2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿

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]p-kv-X-I-w- H--∂v- / e-°w- aq-∂-v / 2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-/1425 d-P-_v-

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F-¥p-sIm-≠-v C-ke
-v mw?-

hm-b-\-°m-cp-sS- kw-hm-ZwXn-cp-sam-gn]-{Xm-[-n-]¿-°v- ]-d-bm-\p-≈-XvZn-hy-kq-Iv-X-ß-fpw `u-Xn-I-Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fpwsN-dn-b-ap-≠w- A-_v-Zp¬- l-ao-Zv-

12 Jp¿-B\n-s≥-d- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- km-[ytam?-

tUm.- sI.-hn.- ao-\,- tIm-gn-t°m-S- vA-_v-Zp¬- l-Iow,- hn-f-bq¿-jm-en- F.- l-Iow,- -tIm-S-t©-cnA-_v-Zp-¿-d-lv-am≥,- \n-e-ºq¿A-_-vZp- -a-Zv,- I-Æq¿-

sI.-k-P-m-Zv-

20 kp-h-nti-j-߃- D-Xv-`-h-hpw- h-f¿-®-bpw-ap-l-Ω-Z-en- am-kv-‰¿-

30 `-Kv-h-Zv-Ko-X- H-cp- ]-T-\wkv-t\-l-Pm≥-

45 bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- X-I¿-®F.-d-Po-_v-

61 Rm-\-dn-bp-∂- C-kv-emw
sam-ln-Xv- tPm-j-n,- ss\-\n-‰mƒ-

70 a-Iv-Xn- kw-hm-Z-P-bw-!- ap-Iv-Xn- hn-fw-_-cw-!k-øn-Zv- k-\m-D-√- a-‡n- X-߃-

77 hy-Iv-Xn-Xz- hn-I-k-\w-:- C-kv-em-an-I- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\-߃Sn.-sI.- bq-kp-^v-

Iq-Sn-°m-gv-N- . . . . . . .

59
79 ]m-gm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂- I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-ß-fpw-


Zp¿-am¿-Kn- A-ß-s\-bm-b-Xv- A-h≥- \-∂m-I-W-sa-∂vA-√m-lp- D-t±-in-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠-t√?A-£-a-\m-bn- kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏-´-h≥- £-an-°m-Ø-XvIp-‰-a-m-Ip-∂-sX-ß-s\?a-\p-jy¿- Ip-g-∏-ap-≠m-°p-sa-∂v- a-e-°p-IƒF-ß-s\- a-\- n-em-°n?kv-{Xo-°v- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\-Øn\v- A-h-Im-i-ap-t≠m?ssZ-h-h-N-\-tam- Zq-X-s≥-d- h-N-\-tam?-

A-_v-Zp√- Pn-Pn- tPm¿-Pv-

86 a-X-ß-fp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn-se- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fpw- k-tµ-l-ß-fpw
\m-kzn-dp-±o≥,- ]´-m-ºn-

93 im-kv-{X-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bpw-ssZ-h-\n-tj-[-hpwA-_p-lw-\,- k-em-e-

95 £-Wn-°m-sX- h-cp-∂- A-X-n-YnD-kv-am≥- ]m-e-°m-gn-

Internet Edition: http://www.nicheoftruth.org/samvadam
Printed Published and owned by M.Mohammed Akbar. Printed at Screen Offset printers, Cochin-18. Published at Cochin-18.
Editor M.Mohammed Akbar, Niche of Truth, Kalabhavan Road, Cochin-18.

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

hm-b-\-°m-cp-sSkw-hm-Zw-

C-kv-em-apw- _-lp-`m-cy-Xz-hpwB¿.- \-S-cm-P-s≥-d- "Rm-\-dn-bp-∂- C-kvemw'-- F-∂- te-J-\-Øn¬- _-lp-`m-cy-XzsØ-°-p-dn-®p-≈- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- A-]-{KY-\-Øn¬-]-‰n-b- ]m-fn-®-Iƒ- D-W¿-Øp-Ibm-W-v Cu- Ip-dn-∏p-sIm-≠-v D-t±-in-°p-∂X
- .v C-kv-emw- H-cp- {]-Ir-Xn-a-X-am-Wv.- A-XpsIm-≠p-X-s∂- A-Xv- k-ºq¿-W-am-Wv.- 1425
h¿-jw-ap-ºv- A-h-X-cn-®- Jp¿-B≥- A-hkm-\- \m-fp-h-sc-bp-≈- P\-߃-°m-bn
tem-IØ
- n-s≥-d- {k-jSv- m-hv- X-s≥-d- A-¥n-a{]-hm-NI
- \
- n-eq-sS- A-hX
- c
- n-∏n-®p- .- A-t±-lwC-Xv- "23'- h¿-j-Im-e-b-f-hn¬- X-s≥-d- Pohn-X-Øn-eq-sS- {]m-h¿-Øn-I-am-°-n- tem-IØn-\-v Im-Wn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp.- C-ke
-v m-an-s≥-dap-Jy-{]-am-W-ßfm-Wv- Jp¿-B-\pw- \-_nN-cy-bpw.- -Jp¿-B\n-I- h -N-\-ß-sf- {]-hmN-I≥- F-ßs
- \- hn-iZ- o-Ic
- n-®p F-∂pw- Bhn-i-Zo-I-c-W-sØ- -\-√-h-cm-b- ap≥-Km-anIƒ- F-ß-s\- a-\- n-em-°n- F-∂p-w-Iq-Sn]-cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.""Cu- th-Z-{K-\v-Yw- Xm-¶ƒ-°- v- A-h-X-cn∏n-®p-X-∂-Xv- Xm-¶ƒ- P-\-߃-°v- A-Xv- hni-Zo-I-cn-°m≥-th-≠n-bm-Wv''- (16:-44).a\p-jy-a-\- n-s≥-d-bpw- i-co-c-Øns≥-dbpw- tX-´-am-Wv- A-h-s≥-d- ssew-KnI-kwXr-]v-Xn.--- Po-hn-X-Øn¬-\n-∂v- H-fn-t®m-Sm\-√;- Po-hn-®p-sIm-≠v- a-Xs
- Ø- ]p¿-Øn-bm°m-\m-Wv- C-kv-emw- a-\p-jy-t\m-Sv- I¬-]n
°p-∂-Xv.- C-∂v- ssew-KnI B-kzm-Z-\-Øn
\v- ]-e- am¿-Kß
- f
- p-≠v.- ssk-_¿- sk-Ivkns≥-d- bp-Ka
- m-Wn-Xv.- a-‰p-≈- F-√m- am¿-Khpw\n-tcm-[n-®- C-kve
- mw- A-hs
- ≥-d- ssew-KnIBkzm-Z-\-Øn-\v- A-h-s≥-d- ap-∂n¬- H-cpA-]m-ca
- m-b- Im-cp-Wy-Øn-s≥-d,- - am-\p-jnIX-bp-sS,- kw-kI
v- m-cØ
- n-s≥-d,- kvt- \-lØ
- ns≥-d- hm-Xn¬- Xp-d-∂n-Sp-∂p-;- A-Xm-Wv- hn
hm-lw.hn-hm-lØn-eq-sS- am-{X-w- ssew-Kn-I-kwXr-]v-Xn- t\-Sp-hm-\m-Wv- C-kv-emw- B-h-iys∏-Sp-∂-Xv.-- -- H-cp- hn-izm-kn-- hn-hm-ln-X-\mhp-∂tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn- A-h≥- X-s≥-d- a-X-Øns≥-d- ]-Ip-Xn- ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n- F-∂v- {]-hmN-I≥- {]-Jym-]n-°p-Ib
- p-≠m-bn.- A-{X-bpwa-l-Øm-b- Im-cy-am-bm-Wv- hn-hm-l-sØCkv-emw- Im-Wp-∂-Xv.-

2
C-kv-emw- hy-`n-Nm-c-sØ- \n-jn-≤-am-°nbn-cn--°p-∂p;- F-∂p-am-{X-a-√,- A-Xn-te-°vA- S p- ° - c p- X-v F- ∂ p- I q- S n- k- X y- h n- i zmkntbm-Sv- I¬-]n-°p-∂p- (17:-32).hy-`n-Nm-c-Øn-te-°p-≈- F-√m- ]-gp-Xp-I
fpw- A-S-®- C-kv-emw- A-∂v- k-aq-l-Øn¬\n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂- hn-Ir-X-am-b- _-lp-`m-cyXz-Øn-\v- H-cp- kp-µ-c-ap-J-am-Wv- \¬-In-bXv.- `m-cy-am-cp-sS- F-Æw- \n-b{- ¥n-°p-∂t- XmsSm-∏w- A-h¿-°p-≈- A-h-Im-i-hpw- A-htcm-Sp-≈- s]-cp-am-‰-hpw- am-\p-jn-I-am-°-nØo¿-Øp.Ckve
- mw- _-lp-`m-cy-Xzw- \n-tcm-[n-®n-´n√F-∂p-am-{X-a-√,- A-Xv- k-Xy-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ°v- A-\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-°n.- ap-ºv- I-gn-™pt]m-b- k-ap-Zm-b-ß-fn-epw- _-lp-`m-c-y-XzØn-s≥-d- \n-g-ep-Iƒ- \-ap-°v- Z¿-in-°m≥I-gn-bpw.C-kv-emw- _-lp-`m-cy-Xzw- A-\p-h-Zn-®t∏mƒ- ]m-en-t°-≠- a-c-ym-Z-Iƒ- B-bn-´mWv- (hn.-Jp.- 4:-3)- `m-cy-am-cp-sS- C-S-bn¬- \oXn-]m-en-°m≥- I¬-]n-®-Xv.\o-Xn- ]m-en-°-¬- am-\-kn-Iw--- ,- `u-Xn-I-w
F-∂o- c-≠p-X-e-ß-fn-ep-≠v.-- `u-Xn-I-am-bIm-cy-Øn¬- \o-Xn- A-f∂
- v- Xn-´s
- ∏-Sp-Øm≥\-ap-°v- km-[n-°pw- (`-£-Ww,- h-kv-{Xw,ho-Sv.- ..-).- F-∂m¬- am-\k
- n-Ia
- m-bn- \o-Xn- ]m
en-°m≥- B¿-°pw- km-[n-°p-I-bn-√.- `mcyam-cp-sS- hn-j-b-Øn-se-∂-√- H-cp- hn-j-b
Øn-epw-.- D-Zm-l-c-W-Øn-\v- H-cmƒ-°v- c-≠vIp-´n-If
- p-≠v- F-∂v- hn-Nm-cn-°p-I.- Cu- c≠vIp-´n-If
- p-sS-bn-Sb
- n¬- am-\k
- n-Ia
- m-bn- \oXn]m-en-°m≥- B¿-°v- km-[n-°pw?- c-≠v- Ip´nI-tfm-Sp-ap-≈- kvt- \-lØ
- n-s≥-d- A-fh
- v- hy
Xy-kv-X-am-bn-cn-°pw.- A-Xv- ]-e- L-S-I-ßsf-bpw- B-{i-bn-®n-cn-°pw.- Ip-´n-bp-sS- kz`m
hw,- kw-km-c-ssi-en,- A-dn-hv,- Im-cy- {]m]v-Xn- Xp-S-ßn-bh- - D-Zm-l-c-Ww.B-C-i-(J)- D-≤-cn-°p-∂- H-cp- l-Zo-Y-n¬C-ßs
- \- Im-Wmw-:- d-kq¬(A) X
- s
- ≥-d- Znhk-ßs
- f- `m-cy-am¿-°n-Sb
- n¬- `m-Kn-°p-Ib
- pwA-Xn¬- \o-Xn- ]m-en-°p-I-bpw-sN-bv-Xn-cp
∂p.- F-∂n-´v- ]n-s∂- A-hn-Sp-∂v- C-ß-s\]-d-bpw- ""A-√m-lp-th,- C-Xv- F-\n-°v- I-gnbp-∂- Im-cy-Øn-ep-≈- F-s≥-d- `m-Kn-°emWv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- \n-\°
- v- I-gn-bp-∂XpwF-\n-°v- I-gn-bm-Ø-Xp-am-b- Im-cy-Øn¬\o- F-s∂- Ip-‰-s∏-Sp-Ø-cp-tX''-.
C-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- \-ap-°v- a-\ 
- n-em-°mw,-- `mcy-am-cp-sS- C-S-bn¬- GXp-X-c-Øn-ep-≈\oXn- ]men-°m-\m-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- \n-jv-I¿jn-°p-∂-Xv F-∂v-.- C-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv- Jp¿B-≥- 4:-129-˛s≥d- hn-h-£.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

sN-cn-∏n-\\p-k-cn-®v- Im-ep ap-dn-°p-∂k{º-Zm-bw- C-kv-em-an-\v- A-\y-am-Wv.- P-\ß-fp-sS- C-jv-S-hpw- A-\n-jv-S-hpw- t\m
°nbpw -im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- A-f-hp-tIm-epsIm-≠pw- a-Xs
- Ø- sN-Øn-an-\p-°n- temIØn-\p-ap-∂n¬- k-a¿-]-n-°p-∂- co-Xn- Ckvemw-a-X-Ønen-√.-- 1425 h¿-jw-ap-ºp-X-s∂- C-kv-emw- ]q¿Øn-bm-bn- (5:-3).-- C-kv-emw- F-¥v- A-\p-hZn®p-thm- A-Xv- k-Xy-am-Wv,- {]-Ir-Xn-]-camW.v- - A-Xp-sIm-≠v- a-\p-jy¿-°v- Kp-W-ß
tf- D-≠-m-Iq.- C-kv-emw- F-¥v- hn-tcm-[n-®pthm- A-Xv- a-\p-jy¿-°v tZm-j-I-c-am-b-Xpam-{X-am-Wv-.- B- -ssZ-hn-I-a-X-Øn¬- H-∂pwIq-´n-t®¿-°m-sX- A-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- H-∂pwIpd-°m-sX- tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- ap-∂n¬- AhX-cn-∏n-t°-≠- I-S-a-bm-Wv- Hm-tcm- ap-k¬am-\p-ap-≈-Xv._-lp-`m-cy-Xzw- H-cp- k-m-aq-ln-I- {]-iv-\Øn-\v- ]-cn-lm-cw-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv.- C-∂v- tem-IØn-se- P-\-kw-Jym-\n-c-°v- ]-cn-tim-[n®m¬,-- {`--q -W-l-Xy- \-S-°m-Ø-- F-√m- cmjv{S-ß-fn-epw- kv-{Xo-Iƒ-Xs∂-bm-Wv- Iq-SpX¬- F-∂v- Im-Wmw.- P-\-\-\n-c-°n¬- IqSpX-ep-≈- kv-{Xo-Iƒ- a-c-W-\n-c-°n¬- ]n-∂nep-am-sW-∂v- Im-Wmw.- bp-≤ß
- f
- n-epw- A]I-S- a-c-W-ß-fn-epw -a-‰p- A-kz-`m-hn-I- a-c
W-ßf
- n-epw- ]p-cp-j∑
- m¿- ap-∂n¬- \n¬-°p∂p.- C-ß-s\- A-[n-Iw-h-cp-∂- \-Ωp-sS- k
tlm-Zc
- n-am-sc- B-[p-\n-I- k-aq-lØ
- n-\v- F¥v- sN-øm≥- I-gn-bpw?-- A-h-cp-sS- ap-∂n-ep
≈- am¿-K-߃,- kz-h¿-K-c-Xn-bpw- th-iymhr-Øn-bpw- _-lp-`m-cy-Xz-hp-am-Wv.- C-kvemw- tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- ap-∂n¬- sh-°p-∂Xv_-lp-`-m-cy-Xz-am-Wv.- A-X-√m-Ø- G-sX-¶nepw- [m¿-an-I-am-b-- am¿-K-߃- D-t≠m.Ds≠-¶n¬- F-¥m-Wv?B-kn-^v- s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ- (dn-bm-Zv)-

]p-\¿-hm-b-\- F-∂- B-i-bwB-K-kv-‰v- e-°w- kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Z-Øn¬Rm≥- F-gp-Xn-b- "C-kv-em-an-\v- ]p-\¿-hmb\-tbm'- F-∂- Ip-dn-∏n¬- "th-Z-ß-fp-sS- ]p
\¿-hm-b-\ F-∂- B-i-bw- 1920I-fn¬- bqtdm-∏n¬- hn-Ik
- n-®p-h∂
- X
- v- a-Xh
- n-cp-≤a
- mbho-£-W-ß-fp-sS- `m-K-am-bm-Wv'- F-∂vFgp-Xn-bn-cp-∂p.- Cu- Im-eb
- f
- h
- v- A-{X- IrXy-a-√.- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- N-cn-{X-hp-ambn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- Nn-¥n-°p-tºmƒ- F-°me-Øpw- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-˛k-`m-hn-cp-≤- Nn-¥mK-Xn-°m-cm-b- kz-X-{¥- Nn-¥-I¿- ss_-_nfn-\v- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- B-h-iy-s∏-´v- h-∂n-´p≈-Xv- Im-Wmw.- A-Ø-cw- L-´-ß-fn¬]p\¿-hm-b-\- F-∂-Xv- "k-`-m-hn-cp-≤-am-b-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿hm-b-\'- F-∂- A¿-Y-Øn-em-Wv- ]-cn-K-Wn°-s∏-´-Xv.- ]n-∂o-Sv- s{]m-´-kv-‰≥-dv- hn-π-hØn-s≥-d-bpw- a-X-\-ho-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d-bpwL-´-Øn¬- au-en-I-hm-Z-]-c-am-b- H-c¿-Yw- ˛"i-cn-bm-b- hm-b\
- '- F-∂- A¿-Yw- ˛ ]p-\¿hm-b\
- °
- v- e-`n-®p.- A-hn-sS-\n-∂p-am-Wv- hy
IvX
- n-\n-jT
v- h
- pw- th-dn-´X
- p-am-b- ]-eX
- c
- w- hmb-\-I-fp-sS- X-e-Øn-te-°v- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\bp-sS- A¿-Y-w- hy-Xn-N-en-®pw- hym-]n-®pwap-t∂m-´v- t]m-bn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂X
- v.- I-ayq-Wnk-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- am¿-Iv-kn-k-Øn-s≥-d-bpwkzm-[o-\-^-e-am-bn- hn-tam-N-\- ssZ-h-imkv-{Xw- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h-∂-t∏mƒ- Iq-SpX¬- hn-]p-e-am-b- A¿-Y-X-e-߃- e-`yambn.- C-Xn-s≥-d- Im-e]
- c
- n-[n- 1940˛1960 B
Wv.- em-‰n-\-ta-cn-°≥- ssZ-h-im-kv-{X- Nn
¥-I-cpw- am¿-Iv-kn-kv-‰v- hym-Jym-Xm-°-fpwkz-X-{¥-am-\-h-hm-Zn-I-fp-am-Wv- th-Z-]p-\¿hm-b-\- F-∂- B-i-b-Øn-\v- hn-]p-e-am-b{]-Nm-cw- \¬-In-b-Xv.- 1920I-fn¬- hn-tam-N\-ssZ-h-im-kv-{Xw- A-Xn-s≥-d- _o-Pm-h-kvY-bn¬-t]m-epw- B-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v- Hm¿-°Ww-˛ B- L-´-Øn¬- a-X-\n-cm-I-c-WNn¥m-KX
- n-°m-cm-b- sk-Iyp-ed
- n-k‰
v- p-If
- pwdm-j-W-en-kv-‰p-I-fpam-Wv- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\hm-Z-°m-cm-bn- cw-K-Øp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xv.hntam-N-\-ssZ-h-im-kv-{X- Nn-¥-I-cm-btlm-sk- an-dm≥-U,- sP-bnw-kv- ln-®vtIm¨,- Kp-kv-Xm-thm- Kp-Øn-tb-gv-kv,- Ae-Iv-kv- hn-Kv-kv-am¿-kv,- Imƒ- se-hnw-Kv-kv,am¿-´n≥- ^v-fq- \n-®v- Xp-S-ßn-b-h≥- em-‰n\-ta-cn-°≥-˛bq-tdm-]y≥- kz-X-{¥- Nn-¥I¿-°n-S-bn¬- ss_-_n-fn-s≥-d- ]p-\¿-hmb-\- F-∂- B-i-bw- Xo-{h-am-bn- {]-N-cn-∏n®p.- tlm-sk-bp-sS- "I-ayq-Wn-kw- C≥ss_-_nƒ'-,- A-eI
- vk
- v- am¿-kn-s≥-d- "tkmjy-en-kw- B≥-dv- {In-kvX
- y≥ Xn-tbm-fP
- n',am¿-´n≥- ln-®n-s≥-d- "am¿-Iv-kn-kw- B≥dvss{I-kv-‰v'-- F-∂n-h- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\m-]-c-ambn- ss_-_n-fn-s\- k-ao-]n-®- Ir-Xn-If
- mWv.C-h-bn¬- Nn-e-Xv- tI-c-f-Øn-se- hn-tam-N\- ssZ-h-im-kv-{X- Nn-¥-I-cm-b- A-]q¿-hwNn-e F-gp-Øp-Im-cp-sS- Ir-Xn-I-fn¬- ]-cma¿-in-®p-Im-Wm-sa-¶n-epw- th-≠{X- ]-cn-NnX-a√-;- ta¬-]-d-™- Ir-Xn-I-fn¬-]-e-XpwtI-c-f-Øn-ep-≈-h¿-°v.- C-S-Xp-]-£- Nn-¥I-fpw- ssZ-h-im-kv-{X- k-ao-]-\-ß-fpw- Bg-Øn¬- N¿-®- sN-ø-s∏-Sm-Xn-cn-°p-∂- tIc-f-Øn-se- h-c-≠- ss[-j-Wn-I- ]-iv-NmØ-ew- ta¬-]-d-™- Ir-Xn-I-sf- A-]-cn-NnX-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- ta-Je
- b
- n-te-°v- X-≈p-Ib
- mWp-≠m-b-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- B-i-b-X-eØn¬- hn-tam-N\
- - ssZ-hi
- m-kv{- X-sØ- N¿®m-hn-t[-b-am-°p-∂- c-N-\-Iƒ- D≠m-bn-´n-

3

A-dn-bn-∏v- "kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Zw'- kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏m-Wv- \n-ß-fp-sS- I-øn-en-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- 20
cq-]- hn-e-bp-≈- -kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn∏v- c-≠p- e-°w- kw-hm-Z-am-bn- h-cn-°m¿- ]-cnK-Wn-°p-hm≥- Xm¬-]-cyw.˛ ]-{Xm-[n-]¿s√-∂p-Xs
- ∂- ]-db
- mw.- C-ke
v- mw- kz-bw- Hcphn-tam-N-\- ]-≤-Xn-bm-Wv- F∂n-cn-s°,- hn
tam-N-\- ssZ-h-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- ss{I-kv-Xh]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn¬- e-`n-®- ss[-j-Wn-I{]`m-hw- C-kv-em-an-I- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn¬e-`n-°p-I- km-[y-hp-a-√.- ]p-\¿ hm-b-\F∂- B-i-b-sØ- C-kv-em-an-I- \n-e-]m-SpI-fn¬-\n-∂p-sIm-≠v- {]-Xn-tcm-[n-t°-≠n-hcp-∂-Xpw- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂-bmWv.A-_v-Zp¿-d-Du-^v,- H-‰-∏m-ew-

tPym-Xn-j-sØ-°p-dn®p-X-s∂tPym-Xn-js
- Ø-°p-dn-®v- h-kvX
- p-Xm-]c
- a
- mbn-A-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬- ]-cm-i-c-tlm-c,- Pm-XI-hm-cn-Pm-X-Iw,- Z-i-m-[-ym-bn,- b-h-\-Pm-XIw,- h-cm-lt- lm-c- F-∂n-ßs
- \-bp-≈- ASnkvY
- m-\- tPym-Xn-j- {K-\Y
v- ß
- ƒ- hm-bn-®m¬a-Xn-bm-Ipw.- ]-cm-i-c- al¿-jn- e-K-[-s\°m-fpw- h-cm-l-an-ln-c-s\-°m-fpw- {]m-No-\\-m-Wv- (_n.-kn.- 700\pw- 500\pw- C-S-bn¬).kq-cy≥- {_-lv-a-kz-cq-]-\m-sW-∂v- th-Z
߃- ]-d-bp-∂p.- {_-lv-aw- ssN-X-\y-am-Wt√m.- C-Xn-epw- h-ep-Xm-hn-√- Z-bm-\-µ- k-ckz-Xn-bp-sS- hm-°p-Iƒ- F-∂v- hn-iz-kn-°p∂p.- Cw-•o-jv- a-cp-∂p-I-sf-t∏-m-se- im-kv{Xo-b-am-bn- hn-i-I-e-\w- sN-øm≥- ]-‰m-ØXm-W-t√m- B-bp¿-th-Z- a-cp-∂p-Iƒ.- B
bp¿-th-Z-Øn-\v- t]-‰≥-dv- F-Sp-°m-\pw- AXm-W-t√m- H-cp- X-S- w.- ]-t£,- A-Xn-s≥d^-ew- A-\p-`-h- k-Xy-am-W-t√m.- tPym-Xnj-hpw- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv.- hn-izkn-°m-Ø-h¿D-s≠-∂p-I-cp-Xn- tPym-Xn-jw- sX-‰m-hn-√.I-fn-bn-te¿-s]-´-h-\v- hn-b¿-∏-dn-bn-√- F-∂p]-d™
t- ]m-se,- i-co-cØ
- n-se- tIm-iß
- ƒA-\p-\n-an-jw- \-in-°p-I-bpw- ]p-\¿-\n¿-an°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂-Xv- \m-adn-bp-∂n-√.C-Xp-t]m-se- {K-l-kzm-[o-\-hpw- \m-a-dn-bp∂n-√- F-∂-Xm-Wv- k-Xyw.- tPym-Xn-j-sØ°-p-dn-®v- F-gp-Xp-tºmƒ- F-\n-°v- H-cp- ]-¶∏m-Spw- C-√- F-∂p-]-d-b-s´.- \-jv-S-Pm-X-IwtNm-Zn-°m≥- tPym-Xv-ky-s\- k-ao-]n-°ptºmƒ- sh-‰n-eb
- p-w- A-S°
- b
- pw- h-kv{- X-hpwsIm-≠p-t]m-I-Ww- F-∂v- \n¿-_-\v-[-an-√.F-ßs
- \- c-≠p-t]¿- H-∂n-®p-sN-∂m-epw- Ah-ch
- c
- p-sS- \m-fn-\\
- p-kc
- n-®- Pm-XI
- w- X-s∂bm-hpw- e-`n-°p-I- F-∂-Xn-\v- H-cp- kw-i-bkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

hpw- th-≠.- ]-co-£n-®p-t\m-°n-bn-´m-Wv- CXn-\v- a-dp-]-Sn- F-gp-tX-≠-Xv- F-∂v- A-t]
£n-°p-∂p.]n.-hn.-i-¶-c-\-\m-c-m-b-W≥I-S-º-gn-∏p-dwtPym-Xn-js
- Ø-°p-dn-®p-≈- N¿-®- h-fs
- cXm¬-]c
- y-tØm-sS-bm-Wv- hm-bn-®p- Xo¿-ØXv.- {io- i-¶-c-\m-cm-b-W-\- v- X-s≥-d- h-mZß
ƒ- k-a¿-Yn-°m≥- I-gn-™n-´n-s√-∂-Xm-Wvh-kv-Xp-X.- D-kv-am≥- ]m-e-°m-gn-bp-sS- hmZ
ap-J-ß-sf- J-fin-°m≥- {i-an-°m-sX-bpwA-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- tNm-Zy-߃-°v- a-dp-]-Sn\¬-Im-sX-bpw- a-s‰-s¥m-s°-tbm- ]-d™
va-dp-]-Sn- \¬-In-sb-∂v- h-cp-Øn-Øo-°p-Ibm-Wv- A-t±-lw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. H-cpth-f,-- tPym-Xn-j-Øn¬- -k-Xy-an-t√- F-∂Nn-¥- Cu-bp-≈h
- f-ps
- S a-\ 
- n-ep-Zn-®ncp∂p.B- Nn-¥- ]m-sS- Xp-S®
- p-If
- b
- p-hm≥- "kvt\l-kw-hm-Z'--Øn-\p- km-[n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.tI-c-f-Øn¬- -A-\-h-[n- tPy-m-Xn-jn-Iƒ"tk-h-\w-'- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.
{]-hN
- \
- h
- o-c∑
- m-cm- b
- - A-h¿-s°m-∂pw- P\ß-sf-bpw- \m-Sn-s\-bpw- _m-[n-°p-∂- KpcpX-c-am-b- {]-iv-\-ß-sf-°p-dn-s®m-∂pw- {]-hNn-°m≥- km-[n-°m-Ø-sX-t¥?H-fn-ºn-Iv-kn¬- C-¥y-°v- F-{X- sa-U-epIƒ- In-´pw?- \m-Ww-sI-´p- a-S-ßp-tam?- C¥-yb
-- n-se- P-\-tIm-Sn-Iƒ- B-i-bn-epw- Bi-¶b
- n-ep-am-Wv.- H-cp- tPy-mX
- n-jn-bpw- C-°mcy-߃- {]-h-Nn-®p-I-≠n-√.X-kv-eo-am-_m-\p,- aw-K-em-]p-cw-

an-I-®- tk-h-\wH-cp- sse-{_-dn-bn¬-\n-∂v- bm-Zr-—n-I-ambm-Wv- kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Zw- {i-≤-bn¬-s]-´Xv.- tI-c-f-Øn¬- C-ßs-- \-bpw- H-cp- {]-kn≤o-I-c-W-a-p-s≠-∂v- A-t∏m-gm-Wv- A-dn-bp∂-Xv. ss[-j-Wn-I-am-b- N-¿-®-I-fm-Wv- C∂n-s≥-d- B-h-iyw-;- A-\m-h-iy-am-b- X¿°-hn-X¿-°-ß-f-√.- Cu- cw-K-Øv- Xn-I-®pwam-Xr-Im-tbm-Ky-am-b- tk-h\
- a
- m- W
- v- kw-hm- bX
Zw- sN- v- p--Xp-sIm≠-nc
- n-°p-∂X
- v.- kvt- \-lkw-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- A-Wn-b-d- in¬-]n-I-sflr-Z-b-]q¿h-w- A-`n-\-µn-°-s´.
i-in-Ip-am¿-.-kn.-sI,-I-Æq¿--

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

4

\o-Xn-bp-sS- \n-d-Ip-Sw-˛ A_q-ap-^o-Zv-

B-C-i(J)- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- H-cp- a-Jv-kqw- tK-m-{X-°m-cn-bp-sS- tam-j-W-t°-kv- Jpssd-in-Iƒ-°v- hn-j-a-{]-i-v\-am-bn.- ""A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- Zq-X-t\m-Sv- A-h-fp-sS- {]iv-\w- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- B-cm-Wv- kw-km-cn-°p-I?''.- A-h¿- X-Ωn¬- X-Ωn¬- At\z-jn-®p.- ""Xn-cp-ta-\n-bp-sS- C-jv-S-\m-b- D-km-a-Xp-_v-\p- ssk-Zn-\-√m-sX- a-‰m¿°m-Wv- A-Xn-\v- ss[-cyw- h-cn-I''?- C-Xm-bn-cp-∂p- A-h-cp-sS-sb-√mw- A-`n-{]mbw.- A-ß-s\- D-km-a-(J)- \-_n-(A)-tbm-Sv- kw-km-cn-®p.- A-t∏mƒ- Xn-cp-ta-\n(A)- tNm-Zn-®p-:- ""A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- in-£m-hn-[n-bn¬- \o- ip-]m¿-i-bp-am-bn- hcn-I-tbm?''.- Xp-S¿-∂v- A-hn-Sp-∂v- sN-bv-X- H-cp- {]-kwK-Øn¬- C-{]-Im-cw- ]-d™p-:- ""D-∂-X¿- tam-jv-Sn-®m¬- sh-dp-sX- hn-Sp-I-bpw- Zp¿-_-e¿- tam-jv-Sn-®m¬in-£- \-S-∏m-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂- ]-Xn-hv- \n-ß-fp-sS- ap≥-Km-an-Iƒ-°n-S-bn¬\n-e-\n-∂-Xv- A-h-cp-sS- \m-i-Øn-\v- tl-Xp-hm-bn-´p-≠v.- A-√m-lp-hn-s\-s°m-≠vk-Xyw.- ap-l-Ω-Zn-s≥-d- a-Iƒ- ^m-Xzn-a-bm-Wv- tam-jv-Sn-°p-∂-sX-¶n¬- Rm≥- Ah-fp-sS- ssI- ap-dn-°p-I-X-s∂- sN-øpw''-!-

ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-bp-sS,-- ap-I-fn¬-sImSp-Ø- A-Xyp-Pz-e-am-b- {]-Jym-]-\w- temIN-cn-{X-Øn¬- A-Xp-ey-am-Wv-;- B-[p-\n-Item-I-sØ- `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ-°v- Nn-¥n
°p-I-t]m-epw- A-k-m-[y-am-b- {]-Jym-]-\w.\o-Xn-bn¬- \n-e-sIm-≈p-I-bpw- \o-Xn-°pth-≠n- hm-Zn-°p-I-bpw- kz-¥w- sN-bv-Xn
Iƒ- \o-Xn-bn¬- A-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-°n-b- H-cpk-aq-ls
- Ø- hm¿-sØ-Sp-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-bvX{]-hm-NI
- ≥- am-\h
- c
- n¬- a-tlm-∂X
- \
- m-sW∂v- t_m-[y-s∏-Sm≥- Cu-sbm-cp- {]-Jym-]\w- am-{Xw- t]m-tc?kz-P\
- ]
- £
- ]
- m-XØ
- n-s≥-d- ]n-Sn-bn-ea
- ¿∂-h-cm-Wv- C-∂-sØ- an-°- `-c-Wm-[n-ImcnI-fpw.- C-kv-emw- A-Xv- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂n√.hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-db
- p-∂p-:- ""k-Xy-hnizmkn-I-tf,- \n-߃- A-√m-lp-hn\-p-th-≠nkm-£yw- h-ln-°p-∂-h-sc-∂- \n-e-bn¬IWn-i-am-bn- \o-Xn- \n-e-\n¿-Øp-∂-h-cmbncn-°-Ww.- A-Xv- \n-߃-°p-X-s∂-tbm\nß-fp-sS- am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ,- A-Sp-Ø- _\v[p-°ƒ- F-∂n-h¿-t°m- {]-Xn-Iq-e-am-bn-cp∂m-epw- i-cn''- (4:-135).tIm-Sn-Iƒ- I-´-h≥- a-{¥n-bm-bn- t]m-

eo-kv- A-I-º-Sn-bn¬- k-©-cn-°p-tºmƒ,hn-i-∏-S-°m≥- sdm-´n- tam-jv-Sn-®-h≥- P-bnegn-Iƒ-°p-≈n¬- I-gn-bp-∂p- \-Ωp-sS- \m´n¬.- \o-Xn-k-a-Xzw- {]-Jym-]-\-Øn-te-bp≈q-;- {]m-tbm-Kn-I- X-e-Øn-en-√.- Jp¿-B≥]-d-bp-∂p- ""(I-£n)- [-\n-I-t\m- Z-cn-{Z-t\mB-Is
- ´.- B- c-≠-v hn-`m-Kt- Øm-Spw- IqSpX¬_-\v-[-s∏-´-h≥- A-√m-lp-hm-Ip-∂p.- A-Xn
\m¬- \n-߃- \o-Xn-]m-en-°m-sX- X-∂njvS-ß-sf- ]n≥-]-‰-cp-Xv.- \n-߃- h-f-s®m-Sn°p-I-tbm- H-gn-™p-am-dp-I-tbm- sN-øp-∂]-£w- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- \n-߃- {]-h¿-Øn°p-∂-Xn-s\-∏-‰n-sb-√mw- kq-£v-a-am-bnAdn-bp-∂-h-\m-Ip-∂p- A-√m-lp''- (4:-135).am-Xm-]n-Xm-°-tfm-Spw- C-W-I-tfm-Spwa°-tfm-Spw- a-‰p- Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ß-tfm-SpwAb¬-°m-tcm-Spw- F-∂p-th-≠- F-√m-h
tcm-Spw- \o-Xn-]m-en-°m≥- C-kv-emw- A-\pim-kn-°p-∂p.- hy-Iv-Xn-I-sf- t\m-°n- \n-e]m-sS-Sp-°p-∂-Xv- C-kv-emw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p∂n-√.- \-_n-(A)-sb- I-Tn-\-am-bn- hn-a¿-in
°p-I-bpw- am-\-kn-I-am-bn- ]o-Un-∏n-°p-Ibpw- sN-bv-Xncp-∂-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p- PqX-∑m¿.A-h-tcm-Sv- ssI-s°m-t≈-≠- \n-e-]m-Sn
kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

_p-Jm-cn-,ap-kv-enw-

s\°p-dn-®v-A√m-lp- \-_n-(A)-°v- \¬Ip∂- D-Ø-c-hn¬- C-{]-Im-cw- Im-Wmw-:""..... F-∂m¬- \o- Xo¿-]pIev-]n-°p-Ibm-sW-¶n¬- A-h¿-°n-Sb
- n¬- \o-Xn-]q¿-hwXo¿-]p-Iev]
- n-°p-I.- \o-Xn- ]m-en-°p-∂hscXo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-√m-lp- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp∂p''(5:-42).hn-j-bm-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-b- Xp-d-∂- a-\- mbn-cn-°-Ww- Hm-tcm- {]-iv-\-tØm-Spw- ap-kvenw-Iƒ-°p-≠m-bn-cn-t°-≠-Xv.- i-{Xp-°
tfm-Sp-t]m-epw- A-\o-Xn- Im-Wn-®p-Iq-Sm.""k-Xy-hn-izm-kn-I-tf,- \n-߃- A-√m
lp-hn-\p-th-≠n- \n-e-sIm-≈p-∂-h-cpw- \o
Xn-°v- km-£yw- h-ln-°p-∂h
- c
- p-am-bn-cn-°pI.- H-cp- P-\-X-tbm-Sp-≈- A-a¿-jw- \o-Xn]m-en-°m-Xn-cn-°m≥- \n-߃-°v- t{]-cI
- a
- mI-cp-Xv.- \n-߃- \o-Xn- ]m-en-°p-I.- A-Xm
Wv- [¿-a\
- n-jvS- T
- t- bm-Sv- G-‰h
- pw- A-Sp-ØXv.\n-߃- A-√m-lp-hn-s\- kq-£n-°p-I.- Xo¿®-bm-bpw- \n-߃- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂-Xn-s\°p-dn-s®-√mw- A-√m-lp- kq-£v-a-am-bn- Adn-bp-∂-h-\m-Ip-∂p''- (5:-8).-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

5

]-{Xm-[-n-]¿-°v- ]-d-bm-\p-≈-Xv-....-

A-dn-hpw- {]-t_m-[-\-hpwX-\n-°v- Np-‰p-ap-≈- k-aq-l-Øn-\v- c-£m-am¿-K-sØ-°p-dn-®- A-dn-hv- \¬-Ip-I-bpw- A-Xn-te-°v- £Wn°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂-h-\m-Wv- C-kv-em-an-I- {]-t_m-[-I≥.- k-Xy-sa-¥m-sW-∂v- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- sX-cy-s∏-Sp
Øm≥- {i-an-°p-∂-h¿-°v- kz-bw-X-s∂- k-Xy-sØ-°p-dn-®- hy-Iv-X-am-b- A-dn-hp-≠m-th-≠-Xv- A-\n-hmcy-am-Wv.- tam-£-Øn-s≥-d- ]m-X-sb-∏-‰n- Ir-Xy-hpw- hy-Iv-X-hp-am-bn- A-dn-bm-Ø-h¿-s°-ß-s\-bm-Wv- {]kvXp-X- ]m-X-bn-te-°v- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- £-Wn-°m≥- I-gn-bp-I?- A-dn-hp-≈-h-cm-Wv- {]-t_m-[-\- {]-h¿-Ø-\ß-fn¬- t\-cn-´v- ]-¶m-fn-I-fm-th-≠-Xv.- Xm≥- £-Wn-°p-∂-Xv- F-¥n-te-°m-tWm- A-Xn-s\-°p-dn-®- hy-IvX-hpw- Ir-Xy-hp-am-b- A-dn-h-v t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°p-hm≥- {]-t_m-[-\- {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn¬- ]-s¶-Sp-°p-∂-h-sc√mw_m-[y-kv-Y-cm-Wv.- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ""(\-_n-tb),- ]-d-bp-I:-- C-Xm-sW-s≥-d- am¿-Kw-.ZrV--t _m-[y-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn- A-√m-lp-hn-te-°v- Rm≥- £-Wn-°p-∂p.- Rm-\pw- F-s∂- ]n≥-]-‰n-b-h-cpw-.A-√m-lp- F-{X- ]-cn-ip-≤≥.- Rm≥- (A-h-t\m-Sv-)- ]-¶p-tN¿-°p-∂- Iq-´-Øn-e-√-X-s∂''- (12:-108).Cu- h-N-\-Øn¬- "Zr--V-t_m-[y'-sa-∂v- ]-cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- "_-kzo-d-Øv'- F-∂- ]-Z-sØbm-Wv.- £-Wn-°p-∂- hn-j-b-Øn-ep-≈- {]-am-W-_-≤-hpw- a-\- n¬- Dƒ-s°m-≠p-sIm-≠p-ap-≈- Pv-Rm-\am-Wv- Cu- ]-Zw- hn-h-£n-°p-∂-sX-∂m-Wv- hym-Jym-Xm-°-fp-sS- s]m-Xp-hm-b- ]-£w.- F-¥n-te-°m-tWmH-cmƒ- £-Wn-°p-∂-Xv- A-Xv- {]-am-W-_-≤-am-tWm-sb-∂v- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-hm≥- A-bmƒ- _m-[y-kv-Y\mWv.- Jp¿-B-\pw- kp-∂-Øp-am-Ip-∂- C-kv-e-m-an-I- {]-am-W-߃- {]-Zm-\w- sN-øp-∂- B-i-b-߃-Xs∂-bm-tWm- Rm≥- P-\-k-a-£w- sh-°p-∂-sX-∂v- Ir-Xy-am-bn- ]-cn-tim-[n-°-s∏-S-Ww.- {]-am-W-ß-fn¬\n-∂v- G-sX-¶n-epw- X-cØ
- n-ep-≈- hy-Xn-bm-\ß
- ƒ- {i-≤b
- n¬-s]-´m¬- ˛ A-Xv- kq-£va
- a
- m-sW-¶n¬-t]mepwXn-cp-Øp-hm-\pw- A-h-bp-sS- \n-jv-Ir-jv-S-am-b- ]m-X-bn-te-°v- Xn-cn-®p-h-cp-hm-\pw- F-t∏m-gpw- {]-t_m-[I≥- _-≤-{i-≤-\m-h-Ww.- A-tXm-sSm-∏w-X-s∂- {]-t_m-[n-X-cp-sS- ap-∂n¬- k-a¿-]-n-°-s∏-Sp-∂- B-i-bwX-s≥-d- D-≈n¬- kzm-[o-\w- sN-ep-Øn-bn-´p-t≠m-sb-∂v- kz-bw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-Ib
- pw- X-\n-°p-Xs
- ∂- ]q¿Wkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

6

am-bn- Dƒ-s°m-≈m≥- I-gn-bm-Ø- Im-cy-am-sW-¶n¬- A-Xv- X-s≥-d- A-dn-hn-s≥-d- A-]-cym-]v-X-X-sIm-≠msW-∂v- a-\- n-em-°p-I-bpw- Iq-Sp-X¬- ]-Tn-®v- kz-bw- Dƒ-s°m-≠-ti-jw- am-{Xw- A-°m-cyw- P-\-k-a£wsh-°p-I-bpw- sN-ø-Ww.- C-h-bv-s°-√mw-X-s∂- A-dn-hv- A-\n-hm-cy-am-Wv.- Xm≥- ]-d-bp-∂- hn-j-b-ß-fnep-≈- Ir-Xy-am-b- A-dn-hv- t\-Sn-sb-Sp-Ø-h-\-m-I-Ww- {]-t_m-[-I-s\-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- C-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv.Pv-Rm-\-ap-≈-h-cpw- hn-Pv-Rm-\- k-ºm-Z-\-Øn-\m-bn- k¿-h-m-Xv-a-\m- ]-cn-{i-an-°p-∂-h-cp-am-I-Ww- A-h¿.a-X-]-c-am-b- hn-j-b-ß-fn-se-√mw- A-Km-[-am-b- A-dn-hv- t\-Sn-b-Xn-\p-ti-jw- am-{X-sa- H-cmƒ- k-XyaX- {]-t_m-[-\-Øn-\v- ap-Xn-tc-≠-Xp-≈q-sh-∂v- C-Xn¬-\n-∂v- B-cpw- a-\- n-em-°n-°q-Sm-Ø-Xm-Wv.""F∂n¬-\n-∂v- \n-߃- H-cp- B-b-sØ-¶n-epw- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-I''-sb-∂- {]-hm-N-II¬-]-\-bn¬-\n-∂v-,- A-dn-bp-∂- Im-cy-߃- A-dn-bm-Ø-h¿-°v- D-]-tZ-in-®p-sIm-Sp-t°-≠-Xv- Hm-tcm-cp-Øcp-sS-bpw- _m-[y-X-bm-sW-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv- a-\- n-em-hp-∂-Xv.- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d-- A-¥n-a-{]-kw-K-Øns≥-dH-Sp-°-Øn¬- "lm-P-cp-≈-h¿- lm-P-c-n-√m-Ø-h¿-°pw- Cu- k-tµ-i-sa-Øn-°-Ww'- F-∂v- \n¿-tZ-in-®-Xn¬\n∂pw- a-\- n-em-hp-∂-Xv- a-s‰m-∂-√.- \-∑- D-]-tZ-in-°p-I-bpw- Xn-∑- X-S-bp-I-bpw- sN-tø-≠-Xv- Hm-tcm-cpØ-cp-sS-bpw- _m-[y-X-bm-sW-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv- {]-hm-N-I-h-N-\-߃- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- k-Xyw-sIm-≠v- D]-tZ-in-°m-Ø-h¿- \-jv-S-°m-cm-sW-∂ Jp¿-B\n-I-h-N-\w- \¬-Ip-∂- A-dn-hpw- C-Xp-X-s∂.- Hm-tcm- apkv-enapw- A-bm-fp-sS- Ign-hpw- A-dn-hp-a-\p-k-cn®v- {]-t_m-[-\-{]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn¬- ]-¶m-fn-I-fm-hp-I-Xs∂- th-W-sa-∂¿-Y-w.- Xm≥- {]-t_m-[-\w- sN-øp-∂- hn-j-b-߃- {]-am-W-_-≤-am-tWm-sb-∂v- ]-cn-tim[n-®v- D-d-∏p-h-cp-Øp-hm≥- Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw- _m-[y-X-bp-s≠-∂v- am-{X-sa-bp-≈q.X-߃-°v- e-`n-®- A-dn-hv- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-hm-\pw- A-ß-s\- A-h-cn¬- am-‰-ap-≠m°p-hm-\pw- B-Xv-am¿-Y-am-bn- ]-cn-{i-an-®-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p- {]-hm-N-Im-\p-N-c-∑m¿.- {]-hm-N-I-Xzw- e-`n-®-tij-ap-≈- B-Zy-Im-e-Øp-X-s∂- ap-kv-en-am-b- A-_q-Z¿-dp¬- Kn^v-^m-cn-tbm-Sv- X-s≥-d- tKm-{X-Øn-te-°vXn-cn-®p-sN-∂v- A-h-sc- k-Xy-am¿-K-Øn-te-°v- £-Wn-°m-\m-Wv- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)- ]-d-™-Xv.- A-√mlpam-{X-am-Wv- B-cm-[y-s\-∂pw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- Zq-X-\m-sW-∂p-ap-≈- km-£y-h-N-\-ß-fn¬am{Xw- A-dn-hp-≠m-bn-cp-∂- A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[\
- w- h-gn- K-n^
- v^
- m¿- tKm-{X-hpw- A-kve
- w- tKm{Xhpwsam-Ø-Øn¬- ap-kv-enw-I-fm-b-Xm-bmWv- N-cn-{Xw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- C-ß-s\- F-{X-sb-{X- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃.....F-√m- hn-j-b-ß-fn-epw- ]q¿-W-Pv-Rm-\w- t\-Sn-b- ti-j-am-Wv- \n-߃- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- k-Xy-Zo-\n-te-°v£Wn-t°-≠-sX-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zv-(A)- \-_n- ]-Tn-∏n-®-Xm-bn- l-Zo-Yv-{K-\v-Y-ß-fn-sem-∂pw- Im-Wm≥- I-gn-bp∂n-√.- ]-d-bp-∂- hn-j-b-Øn¬- Zr--V-t_m-[y-tØm-sS-bp-≈- {]-am-W-_-≤-am-b- A-dn-hv- k-ºm-Zn-°-Wsa∂- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d-bpw- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d-bpw- \n¿-tZ-iw- ]m-en-®- k-z-lm-_n-am¿- X-߃-°v- e-`n-®- PvRm\w- a-‰p-≈-h-cp-am-bn- ]-¶p-sh-°p-hm≥- _-≤-{i-≤-cm-bn-cp-∂p-Xm-\pw.Np-cp-°-Øn¬,- A-dn-hn-s√-∂- H-gn-hp-I-gn-hv- ]-d-™v- {]-t_m-[-\-{]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- am-dn-\n¬°p-hm≥- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-bn¬-\n-∂v- a-Xw- ]-Tn-®- H-cp- ap-kv-en-an-\pw- I-gn-bn-√.- A-dn-hv- k-ºm-Zn-°p-hm-\pwH-∏w-Xs
- ∂- k-ºm-Zn-®- A-dn-hv- a-‰p-≈h
- c
- p-am-bn- ]-¶p-sh-°p-hm-\pw- ]-cn-{i-an-°p-∂h
- c
- m-IW
- w ap-kve
- nwIƒ.A-Xm-Wv- k-®-cn-X-cm-b- ap≥-Km-an-Iƒ- Im-Wn-®p-X-∂- ]m-X.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

