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The identification of a physical malformation or a metabolic or genetic disorder in a baby before or after birth is very distressing for parents

and the wider family since such a defect may have an effect on babys health or threaten the babys life or developmental progress in the

A CONGENITAL ABNORMALITY OF SIGNIFICANCE OCCURS ABOUT ONCE IN EVERY 30 LIVE AND STILL BIRTH;IN 25% OF THESE BABIES THERE IS MORE THAN ONE DEFECT.MINOR ABNORMALITIES OCCUR IN ABOUT 3% OF TOTAL BIRTH

GENETIC BASIS SOCIAL GROUPS SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCE MALNUTRITION FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY INCREASING MATERNAL AGE

INFECTIONS ALCOHOL SMOKING DRUGS OF ADDICTION IRRADIATION MATERNAL DISEASE MULTIPLE BIRTH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PRESCRIPTION DRUGS

CAREFUL AND COMPREHENSIVE HISTORY TAKING FROM THE MOTHER AT THE FIRST ANTENATAL VISIT EDUCATION ABOUT ADEQUATE NUTRITION BEFORE CONCEPTION IMMUNISATON AGAINST INFECTIONS

ANANCEPHALY SPINA BIFIDA WITH HYDROCEPHALUS ENCEPHALOCELE SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY

TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES PULMONARY ATRESIA CARDIOMYOPATHY HYPOPLASTIC LEFT HEART SYNDROME

DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA EXOMPHALOS GASTROCHISIS INTESTINAL ATRESIAS

RENAL AGENESIS DYSPLASIS OR KIDNEYS

CYSTIC

TRISOMY 18 TRISOMY 13

RECOGNIZABLE SYNDROMES

MCAD

DEFICIENCY

CLEFT LIP AND CLEFT PALATE ANOMALIES WHICH CAUSE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION
ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA HIATUS HERNIA HYPERTROPHIC PYLORIC STENOSIS

NEONATAL OBSTRUCTION BELOW THE DUODENUM


DUODENAL ATRESIA ATRESIA OF JEJENUM MECKELS DIVERTICULUM HIRSCHPRUNGS DISEASE INCARCERATED INGUINAL HERNIA IMPERFORATE INGUINAL HERNIA

DISORDER OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE UMBLICUS


EXOMPHALOS GASTROCHISIS

COMMON HEART MALFORMATIONS Transposition of the great arteries Pulmonary atresia and critical pulmonary atresia Tricuspid atresia Total anamalous pulmonary venous drainage Persistent truncus arteriosus Fallots tertalogy Venticular septal defect,persistent ductus arteriosus

Choanal atresia Lung malformations


Congenital lung cysts Sequestration of the lungs Diaphragmatic hernia hypoplasia

POLYCYSTIC DISEASE PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME OBSTRUCTION IN THE URINARY TRACT ECTOPIA VESICAE EXTERNAL GENITALIA ABNORMALITIES Hypospadiasis Epispadiasis Imperforate hymen Adhesion of labia minora AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA Female , male pseudohermaphroditism

NEURAL TUBE ABNORMALITIES Anancephaly Encephalocele Spina bifida with meningocele Spinal dysraphism Congenital hydrocephalus hydrnencephaly

OTHER ABNORMALITIES OF HEAD SIZE AND SHAPE Congenital microcephaly Craniocytosis Turricephaly scaphocephaly

CONGENITAL DISLOCATION OF THE HIPS TALIPES EQUINO VARUS CALCANEOVALGUS SCOLIOSIS