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'n,{'T.n::>D ro....rn~.... ~.

OPT.!.M.M..., LOl-'iD SHARIN:3 IN ST'AI......:l'll -"~~'ITr.I S't:"!! rE"D·J'jT- FV.l·S f."-,-' ;t.6'U'.~i.L..

.PARALLEL UNITS

In: many sta.ti.ons (e"g ~, run·-of-the-riv's·.r proj"ects);, the flow is. de.c,ided by factors· outside the aper.a.tors Q'OI1ftrol. In these situations,; he can. only try to· optimize .~ production by seloot.in~r ·a beneficial flClVl sharing ootTNeen the. different .machine·s.. [The roost ccmoon, ide,as ·aOOut, wh.at is, best are:

al b,.

Run one. or m;)re a,ttheir.

run th.e remainingflctw' ..

best

e·ff ic'iency

and let the, last unit.

Run [all 'units at. the- .s~ :marginal ef,ficiency. Margin.al ef'fici'ency .is the Salm' ,as 'the tangent to· 'the ';power versus. flCM
curve ..

Non-e ,of t.he above i,deas

they are correce ,for. different

are corzect;

fo'r the, Y¥.hOle range parts of it!O

of f,lcw,. bu.t

2.,

,[)e'f initions,

Q PcMer't
E:o,I.,'lic.Lency I 'O&f"

= f(O) =p
'~

~Z

kQ

14

l,

tA
p .... 't(-Q)

=dP

kdJ

As, mar gi:n a.1 ,efficiency

c.unre ...

is; the der ivatte of ,P, it

.18

tile tangen:t, '00 the

3,'.
3~ 1

Mat:henlaticaJ.
Individruil

.Forrmlla uni,t.s ... '1.:A '~~ ,J\,UJ

Marginal.

ef,ficiencyi

Double derivate of.p


\
'

\ ~~~&~.. £L*
2

fourving

tJ + Q dlNl it' '00 of P ~ t{ en ;

Q ~~~

J •..2

~uni.ts Then. d'J

w'hen Q1,+ Q:2 ::::; O-rotal ;; Constant

1 ~ ~dQ2 =, dO
of PTotal'

Ileri vate

...

1 l:
A1 -

Do'ubledertvalt.e
~.PP.2 '"

,ftQ

d11 ct?

of P'f'Otal.':

+ d?A2
,Cij

4..

,~imal

flow :sharing between. tw() uni t._s of

optimal flow sh~ring is. the cQr\bination maximum PTOtal ~n Qlbta-I. Ls constant".
4~l lQ·e will h.ave e:xtib'em,e point.s .dP ,tal ;' (]I ~tiQ .'_
~.i

01 ,and 02 Whieh gives

(max.i.mum:" minumUJlh Q·r chanqe l , when,

4 ~:2 we wi.ll have a,

i).l

til
<:

:2

~'I.IDl

pednt; i.f ~
.0
j..,
...,. I

and a minirnutll:, poan t i,f:

J'Q'
,,'
_:

I..

~~.:'2al,. k au

2-

>,

' dif

.'r~ 17,,..(

>0
then we.

a)

If both
1:0. .... ;;7...,.
~.J.Q,v..:;:r. . ~
1,:,.,4

J? ;..,_ f(Q)
m~...,..~ "1I~~!I1~~~,~
W'riI .......

curves

:fo:l: 'the ac:tual

flO"Mi are: COO,~:,

b) 'c)

have a .minimum.

If both

p ~, F'(Q]; ClJirV9S

for the actual flew are concave" then ~

1£ one curve is C~ and. the other. is concave, then the curve with. the s.uQng:e'S·t curving will decide whethe:r we have ·a max:irnmn or. ,Bi. min.~U!i.lii :p.o&nt ~