7

Zn-hy-kq-Iv-X-ß-fpw
`u-Xn-I-Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fpw-

tem-I-c-£n-Xm-hn-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn-ssh-`h-sØ-bpw- am-\-h-cmin-°v- A-h≥sN-bv-Xp-sIm-Sp-Ø- A-\p-{K-l-ßsfbpw- kw-_\v[n-®v- _p-≤n-bp-≈h
- ¿Nn¥n-®p- a-\- n-em-t°-≠-Xn-\v- hnip≤ Jp¿-B≥ [m-cm-fw- Zrjv-S-m-¥ßƒ Nq≠n°-m-Wn°p-∂p-≠v-.-

sN-dn-b-ap-≠w- A-_v-Zp¬- l-ao-Zv-

hn-ip≤-

Jp¿-B-\n-se- Hm-tcm- kq-Iv-X-Øn-\pw- B-b-ØvF∂mWv- t]-cv.- sX-fn-h-v,- Zr-jv-Sm-¥w,- A-S-bm-fw- F-s∂m-s°bm-Wv- B-bØ
- v- F-∂- hm-°n-s≥-d- A¿-Yw- .- h-N\
- s
- a-t∂m- hmIysa-t∂m- hm-N-I-sa-t∂m- A¿-Y-ap-≈- H-cp- t]-c-√- Jp¿-B≥kq-IvX
- s
- Ø- Ip-dn-°m≥- {]-tbm-Kn-°s
- ∏-´n-´p-≈X
- v- F-∂- Imcyw{i-t≤-b-am-Ip-∂p.- {]-]-©-sØ-bpw- a-\p-jym-kv-Xn-Xz-sØ-bpwP-K∂
- n-b¥
- m-hn-s\-bpw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- `m-Kt- [-bs
- Ø-bpw- kw_\v-[n-®- kv-]-jv-S-am-b- sX-fn-hp-I-fm-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- kq-Iv-X-ßsf√m-sa-∂v- B-b-Øv- F-∂- \ma-w- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p.- a-t‰-sX-¶nepwth-Z-{K-\v-Y-Øn-se-tbm- km-ln-Xy-Ir-Xn-bn-se-tbm- h-N-\ß
ƒ°v- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- F-∂¿-Y-ap-≈- t]-cv- \¬-In-b-Xm-bn- Cute-J-I-s≥-d- A-dn-hn¬-s]-´n-´n-√.ap-∂q-dn-e-[n-Iw- Jp¿-B≥- kqIv-X-ß-fn¬- sX-fn-hv- A-YhmZr-jv-Sm-¥w- F-∂- A¿-Y-Øn¬- "B-b-Øv'-,- A-Xn-s≥-d- _-lphN-\-am-b- "B-b-m-Øv'-- F-∂o- ]-Z-߃- {]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.`u-Xn-I- {]-Xn-`m-kß
- f
- n¬- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- A-kX
v- n-Xz-sØbpwI-gn-hn-s\-bpw- A-dn-hn-s\-bpw- kw-_-\v-[n-®- sX-fn-hp-I-fpw- Ncn{X-kw-`h
- ß
- f
- n¬- A-hs
- ≥-d- A-Pø
- X
- s
- b-bpw- A-\n-Xc
- a
- m-b- \S]-Sn-{I-a-ß-sf-bpw- kw-_-\v-[n-®- sX-fn-hp-I-fpw- Nn-¥m-io-e¿°vIm-Wm≥- I-gn-bp-sa-∂m-Wv- Cu- kq-IvX
- ß
- ƒ- \-sΩ- t_m-[ys∏Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.- Nn-e- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃-:""B-Im-i-`q-an-I-fp-sS- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-epw- cm-∏-I-ep-I-fp-sS- am-‰
Øn-epw- a-\p-jy¿-°-v D-]I
- m-ca
- p-≈- h-kX
-v p-°f
- p-am-bn- I-Se
- neqsSkv-s]-jy¬-

k-©c
- n-°p-∂- I-∏e
- n-epw- B-Im-iØ
- p-\n-∂-v A-√m-lp- a-g- sNmcn™p-X-∂n-´v- \n¿-Po-hm-h-kv-Y-°v- ti-jw- `q-an-°v- A-Xp-ap-tJ-\Po-h≥- \¬-In-bX
- n-epw- `q-an-bn¬- F-√m-Xc
- w- P-¥ph¿-Kß
- s
- fbpwhym-]n-∏n-®X
- n-epw- Im-‰p-If
- p-sS- K-Xn-{I-aØ
- n-epw- B-Im-i`- q-anIƒ°n-S-bn-eq-sS- \n-b-{¥n-®v- \-bn-°-s∏-Sp-∂- taL-Øn-epw- Nn-¥n°p-∂- P-\-߃-°v- ]-e- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-ap-≠v-;- Xo¿-®''- (-2:-164).""Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- B-Im-i-ß-fp-sS-bpw- `-q-an-bp-sS-bpw- kr-jvSn∏n-epw- cm-∏-I-ep-Iƒ- am-dn-am-dn- h-cp-∂-Xn-epw- k¬-_p-≤n-bp≈h¿-°v- ]-e- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-ap-≠v.- \n-∂pw- C-cp-∂pw- In-S-∂pwA-√m-lp-sh- Hm¿-°p-I-bpw- B-Im-i-`q-an-I-fp-sS- kr-jv-Sn-∏ns\∏‰n- Nn-¥n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂-h-c-s{X- A-h¿.- (A-h¿- ]-d
bpw-:)- R-ß-fp-sS- c-£n-Xm-th,- \o- \n-c¿-Y-I-am-bn- kr-jv-Sn-®X-√- C-Xv.- \o- F-{X-tbm- ]-cnip-≤≥-!- A-Xn-\m¬- \-c-I-in-£bn¬-\n-∂v- R-ß-sf- \o- Im-Øv- c-£n-°-tW''- (3:-190,-191).""A-h-\m-Wv- B-Im-i-Øp\n-∂v- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-™p-X-∂-h≥.F-∂n-´v- A-Xp-ap-tJ-\- \mw- F-√m- h-kv-Xp-°-fp-sS-bpw- ap-f-Iƒ]p-dØ
- p-sIm-≠n-hc
- n-Ib
- pw-,- A-\¥
- c
- w- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- ]-®]
- n-Sn®sN-Sn-Iƒ- h-f¿-Øn-s°m-≠p-h-cn-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- B- sN-Sn-I
fn¬-\n-∂v- Xn-ßn-\n-d-™- [m-\yw- ]p-d-Øp-h-cp-∂p.- Cu-¥-∏-\bn¬-\n-∂v- A-Y-hm- A-Xn-s≥-d- Iq-tº-m-f-bn¬-\n-∂v- Xq-ßn-\n¬
°p-∂- Ip-e-Iƒ- ]p-d-Øp-h-cp-∂p.-- (A-{]-Im-cw-X-s∂)-- ap-¥n-cn
tØ-m-´-ß-fpw,- ]-c-kv-]-cw- Xp-ey-X- tXm-∂p-∂-Xpw- F-∂m¬Hcp- t]m-se-b-√m-Ø-Xp-am-b- H-eo-hpw- am-X-f-hpw- (\mw- D¬-]mZn-∏n-®p-.).- A-h-b-p-sS- Im-bv-Iƒ- Im-bv-®v- h-cp-∂-Xpw- aq-s∏-Øp]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿∂-Xpw- \n-߃- t\m-°q.- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂- P-\-߃-°v- A-Xnse√mw- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-≠v''- (-6:-99)-.""A-√m-lp-hm-Ip-∂p- \n-߃-°v- Im-Wm-hp-∂- A-h-ew-_߃ Iq-Sm-sX- B-Im-i-ß-sf- D-b¿-Øn-\n¿-Øn-b-h≥.- ]n-s∂A-h≥- knw-lm-k\
- k
- vY
- \
- m-hp-Ib
- pw- kq-cy-s\-bpw- N-{µ-s\bpwIo-gv-s]-Sp-Øp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- F-√mw- H-cp- \n-iv-Nn-XA-h-[n-h-sc- k-©-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥- Im-cyw- \n-b-{¥n-®p-sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- \n-ß-fp-sS- c-£n-Xm-hp-am-bn- I-≠p-ap-´p-∂-Xn-s\°-pd
- n-®v- \n-߃- Zr-Vt- _m-[y-ap-≈h
- c
- m-bn-cn-°p-∂X
- n-\p-th-≠nA-h≥- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- hn-h-cn-®p-X-cp-∂p''.""A-h\
- m-Wv- `q-an-sb hn-im-ea
- m-°p-Ib
- pw- A-Xn¬- D-d®
- p\n¬°p-∂- ]¿-hX
- ß
- f
- pw- \Zn-If
- pw- D-≠m-°pIbpw- sN-bv-X-h≥.- F√m- ^e-h¿-K-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw- A-h-\-Xn¬- Cu-c-≠v- C-W-I-sfD-≠m-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥- cm-{Xn-sb-s°m-≠v- ]I en-s\ap-Sp-∂p.- Xo¿®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn¥n-°p-∂- P-\-߃-°v- ZrjvSm-¥-ß-fp-≠v''.""`q-an-bn¬- sXm-´p-sXm-´p-In-S-°p-∂- J-Wv-U-ß-fp-≠v.- ap-¥ncn-tØ-m-´-ß-fpw- Ir-jn-I-fpw- H-cp- ap-c-Sn¬-\n-∂v- ]-e- im-J-Ifm-bn- hf-cp-∂-Xpw,- th-sd-th-sd- ap-c-Sp-I fn¬-\n-∂v- h-f-cp-∂Xp-am-b- Cu-¥-∏-\-I-fpw- D-≠v.- H-tc-sh-≈w-sIm-≠m-Wv- A-Xv\-\-bv-°-s∏-Sp-∂Xv.- ^-e-ß-fp-sS- Im-cy-Øn¬- A-h-bn¬- Nne-Xn-s\- a‰p- Nn-e-Xn-s\-°mƒ- \mw- sa-®-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.- Xo¿-®bm-bpw-,- A Xn¬- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- P-\-߃-°v- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp≠v''- (13:-2˛4).""cm-hn-s\-bpw- ]-Ie
- n-s\-bpw- kq-cy-s\-bpw- N-{µ-s\-bpw- Ah≥\n-߃-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°n-Ø-∂n-cn-°p-∂p.- \-£{Xßfpw- Ahs≥-d- I¬-]-\-bm¬- hn-t[-b-am-°-s∏-´-h-X-s∂.- Nn¥n°p∂B-fp-Iƒ-°v- Xo¿-®b
- m-bpw- AXn¬- ZrjvS- m-¥ß
- f
- p-≠v''- (16:12).""\n-s≥-d- \m-Y≥- tX-\o-®-°v- C-{]-Im-cw- t_m-[-\w- \¬Ip-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- a-e-I-fn-epw- a-c-ß-fn-epw- a-\p-jy¿sI-´n- D-b¿-Øp-∂h
- b
- n-epw- \o- ]m¿-]n- S- ß
- f
- p-≠m-°n-sIm-≈pI.]n-s∂- F-√m-X-cw- ^-e-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw- \o- `-£n-®p-sIm-≈p-I.F-∂n-´v- \n-s≥-d- c-£n-Xm-hv- ku-I-cy-{]-Z-am-bn- H-cp-°n-Ø-∂n´p-≈- am¿-K-ß-fn¬- \o- {]-th-in-®p-sIm-≈p-I.- A-h-bp-sS- DZcß-fn-¬-\n-∂v- hy-Xy-kv-X- h¿-W-ß-fp-≈- ]m-\o-bw- ]p-d-Øp-hcp-∂p.- A-Xn¬- a-\p-jy¿-°v- tcm-Ki
- a
- \
- a
- p-≠v.- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- BfpIƒ-°v- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ap-≠v''- (16:-68,-69).""a-\p-jy-tc,- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂¬-]n-s\- kw-_\
- [
v- n-®v- \n-߃kw-ib
- Ø
- n-em-sW-¶n¬- (B-tem-Nn-®-v t\m-°p-I:- )- Xo¿-®bmbpw\m-am-Wv- \n-ß-sf- a-Æn¬-\n-∂pw- ]n-∂o-Sv- _o-P-Øn¬-\n∂pw]n-∂o-Sv- {`q-W-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- A-\-¥-cw- cq-]w- \¬-I-s∏´Xpwcq-]w- \¬-Is
- ∏-Sm-ØX
- p-am-b- amw-k]
- n-WU
v- Ø
- n¬-\n-∂pw- krjvSn-®-Xv. \mw- \n-߃-°v- Im-cy-߃- hn-i-Z-am-°n-Ø-cm≥- th≠n(]-d-bp-I-bm-Ip-∂p).- \mw- D-t±-in-°p-∂-Xn-s\- \n-iv-NnX-am-bH-c-h-[n-h-sc- \mw- K¿-`m-i-b-Øn¬- Xm-a-kn-∏n-°p-∂p.- ]n∂o-Sv\n-ßs
- f- \mw- in-ip-°f
- m-bn- ]p-dØ
- p-sIm-≠p-hc
- p-∂p.- A-\¥cw\n-߃- \n-ßf
- p-sS- ]q¿-W- i-IX
v- n- {]m-]n-°p-∂X
- p-hs
- c- (Ah≥\n-ß-sf- h-f¿-Øp-∂p).- (t\-c-sØ)- Po-hn-Xw- A-hkm-\n-∏n°s∏-Sp-∂h
- c
- pw- \n-ßf
- p-sS- I-q´- Ø
- n- e
- p-≠.v - Adnhp-≠m-bncp-∂X
- n\pti-jw- bm-sXm-∂pw- A-dn-bm-Xm-Ipw-hn-[w- G‰-hpw- Ahi-amb{]m-b-Øn-te-°v- a-S-°-s∏-Sp-∂-h-cpw- \nßfpsS- Iq-´Ønep-≠v.`q-an- h-c≠
- v- \n¿-Po-ha
- m-bn-°n- S- °
- p-∂X
- v- \n\°v- ImWmw.- F∂n
´v- A-Xn-t∑¬- \mw- sh-≈w- sNmcn™m¬- AXv- C-f-IpI-bpwhn-Ik
- n-°p-Ib
- pw- Iu-Xp-Ia
- p-≈- F-√m-Xc
- w- sNSn-Is
- fbpw- AXvkv-s]-jy¬-

8
ap-f-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- AsX-¥p-sIm-s≠∂m¬- A-√m-lp
X-s∂-bm-Wv- k-Xy-am-bp-≈h≥.- acn-®h
- s
- c- A-h≥- Po-hn-∏n°pw.A-h≥- G-Xv-Im-cy-Øn-epw- Ign-hp-≈-h-\m-Ip-∂p''- (22:5,6).""\n-߃-°v- k-am-[m-\-]q¿-hw- H-Øp-tN tc-≠-Xn-\m-bn- \nß-fn¬-\n-∂p-X-s∂- \nß ƒ-°v- C-WI
- s
- f- kr-jvS- n-°p-Ib
- pw,\n߃°n Sbn¬- kv-t\-l-hpw- Im-cp-Wy-hpw- D≠m°pI bpwsN-bv-X-Xpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥ß-fn¬-s]-´-X-s{X.- Xo¿-®-bmbpw- AXn¬- Nn¥n-°p∂- P-\-߃-°v- Zr-jvSm-¥-ß-fp-≠v''.""B-Im-i-`q-an-I-fp-sS- kr-jv-Sn-bpw- \n-ßfp-sS- `m-j-I-fn-epwh¿-W-ß-fn-ep-ap-≈- hy-Xym k-hpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß
fn¬-s]-´-X-s{X.- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- AXn¬- A-dn-hp-≈-h¿-°v- Zrjv Sm-¥-ß-fp-≠v''.""cm-{Xn-bpw- ]-I-epw- \n-߃- D-d-ßp-∂-Xpw- A-h-s≥-d- A\p-{K l-Øn¬-\n-∂v- \n-߃- D-]-Po h\w- tX-Sp-∂-Xpw- A-hs≥-d- Zr jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn¬-s]-´-X-s{X.- Xo¿ ®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬tI-´v- a-\- n-em-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°v- Zr-jv-Sm ¥-ß-fp-≠v''.""`-b-hpw- B-i-bpw- D-f-hm-°n-s°-m-≠v- \n-߃-°v- an-∂¬I-m-Wn-®v- X-cp-∂-Xpw- B-Im-i-Øp-\n-∂v- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-™n-´vA-Xp-aq-ew- `q-an-°v- A-Xn-s≥-d- \n¿ Po-hm-h-kv-Y-°p-ti-jwPoh≥- \¬-Ip-∂-Xpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jvSm-¥-ß-fn¬-s]-´-X-s{X.Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn-¥n-®v- a-\- nem-°p-∂- P-\-߃-°vZr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-≠v''- (30:-21˛24).tem-I-c-£n-Xm-hn-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn-ssh-`-h-sØ-bpw- am-\-h-cm
in-°v- A-h≥- sN-bvX
- p-sIm-Sp-Ø- A-\p-{K-lß
- s
- f-bpw- kw-_\v
[n-®v- _p-≤n-bp-≈-h¿- Nn-¥n-®v- a-\- n-em-t°-≠-Xn-\v- hn-ip≤
Jp¿-B\
- n¬- Nq-≠n°-mW
- n-®n-´p-≈- Zr-jvS- m-¥ß
- f
- p-sS- Nn-e- DZm
l-c-W-ß-fm-Wv- ap-I-fn¬- D-≤-cn-®p-tN¿-Ø-Xv.- C-Xp-t]m-ep-≈\q-dp-I-W-°n¬- kq-Iv-X-ß-fp-≠v ssZ-hn-I- {K-\v-Y-Øn¬.- Ch
sbm-s°- kq-£v-a-am-bn- hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-∂-h¿-°v- hy-Iv-X-am-bnt_m-[y-s∏-Sp-w;- k¿-h-Pv-R-\pw- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\p-am-b- H-cp- {kjvSm-hv- A-Xn-kq-£v-a-am-bpw- hy-h-kv-Ym-]n-X-am-bpw- kw-hn-[m-\n®Xm-Wv- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-sf-∂v.- Xn-I-®pw- bm-ZrNv-OnIam-bn- X-\n-sb- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-≠m-bX
- m-Wv- D-]c
- y-pI
- X
v- k
- q-IX
v- ßfn¬- Nq-≠n-°-m-Wn-®- Im-cy-ß-sf-∂v- km-am-\y-_p-≤n-bp-≈B¿°pw- ]-d-bm-\m-hn-√.""]-c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I-s≥-d- k-r-jv-Sn-∏n¬- bm-sXm-cp- s]m-cp-Ø
t°-Spw- \o- Im-Wp-I-bn-√''- (67:-3) F-∂- {]-kv-Xm-hw- icn-bmsW-∂v- F-°m-e-sØ-bpw- Nn-¥m-io-e¿-°v- t_m-[y-s∏´p-sIm≠n-cp-∂p.- im-kv-{Xw- A-\p-kyq-Xw- hn-I-kn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂B-[p\n-I- bp-K-Øn-epw- Cu- kv-Yn-Xn-°v- am-‰-an-√.- PK∂nb¥m-hn-s\- am-‰n-\n¿-Øn-s°-m-≠v- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ßsfhym-Jym-\n-°m≥-th-≠n- B-hn-jvI
- c
- n-°s
- ∏-´- ]-cn-Wm-ah
- m-ZØ
- n
s≥-d- h-IvX
- m-°ƒ- G-sd- X-∑b
- X
- z-tØm-sS- A-hc
- p-sS- kn-≤m¥
߃- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n-epw- Po-h≥- D-cp-Øn-cn-bm-\pwhn-Ik
- n-°m-\pw- h-gn-sbm-cp-°n-b- A-Xn-kq-£a
v- - `u-Xn-I- hy-hkv
-Y-I-fpw- Un.-F≥.-F.- X-∑m-{X-I-fn¬- Ip-Sn-sIm≈-p∂
- - A-`q-X
]q¿-ha
- m-b- hn-hc
- t- i-Jc
- h
- pw- a‰pw- bm-ZrNv-On-I-kw-`-hy-X-bp-sSk-I-e- km[y-X-I-sf-bpw- X-≈n-°-f-bp-I-bmWv- sN-øp∂Xv.a-\p-jy¿-°pw- Po-h-˛k-ky- Pm-e-߃-°pw- \n-e-\n-¬-°m≥]m-I-Øn¬- {]-]-©-Øn-se- cm-k-˛Du¿-P-{I-a-ß-sfm-s°- F{X-am-{Xw- IWn-i-am-bn-´m-Wv- \n¿-W-bn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-sX-∂v- kao-]-Im-e-sØ- H-t´-sd- ]-T-\-߃- sX-fn-bn-®n-´p-≠v.- kv-‰o-^≥A¨-hn≥- cNn-®- "Z- t{]m-_-_n-en-‰n- Hm-^v- tKm-Uv'- F-∂- {K]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\v-Yw- Cu-hn-j-b-I-am-bn- Ht´ sd- h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ- sh-fn-®-ØvsIm-≠p-h-∂n´p-≠-s{X.- Cu- {K-\v-Y-sØ- A-h-temI-\-w- sNøp
∂- H-cp- te-J-\-Øn¬- Nq≠n°-m-Wn-°-s∏-´- Nn-e- Im-cy߃{]tXy-Iw- {i-t≤-ba
- m-Ip∂p:Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j-W- _-e-sØ-°mƒ- Ir-Xy-am-bn- 1039 a-S-ßviIv-X-am-Wv- ssh-Zyp-X-Im-¥-_-ew.- A Xv- A¬-]w-Iq-Sn- i-IvXn-Ip-d-™ Xm-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-Y-hm- 1033 a-S-ßv- am-{Xw- i-IvX-am-bn-cps∂-¶n¬- \-£-{X-߃-°v- C-∂p-≈-Xn-s≥-d- i-X-tImSn-bn-sem-cp- Aw-iw- am-{X-sa- h-ep-∏a
- p-≠m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂p-≈q.- Ah- H-cp- Z-ie-£w- C-c´n- th-K-Øn¬- I-Øn-Ø-o-cp-I-bpw- sNøp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- A-ß-s\- kw-`-hn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- \-Ω-tfm- \-ΩpsS- ]q¿-h- ]nXm-°-tfm- P-\n-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºv- {]-]-©-am-sIC-cp-´n¬- ap-ßnt∏m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂p.- t{]m-t´m-Wn-s≥-db
- pw- \yq-t{SmWn-s≥-db
- pw- ]n-Wv-U߃- X-Ωn-ep-≈- hy-Xym-kw- C-∂p-≈-Xpt]m-se- ˛C-e-Ivt{Sm-Wn-s≥d- ]n-Wv-U-Øn-s≥-d- C-c-´n-tbm-fw-˛
Ir-Xy-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-¶n¬- \yqt{Sm-Wp-Iƒ- ap-gp-h≥- t{]m-t´mWp-I-fm-bn- am-dp-I-bpw- \-ap-°dn-bm-hp-∂- ]-Zm¿-Y-tem-Iw- Xs∂- Xn-tcm-`-hn-°p-I-bpw- sNøp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- kw-bp-Iv-X- ]-Zm¿Y-ßf
- p-sS- Iq-´Ø
- n¬- sh≈-Øn-\v- am-{X-am-Wv- J-cm-hk
- vY
- b
- n¬{Zm-h-Im-h-kv-Y-sb- A-t]£n®v- `m-c-°p-d-hp-≈-Xv.- A-XpsIm≠m-Wv- sF-kv- sh-≈-Øn\v- aosX--s]m-ßn-°n-S-°p-∂-Xv.A-ß-s\-bm-bn-cp-∂n-s√-¶n¬- kap-{Z-ß fm-sI- A-Sn-ap-Sn- D-d-®p-t]m-bn-´p-≠m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂p.`q-an-bpw- B-Im-it- Km-fß
- f
- pw- Po-h˛- k-ky-Pm-eß
- f
- pw- C∂p≈-Xp-t]m-se- B-bn-cn-t°-≠-Xn-\p-th-≠n- {]-]-©-Øn-se- Hmtcm- L-S-I-hpw- Hm-tcm- {]-Xn-`m-k-hpw- A-Xy-¥w- I-Wn-i-am
bn- {I-ao-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv- C-Xp-t]m-ep-≈- [mcm
fw- h-kv-Xp-X-I-sf- \n-co-£n-°p-∂-Xn-eq-sS- F-Øn-t®-cm-hp-∂\n-K-a-\w.- Cu- I-Wn-i-am-b- {I-ao-I-c-Ww- k¿-h-Pv-R-\pw- k¿hi-Iv-X-\p-am-b- H-cp- kw-hn-[m-b-I-\v- am-{Xw- km-[n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.H-cn-°-epw- B-I-kv-an-I-am-bn- kw-`-hn-°m-hp-∂-X-√.- A-ß-s\kw-`-hn-°m-sa-∂v- kw-`-hy-Xm- kn-≤m-¥-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym\Øn¬- H-cp- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn-bpw kv-Ym-]n-®n-´p-an-√.Cu- hn-jb
- w- A-hK
- W
- n-®p-sIm-≠v,- tem-IØ
- v- kw-`h
- n-°p∂Xn-∑-I-fpw- A-{I-a-ß-fpw- Zp-c-¥-ß-fpw- ssZ-h-km-∂n-[y-Øn-s\
Xn-cn¬- sX-fn-sh-t∂m-Ww- D-∂b
- n-°p-Ib
- m-Wv- ]-e- `u-Xn-Ih
- mZn
I-fpw- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- ssZ-hw- k¿-h-Pv-R-\pw- \o-Xn-am-\pw- I-cpWm\n-[n-bp-am-sW-¶n¬- C-sXm-s°- F-¥p-sIm-≠v- kw-`-hn-°p-∂pF-∂m-Wv- A-h-cp-sS- tNm-Zyw.- h-f-sc- ]-cn-an-X-am-b- A-dn-hpwA-\p-`-h-]-cn-N-b-hpw- am-{X-ap-≈- a-\p-jy¿- Nn-¥n-°p-∂-Xp-t]mseØ-s∂-bm-I-Ww- {Xn-Im-e- Pv-Rm-\n-bm-b- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥d\S-]-Sn-Iƒ- F-∂- sX-‰m-b- \n-e-]m-Sv- \n-an-Øam-Wv- ]-e¿-°pwZn-hy-Im-cp-Wyw- I-≠dn-bm≥- I-gn-bm-sX- t]m-Ip-∂-Xv.- `u-XnI-tem-I-Øv- X-s∂- `m-Ky-sØ-bpw- \n¿-`m-Ky-sØ-bpw- kw-_\v-[n-®- \-Ωp-sS- Im-gv-N-]mSp-Iƒ- Gsd- hy-Xym-k-s]∏-Sp-∂Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.- hn-cq-]-¿- hn-Nm-cn-°p-∂p- kp-µ-c-∑m¿- a-lm`mKy-hm-∑m-cm-sW-∂v.- F-∂m¬- ku-µc
- yw- ]-e¿-°pw- B-]Ø
- mIp∂-Xpw,- kp-µ-c-∑m-cn¬- ]ecpw- Po-hn-X-cw-K-ßf-- n¬- ]-c-mPbs∏-Sp-∂-X-pw- \mw- Im-Wp-∂p.- ssh cq-]y-sØ- A-h-K-Wn-®v,im-co-cn-I-hpw- am\-kn-I-hp-am-b- I-gn-hp-Iƒ- i-cn-bm-bn- hn-\n
tbm-Kn-®v- Po-hn-X- hn-P-bw- t\Sp-∂-h-sc-bpw- \mw- [m-cm-f-am-bnIm-Wp-∂p.- Kp-cp-X-c-am-b- AwK-ssh-I-eyw- _m-[n-®n-´pw- \ncm
i-s∏-Sm-sX- c-N-\m-Xv-a-I-am-bn- Po-hn-X-sØ- k-ao-]n-®-Xn-\m¬hn-P-bw- h-cn-®-h-cpw- [m-cmfap ≠v.- tcm-K-i-ø-bn-¬- \n-∂v- Fgpkv-s]-jy¬-

9
t∂¬-°m≥-t]m-epw- I-gn-bm Ø-h¿- a-\ 
- a
- m-[m-\t- Øm-sS-bpwap-J-{]-k-∂-X-tbm-sS-bpw- h¿-Øn°p-∂-Xv- \-ap-°v- Im Wmw.\-√- im-co-cn-I- i-Iv-Xnbp-≠m-bn-´pw- ISp-Ø- hn-jm-Zw- \n-an-ØwZp-cn-Xw- A-\p-`h
- n-°p∂-hs
- c-bpw- AXp-t]m-seØs∂- Im-Wmw.a-lm-Zp-c-¥-߃- Nne¿-s°-¶n-epw- ku`m-Ky-am-bn- am-dp-∂- kw`-h-߃- dn-t∏m¿-´v- sNø-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v.£-Wn-I-hpw- \-iz-c-hp-am-b- C-l-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- am-{Xw- A
[n-]-\-√,- A-\-¥-am-b- ]-c-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Iq-Sn- A-[n-]-\m
Wv- k¿-h-tem-I- c-£n-Xm-hm-b- A-√m-lp.- `m-Ky-\n¿-`m-Ky-ßsfbpw- c-£m-in-£I
- s
- f-bpw- kw-_\
- v[
- n-®- A-hs
- ≥-d- Xo-cp-am\ß
ƒ- ]-ct- em-Ih
- pw- Iq-Sn- ]-cn-KW
- n-®p-≈X
- m-bn-cn-°pw.- H-cp-\q-‰m≠vIme-w- kp-J-t`m-Km-k-Iv-X-am-b- Po-hn-Xw- \bn-® hy-Iv-Xn-°v]c-tem-IØ
- v- e-`n-°m-\p-≈X
- v- \-cI
- i
- n-£b
- m-sW-¶n¬- A-bmƒXo¿-Øpw- \n¿-`m-Ky-hm-\m-bn-cn-°pw.- `q-I-º-Øn-tem- {]-f-b-Øn
tem- a-cn-°p-∂- hn-izm-kn- A-tXm-sS- im-iz-X- ku-`m-Ky-Øns≥dtem-I-Øm-Wv- F-Øp-∂-sX-¶n¬- A-bm-sf- kw-_-\v-[n-®nS
tØm-fw- \-jv-Sw- F-∂- hm-°v- \n-c¿-Y-I-am-bn-Øo-cpw.- hn-ip-≤Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\w- C-cp-tem-I-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ]q¿-WD-Sa
- k
- Y
-v X
- - A-√m-lp-hn-\m- s
- W-∂-v hn-iz-kn-°p-∂h
- ¿-°p-≈XmWv.""Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\w- \-Ωp-sS- _m-[y-X-bm-Ip-∂p.Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- \-ap-°p-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p- C-l-tem-I-hpw- ]-c-tem-Ihpw''- (92:-12,-13).-

]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

10

v- °
v
e
-\-b -Øn-s n m
-h -Z m - Z -p\¿ - hm \- h -fpw
- ] -∂ -s y-ß -ns\ -sa -ß -£ -\w
-\ -W w- A -e -J
e
p
B
¿ -am-°-X-b Kq-V - t
p
-J -b -I -sS -´p-∂
p
m
t[ - Y
hn n-c¿ -h-c p-I
\ p-∂ -∂
-d
° Xp

sI.-k-P-m-Zv-

Jp¿-B\n-s≥-d]p-\¿-hm-b-\- km-[ytam?""th-Zß
- f
- p-sS- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- ''- F-∂X
- v- kao-]-Im-e-Øv- G-sd- N¿-®- sN-ø-s∏-´p-h-cp
∂- H-cp- B-ib
- a
- m-Wv.- a-X\
- t- hm-∞m-\- Im
e-L-´-Øn¬- ss{I-kv-X-h- bq-tdm-∏n-em-WvCu- B-i-bw- B-Zy-am-bn- D-∂-bn-°-s∏-´Xv.- a-X-k-aq-l-ß-fp-sS- \-ho-I-c-W-hpw- \ho-\-h¬-I-c-W-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- D-cpØn-cn-™p-h∂
- - ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- - F-∂- Bib-Øn-\v- ss_-_n-fn-s\- au-en-I-{]-am-Wam-bn- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-®p-sIm-≠p-≈- a-Xk
- a
- q-lØn-s≥-d- ]p-\x-{I-ao-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d-bpwPo¿-W-X-I-fn¬- \n-∂p-≈- ho-s≠-Sp-∏n-s‚bpw- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-X-bm-Wv- A¿-Y-am-bnh∂n-cp-∂-Xv.- a-X-kw-hn-[m-\-Øn-s≥-d-bpwk-`m-tI-{µo-Ir-Xa
- m-b- kvY
- m-]\
- h
- ¬-Ic
- W
- Øn-s≥-d-bpw- ^-e-am-bn- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h∂- _-lp-hn[-ßf
- m-b- X-I¿-®I
- f
- n¬-\n-∂vss{I-kv-X-h-k-aq-l-sØ-bpw- hn-izm-kn-Isf-bpw- th-Zm-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-b- ]p-Xn-b-X-cwA-h-t_m-[-ß-fn-te-°v- \-bn-°p-I- F-∂-

Xp-Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-∂p- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-sIm-≠ve-£y-am-°n-h-∂n-cp-∂-Xv.- hm-b-\- F-∂vkm-am-\y-am-bn- {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬t]m-epw- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-bp-sS- Xm-Xzn-I-X-e߃- D-]-cn-π-h-am-b- hm-b-\-bn¬- H-Xp-ßp∂-h-bm-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- ]p-Xn-bI-s≠-Ø-ep-I-fn-te-°pw- \n-e-hn-ep-≈aXm-h-t_m-[-ß-sf- Xn-cp-Øp-∂- t{]-c-WI-fn-te-°pw- \-bn-°p-hm≥- {i-an-°p-∂-Xns≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-bm-Wv- _u-≤n-I-X-eØn¬- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-Iƒ- D-]-tbm-Kn-°s∏´p-h-∂-Xv.ss{I-kv-X-h- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn¬- D-cpØn-cn-™p-h-∂p- F-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂]p-\¿-hm-b\
- b
- p-sS- e-£y-߃- F-∂- \nebn¬- A- w - K o- I - c n- ° - s ∏- ´ - Im- c y- ß ƒsamØ-Øn¬- C-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p-:1.- ss{I-kX
v- h
- - k-aq-lØ
- n-s≥-d- Po¿WX-I-sf- Xn-cp-Øp-hm≥- \n-e-hn-ep-≈- a-Xkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

kw-hn-[m-\-Øn¬- t{]-c-W- sN-ep-Øp-amdv,a-X-Øn-se- aq-ey-ß-fp-sS- th-Zm-[n-jv-Tn-Xam-b- {]-`m-hw- kv-Ym-]n-s®-Sp-°p-I.- 2.- \nehn-ep-≈- a-Xm-ht- _m-[Ø
- n¬- Kp-cp-Xc
- a
- mb]n-i-Ip-I-fpw- th-Z-_m-ly-am-b- X-e-ß-fpw]-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂v- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-I.3.- \n-e-hn-ep-≈-Xpw- ]q¿-hn-I-hp-am-b- aq-e-yß-fn-se-bpw- X-Øz- ß
- f
- n-se-bpw- A-]c
- ym]vX-X-Iƒ- kv-Ym-]n-s®-Sp-°p-I.- 4.- ]p-Xn-baqey- ß - fpw- B- i - b - ß - fpw- I- s≠-ØpIbpw- A- h - b p- s S- A- S n- k v - Y m- \ - Ø n¬]pXnb- a-X-Io-b- kz-Xz-hpw- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-hpwcq]s∏- S p- Ø p- h m≥- ]- c n- { i- a n- ° p- I - b pwsNøp-I.D-]c
- n-kq-Nn-X- Im-cy-߃- ]q¿-Wa
- m-bpw]m-c-º-cy-hn-cp-≤-hpw- \n-e-hn-ep-≈- a-X-hyh-kv-Ybv-°v- \n-c-°m-Ø-Xp-am-b- ta-J-e-Ifn-te-°m-Wv- ss{I-kv-X-h-Nn-¥-I-sc-bpwss_-_nƒ- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-bp-sS- h-Iv-Xm-°sf-bpw- \-bn-®-Xv.- ss{I-kv-X-h- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

11

e-Øn¬- B- \o-°w- km-[q-I-c-W-a¿-ln-°p-∂-Xp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- Po¿-W-X-I-fpsS¢m-hp-]n-Sn-®- aq-ey-ßfn¬- Ip-Sp-ßn-°n-S-∂- ss{I-kv-X-h-X,- th-Z-_m-ly-am-ba-X-Io-b-co-Xn-Iƒ-sIm-≠v- ss_-_n-fn¬-\n-∂v- A-I-∂p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂-Xn-\m¬- G-sXm-cp- Xn-cp-ج- i-_v-Z-Øn-\pw- A-Xn-t≥-d-Xm-b- {]-k-IvXn-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p,- B- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn¬.ta¬-]d
- ™
- ]-ivN
- m-Øe
- - L-SI
- ß
- ƒ- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-tºmƒ- th-Zß
- f
- psS]p-\¿-hm-b-\- F-∂- B-i-bw- D-∂-bn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv- G-sX-√mw- k-am-\- km-lN-cy-ß-fn-em-Wv- {]-k-Iv-X-am-bn-Ø-o-cp-I- F-∂v- a-\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.kml-N-cy-ß-sf- ]-cn-K-Wn-°m-sX- B- B-i-bw- D-∂-bn-°-s∏-Sp-tºmƒ- AXns≥-d- b-Ym¿-Y- Xm¬-]-cy-߃- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏-Sm-sX- t]m-hp-I-bm-WvsNøpI.- ss{I-kv-X-h- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn¬-\n-∂v- am-dn,- a-s‰m-cp- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-eØn¬-,- a-s‰m-cp- a-X-Io-b- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬- th-Z-]p-\¿-hm-b-\-

F-∂- B-i-bw- N¿-®-s°-Sp-°p-tºmƒ,- G-Xv- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn-em-tWm- B- N¿-®kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv- B- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- A-h-kv-Y-bpw- \n-e-hn-ep-≈- kv-Y-n-Xn-K-Xn-I-fpw- t\mt°-≠-Xp-≠v.- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- B-h-iy-am-Ip-∂- X-c-Øn¬- B- a-X-Øn¬- Po¿-W-X-Iƒhym-]n-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn-s≥-d- au-en-I-am-b- kz-Xzw- am-™p-In-S-°p-I-bpw- th-Z-_m-lyamb- {]-h-W-X-Iƒ- B-[n-]-Xyw- kv-Ym-]n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-´p-t≠m- F-∂-tXm-Sp-Iq-SnØ-s∂- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°-s∏--Sp-∂- th-Zw,- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- A¿-ln-°p-∂p-t≠mF-∂p-Iq-Sn- Nn-¥n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- a-X-Io-b- k-aq-l-Øn-se- \-ho-I-c-W-Xz-c-bpw- ]p\¿-hn\ym-k-Øn-\p-≈- Xo£v-W-am-b- B-h-i-yß
-- -fpw- am-{Xw- sh-®p-sIm-≠v- H-cp- th-Z-sØ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°p-I- km-[y-a-√- F-∂p-Iq-Sn- a-\- n-em-t°-≠-Xp-≠v-.- D-]tbmKn-°p-∂- th-Zw,- A-Ø-c-Øn-ep-≈- ]-cn-K-W-\-bpw- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-bn-eq-sS- D-t±-in-°p-∂^-e-{]m-]v-Xn-bn¬- hn-iz-kn-∏n-°m-\p-≈- {]-`m-h-Øn-s≥-d- kv-Ym-\-hpw- A¿-ln-°p-∂pt≠m- F-∂-Xp-Iq-Sn- A-tXm-sSm-∂n-®v- B-cm-tb-≠- hn-j-b-am-Wv.tIƒ-°m≥- H-s´m-cp- `w-Kn-bp-≈-Xpw- B-[p-\n-I- Im-e-L-´-Øn-se- Xo-{h-hpw,- h-gnsX-‰n-b-tXm,- sX-‰n-∏n-°-s∏-´-tXm- B-b- a-X-Io-b- A-h-t_m-[- ]-c-º-c-bn¬- {]-Xn-jv-TnX-hpam-bn-´p-≈- th-Z-]p-\¿-hm-b-\- F-∂- hm-°v,- k-ao-]-Im-e- km-l-N-cy-ß-fn¬- C-kvem-ap-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-Sp-Øn-bpw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sm-dp-≠v.- C-kv-emw- `o-I-c-hm-Z-Øn-s≥d-bpw- hn-[zw-k-I-{]-h-W-X-I-fp-sS-bpw- t{]-c-W-bm-bn- h¿-Øn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂pw- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- aq-ey-hn-\ym-k-hpw- B-i-b- kw-l-n-X-I-fpw- Po¿-Wn-°p-I-bpw- BPo¿-W-X-bn¬-\n-∂v- ]-e-X-cw- hn-[zw-k-I- aq-ey-ß-fpw- £p-{Z-X-Ø-z-im-kv{X-ß-fpw- Aam\-hn-I- Nn-¥-I-fpw- D-cp-Øn-cn-™v- h-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw- {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-∂,-- Ckvemw- hn-cp-≤- B-i-b- tem-_n-I-fm-Wv ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-sb- H-cp- Nn-In-Xv-k- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬C-kv-em-an-\v- \n¿-tZ-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- C-h¿,- "C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- Po¿-W-X-bp-sS-bpwhn-\m-i-I-c-am-b- kz-`m-h- ]-cn-Wm-a-Øn-s≥-dbpw-'- -Im-c-Ww th-Z-{K-\v-Y-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n¬I-s≠-Øp-I-bpw- Jp¿-B-\n¬-\n-∂m-Wv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- B-cw-`n-t°-≠nbn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- F-∂- v- kn-≤m-¥-n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ib
-- p-am-Wv.- h¿-Ø-am-\-Im-e- k-aq-l-Ønepw- km-l-N-cy-Øn-epw- B-tKm-f- {]-iv-\-ß-sf- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- kz-`m-h-ß-fpw- aq-ey-ßfpw- {]am-W-ß-fpw- B-i-b-ß-fp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂- A-bp-Iv-Xn-I-hpw- A-\o-Xn-]c-hp-am-b- {]-h-W-X,- Cu- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\m-\n¿-tZ-i-Øn-\p-]n-∂n-epw- ]-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂-XmbnIm-Wm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.h¿-Ø-am-\-Im-e- am-\-h-X-bp-sS- F-√m- {]-iv-\-߃-°pw- Im-c-Ww- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d{]-Xn-tem-a-I- kz-`m-h-hpw- ]-g-©≥- aq-ey-ß-tfm-Sp-≈- {]Xn-_-≤-X-bpw- ]p-tcm-K-a-\-]-ckv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

hpw- \-thm-∞m-\-]-c-hp-am-b- {]-h¿-Ø-\ß-tfm-Sp-≈- \n-tj-[m-Xv-a-I- \n-e-]m-Sp-amsW-∂v- k-a¿-Yn- °
- m≥- {i-an-®p-sIm-≠m-Wv,a-X-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- C-kv-emw- Nn-e- ]p-\cmtem-N-\-Iƒ-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°-s∏-tS-≠-Xp≠v- F-∂v- {]-Xn-tbm-Kn-Iƒ- ]d-™p-h-cp∂-Xv.- tem-I-Øv- a-t‰-sXm-cp- a-X-sØ-bpwPo-hn-X- ]-≤-Xn-I-sf-bpw -A-t]-£n-®v- au
en-I-X-bpw- am-‰-߃-°-Xo-X-am-b- B-i-b˛Xm-Xzn-I- Zr--- V
-- -X-tbm-sSm-∏w-X-s∂-bp-≈km¿-hI
- m-en-I˛- km¿-hP
- \
- o-\X
- b
- pw- ]p-e¿Øn-s°m-≠m-Wv- C-ke
v- mw- \n-e\
- n-∂p-h∂
- n
´p-≈X
- v.- Cu- \n-e\
- n¬-]v- a-‰p- a-Xß
- ƒ-°pwPo-hn-X- ]-≤-Xn-Iƒ-°pw- km-[y-am-Im-sXt]m-bn-´p-≈- H-∂m-Wv.- Po-hn-X-Øn-se-bpwk-aq-l-ß-fn-se-bpw- D-]-cn-π-h- ]-cn-Wm-a߃-°v- ]q¿-W-am-bpw- hn-t[-b-am-bn-s°m≠p-≈- a-Xk
- w-hn-[m-\ß
- ƒ-°v- ]-cn-h¿-ØnX- Im-eØ
- n-s≥-d- ap-JO
- m-bI
- f
- p-am-bn- tbm
Pn-®-p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xn-\v- ]-e-X-cw- am-‰-߃-°vhn-t[-ba
- m-tI-≠n-h∂
- n-´p-≠v.- t- em-I- N-cn{XØn-se- H-´p-an-°- a-Xß
- f
- pw- b-Ym¿-YØ
- n¬ta¬-]-d-™- kz-`m-h-tØm-SpIq-Sn-b-h-bm
bn-cp-∂p- F-∂- k-Xy-Øn-s≥-d- sh-fn-®
Øn¬-th-Ww- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-p-dn-®p-≈thdn-´- ]-cn-tim-[-\- \-S-Ø-p-hm≥.L-S\
- b
- n¬- B-Zn-ah
- pw- ssZ-hZ- Ø
- h
- pamb- H-cp- au-en-I-X- ]p-e¿-Øn-s°m-≠pXs∂- am-dn-am-dn-h-cp-∂- Im-e-ß-fp-sS-bpwk-aq-l-ß-fp-sS-bpw- Po-hn-X-ß-fp-am-bpwBXv-ao-b-hpw- ssP-hn-I-hp-am-b- k-tµ-lß-tfm-Spw- B-tcm-Ky-]-c-am-bn- kw-h-Zn-°phm≥- C-kv-em-an-\v- F-°m-e-Øpw- I-gn-™n´p-≠v.- Cu- A-\-\y-am-b- Kp-Ww- C-kv-eman-s≥-d- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-s≥-d-X-s∂- `m-K-hpam-Wv.- C-Xv- km-[y-am-bn-´p-≈-Xv- hn-ip-≤Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- am-kv-a-cn-I-am-b- A-P-ø-Xbpw- A-Xp-ey-X-bpw-sIm-≠m-Wv.- C-kv-eman-s≥-d- B-i-b-m-Sn-Ø-d-bm-b- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿B≥,- am-dn-am-dn-h-cp-∂- Im-e-Øn-s≥-d- {]-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

12

iv-\-ß-sf,- au-en-I-am-b- G-I-X-bp-sS-bpw- Xm-Xzn-I-am-b- I-cp-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- XeØn¬-\n-∂v- H-´pw- hy-Xn-N-en-°m-sX-Xs∂,- {i-≤m-]q¿-hw- ssI-Im-cyw- sN-bvXp-h-∂n-´p-≠v-.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- I-cp-Øpw- CXc- a-X-߃-°n-√m-Ø- Zr-V-Xbpw- ssI-h-∂n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- Jp¿-B-\n¬-\n-∂p-am-Wv.- B-[p-\n-I- Im-e-L-´-Øns≥-d- D-]-cn-π-h-ß-fpw- \-K-c-h¬-Ir-X-ß-fpw- bm-{¥nI-am-\-ß-fp-≈-h-bpam-b{]-iv-\-ß-sf- a-dn-I-S-∂v- ap-t∂m-´v- K-an°p-hm≥- km-[n°m-sX- hn-I-e- a-X-ßfpw- a-\p-jy-\n¿-an-X- X-Øz- i
- m-kv{- X-ßfpw- `u-Xn-I- Po-hn-X- ]-≤X
- n-If
- pw- XI¿∂-Sn-bp-∂- Im-gv-N-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-em-Wv- C-kv-emw- AXn-s≥-d- Xm-Xzn-I-X-e-ß-sfbpw- B-i-b- L-S-I-ß-sf-bpw- `-{Z-am-°n-sh-®p-sIm≠v- Im-e-tØm-Sv- ap-Jm-apJw-\n-∂v- kw-h-Zn-°p-∂-Xv.- C-Xv- C-kv-emw,- C-X-c- a-X-ßfp-sS-bpw- Po-hn-X]≤-Xn-I-fp-sS-bpw- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-ß-fp-sS-bpw- {i-≤-bnepw- t\m-´-Øn-epw{]-tXy-I-am-bn- ]-Xn-bp-∂-Xn-\pw- A-h-bp-sS- kz-Xz-`o-Xn-bn¬- \n-∂p-≈- \ntj[m-Xva
- I
- h
- pw- \o-ck
- ]
- q¿-Wh
- p-am-b- {]-Xn-Ic
- W
- ß
- ƒ- C-kvem-an-\p-t\¿-°p-≠m-

