A = x
2

+y 2 +z

30

b) Tm GTLN ca B = xz + yz + zx c) Tm GTNN ca A + B 2) Tm GTNN ca cc biu thc A = (x + 8)


4

+ (x + 5)
2

B = (x - 1)(x - 3)(x

- 4x + 5)

C = x3 + x +7 D = x2 x +1 + x2 x 2
3) Tm GTNN, GTLN ca

27 12x x2 + 9 3x2 2x + 3 B= x2 + 1 A=
4) Tm GTNN ca

1 1 A = ( a + b) + vi a, b > 0 a b 1 1 1 B = ( a + b+ c ) + + vi a, b, c > 0 a b c 1 1 1 1 B = ( a + b+ c + d ) + + + vi a, b, c, d > 0 a b c d

31

Ch 5 : Ph ng php din tch trong chng m inh hnh hc A. Mc tiu - S dng cc cng thc tnh din tch thit lp quan h v di ca cc on thng chng minh hnh hc - C k nng s dng cc cng thc tnh din tch chng minh hnh hc
B.

S dng cc cng thc tnh din tch

chng minh hnh hc. V d 1: Cho tam gic u ABC. a) Chng minh rng nu im M thuc min trong ca tam gic ABC th tng cc khong cch t M n ba cnh ca tam gic bng chiu cao tam gic. b) Quan h trn thay i nh thuc min ngoi tam gic Gii: Gi a v h l cnh v chiu cao ca tam gic ABC, MA, MB, MC l cc khong cch t M n BC, AC, AB
a) Nu M thuc min trong
A

th no nu im M

ABC th
MAB

SMBC + S MAC + S
B' M

= S ABC

C'

C A'

1 1 1 1 BC.MA'+ AC.MB'+ AB.MC ' = BC.AH 2 2 2 2 a a ( MA'+ MB'+ MC ') = h 2 2 ( MA'+ MB'+ MC ') = h

32

b) Nu M thuc min ngoi

ABC v thuc min trong

gc A (min 2) th:
5 A 4 1 B C' 6 2 M A' C B' 7 3

SMAC + S MAB - S MBC = S ABC

1 1 1 1 AC.MB'+ AB.MC ' BC.MA' = BC.AH 2 2 2 2 a a ( MB'+ MC ' MA') = h 2 2 ( MB'+ MC ' MA') = h
Tng t: Nu M thuc min ngoi gc B (min 3) th: ABC v thuc min trong

( MA'+ MC ' MB') = h


ABC v thuc min trong

Nu M thuc min ngoi gc C (m in 4) th:

( MA'+ MB' MC ') = h

Nu M thuc min trong gc i nh vi gc A (min 5) th:

( MA' MB' MC ') = h


Nu M thuc min trong gc i nh vi gc B (min 6) th:
33

( MB' MA' MC ') = h


Nu M thuc min trong gc i nh vi gc C (min 7) th:

( MC ' MA' MB') = h


Bi tp: 1) Cc im E, F nm trn cc cnh AB, BC ca hnh bnh hnh ABCD sao cho AF = CE. Gi I l giao
A H E

im ca AF, CE. Chng minh rng ID l tia ph gic n


B

ca gc AIC
I K F

Gi : chng t D thuc tia ph gic ca gc AIC , ta n v DH AF, DK IC, ri chng minh DH = DK. Hai on thng ny l cc SAFD = S ng cao ca AFD v CED c cnh ) t ng ng l AF v CE, do ch cn chng minh y o
CED

(cc din tch ny u bng na S

ABCD

2) Cho ABC c n BD ln hn k t C ca ABC

900 , D l im nm gia A v C. A

Chng minh rng tng cc khong cch t A v t C ng cao k t A v nh hn ng cao

34

K F A D E B H C

Gi : Gi AH, CK l cc CK

ng cao ca

ABC. K AE v

CF vung gc vi BD. Ta cn chng t AH < AE + CF < Cn biu din cc on thng AE, CF, AH, CK theo din tch ABC

35