5. 5.1
m:I..· .... . ' _ LJLL'::"

se
l

,i"'t!I~'F'9;.ac lwi.....u.. ~ ~~

'oc;:=t~!.~1·(jf:'1'-~~~th':ma o ...
. u · .,!!:,"""'"' ..... ....
"
'l!'

~~~~!l!inae~, an e,. .._..~. J.;n:~


iii

~~.Eo,_:J.l:v uu:J,,;·~t!K;l..L
JLA"lI' '.

'11,;.""'.""; .l~1

a:-.1I~li ~
.bI.

shaoe i::;Io.I.J! __ ~~

'~ii;s. _t-".Ld..

~!!:!I"".S
!-~lI]Il;;;lIr.IJllI.

't;h,::.,t i.f,
__ lid, __

~"'''''.l

~,.~.wU.~~i'~

,,/.

14, I~for

an 'upper'

MQ If.l'~

cheese ·ILl!
_

and.

5.2

AS

certain
nhe

f lows

·the P ;
I

we 'wi 11 not be able to find any lIlaXimurn .fo·r f lcws oolOli'l a value ," 'This ~an$ that only one unit should be running .. value...
should not 00' run with Iess thM a c,ertain flOW',. one machine operation will ~be: hi.gh~r than the above

f(Q)

curves

are· concave'

·at low flow' and convex.

••
at,

higb

H,owever, as tur'bines

theor.etical

r,ange for

5.3

Ot.mp:aring P = fCQ} curves Carl: be a gc:x>d visual :lreaIlS to oode.rstood the aens i tivi ·ty o.f the optimization.. This can be done both by ~ing tBngents, and by us.ing· transpa.re'nt. curve paper and adding them. graphically for diff·erent. ,~x:mbinatiOr!i~. I dentical Units

6..

6.1
6 •.. 2

F'?r" flows· bel.ow the peak effi'c.iency ~lQl fQ~ one unit.~ IJA.l ~ fJA2 ~rives nun.lmUm.. Consequen,ctly only one l:l\aChlne shall 00· :numJ..dg'.' //
'.# .i...... ..,;t.. f::fi' ".... .. .. UUl.,iLi,..!e Q".. 'w:~e pe~ e',.-'c.lency . fl'-eM fc Oll.e 'lmil' ·t--t - .1 or ". '~L ~ ·fJ~·.2 ..gi~s m.md.mum~. Cons~ntly bo-t.hmachi~s. shall ..be running at me SaffiS! flc.w.

F· - '.c.ows aeove __ or fl' ....];..~

-6 ..............::I'r-.,';b·l·

u~

6 ..3

a lOOl"e. detailed study is t:egui:r'ed~ The most likely outcore is that rule ls. ,should be used in t!'Ni l~r part and rule lb in the upper part. of this rang'i~h However', in this. area the P ~ f curve is normally fair l-y s.traigh'e" indicating th.at it is fl'at very' critical .if we' ar·e. ,a, little ,off from. the' g,p'tima.l flaw
abOv6;.

J?or. flo'w:s between the'

(-en
""

\r.:-U.LIUJ~

."".......'b."

'f"ij

IJ I"," -,..,I..,'I".,N.l

~,t' ~ .~

. - 'hi' t.~ ......._.....--. .... ,...'.a.'t., cne mac_._ne., ...\..- ',,,i,rIi,T--u~~~ii1ia - n:el,U~ . may 'I".;I~ '11 1'.... 'f' • 5't .1. k.-. app~ .1ey".. ,.,'\11;0;.~ 'g:Jle opt~mum cpe-ratlon ~~i ien ... '1:.." .or tlh'O' _~.~'L.. unes J.S iilBY " .found_, then W:rK ,ou.t a new' P ~ £(Q') curve for' an ~qui'ValelJt. of the two lliIachinesj and re;peat th.e two-machine method OObi-"eenthis and the next.

'If: ._

..,:1....
i- :

II...~-ie·

-t sa

t-"~-. zon

1;..,.

-nas- more

4-.l-. ... _. :J,;:,lL.~~

..=..'iI

me"lC~ine'- and._ ,e-a 0.... ___ II. II. -., __ ~.&.


Q _ Ii]

8~.

9:!F£lllter

Frogr'gm ~pro.ach,

8"1 'The de·scirbed method. of _c'~~irin~. ~4 is ,a:ppli.c,abl~ for manual optimization ,and visual understandingL But it is still 'very
l·aborsare~
However.f" \

.actually calcula;tes

i.t seems

faily' simple ·t.o mak.e a ,t:;onlpute'r prog.rwn ,all carbinations ,and pickS out. ·the );)est.

that
~

an ~ratioo band wi~hin which nos.:ignifcant the opti:mu:m is: abset'1l9.o1~ E ..9'." Ra.n.ge of c'c:mbina.t.ioo. that will :keep the ,efficiency within minus o .5% fran -the·'-ef.fic.iency at the optimal canbinatio:n~

I \'WOuld .roooomend t:hart such ~am

'also decline f~

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