Ip-∂-Xn-\pw- C-Xn-S-bm-°n-b-Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- `-{Z-X-bp-sS- im-Iv-Xn-Im-Sn-Ø-d- F-∂- \n-e-bn-em-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- h¿Øn®p-h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv.- B- bm-Ym¿-Yyw- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- hn-a¿-i-I¿- th-≠-{X- a-\- n-em-°n-bn´p-ap-≠v.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- in-Yn-eo-I-c-W-Øn-\pw- X-I¿-®-°pw- B-h-iyw- Jp¿-B-\n-s\A-Sn-kvY
- m-\a
- m-°n-bp-≈- {]-h¿-Ø\
- ß
- f
- m-sW-∂v- C-kve
- m-an-s≥-d- {]-Xn-tbm-Kn-Iƒ- a\ nem-°n-bX
- n-s≥-d- ^-ea
- m-bm-Wv- Jp¿-B\
- n-\v- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- I
- ƒ- B-hi
- y-am-Wv- F-∂- Nn¥mK-Xn- D-b¿-Øn-s°m-≠p-h-∂n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- Jp¿-B≥- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°-Wsa∂- B-h-iyw- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬- Xm-sg- ]-d-bp-∂- e-£y-߃- ap≥-\n¿-Øn-bm-Wv- D-∂-bn°s∏-´p-h-cp-∂-Xv-:1.- C-kv-emw- H-c-gn-®p-]-Wn-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°-s∏-S-Ww.- 2.- \n-e-hn-ep-≈-Xpw- C-kv-em-an
I-tem-Iw- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xp-am-b- C-kv-em-an-I- XØ-z-߃- ]q¿-W-am-bpw- ]p-dw-X-≈-s∏S
Ww.- 3.- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ-°pw- B-i-b-߃-°pw- P-\-hn-`m-K-߃-°pw- `u-Xn-I- Po-hn-X-]-≤
Xn-Iƒ-°pw- A-\p-kr-Xa
- m-bn- C-kve
- m-an-s≥-d- X-Øz- ß
- ƒ- ]p-Xp-Xm-bn- I-s≠-Øs
- ∏-SWw.4.- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\m-hm-Z-K-Xn-°m¿- D-∂-bn-°p-∂- B-i-b-ß-fpw- \n-e-]m-Sp-I-fpw- kzo-I-cn®psIm-≠v- C-kv-em-an-s\- A-Xn-s≥-d- au-en-I-am-b- Xp-S¿-®-bn¬-\n-∂v- am-‰n-Øn-cp-Ø-Ww.5.- Jp¿-B-\n-se- B-i-b-߃-°pw- ]-cm-a¿-i-߃-°pw- X-ß-fp-tS-Xm-b- hn-I-e- Nn-¥Iƒ°-\p-k-cn-®p-≈- ]p-X-n-b- D-]-`m-h-߃- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h-c-Ww- ˛ C-∏-d-™- e-£y-߃ap≥-\n¿-Øn- kw-`h
- n-°p-∂- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- I
- ƒ- C-kve
- m-an-s\
- - C-kve
- mw- A-√m-Xm-°p-Ibpwa-t‰-tXm- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-tam-,- a-X-tam,-- Po-hn-X- ]-≤-Xn-tbm- B-°n- am-‰p-I-bpw- sN-øpsa∂v- G-sXm-cp- A¬-]-_p-≤n-°pw- Du-ln-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.B-Xy-¥n-I-am-bn- C-kv-em-an-s\- I-søm-gn-°q- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-\v- k-am-\-am-Wv- Jp¿
B≥- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-°v- hn-t[-b-am-°q- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- a-X-\n-tj-[n-I-fm-b- `u-Xn-Ihm-Zn-I-fpw- C-kv-em-an-s\- `-b-s∏-Sp-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fpw- C-kv-em-an-s-\- P-bn-°m≥- I-gn
bm-Ø- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{X-ß-fpw- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- A-¥x-k-Ø- a-\- n-em-°m≥- I-gn-bm-ØD]-cn-π-h-hm-Zn-I-fpw- C-kv-em-an-s\- i-cn-bm-b-n- Dƒ-s°m-≈m≥- `m-Kyw- e-`n-®n-´n-√m-ØA¬-]-Pv-Rm-\n-I-fp-am-Wv- h¿-Ø-a-m-\- Im-e-L-´-Øn¬- Jp¿-B-\n-\v- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- \n¿tZ-in-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-I- k-aq-l-ß-fn-epw- cm-Py-ß-fn-epw- hy-Iv-Xn-I-fnepw- {]-kv-Ym-\-ß-fn-epw- kw-L-S-\-I-fn-epw- D-≠m-bn-´p-≈- {]-iv-\-߃-°p-≈- ]-cn-lm-c\n¿-tZ-iß
- f
- pw- {]-Xn-hn-[n-If
- pw- C-ke
v- m-an-s≥-d- {]-am-Wß
- f
- n-epw- X-Øz- ß
- f
- n-epw- Dƒt®¿∂v- I-n-S-°p-∂p-≠v.- A-h- ]-Tn-®pw- Xn-cn-®-dn-™pw- {]-tbm-Kn-®p-am-Wv- h¿-Ø-am-\-Im-eØn-s≥-d- {]-iv\
- ß
- s
- f-bpw- {]-Xn-k\
- v[
- n-Is
- f-bpw- ]-cn-lc
- n-t°-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂X
- v.- B- taJkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

e-bn¬- {i-an-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ]-I-cw- Jp¿-B\n
\v- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- b
- p-am-bn- cw-KØ
- n-dß
- p∂Xv,a-X-sØ- A-]-{K-Yn-°p-∂-Xn¬- kw-`-hn-®A-_≤
- w- am-{X-a√
- ,- _u-≤n-Ia
- m-b- h-cƒ®bp-sS- `m-Kw- Iq-Sn-bm-Wv.- tcm-K_m-[n-X-s\Nn-In-Xv-kn-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ]-I-cw- "A-h-s\h[n-®-p-I-f-bp-I,- ]n-∂o-Sv- kr-jv-Sn-°m-tamF-∂v- t\m-°p-I' F-∂v- hn-[n-°p-∂- hn-UvV-n-bm-b- Nn-In-Xv-k-I-s≥-d- th-j-am-WvJp¿-B\
- n-s\- ]p-\¿- hm-bn-°m-\m-hi
- y-s∏Sp-∂-h¿- sI-´n-bm-Sn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv-˛
]p-\¿-hm-b-\- F-∂-Xv- C-kv-em-an-s\- h-[n
®p-I-f-bm-sa-∂- hym-tam-l-Øn-s≥-d- a-s‰m
cp- cq-]-am-sW-∂¿-Yw.C-kve
- m-an-\p-t\¿-°v- ]p-tcm-Ka
- \
- ]
- c
- s
- a
∂v- kz-bw- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂- B-i-b- iIe-ßf
- p-]t- bm-Kn- ®
- v- t]m-cm-´w- \-SØ
- p-∂h
- ¿]-e- {]-kv-Ym-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw- {]-Xy-b-im-kv{X-ßf
- p-sS-bpw- Nn-¥m-[m-cI
- f
- p-sS-bpw- hIvXm-°-fm-Wv.- A-h-cp-sS- k-ao-]-\-ß-fn-epwk-¶¬-]-ß-fn-epw- B-i-b-ß-fn-epw- ssh
hn-[y-ßf
- pw- `n-∂X
- I
- f
- p-ap-s≠-¶n-epw,- Ah
¿- "C-ke
v- m-an-\v- ]p-Xn-b- cq-]`- m-hß
- ƒ- Bhiy-am-Wv'- F-∂- hn-Ie
- - Nn-¥b
- n¬- H-∂n®ptN-cp-∂-Xv- Im-Wmw.- h¿-Ø-am-\- Im-e-L´-Øn¬- a-X-\n-tj-[-Øn-\v- a-X-\n-c-t]-£X-bp-sS-bpw- B-i-b- hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- aX_m-ly-am-b- B-Xv-ao-bm-t\z-j-W-Øn-s≥dbpw- D-]c
- n-πh
- - a-Xm-Xa
-v I
- X
- b
- p-sS-bpw- t\m´p]p-kvX
- I
- ß
- ƒ-Iq-Sn- D-]I
- c
- W
- ß
- f
- m-bp-≠v.Cu- ]p-kX
v- I
- ß
- f
- n-se- Ip-dn-∏p-Iƒ,- hn-Ieam-b- B-i-bm-t\z-j-W-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- Dcp
Øn-cn-™p-h∂
- n-´p-≈h-bm-Wv.- A-tß-b‰
- w
hn-I-e-am-b B-i-b-ß-fm-Wv- A-h-bn¬- D≈-X-v.- B-\p-Im-en-I-ßfpsS-bpw- A-®S- n- ajn- ]p-c≠
- v- ]p-dØ
- n-dßp∂- t]-Pp-I-fp-sSbpw- A-£c- k-ar-≤n-Iƒ-°nS-bn¬- C-kvem-an-s≥-d- \m-iw- sIm-Xn-°p-∂- X-e-Xn-cn™- kzm-X{- ¥y-t_m-[Ø
- n-s≥-d- tcm-Km-Xpc-ß-fm-b- B-i-b-_o-P-߃- h-f¿-∂p-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

13

hcp∂-Xv- Im-Wmw.- C-kv-eman-s\-Xn-cm-b- B-i-b-k-a-c-Øn¬-- ss]-im-Nn-Iam-b- H-cm-\-µ-Øn-s≥-d- t{]-c-Wbm¬- ]-¶m-fn-I-fm-Ip-∂-h-sc-bpw- Im-Wmw.C-°q-´-Øn¬-h-cp-∂- H-cmƒ- Jp¿B-\n-\pw- C-kv-em-an-\pw- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- \n¿tZ-in-°p-∂-Xv- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:""C-ke
v- mw- ssZ-hn-Ia
- m-sW-∂- bpIvX
- n- A-]{- K-Yn-°s
- ∏-tS-≠X
- m-Wv.- a-XØn\pw- th-Z-Øn-\pw- ssZ-hn-I-Xz-hpw- A-{]-am-Zn-Xz-hpw- I¬-]n-°p-∂-Xv- ap-kv-enwIfp-sS- am-{Xw- {]-tXy-I-X-b-√.- a-‰p-Nn-e- a-X-°m-cpw- A-ß-s\- sN-bv-Xp-h-cp∂p≠v.- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- s]m-Xp-hn¬- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂-Xv- C-kv-emw- A-h-km-\-sØa-X-hpw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- A-h-km-\-sØ- {]-hm-N-I-\p-w- Jp¿-B≥- A-h-km-\-sØth-Z-{K-\v-Y-hp-am-sW-∂m-Wv.- (B-Zn-a- a-\p-jy-\m-bn- sk-an-‰n-Iv- a-X-߃- I-cp
Xp-∂- B-Zw- sXm-´v- ssZ-hw- tem-I-Øn-\v- \¬-In-t∏m-∂-Xv- C-kv-em-am-sW∂pwap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn-eq-sS- B- a-Xw- ]q¿-W-am-°-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-X-Xv- F-∂hn-izm-k-hpw- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-ep-≠v).- Cu- hn-izm-k-Øn-\v- ]-Xn-\m-ev\q‰m-≠n-s≥-d- ]-g-°-ap-≠v.- tem-I-Øn-\p-≈- A-¥n-a- k-tµ-iw- ssZ-hw- \¬Inbn-´v- H-∂-c- k-l-{km-_v-Z-tØm-f-am-bn- F-∂v- Np-cp-°w.- kp-Zo¿-L-am-b- CuIm-e-b-f-hn¬- tem-Iw- A-º-c-∏n-°p-∂- am-‰-߃-°v- hn-t[-b-am-hp-I-bp-≠mbn.H-cp-Im-e-Øv- A-k-¶¬-]-\o-b-am-bn-cp-∂- H-´-\-h-[n- ]-cn-h¿-Ø-\-߃- k-aqlØn¬- ]n¬-°m-e-ß-fn¬- D-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- a-[y-i-X-I- tKm-{X-k-aq-l-߃- A`nap-Jo-I-cn-®-Xn-s\-°mƒ- F-{X-tbm- k-¶o¿-W-am-b- k-a-ky-Iƒ- ]n¬-°m-ek-aq-l-߃- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®p.- C-h-bv-°pw- C-\n- h-cm-\n-cn-°p-∂- A-t\-Iwk-ak
- y-Iƒ-°pw- D-Øc
- h
- pw- ]-cn-lm-ch
- pw- \n¿-tZ-in-°m≥- C-ke
v- m-an-s≥-d- thZw]-cym-]X
v- a
- m-sW-∂- hn-izm-ka
- m-Wv- ]-cº
- c
- m-KX
- - ap-ke
v- nw- ]-WU
v- n-X∑
- m¿- sh®p-

]p-e¿-Øn-b-Xv.- A-h-cp-sS- A-`n-{]m-b-Øn¬- Jp¿-B≥- \¬-Ip-∂- D-Ø-c-߃- ]n-g-°n-√.Im-c-Ww- A-Xv- ssZ-hn-I-am-Wv''.""sX-‰p-]-‰m-Ø- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- h-N-\-߃- sX-‰p-]-‰p-∂- a-\p-jy-cm-Wv- {K-ln-°p∂Xpw- ssI-Im-cyw- sN-øp-∂-Xpw.- ssZ-hn-I- h-N-\-ß-fp-sS- k-am-lm-c-am-b- Jp¿-B-\vA-{]-am-Zn-Xzw- I¬-]n-°mw.- ]-t£,- ssZ-hn-I- h-N-\-߃-°v- a-\p-jy≥- \¬-Ip-∂- A¿YI¬-]-\-Iƒ-°v- A-{]-am-Zn-Xzw- I¬-]n-°m-\m-hn-√.- ]q¿-W-\m-b- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- h-N-\߃- A-]q¿-W\
- m-b- a-\p-jy≥- ssI-Im-cyw- sN-øp-tºm-gpw- hym-Jym-\n-°p-tºm-gpw- sX‰p]‰mw.- C-Xn-s≥-d- A¿-Yw- Jp¿-B-s≥-d- {K-l-Ww- (understanding) am-‰-߃-°v- hn-t[-bam-Wv- F-∂-s{X.- {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- ap-l-Ω-tZm- {]-Y-a- J-eo-^-am-tcm- a-\- n-em-°n-b- cq-]
Øn-em-hn-√- A-h¿-°p-ti-jw- h-∂- X-e-ap-d-Iƒ- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- a-\- n-em-°n-bn-cn-°p-I.A-Xn¬-\n-s∂-√mw- h-f-sc- hy-Xy-kv-X-am-bn-´m-hpw- C-∂-sØ- a-\p-jy¿- Jp¿-B-\n-s\a\- n-em-°p-∂X
- v.- th-Z{- K-\vY
- w,- hn-izm-kn-Is
- f- kw-_\
- v[
- n-®n-St- Øm-fw- A-¥n-aa
- m-sW¶nepw- A-Xn-s≥-d- {K-lW
- h
- pw- kzmw-io-Ic
- W
- h
- pw- A]-{K-Y\
- h
- pw- hym-Jym-\hpw- H-cn-°epwA-¥n-a-a-√.- a-\p-jy-k-aq-lw- D-≈n-S-tØm-fw-Im-ew- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-Øn-\v- ]p-Xn-b- hym-Jym\߃- D-≠m-bn-s°m-≠n-cn-°pw''.""th-Z{- K-\Y
v- Ø
- n-s≥-d- A-¥n-ah
- ym-Jym-\w- \-S∂
- p-Ig
- n-™n-´n-√- F-∂- h-kX
v- p-X- ap∂n¬sh-®p-sIm-≠m-Wv- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- {]-iv-\-ß-sf- k-ao-]n-t°-≠-Xv''.""Hm-tcm- X-ea
- p-db
- pw- A-Xv- t\-Sn-b- hn-PvR
- m-\Ø
- n-s≥-db
- pw- A-\p-`h
- ß
- f
- p-sS-bpw- shfn®-Øn¬- a-X-sØ-bpw- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-sØ-bpw- ]p-\¿- hym-Jym-\n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v''.(l-ao-Zv- tN-µ-aw-K-√q¿,- ]m-T-t`-Zw- am-kn-I-bp-sS- 2003 Un-kw-_¿- e-°-Øn¬- F-gpkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Xn-b- "B-Xv-a-\n-jv-T-am-b- a-X-\n-c-t]-£Xbn-te-°v- D-b-cp-I''- F-∂- te-J-\-Øn¬\n-∂v-.- t]-Pv- 18˛19).C-kve
- m-an-s\-°p- d
- n-®p-≈- {]-Xntem-aI
- hpw- \n-tj-[m-Xa
v- I
- h
- p-am-b- k-ao-]\
- ß
- f
- pwA-ht- _m-[ß
- f
- n-se- {]-am-Z\n-_n-VX
- b
- pwC-S-I-e¿-∂-Xm-Wv- ta-ep-≤-cn-®- hm-N-I߃.- A-Xy-[n-Iw- \n-tj-[m-Xv-a-I-am-b-

ho£-Wß
- f
- p-sS- H-cp- tLm-jb
- m-{X- hmNI-ß-fn-eq-sS- kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wmw-.Ckv-emw- ssZ-h-n-I-am-Wv- F-∂-Xn-se- bpIvXn- A-]-{K-Yn-°-W-sa-∂v- te-J-I≥- Nn-¥n°p-tºmƒ-t]m-epw- A-Xv- km-[y-am-°m≥{i-an-°m-sX,- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-p-dn-®p-≈hnI-e-am-b- ap≥-hn-[n-Iƒ- B-hn-jv-I-cn-°pI-bm-Wv- sN-bvX
- n-cn°p-∂X
- v.- C-kve
- m-an-s≥d-bpw- {]-hm-NI
- X
- z-Øn-s≥-db
- pw- Jp¿-B\
- ns≥-d-bpw- A-¥n-a-kz-`m-hw- ap-kv-enw-I-fp-sStI-h-e-am-b- H-cp- hn-izm-kw- am-{X-am-WvF∂- \n¿-h-N-\w- t_m-[-]q¿-hw- \¬-Ins°m-≠m-Wv- te-J-I≥- ap-t∂m-´v- t]m-Ip∂-Xv.- sam-Ø-Øn¬- l-ao-Zv- tN-µ-aw-K-√q¿,A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥-d- ap-If
- n¬- D-≤c
- n-®- hm-NIß-fn¬- sIm-≠p-hc
- m≥- {i-an-®- Im-cy-ßsfC-{]-Im-cw- B-h¿-Øn-°mw.1.- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- A-¥n-a- th-Z-]-Z-hn
bpw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn-eq-sS-bp-≈- {]-hmNI-Xz- ]-cn-k-am-]v-Xn-bpw- a-‰-p- a-X-ß-fp-sSA-hI
- m-ih
- m-Zß
- ƒ-t]m-se- am-{X-am-Wv.- A
Xv- bp-IvX
- n-]c
- a
- √
- .- 2.- A-¥n-at- h-Za
- m-b- Jp¿
B-\pw- A-¥n-a-{]-hm-N-I-\m-b- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\_n-bpw- h-∂n-´v- -H-∂-c- k-l-{km-_v-ZwBbn-cn-°p-∂p.- B-bX
- n-\m¬- ta¬-]d
- ™
A-¥n-a-hm-Zw -bp-Iv-Xn-]-c-a-√.- 3.- Jp¿-B\n\pw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-°pw- ti-jw- `q-ap-J
Øpw- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- n-epw- \n-ch
- [
- n- am‰ß-fpw- ]-cn-h¿-Ø\
- ß
- f
- pw- kw-`h
- n-®n-cn-°p

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿∂p.- Cu- am-‰-ß-fn-epw- ]-cn-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn-epw- B-hn¿-`-hn-°p-∂- {]-iv-\-߃
°pw- k-a-ky-Iƒ-°pw- ]-cn-lm-cw- Jp¿-B-\n-ep-≠v- F-∂v- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- sh-dp
sX- hn-iz-kn-°p-I-bm-Wv- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- 4.- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- A-{]-am-Zn-Xz-hm-Z-Øn\vsh-√p-hn-fn-bm-Wv- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- {Km-ly-X-bn-se- G-‰-°p-d-®n-ep-I-fpw- ]-cn-anXnI-fpw,- th-Z-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- a-\p-jy¿- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂-Xn¬- kw-`-hn-°p∂\y-q-\-X-I-fpw.- 5.- a-\p-jy≥- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- {K-ln-°p-∂n-S-Øv- th-Z-Øn-s≥-dssZ-hn-I-am-b- Xm-Xzn-I- X-e-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- th-dn-´- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS- B-hn¿-`mhwkw-`h
- n-°m-\n-Sb
- p-≠v- F-∂X
- n-s≥-d- sh-fn-®Ø
- n¬- Jp¿-B≥- G-Xp-hn-t[-\bpw{K-ln-°m-\pw- Dƒ-s°m-≈m-\p-ap-≈- kzm-X-{¥yw- a-\p-jy-\p-≠v- F-∂m-Wv- DcpØn-cn-™p-h-cp-∂-Xv.- 6.- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- a-\- n-em-°-en¬- {]-hm-N-I≥,- J-eo
^-am¿,- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- in-jy-∑m¿,- ]n¬-°m-e- a-X-]-Wv-Un-X¿,- Nn-¥-I¿,km-[m-c-W-°m¿- F-∂n-h¿-°n-S-bn¬- `n-∂-X-Iƒ- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p,- A-Xv- kzm`mhn-I-hp-am-Wv.- 7.- Jp¿-B≥,- Im-e-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- am-‰-߃°-\p-k-cn-®v- \n-c-¥-cw- ]p-Xn-b- hym-Jym-\-˛ B-i-b-X-e-߃- B-h-iy-s∏-´psIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- 8.- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬- ]p-Xn-bIm-eL
- ´- Ø
- n-se- P-\X
- ,- X-ßf
- m¿-Pn-®- A-dn-hn-s≥-db
- pw- h-f¿-®b
- p-sS-bpw- Aht_m-[-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn-ep-≈- ]p-Xn-b- X-e-ß-fn-¬-sN-s∂-ØpIbm-Wv- th-≠-Xv.l-ao-Zv- tN-µ-aw-K-√q¿- kq-Nn-∏n-®- ta¬-]-d-™- Im-cy-ß-fp-sS- k-Xy-kv-Yn
Xn- ]-cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- A-°-an-´v,- {I-am-\p-K-X-am-bn- B- ]-cn-tim-[-\- \
S-Ømw.- ta¬-]-d-™- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS- ]-cn-tim-[-\-bn¬,-- A-h- \n-e-\n¬-]vA¿-ln-°p-∂-h-b-√- F-∂v- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-Ip-∂-tXm-sS,- a-dp-]-Sn-bp-sS- B-hiyIX- kz-bw- A-kv-X-an-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.-

1.- Jp¿-B≥- A-¥n-a-th-Z-am-Wv,- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n- A-¥n-a-{]-hm-N-I-\m-Wv- F-∂o- Imcy߃- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- tI-h-ew- H-cp- hn-izm-k-am-bn- sIm-≠p-\-S-°p-∂-h-b-√-˛ C-X-c- a-Xßfp-sS- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-߃-t]m-ep-≈- km-am-\y- hm-Z-hp-a-√.- N-cn-{X- ]-T-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw]q¿-h-th-Z-ß-fn-se- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fp-sS-bpw- k-Xym-t\z-jn-I-fp-sS-bpw- K-th-j-I-cp-sS-bpw[n-j-Wm-]-c-am-b- {]-b-Xv-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw- -^-e-am-bn- sX-fn-bn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈- A-\n-tj-[yh-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.- X-ß-fp-sS- a-Xw- C-kv-em-am-bn-t∏m-bn- F-∂-Xn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬ap-kv-enw-I-ƒ- A-h-cp-sS- \n-e-]m-Sp-I-fp-sS- N-cn-{X-]-c-hpw- bp-Iv-Xn-]-c-hpw- im-kv-{Xo-b-hp
am-b- A-]-{K-Y-\-Øn¬-\n-∂v- ]p-d-tIm-´p-t]mhp-I-bpw- A-\v-[-am-b- \n-e-]m-Sp-I-fn-eq-sSbp-IX
v- n-bp-sS-bpw- k-Xy-Øn-s≥-db
- pw- \n-tj-[Ø
- n¬- A-Sn-™p-Iq-Sp-Ib
- pw- sN-bX
v- n-´ns√∂vIm-Wmw.- Cu- I-s≠-Ø-en-\v- Xm-c-X-ay-]-T-\-kz-`m-h-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b- A-t\z-j-Wa-m-WvB-h-iyw.C-kv-em-an-s\-bpw- C-X-c- a-X-ß-sf-bpw- kz-X-{¥-am-b- A-t\z-j-W-Øn-s≥-d- h-gn-bneqsS- A-]-{K-Yn-°p-I-bpw- hn-izm-k,- B-i-b,- Xm-Xzn-I- ta-J-e-I-fn-se- L-S-I-ß-sf- Xm-c
X-ayw- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠v- ap-t∂-dp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xm¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- th-Zw,- {]-h-m-N-I≥,ssZ-hn-I-X- F-∂n-h-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ- I-s≠-Øp-hm≥- I-gn-bp-sa-∂Xp-sIm-≠v- ap≥-hn-[n-If
- n¬- Du-∂p-∂- km-am-\y-h¬-Ic
- W
- w- i-cn-bm-b- k-ao-]\
- a
- √
- .- Ckvem-an-s≥-d- B-i-b-߃- kp-kv-Yn-c-am-b- B-i-b-ß-fpw- C-X-c- a-X-ß-fp-sS- A-h-Im-i-hm
Z-߃- \n-e-\n¬-]v- A¿-ln-°m-Ø- hm-Z-K-Xn-I-fp-am-Wv- F-∂- hy-Xym-kw- A-h-K-Wn-®Xm-Wv- {]-iv-\w.2.- ]-Xn-\m-ev- \q-‰m-≠v- ]n-∂n-´p- F-∂-Xv- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- A-¥n-a- th-Z-kz-`m-h-Øn-\vsh-√p-hn-fn- D-b¿-Øp-∂-X-√.- {I-am-\p-K-X-am-b- a-\p-jy-h-f¿-®-bn-eq-sS- N-cn-{Xw- H-cpkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

14
{]tXyI- k-\v-[n-bn¬- F-Øn-b- L-´-Ønem-Wv- A-¥n-a-th-Z-am-b- Jp¿-B-\p-am-bnA-¥y-{]-hm-N-I-\m-b- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)hcp-∂-Xv.- a-\p-jy- h-f¿-®-sb-°-p-dn-®v- hyIv-X-am-bn- A-dn-bp-∂- H-cp- {k-jv-Sm-hn¬-\n∂pw- h-cp-∂- th-Z-hpw- {]-hm-N-I-\p-am-Ibm¬,- B- th-ZØ
- n-s≥-db
- pw- {]-hm-NI
- s
- ≥d
-bpw- km¿-h-Im-en-I-X-bpw- km¿-h-P-\o-\X-bpw- `-{Z-am-bn- ap-t∂m-´v- sIm-≠p-t]m-Im≥-

I-gn-bp-∂- X-c-Øn-ep-≈- ssi-en-bpw- k-ao]-\-hpw- B-i-b- {I-ao-I-c-W-hp-am-Wv- Jp¿B-\n-s≥-d-bpw- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d-bpw- Im-cyØn¬- {k-jSv- m-hv- kzo-Ic
- n-®n-´p-≈X
- v.- H-∂ck-l-{km-_v-Z-Øn-\v- bm-sXm-cp- X-c-Øn-ep≈- kzm-[o-\-hpw- ]-g-°-hpw- t]m-d-ep-I-fpwG¬-]n-°p-hm-t\m- sN-ep-Øp-hm-t\m- km
[n-°m-ØX
- c
- Ø
- n¬- \n-Xy-\q-\X
- b
- p-sS- HcpssP-hn-I- {]`m-hw- Jp¿-B-\n-\pw- ap-l-ΩZv-\-_n-bp-sS- k-tµ-i-߃-°p-ap-≠v.3.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-°pw- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-dA-h-X-c-W-Øn-\pw- ti-jw- a\p-jy-cm-in°v- \q-X-\-ß-fm-b- ]-e- k-a-ky-I-sf-bpwt\-cn-tS-≠n-h∂
- n-cn-°mw.- `q-ap-JØ
- v- B-hn¿`-hn-°p-∂- F√m- k-a-ky-Iƒ-°pw- {]-iv\-߃-°pw- ]cn-lm-cw- Jp¿-B-\n-ep-≠v,C-kv-em-an-ep-≠v- F-∂- ap-ºpw- ]n-ºpwt\m°m-Ø- {]-Jym-]\
- a
- √
- - Jp¿-B\
- n-t≥dXv- F-∂v- {]-tXy-Iw- {i-≤n-°-Ww.- kr-jvSn-bpw- {kjv-Sm-hpw- XΩn-ep-≈- _-\v-[-Øns≥-d-bpw- {kjv-Sm-hn-s≥-d- Xm¬-]-cy-߃i-cn-bm-bn- a-\- n-em-°n- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XsØ- A¿-Y-h-Øm-bn- ap-t∂m-´v- \-bn-°p∂-Xn-s≥-db
- pw- cq-]t- c-JI
- f
- m-Wv- Jp¿-B≥\¬-Ip-∂-Xv.- a-\p-jy≥- F-{X- ]p-tcm-K-an®m-epw- A-h≥- {kjv-Sm-hn-s≥-d- kr-jv-Snb-√m-Xmhp-I-tbm,- A-h-≥- ssZ-h-hp-am-bp≈- _-\v-[-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Np-a-X-e-I-fp-sSbpw- X- e - Ø n¬- \ n- ∂ v - ap- I v - X - a m- I - t bm-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿sNøp-∂n-√.- B-b-Xn-\m¬- km¿-h-Im-en-I-hpw- km¿-h-tZ-io-b-hp-am-b- H-cp thZ-Øn-eq-sS- kr-jv-Sn-˛{k-jv-Sm-hv- _-\v-[-Øn-s≥-d- \n-Xy-\qX-\-am-b- am¿-Kw- a\p-jy¿-°v- \¬-I-p-I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- `u-Xn-I-hpw- `q-an-im-kv-{X-]c-hpw- B-hm-k-hy-h-kv-Y-n-Xn-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´-Xpw- im-kv-{Xob-˛ ssh-PvRm-\n-I- kz-`m-ha
- p-≈X
- p-am-b- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- n-se- _m-ly-LS- I-߃- Jp¿B-\n-s≥-d-bpw- {]-hm-N-I-Xz-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- {]-ta-b-ß-f-√.- a-\p-jycm-in-bn¬B-hn¿-`-hn-°p-∂- D-]-cn-π-h- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-sS- ]-cn-lm-c- \n¿-tZ-i-߃- Jp¿-B\n¬- A-t\z-jn-°-W-sa-∂- A-_-≤-P-Vn-e-am-b- hm-Z-K-Xn- H-cp-Im-e Øpw- Ckv-em-an-\pw- ap-kvenw- Nn-¥-I¿-°pw- D-≠m-bn-´n-√,- D-≠m-bn-cn-°-bpan√.4.- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- a-\p-jy-\v- b-tY-jv-Sw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°m-sa-∂- kz-X-{¥-hmb\-bp-tS-Xm-b- A-hI
- m-ih
- mZ--Øn¬-\n-∂p-am-Wv- a-\p-jy¿- Jp¿-B≥- {K-ln-°p∂nS-Øv- {]-iv-\-߃- D-Xv-`-hn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-\p-≈- t{]-c-W- D-≠m-Ip
∂-Xv.- F-∂m¬- Hm-tcm- hn-izm-kn-°pw- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- kz-¥w- _p-≤n-bpw- [njW-bpw- A-\p-k-cn-®v- ssI-Im-cyw- sN-øm≥- kzm-X-{¥yw- I¬-]n-°p-∂n-√- F∂Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- a-\p-jy-_p-≤n-°v- A{]-am-Zn-Xz-tam- ssZ-hn-I-am-b- B-i-b
ß-sf- kz-bw- D-¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°m-\p-≈- ti-jn-tbm- \¬-I-s∏-´n-´n-√- F-∂-Xp-sIm
≠v- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- hy-Iv-Xn-\n-jv-T-am-b- hm-b-\-bpw- Dƒ-s°m-≈-epw- bp-Iv-Xn]c-a-√.- th-Z-sØ- k-ao-]n-°p-∂-Xn-\pw- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂-Xn-\p-ap-≈- `-{Z-hpw- {]amZ-kv-]¿-i-an-√m-Ø-Xp-am-b- am¿-K- \n¿-tZ-i-߃-Iq-Sn- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- D-≈-S-°am-bn- \n-iv-N-bn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂-Xn-eq-sS- Jp¿-B≥,- A-Xn-s≥-d- {]-am-Zap-Iv-X-am-b- kz-`m-hw- ]-cn-c-£n-°m-\p-≈- {i-≤-bpw- {]-I-Sn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v.5.- G-sXm-cp- {K-\v-Y-sØ-bpw- H-cmƒ- {K-ln-°p-∂-Xv,- B- {K-\v-Y-Øn-s≥-dau-en-I-am-b- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-°v- \n-c-°p-∂-X-c-Øn-epw- ]q¿-W-am-bpw- B-bncn°-W-sa-∂n-√- F-∂-Xv- H-cp- km-am-\y- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.- B-bn-cw- t]¿- H-cp]p-kv-X-I-sØ- ]-Xn-\m-bn-cw-hn-[-Øn¬- hm-bn-t®-°m-\n-S-bp-≠v.- am-\-h-cm-insam-Øw- H-tc-sbm-cp- hn-[Ø
- n¬- H-scm-‰- h-cn-t]m-epw- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂n-√- F∂Xpw- kw-`-hy-am-Wv.- ]-t£,- C-sX-√mw- Xn-I-®pw- km-am-\y-am-b- hm-b-\-bp-sSbpw- {K-\v-Y-k-ao-]-\-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- X-e-Øn¬- am-{Xw- {]-k-Iv-X-am-b- Im-cy-ßfm-Wv.-

ssZhn-I- th-Z-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬- ta¬-]-d-™- km-am-\y-X-°v- {]-k
IvX
- n-bn-√.- hy-IX
v- n-\n-jT
v- h
- pw- a-\p-jy- Xm¬-]c
- ym-\p-kr-Xh
- p-am-b- hm-b\
- I
- ƒ-°v- Jp¿B≥A-h-k-cw- \¬-Ip-∂n-√.- a-\p-jy¿- H-cp- {K-\v-Y-sØ- ]-e-hn-[-Øn¬- Dƒ-s°m-≈p∂p- F
∂-Xn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- ssZ-hn-I-{K-\v-Y-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- B- co-Xn-bn¬- hn´psIm-Sp-°p-Ib
- √
- - sN-bvX
- n-cn-°p-∂X
- v.- A-ßs
- \- hn-´p-sIm-Sp-°W
- s
- a-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂X
- v- ssZhnI-kz-`m-h-Øn-\v- \n-c°p-∂- hm-Z-a-√.- a-\p-jy-cp-sS- k-l-P-am-b- H-cp- kz-`m-h-am-Wv-;- Hcmƒa-s‰m-cm-fn¬-\n-∂v- Nn-¥-b-n-epw- {Km-ly-X-bn-epw- th-dn-´p-\n¬-°p-I- F-∂-Xv.- Cu- kz-`m
h-sØ- H-cp- {]-am-W-am-bn- I-W-°m-°n-s°m-≠v,- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-∂-Xm-Wv
"a-\p-jy-ka
- q-lw- D-≈n-St- Øm-fw- Im-ew- th-Z{- K-\vY
- Ø
- n-\v- ]p-Xn-b- hym-Jym-\ß
- ƒ- D≠mbn-s°m≠n-cn-°pw'- F-∂- l-ao-Zv- tN-µ-aw-K-√q-cn-s≥-d- hm-Z-K-Xn-bp-sS- Xm¬-]-cyw.Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- hm-b-\-bpw- {Km-ly-X-bpw- H-tc-I-X-bn-epw- Zr-V-X-c-am-b- B-i-b-hnXm\-Øn-epw- kw-`-hn-t°-≠-Xm-b-Xp-sIm-≠v,- A-{]-Im-c-am-Wv- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- am-\-h-cm-inDƒ-s°m-t≈-≠-Xv- F-∂p-Iq-Sn- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- D-S-a-bm-b- {k-jv-Sm-hv- ]-Tn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v.- thZ
sØ- ssZ-hn-I-Xm¬-]-cym-\p-kr-Xw- F-∆n-[w- hm-bn-°-W-sa-∂v- ]-Tn-∏n-°m-\m-Wv- {]-hmNkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

15
I-s\- A-b®
- X
- v.- th-ZØ
- n-s≥-d- A-¥n-ah
- pwB-Zn-ah
- pw- km¿-hI
- m-en-Ih
- pw- km¿-hP
- \
- o\-hp-am-b- hm-b-\-bm-Wv- {]-hm-N-I≥- \-S
Øn-b-Xv.Jp¿-B≥- F-√m-h¿-°pw- A-Xn-s≥-d- ]m
cm-b-W-co-Xn-Iƒ- A-h-ew-_n-®v- ]m-cm-bWw- sN-øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. ]-t£,- aq-ey-\n¿[-m-c-W-]-c-hpw- B-i-b- {]-Xyp¬-]m-Z-\-]c-hp-am-b- hm-b-\-°v- A¿-l-X-bp-≈-Xv- {]
hm-NI
- \
- v- am-{X-am-Wv- F-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- hyIvX-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- ssZ-h-n-IKp-Ww- kw-c£
- n-°p-∂X
- n-s≥-d- `m-Ka
- m-bn´mWn-Xv.- {]-hm-NI
- ≥- hn-hc
- n-®{- ]-Im-cw- h-N\ß-fp-sS- B-i-b-߃- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-I-bpwth-Z-Øn-s≥-d- hm-b-\-bn¬- {]-hm-N-I-s≥dssZ-h\
- n-bp-IvX
- a
- m-b- a-m¿-Kk
- a
- o-]\
- w- Ah-

ew-_n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I-bm-Wv- a-\p-jy
cn¬- \n-£n-]vX
- a
- m-bn-cn-°p-∂- _m-[y-X.- C
Xv- Nn-¥m-kzm-X-{¥y-Øn-\pw- a-\p-jy-Kp-W
Øn-\pw- F-Xn-cm-Ip-∂n-√.- a-\p-jy-s\- kr
jv-Sn-®-h-\v- a-\p-jy-s\- A-dn-bmw- F-∂-XpsIm-≠v,- {k-jSv- m-hm-b- A-h≥- Xs≥-d- thZØn-s≥-d- ]-c-n-c-£-bv-°m-bn- G¿-s]-Sp-Øn
b-Xpw- th-Z-Øn-se- B-i-b-ß-sf- A-h-bp
sS- au-en-I-am-b- kz-`m-h-Øn¬- a-\p-jy-cmin-bp-sS- A-¥yw-h-sc- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂-Xn\m-bn- B-hn-jv-I-cn-®-Xp-am-b- H-cp- co-Xn-bmWv- {]-hm-N-I≥- hm-bn-®-dn-™-Xp-t]m-seJp¿-B-\n-s\- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- hm-bn-®-dn-tb≠-Xp-≠v- F-∂- hy-h-kv-Y.- Cu- X-e-Øn¬\n-∂p-sIm-≠v- Nn-¥n-°p-tºmƒ,- ap-kv-enwIƒ- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- ]-e-hn-[-Øn¬- hm-bn°p-I-bpw- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I- F
∂- {]-iv-\t- a- D-Zn-°p-∂n-√.- ssZ-hn-I{- K-\vYam-b- Jp¿-B≥- A-Xn-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-IX
- bv°vtbm-Pn-°m-ØX
- c
- Ø
- n¬- hm-bn-°s
- ∏-Sm-\p
≈- km-[y-X-Iƒ- C--u- co-Xn-bn-eq-sS- ]msS{]-Xn-tcm-[n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p-≠v.Jp¿-B≥- A-Xn-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-I-kp-c-£-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

16

bn¬- F-°m-e-Øpw- \n¬-°-p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- hm-b-\-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v,- Jp¿-B≥- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂pF-∂-Xv- C-hn-sS- ]-cn-tim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- c-≠v- Jp¿-B-\n-I- ]-cm-a¿-i-߃t\m-°mw-:1.- A-£-c-Pv-Rm-\-an-√m-Øh¿-°n-S-bn¬-,-- X-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- A-h¿°v- hm-bn-®p-tIƒ-]n-°p-I-bpw- A-h-sc- kw-kv-I-cn-°p-I-bpw A-h¿-°v- th-Z{K-Ÿ-hpw- X-Øz-⁄m-\-hpw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-ø-m≥- A-h-cn¬-\n-∂p-X-s∂bp-≈- H-cp- Zq-Xs
- \- A-b®
- h
- \
- m-Ip-∂p- A-h≥.- Xo¿-®m-bpw- A-h¿- ap-ºv- hy‡am-b- h-gn-tI-Sn-em-bn-cp-∂p.- A
- h
- c
- n¬-s]-´- C-\n-bpw- A-ht- cm-Sv- tN¿-∂n-´n-√mØa-‰p-≈-h-cn-te-°pw- (B {]-hm-N-I≥- \n-tbm-K-n-X-\m-bn-cp-∂p)......-''- (62:-2,-3).2.- A-√m-lp- \n-߃-°v- H-cp- D-Zvt_m-[-\w- C-d-°n-X-∂n-cn-°p-∂p.""........-Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-√m-lp- \n-߃-°v- H-cp- D-Zv-t_m-[-I-s\- C-d-°n-Ø∂n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Y-hm- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- hy-‡-am-b- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- \n-߃°v- Hm-Xn-t°ƒ-]n-®p-X-cp-∂- H-cp- Zq-X-s\-;- h
-- n-iz-kn-°p-I-bpw- k¬-I¿-a-߃{]-h¿-Øn-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂h
- s
- c- A-\v[
- I
- m-cß
- f
- n¬-\n-∂v- {]-Im-iØ
- n-te°vB-\-bn-°p-h-m≥- th-≠n.....--'-'- (65:-10,-11).Cu- Zr-i-ß-fm-b- h-N-\-߃- ]-cn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n¬- \n-c-h-[n- kv-Y-e-ßfn¬- Im-Wmw.- {]-hm-N-I- Zu-Xyw- _-\v-[n-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-Øns≥-d- ssZ-hn-I-Xm¬-]-cym-\p-kr-X-am-b- hm-b-\-bpw- B-i-b- {Km-ly-X-bpw- Dƒs∏-Sp-∂- Im-cy-ß-fn-em-Wv- F-∂m-Wv- C-Ø-cw- h-N-\-ß-fp-sS- s]m-cpƒ.th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- hm-l-I-\m-b- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- ap-Jy-am-b- e-£yw-X-s∂,- icnbm-b- hm-b-\-bn-eq-sS- th-Z-Øn-se- k-tµ-i-ß-sf- am-\-h-cm-in-°v- t_m-[ys∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-Sp-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.- {K-\v-Y-sØ- A-Xn-s≥-d- _m-ly-am-b- LS-\-bn¬- F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-I- F-∂-Xv- am-{X-am-Wv- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- D-Ø-chm-Zn-Ø-sa-∂v- h-cn-In¬- am-{X-sa- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- B-h-iy-an-√m-sX- "G-sXmcmƒ-°pw- kz-¥w- _p-≤n-bpw- {Km-ly-X-bp-a-\p-kcn-®v- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- hm-bn°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv' F-∂- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°v- \n-e-\n¬-]p-≠m-hp-I-bp-≈q.- F-∂m¬{]-hm-N-I-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- e-£y-am-bn- {k-jv-Sm-hv- \n-iv-N-bn-®-Xv,- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d-

i-cn-bm-b- hm-b-\-bpw- Dƒ-s°m-≈-epw- P-\-X-sb- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.- B- Zu-Xy\n¿-h-l-W-Øn-s≥-d- ^-e-am-bn-´m-Wv- Jp¿-B-\n-se- B-i-b-ß-sf- a-\p-jy-cm-in- G-Xvco-Xn-bn-em-Wv- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-I-bpw- kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-tø-≠-Xv- F-∂- ]m-T-߃- e-`n
®-Xv.- B-Xy-¥n-I-am-bn- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- ]m-Tm-Xv-a-I-X- _-\v-[-s∏-´p- In-S-°p-∂-Xp-X-s∂{]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- hm-b-\-bpw- ssZ-h-\n-bp-Iv-X-am-b- {Km-ly-X-bpw- A-S-°-ap-≈- Zu-Xy-\n¿h-l-W-Øn-s≥-d- hn-hn-[- h-i-ß-fp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´m-Wv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- kz-X{¥a-m-b- th-Z-hm-b-\- F-∂-Xv- X-Ø-z-Øn¬- C-kv-em-an-\v- \n-c-°m-Ø-,- Xm-sg- ]-d-bp-∂- Imcyß-fn-em-Wv- sN-s∂-Øp-I-:1.- ssZ-hn-I-Xm¬-]-cy-ß-fp-w- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- {Km-ly-X-bpw- X-Ωn-ep-≈- s]m-cp-Ø-t°Sp-I-fp-sS- ^--e-am-bn,- ssZ-hn-I-Xm¬-]-cy-߃- th-Z-hm-b-\-bn¬- ]p-dw-X-≈-s∏-Spw.2.- Cu- ]p-dw-X-≈¬,- th-Z-sØ- ssZ-hn-I-am-b- kzo-Im-cy-X-bn¬-\n-∂v- ]p-d-tØ-°v- \
bn-°p-I-bpw- am-\p-jn-I-am-b- H-cp- B-i-b-t{km-X- m-bn- X-cw-Xm-gv-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

3.- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- hm-b-\-sb- ]p-dw-X≈n- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ- kz-X-{¥-am-b- hm-b-\-bpsS- ]p-d-sI- t]m-Ip-tºmƒ,- {]-hm-N-I-ZuXyw- A-h-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p;- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°s∏-Sm-sX-h-cp-∂p.i-cn-bpw- ssZ-h-Xm¬-]-cym-\p-kr-X-hpam-b- th-Zh
- m-b\
- - {]-hm-NI
- ≥- \n¿-hl
- n®pI-gn-™- kv-Yn-Xn-°v- B- hm-b-\-sb- ]n¥pS-cp-I- F-∂X
- m-Wv- C-ke
v- m-an-Ia
- m-b- A-[ym]-\w.- ]-Xn-\m-ev- \q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºv{]hm-N-I≥- \-S-Øn-b,- ssZ-hn-I-am¿-K-\n¿tZ-im-\p-kr-X-am-b- hm-b-\- F-°m-e-tØ°p-ap-≈- hm-b-\-bpw- hym-Jym-\-hpam-Ibm¬- ]p-Xn-b- hm-b-\-Iƒ C-kv-em-an-I-hrØ-Øn-\v- ]p-d-tØ-°p-≈- h-gn- A-t\z-jn°-em-bn-cn-°pw.-

Iq-Sn-b- tXm-Xn-ep-≈- B-i-b- h-{Io-Ic-W-ß-fn-eq-sS- C-k-vem-an-s≥-d- i-cn-bm-bXm¬-]c
- y-߃-°v- hn-cp-≤a
- m-b- X-eß
- f
- n¬sN-s∂-Øp-I-bpw- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-It{]m-Iv-X-ß-fm-b- aq-ey-߃- \n-jv-I-cp-Ww]p-dw-X≈
- s
- ∏-Sp-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂X
- n-\v- ]p-Xn
b- hm-b-\-Iƒ- h-gn-sbm-cp-°p-∂p- F-∂-XpsIm-≠m-Wv- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- hm-bn-t°-≠Xv{]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- hm-b-\-m-h-gn-bn-eq-sS-bm-WvF-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.C-kv-em-an-I- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- G-I-X°pw- ap-kve
- nw- hy-IvX
- n-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- au-enIX-°pw- Im-c-Ww- Jp¿-B-\n¬- A-[n-jv-TnX-am-b- a-X-Io-b- aq-ey-ß-fp-sS- F-°m-e
sØ-bpw- H-tc-`m-hh
- pw- kz-`m-hh
- p-am-Wv.- {]
hm-N-I- Im-e-L-´-Øn-se- C-kv-em-an¬-\n
∂v,- J-eo-^-am-cp-sS- Im-e-sØ- C-kv-emwH-cp- \n-e°
- pw- `n-∂a
- m-Ip-∂n-√.- J-eo-^a
- m¿kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- Po-hn-X- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\-ambn- A-he
- w-_n-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-bvX
- - C-kve
- mwX-s∂-bm-Wv- ]n¬-°m-e- ap-kv-enw- ]-Wv-Un
X˛ hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-ß-fpw- ]n-¥p-S¿-∂-Xv.- C-ß

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

17

s\,- {]-hm-N-I-Im-e-sØ- C-kv-emw- ]-Xn-\m-ev- \q-‰m-≠m-bn- tem-I-Øn-s≥-dhn-hn[- `m-Kß
- f
- n-te-°v- {]-kc
- n-°p-Ib
- pw- hym-]n-°p-Ib
- p-am-Wp-≠m-bn-´p-≈Xv.{]-am-Wß
- f
- n-se-bpw- A-Sn-kvY
- m-\ß
- f
- n-se-bpw- G-IX
- b
- pw- {]am-Wß
- s
- f- kzoI-cn-°p-Ib
- pw- A-he
- w-_n-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂X
- n-se- {i-≤b
- pw- Pm-{K-Xb
- p-amWvH-tc- C-kv-emw-X-s∂- I-gn-™- ]-Xn-\m-ev- \q-‰m-≠m-bn- tem-I-Øv- \n-e-\n¬°p-hm≥- Im-c-Ww.- Cu- {i-≤-bpw- Pm-{K-X-bp-am-I-s´- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d-bpw- Jp¿B-\n-s≥-d- {]-hm-N-I- hm-b-\-bp-sS- ^-e-ß-fm-b- kp-∂-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-Sn-kvYm-\-Øn-ep-≈-Xm-Wv.- Jp¿-B≥- {]-hm-N-I≥- hm-bn-®-Xp-t]m-se- kz-lm-_nI-fpw- ({]-hm-N-I- in-jy-∑m¿)- kz-lm-_n-Iƒ- hm-bn-®-Xp-t]m-se- Xm-_nDIfpw- ({]-hm-N-I- in-jy-∑mcp-sS- ]n≥-Km-an-Iƒ-) A-h¿- hm-bn-®-Xp-t]m-seF-√m- ]n¬-°m-e-°m-cpw- hm-bn-°p-I-bpw- A-h-ew-_n-°p-I-bpw- Dƒ-s°m-≈pI-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- F-hn-sS-bpw- H-cp- Im-e-L-´-Øn-epw- hy-Iv-Xn-\n-jv-T-hpw- hyXnN-en-®-Xp-am-b- H-cp- ]p-Xn-b- hm-b-\- D≠m-bn-√,- kw-`-hn-®n-´n-√.- A-Xp-sIm≠p-X-s∂- `n-∂-X-bpw- D≠m-bn-´n-√.7.- ]p-Xn-b- Im-ew,- ]p-Xn-b- hm-b-\-Iƒ- B-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p- F-∂- Nn-¥m-KXn- Jp¿-B\
- n-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬- A-kzo-Im-cy-am-Wv.- Im-cW
- w,- Jp¿-B≥- e£yam-°p-∂-Xv Im-em-Xo-X-hpw- k-a-bm-Xo-X-hp-a-m-b- ]-cn-K-W-\-bn¬- Im-tW-≠p∂- a-\p-jy-\n-se- B-Xy-¥n-I-X-sb-bm-Wv.- kr-jv-Sn-bpw- ssZ-h-Zm-k-\p-am-bncn-°p-∂- a\p-jy-s\-bm-Wv.- k-aq-lØ
- n-s≥-dbpw- - Im-eØ
- n-s≥-db
- pw- am-‰ß
- fpwh-f¿-®-I-fpw- A-\p-k-cn-®v- Jp¿-B-\n-\v- ]p-Xn-b- B-i-b-ß-fpw- X-e-ß-fpw- Bcm-bp-∂-Xv- Jp¿-B≥- G-Xv- [¿-a-hpw- Zu-Xy-hp-am-Wv- am-\-h-cm-in-bn¬- \n¿-hln-°p-∂-Xv,- \n¿-h-ln-t°-≠-Xv- F-∂v- Xn-cn-®-dn-bm-Ø-Xn-s≥-d- ^-e-am-bm-Wv.8.- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- ssh-Pv-Rm-\n-I-hpw- im-kv-{Xo-b-hpw- `u-Xn-I-hp-am-bh-f¿-®-bpw- ss\-c-¥-cy-kz-`m-h-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b- am-‰ß-fpw- Jp¿-B-\n-se- imiz-X-aq-ey-ß-sf- A-f-°p-hm≥- am-\-Z-Wv-U-am-°m-hp-∂-X-√.- Im-c-Ww,- `u-XnI- km-l-N-cy-ß-fp-sS-bpw- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- h-f¿-®- \n-c-¥-cw- kw-`-hn°p-∂-Xpw- am-‰-sa-∂-Xv- N-e-\m-Xv-a-I-am-b- H-cp- Im-cy-hp-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬- krjv-Sn- F-∂- \n-e-bn-ep-≈- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- ssZ-h-hp-am-bp-≈- _-\v-[w- N-e-\m-Xv-aI-am-b- H-∂-√,- A-Xv- im-iz-X-hpw F-°m-e-Øpw- Xp-ey-hp-am-Wv.- ssh-Pv-Rm\n-I-˛`u-Xn-I- ]p-tcm-bm-\-Øn-s\m-Øv- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- au-en-I-am-b- kz-`m-hØn-\v-,- A-h-s≥-d- Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- i-cn-bm-b- e-£y-Øn-\v am-‰-߃- h-cp-∂n√m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠v- a-X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- th-Z-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- ]p-Xn-b- hm-b-\-°v- {]k-Iv-Xn-bn-√,- B-h-iy-hp-an-√.H-cmƒ- X-\n-°v- ]m-I-a√m-Ø- H-cp- sN-cp-∏v- kz-¥-am-°n-b-ti-jw- A-Xvkz-¥-am-Wv- F-∂- Im-cyw- a-d-∂v- A-Xn-\v- ]m-I-am-b ]m-Z-߃- A-t\z-jn-®v\S-°p-∂-Xm-bn- H-cp- ssN-\o-kv- I-Y-bp-≠v.- C-Xv- "sN-cp-∏n-\-\p-k-cn-®v- ]m-Zwap-dn-°p-I' F-∂- {]-tbm-K-Øn-s≥-d- a-s‰m-cp- cq-]-bm-Wv.- th-Z-ß-fp-sS- ]p-\¿hm-b-\,- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- ]p-Xn-b- Im-em-\-p-kr-X-am-b- ]m-cm-b-Ww- Xp-S-ßn-bhm-Z-K-Xn-Iƒ-°v- ta¬-]-d-™- I-Y-bn-se- Kp-W-]m-T-hp-am-bn- km-ay-X-bp-≠v.-

]pXn-b- Im-e-Øn-\-\p-k-cn-®v- H-cmƒ- Jp¿-B-\n¬- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\-°v- {i-an-°p-I-bpw- Jp¿B-\n-s≥-d- {]-hm-N-I-hm-b-\-°v- hn-cp-≤-am-b- Zn-i-bn¬- k-©-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xm¬A-bmƒ- sN-s∂-Øp-I,- \n-c¿-Y-I-ß-fm-b- Nn-¥-I-fp-sS- tem-I-Øm-bn-cn-°pw.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

H-cmƒ- Jp¿-B-\n¬- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- XpS-ßn-bm-epw- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- °
- m-c≥- A-hk
- m\n-°p-∂-Xv- th-Z-_m-ly-am-b- Nn-¥-I-fn-embn-cn-°pw.- A-t∏mƒ- "]p-\¿-hm-b-\'- F-∂Xp-X-s∂-bpw- ^-e-iq-\y--X-bpw- \n-c¿-Y-IX-bpw- C-g-tN¿-∂- H-cp- _m-en-i-hr-Øn-bpsS- t]-cm-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.- A-Ø-cw- H-cp- _men-i-hr-Øn-bn¬- G¿-s]-Sp-∂-Xn-s\-°mƒ_p-≤n-a-m-\m-b- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-°v- \-√-Xv"Rm≥- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂n-√'F-∂- hy-Iv-X-am-b- \n-e-]m-Sv- A-h-ew-_n°p-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw-;- ]-d-™p-h-cp-∂-Xv- ]p\¿-hm-b-\-bp-sS- h-gn- sN-s∂-Øp-∂-XvJp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- e-£y-߃-°pw- Xm¬-]cy-߃-°pw- \n-c-°m-Ø- a-t‰-tXm- tem-IØm-b-n-cn-°pw- F-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv.Jp¿-B-\n¬- ]p-\¿-hm-b-\- \-S-Øp-IF-∂-Xv- Jp¿-B≥- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°m-Ø- HcpNn-¥m-K-Xn-bm-sW-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- A-Ø-csam-cp- km-[y-Xs
- b-°p- d
- n-®v- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p- t]m-ep-an-√.- i-cn-bm-b- a-X-Io-b-hy-Iv-Xn-Xzhpw- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- th-Z-_m-ly-am-b]p\¿-hm-b-\-bpw- X-Ωn¬- s]m-cp-Ø-s∏-Sp∂n-√.- B¿-°pw- G-sXm-cp- a-X-sØ-bpwaX-{]-am-W-sØ-bpw- kz-¥w- a-\- n-s≥-dbpw- a-\x-km-£n-bp-sS-bpw- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\Øn¬- hn-eb
- n-cp-Øp-hm-\p-≈- kz-mX
- {- ¥yw-

tem-I-Øp-≠v- F-∂-Xp-am-{Xw,- Jp¿-B-\ns≥-d- ]p-\¿-hm-b\
- b
- p-sS- km-[y-Xb
- pw- sXfn-hp-am-bn- I-cp-Xp-∂-Xv- _m-en-i-am-Wv.- aXsØ- A-Xn-s≥-d- sI-´p-d∏
- n¬-\n-∂pw- auenI- Xm¬-]-cy-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw- in-Yn-e-ß-fmb- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS- ta-J-e-I-fn-te-°v- h-en®n-g°
- p-∂- {]-Xn-tem-aI
- a
- m-b- k-ao-]\
- Ø
- ns≥-d- a-s‰m-cp- t]cm-bn-´p-th-Ww- Jp¿-B\n-s≥-d- "]p-\¿-hm-b-\'- hm-Z-sØ- ]-cn-KWn-°p-hm≥- F-∂m-Wv- D-]-cn-kq-NnX- hkvXpX--I-fn¬-\n-∂v- hy-Iv-X-amIp-∂-Xv.-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

18

kp-h-nti-j-߃D-Xv-`-h-hpw- h-f¿-®-bpw--F-¥m-Wv- kp-h-n-ti-j-߃?- A-h-bp-sS- I¿-Øm-°ƒ- B-cv?tb-ip- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®n-´p-t≠m?\n-e-hn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-sa-¥v?- tb-ip- ]-Tn-∏n-®-Xvtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-tam- ssZ-h-Ø-n-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-tam?- H-c-t\z-j-Ww.ap-l-Ω-Z-en- am-kv-‰¿-

]p-Xn-b\
- n-ba
- Ø
- n-se- B-Zy-sØ- \m-ep- ]pkvX
- I
- ß
- ƒ
- - kp-hn-tj-߃ F-∂- t]-cn¬A-dn-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂p.- a-Øm-bn,- am¿-t°m-kv.- eqt°m-kv,- tbm-l-∂m≥- F-∂n-h-cp-sS- \m-aß-fn-em-Wv- A-h- A-dn-b-s∏Sp-∂-Xv.- ]-et{km-X- p-I-fn¬-\n-∂pw- c-Nn-°-s∏-´- CuIr-Xn-I-fp-sS- I¿-Øm-°ƒ- B-cm-sW-∂vB¿-°pw- A-dn-bp-I-bn-√.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-dPohn-Xw- t\-cn¬- Im-Wp-I-tbm- D-]-tZ-i߃- {i-hn-°p-It- bm- sN-bm-Ø,- - A-t±lØn-\pw- ]-Xn-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°p- ti-jw- \ap°vA-⁄m-Xc
- m-b- Nn-e¿- A-h- c-Nn-®p-sh-∂mWv- ]-fin-Xa-- -Xw.- F-gp-X-s∏-Sp-∂- \m-fp-Ifn¬- H-cp- km-ln-Xy-Ir-Xn- F-∂-Xn-\p-]-cnbm-sXm-cp- {]-tX-y-I-X-bpw- A-h-bv-°p-≠mbn-cp-∂n-√.- lm¿-]¿- ]-d-b-s´:""]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-]p-kv-X-I-ß-fp-sS- I¿Øm-°-fm-cpw- X-s∂- A-h¿- B-Zy-Im-e{Inkv-X-o-b- Po-hn-X-Øn-\p- \¬-In-b- kw`m-h-\-bm-bn- c-Nn-®- ]p-kv-X-I-߃- H-cp- {KŸ-ti-Jc
- Ø
- n-s‚- `m-Ka
- m-Ip- s
- a-t∂m-- F-√mbn-S-Øpw- F-√m- k-a-b-Øp-a-pf-f- ss{IkvX-h¿-°v- Aw-Ko-Ir-X-am-Ip-sa-t∂m- hn-Nmcn-®p-sIm≠-√- A-h-sbm-∂pw- c-Nn-®-Xv.- H
tcm-cp-Øc
- pw- Nn-e- {]-tXy-I- A-\p-hm-NI¿°v- th-≠n- Nn-e- {]-tXy-I- A-h-k-c-ß-ƒa-\ 
- n¬- I-≠p-sIm-≠v- F-gp-Xn-bXm-Wh
- .Cu- A¿-Y-Øn¬- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a- tc-J-IƒB- k-µ¿-`-Øn-se- km-ln-Xy-ßfm-Wv-'-'-(Harpers Bible Dictionary, Page. 7001)\q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°p- ti-j-a-m-Wv B-Zy-

sØ- \m-ep- ]p-kv-X-I-߃-°v- kp-hn-tij-sa-∂- kw-⁄- \¬-In-b-Xv.- hy-Xy-kvX- t{km-X- p-I-fn¬-\n-∂pw- ]-I¿-Øn-sbgp-Xn-b-Xn-\m¬- [m-cm-fw- ssh-cp-[y-ß-fpwA-_≤
- ß
- f
- pw- A-hb
- n-¬- I-S∂
- p- I
- q-Sn.- ]Xnaq-∂pw- ]-X-n-\m-dpw- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn-em-bm-WvCu- km-ln-Xy-c-N-\-I-sf- A-[ym-b-ßf-mbpw- h-N-\-ß-fm-bpw- Xn-cn-®-Xv.- 1216˛¬kv‰o^≥- em-Mv-S¨- A-h-sb- A-[ym-b-ßfm-bpw- 1550˛¬- tdm-_¿-´v- kv-‰o-^≥- h-N\-ß-fm-bpw- Xn-cn-®p.- A[ym-b-ß-fpw- h-N\-ßf
- pw- Dƒ-s°m-≈n-®p-sIm-≠v- {]-kn-≤oI-cn-®- B-Zy- ss{I-kvX
- h
- - th-Z{- K-Ÿw 1560
se- P-\o-h- ss_-_n-fm-Wv-.kp-hn- ti-jß-sf-∏‰
- n- an-jW
- d
- n-am¿-°nS-bn¬- G-gv- hn-[-Øn-ep-≈- {]-Xn-]m-Z-\-coXn- Im-Wmw˛ ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- kp-hn-tijw,- tb-ip-hns≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw,- ]u-temkn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw,- a-Øm-bn,- am¿t°mkv,- eq-t°m-kv,- tbm-l-∂m≥- F-∂nh- c p- s S- t]- c p- I - f n- e p- ≈ - kp- h n- t i- j wF∂n-h-bm-W-h-. - A-h-bp-sS- \n-P-kv-Yn-Xn]cn-tim-[n-°mw.ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ]-ck
- y-{]-t_m-[\
- I
- m-eØv- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d -]-°¬- H-cp- kp-hnti-jw- A-Yh
- m- "ssZ-hØ
- n-s≥-d- k-ph
- n-tijw'- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xm-bn- \n-e-hn-ep-≈- kphn-ti-j-߃- ]-cn-tim-[n-®m¬- a-\- n-em°mw.- ""tbm-l-∂m≥- _-\v-[-\-kv-Y-\m-bti-jw- tb-ip- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- k-p-hnkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

tijw- {]-kw-Kn-®p-sIm-≠v- K-eo-ebn-te°v- h-∂p-. A-h≥- ]-d-™p-:- Im-ew- Xn-I™p,- ssZ-hc
- m-Pyw- k-ao-]n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- A\pX-]n-°q.- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- hn-iz-kn°q'-'- (am¿-°v- 1:-14,-15).- ""k-Xy-am-bn- Rm≥\n-ßtfm-Sv- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- tem-I-Øn¬- F-hnsS-sb-√mw- Cu- kp-hn-ti-jw- {]-kwKn-°s∏-Sp-tam- A-hn-sS-sb-√mw- C-hƒ-- sN-bv-XIm-cy-hpw- C-h-fp-sS- kv-a-c-W-°m-bn- {]-kvXm-hn-°s
- ∏-Spw''- (a-Øm-bn- 26:-13).- "Cu- kphn-ti-jw'- F-∂- {]-tbm-Kw- h-f-sc- {i-t≤b-am-Wv.- Im-c-Ww- -am¿-t°m-k-v 1:-14,15¬]-d™
- "ssZ-hØ
- n-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j'-am-Wvtb-ip- {]-kw-Kn-®-Xv.- Iq-Sm-sX- am¿-°v- 8:35,- 10:-29,- 14:-9,- a-Øm-bn- 4:-23 h-N-\-߃]cn-tim-[n-°p-I.- am¿-t°m-k- v 10:-29¬""kXy-am-bn- Rm≥- \n-ß-tfm-Sv- ]-d-bp-∂p:F-\n-°v- th-≠n-bpw- kp-hn-ti-jØ
- n-\v- th≠n-bpw- ho-Sn-s\-tbm,- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m-sctbm,- k-tlm-Z-cn-am-sc-tbm,- A-Ω-sb-tbm,A-Nv-O-s\-tbm,- a-°-sf-tbm- h-b-ep-I-sftbm- D-t]-£n-®- H-cmƒ-°v- C-t∏mƒ- C-°me-Øv- X-s∂- \q-dp-a-S-ßv- {]-Xn-^-ew- e-`n°m-Xn-cn-°-bn-√''- F-∂- hm-Iy-Øn-se""F\n-°v- th-≠n-bpw- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-\v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿th-≠n-bpw.....'-'- F-∂- {]-tbm-KØ
- n¬-\n-∂vXm-\pw- X-s≥-d- Po-hn-X-hp-a-√m-Ø- Ft¥mH-∂n-s\-°-p-dn-®m-Wv- tb-ip- kp-hn-ti-jwF-∂v- ]-d-™-Xv- F-∂v- kp-Xcmw- hy-Iv-Xam-Wv.- C-Xv- tb-ip-hn-\v- ssZ-h-Øm¬- AhX-cn-°-s∏-´- kp-hn-ti-j-am-bn-cn-°mw.tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-js
- a-∂X
- v- anjW-dn-am-cp-sS- hm-b-sIm-≠p-≈- H-cp- P¬-]\w- am-{X-am-Wv.- Im-c-Ww- tb-ip- H-cp- kphn-ti-jw- c-Nn-°p-It- bm- X-s≥-d- in-jy-∑msc-s°-m≠
- v- F-gp-Xn-°p-It- bm- A-Xn-\v- t{]cn-∏n-°p-I-tbm-t]m-epw- sN-bv-Xn-´n-√- F-∂Xv- th-Z-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-- s]m-Xp-sh- Aw-KoI-cn-°p-∂- H-cp- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.- am-{X-hpa-√ "tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw'- F-∂- Hcphm-°v- t]m-epw- ss_-_nƒ- D-≤-c-Wn-I-fnse-hn-tS-bp-an-√.]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwCu- {]-tbm-Kw- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- teJ-\-Øn¬- Im-Wmw-:- ""Zm-ho-Zn-s≥-d- ]p-{X\m-bn- Po-hn-®p-a-cn-®n-´v- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂-‰ncn-°p-∂- tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\- Hm¿-ØpsIm-≈p-I.- A-Xm-Wv- F-s≥-d- kp-hn-tijw''- (2 Xn-tam- 2:-8).- hn-Pm-Xo-b- a-X-k-¶¬]-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- I-Sw-sIm-≠- H-cm-Z¿-i-amWv- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw.- {]m-IrX- a-X-tZ-h-∑m-cm-b- an-{Xm-kv,- XΩq-kv,AtUm-Wo-kv.....- Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿- a-\p-jy-cpsS- ]m-]-߃-°v- th-≠n- {Iq-c-am-b- ]o-U\-߃- k-ln-®v- a-cn-®v- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂-‰c-£-I-∑m-cm-Wv.- Cu- aX-k-¶¬-]w- ]utem-kn-s\-- A-tß-b-‰w- kzm-[o-\n-®n-´p-≠vF-∂X
- v- H-cp- h-kX
v- p-Xb
- m-Wv.- tb-ip- {]kwKn-°p-I-tbm,- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-I-tbm- sN-øm-ØH-cp- hn-izm-km-Z¿-i-am-Wv- C-Xv.- tb-ip-hns≥-d- Im-e-tØm- A-t±-lØ
-- -n-\-p-ti-jw]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- B-K-a-\w-h-sc-tbm- "a-cn®-h-cn¬-\n-∂pw- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂-‰- {In-kvXp'- F-s∂m-cp- hn-izm-kw- tb-ip-hn-s≥dA-\p-bm-bn-If
- n¬- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- c-≠mw\q-‰m-≠n¬- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- k-`m-]n-Xm-hm-bncp-∂- ]-∏n-b-m-kv,- H-cp- B-Zn-a- kp-hn-ti-jsØ- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- km-£n-°p-∂p-≠v.Acm-an-Iv- `m-j-bn-ep-≈- B- k-aml-m-cwF.-Un.- 41˛mw- B-≠n¬- tb-ip-hn-s≥-dinjy-\m-b- a-Øm-bn- Hm-sd-s«-Øp-sh-®pF-gp-Xn-sb-∂v- am-Wn-°-Ø-\m¿- A-t±-lØn-s≥-d- ss_-_n-fn¬- (1938)- a-Øm-bnbpsS- k-p-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d- B-ap-J-Øn¬]-d-bp-∂p-≠v.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- hw-im-h-en,]oUm-\p-`-hw,- Ip-cn-ip-a-c-Ww- D-bn¿-sØ-

19
gp-t∂¬-∏v- F-∂n-hs
- b-∏‰
- n-bp-≈- H-cp- ]cma¿-iw-t]m-epw- A-Xn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.]pXn-b\
- n-ba
- Ø
- n-se- "bm-t°m-_n-s≥dte-J-\w'- a-s‰m-cp- km-£n-bm-Wv.- bm-t°m_v- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- te-J-\w- F-gp-Xp-∂Im-eØ
- pw- "a-cn-®h
- c
- n¬-\n-∂pw- D-bn¿-sØgp-t∂‰- {In-kv-Xp'- F-∂- k-¶¬-]w- tbiphn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-If
- n¬- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√.F.-Un.-45\pw- 48\pw- C-S-bv-°v- B-Zyw- FgpX-s∏-´- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a- ]p-k-v X-I-am-Wvbmt°m-_n-s≥-d- te-J-\-w.- Cu- te-J-\w]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- te-J-\-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pwhyXy-kv-X-hpw- ssh-cp-[-y-hp-am-Wv.- C-Xn¬{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- ]o-Um-\p-`-hw,- a-c-Ww,]p\-cp-∞m-\w- F-∂n-h-sb- kw-_-\-v[n-®vbmsXm∂pw- ]-d-bp-∂n-√-.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-dA[ym-]-\-ß-tfm-Sv- G-‰-hpw- Iq-Sp-X¬- kZr-iy-ap-≈- tc-J-b-m-Wn-Xv.\n-e-hn-ep-≈- k-p-hn-ti-j-ß-fpsSA-Sn-kv-Ym-\w\n-eh
- n- e
- p-≈- \m-ev- kp-hn-ti-jß
- f
- psS{]-[m-\- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\w- hm-sam-gn-bm-b- D-]tZ-i-am-bn-cp-∂psh-∂m-Wv- ]-Wv-Un-X-a-Xw.tb-ip-hn-\pw- A-©v- ]-Xn-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°vtij-am-Wv- kp-hn-ti-j-߃- c-Nn-°-s∏Sp-∂X
- v.- At∏m-tg-°v- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- ssZh-im-kv-{Xw- P-\-߃-°n-S-bn¬- {]-tXy-In®v- hn-Pm-Xo-b¿-°n-S-bn¬- ]-S¿-∂v- ]-¥-en®n-cp-∂p.- A-hcp-sS- an-{X-tZ-h-s≥-d-- kv-Ym\-Øv- {In-kv-Xp-tZ-h-s\- {]-Xn-jv-Tn-°m≥hnPm-Xo-b¿-°v- h-en-b- {]-bm-k-sam-∂pw-

\- \ m- a - s Ø- CHRISTOS (CHRIST)
B°n- am-‰n-b-Xv- ]u-tem-km-Wv.- Cu-Pn-]vX-p-Im¿- B-cm-[-n-®n-cp-∂- -KARAST (_me-kq-cy≥)- F-∂- tZ-hs
- ≥-d- t]-cp-am-bn- kmZr-iy-ap-≈- ]-Za
- m-Wv- CHRIST A-Yh
- m- {Inkv-Xp. Cu-Pn-]v-Xp-Im¿°v- KARAST a-cn®-hc
- n¬- \n-∂v- D-bn¿-sØgp-t∂-‰- H-cp- c£I-\pw- ssZ-h-hp-a-m-bn-cp-∂p.- Cu- tZ-h-s≥d\m-aw- ]u-tem-kn-s\- A-tß-b-‰w- kzm[o\n-®n-´p-≠v- F-∂v- hy-Iv-X-am-Wv.tdm-am- km-{am-Py-Øn-se- {]-[m-\- tZh\m-b- an-{X-tZ-h\v- ]-Ic
- w- ]u-te-mk
- v- Is≠Øn-b- {In-kv-Xp-tZ-h-\v- H-cp- N-cn-{X- ]-ivNm-Ø-ew- H-cp-°p-I-bm-Wv- \m-ev- kp-hn-tij-I-cpw- sN-bv-X-Xv.- \-ap-°v- A-Pv-Rm-X-cmb- a-Øm-bn-bpw- am¿-t°m-kpw- eq-t°m-kpwtbm-l-∂m-\pw- ]u-tem-kns≥-d- ssZ-h-imkv-{X-Øn-\v- ]p-d-sa- Nn-e- t{km-X- p-I-fpwtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- {]-kw-K-߃- Dƒ-s°m-≈p∂- kam-lm-c-hpw- hm-sam-gn-bm-b- D-]-tZi-ß-fpw- ]-g-b-\n-b-a- D-≤-c-Wn-I-fpw- Iq-´nt®-Øv- A-h-cp-tS-Xm-b- Ir-Xn-Iƒ- X-bm-dm°n.- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- B- Ir-XnI-ƒ-- kp-hnti-j-߃- F-∂- t]-cn¬- A-dn-b-s∏-´pF∂-Xm-Wv- h-kv-Xp-X.G.A. Wells A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- `The
Historical Evidence for Jesus' F- ∂ ]pkvX
- I
- Ø
- n¬- ]-db
- p-∂X
- v- Im-Wp-I:- - ""{InkvX
- p- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- H-cp- I-≠p-]n-Sp-Øwam-{X-am-Wv.- ]u-te-m-kn-s≥-d- B-i-b-߃P-\-ß-ƒ- hn-iz-kn-°m≥- B-cw-`n-®t∏mƒ-

D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- C-cp-h-cpw- a-cn-®-h-cn¬-\n∂pw- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂-‰- c-£-I-\pw- ssZh-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p.]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- `m-h\
- b
- n¬- cq-]w-sIm≠- H-cp- B-i-b-am-Wv- "{In-kv-Xp'.- tb-iphn-s≥-d- Im-e-Øpw- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- ti-jw]u-tem-kns≥-d- B-Ka
- \
- w-hs
- c-bpw- tb-iphn-s\- {In-kv-Xp-sh∂-v- B-cpw- hn-fn-®n-´n-√.tb-ip-hn-\v- ]-cn-N-b-an-√m-Ø- H-cp- ]-Z-am-bncp-∂p A-Xv-.- "a-in-lm'- F-∂m-Wv- A-t±-lsØ- hn-fn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.- "a-in-l'- F-∂- kvYmkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

`m-h-\-bn-se- {In-kv-Xp-hn-\v- H-cp- Po-hn-X]-iv-Nm-Ø-ew- \¬-tI-≠-Xp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.kp-hn-ti-j-I-∑m-cm-b- a-Øm-bn,- am-¿-t°mkv,- eq-t°m-kv,- tbm-l∂
- m≥- F-∂n-h¿- ]gb-\n-ba
- - {K-\Y
v- ß
- f
- psS- A-Sn-kY
v- m-\Ø
- n¬Cu- I¿-aw- \n¿-h-ln-®p''-.- sh¬-kn-s≥-dCu- hm-Zw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-kv-Xn-Xzw\ntj-[n-°m≥- am-{Xw- A-Xn-cp-I-S-∂-XmsW-¶n-epw- A-Sn-h-c-bn-´v- kq-Nn-∏n-t°-≠Hcp- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fp-sS{]-Y-a- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\w- ]u-te-m-kn-s≥-d- ssZ-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿h-im-kv-{X-am-sW-∂p-≈-Xv.U-bm-sS- -tdm¨\m-ev- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn-te-bpw- hn-jssb-Iy-Øn-\p-≈- {i-a-߃- B-Z-n-a-Im-ewap-X¬-Xs
- ∂- \-S∂
- n-cp-∂p.- A-Xn-s≥-d- H∂ma-sØ- ]-cn-{i-a-am-bn-cp-∂p- kn-dn-b-°mc\mb- t{S-jy-s≥-d- kz-ssc-Iy- kp-hn-tijw- A-Y-hm- U-bm-sS- -tdm¨.- \m-ev- kphn-ti-jß
- f
- n-se-bpw- hn-jb
- ß
- ƒ- ho-≠pwB-h¿-Øn-°m-Ø- \n-eb
- n¬- H-cp- kw-`h
- ]c-º-c-bm-bn- (H-‰- kp-hn-ti-j-am-bn)- A-t±
lw- {I-ao-I-cn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.- ]n¬-°m-eØv- A-Xv- D-t]-£n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.kp-hn-ti-jw- F-∂- ]-Z-Øn-s≥-d- DX-v-`-hwEvaggelion F-∂- {Ko-°v- hm-NI
- w- ]cnW-an-®p-≠m-b- Cw-•o-jv- ]-Z-am-Wv- Gospel
A-Y-hm- kp-hn-ti-jw.- Evaggelion F-∂]-Z-Øn-s≥-d- t\¿-°p-t\-sc-bp-≈- A¿-Y-wGood News A-Y-hm- k-Zv-hm¿-Ø- F-∂mWv.- B-Zy-Im-eØ
- v- a-X]
- c
- a
- m-b- H-c¿-Yw- - Cu]-Z-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.tdm- a ≥- km- { am- P y- I m- e - L - ´ - Ø n¬- , bp≤-Øn¬- hn-P-bw-h-cn-®p- F-∂- hm¿-Ø°v- Evanggelion F-∂m-Wv- ]-d-™n-cp-∂Xv.- km-{am-Py-Øn-se- cm-P-Ip-am-c-s≥-d- P\-

20
\w,- kvY
v- m-\m-tcm-lW
- w,- cm-Ph
- n-PR
v- m-]\wXp-S-ßn-b- atX-X-c-hpw- eu-In-I-hp-am-bB- t L- m - j - ß ƒ- ° pw- G- h ≥- t Km- e ntbm¨-˛\-√-hm¿-Ø-˛ F-∂m-Wv- D-]-tbmKn-®n-cp-∂-Xv.- bp-≤-Øn¬- hn-P-bn-®-Xn-\pti-jw- t£-{X-ß-fn¬- \-S-Øn-b- Ir-X-PvR-Xm-_-en-I-sf- "G-h≥-tK-en-bm'- F-∂vhn-fn-®n-cp-∂p.- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- tdm-am-°mcn¬-\n-∂pw- B- ]-Zw- ss{I-kv-X-h-X- I-SwsIm-≠v- A-h-cp-sS- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-Øn\v- \¬In.- A-ß-s\- Good News, Good Spell
B-bpw- Good Spell God Spell B-bpwGod Spell tem]-n-®v- Gospel B-bpw- ]-cnW-an-®p.- kp-hn-ti-j-sa-∂- ]-Zw- ]p-Xn-b\n-b-a-Øn¬- 77 X-h-W- B-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p≠v.- A-Xn¬- 12 {]-m-hn-iy-w- Im-Wp-∂-Xvkp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn-e-m-Wv-.\n-e-hn-ep-≈- h-Øn-°m≥,- ko-\m-bv,A-e-Iv-km-≠-dn-b,- _o-km-bv- Xp-S-ßn-btIm- U - I v - k p- I - f n¬- X- e - h m- N - I - a m- b nKATA MATHAION, KATA MARKON
.... F-∂v- am-{X-am-Wv- sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈-Xv.C-Xn-s≥-d- A-¿Y
- w- -- According to Mathew,
According to Mark...... (- a-Øm-bn-bp-sSho-£-W-Øn¬,- am-¿-t°m-kn-s≥d- ho-£W-Øn¬)-- F-∂m-Wv-.- (KATA F-∂- {]tbm-Kw- {K-Ÿ-I¿-Øm-hv- B-cm-sW-∂v- hy‡-am-°p-∂n-√) ta¬-kq-Nn-∏n-®- hy-Iv-XnI- f p- s S- tc- J - I - f n¬- X- e - h m- N - I - a m- b nEVANGGELION F-∂- ]-Zw- - ]-n¬
- °
- meØv- I-SØ
- n-Iq-´n-bX
- m-Wv.- - ss_-_nƒ-]W
- v
Un-X∑
- m¿- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p-∂- H-cp- h-kX
v- pXbm-Wv. Cu- tc-J-Iƒ-°v- Evangalion -F
∂- kw-⁄- F-t∏mg-m-Wv- D-]t- bm-Kn-®p-XpS-ßn-b-sX-∂v- B-¿-°pw- A-dn-™p- IqSm.kp-hn-ti-j-h¿-Ko-I-c-Ww-D-d-hn-S-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬kp-hn-ti-j-ß-sf- c-≠m-bn-- hn-`-Pn-®n-cn-°p∂p.- 1. Synoptic Gospels (B-Zy-sØ- aq∂v- kp-hn-ti-jß
- ƒ-),- 2. tbm-l∂
- m≥- kp-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

hn-ti-jw (\m-emw- kp-hn-ti-jw).Synoptic Gospels
a-Øm-bn,- am-¿-t°m-kv,- eq-t°m-kv- F∂n-hc
- p-sS- t]-cn-ep-≈- B-Zy-sØ- aq-∂v- kphn-ti-j-ß-sf- Synoptic Gospels F-∂v]-d-bp-∂p.- kw-ln-X- kp-hn-ti-j-߃,-- ka-ho-£W
- - kp-hn-ti-jß
- ƒ,- k-am-¥c
- - kphn-ti-j-߃,- km-c-kw-{K-l- kp-hn-ti-j߃- F-∂o- t]-cp-I-fn¬- C-Xv- a-e-bm-fØn¬- A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.- C-h-bn-se- k-am¥-cX-sb- kw-_\
- [
v- n-®p-≈- hn-iZ- a
- m-b- ]T\- dn-t∏m¿-´v- \¬-In-b-Xv- 18˛mw- \q-‰m-≠n¬Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- th-Z]
- W
- vU
- n-X\
- m-b- Imƒ-em°v-am≥- B-Wv.- C-Xn¬- A-t\ym-\y- km-Zriy-Xb
- pw- km-cq-]y-Xb
- pw- I-≠p-hc
- p-∂p.- A
Sn-kv-Ym-\m-i-b-߃,- {I-aw,- `m-j,- L-S-\-,D-]a
- ,- D-≈S- °
- w- F-∂n-hb
- n-epw- A-t\ym\yam-b- G-Io-`m-hw- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn¬I≠p-h-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬-- 1774¬- J.J. Grace
back F-∂- ]-Wv-Un-X≥- A-h-bv-°v- Synoptic Gospels F-∂v- \m-aI
- c
- W
- w- sNbvXp.a-Øm-bn-bpw- eq-t°m-kpwam¿-t°m-kns\- B-{i-bn-°p-∂pa-Øm-bn-bpw- eq-t°m-kpw- {]-[m-\-ambpw- am¿-t°m-kn-s\- A-Sn-kY
v- m-\a
- m-°n-bm
Wv- kp-hn-ti-j-߃- X-bm-dm-°n-bn-cn-°p∂-sX-∂- Im-cy-Øn¬- C-∂v- ]-WU
v- n-X∑
- m¿°n-S-bn¬- A-`-n-{]m-b-`n-∂-X-I-sfm-∂p-an-√.A-hb
- nse-- A-t\ym-\y- km-Zr-iy-Xb
- pw- km
ay-X-bpw- sX-fn-hm-bn- A-h¿- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn°p-∂p.K.J.V,- k-Xy-th-Z- ]p-kv-X-Iw- F-∂oss_-_nƒ- {]-Imcw- a-Øm-bn-bn¬- 28 A[ym-b-ß-fn-em-bn- 1071 h-N-\-ßf-- pw- am¿t°m-kn¬- 16 A-[ym-bß
- f
- n-em-bn- 678 hN\-ß-fpw- eq-t°m-kn¬- 24 A-[ym-b-ß-fnem-bn- 1151 h-N-\-ß-fp-ap-≠v.am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- D-≈-S-°-Øn¬-\n∂pw- a-Øm-bn- G-ItZ-iw- ]q¿-W-am-bpweq-t°m-kv- ]-Ip-Xn-bpw- ]-I¿-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.a-Øm-bn-bn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epw- Im-Wm-Øam¿-t°m-kn-se- h-N-\-߃- 30 F-Æw- am{X-am-Wv.- A-h- 2:-27,- 3:-20,- 4:-26˛29,- 7:-3,- 32˛37,8:-22˛26,- 9:-29,- 48,- 13:-33˛37,- 14:-51 F-∂o- h-N\-ß-fm-Wv.- Cu- 30 hm-Iy-߃- Iq-Sm-sX1:-23˛28,- 35˛38,- 4:-21˛25,- 3:-30,- 9:-38˛41,- 12:-40˛44
F-∂o- 25 hm-Iy-ßfpw- a-Øm-bn-bn-en-√.F-∂m¬- Cu- 25 h-N-\-ßfpw- eq-t°mkn¬- D-≠v-Xm-\pw-!- Np-cp-°-Øn¬- am¿t°m-kn-se- F-√m- h-N-\-ß-fpw- sh-dpw- 55
(30 +25)- hm-Iy-ß-sfm-gn-sI- a-Øm-bn-bn¬]p-\x{]-Xy-£s
- ∏-Sp-∂p-!- A-Yh
- m- am¿-t°m-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿kn-se- 678 h-N-\-ß-fn¬- 55 h-N-\-ß-sfmgn-®v- 623 (678˛55)- h-N-\-ß-fpw- am¿-t°mkn¬-\n-∂pw- a-Øm-bn- tIm-∏n-bS- n-®Xm-Wv.19˛mw- \q-‰m-≠n¬- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- Canon
Streeter -c-Nn-®- Canon Streeter's Special
Article to Peake's Commentarybn¬-\n∂p-≈- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fm-Wv- ta¬-kq-Nn-]n-®Xv.- (am¿-t°m-kn-se- 678 h-N-\-ß-fn¬- 606
h-N-\-ß-fpw- a-Øm-bn- ]-I¿-Øn-b-Xm-bnNn-e- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-¿- ]-d-bp-∂p.- c-≠m-bmepw- am-¿-t°m-kn¬-\n-∂pw- a-Øm-bn- ap-gph-\m-bn- tIm-∏n-b-Sn-®p- F-∂-Xv- H-cp- h-kvXp-X-bm-Wv-).eq-t°m-kn-se- 1151 h-N-\-ß-fn¬- 350
h-N-\-ß-fpw- am¿-t°m-kn¬-\n-∂pw- I-SwsIm-≠-Xm-sW-∂m-Wv- ]-Wv-Un-X-a-Xw.aØm-bn-bn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epw- s]m-Xphmbn- Im-Wp-∂- hm-Iy-߃- 235 B-Wv.Unique Tradition
(G-I-am-\- ]m-c-º-cyw)a- Ø m- b n- b n- e pw- am¿- t °m- k n- e pweqt°m-kn-epw- am-{Xw- Im-Wp-∂- A-h-cptS-Xm-b- hm-Iy-ß-sf-bm-Wv- Unique Tradition sIm-≠v- D-t±-in-°p-∂-Xv.- am¿-t°mkn¬- am-{Xw- I-≠p-h-cp-∂- h-N-\-߃- 30
B-Wv.- C-h- a-Øm-bn-bn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epwIm-Wp-Ibn-√.- a-Øm-bn-bn¬- am-{Xw- ImWp-∂- h-N-\-߃- G-I-tZ-iw- 300 B-W.vC-h- am¿-t°m-kn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epw- ImWp-∂n-√.- eq-t°m-kn¬- am-{Xw- G-I-tZ-iw520 h-N-\-ß-fp≠v.- A-h- aØm-bn-bn-epwam¿-t°m-kn-epw- C-√.a-Øm-bn,- am¿-t°m-kv,- eq-t°m-kv- F∂o- kp-hn-ti-j-߃- X-Ωn-ep-≈- k-PmXy-ßf
- p-sS-bpw- ssh-Pm-Xy-ßf
- p-sS-bpw- ASn-kvY
- m-\Ø
- n¬- c-≠v- kn-≤m-¥ß
- ƒ- ]WvUn-X-∑m¿- ap-t∂m-´p-sh-°p-∂p-≠v.- 1. Two
source Theory (Zzn-t{km-X 
- v- kn-≤m-¥w),2. Four source Theory (N-Xp¿-t{km-X v- kn-≤m-¥w).Two Source Theory
Cu- kn-≤m-¥a
- \
- p-kcn-®v- a-Øm-bn-bpweq-t°m-kpw- kp-hn-ti-jw- F-gp-Xp-hm≥- c≠v- en-Jn-X- t{km-X- p-Iƒ- D-]-tbm-Kn-®Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.- B-Zy-tØ-Xv- am¿-t°m-kvkp-hn-ti-j-hpw- c-≠m-a-tØ-Xv- `Q' t{kmX- p-am-Wv.Four Source Theory
Two source Theory bp-sS- hn-I-kn-Xcq-]-am-Wn-Xv.- am-¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d-- kp-hn-tij-Øn-\pw- `Q' t{km-X 
- n-\pw- ]p-ds
- a- `M',
`L' F-∂o- c-≠v- t{km-X- p-Iƒ- a-Øm-bn-

21
bpw- eq-t°m-kpw- kp-hn-ti-js
- a-gp-Xp-hm≥D-]t- bm-Kn-®p- F-∂m-Wv- Cu- kn-≤m-¥Øns‚- h‡m-°ƒ- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv-.- `M' Dw- `L'
Dw- ]-c-kv-]-cw- B-{i--- bn-°p-∂n-√.- a-Ømbn-bpw- eq-t°m-kpw- ]-c-kv-cw- s]m-cp-Øs∏-Sp-∂-Xv- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- h-N-\-ßtfmSv- s]m-cp-Øs
- ∏-Sp-tºm-gm-Wv.- A-Xpt]m
se- a-Øm-bn-bn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epw- ImWp
∂- Nn-e- h-N-\-߃-°v- cq-]-Øn-epw- D-≈S-°-Øn-epw `Q' bp-am-bpw- hy-Xn-cn-Iv-X-Xbp-≠v.- A-h- ]-c-kv-]-cw- k-am-\-X- ]p-e¿Øp-∂n-√.- hy-Xy-kv-X- t{km-X- p-I-fn¬\n-∂pw- I-s≠-Øn-b-h-b-m-Wv A-h.--.- C-ut{km-X- p-I-ƒ-- M,L F-∂o- t]-cp-I-fn¬A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.- N-Xp-¿-tc-Jm- kn-≤m-¥Øn-s≥-d- Nm¿-´v- Im-Wp-I-:-

M

k`m-]n-Xm-hm-bn-cp-∂- ]-∏n-bm-kv- A-Xn-\vkm-£n-bm-Wv-.- "tb-ip-hn≥-d- Xn-cp-sam-gnIƒ-- a-Øm-bn- A-c-am-b-`m-j-bn-se-gp-Xn.Hm-tcm-cp-Ø-cpw- X-\n-°v- km-[y-am-b- hn-[Øn¬- A-h- hy-m-Jym-\n-®-v X¿-P-a- sN-bvXp'.- (Also preserved in Eusebius. H.E.
III. 39) A-c-am-b-`m-j-bn¬-\n-∂pw- {Ko-°v`m-j-bn-te-°v- hn-h¿-Ø-\w- sN-bv-X- A-Snkv-Ym-\- tc-Jsb-bm-Wv- `Q' F-∂v- \m-a-Ic-Ww- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- i-Xm-Xn-]-s‚`rXy-s\- kp-J-s∏-Sp-Ønb- kw-`-h-sa-m-gn®v- a-‰p- A-¤p-X-ß-tf-m- ]o-Um-\p-`-h-Øns‚-tbm-- Ip-cn-i-v kw-`-h-Øn-s≥-d-tbm- D-bn¿-sØ-gp-t∂¬-∏n-s‚-tb-m- hn-h-c-W-߃H∂pw- X-s∂- `Q' t{km-X- n-en-√.-a-Øm-bn-bn-epw- eq-t°m-kn-epw- [m-cm-

Q

MK

MT

LK

`Q'= a-Øm-bn-bpw- eq-t°m-kpw- am-{XwD-]t- bm-Kn-®- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- h-N\
- ß
- ƒ- Dƒs°m-≈p-∂- tc-JMK= am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-wM = Ur Mathaion. a-Øm-bn-°v- am-{Xwe-`y-am-b- B-Zn-Im-e- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- tc-JL = Ur Lukon. eq-t°m-kn-\v- am-{Xwe-`y-am-b- B-Zn-Im-e- eq-t°m-kn-s≥-d- tcJ.Mt = \n-e-hn-ep-≈,-- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- t]cn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-jw.Lk = \n-e-hn-ep-≈-,- eq-t°m-kn-s≥-dt]-cn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-jw.`Q' t{km-X 
- v-:-˛ a-Øm-bn-bpw- eq-t°mkpw- kp-hn-ti-j-߃- c-Nn-°p-hm≥- D-]tbm-Kn-®- {]-Ya
- - {]-am-Wt- c-Jb
- m-Wn- X
- v.- P¿a≥- ]-Wv-Un-X-\m-b- Pq-en-b-kv- sh¬-luk≥- B-Wv- Cu- {]-am-W-tc-J-°v- `Q' F∂v- \m-a-I-c-Ww- sN-bv-X-Xv.- "D-d-hn-Sw'(Source) F-∂¿-Ya
- p-≈- `Quelle' F-∂- P¿a≥- ]-ZØ
- n-s≥-d- B-Zy-£c
- a
- m-Wv- `Q' .- tbip-hn-s‚- sa-m-gn-Iƒ- am-{Xw- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂A-cm-an-b- `m-j-bn¬- F-gp-X-s∏-´- Cu- {]am-W-tc-J-bp-sS- c-N-bn-Xm-hv- A-t±-l-Øns≥-d- in-jy-\m-bn-cp-∂- a-Øm-bn-bm-sW∂m-Wv- ]-Wv-Un-X- a-Xw.- F.-Un.-c-≠mw\q‰m-≠n¬- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- ss{I-kv-X-hkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

L

fw- s]-m-Xp-hm-b- h-N-\-ß-fp-≠v.- Cu- hmIy-߃- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jØ
- nen-√.- Cu- h-N-\-߃- s]m-Xp-hm-b- H-cpDd-hn-S-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- F-Sp-Ø-Xm-Wv.- Cu\n-K-a-\-am-Wv- `Q' F-∂- D-d-hn-S-Øn-s≥-dA- k - v - X n- X z- Ø n- \ v - _- e - a m- I p- ∂ s- X ∂- v
]fin-X-∑m¿- ]-d-bp-∂p-.- Cu- tc-J-bn¬\n-∂pw- a-Ø-m-bn- G-I-tZ-iw- 148 h-N-\-ßfpw- eqt°m-kv- G-It- Z-iw- 281 h-N\
- ß
- fpwIS-sa-Sp-Øn-´p-≠v.`M' t{km-X 
- :v- ˛- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-°phm≥- a-Øm-bn- am-{Xw- D-]-tbm-Kn-®- H-cptc-J-bm-Wn-Xv.- C-Xn-s\- Ur Mathaion
AY-hm- ]q¿-h-Im-e- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- tc-JF-∂pw- ]-bp-∂p.- C-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- G-ItZiw300 h-N\
- ß
- ƒ- a-Øm-bn- ]-I¿-Øn-bn-´p≠v.`L' t{km-X- v-:-˛ eq-t°m-kn-\v- am-{Xwe-`n-®- tc-J-bm-Wn-Xv.- C-Xn-s\- Ur Lukon
A-Yh
- m- ]q¿-hI
- m-e- eq-t°m-kn-s≥-d- tcJF-∂pw- ]-d-bp-∂p.- C-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- G-I-tZiw- 520 h-N-\-߃- eq-t°m-kv- ]-I¿-Ønbn-´p-≠v.`Q' Mt, M,L F-∂o- \m-ev- t{km-X- pI-fpw- A-hb
- n¬- \n-∂v- X-bm- d
- m-°n-b- a-Ømbn-bp-sS-bpw- eq-t°m-kn-s‚-bpw- t]-cn-ep≈- kp-hni-j-ß-fp-w- C-∂v- \n-e-hn-en-√.A-h- F-t∂- \-jv-S-s∏-´p-t]m-bn.- "]p-Xn-b-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\n-ba
- - {]-th-in-I'- - F-gp-Xn-b- sI.-hn.- tPm¿
Pv,- d-h.-hn.-tXm-a-kv,- `The New Testament
Documents, Are they Reliable?' F-gpXnb- F.F. Bruce Xp-S-ßn-b- ss_-_nƒ- ]
WvU
- n-X∑
- m¿- km-£n-°p-∂p-≠v.- `Q' t{km-X-s m-gn-®v- Mt, M,L- F-∂o- t{k-m-X- pIƒ- ]u-te-mk
- n-s‚- B-ib
- m-Z¿-iß
- ƒ- AY-hm-ssZ-h- im-kv-{Xw- A-tß-b-‰w- k-zm[o\n-®n-´p-≠v F-∂-Xv- H-cp- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.s{]m-´k
- ‰
v- ≥-dv- k-`m-]n-Xm-hm-b- am¿-´n≥eq-Y¿- k-a-ho-£-W- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-sfX≈n-°f
- b
- p-Ib
- p-≠m-bn.- A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥dho-£W
- Ø
- n¬- tbm-l∂
- m-s≥-d- kp-hn-tijw- am-{X-sa- i-cn-°pw- kzo-Im-cy-am-bp-≈q.]u-tem-kn-s≥-d-bpw- ]-t{Xm-kn-s≥-d-bpwte-J-\-߃-°v- A-t±-lw- k-a-ho-£-Wkp-hn-ti-jß
- s
- f-°mƒ- {]m-[m-\y-hpw- kzoIm-cy-X-bpw- \¬-In.\n-e-hn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-j-߃F-gp-Xn-b-Xmcv?]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°n-S-bn¬- C-∂pw- D-Øcw-In-´m-Ø- H-cp- tNm-Zy-am-Wn-Xv.- G-‰-hpw]p-cm-X-\-am-b- h-Øn-°m≥,- ko-\m-bv,- _okm-bv,- A-e-Iv-km-≠-dn-b-kv- tIm-U-Iv-kpI-fn¬- X-eh
- m-NI
- a
- m-bn- sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈Xv-

22
KATA MATHAION, KATA MAR
KON, KATA LOIKAN, KATA IUAN
NEN F-∂m-Wv.- (A¿-Yw:-- According to
Mathew, According to Mark........)- . aØm-b-n-°v- A-\p-kr-X-a-m-b-Xv,- am¿-t°mkn-\-\p-kr-X-am-b-Xv.....- F-∂m-Wv- a-e-bmf-Øn¬- C-Xn-\v- sIm-Sp-°-m-hp-∂ -A¿-Y-w.a-Øm-b-n-bp-tS-Xv,- am¿-t°m-kn-t≥-d-Xv- F∂v- A¿-Yw- - A-hb
- v°
- n-√.- KATA ( According to) F-∂- ]-Zw- (X-e-hm-N-Iw-)- Hm-tcmIr-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- c-N-bn-Xm-hv B-sc-∂v- hyIv-X-am-°p-∂n-√.- \-ap-°v- A-Pv-Rm-X-cm-bB-tcm- a-Øm-bn,- am¿-t°m-kv,- eq-t°m-kv,tbm-l-∂m≥- F-∂n-h-cp-sS- ho-£-Ww-tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn- F-∂m-Wv- KATA F-∂- ]Zw-sIm-≠p-t±-in-°p-∂-Xv F-∂p- hy-‡w-.B-[p-\n-I- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿- KATA F-∂X-e-th-Z-\- ]n-Sn-®- X-e-hm-N-Iw- H-gn-hm-°ns°m-≠m-W- v- ss_-_nƒ- {]-kn-≤o-I-cn-°p∂-Xv.- New International Version Bible,
The Living Bible Self - Help - Edition,
Holly Bible Easy - to - Read - Version,
The Catholic Living Bible Xp-S-ßn-bss_-_n-fp-Iƒ- A-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hm-Wv.- AXnse- X-e-hm-N-Iw- Mathew, Mark.......
F∂v- am-{X-sa-bp-≈q.- Cu- hkv-Xp-X-Iƒss_-_nƒ- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿- X-s∂- k-a-¿Y-n-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-.-lm¿-]-¿- ]-d-b-s´-:- ""k-n-dn-b-bn-se- At¥ym-Iy-bn-tem- k-ao-]-{]-tZ-i-ß-f-n-te-mD-≈- H-cp- k-`-bp-sS- Io-gn¬- Po-hn-®n-cp∂Hcp- A-Pv-Rm-X-\m-b- {In-kv-Xym-\n- G-ItZiw- {In-.- 90¬- c-Nn-®- H-cp- Ir-Xn-bm-Wv- aØmbn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw''-- (Harper's Bible
Dictionary, Page 613). C-Xm-Wv- tb-iphn-s≥-d- in-jy-\m-bn-cp-∂- a-Øm-bn- F-gpXnb-sX-∂v- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂- kp-hn-tij-Øn-s≥-d-- A-h-kv-Y.- C-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wvtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-s‰m-cp- in-jy-\m-b-n-cp-∂tbm-l-∂m-≥- F-gp-Xn-b-sX-∂v- A-h-Im-i-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

s∏-Sp-∂-- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-h-kvY-.- d-h.- F.-kn.- ss¢-‰¨- ]-d-b-∂p-:- ""CXns≥-d- {- K-\vY
- I
- ¿-Øm-hm-cm-sW-∂pw- C-Xn¬F-gp-Xs
- ∏-´n-cn-°p-∂h
- - b-Ym¿-Y- N-cn-{X-kw`-h-ß-fm-tWm- A-√-tbm- F-∂pw- kw-lnX-kp-hn-ti-j-߃-°pw- sh-fn-]m-Sv- ]p-kvX-I-Øn-\pw- C-Xn-\pw- X-Ωn-ep-≈- _-\v-[sa-¥m-sW-∂pw- C-Xn¬- ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂tbip- km-£m¬- A-{]-Im-c-ap-≈-h-\mtWm- F-∂p-ap-≈- ]-e-am-Xn-cn- X¿-°-߃I-gn-™- c-≠v- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn¬- ssh-Zn-I]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cp-sS- C-S-bn-ep-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.C-t∏m-gpw- Cu- \m-emw- kp-hn-ti-j-sØkw-_-\v-[n-®v- Nn-e- kw-i-b-߃- Xo¿-∂n´n-√'- (dh.- F.-kn.- ss¢‰-¨,- ss_-_nƒ\n-L-≠p,- ]p-dw- 497).
am¿-t°m-kvam¿-t°m-kv- F-∂- em-‰n≥- ]-ZØ
- n-s≥dA¿-Y-w- "Np-‰n-I-'- F-∂m-Wv.- tbm-l-∂m≥F-∂v- a-dp-t]-cp-≈- am¿-t°m-kv- _¿-W_
- mkn-s≥-d k-tlm-Zc
- n-bm-b- a-dn-bm-bp-sS- ]p{X\pw- ]-t{Xm-kn-s≥-d- in-jy-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p.A-t±-lw- tb-ip-hn-s\- Im-Wp-I-tbm- Adnbp-I-tbm- sN-bv-Xn-´n-√.- ]-t{Xm-kn¬-\n-∂p
am-Wv- tb-ip-hn-s\- kw-_\
- v[
- n-®v- a\- nem°p-∂-Xv.- C-{km-tbey¿-°n-S-bn¬- am{Xwkp-hn-ti-jt- h-e- sN-øp-hm-\m-Wv- am¿-t°mkv- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- A-t∏m- 12:25,- 13:-5 F
∂o- hm-Iy-߃- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-®p-sIm-≠v- F.
kn.- ss¢-‰¨- ]-d-bp-∂-p-:- ""A-h¿- Ip-{]kv- Zzo-]n¬-\n-∂pw- Nn-‰m-ky-bn-ep-≈- s]¿Km- ]-´-W-Øn-te-°v- sN-∂p.- Pm-Xn-Iƒ-°vkp-hn-ti-jw- A-dn-bn-°p-∂X
- n-\m-bn- Pm-XnI-fp-sS- \m-Sp-I-fn-te-°v- t]m-Ip-∂-Xp-sIm≠v- `-b-∂-n-t´m- AYhm- Pm-Xn-Iƒ-°v- kphn-ti-jw- {]-kw-Kn-°p-∂-Xn-s\°-p-dn-®vkw-i-bn-®n-t´m- C-h≥- (am¿-t°m-kv)- Ahsc- (]u-tem-kn-s\-bpw- ioem-kn-s\-bpw)hn-´p-]ncn-™p sb-cp- i
- t- e-an-te-°v- a-Sß
- n''-(F.-kn.-ss¢‰¨,- ss_-_nƒ- \n-L-≠p,]p-dw- 373).- A-t∏m-. 15:-35˛40 h-N-\-ß-fnepw- Cu- kw-`-hw- ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v.am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwkp-hn-ti-jß
- f
- n¬- G-‰h
- pw- {l-kz-hpwG-‰-hpw- B-Zy-w- F-gp-X-s∏-´-Xpw- - am¿-t°mkn-s≥-d- - k-p-hn-ti-j-am-sW-∂m-Wv- ]-WvUn-X-a-Xw.- F-gp-X-s∏-´- Im-e-L-´-sØkw_-\v-[n-®p-≈- X¿-°w- C-∂pw- Xo¿-∂n´n-√.- F-¶n-epw- F.-Un.- 65˛70 Im-e-L-´Øn¬- F-gp-Xn-sb-∂v- hn-Nm-cn-°p-∂p.- {K\vY-I¿-Øm-hn-s\-∏-‰n- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬bmsXm-cp- {]-kv-X-m-h-\-bpw- \¬-Ip-∂n-√.C-Xn-se- X-e-hm-N-I-am-b- KATA F-∂- {]-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿tbm-Kw- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- c-N-\-b-s√-∂vkv-]-jv-S-am-°p-∂p.Cu- kp-hn-ti-jw- Xp-Sß
- p-∂X
- pw- Ahkm-\n-°p-∂-Xpw- I-S-Øn-°q-´n-b- h-N-\
߃-sIm-≠m-Wv.- H-∂mw- A-[ym-bw- H-∂mwhm-Iy-Øn¬- "ssZ-h- ]-p-{X-\m-b'- F-∂]Zw- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- I-S-Øn-°q-´n-b-Xm-Wv.A-Xp-t]m-se- A-h-km-\- hm-Iy-ß-fpw(16:9˛20˛)-- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- I-S-Øn-°q-´n-bXm-Wv.- Iq-Sm-sX- 7:-16,- 9:-44,- 46,11:-26,- 15:-28
XpSßn-bh
- b
- pw- ]n¬-°m-eØ
- v- I-SØ
- n-°q´n-b- hN-\-ß-fm-Wv.- Ch- ]p-cm-X-\- {Ko°vIsø-g-p-Øv-{]-Xn-I-fn-epw- \n-e-hn-ep-≈- {Ko°-v-ss_-_n-fn-epw- Im-Wp-∂n-√.- ss_-_nfn¬- Cu- hm-Iy-ß-fp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏´"^q-´v- t\m-´v'-- t\m°pI.]ucm-Wn-I- k-`m-]n-Xm-hm-bn-cp-∂- ]∏n
bmkv- ]-db
- p-∂p-:- ""]-t{Xm-k-v {In-kX
-v p-hns‚D-]t- Z-is
- Ø- N-cn-{X-{I-aa
- \
- p-kc
- n-®v- {]kw
Kn-°W
- s
- a-∂-v I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂n-√.- ]ns∂tbmXm≥- I-≠- k-`-Iƒ- `-Iv-Xn-bn¬- h-f¿-®{]m]n-°p-∂-Xn-\v- B- Im-e-Øp-≈- ]-cn-Xkv-Yn-Xn-°v- A-\p-tbm-Py-am-b- co-Xn-bn¬{]kw-Kn-®v- t]m-∂p.- A-Xn-\m¬- am¿-t°m
kv- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- {]-`m-j-W-ß-sf-bpw{]-h¿-Øn-Is
- f-bpw- A-h- \-S∂
- - {I-aa
- \
- pkcn-®v- F-gp-Xn-bn-´n-√''- (dh.- F.-kn.- ss¢‰¨,ss_-_nƒ- \n-L-≠p.- ]p-dw- 374).th-Z]
- W
- U
v- n-X\
- m-b- sI.-hn.-tPm¨- ]dbp-∂p-:- "{K-\v-Y-Im-c-s\-°-p-dn-®v- Cu- Ir-Xnbn¬- hy-Iv-X-am-b- kq-N-\-bn-√.- 14:-51seAPv-Rm-X-\m-b- hy-Iv-Xn- C-Xn-s≥-d- {K-\vY-Im-c-\m-sW-∂v- Nn-e¿- I-cp-Xp-∂p''- (am¿t°m-kv- F-gp-Xn-b- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-dhym-Jym-\w,- sI.-hn.- tPm¨.- ]p-dw- 18).th-Z-]-Wv-Un-X-\m-b- d-h.- hn.- tXm-a-kv]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""{K-\v-Y-Im-c-s\-∏-‰n- kp-hn-tij-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- kq-N-\-sbm-∂pw- e-`n-°p∂n-√.- 14:-51,-52¬- {K-\v-Y-Im-c≥- kz-¥w- A
\p-`-hw- hn-h-cn-°p-I-bm-sW-∂p-≈- hm-Zwkzo-I-cn-®m¬- X-s∂-bpw- B- hy-Iv-Xn- Bcm-sW-∂X
- n-s\-∏‰
- n- bm-sXm-cp- kq-N\
- bpw\¬-Ip-∂n-√''- (]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a- {]-th-in-Iwd-h.- hn.- tXm-a-kv,- ]p-dw- 32).- A-Pv-Rm-X\mb- hy-Iv-Xn-bm-Wv- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- t]cn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®-sX-∂v- th-Z]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-X-s∂- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂-p-.am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- D-d-hn-S-߃B-Zn-bn¬- Ur Markus F-s∂m-cp- aq-ekp-hnti-j- {K-\Y
v- w- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pwA-Xn-s\- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-°n-bm-Wv- am¿t°m-kv- X-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®-sX-

23
∂p-ap-≈- A-`n-{]m-b-ap-≠v-.- Cu- kp-hn-tijw- B-Zyw- F-gp-Xn-b-Xv- A-cm-ay-`m-j-bnem-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- Nn-e- ]-WvU
- n-X∑
- m¿- ]dbp-∂p-.- 3:-17,- 5:-41,- 7:-11,- 34,- 14:-36,- 15:-22,- 24
Xp-S-ßn-b- A-cm-ay--]-Z-߃ Dƒ-s°m-≈p∂- h-N-\-߃- sX-fn-hm-bn- Im-Wn-°p-∂p.`q-cn-]-£-w- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑mcpw- ]-d-bp-∂-XvCu- kp-hn-ti-j-w- tdm-a-°m¿-°v- th-≠nF-gp-Xn- F∂m-Wv.d-h.- kvt- Im-´v- ]-db
- p-∂p-:- ""em-‰n≥- `mj
bn-em-Wv- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwc-Nn-°-s∏-´-Xv.- ]-t£,- Cu- {]-Xn- F-t∂\jvS- s
- ∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Xn-s≥-d- {Ko-°v]
- cn`m-j-bm-Wv- ]n-s∂- \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂-Xv.- sh\o-kv- \-K-c-Øn-se- {K-\v-Ym-e-b-Øn¬- em
‰n-\n-ep-≈- am¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- aq-e-Ir-Xn-bp
sS- A¬-]w- Nn-e-`m-K-߃- kq-£n-®p-sh
®n-´p-≠v''- - (Rev: Scott's Commetry P.239).
P¿-a≥ ]-fin-X-\m-b- "Xn-tbm-tUm¿thm¨- km-ln≥'- A-`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂-XvIm-Wp-I:- - ""a-Øm-bn- B-Zy-am-bn- X-s≥-d- kphn- t i- j w- A- c m- a y- ` m- j - b n¬- F- g p- X n.]n∂o-Sv- B- I-r-Xn-sb- `m-Kn-I-am-bn- A-Snkv - Y m- \ - a m- ° - n - am¿- t °m- k v - {Ko- ° n¬Xs≥d- kp-hn-ti
- j
- s
- a-gp-Xn''- (-Introduction
to The New Testament.P.601).
tdm-a≥-It-Øm-en-°m-]fi
n-X∑
- m-cm-btUm-.-tPm¨- Nm-]v-am≥- (Mathew, Mark
and Luke), tUm-.-_n-.-k-n- _-Sv-e¿- (The
originality of St.Mathew's Gospel) F∂n-h¿ A-h-cp-sS- Ir-Xn-I-fn¬- {]-I-Sn-∏n®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv:- ""{Ko-°nep-

N-b-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.- "s]-s´-∂v',- "DS-s\'F∂- `euthus' F-∂- ]-Zw- 41 {]m-h-iywC-Xn¬- Im-Wp-∂p.- F-∂m¬- a-Øm-bn- Ggp{]m-h-iy-hpw- eq-t°m-kv- H-cp- {]m-h-iy-hpam-Wv- D-]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- 1:-38,- 45,6:30˛32,- 11:-11,-19 A-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hm-Wv.b.- tb- i p- h n- s ≥- d - hw- i m- h - e n- t bm,I\yIm-P\
- \
- t- am,- _mey-Im-e- N-cn-{X-tamC-√.c.- a-‰p- kp-hn-ti-j-߃- ]-t{Xm-kns≥d- \m-a-t[-bw- hn-´p-I-f-™- A-t\-Ikµ¿-`-ß-fn¬- am¿-t°m-kv- B- t]-cv{]tXy-Iw- F-Sp-Øp-]-d-bp-∂p.- D-Zm-:- 1:-36,11:-21,- 13:-3.d.- ]-g-b- \n-b-aØn¬-\n-∂pw- H-cp- {]mh-iy-ta- (1:-2,-3)- D-≤-cn-®n-´p-≈q.- C-Xn¬- a-‰v19 D≤--c-Wn-Iƒ- D-s≠-¶n-epw- A-h- tb-ipD≤--cn-®-Xm-bn- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°p-∂p.e.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- 19 A-Xv-`p-X-ß-fpwA©v- D-]a
- I
- f
- pw- C-Xn¬- Im-Wmw.- A-Xn¬c-≠v- A-Xv-`p-X-ß-fpw- c-≠v- D-]-a-I-fpw- am¿t°m-kv- am-{X-sa- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈q.f.- tb-ip- X-®-s\-∂v- (B-im-cn)- \-t{kØn¬- A- d n- b - s ∏- ´ n- c n- ∂ p- s h- ∂ v - am¿t°mkv- am-{X-sa- ]-d-bp-∂p-≈q- (6:-3).g.- "I¿-Øm-hv'- F-∂- ]-Zw- Cu- kp-hnti-jØ
- n¬- a\x-]q¿-hw- H-gn-hm-°n-bn-cn-°p∂p.- a-‰p-aq-∂v- kp-hn-ti-jß-fn-epw- "I¿Øm-hv'- F-∂- ]-Zw- 70¬- ]-cw- X-h-W- D-]tbm-Kn-°p-tºmƒ- am¿-t°m-kv- H-cn-°¬t]m-epw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂n-√.- (16:-9¬- H-cp-

≈,-- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-js
- Ø- B{ibn-®m-Wv- am¿-t°m-kpw- eq-t°m-kp-w-- X-ßfp-sS- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-sf-gp-Xn-b-Xv''-.]- fi n- X - ∑ m¿- ° n- S - b n¬- X - s ∂- Cukphn-ti-jw- B-cv- G-Xp-Im-e-L-´-Øn¬G-Xp-`m-j-bn-se-gp-Xn- F-∂- hn-j-b-Øn¬X-¿-°-ap-≠v;- A-Xn-t∏m-gpw- Xp-Scp-∂p-!- {]-tXy-I-X-Iƒa.- G-‰-hpw- {l-kz-am-b-Xv.- `-£n-∏m≥t]m-epw- k-a-b-an-√m-Ø-h-Æw,- k-a-b-an-√mØ- tb-ip-hn-s\-bm-Wv- am¿-t°m-kv- ]-cnkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

{]m-h-iyw- "I¿-Øm-hv'- F-∂- ]-Zw- D-]-tbmKn-®n-´p-≠v.- ]-t£,- 16:-9:-20 h-N\
- ß
- ƒ- ]n¬°m-e-Øv- I-S-Øn-°q-´n-b-Xm-Wv).h.- K-eo-en-bb
- n¬- B-cw-`n-°p-∂- tbiphn-s≥-d- {]-h¿-Ø\
- w- K-eo-en-bb
- n-epw- Np‰p]m-Spw- \-S-Øn-b-Xn-\v- ti-jw- sb-cpi-tean¬- A-h-km-\n-°p-∂p.- tb-ip-hn-s≥dPohn-X-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- G-sd- kw-`h-߃- K-eo-en-b-bn-em-Wv- \-S-°p-∂-Xv.i.- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d- k-am-]v-Xn-bmWv- as‰m-cp- {]-tXy-I-X.- G-‰-hpw- ]p-cm-X-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\am-b- h-Øn-°m≥,- ko-\m-bv- I-sø-gp-Øv{]-Xn-I-fn-epw- 12˛mw- \q-‰m-≠n-se- Curseve
2386epw- 16:-8¬- B-Wv- A-h-km-\n-°p∂Xv.- 9 ap-X¬- 20 hsc-bp-≈- h-N-\-߃]n¬-°m-e-Øv- I-S-Øn-°q-´n-b-Xm-Wv-.a-Øm-bna-Øm-bn- F-∂- A-c-am-b- ]-Z-Øn-s≥-d{Ko-°v- cq-]-am-Wv- a-Øm-bn-tbm-kv.- {Ko-°vaq-e-Øn-s≥-d- A¿-Y-w- "ssZ-h-Zm-\w'- F-∂m
Wv.- b-lq-Z-\pw- l¬-ss]-bp-sS- ]p-{X-\pwK-eo-e-°m-c-\pw- I^¿-\m-an-se- Np-¶-°mc-\p-am-bn-cp-∂ tehn-- F-∂pw- a-Øm-bn-sb-am¿-t°m-kpw- (2:-14),- eq-t°m-kpw- - -]-cn-Nb-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.- a-Øm-bn-sb-∏-‰n- h-f-scA]q¿-W-am-b- hn-h-c-Ww- am-{X-sa- kp-hnti-jw- \¬-Ip-∂p-≈q.a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw]p-Xn-b- \--n-b-a-Øn-se- H-∂m-a-sØ- ]pkvX
- I
- a
- m-Wn-Xv.- X-eh
- m-NI
- a
- m-b- KATA F
∂- {]-tbm-Kw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- in-jy-\m-ba-Øm-bn- F-gp-Xn-b-X-√m-sb-∂v- hn-fn-t®mXp-∂p.- ss_-_nƒ- ]-fin-X-∑m-cp-w- Cuh-kv-Xp-X- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-\p-≠v.- A-h¿- ]dbp-∂p-:""Np- ¶ - ° m- c - \ m- b - a- Ø m- b n- b p- s S-

a-Øm-bn- F-∂- A-c-am-b- ]-ZØns≥-d- {Ko-°v- cq-]-am-Wv- a-Ømbn-tbm-kv.- {Ko-°v- aq-e-Øn-s≥-dA¿-Y-w- "ssZ-h-Zm-\w'- F-∂mWv.blq-Z-\pw- l¬-ss]-bp-sS]p-{X-\pw- K-eo-e-°m-c-\pw- I^¿-\man-se- Np-¶-°m-c-\p-am-bn-cp-∂
tehn-- F-∂pw- a-Øm-bn-sb
am¿-t°m-kpw- (2:14),- eq-t°m-kpw-]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p

24
t]cn¬- A-dn-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂- kp-hn-ti-jw- FgpXn-b-Xv- A-t±-la-s√-∂- bm-Ym¿-Y-yw- H-´\-h-[n- K-th-j-I-∑m¿- hy-‡-am-°n-bp´p≠v.- F-¶n-epw- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j-c-N-\-°v]i-vN
- m-Øe
- sam-cp-°n-b- ]m-cº
- cy-Øn-s‚cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn¬- H-cp- ]-¶v- a-Øm-bn-°ps≠-∂- Im-cyw- hy-‡-am-Wv''- (The New
Jerusalem Bible, P. 1599).
""C-Xn-s‚- {Ko-°v- -- ap-e-Øn¬- am¿-t°mkn-s‚- kp-hn-ti-jw- ]-q¿-Wa
- m-bn- A¬-]wt`-Z-K-Xn-I-tfm-sS- ]-I¿-Øn-bn-´p-≠v- F-∂Xn-\m¬- ZrIv-k-m-£n-bm-b- H-cp- A-t∏m-kvX-e-s‚- c-N-\-bm-Wv- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hnti-j-Øn-s‚- C-t∏m-gp-≈- cq-]-sa-∂v- I-c-pXp-∂X
- v- i-cn-bm-bn-cn-°p- I
- b
- n-√'-'- (The New
Jerusalem Bible, P. 630).
{]-KXv-`- ss_-_nƒ- ]fi-n-X-\m-b- sdbv-a-≠v- C- {_u¨- F-gp-Xp-∂p-:- ""hn-Pm-Xob-cn¬- \n-∂pw- b-lq-Z-cn¬- \n-∂pw- am-\km-¥c
- s
- ∏-´- ss{I-kh
v- c
- p-sS- k-aq-lØ
- n¬Po-hn-®n-cp-∂,-- {K-o-°v- `m-j- kw-km-cn-®n-cp∂- A-dn-b-s∏-Sm-Ø- H-cp- b-lq-Z- ss{I-kvX-h-\m-Wv- kn-dn-b-bn¬- sh-®v- a-Øm-bn-bpsS- kp-hn-ti-jw- F-gp-Xn-bs
- X-∂X
- m- W
- v- B[p-\n-I- ]-fin-X-∑m-cp-sS- \n-K-a-\w'-' (anin-lm-bp-sS- P-\-\w,- ]p-dw-:- 17)-.a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- t]-cn-ep-≈- kp-hn-ti-jhpw- km-£n-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ""tb-ipAhn-sS- \n-∂pw- t]m-Ip-tºmƒ- a-Øm-bnsb∂v- t]-cp-≈- H-cmƒ- Np-¶ÿ
e
- Ø
- v- Ccn°p∂-Xv- I-≠p.- A-b-mt- fm-Sv- A-h≥- ]d™p:F-s∂- A-\p-Ka
- n-°p-I.-Ab
- mƒ- Fgp-t∂‰pA-h-s\- A-\p-K-an-®p-''- (a-Øm-bn- 9:-9).-A-t∏m-kv-X-e-\m-b- a-Øm-b-n-sb-°-p-dn®v- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂n-S-Øv- "Rm≥-'- F-∂k¿-h-\m-a-Øn-\v- ]-I-cw- "A-h≥'- F-∂k¿-h\m-aam-Wv- D-]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.aØm-bn-bm-Wv- Cu- `m-K߃- F-gp-Xn-bsX- ¶ n¬- "A- h ≥'- F- ∂ - X n- ∂ v - ]- I - c w-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

"Rm≥'- F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p-h-t√m- {]-tbm-Knt°m-≠n-bn-cp-∂X
- v.- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- t]-cn¬A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®-Xv- Bcm-sW-∂v- ssZ-h-Øn-\-√m-sX- a-‰m¿-°pwA-dn-™p-Iq-sS-∂m-Wt- √m- C-Xn¬- \n-∂pwhy-‡-am-Ip-∂-Xv.{]-tXy-I-X-Iƒa.- H-∂pw- c-≠pw- A-[ym-b-ß-fn-em-bntb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ip-{iq-j-°-Y- hn-h-cn-°p∂psh-¶n-epw- A-h- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- Iq-´nt®¿-Ø-Xm-Wv.b.- ]-g-b- \n-b-a-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- 65 {]-mh-iyw- D-≤c
- n-°p-∂p.- A-hb
- n¬- hym-P- hN\-ß-fp-≠v.- D-Zm-:- 2:-23.c.- tb-ip- Zm-ho-Zn-s≥-d- ]p-{X-s\-∂v- 9
{]m-h-iyw- D-≤-cn-°p-∂p.- 22:-41˛46¬- A-Xv\n-tj-[n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- am¿-t°m
kpw- eq-t°m-kpw- aq-∂v- {]m-h-iyw- D-≤-cn°p-tºmƒ- tbm-l-∂m≥- A-Xv- D-t]-£n°p-∂p.d.- "k-`'-- F-∂- ]-Zw- Cu- kp-hn-ti-jØn¬- am-{X-ta-bp-≈q˛16:-18,- 18:-17.e.- 20 A-Xv-`p-X-ß-fpw- 15 D-]-a-I-fpap≠v.- A-Xn¬- aq-∂v- A-Xv-`p-X-ß-fpw- 10 D]a-I-fpw- a-Øm-bn- am-{Xw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xm-Wv.f.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- c-IX
v- w- R-ßf
- p-sS-bpwa-°-fp-sSbpw- -ta-¬-- h-c-s´- F-∂- b-lq-Z-cp
sS- ap-d-hn-fn- (27:-25)-bpw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ac
W-tØm-S\
- p-_\
- [
v- n-®p-≈- hn-ip-≤∑
- m-cp-sSD-bn¿-∏pw- `q-an-Ip-ep-°hp-w- I-√d
- b
- n-se- Imh¬-°m-cp-sS- hym-P{- ]-kX
v- m-h\
- b
- pw- (11˛15)Cu- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- am-{X-ta-bp-≈q.eq-t°m-kvh-n-Pm-Xo-b-\pw- ssh-Zy-\pw- (sIm-sfm-:4:-14)- ]u-tem-kn-\m¬- am-\k
- m-¥c
- s
- ∏-´- At±-l-Øn-s≥-d- tXm-g-\pw- B-bn-cp-∂p- eqt°m-kv.- eq-t°m-k-n-s≥-d- t]-cv- ]u-temkn-s≥-d- te-J\
- Ø
- n¬- am-{X-sa- Im-Wp-∂p≈q.-(sIm-f.-- 4:-14,- 2 Xn-tam-.- 4:-11,- ^n-se-.- 24).eq-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jweq- t °m- k n- s ≥- d - kp- h n- t i- j - h pwAt∏m-k-vX-e- {]-h¿-Øn-I-fpw- Fgp-Xn-bXv- H-cmƒ- X-s∂-bm-sW-∂m-Wv- ]-Wv-UnX-a-Xw.- Cu- c-≠v- ]p-kv-X-I-ß-fpw- H-scm‰]p-kvX
- I
- cq-]Ø
- n-em-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw- Nn-et`-Z-K-Xn-I-tfm-sS- A-Xv- c-≠v- ]p-kv-X-I-ßfm-°n-sb-∂pw- F.F. Bruce s\-t]m-ep-≈th-Z]
- W
- vU
- n-X∑
- m¿- k-a¿-Yn- °
- p-∂p-≠v.- F
gp-Xn-b- B-fn-s≥-d- t]-cv- H-cn-S-Øpw- ]-d-bp∂n-√.- KATA F-∂- {]-tbm-Kw- C-Xv- eq

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿t°m-kn-t≥-dX
- √
- - F-∂v- kv]
- j
- vS- a
- m-°p-∂p.hn-Pm-Xo-b-cm-b- b-h-\-∑m¿-°m-bn-´m-WvCu- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®-Xv- (2:-30).- A-XpsIm-≠v- b-lq-Z-cp-sS- `m-j-bm-b- A-cm-ay]-Z-߃-°v- ]-I-cw- {Ko-°v- ]-Z-ß-fm-Wv- {]tbm-Kn-®n-´p-≈-Xv.- a-Øm-bn,-- tKm-¬-tKm-Ym(27:-33)- F-∂- A-cm-ay-]-Zw- D-]tbm-Kn-°ptºmƒ- eq-t°m-kv- X-etb-m-´-n-Sw- F-∂¿Yap-≈- KARNION F∂- {Ko-°v- ]-Z-am-WvD-]t- bm-Kn-°p-∂X
- v.- a-Øm-bn-bpw- am¿-t°mkpw- "d-∫n'- F-∂- b-lq-Z-ssi-en- {]-tbmKn-°p-tºmƒ- eqt°mkv- A-Xv- H-gn-hm-°p∂p.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- sb-cp-i-tew- {]-th-i\-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- a-Øm-bn-bpw- am¿t°m-kpw- D-]-tbm-Kn®n-´p-≈- "tlm-im-\m'F-∂- F-{_-m-b- ]-Zw- eq-t°m-kv- D-t]-£n°p-∂p (19:-36˛40).kp-hn-ti-j-ß-sf-√mw- ]-cn-ip-≤m-Xv-amhn-\m¬- {]-tNm-Z-n-X-cm-b-h¿- F-gp-Xn-b-XmsW-∂m-Wv- ]-Wv-Un-X-a-Xw.- eq-t°m-kvAXv- \n-tj-[n-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I.:- ""{ioam-\m-b- sX-tbm-^n-tem-tk-,- B-Zn- ap-X¬I-≠- km-£n-I-fpw- h-N-\-Øn-s≥-d- ip-{iqj-Ic-- pambh¿- \-sΩ- `-c-ta¬-]n-®-Xp-t]mse- \-Ωp-sS- C-S-bn¬- ]-q¿-W-am-bn- {]-amWn-®p-h-cp-∂- Im-cy-ß-sf- hn-h-cn-°p-∂Hcp- N-cn-{Xw- Nsa∏m≥- ]-e-cpw- Xp-\n-™ncn-°-sIm-≠pw- \n-\-°v- D-]-tZ-iw- e-`n-®ncn-°p-∂- hm¿-Øb
- p-sS- \n-ivN
- b
- w- \o- Adntb-≠-Xn-\pw- A-Xv- {Iaambn- F-gp-Xp-∂Xv- \-s∂-∂v- B-Zn-ap-X¬- k-Ie
- h
- pw- kq£va-am-bn- ]-cn-tim-[n-®n-´v- F-\n-°pw- tXm-∂nbn-cn-°p-∂p''- (eq-°v- 1:-1˛4).Cu- hm-Iy-߃- Four source Theory
°v- ]n≥-_-ew- \¬-Ip-∂p.- am¿-t°m-kns≥d- kp-hn-ti-ja
- pƒ-s∏-sS- a-‰p- tkm-gvk
- pIfpw- {I-a-a-s√∂pw- A-h- {I-ao-I-cn-s®-gpXn-b-Xm-Wv- X-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-sa-∂p-amWv- eq-°v- kv-Ym]n-°p-∂-Xv.- A-h- {I-ao-Icn-°p∂Xn\v- ]-cn-ip-≤m-Xv-am-hv- eq-°n-s\k-lm-bn-®p-sh-∂v- B-sc-¶n-epw- hm-Zn-®m¬am-¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw- ]-cn-ip-≤mXva
- m-hn-\m¬- c-Nn-°s
- ∏-´X
- √
- - F-∂pw- kΩXn-t°-≠n-hc
- pw.- c-≠m-bm-epw- hm-Zn-If
- p-sShm-Zw- A-h¿-°-v X-s∂- I-p-cn-im-bn-h-cp-∂p.{]-tXy-I-X-Iƒa.- eq-t°mkpw- - a-Øm-bn-bp-sa-gp-Xnb- in-ip-I-Y-Iƒ- `n-∂-am-Wv;- hn--cp-≤-hp-amWv.- eqt-°m.-- 1:-26Dw- 2:-29Dw- A-\p-k-cn-®vadn-bw- Xm-a-kn-°p-∂-Xv- \-{k-Øn-em-Wv.a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- I-Yb
- \
- p-kc
- n-®v- bu-tk-∏pwa-dn-b-hpw- s_-Xv-e-tl-an-em-Wv- Xm-a-kw.-

25
c≠v- I-Y-I-fp-sS-bpw- hn-Z-i-am-b- hni-I-e\w,- C-h- N-cn-{X-am-Im-\p-≈- km-[y-X-I-sfX-≈n-°-f-bp-∂p.- - eq-t°m-kv- \¬-Ip-∂hw-im-h-en-bn¬-\n-∂pw- (3:-23:˛28)- hf-schy-Xym-k-ap-≠v-˛ ssh-cp-≤y-ap-≠v-˛ inipI-Y-bp-sS- B-cw-`-Øn¬- a-Øm-bn- ]d-bp∂- hw-im-h-en-°v- (1:-1˛17).b.- \m-ev- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn¬- {]m¿-Y-n°p-∂-h-\m-bn- tb-ip-hn-s\- 15 {]m-h-iywtc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xn-¬- 11 {]m-hiyhpw- Im-Wp-∂-Xv- eq-t-°m-bn-em-Wv.c.- kv-\m-]-I- tbm-l-∂m-s≥-d- A-ΩFen-k-_-Øv,- A-∏-\m-b- k-°dn-b,- tbip-hn-s≥-d- A-Ω-bm-b- a-dn-b -F∂-n-h-sc°-p-dn-®p-≈- Iq-Sp-X¬- hn-h-c-hpw- \¬-Ip∂-Xv- eq-°v- am-{X-am-Wv.d.- 20 A-Xv-`p-X-߃- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn´p-≈-Xn¬- B-sd-Æw- C-Xn¬- am-{Xw- ImWp-∂h
- b
- m-Wv.- 23 D]-aI
- f
- n¬- 18 F-Æhpwa-s‰-ßp-an--√.e.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- _m-ey-Im-e-kw-`-hwCu- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- am-{X-ta-bp-≈q.- (2:41˛52).f.- kv\
- m-]I
- - tbm-l∂
- m-s‚- P-\\
- s
- Økw-_‘n-®p-≈- hn-h-c-W-߃- Cu- kphn-ti-j-Øn¬ am-{Xta-bp-≈q.- (1:-57˛80)g. t- b-ip-hn-s‚- 3 ]-co-£-I-f-p-sS- {Iaweq-t°m-kv- tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- (4:1˛13)- a-Øm-bn-bp-tS-Xn¬- \n-∂p-w-- (4:-1˛11)hn-cp-≤a
- m-Wv.- F-∂m¬- am¿-t°m-kv- A-tX-

b- sk-_-Zn-bp-sS-bpw- i-tem-an-bp-sS-bpw]p{X-\pw- bm-t°m-_n-s≥-d- C-f-b- k-tlmZ-c\
- p-am-b- tbm-l∂
- m-\m-Wv- tb-ip-hn-s≥din-jy-\m-b- tbm-l-∂m-s\-∂v- ss{I-kv-Xh-¿- ]m-c-º-cy-am-bn- hn-iz-kn-®p-h-cp-∂p.At±-lw- hn-Z-ym-lo-\-\m-b- km-[m-c-W- a\p-jy-\m-bn-cp-∂p- (A-t∏m.-- 4:-13).-tbm-l-∂m-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jwtb-iphn-s≥-d- in-jy-\m-b- tbm-l-∂m\m-Wv- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d- I¿-Ømsh-∂v- ss{I-kv-X-h¿- hn-iz-kn-®p-h-cp-∂p.21 A-[ym-b-ß-fn-em-bn- 879 h-N-\-߃CXn-ep-≠v.- 5:-4,- 7:-53,- 8:-1˛11 h-N-\-ß-ƒ- ]pcm-X-\- {Ko-°v- I-sø-gp-Øv- {]-Xn-I-fn¬- ImWp-∂n-√.- F.-Un.- 90\pw- 110\p-an-S-°v- FgpX-s∏-´p-sh-∂v- hn-iz-kn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- Cukp-hn-ti-jw- k-ah
- o-£W
- - kp-hn-ti-jß
- fp-am-bn- Xm-c-X-a-yw- sN-øp-tºmƒ- {]-iv-\wIq-Sp-X¬- k-¶o¿-Wa
- m-Ip-∂p.- Im-cW
- w- `qanim-kv-{X-]-c-am-bpw- Im-e-{I-a-a-\p-k-cn-®pw`m-jm- co-Xn-b-\p-k-cn-®pw- A-h-XΩn¬- hen-b- hy-Xym-k-ap-≠v.- Iq-S-m-sX- k-a-ho-£W-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- h-f-sc- hy-Xy-kv-X-\m-b{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-bm-Wv- tbm-l-∂m≥- ]-cn-Nb-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X
- v.- d-h.- F.-kn.- ss¢-‰≥- ]dbp-∂p-:- "C-Xn¬- ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂- tb-ipkm£m¬- A-{]-Im-c-ap-≈-h-\m-tWm- F∂p-≈- ]-e-am-Xn-cn- X¿-°w- I-gn-™- c-≠v\q-‰m-≠p-I-fm-bn- ssh-Zn--I- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpsS- C-S-bn¬- D-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- C-t∏m-gpw- Cu\m-emw- kp-hn-ti-j-sØ- kw-_-\v-[n-®v-

∏-‰n- bm-sXm-∂pw- ]-d-bp-∂n-√.h. I-jv-Sm-\p-`-h- B-gv-N-bn-se- kw-`h߃- 3 kp-hn-ti-j-I-∑m-cpw- tc-J-s∏-SpØn-bn-´p-s≠-¶n-epw- A-hb
- n¬- ]-e- hy-Xymk-ß-fpw- ssh-cp-[y-ß-fp-ap-≠v.- hn-in-jymkw-`-h-ß-fp-sS- {I-a-Øn¬- C-Xv- {]-I-SamWv.tbm-l-∂m≥A-©v- tbm-l-∂m≥-am-sc- ]-‰n- ]p-Xnb\n-b-aw- ]-cm-a¿-in-°p-∂p-≠v.- ap-°p-h-\mkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Nne- kw-i-b-߃- Xo¿-∂n-´n-√'-.tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- in-jy-\m-btbm-l-∂m≥- F-gp-Xn-b-X-√tbm-l∂
- m-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw- F-gpXn
bX--v B-cm-sW-∂X
- n-s\-∏‰
- n- th-Z]
- W
- U
-v nX∑m-cp-sS- C-Sb
- n¬- A-`n-{]m-b- hy-Xym-ka
- p
≠v.- tb-ip- kvt- \-ln-®- in-jy-\pw- sk_Zn
bp-sS- a-I\
- p-am-b- tbm-l∂
- m≥- F-gp-Xn- F∂]-mc
- º
- c
- y- hn-izm-kw- F-√m- ]-WU
-v n-X∑
- mcpwAw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p-∂n-√.- am-{X-a√
- - "tb-ip- kvt\-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿ln-®- in-jy≥- tbm-l-∂m-\m-sW-∂v- sX
fn-bn-°p∂-Xn-\-v {]-bm-kh
- p-am-W'v - F-∂mWv]p-Xn-b- \n-b-a- {]-th-inI- F-∂- ]p-kv-XIØn¬- (]p-dw- 49)- -d-h.- hn.- tXm-a-kv- ]dbp∂-Xv.- A-t±-lw- Xp-Sc
- p-∂p:- ""tdm-an-se- k`mip-{iq-jI-\m-bn-cp-∂- Ktbm-kv- aq-∂mw- \q
‰m-≠n-s≥-d- B-cw-`Øn¬- F-gp-Xp-tºmƒsk-dn-¥m-kv- F-∂- hncp-t≤m-]-tZ-i-I≥B-Wv- Cu- kp-hn-ti-jw- F-gp-Xn-b-sX-∂vtc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- sF-td-\n-b-kvF∂- k-`m-]n-Xm-hn-\v- CtX-]-‰n- A-dn-hp≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw- Im-Wmw''- (]p-dw- 51).am¿-t°m-kv- 10:-39 h-N\
- {- ]-Im-cw- tbiphn-s‚- in-jy-∑m-cm-bn-cp-∂- tbm-l∂m\pwbm-t°m-_pw- t\-cs
- Ø-˛G-It- Z-iw- F.Un.49¬- ˛ c-Iv-X-km-£n-I-fm-b-n- F-∂- hn-izm
k-hpw- - ss{I-kv-X-h¿-°n-S-bn-ep-≠v.- A-XpsIm-≠m-Wv- kp-dn-bm-\n- k-`b
- n¬- bm-t°m
_n-s≥-d-bpw- tbm-l-∂m-s≥-d-bpw- Hm¿-a-Xncp-\mƒ- H-∂n-®v- B-Nc
- n-°p-∂X
- v- ˛bm-t°m_n-s≥-d- c-Iv-X-k-m-£n-Xzw- A-t∏m.-- {]-:- 12:2¬- ]-d-bp-∂p-≠v- ˛C-Xv- tbm-l-∂m≥- h-f
sc- t\-c-sØ- a-cn-®p- F-∂-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hmWv.- F-∂m¬- tbm-l-∂m-s≥d- kp-hn-tij-sa-gp-Xn-b-Xv- F.-Un.- 90\pw- 110\p-an-S-°m
Wv- F-∂m-Wv- ss{I-kvX
- h
- - `m-jyw.- tbml-

tem-tKm-kv- F-∂- {Ko-°v]-Z-Øn-s≥d- A¿-Y-w- h-N-\wF-∂m-Wv.- G-I-tZ-iw,-- _n.-kn.- 500¬sl-cm-¢o-‰-kv- tem-tKm-kv- F∂]-Z-sØ- tem-I-Øn¬- hym-]-cn-®p
-`-cn-°p∂- km¿-h-{Xn-I- i-Iv-Xnbmbn- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-®p.

26
∂m-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d- B-[n-ImcnI-X- sX-fn-bn-°m≥- 21:-24˛mw- hm-Iyw- ss{Ikv-X-h¿- D-≤-cn-°m-dp-≠v:- ""Cu- in-jy≥C-Xn-s\°-p-dn-®v- - km-£yw- ]-d-bp-∂-h-\pwC-Xv- F-gp-Xn-b-h-\p-am-Ip-∂p.- A-h-s≥-dkm-£yw- k-Xyw- F-∂v- R-ß-ƒ- A-dn-bp
∂p''.- C-hn-sS- "R߃'- F-∂- {]tbm-Kwkm-£n-bm-b- in-jy-s\-°-q-Sm-sX- a-‰p-Nn-ecp-sS- ]-cn-{i-aw- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j- c-N-\-bpsS- ]n-∂n-ep-s≠-∂v- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p.- IqSmsX- "R-߃'- Bcm-sW-∂v- hy-Iv-Xhp-a√.Np-cp-°-Øn¬- C-hn-sS,-- C-Xn-s\°-p-dn-®vkm-£yw- ]-d-bp-∂-h≥- B-cm-Wv?- C-sXgp-Xn-b-h≥- B-cm-Wv?- A-h-s≥-d- k-m-£ywk-Xyw- F-∂-dn-bp-∂- "R-߃'- B-cm-Wv?sh-dpw- Du-lm-t]m-lß
- f
- √
- m-sX- B¿-°pwH-∂pw- CtX-]-‰n- A-dn-bn-√-!21˛mw- A-[ym-bw- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- Iq-´nt®¿-Ø-Xm-sW-∂v- s]m-Xp-sh- Aw-Ko-I-cn°-s∏-´n-´p-≠v.- C-Xv- th-Z-]-W-vUn-X-∑m¿Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p-∂- h-kvX
- p-Xb
- m-Wv.- - Cu- kphn-ti-jw- 20˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 31˛mw- hm-IytØm-sS- A-hk
- m-\n-°p-∂X
- m-bn- Im-Wmw.]n¬-°m-e-Øv- 20:-31s≥-d- Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn21˛mw- A-[ym-bw- Iq-´n-t®¿-Øt- ∏mƒ- AXn
¬- ssh-cp-[y- w- {]-IS- a
- m-bn.- 20˛mw- A-[ymbØn¬- tb-ip-hp-w- in-jy-∑m-cpw- blq-Zy-bnem-sW-¶n¬- 21˛mw- A-[ym-b-Øn¬- K-eoebn-em-Wv.- 21:-24˛em-w- hm-Iyw- c-≠v- hy-IvXnIƒ- {K-\v-Y-c-N-\- \-S-Øn-b-Xm-bn- kq-N-\\¬-Ip-∂p.- `m-j,- ssien- F-∂n-hb
- n-ep≈A-¥-cw- {]-I-S-am-Wv-.- 21:-23˛mw- hm-IyØnep-≈- "{K-\vY
- I
- ¿-Øm-hv- Po-ht- \m-Sn-cn-∏n√'-F-∂- kq-N-\ 21˛mw- A-[ym-bw- {K-\v-Y-I¿
Øm-hn-s≥-d- c-N-\-b-√- F-∂-Xn-\v- sX-fnhm-bn- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p.Cu- kp-hn-ti-jw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- i-nj
- y\m-b- tbm-l-∂m≥- c-Nn-®-X-√- F-∂v- d-h.F.-kn.- ss¢-‰¨- k-a¿Y-n°
- p-∂X
- -v ImWpI:""C-Xn-s≥-d- I¿-Øm-h-v B-cm-sW-∂pw- CXn¬-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

F-gp-X-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-h- b-Ym¿-Y- N-cn{Xkw-`-h-ß-fm-tWm- A-√tbm- F-∂pw- kw
ln-X- kp-hn-ti-j-߃-°pw- sh-fn-]m-Sv- ]p
kv-X-I-Øn-\pw- C-Xn-\pw- X-Ωn-ep-≈- _-\v
[-sa-¥m-sW-∂pw- C-Xn¬- ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂tb-ip- km-£m¬- A-{]-Im-ca
- p-≈h
- \
- mtWmF-∂p-ap-≈- ]-e-am-Xn-cn- X¿-°-߃- I-gn
™- c-≠v- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn¬- ssh-Zn-I-]-WvUn-X∑
- m-cp-sS- C-Sb
- n-ep-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- C-t∏mgpw- Cu- \m-emw- kp-hn-ti-j-sØ- kw-_\v-[n-®v- Nn-e- kw-i-b-߃- Xo¿-∂n-´n-√''(dh.- F.-kn.- ss¢-‰-¨,- ss_-_nƒ- \n-LWv-Up,- ]-p-dw- 497)-.- tbm-l-∂m-s≥-d- t]-cnep-≈- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-s≥-d- I¿-Øm-hv- Bcm-sW-∂v- C-∂pw- ]-WvU
- n-X∑
- m¿-°n-Sb
- n¬\n-iv-N-b-an-√ F-∂v- hy-‡-a-t√?D-d-hn-S-ß-ƒ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- ssZ-hi
- m-k{-v Xw- tbml
-∂m-s\- h-f-sc-b-[n-I-w- kzm-[o-\n-®n-´p-≠v.tem-tKm-kv,- t\m-kv-‰n-Iv,- kv-t‰m-bn-Iv- XpS
ßn-b- k¶¬-]-ß-fpw- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn¬\n-g-en-®p-Im-Wmw.- k-a-h-o-£-W- kp-hn-tijØn¬-\n-∂pw- h-f-sc- hy-Xy-kv-X-hpwhncp-≤-hp-am-b- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fm-Wv- tbm-l∂m-\n¬- Im-Wp-∂-Xv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- ta¬]-d™
- t{km-X 
- v- Iq-Sm-sX- A-t±-lØ
- n\vam-{Xw- e-`y-am-b- t{km-X- -pw- (Jt{km-X -v)- c-N-\-°m-bn- D-]-tbm-Kn-®n´p≠v.tem-tKm-kpw- kv-t‰-m-bn-Iv- a-X-hpwtem-tKm-kv- F-∂- {Ko-°v- ]-Z-Øn-s≥-dA¿-Y-w- h-N-\w- F-∂m-Wv.- G-I-tZ-iw- _n.kn.- 500¬- sl-cm-¢o-‰k
- v- tem-tKm-kv- F∂]-Zs
- Ø- tem-IØ
- n¬- hym-]c
- n-®p-`c
- n-°p∂km¿-h-{Xn-I- i-Iv-Xn-bm-bn- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-®p.kv-t‰m-bn-Iv- a-Xw- A-Xv- {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-I-bpwsN-bv-Xp.- π-m-t‰m- tem-tKm-kv- hm-l-I-cn¬H-cm-fm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-t±-lw- tem-tKm-kn-\vhym-]I
- a
- m-b- A¿-Yw- - \¬-In.- ]n¬-°m-eØv{In-kv-Xy≥- th-Z-im-kv-{X-Øn¬- πm-t‰m-bpsS- X-Øz- N
- n-¥I
- ƒ- I-S∂
- p-Iq-Sn.- tbm-l∂
- m
≥- 1:-1 A-Xn-\v- D-Zm-lc
- W
- a
- m-Wv:- ""B-Zn-bn¬h-N\
- w- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- h-N\
- w- ssZ-hØ
- ns‚Iq-sS-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- h-N\
- w- ssZ-ha
- m-bn-cp∂p''.tam¨- tXm-ak
- -v ap-tØ-Ss
- ≥-d- ss_-_nfn¬tbm-l- 1:-1\v- A-Sn-°p-dn-∏m-bn- C-{]-Im-cwF-gp-Xn-b-Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.- tπm-´n-\-kn-s≥d\q-X-\- tπ-t‰m-Wn-b≥- kn-≤m-¥w- tbm-l∂m-\v- D-t]m¬-_e
- I
- a
- m-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°mw(hn
i-p-≤- {K-\v-Yw,- kp-hn-ti-jw,- tam¨- tXma-kv- ap-tØ-S≥,- ]p-dw- 176).-- ssZ-h-Øn-\pwtem-IØ
- n-\pw- C-S°
- v- a-[y-h¿-Øn-bm-bn- {]
h¿-Øn-°p-∂- {]-Xn-\n-[n-bm-bn- N-cn-{X-Imc-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\m-b- ^o-tem-bq-Zn-bm-k-v (_n.-kn.- 20 F.Un.50)- tem-tKm-kn-\v- A¿-Y-w- \¬-In-bn-´p-≠v._n.-kn.- 335˛263h-sc- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- knt\m- F-∂- X-Ø-z-Pv-Rm-\n- cq]w-sIm-Sp-Ø{Ko-t°m-˛tdm-a≥- X-Øz- N
- n-¥b
- m-Wv- kvt- ‰mbn-Iv.- kvt- ‰m-bn-Iv- X-Øz- i
- m-kv{- X-PR
- c
- p-sSho-£-W-Øn¬- {]-]-©-Øn-\v- A-Xn-s≥dkz-`m-h-h-pw- sF-Iy-hpw- {]-[m-\w- sN-øp∂-Xv- tem-tKm-kv- B-Wv.- Cu- ho-£-Wwtbm-l∂
- m-s\-bpw- kzm-[o-\n-®n-´p-≠v.- tbml-∂m-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-\v- B-Zy-`m
jyw- F-gq-Xn-b-Xv- H-cp- t\m-kv-‰n-Iv- B-bncp-∂- tSm-f-an-b-kv- B-sW-∂-v th-Z-]-Wv-UnX-\m-b- sI.-hn.- tPm¿-Pv- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d]p-Xn-b- \n-b-a- {]-th-in-I-bn¬-˛]p-dw- 93˛
F-gpXn-b-Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.k-ah
- o-£W
- - kp-hn-ti-jß
- f
- n¬- hnhcn-°p-∂- Nn-e- Im-cy-߃- tbm-l-∂m-\n
epw- Im-Wmw.- A-h- Xn-I-®pw- hy-Xy-kv-Xhpw- ssh-cp-≤y-hp-am-Wv.- A-h- tbm-l∂
- m≥GtXm- H-cp- t{km-X- -n¬-\n-∂pw- F-Sp-ØX-m-Imw.- Nn-e- ]-cm-a¿i-߃- Im-Wp-I-:(kv\
- m-]I
- )- - tbm-l∂
- m-s≥-d- km-£yw(1:-19˛28),- in-jy-∑m-sc- sX-c-s™-Sp-°¬(1:-35˛42),- A-∏w- h¿-[n-∏n-°¬- (6:-1˛15),- sh≈-Øn-\v- ao-sX- \-S-∂-Xv- (6:-16˛24),- tb-iphn-s\- h[n-°p-hm-\p-≈- B-tem-N-\- (11:45˛53),- P-dp-k-te-an-te-°p-≈- {]-th-i-\w(12:-12˛19),- ]-t{Xm-kv- tb-ip-hn-s\- X-≈n-∏d-bp-∂-Xv- (18:-15˛18,- 25˛27),- ]n-tem-tØmkn-s≥-d- ap-ºn¬-sh-®p-≈- hn-Nm-c-W-bpwhn-[n-bpw- (18:-28,-40,- 19:-1˛16),- {Iq-io-I-c-Ww(19:-17˛27)-,- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-c-Ww- (19:-28˛30),tb-ip-hn-s\- kw-kvI
- c
- n-°p-∂X
- v- (19:-38˛42),iq-\y-am-b- I-√d
- - (20:-1˛18),- in-jy-∑m-°v- {]Xy-£-s∏-S¬- (20:-19˛23).- C-h- k-a-ho-£W- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fp-am-bn- Xm-c-X-ayw- sNbv-Xv- t\m-°p-I.- ssh-cp-[-yw- {]-I-S-am-Ipw.ta¬-sIm-Sp-Ø- h-N-\-ß-ƒ- H-gn-®v- tbm-l:H∂p-ap-X¬- 21h-sc-bp-≈- A-[ym-b-M-fn¬]-db
- p-∂-- H-cp- Im-cyw-t]m-epw- k-ah
- o-£Wkp-hn-ti-jß
- f
- n¬- Is≠-Øp-I- Akm[yam-Wv.- A-h- A-t±-lØ
- n-\v- am-{Xw- e`y-ambt{km-X- -n¬-\n-∂pw- ]-I¿-Øn-b-XmWv.{]-tXy-I-X-I-ƒk-ah
- o-£W
- kp-hn-ti-jß
- f
- n¬- tbip
-hn-s≥-d- ]-c-ky-Po-hn-X- {]-t_m-[-\- Im-ewH-cp- h¿-jw-sIm-≠v- A-h-km-\n-°p-tºmƒtbm-l-∂m-\n¬- aq-∂v- h¿-j-Øn¬- Iq-SpX¬- (G-It- Z-iw- aq-∂c
- h
- ¿-jw)- Zo-Ln- ®
- Xmbn- Im-Wp-∂p.- aq-∂v- s]-k-l-sb- kw-_\v[n-®p-≈- ]-cm-a¿-i-߃- A-Xn-ep-≠v- (2:-13,-

27
6:-4,- 2:-1).tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- P-\-\w- hw-im-h-en,- _mey-Im-ew,- kv\
- m-\w,- km-Øm-\n¬-\n-∂p-≈]-co-£,- cq-]m-¥c
- w,- A-Øm-gh
- n-cp-∂v,- kz¿Km-tcm-l-Ww- C-h-sb-√mw- tbm-l-∂m≥hn´p-I-f-™n-cn-°p-∂p.k-Zq-Iy¿,- \n-b-a-Pv-R¿,- ^-cn-tk-b¿-,sl-tdm-tZm-kv- I-£n-Iƒ- Xp-S-ßn-b- ]-esc-bpw- k-a-ho-£-W- kp-hn-ti-j-߃{][m-\yw- \¬-Ip-tºmƒ- tbm-l-∂m≥Ah- ]m-sS- H-gn-hm-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.F-´v- A-Sb
- m-fß
- f
- n¬- (A-Xv`
- p-Xß
- fn
¬)- c-s≠-Æw- - H-gn-®-v (6:-4˛21),- B-dpw- tbml∂m- \ n¬- am- { X- t a- b p- ≈ q.- 1.- sh≈who™m-°n-b-Xv- (2:-1:-11),- 2.- cm-P-`r-Xy-s≥-dkuJyw- (4:-46˛54),- 3.- t_-X-kv-Ym-bn-setcmKn-bp-sS- ku-Jyw- (5:-1˛9),- 4.- Ip-cp-S-\vIm-gvN
- - \¬-In-bX
- v- (9:-1˛7),- 5.- a-cn-®- em-kdn
s
- \- D-bn¿]-n®
- X
- v- (11:-17˛44)-,- 6.- A-Xv`
- p-XI
- cam-b- ao≥-]n-Sn-Øw-(21:1˛14) F-∂n-hbmWh.13 ap-X¬- 18h-sc-bp-≈- A-[ym-b-߃(195 hm-Iy-߃)- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- Po-hn-XØn-se- H-cp- Zn-h-k-sØ- -hn-h-c-W-am-Wv.kv-\m-]-I-tbm-l-∂m-s\- tbm-l-∂m≥F-∂m-Wv- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- ]-cn-Nb-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X
- v.- kv\
- m-]I
- ≥- F-∂- hm°vH-gn-hm-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.Im-\m-\n-se- I-eym-Ww- (2:-1˛11),- \n
t°m-tZ-tam-kp-am-bp-≈- kw-`m-j-Ww- (3:
1˛15),- tbiphpw- k-a-cn-bm- kv-{Xo-bpw- (A-

kn-s≥-d- kw-i-bw- (20:-24˛29),- tb-ip- ]p\x{]-Xy-£-s]-´-Xp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- Im-cy߃- (A-[ym-bw- 21)- Xp-S-ßn-b-h- Cukphn-ti-jØ
- n¬- am-{X-sa- Im-Wp-∂p-≈q.k-a-ho-£-W-kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn¬- tbip- H-cn-°¬- am-{Xw- sb-cp-i-te-an¬- t]mIp-∂X
- m-bpw- A-hn-sS- {Iq-in-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂X
- mbpw- Im-Wp-∂p.- F-∂m¬- tbm-l-∂m-s≥dkp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- tb-ip- aq-∂v- {]m-h-iywsb-cp-ite-an-te-°v- t]m-Ip-∂p-≠v- (2:-13,- 5:1,7:-10).- am¿-t°-mk
- n-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jØ
- n-se(-11:-15)hn-h-c-W-a-\p-k-cn-®v- tb-ip- sb-cp-ite-an¬- H-cm-gv-N- Xm-a-kn-°p-tºmƒ--- tbml-∂ms≥-d- kphn-ti-jØ
- n¬ (- 7:-10 apX¬)tb-ip- Zo¿-L\
- mƒ- (G-It- Z-iw- B-dp-amk°m-ew-)- sb-cp-i-te-an-epw- b-lq-Zy-bn-epwXm-a-kn-°p-∂-Xm-bn- Im-Wp-∂p7:-53,- 8:-1˛11 h-N-\-߃- h-Øn-°m≥ko-\m-bv,- hm-jnw-Kv-S¨,- A-e-Iv-km-≠-dn
b≥,- F-{^-bnw,- B-Zn-bm-b- ]p-cm-X\
- - {Ko°vI-sø-gp-Øv- {]-Xn-I-fn-epw- 70¬- ]-cw- "tIgv
ko-hvk
- v'- F-∂d
- n-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂- I-sø-gp-Øv- {]
Xn-I-fn-epw- Im-Wp-∂n-√.- ]-g-b- kpdn-bm\nX¿-P-a-I-fn-epw- s]-jn-‰m-bn-epw- At\-Iem-‰n≥-hn-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn-epw- ImWp-∂n-√.Jp-¿B
- ≥- ]-cn-Nb
- s
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂- C≥-Poem-Wv- ta¬- kq-Nn-∏n-®- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-sf∂v- an-j-W-dn-am¿- A-h-cp-sS- Ir-Xn-I-fn-epw{]-kw-K-ß-n-epw- ]-d-bm-dp-≠v.- ]-t£,-- AXs√∂X-m-Wv- h-kv-Xp-X-sb-∂v- CXp- h-scbp-≈- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-Øn¬- \n-∂v- \-ap-°v-

[ym-,- 4),- t_-X-kv-Ym-\n-se- tc-m-K-im-¥n(5:-1˛18),- Iq-Sm-c-Øn-cp-∂m-fp-am-bn- _-\v-[s]-´- Im-cy-߃- (7:-1˛13),- hy`n-Nm-c- I¿-ahp-am-bn- ]-nS- n-°s
- ∏-´- hy-`n- N
- m-cn-Wn- (8:-1˛11),A-{_-lm-an-\v- ap-ºv- Rm-\p-≠v- (8:-49˛59),A-\v[
- s
- \- kp-Js
- ∏-Sp-Øn-bX
- v- (9:-1˛34),- emk-dn-s\- D-bn¿-]-n-®-Xv- (11:-17˛44),- in-jy-∑mcp-sS- ]m-Zw- I-gp-I¬- (13:-1˛17),- h-cm-\n-cn°p-∂- Im-cy-kv-Y-s\-∏-‰n-bp-≈- ]-cm-a¿-i߃- (A-[ym-bw- 14,-16),- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d]m¿-izw- ]n-f¿-Øn-b-Xv- (19:-31˛37),- tXm-akv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

a-\- n-em°mw.Jp¿B≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- F-{X- k-Xy-am
Wv!- ""F-∂m¬- kz-¥w- ssI-Iƒ-sIm-≠v{K-Ÿw- F-gp-Xn-bp-≠m-°p-I-bpw- F-∂n-´vA-Xv- A-√m-lp-hn-¶¬- \n-∂v- e-`n-®X
- m-sW
∂v- ]-d-bp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂-h¿-°m-Ip-∂p\miw-.- A-Xp- ap-tJ-\- Ip-d-™- t\´-߃I-c-ÿ-am-°m≥- th-≠n-bm-Ip-∂p- (A-hcnXv- sN-øp-∂X
- )v- .-- A-hc
- p-sS- ssI-Iƒ- FgpXn-b- h-Ib
- n-epw- A-h¿- k-ºm-Zn-°p-∂- hIbn-epw- A-h¿-°v- \m-iw''- (2:-79).--

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

28

`-Kh
-v Z- K
-v o-X- H-cp- ]-T\
- wkv-t\-l-Pm≥]-Xn-s\-´v- ]¿-hß
- f
- p-≈- a-lm-`m-cX
- Ø
- n-se- Bdma-sØ- ]¿-h-amb- `o-ja
v- ]
- ¿-hØ
- n-se- C-cp-]Ø
- ©
- vap-X¬- \m¬-]-Øn-c-≠p-h-sc- A[-ym-b-ß-fm-Wv- `
Kvh
- Z- K
-v o-X.- C-X-v H-cp- kz-X{- ¥-{K-\Y
-v a
- s
- √-¶n-epw- G‰hp-a[
- n-Iw- D-≤c
- n-°s
- ∏-Sp-Ib
- pw- h-ym-Jym-\n-°s
- ∏SpI-bpw- sN-øp-∂- ssl-µ-h- {K\v-Y-sa-∂- \n-eb
- v-°vC-Xn-\-v {]-kI
- X
-v n-bp-≠.v - lnµp- ]p-\c
- p-PP
-v o-h\
- h
- mZnIfpw- \-thm-∞m-\-\m-b-I-∑m-cpw- G-Io-I-c-W-kn
≤m-¥°
- m-cp-sa√mw- Hcp-t]m-se- A-he
- w-_n-°p-∂{K-\vY
- a
- m-Wv- Ko-X.- B-cm-[\
- m-kvY
- e
- ß
- f
- pw- co-XnIfpw- cq-]-ß-fpw- aq¿-Øn-I-fpw- hy-Xy-kv-X-am-b,- kn
≤m-¥-ß-fpw- X-Ø-z-ß-fpw- hncp-≤-am-b- hnhn-[lnµp-{Kq-∏p-Is
- f- H∂n-∏n-°m-\p-≈- B-bp-[a
- m-bpwC-∂v- {]-[m-\-am-bpw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏Sp-∂-Xv- `-Kvh-Zv-KoX-bm-Wv.Ko-X- ]-ec
- p-sS-bpw- ]p-Ig- Ø
v- e
- p-Iƒ-°v- hn-t[bam-bn-´p-≠v.- kzm-X{- ¥y-ka
- c
- Ø
- n-\v- A-\p-Iq-ea
- m-bnKo-X-sb hym-Jym-\n-°m-≥- A-°m-e-Øv- {i-a-ß-ƒ\-S-∂n-cp-∂p.- sh-≈-°m¿-s°-Xn-cm-bn- _wKm-fn¬hn-πh
- - {]kvY
- m-\w- B-cw-`n-®- _-¶nw-N{- µ-Nt- Xm]m[ym-bb
- psS-bpw- _-dn≥-tLm-jv,- Ac-hn-µvtLmjv,D-√m-kI
v- ¿- Z-Øv- Xp-Sß
- nbh¿- Ko-Xb
- n¬-\n-∂v- hN
\-ß-fp-≤-cn-®p-sIm-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-h-s{X1 P-\-ßsfkw-LS- n-∏n-®n-cp-∂X
- v.- kzman- hnthIm-\µ
- s
- ≥-d- in
jy-b-m-b- ]m-iv-Nm-X-y-h-\n-X- kn-kv-‰¿- \n-th-Zn-X]-d-™-Xv- ""C-¥y-bp-sS- cIv-X-Øn-s≥-d- c-Iv-X-hpwamw-k-Øn-s≥-d- amw-k-hp-am-Wv- Ko-X''-2sb-∂mWv.B-Nm-cy- hn-t\m-_-`m-sh- F-gp-Xp-∂-Xn-ßs\bm
Wv.- ""Ko-Xb
- p-ambp-≈- F-s≥-d- kw-_\
- v[
- w- X¿-°m
Xo-X-am-Wv.- amXm-hn-s≥-d- ap-e-∏m-ev- F-s≥-d- icocsØ- F-{X-am-{Xw- ]p-jS-v n-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-t≠m- AXn
e-[n-Iw- KoXm-Zp-Kv-[w- F-s≥-d- lr-Z-b-sØ-bpw_p≤n-sb-bpw- t]m-jn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v''3.- km¿-h{- Xn-Iam
b- k-tµ-i-am-Wv- Ko-X-bp-tS-sX-∂v- tUm.- Fkv.- cm
[m-Ir-jW
-v \
- pw4 Ko-X- i-IX
-v n- bp-sS- D-dh
- n-Sa
- m-sW∂vkzm-an- hnth-Im-\-µ-\pw5 hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂p.`m-cX
- Ø
- n-ep-≠m-b- Z¿-i\
- ß
- f
- p-sS- I¿-Øm-°sf-√mw- A-h-cp-sS- Nn-¥-Iƒ-°-\p-Iq-e-am-bn- Ko-X

B-cm-[\
- m-kY
v- e
- ß
- f- pwco-XnI-fpw- cq-]-ß-fpwaq¿-Øn-If- pw- hy-Xy-kX
v- am-b,- kn≤m-¥ß
- f- pw- X
Ø-zß
- f- pw- hncp-≤a- m-bhnhn-[- lnµp-{Kq-∏p-Isf- H∂n-∏n-°m-\p-≈B-bp-[a- m-b- Cn- ∂v- {]-[m\-am-bpw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°s∏Sp-∂-Xv- `-Kv-h-Zv-KoXbm-Wv.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

sb- hym-Jym-\n®n-´p-≠v.- AssZz-Xm-Nm-cy- \mb- i¶cm-Nm-cy¿- Ko-X-sb- hym-Jym-\n-®-Xv- Pv-Rm-\-am¿-KØn-eq-sS- B-Xa
v- k
- m-£mXv-I-mc
- w- A-Yh
- m- tam£wt\-Smw- F∂- cq-]Ø
- n-em-Wv.- Ko-XbpsS- i¶-ch
- ymJym-\-am-Wv- C-∂v- D-]-e-_v-[-am-b-h-bn¬- G-‰-hpw]-g-bXv.- hnin-jv-Sm-ssZ-z-Xm-Nm-cy-\m-b- cmam-\p-P\pw- ssZz-Xm-Nm-cy-\m-b- am-[z-\pw- Ko-X-sb- hym
Jym-\n-®X
- -v `IvX
- n-am¿-KØ
- n-eq-sS- tam-£w- t\-Smsa∂- Bi-bt- Øm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bm-W.v - c-ho-{µ-\m-YS- mtKm¿,A-ch
- n-µ≥,- hn-th-Im-\µ
- ≥- F-∂n-h¿- Ko-Xs
- b- hym
Jym-\n-°p-∂-Xv- I¿- a - am¿-K -Øn-\v- {]m-[m-\ywsImSp-Øp-sIm-≠m-Wv.- Km-\[
v- n-Pn,- Xne-I≥- F∂nh¿- kzm-X-{¥y-k-a-c-Øn-\-\p-Iq-e-am-bn- Ko-X-sbhym-Jym-\n-®-t∏mƒ- {_n-´o-jp-Im¿- km{am-Py-XzØn\v- A-\p-Iq-e-am-b- {]-Nc-W-Øn\pw- h¿-K-o-bhm-Zn-Iƒ- apkv-en-Iƒ-s°-Xn-cmb- Iem-]-߃-°pth-≠n-bp-w- Ko-X-sb- hym-Jym-\n-®p6.]-Xn-s\-´v- A[-ym-bß
- f
- n- e
- m-bn- B-sI- F-gp∂qdv- t«m-I-ßfm-Wv- Ko-X-bn-ep-≈-Xv.- Cu- A[-ym-b
ß-sf- I¿-a-Im-WvU
- w,- D-]m-k\m-Im-WvU
- w,- PvRm\-Im-Wv-Uw- F-∂n-ß-s\- aq-∂m-bn- Xn-cn®n-cn-°p∂p.- Hm-tcm- Im-WU
v- ß
- f
- n-epw- B-dp-ho-Xw- A[-ymb-ß-sf-bm-Wv- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- B-ZyA-[-ym-b-am-b- A¿-Pp-\-hn-jm-Z-tbm-K-Øn¬- \m¬]-Øn-tb-gv- t«m-Iß
- f
- m-Wp-≈X
- v.- ""kRvP
- bm...-[¿a-t£-{X-am-b- Ip-cp-t£-{XØn¬- bp-≤w- sN-øm\m-bn- F-Øn-t®¿-∂- F-s≥d- B-fp-I-fpw- ]m-WvUp-]p-{Xm-Zn-I-fpw- F-¥v- sN-bvXp''-7 sh-∂- [r-X-cmjv-{S-tcm-Sp-≈- tNm-Zy-tØm-sS- Bcw-`n-°p∂- CuA[-ym-b-Øn¬- A-¿-Pp-\≥,- {io-Ir-jv-W-t\m-Svk¶Sw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xm-Wv- {]-[m-\-am-bpw- D≈-Xv.- c≠m-as
- Ø- A[-ym-ba
- m-b- kmw-Jy-tbm-KØ
- n¬- Fgp-]Ø
- n-c≠
- -v t«m-Iß
- f
- m-Wp-≈X
- .v - BXva
- m-hn-s≥-d\n-Xy-X-bpw- A-\-iz-c-X-bpw- hy-Iv-X-am-°n-s°m-Sp°p-Ib
- m-W-v Cu- A-[y- m-bØ
- n-eq-sS- IrjvW
- ≥
- - sNøp-∂X
- .v - \m¬-]Ø
- n-aq-∂-v t«m-Iß
- f
- p-≈- I¿-at- bmK-sa-∂- aq-∂mw- A[-ym-b-Øn¬- I¿-a-Øn-s≥-d- al-Ø-z-hpw- ta-∑-bpw- hn-h-cn-®p-sIm≠v- A-Xn-eq-sS-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿kz¿-K-{]m-]v-Xn- km-[n-°psa-∂v- kvYm-]n-°p-I-bmWv.- \m-emw- A[-ym-b-am-b- Pv-Rm\-I¿-a-- k-\-ym-ktbm-K-Øn-se- \m-¬-]-Øn-c-≠v- kqIv-X-ß-fn-eq-sSPvR
- m-\Ø
- n-s≥-d- a-lØ
- z- h
- pw- Ah-Xm-tcm-t±-iy--hpwshfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.- I¿-ak
- \
- y- m-ktbm-Ks
- a-∂- A[-ymb-Øn-epw- I¿a-m\
- pjvT
- m-\Ø
- n-s≥-d- a-lØ
- z- a
- m-Wv- hnh-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- Cu- A©mw- A[-ym-b-Øn¬- C-cp]-Øn-sbm≥-]-Xv- kqIv-X-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.- I¿-a-ImWv-U-Øn-se- A-h-km\-sØ- A-[-ym-b-am-b- [ym\-tbm-KØ
- n-se- \m¬-]Ø
- n-tb-gv- t«mI-ßf
- n-eq-sS[ym-\-Øn-s≥-d- ASn-kvYm-\-am¿-K-ßfpw- ap-d-I-fpam-Wv- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p∂-Xv.ap-∏-Xv- t«m-I-ß-fp-≈- Pv-Rm-\-hn-Pv-Rm-\-tbmK-sa-∂- G-gmw- A[-ym-b-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn- D-]m-k-\mIm-Wv-U-am-cw-`n-°p-∂p.- ssZ-hØn-s≥-d- G-IXz
sØ-bpw- Kp-W-ß-sf-bpw,- ]-c,- A-]-c- Xp-S-ßn-b{]Ir-Xn-Is
- f-bpw- Ipdn®- hn-hc
- W
- a
- m-Wn-Xn¬.- Ccp]-Øn-sb-´v- t«m-I-ß-fp-≈- A-£-c-{_-lv-a- tbmK
sa-∂- F-´mw- A-[-ym-b-Øn¬- ssZh-kv-a-c-W-sbbpw- ap-Iv-Xn-sb-bpw- I¿-a-sØ-bpw- I-p-dn-®m-Wv- {]
Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂-Xv.- H≥]-Xmw- A-[-ym-b-am-b- cmP-Kply-tbm-KØ
- n-se- ap-∏Ø
- n-\m-ev- t«m-Iß
- f
- n¬- Cu
iz-c`- I
- X
-v n-sb-bpw- PvR
- m-\h
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- s
- f-bpw-Ipdn®- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fmWp-≈-Xv.- hn`q-Xn-tbm-K-sa-∂]Ømw- A-[-ym-b-Øn-se- \m¬-]-Øn-c-≠v- t«mIß-fn-epw- Cuiz-c{]-Xo-Iß
- f
- m-b- h-kX
v- p-°s
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- W
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- m-Wp-≈X
- .v - A≥]-Øn- A-©-v t«mIß-fp-≈- hn-iz-cq-]-Z¿-i-\-tbm-K-sa-∂- ]-Xn-s\m
∂mw- A[-ymb-Øn¬- A¿-P-p-\-t\m-Sv- I¿-a-w- sN
øm-\p-]-tZ-in®p-sIm-≠v- {ioIr-jvW≥- X-s≥-d- hn
iz-cq-]w- Im-Wn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂- cw-K-am-Wp-≈-Xv.]-{¥≠m-as
- Ø- `IvX
- n-tbm-Ks
- a-∂- A-[-ym-bt- Øm
sS- D-]m-k-\m-Im-Wv-Uw- k-am]n-°p-∂p.- C-cp-]-Xvt«m-Iß
- ƒ- am{X-ap-≈- {]-kvX
- p- X
- - A-[-ym-bØ
- n¬Cuiz-tcm-]m-k-\-sb-°p-dn-®- hnh-c-W-hpw- `-Iv-Xn{]m-]v-X-am-°p-∂-Xn-\p-≈- am¿K-ß-sf-°p-dn-®- h-n
iZo-I-c-W-ß-fp-am-Wv- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂-Xv.{]-Ir-Xn- ]p-cp-j- hn-th-I-tbm-K-sa-∂- ]-Xn-aq
∂mw- A-[-ym-bt- ØmSp-Iq-Sn- PvR
- m-\I
- m-WvU
- w- - B
cw-`n-°p-∂p-.- B-Xva
- m-hpw- i-co-chpw- X-Ωn-ep≈- hyXym-kw,- P-U-ssN-X-\y-ß-sf- hn-th-Nn-®dnbp∂hn-[-w- F-∂n-h- hn-hcn-°p-∂- Cu- A-[-ym-bØn¬ap-∏-Øn-\m-ev- t«m-I-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.- kXz,- c-P-kv,X-tam- Kp-Wß
- f
- p-≈˛- {Xn-KpWm-Xa
v- I
- a
- m-b- {]-IrXnbp-sS- hn-hc
- W-hpw- D-Øa
- `- I
- X
v- s
- ≥-d- e-£W
- ß
- fpam-Wv- C-cp-]-Øn-tb-gv- t«m-I-ß-fp-≈- Kp-W-{X-bhn-`m-K-tbm-K-sa-∂- ]-Xn-\m-emw- A≤ym-b-Øn-se{]-Xn-]m-Zyw.- ]-Xn-\©
- mw- A-[-ym-ba
- m-b- ]p-cptjmØ-a-tbm-K-Øn¬- C-cp-]-Xv- t«m-I-ß-fmWp-≈-Xv.Cu-iz-ck
- z-`m-hh
- pw- k¿-hP
- R
v- X
- b
- pw- hy-IX
v- a
- m-°p
∂- Cu- A[-ym-bØ
- n¬- {]]-©w,- ssZ-hw,- Po-h≥F-∂n-h- X-Ωn-ep-≈- _\v[sØbpw -Ip-dn-®v- hn-hcn-®n-´p-≠v.- C-cp-]-Ø-n-\m-ev- t«m-I-ß-fp-≈- tZ-hm-

29

a-lm-`m-cX
- Ø
- n-\I
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- mWv- Ko-Xs- b- C-∂v- \ap°v- Im-Wm≥- I-gnbp-∂Xv.- F-∂m-¬- `-Kh
v- Z- K
v- o-XH-cp- k-z-X-{¥- Ir-Xn-bmsW-∂v- A`n-{]m-b-s∏Sp∂- ]-WU
v- n-X∑
- m-cp-ap≠v.- C-cp-hi
- Ø
- pw- bp-≤Øn\v- Xøm-sd-Sp-°p∂ssk-\y-Øn-\v- \-Sp-hn¬\n-∂v- CØ-cw- D]tZi
߃- \¬-Ip-I- Akm
[y-am-sW-∂v- Nq-≠n-°mWn-°s- ∏-Sp-∂p.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

kp-c-k-º-Zzn-`m-K-tbm-K-sa-∂- ]-Xn-\m-dmw- A[-ymb-Øn¬- ssZ-h-sa-∂pw- Bkp-c-sa-∂p-ap-≈- c-≠pX-cw- kr-jv-Sn-I-sf-°p-dn-®pw- Im-a-t{Im-[-- tem`m-ZnIƒ- \-c-I-Øn-te-°p-≈- h-gn-bm-sW-∂- h-kvXp
X-sb-°p-dn-®p-ap-≈- hnh-cW
- ß
- f-- m-Wp-≈X
- v.- k-Xzw,cm-P-kw,- Xma-kw- F-∂o- aq-∂v- Kp-W-ß-sf-°p
dn®pw- b-Pv-Rw,- Zm\w,- X-]- v- F∂n-h-sb-∏-‰n-bpwhn-h-cn-°p-∂- ]-Xnt\gmw- A[-ym-b-am-b- {i-≤m
t{Xb- hn-`m-K-tbm-K-Øn¬- C-cp-]-Øn-sb-´v- t«mI-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv.- Fgp-]-Øn-sb-´v- t«m-I-ß-fp-≈tam-£k
- \
- ym-ktbm-KamWv- Ko-Xb
- n-se- A-hk
- m\sØ- A[-ym-b-w.- kz-¥-am-bn- I¿-a-߃- A-\pjv
Tn-°p-I-bm-Wv- A-\-y-[¿-a-sØ- B-{i-bn-°p-∂-Xnepw- D-Øa-sa∂- Bi-ba
- m-Wv- Cu- A[-ym-bØ
- n¬sX-fn-™v- Im-Wp-∂-Xv.a-lm-`m-cX
- Ø
- n-\I
- Ø
- m-Wv- Ko-Xs
- b- C-∂v- \ap°v- Im-Wm≥- I-gnbp-∂-Xv.- F-∂m-¬- `-Kv-h-Zv-Ko-XH-cp- k-z-X-{¥- Ir-Xn-bm-sW-∂v- A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp∂]-W-vUn-X-∑m-cp-ap-≠v.- C-cp-h-i-Øpw- bp-≤-Øn\vXøm-sd-Sp-°p∂- ssk-\y-Øn-\v- \-Sp-hn¬-\n-∂v- C
Ø-cw- D-]tZi߃- \¬-Ip-I- A-km[y-am-sW-∂vNq-≠n-°m-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- {]K¬`- ]Wv-Un-X-∑m
cm-b- Sm¬-t_m-bn-kv- ho-e-¿,- tX-ew-Kv- F-∂n-h¿
- ∂
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- h
- pwCu- A-`n-{]m-b°
- m- c
- m-W-8v -.F
Ko-X-bpw- H-scm‰- {K-\v-Y-Im-c-\m¬- c-Nn-°-s∏-´-Xm
sW-∂m-Wv-9 _m-eK
- w-Km-[c
- - Xn-eI
- ≥- kvYm-]n-°p
∂-Xv.- H-scm-‰- {K-\v-Y-Im-c-\m¬- c-Nn°-s∏-´-Xm-WvKo-X-sb-∂v- h-m-Zn-°p-∂- tUm.- cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥-Xs∂- ]-e- Im-e-ß-fn-em-bn- c-Nn-°-s∏-´- I-r-Xn-IƒC-Xn¬- Dƒ-s°m-≈n-®n-´p-s≠∂v- ]-db
- p-∂p-≠v10.- - {]
K¬-`]
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v- n-X\
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- b
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am-l-cn-®-Xm-Wv- `-K-vh-Zv-Ko-X11.- Ko-X-bp-sS- aq-e-{K-\vY-Øn¬- {]-Ya- m-[y- m-bw- apX¬- ]-Xn-s\m-∂mw- A[-ymbw- h-sc-bpw- ]-Xn-aq-∂mw- A-[-ym-b-Øn-se- 63 apX¬- 78h-sc- t«mI-ß-fpw- am-{X-sa- D-≠m-bncp-∂p≈q-sh-∂pw- _m-°n- ]n-∂o-Sv- Iq-´n-t®¿-Ø-Xm
sW∂p-ap-≈- A-`n-{]m-b-°m-cp-ap≠v12.Ko-Xb
- p-sS- c-N\
- m- I
- m-es
- Ø-°p-dn-®pw- A-`n-{]m
b-hy-Xym-kßfp-≠.v - `-Kh
v Z- K
-v o-X- c-Nn-°s
- ∏-´X
- -v {Inkv-Xp-hn-\v- ap-ºv- A-©mw- \q‰m-≠nem-sW-∂m-WvtUm.- cm-[m-Ir-jv-W-s≥-d13 ]-£w.-- _m-e-Kw-Km-[c-Xne-I-s≥-d14 A`n-{]m-b-hpw- C-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv.B¿. Pn.- `-WvUm¿-I-¿- ]d-bp-∂-Xv Ko-X-°v- {InkvX
- p-hn-\-v \m-e-v \q-‰m-≠-v ap-sº-¶n-epw- ]-g°
- aps≠∂m-W15.- _n.-kn.- aq-∂mw- \q-‰m-≠n-\v- ap-sº-¶n-epwKoX- c-Nn-°-s∏´n´p-s≠-∂m-Wv- sI. Sn.- sX-ew-Kns≥-d16 hn-izm-kw.- Ko-Xb
- p-sS- aq-ew- _n.kn.- c-≠mw\q-‰m≠n¬- \n¿-a-n-X-am-bn-´p-s≠-¶nepw- A-Xv- C-∂sØ- cq]-Øn-em-b-Xv- F.-Un.- c-≠mw- \q-‰m-t≠msS-bm-sW-∂m-Wv- Km¿-s_bp-sS-17 A-`n-{]m-bw.- Ph-l¿-em¬- s\-lvdphn18s≥d- A-`n-{]m-bw- Ko-Xm
c-N\
- - \-S∂
- Xv- _p-≤a
- X
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- Bhn¿-`m-hØ
- n-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\v- apºm-sW-∂mWv.- F∂m¬- _p-≤-a-Xm-i-b-ßsf-°pdn®- hnh-c-ß-fn-√m-sX- Ko-X-bn-se- c-≠mwA[-ym-bw- 55 ap-X¬- 72 hsc-bp-≈- t«m-I-ß-fpwA©mw- A-[-ym-bØn-se- 25˛mw- t«m-Ihpw- F-gp
Xm≥- Ign-bn-s√-∂m-Wv- Un. Un.- sIm-kmw-_n-19
hmZn-°p∂Xv.- KoX-bn-se- B-i-b-߃- ]-g-bXmsW¶n-epw- `mj- Db¿-∂- ¢m-kn-°¬- kw-kvIr-X-am-sW∂-Xn-\m¬- A-Xv- {In-kv-Xp-hn-\v- aq∂v\q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°p-ti-jw- F-gp-X-s∏-´-Xm-sW∂v- hniz-kn-°p-∂-XmWv- \ymb-sa-∂pw- A-t±-lw- Nq-≠n°m-´p-∂p-20.k-a-Im-eo-\-ß-fm-b- hy-Xy-kv-X- Z¿-i-\-ß-sfk-a\
- z-bn-∏n°m-\p≈- {i-aa
- m-Wv- Ko-Xb
- n¬- Im-Wp
∂-Xv.- Z-¿i
- \
- ß
- f
- p-sS-sbm-∂pw- t]-sc-Sp-Øv- ]-db
- m
sX- C-sX-√mw- X-∂n¬- \n-∂p-≈-Xm-sW-∂v- hmZn
°p-I-bm-Wv- Ir-jvW≥- sN-ø-∂-Xv.- hy-Xy-kv-X-ß
fpw- hn-cp-≤-ß-fp-am-b- Z¿-i-\-߃- H-scm‰- ssZ-h
Øn-¶¬-\n-∂-v h-cm-\p-≈- km[y-Xb
- n-s√-∂-v Un.Un.sIm-kmw-_n-21 Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p-≠v.- F-√m- am¿
K-ßf
- pw- X-∂n-te-°m-sW-∂v- ]-db
- p∂- Ir-jv-W≥X-s∂- sshZn-I-bPv-R-ß-sf-bpw- bmK-ß-sf-bpwa-‰p- B-Nm-cß
- s
- f-bp-sa-√mw- hn-a¿-in-°p-∂p-≠v.- hn
cp-≤ß
- f
- m-b- Z¿-i\
- ß
- s
- f- Iq-´n-bn-W°
- m-≥- th-≠nbp≈- {i-a-Øm-em-Wv- Ko-X-bn¬- ssh-cp-[-y-߃I-S∂p-Iq-Sn-bsX∂pw- hmZn-°-s∏Sp-∂p.cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥- F-gp-Xn-:- ""Ko-X-Im-e-Øv- [¿
a-m-Nc-W-sØ-°p-dn-®- hy-Xy-kv-X- A-`n{]mb-߃{]-Nm-c-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- I¿-a-m-\pj-v-Tm\-ß-sf
∏‰n-bp-≈- ssh-Zn-I- kn≤m-¥-߃,- bmYm¿-Y-ysØ- A-t\z-jn-°p∂- D-]-\n-j-Xv- XØ-z-߃,F√m-hn-[- I¿-a-ß-sf-bpw- D-t]-£n-°m-\p-]-tZ-in°p∂- _u-≤-Nn-¥-Iƒ,- B-kv-Xn-I-∑m-cp-sS- Cui-z-cm-cm[-\m- kn≤m-¥w-˛C-ß-s\- hnhn-[- Nn-¥m[m-c-I-sfsb-√mw- tN-¿-Øv- ]-c-kv-]-c- kmw-K-Xy-ap≈- H-cp- ]-≤-Xn-bm-°m≥- {i-an-°p-IbmWv- `Kv-h-ZvKo-X''22.- ]c-kv-]-c- hn-cp-≤-ß-fm-b- Z¿-i-\-߃Iq´nbn W°m≥-th-≠n- {ian-°ptºmƒ- ssh-cp≤y-ap-≠m hp-I- kzm-`m-hn-I-amW-t√m.Ko-X- Nm-Xp¿-h¿-Wy-hy-h-kv-Ybv-°v- F-Xn-c-√.""KpW-߃-°pw- I¿a-߃-°p-a-\p-k-cn-®v- Rm≥X-s∂-bm-Wv- \m-ev- Pm-Xn-Is
- f- krjvS- n-®X
- 'v- '23 F∂vhy-Iv-X-am-bn- {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂- Ir-jv-W≥- amt\m
\nb-a-\w,- C-{µnb-\n-b-a-\w,- {h-Xw,- iu-Nw,- {]XnI-mt- c-Om-`m-hw,- B¿-Ph
- w,- PvR
- m- \
- w,- hn-PvRm\w,B-kv-Xn-Iyw F-∂n-h- {_-lv-aW-I¿-a-ß-fpw- ]cm{I-aw,- tX-P- v,- ss[-cyw,- km-a¿-Y-yw,- bp-≤Øn¬]n-≥-a-S-ßm-Xn-cn-°p-I,- k¬-]m-{X-Zm-\w,- {]-`p-iIv
Xn- F-∂nh- £-{Xn-b-I¿-a-ß-fpw- Ir-jn,- ]-ip-]cn]m-e-\w,- hm-Wn-Pyw- Xp-Sßn-b-h- ssh-iy-I¿-a-ßfpw- ]-cn-Nm-c-I-hr-Øn- iq{Z-I¿-a-hp-am-sW-∂pw-24
kwi-bte-i-a-t\y- hn-h-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.- F-∂m¬""kv{XoI-tfm- ssh-iy-∑m-tcm -iq-{Z-tcm- \o-N-Ip-eØn¬- P\n-®h
- t- cm- B-cm-bn-cp∂m-epw- F-s∂- th-

30

F-√m- am¿K-ßf- pw- X-∂nte-°m-sW-∂v- ]-db
- p∂Ir-jW
v- ≥-Xs- ∂- sshZnI-bPvR
- ß
- s- f-bpw- bm
K-ßs- f-bpw- a-‰p- B-Nmc-ßs- f-bp-sa-√mw- hn-a¿in-°p-∂p-≠v.- hncp-≤ß-fm-b- Z¿-i-\-ß-sfIq-´n-bnW-°m-≥- th-≠nbp≈- {i-aØ
- m-em-Wv- KoX-bn¬- ssh-cp-[-yß
- ƒI-S∂p-Iq-Sn-bsX∂pwhmZap-≠v.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

≠-t]m-se- tk-hn-°p-∂]
- £
- w- D-Øa
- K
- X
- n-sb- {]m]n-°p∂-XmWv''25 F-∂pw- Ir-jW
v- ≥- ]-db
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- n-°p-∂n√-sb-∂X
- n- \
- v- sX-fn-hm-bn- D≤-cn°-s∏-S-m-dp-≠v.- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬- Cu- hN-\w,kv{XoIfpw- ssh-iy∑m-cpw- iq-{Z-cpw- \o-NI
- p-eØ
- n- ¬P-\n-®-hcpw- {_m-lv-a-W-,- £-{Xn-bm-Zn-I-sf- A-t]
£n-®v- A-[a
- ≥-am-cp-amsW-∂p-Xs
- ∂-bm-Wv- hy-IvXam-°p-∂-Xv.A-im- k
- v{- Xo-ba
- m-b- H-´\
- h
- [
- n- ]-cm-a¿-iß
- f
- pwKo-X- Dƒs°m-≈p∂p-≠v.- A-Xv- Ko-Xm-Im-c-s≥-dA-dn-hn√m-bv-a-b-√-;- A-°m-e-Øp-≈- APv-Rm-\amWv- hy-Iv-X-am-°p-∂-Xv.- `-Kv-h-Zv-Ko-X- ln-µp-a-XØns≥d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\m-[m-c-am-bm-Wv- C-∂v- A-hXcn-∏n-°p-∂-sX-¶n-epw- hyIv-X-hpw- kv-J-en-X-c-ln-Xhp-am-b- H-cp- {]-]-©-ho-£-W-tam- Po-hn-X-Z¿-i-\tam- kw-`m-h\
- - sNøp-∂X
- n¬- Cu- {K-\vY
- h
- pw- ]cmP-b-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wv- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- hy-Xy-kv-X- Z¿-i-\
ß-sf- Iq-´n-bn-W°
- m-\p≈- hy¿Y-am-b- {i-aØ
- n\nS-°v- hyIv-X-am-b- ssZ-h-k-¶¬-]w-t]m-epw- A-hXcn-∏n-°m≥- Ko-X-°v- I-gn-bp-∂n-√.- ln-µp-cm-jv-{S
Øns≥d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- t{km-X-s -∂v- tLm-jn-°
s∏-Sp-∂- KoXbn¬- cm-jv-{So-b -˛ km-aq-ln-I-- ˛ IpSpw_- \n-ba
- ß
- s
- f-°p-dn-®- hn-iZ- a
- m-b- hnh-cW
- ß
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- v- I-gn-bp-∂n-s√∂¿-Yw- .d-^-d≥-kv1. Dilip Bose- Marxism and the Bhagvath Geetha. Page. 55
2. Quoted by Prmnath Bazaz: The Role of Bhagavad Gita in
Indian History, Page 290.
3. B-Nm-cy-hn-t\m-_-`m-sh-: Ko-Xm-{]-h-N-\w,- t]-Pv- 1.4. Dr. S. Radha Krishnan: Indian Philosophy Vol II, Page 479.
5 Swami Vivekananda: Thoughts on Gita, Page 73.
6. Dilip Bose: Marxism and the Bhagvath Geetha, Page 14.
7.- [¿-Ω-t£-{X- Ip-cp-t£t-{X- k-a-th-Xm-bp-bp-Xv-khx- am-a-Imx-]m-Wv-U-hm-iv-ssN-h- In-a- Ip¿-h-Xk-Rv-P-b-˛Ko-X- 1:-1.8. Quoted by Dr. Radha Krishnan: Indian Philosophy Vol 1,
Page 523.
9. Bal Gangadar Tilak: Bhagvat Geeta Rahasyam Page 785.
10.Indian Philosophy Vol 1 Page 524.
11. G.S. Khair: The Quest for Original Gita, Page 106.
12.PremNath Bazaz. The Role of Bhagavad Gita in
Indian History, Page 66.
13.Indian Philosophy, Vol 1, Page 524.
14 Gita Rahasyam, Page 270.
15.R.G. Bhandarkar: The Original Gita, Page 14.
16.Quoted by K.N. Upadhyaya: Early Budhism and
Bhagavad Gita, Page 1.
17.Ibid
18.The Discovery of India, Page 90
19.D.D. Kosambi: Myth and Reality, Page 16.
20.Ibid.
21.D.D. Kosambi: The Culture and Civilization of
Ancient India, Page 207.
22.Dr. Radha Krishnan: Indian Philosophy, Page 526,
23.Nm-Xp¿-h¿-Wyw- a-bm- kr-jv-Sw- Kp-W-I¿-Ωhn-`m-K-ix-˛`-Kv-h-Zv-Ko-X,- 4:-13.24.`-Kv-h-Xvo-X- 18:-41˛45
25.Ibid 9:32

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

31

F-¥p-sIm-≠vC-kv-emw?A-`n-ap-Jw-

ASp-Ø- Im-e-Øm-bn- C-kv-emw- kzo-I-cn-®-

tUm.- sI.-hn.- ao-\,- tIm-gn-t°m-S- vA-_v-Zp¬- l-Iow,- hn-f-bq¿-jm-en- F.- l-Iow,- -tIm-S-t©-cnA-_v-Zp-¿-d-lv-am≥,- \n-e-ºq¿A-_-vZp- -a-Zv,- I-Æq¿F-∂n-h-cp-am-bn- \-S-Øn-b- A-`n-ap-Jw.(X-b-m-dm-°n-b-Xv-: D-kv-am≥- ]m-e-°m-gn)-

A-t\z-j-W-߃-s°-m-Sp-hn¬tUm.- ao-\-,- tIm-gn-t°m-Sv-

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv- \-Kc
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- Xn-c°
- n¬-\n-∂pw- A¬-]w- AIse-bp-≈- Xn-cp-hÆ
- q-cn-se- ho-Sm-b- "A-RvP
- e
- n'-bn¬- H-cp- tUmIvS-dp-sS- Pm-S-I-tfm- Rm-s\-∂- `m-h-tam- C-√m-sX- A-S-ßmØA-t\z-j-W-Xz-c-bp-≈- H-cp- hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n-bp-sS- B-th-i-hpwAdn™-Im-cy-߃- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- ]-I-¿-∂p-sIm-Sp-°¬- \n¿_\v-[-am-sW-∂v- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂- {]-t_m-[-I-bp-sS- a-\- p-am-bn,`¿-Øm-hm-b- tUm.- d-^o-Jn-s≥-d- t{]m-Xv-k-m-l-\-tØm-sSkv-s]-jy¬-

tUmIvS- ¿- ao-\- "kvt- \-lk
- w-hm-Z'-Øn-\p-th-≠n- a-\ 
- v- Xp-d∂p."H-cp- bm-Ym-kY
v- n-Xn-I- {_m-la
v- W
- - Ip-Spw-_Ø
- n-em-Wv- Rm≥P-\n-®-Xv.- A-Nv-O-s≥-d- c-≠v- X-e-ap-d- ap-ºp-≈-h¿- ]m-e-°m-´m
bn-cp-∂p.- H-cp- tPy-jv-T-Øn-b-S-°w- R-߃- c-≠v- a-°-fm-Wp≈-Xv.- A-º-e-Øn¬-t]m-°pw- a-‰p- B-Nm-cm-\p-jv-Tm-\-ß-fpwsIm-≠p-\-S-°p-∂- Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬- Rm-\pw- B- kw-kv-Im-cØn¬- h-f¿-∂p-h-∂p'-.]-Xn-∏v-

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32

A-`n-ap-JwC-kv-em-an-te-°v- Xm-¶ƒ- I-S-∂p-h-cm-\p-≠m-b- km-l-Ncywhn-i-Zo-I-cn-°m-tam?-kv-Iqƒ- ]-T-\-Im-e-Øv- C-X-c- a-X-ß-sf-°-p-dn-®v- F-\n-°vbmsXm-cp- A-dn-hp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- F≥-{S≥-kv- In-´n- sa-Un°¬- tIm-tf-Pn¬- h-∂-Xn-\p-ti-j-am-Wv- C-¥y-bn¬-- {]-[m-\s∏-´- Nn-e- a-X-߃- D-s≠-∂pw- A-h-bv-°v- hy-Xy-kv-X- hn-izmk˛- B-Nm-cm-\p-jv-Tm-\-߃- D-s≠-∂pw- Rm≥- Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-∂Xv.- F-¥m-Wv- Po-hn-X-e-£yw,- hy-Xy-kv-X- a-X-ß-fn¬- A-Xns\-°-p-dn-®v- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p- F-∂-dn-bm-\p-≈- Xm¬-]-cyw- aq∂mw-h¿-j- Fw.-_n.-_n.-F-kn-\v- ]-Tn-°p-tºm-gm-Wv- F-∂n¬- hf¿-∂-Xv.- B-Zyw- `K-h-Zv-Ko-X- ]-Tn-°m≥- Xo-cp-am-\n-®p-.- A-Xn\p-th-≠n- Ko-Xm-¢mkn¬- t]m-Im≥- Xp-S-ßn.- Ip-sd- tNm-Zy߃-°v- D-Ø-cw- tX-Sn-bm-Wv- ]-T-\w- Xp-S-ßn-b-Xv.- F-∂m¬Iq-Sp-X¬- k-¶o¿-Wa
- m-b- tNm-Zy-ßf
- √
- m-sX- D-Øc
- ß
- ƒ- I-s≠Øm≥- I-gn-™n√.- A-hk
- m-\- h¿-jØ
- n-se-Øn-bt- ∏mƒ- "I¨-^yq-j≥'- AXn-s≥-d- ]m-c-ay-X-bn-se-Øn.- ap-kv-enw- kp-lr-Øp°ƒ- ]-d-™p-X-cm-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂- Im-cy-߃- A-h-K-Wn-®n-cp∂- Rm≥- A-h-sc-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p- F-∂v- tI-´p-Xp-S-ßn.- C-kv-emwhn-`m-h-\w- sNøp∂- H-cp-]m-Sv- Im-cy-߃- F-\n-°v- B-I¿-j-Iam-bn-tØ-m-∂n.- A-tXm-sS- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-p-dn-®v- Iq-Sp-X¬- ]Tn-®p-Xp-S-ßn.- a-‰p- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{X-ß-fp-am-bn-- C-kv-em-an-s\- X´n-®p-t\m-°n- sN-dn-sbmcp- ]-T-\w- \-S-Øn.- C-ß-s\-bp-≈- At\z-j-W-߃-°pw- ]-T\-߃-°pw- H-Sp-hn¬- Rm≥- C-k-e
v- mwB-t«-jn-°p-Ib
- m-bn-cp∂p.- A-Xn-s≥-d- am-kva
- c
- n-I- h-eb
- Ø
- n¬Rm≥- A-I-s∏-´n-cp-∂p.- A-Xn-s≥-d- A-`m-h-Øn¬- Po-hn-°m≥I-gn-bn-√- F-∂- Ah-kv-Y-!C-kv-emw- B-t«-jn-®- ti-jw- Xm-¶ƒ- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®- G‰hpw- h-en-b- {]-iv-\w?ssZ-hm-\p-{K-l-Øm¬- {]-Xo-£n-®-Xp-t]m-ep-≈- {]-iv-\-ßsfm-∂pw- D-≠m-bn-√.- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- I-S-∂p-h-cp-∂- ]-e-cpwt\-cn-Sp-∂- ]-co-£-W-߃- t\m-°p-tºmƒ- F-\n-°v- H-∂pwXs∂- D-≠m-bn-´n-√- F-∂-Xm-Wv- k-Xyw.- F-Sp-Øv- ]-d-bm-hp-∂Hcp- Im-cyw- F-¥m-sW-∂p-sh-®m¬,- F-s≥-d- A-Nv-O-\pw- AΩ-bpw- C-t∏m-gpw- h-√m-sX- th-Z-\n-°p-∂p.- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-pdn®v- bm-sXm-∂pw- tIƒ-°m≥- A-h¿- X-bm-dm-Ip-∂n-√.C-kv-em-an-se- G-Xp- Im-cy-am-Wv- Xm-¶-sf- G-‰hp-a-[n-IwBI¿-jn-®-Xv?G-I-ssZ-h- hn-izm-kw-X-s∂.- A-h≥- Cu- {]-]-©-sØ- krjv-Sn-®-Xn-\v- H-cp- e-£y-ap-≠v.- hr-Ym-kr-jv-Sn-®-X-√-.- a-\p-jy-Pohn-X-Øn-\pw- H-cp- e-£y-ap-≠v.- A-sX-s¥-∂v- C-kv-emw- Ir-Xyam-bn- h-c-®p-Im-´p-∂p.- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-sØ- B-k-I-ew- Nq-gv-∂p-\n¬-°p-∂- \n-b-a-\n¿-tZ-i-ß-fpw- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-b- I¿-a-am¿K-ß-fpw- hn-h-cn-°p-∂- a-t‰-sXm-cp- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{X-am-Wv- CutemI-Øp-≈X
- v?- B¿-°pw- G-Xm-ib
- h
- pw- D-Øa
- s
- a-∂v- ]-db
- m≥Ign-bpw.- F-∂m¬- sX-fn-bn-°m≥-- I-gn-™p-sIm-≈-W-sa-∂n-√.Ckv-emw- ssZ-hn-I- a-X-am-Wv;- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- A-Xn-s≥-dBi-bm-Z¿-i-߃- D-Zm-Ø-hpw- A-\yq-\-hpw.ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-sb- C-I-gv-Øn°m-Wn-°m≥- bp-Iv-Xn-hmZn-I-f-S-°-ap-≈- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- i-{Xp-°ƒ- \-S-Øp-∂- I-≈-{]Nm-c-W-ß-sf-°-p-dn-®v- Xm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?-

Jp¿-B≥- ssZ-hn- I
- a
- m-tWm- F-∂- A-Sn-kY
v- m-\- tNm-Zy-Øn\vD-Ø-cw- In-´n-°-gn-™m¬- ]n-s∂- Jp¿-B-\n¬- \-_n-sb- Fßs\-bm-tWm- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-Xv- A-ß-s\-Ø-s∂- \-Ωƒhniz-kn-°p-Ib
- pw- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n- °
- p-Ib
- pw- th-Ww.- D-Øa
- a
- m-b- kz`mh-Øn-s≥-d- D-S-a- F-∂m-Wv- A-t±-l-sØ- Jp¿-B≥- ]-cn-N-bs∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.- kv-Yn-c-s∏-´- l-Zo-Y-p-I-fp-sS- au-en-I-X-sb- AwKoI-cn-°-epw- Jp¿-B≥- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂-h-cp-sS- I-S-a-bm-Wv.C-Xv- c-≠pw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂-h¿- A-\m-h-iy- kw-i-b-߃- Hgn-hm-°-Ww.- \-_n-(A)-bp-sS- _-lp-`m-cy-Xz-am-Wv- F-√m-h-cpwD-∂bn-°p-∂- H-cm-tcm-]-Ww.- A-t±-lw- F-¥n-\m-Wv- H-∂n-e-[nIw- hnhm-lw- I-gn-®-Xv- F-∂-Xv- hn-i-Z-am-bn- ]-Tn-®p-I-gn-™m¬ssZ-hØn-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-am-Wv- \-ap-°-Xn¬- sh-fn-hm-Ip-I.- Hmtcm- `m-cyb-p-sS-bpw- Im-cyw- F-Sp-Øp-t\m-°n-bm¬- F-¥n-\pth-≠n-bmWv- Hm-tcm- hn-hm-l-hpw- \-S-∂-sX-∂v- t_m-[-yam-Ipw.hn-a¿-in°m≥-th-≠n- hn-a¿-in-°p-I-bm-Wv- ]-e-cpw- sN-øp-∂-Xv.bm-sXmcp-hn-[- A-\o-Xn-bpw- Im-Wn-°m-sX- F-√m- `m-cy-am-tcm-bpw- Xpey-\o-Xn- ]p-e¿-Øn-bm-Wv- \-_n-(A)- Po-hn-®-sX-∂-Xpwan-°-`mcy-am-cpw- hn-[-h-I-fpw- ]-e-cpw- hr-≤-I-fp-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh∂-Xpw- hna¿-i-I¿- Im-Wm-sX- t]m-Ip-∂- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv.- Pohn-X-Øn-s≥d- k¿-h-ta-J-e-I-fn-epw- A-t±-lw- am-Xr-Im-tbm-Ky\m-Wv.h-n-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-se- Nn-e- kq-Iv-X-߃- F-Sp-Øp-I-f-bW-sa-∂v- Nn-e- tI-{µ-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- h-cp-∂- ap-d-hn-fnsb-∏-‰nXm¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?Hm-tcm- a-X-°m-cpw- X-߃-°n-jv-S-a-≈- Im-cy-ß-tf- Jp¿B\n¬- h-cm≥- ]m-Sp-≈q- F-∂v- i-Tn-®m¬- A-Xv- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®psImSp-°m≥- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°m-hn-√.- Im-c-Ww- B- B-h-iyw- Jp¿B\n-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-IX
- s
- b- \n-tj-[n-°e
- m-Wv.- a-\p-jy¿-°v Zo¿-LZrjv-Sn- Ip-d-bpw.- A-h¿-°v- Np-cp-ßn-b- ]-cn-[n-°p-≈n¬-\n-t∂- Nn
¥n-°m≥- I-gn-bq.- A-ß-s\-h-cp-tºm-gm-Wv- A-h¿-°v- A-h-cptSXm-b- ho-£W
- Ø
- n¬- sX-‰pw- i-cn-bpw- tXm-∂p-I.- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿
B≥- ssZ-hn-I-am-tWm- F-∂v- ]-Tn-®v- a-\- n-em-°m≥ {i-an-°Ww.- A-Xv- sN-øm-sX- A-h-\-h-s≥-d- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-°p-th-≠nC-∂- kq-Iv-Xw- \o-°-Ww-;- A-[ym-bw- \o-°-Ww- F-∂v- ]-d-bp∂Xv- k-¶p-Nn-X-Xz-am-Wv.- bp-≤-sØ-°-p-dn-®v- ]-cm-a¿in-°p-∂- Nnekq-Iv-X-߃- \o-°w- sN-bv-Xm¬- km-ap-Zm-bn-I- ku-lm¿-ZwD≠m-Ipw-;- {]-kv-Xp-X- kq-Iv-X-ß-fm-Wv- ku-lm¿-Z-w- X-I¿-°p∂-Xv,- F-s∂m-s°-bm-Wv- A-h¿- ]-d-bp-∂Xv-.- C-kv-emw F-¥msW-∂pw- Jp¿-B≥- ap-t∂m-´p-sh-°p-∂- B-Z¿-is
- a-¥m-sW-∂pwa-\- n-em-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm-t≠m,- a-\- n-em-°n-bn-´pw- kzm¿-Y-Xm¬-]-cy-߃- kw-c-£n-°p-hm≥-th-≠ntbm-- B-Wv- C-Ø-cw- Bh-iy߃- Nn-e¿- ap-t∂m-´p-sh-°p-∂-Xv.- X-Ωn¬- I-e-ln-®v- Pohn°m≥- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂n-√.- F-√m-h-cp-sS-bpw- k-am-[m-\]q¿-W-am-b- Po-hn-X-am-Wv- A-Xv- hn-`m-h-\- sN-øp-∂-Xv.C-kv-em-an¬- kv-{Xo-kzm-X-{¥y-an-√- F-∂v- hn-a¿-i-I¿- ]dbp∂p.- C-kv-emw- B-t«-jn-®- kv-{Xo- F-∂- \n-ebv-°v- Cu- hna¿i\-tØm-Sp-≈- {]-Xn-I-c-W-sa-¥m-Wv?C-kv-emw- A-\p-k-cn-®p-X-s∂-bm-Wv- H-cp- Ip-Spw-_-hpw- kaql-hpw- Po-hn-°p-∂-sX-¶n¬- B- hy-h-kv-Y-n-Xn-bn¬- kv-{Xo-°vA-hƒ- A¿-ln-°p-∂- kzm-X-{¥yw- F-¥m-bm-epw- D-≠m-Ipw.a‰p- a-X-{K-\v-Y-߃- kv-{Xo-°v- \-¬-Ip-∂-Xn-s\-°mƒ- kv-Ym-\wC-kv-emw- kv-{Xo-°v- \¬-Ip-∂p-≠v.- A-X-dn-bm-sX,- C-∂-sØkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

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A-`n-ap-Jwkm-aq-ln-I- hy-h-kv-Y- ]-cn-K-Wn-®n-´m-Wv- ]-e-cpw- C-kv-em-an-s\Ip-‰-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv.- tI-c-f-Øn-se- ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo-Iƒ- hn-Zym`ym-k-cw-K-Øpw- a-‰pw- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- A-t]-£n-®v- ]n-t∂m-°-amsW-∂-Xv- k-Xy-am-Wv.- A-Xn-\v- Im-c-Ww- C-kv-em-a-√.- ]p-Xn-bX-eap-d-bn¬- B-im-h-l-am-b- am-‰-ap-≠m-bn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p-sh∂-Xpw- \mw- Im-tW-≠-Xp-≠v.]m-iv-Nm-Xy- h-\n-X-sb-t∏-m-se- ho-Spw- Ip-Spw-_-hpw- D-Ø-chm-Zn-Ø-ß-fp-sam-s°- h-en-s®-dn-™v- C-d-ßn-Øn-cn-t°-≠-hf√- ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo.- A-hƒ-°v- A-h-fp-tS-Xm-b- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Ø
ß-fp-≠v.- A-Xn-s\-°-p-dn-®v- ssZ-h-k-∂n-[n-bn¬- A-hƒ- tNm-Zn°-s∏-Spw.- kv{- Xo-°v- tPm-en- sN-øm-\p-≈- kzm-X{- ¥yw- C-kvemw\n-tj-[n-°p-∂n-√.- A-Xv- X-s≥-d- {]m-Y-an-I- Zu-Xyw- H-gn-hm-°ns°m-≠m-I-cp-Xv F-∂p-am-{Xw.- C-kv-emw- kv-{Xo-°v- kzm-X-{¥yw\-¬-Ip-I-bpw- B- kzm-X-{¥yw- F-ß-s\-sbm-s°- D-]-tbm-Ks∏Sp-Ø-W-sa-∂v- ]-d-™p-X-cn-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v.ln-µp-kv-{XoI-fpw- ]p-d-Øn-d-ßp-I-bpw- tPm-en- sN-øp-I-bpwsN-øm≥- Xp-S-ßn-bn-´v- Iq-Sp-X¬- Im-e-sam-∂p-am-bn-´n-√.- Iq-SpX¬- kp-Jk
- u-Ic
- y-ßt- fm-sS- Po-hn-°m-\pw- `¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- tPmen-`m-cw- Ip-d-°m-\p-am-Wv- ]-e-cpw- tPm-en-°v- t]m-Ip-∂-Xv.- AXn-s\m-s°- A-h-sf- D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-I-bpw- A-tX-k-a-bw- ho-´pIm-cy-ß-fn¬- A-h-tfm-Sv- k-l-I-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw- A-h-sfIp-‰w- ]d-bp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂- B-fp-I-sf- Rm≥- I-≠n-´p-≠.-vkv-{Xo- C-sXm-s°- k-ln-°p-I-bpw- sN-øpw-!sN-dp-∏w-ap-X¬-Xs
- ∂,- kv{Xo- A-h-fp-sS- A-h-Im-i-߃- a\- n-em-°-W-sa-∂v- tXm-∂n-bn-´p-≈-bm-fm-Wv- Rm≥.- ]-t£,A-h-Im-iw- F-¥m-Wv-,- _m-[yX- F-¥m-Wv- F-s∂m-∂pw- IrXy-am-bn- a-\- n-em-°m≥- I-gn-™n-cp-∂n-√.- ssZ-hn-I-am-b- am¿K-\n¿tZ-i-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- am-{X-sa- A-h- a-\- nem°m≥- I-gn-bq.- C-kv-emw- A-h- Ir-Xy-am-bn- hn-h-cn-®n-´p-≠v.AXn-s≥d- A-S-n-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- Pohn-°p-∂- H-cp- ap-kvenw- kv{Xo,- A-hƒ- G-Xv- cm-Py-°m-cn-bm-sW-¶n-epw- am-Xr-Im-h-\n-Xbm-bn-cn-°pw.hn-Pv-Rm-\- k-ºm-Z-\w- F-√m-h-cp-sS-bpw- _m-[y-X-bm-Wv.kv{- Xo-sb- A-√m-lp- C-Xn¬-\n-∂v- a-m‰
- n-\n¿-Øn-bn-´n-√.- Cu- AhIm-iw- F-hn-sS-sb-¶n-epw- A-hƒ-°v- \n-tj-[n-°-s∏-´n-´p-s≠¶n¬- A-Xn-s≥-d- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn- a-X-a-√,- A-hn-sS-bp-≈- ]u-tcmlnXy-am-bn-cn-°pw,- A-s√-¶n¬- ]p-cp-j-ta-[m-hn-Ø- Nn-¥-bp-≈-hcm-bn-cn-°pw.Cu-bn-sS- G-sd- hn-hm-Z-߃-°v- Xn-cn-sIm-fp-Øn-b- C-kvem-an-Iv- s-^-an-\n-k-sØ-°-p-dn-®v- Xm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?kv-{Xo-bp-sS- A-h-I-m-i- kw-c-£-W-Øn-\p-th-≠n- \n-e-hn¬h-∂- {]-kvY
- m-\a
- m-Wv- "s^-an-\n-‰n-Iv- aq-hvs
- a≥-dv'.- A-Xn-s≥-dsbm
cp- A-Xn-cp-I-S-∂- h-m-Z-am-Wv- kv-{Xo- ]p-cp-j- k-a-Xz-hm-Zw.- kv{Xobp-sS- I-Sa
- I
- ƒ- a-d∂
- p-sIm-≠v- A-hI
- m-iß
- ƒ-°p-th-≠n- am{Xwhm-Zn-°p-I,- ]p-cp-j-s≥-d-Iq-sS- F-√m- Im-cy-ß-fn-epw- C-S-s]-SpI-,- C-Xv- h-gn-]n-g-®- hm-Z-am-Wv.- F-¥pw- sN-øm-\p-≈- kzm-X
{¥yw- B-Wn-\pw- s]-Wn-\pw- \-∂√
- .- C-kve
- mw- kv{- Xo-°v- \¬Ip∂- A-h-Im-i-ß-fpw- A-h-tfm-Sv- A-\p-k-cn-°m≥- ]-d-bp-∂- [m¿
an-I- aq-ey-ß-fpw- h-en-s®-dn-™v- ]m-iv-Nm-Xy- h-\n-X-I-sf-t∏-mse- Po-hn-°m≥- "C-kv-em-an-Iv- s^-an-\n-k-'-sa-∂- aq-Sp-]-S-a-Wn™p-h-∂-h¿- ]-d-™m-¬- A-Xn¬- h-©n-X-cm-Ip-∂-h-c-√- tI-ckv-s]-jy¬-

f-Øn-se- ap-kv-enw- h-\n-X-Iƒ.C-ke
v- mw- \¬-Ip-∂- kzm-X{- ¥yw- \n-tj-[n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂- kv{XoIƒ- A-Xn-\p-th-≠n- i-_v-Zn-°-W-sa-∂m-Wv- F-\n-°v- ]-d-bm\p-≈-Xv.- Im-cy-߃- ]-Tn-®v- a-\- n-em-°n- A-°m-cy-߃- DØc-hm-Zs
- ∏-´h
- s
- c- t_m-[y-s∏-Sp-Øn-,- \-√- \n-e°
- p-Xs
- ∂- \ntj[n°-s∏-´- A-h-Im-i-߃- A-hƒ- tNm-Zn-®p-hmß-Ww-;- H-cp- ImcW-h-im-epw- _m-[y-X-Iƒ- a-d-∂p-sIm-≠m-bn-cn-°-cp-Xv- C-Xv.ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo-bp-sS- h-kv-{X-[m-c-Wm- co-Xn- A-Sn-a-Ø-amsW-∂- hn-a¿-i-\-sØ-∏-‰n- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?F-¥n-\m-Wv- C-h-cn-ß-s\- aq-Sn-∏p-X-®v- \-S-°p-∂-Xv!- ]-Tn-∏n
√,- kw-kv-Im-c-an-√- F-s∂m-s°- ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo-I-sf- Im-Wp
tºmƒ,- hn-Zym¿-Y-n-\n-bm-b- F-\n-°v- tXm-∂n-bn-cp-∂p.- C-kveman-s\- a-\- n-em-°n-b-t∏ƒ- F-s≥-d- [m-c-W-Iƒ- Xn-cp-tØ-≠nh-∂p.- i-cn-bpw,- sX-‰pw- a-\p-jy¿- Xo-cp-am-\n-°m≥- ]-‰n-b- Imcyß-f-√.- A-Xn-\p-≈- kzm-X-{¥yw- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ-°v- sIm-Sp-Øm¬{]-iv-\-߃- h¿-[n-°p-I-tb-bp-≈q.- H-cp-h-s≥-d- i-cn- A-]-c-\vsX-‰m-bn- tXm-∂n-tb-°mw.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- ssZ-hw- F-√mhn-j-b-ß-fn-epw- a-\p-jy¿-°v- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\w- \¬-In.- ap-kv-enwkv-{Xo- F-ß-s\- h-kv-{Xw- [-cn-°-W-sa-∂-Xv- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-dhn-[n-bm-Wv.- kv-{Xo-bp-sS- ku-µ-cyw- `¿-Ømhn-\v- am-{Xw- BkzZn-°m-\p-≈-X-m-Wv.- Ip-Spw-_-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d-bpwhy-IvX
- n-bp-sS-bpw- \-∑°
- √
- m-sX- Xn-∑°
- v- H-cn-°e
- pw- C-kve
- manIth-j-hn-[m-\w- Im-c-W-am-Ip-∂n-√.kv-{Xo- X-s≥-d- i-co-c-Øn-s≥-d- ap-°m¬-`m-K-hpw- {]-Z¿-in∏n®v- \-S∂
- m¬- A-Xv kzm-X{- ¥yw.-- a-d®
- p-\S- ∂
- m¬- A-Xv- A-SnaØhpw-!- \m-i-Øn-te-°v- X-≈n-hn-Sp-∂- \-Kv-\-Xm-{]-Z¿-i-\-Øn-emtWm- kzm-X-{¥yw- Ip-Sn-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv?- X-e-a-d-®v- \-S-∂m¬- `b¶-c- Nq-Sm-bn-cn-°n-t√- F-∂m-Wv- Nn-e- kp-lr-Øp-°-ƒ- tNm-Zn°p-∂-Xv.- i-cn-bm-Wv.- A¬-]-kz¬-]w- {]-bm-k-sam-s°-bp-≠mIpw-.- ssZ-h{- ]-oX
- n-°p-th-≠n- A-sXm-s°- k-ln-°m≥- I-gn-bWw-;A-Xn-\m-Wv- {]-Xn-^e
- a
- p-≈X
- v.- C-ke
v- m-an-I- h-k{v- X-[m-cW
- w-sIm≠v- B-Xv-a-hn-izm-k-hpw- kzm-X-{¥y- t_m-[-hp-am-Wp-≠m-Ip-∂Xv.- I-tøm- Im-tem- A-\-°n-bm¬- \-Kv-\-X- sh-fn-hmIn√.- \n-g
e-Sn-°p-∂,- i-co-c-tØm-Sv- H-´n-\n¬-°p-∂- h-kv-{Xw- [cn°m≥C-kve
- mw- A-\p-hZ- n-°p-∂n-√.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-Xs
- ∂- \Ωp-tS-XmbIm-c-Ww-sIm-≠v- B-cpw- \-sΩ- Zp-jv-S-Nn-¥-tbm-sS- t\m-°p-Ibn-√.{In-kvX
- y≥- an-jW
- d
- n- {]-h¿-ØI
- s
- c- A-\p-Ic
- n-®v- km-aqlyt£-a- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- h-gn- C-kv-em-an-I- {]-t_m-[-\w- \-SØW-sa-∂- Nn-e-cp-sS- hm-Z-sØ- Xm-¶ƒ- F-ß-s\- t\m-°n-°mWp-∂p?{]-t_m-[\
- w- F-ßs
- \- sN-øW
- s
- a-∂v- \-_n-(A)- Ir-Xy- a
- mbn]-Tn-∏n-®p-X-∂n-´p-≠v.- B- am¿-Kw-X-s∂- \-Ω-fpw- ]n-¥p-S-c-Ww.Im-c-Ww- A-√m-lp-hn¬-\n-∂p-≈- Zn-hy-t_m-[-\-Øn-s≥-d- ASnkv-Ym-\-Øn-em-Wv- {]-hm-N-I≥-(A)- {]-t_m-[-\w- sN-bv-X-Xv.- Ah-\-h-s≥-d- I-gn-hn-¬-s]-´n-S-tØm-fw- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- k-lm-bn-°¬-ap-kv-en-an-≥-d- _m-[y-X-bm-Wv.- A-Xn¬- kw-i-b-an-√.- A\m-Y-Itfm-Sv,- A-K-Xn-I-tfm-Sv,- Ip-Spw-_-ß-tfm-Sv,- A-b¬-°m-tc-mSv.....C-ß-s\- F-√m-h-tcm-Spw- kv-t\-l-tØm-sS- s]-cp-am-dp-hm-\pwk-lm-bw- B-hi
- y-ap-≈h
- s
- c- k-lm-bn-°m-\p-sam-s°- C-kve
- mwB-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p.- \n-Xy-Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-Wn-sXm-s°.]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

34

A-`n-ap-Jw{]-t_m-[-\w- th-sdm-cp- _m-[y-X-bm-Wv-.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- k
tµ-iw- \-ap-°v- I-gn-bp-∂- \n-e-bv-°v- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- F-Øn-®psIm-Sp-°m≥- ˛{]-tXy-In-®v- \-Ωƒ- A-Sp-Øv- s]-cp-am-dp-∂-h¿°v-˛ \-Ωƒ-°v- I-S-a-bp-≠v.- km-aq-ln-I- {]-h¿-Ø-\-Øn-\n-S°v- Ah-k-c-߃- In-´n-bm¬- {]-t_m-[-\w- \-S-Ømw.- F-∂m¬km-aqly-t£-a- {]-h¿-Ø-\w- C-kv-em-an-te-°p-≈- £-W-a-√.A-Xv- k¬-I¿-aa
- m-Wp-Xm-\pw.- km-aq-ly-t£-a- {]-h¿-Ø\
- ß
- ƒ\-S-Øn- km-l-N-cyw- am-‰n-sbSp-Øn-t´- {]-t_m-[-\w- sN-øm-hqF-∂- \n-b-a-sam-∂pw- B-cpw- N-abv-t°≠-Xn-√.G-I-ssZ-h- hn-izm-kØn-te-°p-≈- £-W-am-Wv- G-‰-hpwap-Jy-am-b-Xv.- A-Xv- sN-øm-sX-bp-≈- k¬-I¿-a-߃-°v- Z-Av-hØn-s≥-d- {]-Xn-^-ew- e-`n-°n√.- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm[n-t°-≠-Xn-s≥-d- {]m-[m-\y-hpw- ]-c-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- B-h-iyI-X-bpw- a-\- n-em-°n-s°-m-Sp-°m-\p-≈- `q-an-I-bm-bn- {]-hm-NI≥- km-aq-ly-t£-a- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- sN-bv-Xn-´n-√.- k-aq-lØn-s≥-d- I-Æn¬- kz-¥w- ap-Jw- \ ∂m-°p-hm≥- k¬-I¿-a߃- sN-øp-I- F-∂-Xv- A¿-Y-iq-\y-am-Wv-;- A-Xv- sN-øp-∂-Xvhy-Iv-Xn-I-tfm- kw-L-S-\-I-tfm- BsW-¶n-epw- i-cn.- tem-I-am\y-Øn-\p-th-≠n-bp-≈- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- sN-dn-b-\n-e-bv-°p-≈,ssZ-hØ
- n¬- ]-¶p-tN¿-°e
- m-bm-Wv- {]-hm-NI
- ≥-(A)- ]-Tn-∏n®Xv.-

Ø-\ta- \n-tcm-[n-°q- F-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂X
- n¬- sI-Wn-bp-≠v.- F¥ns\-bpw- {]-tem-`\
- a
- m-bpw- \n¿-_\
- v[
- n-Xa
- m-bpw- hym-Jym-\n-°m≥I-gn-t™-°pw.- am-dn-h-∂-h-\v- Nn-e-t∏mƒ- ]p-\-c-[n-hm-k- kuIcy-tam- a-t‰m- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-Sp-t°-≠n-h-cpw.- A-Xp- sNbv-Xp- sImSp-Ø-h-s\-bpw- a-Xw- am-dn-b-h-s\-bpw- P-bn-enem-°m-\pw- I-gnt™-°pw.- A-hIm-i-߃-°p-th-≠n- i-_v-Zn-°pI.- \n-b-a-\n¿am-Xm-°ƒ-°pw- Zn-hy-k-tµ-iw- F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°pI.- sX-‰pwi-cn-bpw- A-h-cpw- a-\- n-em-°-s´.-

a-\p-jy-sc- k-lm-bn-°p-I- F-∂X
- v- H-cp- ap-kve
- n-an-s≥-d- hninjym- {]t_m-[I
- s
- ≥-d- I-Sa
- X
- s
- ∂-bm-Wv.- A-ßs
- \-bp-≈h
- s
- ≥d{]-t_m-[-\-Øn-\v- Iq-Sp-X¬- ^-ew- I-t≠-°mw.- A-sXm-s°{]-t_m-[\
- Ø
- n-\p-≈- am¿-Ka
- m-bn- kzo-Ic
- n-°p-∂X
- m-Wv- Ip-g∏w.-

kz-`-h-\-ß-fn-¬-\n-∂v- B-´n-tbm-Sn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- hn-izm-ka-\p-k-cn-®v- Po-hn-°m-\p-≈- A-\p-a-Xn- \n-tj-[n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpwsN-øp-tºm-tg- B-bp-[s
- a-Sp-°p-hm≥- Jp¿-B≥- A-\p-hm-Zw \¬
Ip-∂p-≈q.- A-ß-s\-bp-≈- bp-≤-Øn¬-t]m-epw- ]m-en-t°-≠p∂- H-cp-]m-Sv- \n-ba
- ß
- f
- p-≠v.- ^-eh
- r-£ß
- ƒ- ap-dn-°c
- p-Xv,- kv{XoI-sf-bpw- Ip-´n-I-sf-bpw- D-]-{Z-hn-°-cp-Xv- Xp-S-ßn-b- \n-c-h-[n\n-b-a-߃.-

a-X]
- c
- n-h¿-Ø\
- w- \n-tcm-[n-°m-\p-≈- {i-aß
- ƒ
- - \-S∂
- p-sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂- km-l-N-cy-am-Wn-∂v- C-¥y-bn¬.- C-Xn-s\-°-p-dn-®vXm-¶-fp-sS- A-`n-{]m-b-sa-¥m-Wv?Xn-I-®pw- c-m-jv-{So-b- Xm¬-]-cy-ß-fm-Wv- C-Xn-\v- ]n-∂n¬.Zen-Xp-I-sf-t∏-m-ep-≈-h-sc- Iq-´-am-bn- a-Xw-am-‰p-∂-Xpw- `u-XnI-hn-`h
- ß
- ƒ- \¬-In-s°-m≠
- pw- `o-jW
- n-s∏-Sp-Øn-bpw a
- ‰
- pw- aXwam-‰p-∂-Xpw- X-S-bm-\m-Wv- \n¿-_-\v-[- a-X-]-cn-h¿-Ø-\- _-n¬sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂-sX-∂m-Wv- A-Xn-s≥-d- A-\p-Iq-en-Iƒ- ]d-bp∂Xv.- F-∂m¬- e-£yw- kz-ta-[b
- m-bp-≈- a-X]
- c
- n-h¿-Ø\
- s
- Øt∏-m-epw- \n-tcm-[n-°p-I- F-∂-Xm-Wv.`u-Xn-I- Xm¬-]-cy-ß-ƒ-°p-th-≠n-bp-≈- a-Xw-am-‰w-sIm-≠vss\-an-jn-I-am-b- Kp-W-ta- In-´q.- C-Xv- Po-hn-X-sØ-∏-‰n- Ir-Xyam-b- e-£y-ap-≈-h¿-°-dn-bmw.- a-X-hpw- a-X-]-cn-h¿-Ø-\-hpwhnj-b-am-°n-Ø-o¿-Øv- thm-´p-Iƒ- G-tIm-]n-∏n-°p-I- F-∂XmWv- a-X-]-cn-h¿-Ø-\- hn-tcm-[n-Iƒ- e-£y-am-°p-∂-Xv.G-Xp- a-X-Øn-epw- hn-iz-kn-°m-\pw- A-Xn-s≥-d- B-Nm-cm\pjv-Tm-\-߃- \n¿-h-ln-°m-\pw- A-Xv- {]-t_m-[-\w- sN-øm\p-ap≈- au-en-Im-h-Im-iw- C-¥y≥- `-c-W-L-S-\- \¬-Ip-∂p-≠v.- CuA-h-Im-i-sØ- tNm-Zyw- sN-øp-I-bm-Wv- k-Xy-Øn¬- C°q-´¿sN-øp-∂-Xv.- Aw-t_-Zv-I-dn-s\-t∏-m-ep-≈- \-√-\n-ebv-°v- Nn-¥n°p-∂- G-Xm-\pw- t\-Xm-°ƒ- F-gp-Xn-bp-≠m-°n-b- Cu- \n-b-a߃- Xn-cp-Øn-°p-dn-°m-\pw- C-¥y-sb- H-cp- ln-µp-cm-Py-am-°phm-\p-ap-≈- {i-aß
- ƒ- A-Wn-bd
- b
- n¬- \-S°
- p-∂p-≠v.- A-°q-´¿°v`q-cn-]-£w- In-´n-bm¬- A-Xpw- kw-`-hn-t®-°mw.-

C-kv-em-sa-∂v- ]-d-™m¬- Xo-{h-hm-Z-hpw- ap-kv-enw- F-∂p]-d-™m¬- Xo-{h-hm-Zn-bp-am-sW-∂- [m-c-W-bpw- {]-Nm-c-W-hpw_-e-s∏-´p-h-cn-I-bm-Wn-∂v.- C-Xn-s\-°p-dn-®v- Xm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-dbp-∂p?C-kv-emw- an-X-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- a-X-am-Wv.- B-cm-[-\m-Im-cy-ßfn¬-t]m-epw- Xo-{h-X- ]m-Sn-s√-∂m-Wv- {]-hm-N-I≥- ]-Tn-∏n-®-Xv.F-∂pw- cm-{Xn- D-d-ßm-sX- \-a-kv-I-cn-°p-sa-∂pw-;- F-∂p-sa-∂pwt\m-sº-Sp-°p-sa-∂pw- hn-hm-lP
- o-hn-Xw- ssZ-hm-cm-[\
- °
- v- hnLmX-am-bX
- n-\m¬- A-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- A-I∂
- p-\n¬-°p-sa-∂pw- ]-d™h-sc- i-Iv-X-am-b- `m-j-bn¬- {]-hm-N-I≥- Xm-°o-Xp-sN-bv-XXvC-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hm-Wv.-

bp-≤-Øn-\v- A-\p-a-Xn- \¬-Im-Ø- G-Xv- a-X-am-Wp-≈-Xv?cm-am-bW
- Ø
- n-s≥-db
- pw- a-lm-`m-cX
- Ø
- n-s≥-db
- pw- A-Sn-Ød
- X
- s∂bp-≤-am-Wv-;- \o-Xn- \-S-∏n-em-°m-\p-≈-,- A-s√-¶n¬- A-h-Im-i
߃- t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°m-\p-≈- bp-≤-߃.- bp-≤w- \n-tcm-[n-°-s∏´tem-I-Øv- k-am-[m-\-hp-ap-≠m-In-√.- Im-c-Ww,- F-√m-h-cpw- \nba-Øn-\v- hn-t[-ba
- m-Ip-hm≥- X-bm-d√
- ;- - Ip-sd-t]¿- hn-t[-bc
- mIpw,Ip-sd-t]¿- hn-k-Ω-Xn-°pw.- A-hn-sS- _-e-{]-tbm-Kw- B-h-iyambn-hc
- pw.- A-\ym-ba
- m-bn- H-cp- a-\p-jy-Po-hs
- \-bpw- A-]l
- c
- n-°m≥C-kv-emw- A-\p-hm-Zw- \¬-Ip-∂n-√.- tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- ]-e- `m-K
ß-fn-epw- {]-Xy-£-s∏-´- Xo-{h-hm-Zn-Iƒ- B- h-gn-°p-Xn-cn-™XvI-Sp-Øv- A-h-Im-i- \n-tj-[-^-e-am-bm-sW-∂v- I-s≠-Øm≥{]bm-ka
- n-√.- F-∂m¬- \n-c]
- c
- m-[n-Is
- f- sIm-s∂m-Sp-°p-∂- coXnB-cp-X-s∂- kzo-I-cn-®m-epw- \o-Xn-I-cn-°m-\m-hn-√.- A-ta-cn-°bn-se- thƒ-Uv- t{S-Uv- sk≥-d¿- X-I¿-Ø- kw-`-hw-;- A-Xn-\p]n-∂n¬- B-cm-sW-¶n-epw- B- `oI-cm-{I-a-W-sØ- C-kv-em-an-Iam-bn- \ym-bo-I-cn-°m-\m-hn-√.- B- hn-am-\-ß-fn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂bm-{X-°m-cp-sS- A-t∏m-g-sØ- a-t\m\n-e- Nn-¥n-°m≥-t]m-epwI-gn-bp-∂n-√.- ap-kv-enw- \m-a-[m-cn-Iƒ- sN-øp-∂- A-{I-a-sØ-bpwa-‰p-≈-h¿- sN-øp-∂- B-{I-a-W-ß-sf-bpw- C-kv-em-an-s≥-dA°u-≠n¬- F-gp-Xn-t®-¿°
- p-∂- am-[y-aß
- f
- m-Wv- C-ke
v- m-sa∂p]-d-™m¬- Xo-{h-hm-Z-am-sW-∂- [m-c-W- ]-c-Øp-∂-Xv.-

A-ta-cn-°-t]m-ep-≈- cm-Py-߃-°v- Xo-{h-hm-Zw- \n-e-\n¿
\n¿-_-\v[n-°-epw- {]-tem-`n-∏n-°-epw-h-gn-bp-≈- a-X-]-cn-h¿tØ-≠X
- p-≠v.- A-h¿-°v- tem-It- ]m-eokv- N-ab
- W
- s
- a-¶n¬- temkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

35

A-`n-ap-JwI-sØ-hn-sS-sb-¶n-epw- {]-i\
v- w- th-Ww.- A-hc
- p-sS- B-bp[-߃sN-e-hm-Im≥- bp-≤w-th-Ww.- A-Xn-\p-≈- km-l-N-cyw- A-h¿X-s∂- H-cp-t°-≠n-bpw-hc
- pw.- A-Xm-Wv- A-^vL
- m-\n-epw- C-dmJnep-sam-s°- C-∂v- \-Ωƒ- I-≠p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂Xv-.- A-hcp-sSH-cp-]m-Sv- ap-X-em-fn-Ø- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-°v- F-Xn-cp-\n¬-°p-∂C-ke
-v m-an-s\- GXm-bm-epw- A-h¿-s°-m∂
- -v {]-Xn-°q-´n¬- \n¿Øp
I
- b
- pw- th-Ww.- A-Xv- A-hc
- p-sS- A-P≠
- b
- n¬-s]´-Xm-Wv.- ^ekvXo≥-t]m-ep-≈- {]-iv-\-߃- ]-cn-l-c-n-°m≥- Ah¿-°v- I-gn-bpw.]-t£,- ]-cn-l-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°m-\m-Wv- A-h≥- {i-an-°p-∂-Xv.-

Iƒ- A¿-l-am-b- A-h-Im-i-߃- t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°p-I.- AXv- h-Ish-®p-sI-m-Sp-°m≥- k-aq-lw- A-am-¥w- Im-Wn-°-cp-Xv.- F√m-hcpw- _m-[y-XI
- ƒ- \n-dt- h-‰p-I;- - a-cW
- w- ]n-Sn-Iq-Sp-∂X
- n-\p-apºmbn.-

C-kv-em-sa-∂v- ]-d-™m¬- I-e-l-am-sW-∂- [m-c-W-bn¬AXn-\p-th-≠n- Po-hn-°p-∂-h-tcm-Sv- A-Xp- sX-‰m-sW-∂v- ]-dbm≥- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-X-s∂- H-‰-s°-´m-bn- H-cp-ß-Ww.- A-h-Im-i߃- \n-tj-[n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p-s≠-¶n¬- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-bn- kw-LSn-°pI;- k-am-[m-\-]-c-am-bn- t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥- k-a-cw- sN-øpI.km-[m-cW
- °
- m-cm-b- \n-c]
- c
- m-[n-Is
- f- sIm-s∂m-Sp-°p-∂X
- v- BcmsW-¶n-epw- A-Xv- Xn-I-®pw- A-]-e-]-\o-b-am-Wv.- tem-I- ap-kvenw]-W-vUn-X-∑m¿- ap≥-]-¥n-bn¬-\n-∂v- A-Xn-s\- F-Xn¿-°-Ww.`u-Xn-I- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-°p-th-≠n- A-Xn-s\- ]n-¥p-W-°-cp-Xv."kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Z'-Øn-s≥-d- hm-b-\-°m-cm-b- A-ap-kv-enw-Itfm-Spw- ap-kv-enw-I-tfm-Spw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- F-s¥-¶n-epw- ]-d-bm\pt≠m-?A-ap-kve
- n-wI
- t- fm-Sv- F-\n-°v- ]-db
- m-\p-≈X
- v- C-Xm-Wv:- - \ΩƒF-t∏mƒ- a-cn-°p-sa-∂-dn-bn-√.- A-Xn-\p-ap-ºm-bn- Po-hn-X-e-£ywF-s¥-∂v- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- A-Xv- I-s≠-Øm-\p-≈- h-gn-Iƒ- At\zjn-°p-I.- ap≥-[m-cW
- I
- ƒ- am-‰n-\n¿-Øn- Xp-d∂
- - a-\t-  m-sS- Ckvem-an-s\-∏-‰n- ]-Tn-°m≥- ap-Xn-cp-I.- kz-X-{¥-am-bn- Nn-¥n-°p-I.ssZ-h-hnizm-kn-I-f-s√-¶n¬,- ssZ-h-ap-t≠m- F-∂v- I-s≠
Øm≥- {i-an-°p-I-;- A-Xn-\v- Jp¿-B≥- \n-ß-sf- k-lm-bn-°pw.Xp-d∂
- - a-\t-  m-sS- ]-Tn-°m≥- X-bm-dmbm¬- Jp¿B≥- \n-cØp
∂- sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- \n-ßs
- f- Xr-]X
v- c
- m-°pw.- ssZ-hs
- Ø- I-s≠Øn
bm¬- Po-hn-XØ
- n-\v- e-£y-t_m-[w- ssI-hc
- pw.- ap-kve
- nw- hmb\°m-tcm-Sv- B-Xva
- m¿-Ya
- m-bn- A-t]-£n-°p-Ib
- m-Wv;- - \n-߃- Jp¿B-\pw- kp-∂-Øpw- ]-Tn-°p-I.- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- ]-I¿-ØpI,- Ignhn-s≥-d- ]-ca
- m-h[
- n- `-b`- I
- X
-v n-tbm-sS- Po-hn-°p-I.- A-dn-™I
- mcywA-dn-bm-Ø-h¿-°v- F-Øn-°p-I.- km-aq-ln-I-am-bn- ap-kvenwIƒH-cp-]m-Sv- ap-t∂-dm-\p-≠v.- A-Xn-\p-th-≠n- ]-cn-{i-an-°pI.- kv-{Xo-

hn-a¿-i-\-]-T-\-Øn-s‚- ]-cy-h-km-\wA-_v-Zp¬- l-Iow-,- hn-f-bq¿Dƒ-s°m-≠- B-Z¿-iw- ]-cn-]q¿-W- k-Xy-am-sW-∂- t_m-[tØm-sS,- B- B-Z¿-i-Øn-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬- sX-√pw- hn-´p-ho-gvN- Im-Wn-°m-sX,- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\m-b- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- k-Xy-hnizm-kn-bm-bn-s°m-≠v- I-≠p-ap-´m-\p-≈- D¬-°-S-am-b- {]-Xo-£tbm-sS- Du¿-P-kz-e-\m-bn- Po-hn-°p-∂- ]p-em-a-t¥mƒ-Im-c-\mb- A-_v-Zp¬-l-I-o-an-s≥-d- I-Æp-Iƒ- kw-km-c-Øn-\n-sS- ]-e-

t∏m-gpw- Cu-d-\-Wn-bp-∂p≠m-bn-cp-∂p-.- hm-°p-Iƒ-°p-th-≠nNn-¥n-®v- k-a-bw- I-f-bm-sX- A-t±-lw- kw-km-cn-®p-Xp-S-ßn:"H-cp-]m-Sp- ssZ-h-ß-sf- {]-Xn-jv-Tn-®- X-d-hm-´p-a-W-vU-]-ap≈H-cp- Xo-b(- Cu-gh
- )- Ip-Spw-_Ø
- n-em-Wv- Rm≥- P-\n-®p-hf
- ¿-∂Xv.A-Nv-O≥,- A-Ω,- aq-∂v- k-tlm-Z-cn-am¿,- H-cp- A-\p-P≥- F-∂nh-cm-Wv- F-\n-°p-≈-Xv'.-kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

36

A-`n-ap-JwXm-¶ƒ- F-ß-s\-bm-Wv- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- F-Øn-s∏-´-Xv?F-s≥-d- A-Sp-Ø- kp-lr-Øm-Wv- tUm-Iv-S¿- A≥-h¿.- c≠ph¿-jw-ap-ºv- s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ-bn¬-sh-®v- - "ssl-µ-h-X- Ckv-emw'F-∂- t]-cn¬- \-S-∂- B-i-b-kw-hm-Z-Øn-te-°v- A-t±lw- Fs∂- £-Wn-®p.- hn-hn-[- a-X-ß-sf-°-p-dn-s®m-∂pw- Nn-¥n-°mØhy-Iv-Xnbm-bn-cp-∂p- Rm≥.- kw-hm-Zw- tI-ƒ-°p-hm≥- Rm≥t]mbn.- {]o-Un-{Kn-h-sc- kw-kv-Ir-Xw- ]-Tn-®n-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬- kwhm-Z-Øn-\n-S-°v- C-cp-Iq-´-cpw- D-≤-cn-®- t«m-I-߃- s]-s´-∂v{Kln-°p-hm≥- F-\n-°v- I-gn-™p.- C-kv-em-an-s\- {]-Xn-\n-[o-Icn-®v- {]-kw-Kn-®- Fw.-Fw.- A-Iv-_-¿- km-dn-s≥-d- kw-km-c-Øn¬Ip-sd- Im-cy-ß-fp-s≠-∂v- F-\n-°v- tXm-∂n-Øp-S-ßn.- A-tXmsS- hm-in- Iq-Sn.- Rm≥- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂- a-Xw- H-∂p-a-√,- C-t±-lw{]-Xn-\n-[m-\w- sN-øp-∂- a-Xw- am-{X-am-Wv- i-cn- F-∂- \n-e-bv°p-≈- kw-km-c-hpw- ln-µp-a-X-sØ- {]-Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-®v- kw-kmcn-®- tKm-]m-e≥-Ip-´n- am-kv-‰-dpw- s{]m-^.- cm-a-N-{µ-\pw- H-Sp-hn¬]c-{_-lv-aw- th-sd,- tZ-ho-˛ tZ-h-∑m¿- th-sd- F-∂v- k-Ω-Xn-®Xpw- C-kv-em-an-s\-∏-‰n- Iq-Sp-X¬- ]-Tn-°m≥- F-s∂- t{]-cn-∏n®p.- tUm.- A≥-h¿- C-kve
- mw- k-Xy-am¿-Kw- F-∂- ]p-kvX
- w- F\n°v- X-∂p.- Xp-S-°-Øn¬- aw-K-f-hpw- a-t\m-c-a-bpw- hm-bn-°p-∂em-L-h-tØm-sS- Rm-s\m-∂v- I-tÆm-Sn-®p.- ]n-s∂- A-sXm-cpaq-e-bn-te-°n-´p.I-tÆm-Sn-®-Xn¬ {i-≤-bn¬s]-´,- \-_n-(A)-bp-sS- A-\m-Y\m-bp-≈- P-\-\w,- hn-iz-kvX≥- F-∂- t]-cn¬- A-dn-b-s∏-S¬,A-£-c-Pv-Rm-\-an-√m-sX- \m¬-]-Xv- h¿-jw- Po-hn-®-ti-jw- Hcpkp-{]-`m-X-Øn¬- D-∂-X-am-b- Im-cy-ß-ƒ- ]-d-b¬,- A-Xn-s≥-dt]-cn¬- [m-cm-fw- ]o-U-\-߃- A-\p-`-hn-°¬- Xp-S-ßn-b- Imcyß-fp-sS- hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww- Fs≥d- a-t\m-ap-Ip-c-Øn¬- am-bm-sXIn-S-∂p.- `u-Xn-I-am-b- bm-sXm-cp- t\-´-hpw- {]-Xo-£n-°m-sXG-I-\m-b- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n-°p-I- F-∂p- ]-d-™Xn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- sIm-Sn-b- D-]-{Z-h-߃- k-ln-°m≥- A-t±-lwX-bm-dm-b-sX-¥p-sIm-≠v?- Cu- Nn-¥- "C-kv-emw- k-Xy-am¿-Kw'ho-≠pw- hm-bn-°m≥- F-s∂- t{]-cn-∏n-®p.- A-ß-s\- \n-c-h-[nX-h-W- A-Xv- Rm≥- hm-bn®p-Xo¿-Øp.- hm-bn-®p-hm-bn-®v- ]-e`m-K-ß-fpw- a-\x-]m-T-am-bn.- A-Xn-\p-ti-jw- Rm≥-X-s∂- A-dnbm-sX- F-s≥-d- {]m¿-Y-\-Iƒ- "ssZ-h-ta'- F-∂v- hn-fn-®p-sIm≠m-bn- am-dn.- A-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn- F-s≥-d- a-\- n-\v- h-√m-sØm-cpk-am-[m-\w- In-´n-Øp-S-ßn-b-Xm-bn- Rm-\-dn-™p.- H-cp- Zn-h-kwG-I-\m-b- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- \m-a-Øn¬- Rm≥- a-c-an-√n-se- tPmen-bm-cw-`n-°p-I-bpw- Rm≥- ]-e- I-jv-W-ß-fm-bn-Øo-tc-≠- A]-I-S-Øn¬-\n-∂v- A-Xy¬-`p-X-I-c-amw-hn-[w- c-£-s∏-Sp-I-bpwsN-bvX
- p.- A-tXm-sS- G-Is
- sZ-hØ
- n-ep-≈- F-s≥-d- hn-izm-kØn\v- H-∂p-Iq-Sn- i-Iv-Xn-Iq-Sn.- tam-£-Øn-s≥-d- am¿-Kw,- ]-c-tem-Ihn-izm-kw- Xp-S-ßn-b- ]p-kv-X-I-߃- hm-bn-®p.- C-S-°n-sS- "\n®v- Hm-^v- {Sq-Øn-'-s≥-d- Hm-^o-kn¬-h-∂v- A-hn-sS-bp-≈-h-cp-ambn- kw-km-cn-°pw.- A-hn-sS-bp-≈-h¿- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- ap-J-hn-e-s°Sp-°m-sX-bpw,- F-s≥-d- hn-izm-k-sØ- am-‰n-sb-Sp-°m-sa-∂- Nn¥- a-\- n-en-cn-°-s´- F-∂- Nn-¥-tbm-sS-bp-am-Wv- Rm≥- Ah¿°p-ap-ºn¬- C-cp-∂n-cp-∂-Xv.- F-∂n-cp-∂m-epw- ]-c-tem-I-hn-izmk-sØ- kw-_-\v-[n-°p-∂- ]p-kv-X-Iw- hm-bn-°p-I-bpw- A-Xns\-°-p-dn-®v- a-‰p-≈-h-cn¬-\n-∂v- ]-e-Xpw- tIƒ-°p-I-bpw- sN-bvkv-s]-jy¬-

X-Xv- F-s≥-d- a-\- n-s\- ]n-Sn-®p-Ip-ep-°m≥- Xp-S-ßn.- ]-S-®-h\m-cm-sW-∂v- \n-\-°v- a-\- n-em-bn-t√?- \o- F-¥m-Wv- \-a-kvIm-cw- Xp-S-ßm-Ø-Xv?- ap-kv-en-am-bn- Po-hn-®p-Iq-tS?- a-cn-®m¬\n-s≥-d- a-S-°w- F-tßm-´m-Wv- F-s∂m-s°- B-tcm- F-t∂m-SvtNm-Zn-°p-∂-Xm-bn- D-d-°-Øn¬- A-\p-`-h-s∏-Spw.- hn-b-¿-ØvIpfn®p-sIm-≠v- sR-´n-bp-W-cpw.- A-Xv- Im-Wp-tºmƒ- `m-cy- NoØ- ]-d-bpw.- I-Æn¬-I-≠- ]p-kv-X-I-߃- hm-bn-®-Xp-sIm-≠mWv- C-sXm-s°-sb-∂v- B-t£-]n-°pw.- A-sXm-s°- Rm≥- Ah-K-Wn-®p.- ]-t£,- h-√m-sØm-cp- izm-kw-ap-´¬- F-\n-°v- A\p-`-h-s∏-´p.- \-a-kv-Im-cw- Xp-S-ßn-bn-s√-¶n¬- F-s≥-d- Po-hn-XwXp-e-™-Xp-X-s∂- F-s∂m-cp- tXm-∂¬.- Rm≥- A≥-h¿- tUmIvS- s
- d- hn-fn-®v- F-\n-°v- ap-ke
v- n-am-IW
- s
- a-∂v- ]-d™
p.- \n-®ns≥dHm-^o-kn-se-Øm≥- ]-d™
X
- \
- p-kc
- n-®v- Rm≥- A-hn-sS- F-Øn.A-hn-sS-bp-≈-h¿- F-\n-°v- C-kv-emw-Im-cy-hpw- Cu-am≥-Im-cyhpw- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-®p- X-cp-hm≥- Xp-S-ßn.- C-sX-m-s°- Rm≥- a-\ n-em-°n-b-Xm-Wv.- C-sXm-s°- ]-d-™v- C-h-sc-¥n-\m-Wv- k-abw- \o-´p-∂-Xv.- th-K-Øn¬- F-\n-°v- km-£-y-hm-Iy-߃- sNm√n-Ø-∂p-Iq-tS,- F-∂n-´p-t]m-tc- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-߃,- Rm-\n
t∏mƒ- a-cn-®m¬- C-h¿- k-am-[m-\w- ]-d-tb-≠n-h-cn-t√ F-s∂ms°-bm-bn-cp-∂p- A-t∂-cw- F-s≥-d- a-\- n-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂- Nn¥.F-\n-°-h-tcm-Sv- A-t∏mƒ- tZ-jy-am-Wv- tXm-∂n-b-Xv.- A-h¿-°v]-e-Xpw- Nn-¥n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v- F-∂-sXm-∂pw- Nn-¥n-°m≥At∏mƒ- F-\n-°v- I-gn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- G-Xm-bm-epw- km-£yhm-Iy-߃- D-cp-hn-´p-sIm-≠v- Rm≥- ap-kv-en-am-bn- am-dn.H-cp- h-en-b- `m-cw- i-co-c-Øn¬-\n-∂v- C-d-°n-sh-®- {]-Xo-Xnbm-Wv- A-t∂-cw- F-\n-°p-≠m-b-Xv.- A-t\-Iw- _-\v-[-\-ß-fn¬\n-∂v- tam-Nn-X-\m-b- A-h-kv-Y.- F-√m-hn-[- `-b-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw\n¿-`-bm-h-kv-Y- ssI-h-∂-t]m-se.C-kv-em-an-te-°v- I-S-∂p-h-∂-ti-jw- Xm-¶ƒ- A-`n-ap-Jo-Icn-®- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- {]-i-v\-sa-¥m-Wv?
`m-cy-bn¬-\n-∂m-bn-cp-∂p- h-en-b- `o-j-Wn.- A-hƒ- _-lpssZ-h-hn-izm-kn-\n-bm-b-Xn-\m¬- k-l-hm-kw- H-gn-hm-°n.- Imcyw-]-d-™v- t_m-[y-s∏-Sp-Øm≥- {i-an-s®-¶n-epw- sN-hn-s°m≠n-√.- Rm≥- \-a-kv-I-cn-°p-tºmƒ- F-s∂- N-hn-´n-a-dn-°pw.- IØn-sIm-≠v- tZ-l-Øv- h-c-°pw.- B-Xv-a-l-Xym-`o-j-Wn- D-b¿Øpw.- H-cp- X-Sn-an-√n-em-bn-cp-∂p- F-\n-°v- tPm-en.- A-hn-sS-sh®vNn-e- k-l-{]-h¿-Ø-I¿- F-s∂- A-]-I-S-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm-\p-≈- {ia-hpw- \-SØn-.- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-{K-l-Øm¬- c-£-s∏-´p.\m-´n-epw- ho-´n-epw- H-‰-s∏-´p.- kmº-Øn-I- k-lm-b-tam- ho-tSmth-W-sa-¶n¬- A-Nv-O-t\m-Sv- ]-d-™v- hm-ßn-Ø-cmw F-∂v- Nne_-\v-[p-°ƒ- ]-d-™p.- Cu- tem-I-sØ- {]-iv-\-a-√,- C-Xn-\pti-j-ap-≈- {]-iv-\-am-Wv- F-\n-°v- h-ep-Xv.- A-Xv- ]-cn-l-cn-®p-Xcp-hm≥- \n-߃-°v- I-gn-bp-tam,-- G-I-\m-b- ssZ-h-sØ- am-{XwRm≥- hn-fn-®v- {]m¿-Yn-°p-∂p- F-∂-Xm-tWm- Rm≥- sN-øp-∂sX-‰v- F-s∂m-s°-bp-≈- Fs≥d- tNm-Zy-߃- A-h-cp-sS- hm-bS-®p.- am-\k
- n-Ih
- pw- im-co-cn-Ih
- p-am-bp-≈- ]o-U\
- ß
- ƒ-s°m-∂pwF-s∂- ]n-¥n-cn-∏n-°m≥- I-gn-™n-√.- am-{X-a-√,- A-h- F-s≥-dhn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- iIv-Xn- Iq´p-I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-X-Xv.C-kv-emw- F-¥m-sW-∂v- a-\- n-em-°n-Ø-p-S-ßn-b- ti-j-am]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

37

A-`n-ap-JwWv- ln-µp-a-X-sa-¥msW-∂v- Rm≥- ]-Tn-°m≥- Xp-S-ßn-b-Xv.- lnµp-a-Xw- F-s∂m-cp- a-X-an-s√-∂pw- Ip-sd- kw-kv-Im-c-ß-fpw- BNm-cm-\p-jv-Tm-\-ß-fpw- A-\-h-[n- ssZ-h-ß-fpw- tZ-ho-˛ tZ-h-∑mcp-ap-≈,-- {]-tXy-I-am-b- N-´-°q-sSm-∂p-an-√m-Ø- Ip-sd- Iq-´m-bv-aI-fp-am-Wv- A-sX-∂- k-Xyw- hy-Iv-X-am-bn.- H-cp- a-lm-i-Iv-Xn-bnep-≈- hn-izm-kw- F-√m- a-X-°-m¿-°p-ap-≠v.- ]-t£,- B- i-Iv-Xnsb- b-Ym-hn-[n- a-\- n-em-°n-Ø-cp-∂-X-pw- A-h-¶-te-°p-≈- t\cm-b- ]m-X- Im-´n-Ø-cp∂-Xpw- C-kv-emw- am-{X-am-Wv.C-kv-em-an¬- Xm-¶-sf- G-‰-hp-a-[n-Iw- B-I¿-jn-®- Im-cy-sa¥m-Wv?
I¿-a-^-e-kn-≤m-¥w.- H-cp-]m-Sv- I-jv-S-∏m-Sp-I-fpw- th-Z-\-Ifp-am-Wo- tem-I-Øv Iq-Sp-X-epw- a-\p-jy-c-\p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- X°-Xm-b- {]-Xn-^-e-tam- Xn-∑-Iƒ-°p-≈- in-£-tbm- C-hn-sS- e`y-a-√.- k-Xy-hn-izm-kw- kzo-I-cn-®- H-cm-fp-sS- bm-sXm-cp- k¬I¿-a-hpw- ]m-gm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂n-√.- kz¿-Kam-W-h¿-°v- {k-jv-Sm-hvhm-Kv-Zm-\w- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- A-hn-sS-sh-®v- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\mb- ]-S-®-X-ºp-cm-s\- t\-cn¬- Im-Wm-\p-≈- A-h-k-c-ap-≠m-IpwF-∂-Xm-Wv- G-‰-hpw- k-t¥m-j-I-c-hpw- \n¿-hr-Xn-Zm-b-I-hp-ambn- tXm-∂p-∂-Xv.ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-sb- X-cw-Xm-gv-Øn-°m-Wn-°m≥- h-y-{K-XIm-Wn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fpw- a-‰p- C-kv-emw- hn-a¿-iI-cpw.- C-Xn-s\-°-p-dn-®v- Xm-¶-fp-sS- A-`n-{]m-b-sa-¥m-Wv?
H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-bp-sS- kz-`m-hw- t\m-°n-bm-Wv- B-fp-Iƒ- Abm-sf- hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-I.- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-bp-sS- P-\-\w- ap-X¬a-c-Ww-h-sc-bp-≈- N-cn-{Xw- ]cn-tim-[n-®p-I-gn-™m¬- B-t£]m¿-l-am-b- bm-sXm-∂pw- I-s≠-Øm≥- I-gn-bn-√.- A-t±-l-Øns≥-d- _-lp-`m-cy-Xz-sØ-bm-Wv- Im-cy-am-bn- F-√m- hn-a¿-i-IcpwF-Sp-Øp-Im-Wn-°m-dp-≈-Xv.- Hm-tcm- hn-hm-l-hpw- \-S-∂-Xn-s≥dIm-c-W-߃- ]-cn-tim-[n-®p-I-gn-™m¬- B-tcm-]-W-ß-fp-sSap\-sbm-Sn-™p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.- hn-[-h-I-fpw- hr-≤I-fp-am-bn-cp-∂p- H-´p-an-°- `m-cy-am-cpw- F-∂-Xv- Nn-¥\o-b-am-Wv.ssew-Kn-I- Xm¬-]c
- y-Øn-\m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- I-\y-II
- f
- m-b- bph-Xn-I-sf-Ø-s∂- {]-hm-N-I-\v- e-`n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-t√?-kwkv-Ir-Xw- ]-Tn-°p-I-bpw- kw-kv-Ir-X-Øn-ep-≈- ssl-µh- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-߃- ]m-cm-b-Ww- sN-øp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂- Xm¶ƒ-°v- A-d-_n-`m-j-bn-ep-≈ Jp¿-B-\p-am-bn- A-Sp-Ø-t∏mƒF-¥v- tXm-∂p-∂p.?
hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- `m-jbpw- ssi-en-bpw- h-iy-a-t\ml-c-am-Wv.- A-Xp-t]m-se- F-fp-∏-Øn¬- lrZy-kv-Y-am-°p-hm-\pwa-t\m-l-c-am-bn- ]m-cm-b-Ww- sN-øp-hm-\pw- I-gn-bp-∂- a-s‰m-cp{K-\v-Y-hpw- tem-I-Øn-en-√- F-∂-Xm-Wv- hm-kv-X-hw.- A-Xv- ]-cn]q¿-Wa
- m-bpw- ssZ-hn-Ih
- N
- \
- ß
- f
- m-Wv.- k-µ¿-`Ø
- n-¬\
- n-∂pw- kqIvX
- ß
- ƒ- A-S¿-Øn-sb-Sp-tØm- Zp¿-hym-Jym-\w sN-bvt- Xm- Jp¿B-\n-s\- B-t£-]n-°m≥- I-gn-bp-sa-∂-√m-sX- b-Ym¿-Y-am-b\n-ebv-°v- k-Xy-Øn-\pw- \o-Xn-°pw- [¿-a-Øn-\pw- kZm-Nm-c-Øn\pw- \n-c-°m-Ø- bm-sXm-∂pw- A-Xn¬- I-s≠-Øm≥- I-gn-bn-√.-

Øn-sb-gp-X-W-sa-∂v- B-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- C-kv-emw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p∂- ap-gp-h≥- Im-cy-ß-fpw- {]m-h¿-Øn-I-am°n- Po-hn-t°-≠-h\m-Wv- ap-kv-enw.- A-Xm-Wv- A-h-s≥-d- ta¬- \n¿-_-\v-[-am-b- G‰hpw- h-en-b- Pn-lm-Zv.- F-∂m¬- C-°m-cyw- {K-ln-°m-sX- hm-sfSp-Øv- C-X-c-a-X-kv-Y-cp-sS- X-e-sh-´p-∂-Xm-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- ]-Tn∏n-°p-∂- Pn-lm-sZ-∂v- {]-N-cn-∏n-°p-∂-h¿- A-Xn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬Jp¿-B≥- Xn-cp-Ø-W-sa-∂v- B-h-iy-s∏-´p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-I-bmWn-t∏mƒ.- \n-jv-I-f-¶-cm-b- B-fp-Iƒ- C-Xn¬- h-©n-X-cm-hp-Ibm-Wv.- Jp¿-B-\n¬- \-s√m-cp- i-X-am-\w- kq-Iv-X-ß-fpw- ]-ctemI- hn-izm-k-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´-Xm-Wv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- B¿°v- F-¥v- _p-≤n-ap-´m-Wp-≠-m-Ip-∂-Xv?- a-\p-jy¿- Xm-t¥m-∂nI-fm-bn- Po-hn-®m-epw- th-≠n-√- A-h¿- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- A-Sp°-cp-Xv- F-∂m-Wv- ]-e-cp-sS-bpw- Nn-¥m-K-Xn.a-Zy-]m-\-a-S-°-ap-≈- A-[m¿-an-I- {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn¬- ap-gpIn-bn-cp-∂-h-\m-bn-cp-∂p- Rm≥.- A-Xn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- F-s≥-d- IpSpw-_-°m-cm-cpw- F-s∂- ]-gn-°p-I-tbm- F-t∂m-Sv- sX-‰pI-tbmsN-bv-Xn-´n-√.- F-∂m¬- H-cp- kp-{]-`m-X-Øn¬- F-√m- tXm-∂ymk-ß-fpw- Rm≥- A-h-km-\n-∏n-°p-I-bpw- ap-kv-en-am-bn- Po-hn°m≥- Xp-S-ßp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-t∏mƒ- kz-¥-°m¿- F-s∂- sh-dpØp-;- F-t∂m-Sv- ]n-W-ßn.- F-s≥-d- k-tlm-Z-c≥- F-s∂- ImWp-tºmƒ- I-Tn-\-am-b- sh-dp-t∏m-sS- Im¿°n-®v- Xp-∏n- ap-JwXn-cn-°pw.- ]-t£,- F-√m-h-cpw- F-∂n¬-\n∂v- A-I-ep-t¥m-dpwRm≥- Iq-Sp-X¬- Iq-Sp-X¬-A-h-cp-am-bn- A-Sp-°m≥- {i-an-®p.AXp-sIm-≠v- A-hc
- p-sS- sh-dp-∏v- A-hk
- m-\n-®p.- C-kvem-an-t\mSvap-ºp-≠m-bn-cp-∂- sh-dp-∏v- A-h-cn¬-\n-∂v- \o-ßn-bn-´p-≠v.C-kv-em-an¬- kv-{Xo-°v- kzm-X-{¥y-an-√- F-∂- B-tcm-]-WtØm-Sv- Xm-¶-fp-sS- {]-Xn-I-c-Ww?
kv-{Xo-°v- G-‰-hpw- Iq-Sp-X¬- kz-m-X-{¥yw- \¬-In-b- a-XamWv- C-kv-emw- F-∂m-Wv- Rm≥- a-\- n-em-°p-∂-Xv.- kv-{Xo°v- X-s≥-d- i-co-c-Øn-s≥-d- A-Im-c-h-Sn-hpw- \-Kv-\-X-bpw- {]-Z¿in-∏n-°m-\pw- A-\y-]p-cp-j-s≥-d- Iq-sS- A-g-n-™m-Sn- \-S-°m\pw- A-\p-hm-Zw- \¬-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv- b-Ym¿-Y- kzm-X-{¥y-sa-∂v[-cn-®p-sh-®n-cn-°p-∂- B-[p-\n-I- k-aq-lØ
- n-s≥-d- I-Æn¬- AXns\m-∂pw- A-\p-hm-Zw- \¬-Im-Ø- C-kv-emw- kv-{Xo- kzm-X-{¥yØn-s\-Xn-cm-tb-°mw.- F-∂m¬- hm-kv-X-hw- adn-®m-Wv.- I-gp-I°-Æp-Iƒ- X-ß-fp-sS- \-Kv-\-ta-\n-sb- sIm-Øn-h-en-°m-Xn-cn°m≥-th-≠n- ]-cn-]q¿-W-am-bpw- \-Kv-\-X- a-d-®v- \-S-°m-\p-≈kzm-X-{¥yw- kv-{Xo-°v- C-kv-emw- \¬-In-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Xp-sIm≠v- A-hƒ-°v- Kp-Wa
- √
- m-sX- F-s¥-¶n-epw- tZm-ja
- p-s≠-∂v- B¿°pw- ]-d-bm-\m-hn-√.- kv-{Xo-°v- B-cm-[-\m- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- CW-sb- sX-c-s™-Sp-°m-\p-≈- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- th-≠n-h-∂m¬`¿-Øm-hn¬-\n-∂pw- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w- t\-Sm-\p-≈- k-zm-X-{¥yhpw- kz-Ø-h-Im-i-hp-sam-s°- \¬-In-b- C-kv-em-an-s\- kv-{Xohn-cp-≤-sa-∂v- hym-Jym-\n-°p-∂-h-cp-sS- D-t±-iy--ip-≤n-sb- kw-ibn-t°-≠nbn-cn-°p-∂p.-

P-\ß
- ƒ-°v- Ip-sd- \-√- Im-cy-߃- sN-bvX
- p-sIm-Sp-Øv- Ahcp-am-bn- A-Sp-ØX
- n-\p-ti-jw- {]-t_m-[\
- - {]-h¿-Ø\
- w- \-SØ
- pIb
mW
v

a
wF∂
Bi
b
t
ØmS
v
Xm¶
ƒtbmP

p∂pC-sXm-∂pw- a-\ 
- n-em-°m-sX-bm-Wv- ]-ec
- pw- Jp¿-B≥- Xncpthm-?
kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

38

A-`n-ap-JwP-\-ß-sf- k-lm-bn-°-Ww-;- A-Xv- hn-izm-kn-bp-sS- _m-[yX-bm-Wv.- ]-t£,- A-Xv- {]-t_m-[-\-Øn-\p-≈- am¿-K-am-bn- kzoI-cn-°-cp-Xv.- Po-h-Im-cp-Wy- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- \-S-Øm≥- F-ºmSpw- kw-L-S-\-I-fpw- kv-Ym-]-\-ß-fpw- \-Ωp-sS- \m-´n-ep-≠v.]t£,- C-kv-em-an-s\- A-Xn-s≥d- ]-cn-ip-≤n-tbm-sS- ]-cn-N-bs∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥- \yq-\-]-£-ta-bp-≈q.- ]-c-tem-I- c-£-bm-Wv- G‰-hpw- {]-[m-\w.- A-Xn-\v- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n-°-Ww.A-h-s≥-d- I¬-]-\-Iƒ- A-\p-k-cn-®v- Po-hn-°-Ww.- A-Xn-te°v- B-fp-I-sf- £-Wn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- Im-cp-Wy{]-h¿-Ø-\w.A-dn-hv- ]q¿-W-am-b-h-t\- {]-t_m-[-\w- \-S-Øm≥- A¿-lX-bp-≈q- F-s∂m-cp- hm-Zw- Nn-e¿-°p-∂p-≠v.- A-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hns≥d- ]n≥-_-e-an-√-;- am-{X-a-√- {]-t_m-[-\- {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-sfac-hn-∏n-°p-∂- hm-Z-am-W-Xv.- "em- C-em-l- C-√-√m-lp'-hn-s≥-dA¿-Yw- a-\- n-em-°n-b-h≥- A-Xv- {]-t_m-[-\w- sN-ø-Ww.- \∑- I¬-]n-°-epw- Xn-∑- hn-tcm-[n°-epw- ap-kv-enw-I-fp-sS- k-hnti-j-X-bm-bm-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- A-dn-hv- ]q¿-W-am-bh¿-t°- A-Xn-s\m-s°- A¿-l-X-bp-≈q- F-∂p-h-∂m¬- F-¥mbn-cn-°pw- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- A-hkvY!-

\p-≈- D-]-tZ-i-sa-¥m-Wv-?
a-c-Ww- F-t∏m-gpw- kw-`-hn-t®-°mw.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- Jp¿-B\pw- \-_n-N-cy-bpw- ]n≥-]-‰n- Po-hn°-p-I.- Iq-Sp-X¬- Iq-Sp-X¬]-Tn-°p-I.- `u-Xn-I-am-b- Xm¬-]-cy-ß-fn-√m-sX- ]-c-tem-I-- c-£ap∂n¬-I≠
- v- B-Xa
v- m¿-Ya
- m-bn- A-[zm-\n-°p-I.- C-Xm-Wv- ap-kvenwk-tlm-Z-c-ß-tfm-Sv- F-\n-°v- ]-d-bp-hm-\p-≈-Xv.A-ap-kv-enw- k-tlm-Z-c-ß-tfm-Sv- F-\n-°v- A-t]-£n-°m-\p≈-Xv- C-Xm-Wv-:- C-kv-emw- hn-a¿-i-I-cp-sS- hm-°p-Iƒ- am-{XwtI-´v- C-kve
- m-an-s\-∏‰
- n- tam-ia
- m-b- [m-cW
- - sh-®p-]p-e¿-Øc
- pXv.kz-bw- ]-Tn-®-dnb-m≥- X-bm-dm-hp-I.- C-l-tem-I-Øv- H-cp- Nm≥tk- \-ap-°p-≈q.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- A-Xv- \-jSv- s
- ∏-Sp-Øm-Xn-cn-°pI.k-Xyw- I-s≠-Øm≥- {i-an-°p-I.- I-s≠-Øn-°-gn-™m¬- AXv- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®v- Po-hn-°p-I.- im-iz-X- c-£-°v- G-I-ssZ-h-hnizm-kw- A-\n-hm-cy-am-sW-∂v- a-\- n-em-°p-I.-

\-_n-(A)- Im-Wn-®p-X-∂- H-cp- {]-t_m-[-\- ssi-en-bp-≠v.A-Xm-Wv- \-Ωƒ- kzo-I-cn-t°-≠-Xv.- Cu-Ø-∏-g-hpw- H-eo-hpwH´-I-ß-fpw- \¬-In- P-\-a-\- p-I-fn-te-°v- I-b-dn-°q-Sn-b-ti-jwC-kve
- m-an-s\-∏‰
- n- ]-d™
p-sIm-Sp-Ø H-cp- kw-`h
- h
- pw- {]hmNIN-cn-{X-Øn-tem- Jp¿-B-\n-tem- l-Zo-Y-n-tem- Im-Wp-hm-\n-√.a-X-]-cn-h¿-Ø-\w- \n-tcm-[n-°-Ww- F-∂- hm-Z-sØ-°p-dn®vXm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?
a-Xw- F-∂p-]-d-™m¬- A-Xn-s≥-d- A¿-Yw- A-`n-{]m-bw- F
∂m-Wv.- A-`n-{]m-bw- ]-d-bm-\pw- A-`n-{]m-bw- am-‰m-\pw- \-Ω-psS\m-´n¬- hn-e-°p-I-fn-√.- X-s≥-d- hn-izm-k˛ B-cm-[-\m- ap-d-IƒG-Xm-bn-cn-°-W-sa-∂v- Xo-cp-am-\n-°m≥- Hm-tcm- C-¥y≥- ]u-c\pw- A-\p-hm-Z-ap-≠v.- ]m-c-º-cy-hn-izm-k-Øn¬-\n-∂v- H-cn-°-epwam-dm≥- ]m-Sn-s√-∂v- `-c-W-L-S-\-bn¬- F-hn-sS-bpw- ]-d-bp-∂pan-√.- {]-tem-`n-∏n-t®m- \n¿-_-\v-[n-t®m- a-X-]-cn-h¿-Ø-\w- \SØp-∂-Xn-s\- C-kv-emw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂n-√.a-X-Xo-{h-hm-Z-sØ-°p-dn-®v- Xm-¶-fp-sS- A-`n-{]m-bw-?
Xo-{h-hm-Zs
- Ø- C-kve
- mw- AwKo-Ic
- n-°p-∂n-√.- Xo-{h-X- H∂nepw- ]m-Sn-√.- C-kv-em-an-I- cm-jv-{SØn≥-Io-gn¬- Po-hn-°p-∂- Aap-kv-en-a-Iƒ-°v- kw-c-£-Ww- \¬-Im-\m-Wv- C-kv-emw- A-\pim-kn-°p-∂-Xv-;- A-h-sc- sIm-s∂m-Sp-°m-\-√.- ao-Un-b-I-fp-sSIp-Xv-kn-X- {i-a-ß-fm¬- C-kv-em-an-s\- Xo-{h-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- a-Xam-bn- P-\-߃- sX‰n-≤-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.- H-cp- ap-kv-enw- \m-a-[mcn- sX-‰v- sN-bv-Xm¬- A-Xv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- I-W-°n¬- F-gp-Xnt®¿-°p-∂- {]-h-W-X- am-[y-a-tem-I-Øp-≠v.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- t]cn¬- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂- Xo-{h-hm-Zk
- w-LS- \
- I
- ƒ- C-√- F-∂v- Rm≥]-d-bp-∂n-√.- F-∂m¬- A-Xn-s\m-∂pw- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ]n-¥pW-bn-√- F-∂-Xm-Wv- k-Xyw.- F-¥p-sIm-≠v- Xo-{h-hm-Z- kw-LS-\-Iƒ- D-S-se-Sp-°p-∂p- F-∂- Im-cy-hpw- Nn-¥n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.ap-kv-enw-I-tfm-Spw- A-ap-kv-en-a-I-tfm-Spw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- \¬-Imkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

39

A-`n-ap-Jw-

\-∑- h-f¿-Øp-∂- a-Xwjm-en- F.- l-Iow-,- tIm-S-t©-cn-

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv- Pn-√-bn-se- tIm-S-t©-cn-bn¬- P-\n-®p.- Xo-{ham-b- a-X-t_m-[-ap-≈- H-cp- Ip-Spw-_-a-s√-¶n-epw- ln-µp- F-∂t]-cn-¬-- A-`n-am-\n-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv- F-s≥-d- Ip-Spw-_mw-K-߃.- DZb-\p-Æ-n- F-∂- Cu-g-h- bp-hm-hn-\v- F-s∂- hn-hm-lw- sN-bv-XpsIm-Sp-°p-tºmƒ- `m-hn-bn¬- X-ß-fp-sS- a-cp-a-I≥- A-_v-Zp¬l-I-ow- F-∂- ap-kv-en-am-bn-Ø-o-cp-sa-∂pw- X-ß-fp-sS- a-Iƒ- Ckvemw- B-t«-jn-°p-sa-∂pw- F-s≥-d- am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ- kz-]v-\Øn¬-t]m-epw- {]-Xo-£n-®n-´p-≠m-In-√.- F-¥n-t\-sd- Rm≥t]mepw- A-ß-s\-bm-W-t√m.Nn-e- C-kv-em-an-I- {]-kn-≤o-I-c-W-߃- F-s≥-d- `¿-Øm-hvhm-bn-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-tºmƒ- sN-dn-b- A-\n-jv-Sw- tXm-∂n-bncp-s∂-¶n-epw- F-Xn¿-Øn-√.- A-Xv- A-t±-l-sØ- C-kv-em-an-te°v- \-bn-°p-sa-∂v- Rm≥- Nn-¥n-®n-cp-∂n-√.- A-t±-lw- ap-kv-enam-b-t∏mƒ- Rm≥- i-cn-°pw s]m-´n-sØ-dn-®p.- Ip-Sp-w-_-°m¿°n-S-bn¬- F-\n-°p-≠m-tb-°m-hp-∂- am-\-t°-Spw- A-h-cn¬-\n∂pw- t\-cn-tS-≠n-h-cp-∂- `o-j-Wn-I-fpw- k¿-thm-]-cn- hr-ØnsI-´- H-cp- a-X-am-W-t√m- C-kv-emw- F-∂- Nn-¥-bp-am-Wv- F-s∂h-√m-sX- ]n-Sn-®p-e-®-Xv.- H-cp- ho-´n¬- R-߃- A-I-∂v- Po-hn®p.Rm≥- F-s∂-s°m-≠m-hpw-hn-[w- A-t±-l-sØ- im-co-cn-I-hpwam-\-kn-I-hp-am-bn- ]o-Un-∏n-®p.- ]-t£,- A-t±-lw- A-hn-iz-k\o-b-am-b- \n-e-bv-°v- £-a- Im-Wn-°p-I-bpw- F-s∂- D-]-tZ-in°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.- H-cp-]m-Sv- \-√- Kp-W-߃- apºv- I-≠n-´n-√m-Ø- hn-[-Øn¬- A-t±-l-Øn¬- Rm≥- I-m-Wphm≥- Xp-S-ßn.- a-Zy-]m-\w-t]m-epw- A-t±-lw- H-gn-hm-°-n-b-Xv-Fs≥-d- a-\- n¬- N-e-\-ap-≠m-°n-Ø-p-S-ßn.- A-t±-lw- ]-d-bp-∂Xv- tIƒ-°p-hm-\pw- A-t±-lw- Xcp∂- ]p-kv-X-I-߃- hm-bn°p-hm-\pw- Xp-S-ßn.- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- A-Sp-°pw- Nn-´-bp-ap-≈- Hcp- k-Po-h- a-X-am-Wv- C-kv-emw- F-∂v- F-\n-°v- t_m-[y-s∏-´pXp-S-ßn.- A-ß-s\- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- Rm≥- I-S-∂p-h-∂p.- Ct∏mƒ- F-√m- sh-≈n-bm-gv-N-bpw- ]-≈n-bn-te-°v- t]m-Ipw.- Jp¿B≥- ]-T-\- ¢m- -p-I-fn¬- ]-s¶-Sp-°p-∂p-≠v.- Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- Hc¿-Ya
- p-≈X
- m-bpw- H-cp-]m-Sv- \-∑I
- ƒ- sN-tø-≠X
- p-≠v- F-∂- tXm∂-ep-≠m-b-Xpw- C-t∏m-gm-Wv.ap-lΩ
- Z- v- \-_n-(A)-bp-sS-bpw- A-\p-Nc
- ∑
- m-cp-sS-bpw- XymtKmPz-e- Po-hn-X-I-Y-Iƒ- hm-bn-°p-tºmƒ- hn-izm-kw- Iq-Sn-°q-Sn-hcn-I-bpw- \n- -m-c-∑m-cm-b- \-Ωƒ- F-¥v- Xym-K-am-Wv- sN-øp-∂XvF-∂- Nn-¥- D-b-cp-I-bpw- sN-øpw.- kw-ip-≤-am-b- Po-hn-Xw- \bn®- a-lm-\m-bn-cp-∂p- {]-hm-N-I≥.- k¬-kz-`m-h-hpw- Imcp-Wyhpw- a-s‰-√m- D-Ø-a-Kp-W-ß-fpw- H-Øp-tN¿-∂- A-t±-l-Øn-\vXp-ey-\m-bn- H-cp- B-Nm-cy-s\-bpw- I-s≠-Øp-I- km-[ya-√.-

hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-Tn-°p-hm≥- \n-Xy-hpw- Rm≥- k-a-bwI-s≠-Øp-∂p-≠v.- A-\n¿-h-N-\o-b-am-sbm-cp- B-Xv-am-\p-`q-XnJp¿-B≥- ]-T-\-Øn-eq-sS- F-\n-°v- In-´p-∂p-≠v.- A-Xv- ssZ-h-hN-\ß
- f
- m-Wv- F-∂- k-Xyw- Nn-¥n-°p-tºm-gm- W
- v- Iq-Sp-X¬- AXpam-bn- A-Sp-°m≥- tXm-∂p-∂X
- v.- {]-]©
- - {k-jSv- m-hn¬-\n-∂v- AhXo¿-W-am-b-Xv- F-∂v- ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂- H-cp- th-Z-{K-\v-Ywln-µp-a-X-Øn¬- Rm≥- I-≠n-´n-√.ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS- h-kv-{X-[m-c-Wm- co-Xn-tbm-Sv- ]-t≠F-\n-°v- ]p-O-am-bn-cp-∂p.- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- I-S-∂p-h-∂-bp-S-s\bpw- B- co-Xn- kzo-I-cn-°m≥- F-\n-°v- A¬-]w- a-Sn-bp-≠m-bncp-∂p.- F-∂m¬- C-∂v- Rm≥- A-Xv- A-tß-b-‰w- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp∂p.- F-√m- kv-{Xo-I-fpw- C-kv-em-an-I- h-kv-{X-[m-c-W- co-Xn- kzoI-cn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- F-∂v- Rm≥- B-{K-ln-®p-t]m-Im-dp-≠v.kv-{Xo-Iƒ-s°-Xn-sc-bp-≈- H-cp-]m-Sv- I-tø-‰-߃-°v- A-Xv- X-Sbn-Sp-sa-∂v- F-\n-°v- ]q¿-W- t_m-[y-ap-≠v.- ap-kv-enw- kv-{Xo-Ifn¬-s]-´- \-s√m-cp- i-X-am-\-t]-cpw- b-Ym¿-Y-am-b- C-kv-em-an-Ih-kv{- X-[m-cW
- c
- o-Xn- kzo-Ic
- n-®p-Im-Wp-∂n-√.- a-dt- °-≠p-∂- icoc-`m-K-߃- a-d-°m-sX- ]p-d-Øn-d-ßn-bm¬- ]-c-tem-I-Øv- I-Tn\am-bn- in-£n-°-s∏-Spw- F-∂- Im-cyw- a-\- n-em-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm≠m-bn-cn-°mw- A-Xv.ap-kve
- nw-Iƒ- b-Ym¿-Y- C-kve
- m-a\
- p-kc
- n-®v- Po-hn-°m≥- Xbmdm-hm-Ø-Xm-Wv- a-‰p-≈-h¿- C-kv-em-an-s\- tam-i-am-b- a-X-am-bnIm-Wp-hm≥- Im-c-W-sa-∂m-W- v- F-s≥-d- A-\p-`-hw.- ap-kv-enw-Iƒhn-iz-kn-°m≥- sIm-≈m-Ø-h-cm-Wv-;- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- ]-cn-N-b-ap≈- ap-kv-enwIƒ- A-Ø-c-°m-cm-b-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv- A-ß-s\- ]dbp-∂-Xv.- Xo-{h-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- ap-kv-enw-I-sf- B-t£]n-°p-∂-Xn-\pw- Im-c-W-°m¿- Nn-e- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- X-s∂-bm-sW∂m-Wv- Rm≥- a-\- n-em-°p-∂-Xv.F-¥m-Wv- C-ke
v- m-sa-∂v- a-\ 
- n-em-°m≥- ap-ke
v- nw-Iƒ-Xs
- ∂X-bm-dm-Ip-∂n-√.- B- A-h-kv-Y-°v- am-‰-ap-≠m-I-Ww.- Jp¿-B\pw- \-_n-N-cy-bpw- ]-Tn-°m≥- A-h¿- ap-t∂m-´v- h-c-Ww.- ]-Tn-®va-\- n-em-°n-b- Im-cy-߃- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- ]-I¿-Øm≥- X-bmdmh-Ww.- F-¶n¬- C-X-c- a-X-kv-Y¿-°v- C-kv-em-an-t\m-Sp-≈- shdp∏vC-√m-Xm-Ipw.sX-‰n-≤m-cW
- I
- f
- n¬- A-Is
- ∏-´v- C-ke
v- m-an-s\- A-ha
- X
- n-°p∂C-X-c- a-X-kv-Y-cpw- k-Xyw- a-\- n-em-°m≥- k-∑-\- v- Im-Wn°-Ww.- C-kv-em-w-- hn-a¿-i-I-cn¬-\n-∂-√m-sX- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-pdn-®v- ]-Tn-°m≥- X-bm-dm-h-Ww.- ]-c-kv-]-chn-izm-k-an-√m-bv-a-bpwhn-tZz-j-h-pw- C-√m-Xm-°p-hm≥- ]-c-kv-]-cw- a-\- n-em-°¬- A\nhm-cy-am-Wv.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

40

A-`n-ap-Jw-

k-am-[m-\-Øn-s‚- im-Zz-e-Xo-cwA-_v-Zp-d-lv-am≥-,- \n-e-ºq¿-

G-tXm- H-cp- \n-an-j-Øn¬- C-kv-em-an-s\-°-p-dn-®v- A-dn-bm\p-≈- B-{K-lw- D-≈n¬- \m-sº-Sp-Øp.- ap-kv-enw- kp-lr-Øp°-fp-am-bn- kw-h-Zn-®p.- Nn-e- {]-`m-j-W-߃- tI-´p.-- ln-µp-a-Xhn-izm-kn-bm-bn-cp-∂- F-\n-°v- C-kv-em-an-se- ]-c-tem-I- hn-izmk-sØ- s]-s´-s∂m-∂pw- Dƒ-s°m-≈m≥- I-gn-™n-√.- ap-kv-enwkp-lr-Øp-°-fp-am-bn- Cu- hn-j-b-Øn¬- X¿-°n-®p.- Iq-sS- Jp¿B≥- ]-Tn-°-p-hm≥- Xp-S-ßn.- H-Sp-hn¬- G-I-ssZ-h- hn-izm-kØn-s≥-d {]m-[m-\y-hpw- _-lp-ssZ-hm-cm-[-\-bp-sS- hy¿-Y-X-bpwF-\n-°v- t_m-[y-am-bn.- ]p-\¿-P-∑- kn-≤m-¥-Øn-\v- A¿-Y-hpwsX-fn-hp-an-s√-∂pw- C-kv-emw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂- ]-c-tem-I- hn-izmk-am-Wv- i-cn- F-∂pw- Rm≥- a-\- n-em-°n.C-l-tem-I-Øn-se- kp-J-hpw- hn-P-b-hpw- am-{Xw- Imw-£n°p-∂-h¿-°v- F-¥v- sN-bv-Xm-epw- a-\- -am-[m-\w- e-`n-s®-∂p-hcn-√.- A-h¿-°v- sN-dn-b- ]-co-£-W-߃-t]m-epw- t\-cn-Sm≥- Ign-bn-√.- F-∂m¬- ]m-c-{Xn-I- hn-P-bw- e-£y-am-°p-∂-h¿-°v- Cutem-IØ
- n-se- H-cp- \-jvS- h
- pw- \-jvS- a
- m-bn- tXm-∂p-Ib
- n-√.- A√mØ-h-cm-Wv- B-Xv-a-l-Xy-I-fn¬- A-`-bw- I-s≠-Øp-∂-XvC-kv-em-an-te-°v- I-S-∂p-h-∂-Xn-\p-ti-jw- h-√- {]-Xn-k-\v[n-bpw- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-t°-≠n-h-∂n-´p-t≠m?kz-¥w- ho-´n-epw- `m-cym-ho-´n-epw- I-S-bn-ep-sam-s°- F-\n°v- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-≠m-bn.- km-º-Øn-I-am-bn- sR-cp-°-ap-≠m-bn.k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\n¬- `-c-ta¬-]n-®-Xn-\m¬- Rm≥- ]n-Sn-®p-\n-∂p.F-√mw- ss[-cy-am-bn- t\-cn-´p.- C-kv-em-an¬- F-s∂- G-‰-hp-a-[nIw- B-I-¿-jn-®- Im-cyw-X-s∂- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n°p-I- F-∂- X-Ø-z-am-Wv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- F-s≥-d- {kjvSm-hv,- I-cp-Wm-a-b-\m-b- {k-jv-Sm-hv- F-s∂- ssI-hn-Sn-√- F∂- D-Ø-a- t_m-[w- F-\n-°p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- A-h≥- F-s∂- klm-bn-®p.\-_n-(A)-s°-Xn-sc- Nn-e- tI-{µ-ß-fn¬- \n-∂p-b-cp-∂- Zp-cmtcm-]-W-ß-sf-∏-‰n- Xm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?k-I-e-hn-[- A-[m¿-an-I-X-I-fpw- sIm-Sn-Ip-Øn-hm-Wn-cp-∂\m-´n¬- bm-sXm-cp-hn-[- sX-‰n-epw- A-I-s∏-Sm-sX- "hn-iz-kv-X≥'F-∂- t]-cn¬- A-dn-b-s∏-´- a-lm-\m-Wv- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- (A).A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- \m¬-]-Xm-a-sØ- h-b- n-em-Wv- A-√m-lp- At±-l-sØ- Zq-X-\m-bn- \n-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv.- hy-Iv-Xn-]-c-am-bbmsXm-cp- Zq-jy-hpw- A-t±-lØ
- n¬- B-tcm-]n-°m≥- i-{Xp-°ƒ°v- I-gn-™n-´n-√-.- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn- F-∂- \n-ebv-°v- F-√m-h¿-°pwA-t±-l-tØm-Sv- a-Xn-∏m-bn-cp-∂p.- A-t±-lw- sIm-≠p-h-∂- BZ¿iw- A-kzo-Im-cy-am-bn- I-≠-h¿- A-Xn-s≥-d- t]-cn-em-Wv- A-t±lsØ- F-Xn¿-Ø-Xv.- A-\v-[-am-b- hn-tcm-[-ap-≈-h-cm-Wv- A-t±-lkv-s]-jy¬-

Øn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- Zp-cm-tcm-]-W-߃- D-∂-bn-°p-∂-Xv.hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-cn-jv-I-cn-°-W-sa-∂- Nn-e-cp-sS- hm-ZsØ- Xm-¶ƒ- F-ß-s\- t\m-°n-°-m-Wp-∂p?Jp¿-B≥- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- h-N-\-ß-fm-Wv.- A-Xv- ]-cn-jvI-cn-°p-hm-t\m- A-Xn¬- Xn-cp-Ø-ep-Iƒ- \-S-Øp-hm-t\m- a-\pjy¿-°v- A-h-Im-i-an-√.- B-sc-¶n-epw- F-gp-Xn-b- im-kv-{X-˛kmln-Xy- Ir-Xn-Iƒ- ]-cn-jv-I-cn-s®-gp-X-W-sa-∂v- ]-d-bp-tºm-sessZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- {K-\v-Yw- Xn-cp-Øn- F-gp-X-W-sa-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂h¿- kz-bw- ]-cn-lm-ky-cm-hp-I-bm-Wv- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- A-Xn-\-hsc- t{]-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- A-\v-[-am-b- hn-tcm-[-hpw- X-ß-fp-sSkzm¿Y- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-s°-Xn-cm-b- Im-cy-߃- A-Xn¬- ]-dbp-∂p-≠v- F-∂-Xp-a-m-Wv.- A-X-√m-sX- am-\-hn-I-X-s°-Xn-cm-bFs¥-¶n-epw- I-≠-Xp-sIm-≠-√.kv-{Xo-I-sf- A-Sn-®-a¿-Øp-∂- a-X-am-Wv- C-kv-emw- F-∂- Btcm-]-W-sØ-Ip-dn-®v- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?A-Xn¬- H-´pw- hm-kv-X-h-an-√.- C-kv-em-an-s\-t∏-m-se- kv-{Xosb- B-Z-cn-°p-I-bpw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X- th-sdm-cpa-X-hp-an-√.- `m-cy,- am-Xm-hv,- a-Iƒ,- k-tlm-Z-cn- Xp-S-ßn- F-√m\n-e-I-fn-epw- A-hƒ-°v- \¬-Ip-∂- kv-Ym-\-hpw- B-Z-c-hpsams°- B-tcm-]-I¿- a-\- n-em-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- aq-{Xsam-gn-®t- i-jw s
- h-≈w-sIm-≠v- hr-Øn-bm-°p-∂X
- n-s\-hs
- c- Bt£-]n-°p-∂h¿- \-ap-°n-S-bn-ep-≠v.- kv-{Xo-Iƒ- \-Kv-\-X- {]-Z¿in-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-s\- kzm-X-{¥y-am-bpw- C-kv-emw- A-\p-im-kn-°p∂- \n-e-bn¬- i-co-cw- a-d-°p-∂-Xn-s\- ]m-c-X-{¥y-am-bpw- A-ßs\-bp-≈h
- ¿- hym-Jym-\n-°p-∂p-≠v.- hn-a¿-in-°m≥-th-≠n-bp-≈hn-a¿-i-\w- F-∂p-am-{X-sa- C-Xn-s\-°-p-dn-®v- ]-d-bm-\-p-≈q.Po-h-Im-cp-Wy- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃-h-gn- C-kv-em-an-I- {]-t_m[-\w- \-S-Øp-∂-Xm-Wv- Iq-Sp-X¬- ^-e-{]-Z-sa-∂-hm-Z-tØm-SvXm¶ƒ- tbm-Pn-°p-∂p-t≠m?C-√.- Po-h-Im-cp-Wy- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- ]m-c-{Xn-I-tam-£wB-{K-ln-®m-Wv- sN-tø-≠-Xv.- A-Xv- hn-izm-kn-I-fp-sS- _m-[y-Xbm-Wv.- A-Xn-s\- {]-t_m-[-\-Øn-\p-≈- ]m-e-am-°p-hm≥- C-kvemw- A-\p-h-Zn-°p-∂n-√- F-∂m-Wv- Rm≥- a-\- n-em-°p-∂-Xv.a- X - ] - c n- h ¿- Ø - \ w- \n- t cm- [ n- ° - W - s a- ∂ B- h - i y- s ØXm¶ƒ- F-ß-s\- t\m-°n-°-m-Wp-∂p?\n-tcm-[n-°m≥- km-[n-°p-∂- H-∂-√- A-Xv.- a-t‰-Xv- \n-b-ahpw- ew-Ln-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-t]m-se- A-ß-s\-sbm-cp- \n-b-ahp-wewLn-°-s∏-Spw.- hn-izm-kw- a-\- n¬- A-Sn-bp-d-®m¬- Bhnizmkw- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬-\n-∂v- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-sb- ]n-¥n-cn]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

41

A-`n-ap-Jw∏n-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√.-

hn-[n-bn-√m-sX- hm-bn-°p-I.-

C-kv-em-apw- Xo-{h-hm-Z-hpw- X-Ωn¬- h-√- _-\v-[hp-ap-s≠∂vXm-¶ƒ- a-\- n-em-°n-bn-´p-t≠m?H-cn-°-ep-an-√.- C-kv-emw- an-X-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- a-X-am-Wv.- Xo{h-hm-Z-Øn-s\-Xn-sc- i-Iv-X-am-b- `m-j-bn¬- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- Xm°o-X- v- \¬-In-bn-´p-≠v.kv-t\-l-kw-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- hm-b-\-°m-tcm-Sv- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- h√Xpw- ]-d-bm-\p-t≠m-?Xp-ey-X-bn-√m-Ø- H-cp- {]-kn-≤o-I-c-W-am-Wv- kv-t\-l-kwhm-Zw.- k-Xy-am¿-K-Øn-te-°p-≈- b-Ym¿-Y- h-gn-Im-´n-bm-W-Xv.B-Z¿-i-ß-fp-sS- k-Xym-k-Xy-ß-sf- am-‰p-c-°p-∂- am-kn-I-bmW-Xv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-Xs
- ∂- A-Xv- a-\ 
- d
- n-™v- hm-bn-°p-I.- ap≥-

]-T-n-®-Xv- ssh-Zn-I-\m-hm-≥A-_-vZp- -a-Zv,- I-Æq¿-

H-cp- ssh-Zn-I\
- m-Im≥-th-≠n- C-dß
- n-Øn-cn-®v- H-Sp-hn¬- apkven-am-bn- am-dn-b- A-_v-Zp- -a-Zv- X-s≥-d- B-Z¿-i-am-‰-sØ-°p-dn®v]-d-bp-∂p:Rm-s\m-cp- ssh-Zn-I- hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- aq-∂p-h¿-jw]-Tn-®p.- bm-t°m-_m-b- k-`-bm-bn-cp-∂p- F-t≥-d-Xv.- G-I-ssZ-hhn-izm-k-am-Wv- k-I-e- {]-hm-N-I-∑m-cpw- ]-Tn-∏n-®-Xv.- F-∂m¬tb-ip-hn-s\- Im-Wp-I-t]m-epw- sN-øm-Ø- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- A\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- X-´n-°q-´n-b-Xm-Wv- C-∂v- Im-Wp-∂- ss_-_nƒ.eqt°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw- H-∂mw- A-[ym-b-Øn-se- H-∂pap-X¬- \m-ep-h-sc-bp-≈- h-N-\-߃- C-ß-s\- hm-bn-°mw-:""{io-am-\m-b- sX-tbm-^n-tem-tk,- B-Zn-ap-X¬- I-≠- km£n-I-fpw- h-N-\-Øn-s≥-d- ip-{iq-j-I-cp-am-b-h¿- \-sΩ- `-c-ta¬]n-®-Xp-t]m-se,- \-Ωp-sS- C-S-bn¬- ]q¿-W-am-bn- {]-am-Wn-®p-hcp-∂- Im-cy-ß-sf- hn-h-cn-°p-∂- H-cp- N-cn-{Xw- N-sa-∏m≥- ]-ecpw- Xp-\n-™n-cn-°-sIm-≠v- \n-\-°v- D-]-tZ-iw- e-`n-®n-cn-°p-∂hm¿-Ø-bpw- \n-iv-N-bw- \o- Adn-tb-≠-Xn-\v- A-Xv- {I-a-am-bnFgp-Xp-∂-Xp- \-s∂-∂v- B-Zn-ap-X¬- k-I-e-hpw- kq-£v-a-am-bn]-cn-tim-[n-®n-´v- F-\n-°pw- t_m-[y-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p''.- eq-t°m-kmWn-Xv- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- 12 in-jy-∑m-cn¬-s]-´-h-c-√a-Øm-bn-bpw- am¿-t°m-kpw- tbml-∂m-\pw- eq-t°m-kpw- ]utem-kpw.- C-hs
- cm-s°- X-´n-°q-´n-bX
- m-Wv- C-∂s
- Ø- ss_-_nƒ.A-Xn-i-tbm-Iv-Xn,- C-√m-Ø-I-Y-Iƒ,- tb-ip-hn-s\- A-]-am-\n-°p∂-X-c-Øn-ep-≈- ]-cm-a¿-i-߃- C-h-sbm-s°- A-S-ßn-b-Xm-WvA-Xv.- {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fm-I-s´- Ip-cn-in-s\- h-µn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv.]-≠v- G-‰-hpw- \o-N-∑m-cm-b- B-fp-I-sf- X-d-°p-∂-Xv- Ip-cn-in-em-bn-cp-∂p.- Ip-c-n-in¬- X-d-°-s∏´p-- sIm√-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv- A-{X-bpw\n-µy-I-c-am-b- H-∂m-bn-cp-∂p.- F∂n-´v- tb-ip-hn-s\- Ip-cn-in¬X-d-®p-sh-∂pw- A-t±-lw- A-ß-s\- h-[n-°-s∏-´p-sh-∂pw- {Inkv-Xym\n-Iƒ- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂p.- B- Ipcn-in-s\- B-cm-[n-°p-I-

bpw- sN-øp-∂p-!- Ip-cn-in-eq-sS- bm-sXm-cp- A-Xv-`p-X-hpw- \-S-∂Xm-bn- ss_-_nƒ- ]-d-bp-∂n-√.- ss__nƒ- ]-e-X-h-W- hm-bn®n-´pw- F-s≥-d- kw-i-߃- \o-ßn-bn-√-.- F-∂p-am-{X-a-√,- A-Xnse- ssh-cp-[y-߃- F-s∂- Akz-kv-Y-\m-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.B-scm-s°-tbm- X-ß-fp-sS- Xm¬-]-cy-߃-°-\p-k-cn-®vIpsd- k-`-Iƒ- cq-]o-I-cn-®p.- ]m-c-º-cy-am-bn- A-X-ß-s\- Xp-S¿∂p-h-cp-∂p.- H-∂n-\pw- {]-am-W-ß-fp-sS- ]n≥-_-e-an-√.- a-e-sh≈-∏m-®n-en-se- \p-c-t]m-se- H-gp-In-\-S-°m≥- F-s≥-d- a-\- vhn-k-Ω-Xw- Im-Wn-®p-Xp-S-ßn.- A-ß-s\- H-cp- Un-kw-_¿- 25\vRm≥- C-kv-emw- kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- B-cp-sS-bpw- t{]-cW-tbm- D-]-tZ-i-tam- Cu- hn-j-b-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-´n-√.- c-≠p-h¿jw-ap-ºv- sse-{_-dn-bn¬-\n-∂v- Cu- \-_n-N-cy-sb-∏-‰n-bp-≈- Hcp]p-kv-X-Iw- hm-bn-®-X-√m-sX- a-s‰m-∂pw- hm-bn-®n-´p-an-√.C-kv-emw- kzo-I-cn-®-Xp-apX¬- C-∂p-h-sc-bpw- A-√m-lp-hns≥-d- k-lm-bw- Hm-tcm- {]-Xn-k-\v-[n-L-´-Øn-epw- F-\n-°v- In´nbn-´p-≠v.- {]-bm-k-ß-sf- X-c-Ww- sN-øm-\p-≈- {]m-]v-Xn-bpw- BXv-a-hn-izm-k-hpw- h¿-[n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v.- k¿-thm-]-cna-\- -am-[m-\w- F-s¥-∂v- Rm-\-dn-™-Xv- ap-kven-am-b-Xn-\p-tij-am-Wv.a-‰p- ]-e- a-X-ß-fpw- \n-e-hn-ep-≠m-bn-cn-s°- Xm-¶ƒ- C-kvem-an-s\- sX-c-s™-Sp-°p-hm-\p-≈- Im-c-Ww?ln-µp-aX
- w- hn-{K-lm-cm-[\
- b
- p-tS-Xm-Wv;- - sN-dp-∏w-ap-Xt- e- A
Xv- F-\n-°d
- n-bmw.- sN-dp-∏Ø
- n¬- {io-cm-a- N-cn-{X-hpw-a‰
- pw- Rm≥hm-bn-®n-´p-≠v.- {In-kv-Xo-b- {K-\v-Y-߃- [m-cm-fw- hm-bn-®n-´p-≠v.F-∂m¬- C-kv-em-an-I-am-b- H-cp- {K-\v-Y-hpw- hm-bn-®n-cp-∂n-√.- GI-ssZ-h- hn-izm-k-am-Wv- A-Xn-\p-≈-sX-∂v- Rm≥- a-\- n-em°n-bn-cp-∂p.- {k-jv-Sm-hn-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n-°p-I.- C-Xv- ]-Tn∏n-°p-∂-Xv- C-kv-emw- am-{X-am-Wv.- a-‰p-≈- a-X-ß-sfm-s°- ]-e-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

42

A-`n-ap-Jwhn-[-Øn¬- ssZ-h-Øn¬- ]-¶p-tN¿-°p-∂p-≠v.{In-kv-Xy≥- ]-≈n-I-sf-°p-dn-®pw- ]-≈n-I-fp-sS- `-c-W-L-S\sb-°p-dn-®pw- B-cm-[\
- m-{I-aß
- s
- f-°p-dn-®p-sam-s°- F-\n-°dnbmw.]-≈n-bp-sS- sk-{I-´-dn-bm-bpw- h¿-j-ß-tfm-fw- tk-h-\w- sN-bv
Xn-´p-≠v.- F-s≥-d- Po-hn-XØ
- n-ep-≠m-b- _p-≤n-ap-´p-If
- n¬-\n-s∂m∂pw- Hcp- ]p-Wy-hm-f-\pw- F-s∂- Xp-W-®n-´n-√.- tb-iphpw- c£s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´n-√.- A-h¿-°X
- n-\-v I-gn-bn-√.- A-Xn-\p-≈- Ignhv- {kjvSm-hn-t\-bp-≈q.- C-°m-cyw- t\¿-°p-t\-sc- ]-Tn-∏n-°p∂Xv- Ckv
emw- am-{X-am-W.v - A-Xp-sIm-≠-v Rm≥- C-ke
-v mw- sX-cs™SpØp.C-kv-em-an¬- Xm-¶-sf- G-‰-hpw- B-I¿-jn-®- L-S-IwG-I-ssZ-h- hn-izm-kw-X-s∂.- F-√m- {]-iv-\-ß-fpw- {k-jvSm-hn-t\m-Sv- ]-db
- p-I.- A-ht- \m-Sv- am-{Xw- {]m¿-Yn-°p-I.- A-h\n¬am-{Xw- `-ct- a¬-]n-°p-I.- C-Xv- h-√m-sØm-cp- B-Xva
- s
- s[-cyw- \¬Ip-∂- Im-cy-am-Wv.- Rm≥- a-‰p-≈- ap-kv-enw-I-sf- I-≠-√- C-kvemw- kzo-I-cn-®-Xv.- F-\n-°v- ]cn-N-b-ap-≈- `q-cn-`m-Kw- ap-kv-enwI-fpw- C-∏-d-™-Xn-\v- hn-]-co-X-am-bn- Po-hn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv.ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-sb- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- Xm-¶-fp-sS- A-`n-{]m-b-sa¥m-Wv?A-t±-lw- tem-Iw- Z¿i-n-®- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- a-lm-\pw- am-XrIm-]p-cp-j-\p-am-Wv.- ]-dbp-∂-sX-√mw- {]m-h¿-Øn-I-am-°n-b- AXp-ey-\m-b- t\Xm-hm-Wv- At±-lw.- F-∂m¬- Nn-e- hn-a¿-i-I¿A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- Nn-e- B-tcm-]-W-߃- D-∂-bn-°mdp-≠v.- A-t±-l-sØ-°-p-dn-®v- a-\- n-em-°m-Ø-h-tcm- a-\- n-em°n-bn-´pw- A-h-tl-fn-°m≥- {i-an-°p-∂-h-tcm- B-W-h¿.hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- \-_n-bpsS- c-N-\-bm-sW-∂- B-tcm-]W-sØ-°-p-dn-®v- Xm-¶ƒ- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p?-

A-]-I-S-ap-≠m-bm¬- A-h≥- s]m-´n-®-Xv- t_mw-_v-!- Ah≥- Xo{h-hm-Zn-bpw.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ]-‰n¬- F-gp-Xn-t®¿-°m-≥- H-cp- Xo{h-hm-Zn-Iq-Sn.- Pq-X-∑m-cm-b- C-{km-tb-ep-Im¿-- ap-kv-enw-I-fm-b^-e-kv-Xo-\n-I-fp-sS- \m-Spw- ho-Spw- Po-h-\pw- I-h¿-s∂-Sp-°ptºmƒ- A-Xv- Pq-X-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- I-W-°n¬-s]-Sp-∂n√.- {In-kvXym-\n-I-fm-b- A-ta-cn-°≥-˛ {_n-´o-jv- ssk-\n-I¿- A^v-Km-\nse-bpw- C-dm-Jn-se-bpw- ap-kv-enw-I-sf- sIm-s∂m-Sp-°p tºmƒA-Xv- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- ]-‰n¬- B-cpw- F-gp-Xn-t®¿-°p-∂n√.ap-kv-enw-I-fn¬- Xo-{h-hm-Zn-Iƒ- D-s≠-¶n¬- A-h¿- A-h-Im-i߃- \n-tj[n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂h
- t- cm,- kzm¿-YX
- m¬-]c
- y-°m-tcm- Ckvem-sa-s¥-∂-dn-bm-Ø- A-Pv-R-tcm- A-hn-th-In-I-tfm- Bbn-cn°p-sa-∂-Xm-Wv- hm-kv-X-hw.C-kv-em-an-se- B-cm-[-\-Iƒ- {]-bm-k-I-c-am-sW-∂v- Xm¶ƒ°v- tXm-∂n-bn-´p-t≠m?H-cn-°-ep-an-√.- A¬-]-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ-°v- A-h- {]-bm-k-I-camsW-∂v- tXm-∂n-tb-°mw.- \-ak
- I
v- m-cw,- t\m-ºv- t]m-ep-≈- \n¿_\v-[- I¿-a-ß-fn¬-t]m-epw- tcm-Kn-Iƒ-°pw- bm-{X-°m¿-°pwkv{Xo-Iƒ-°pw- Zp¿-_-e¿-°pw- hn-´p-ho-gv-N-I-fpw- C-f-hp-I-fpw\¬-In-bn-´p-≠v-;- A-h¿-°v- {]-bm-ksam-gn-hm-°p-hm≥-th-≠n.ap-kv-enw-I-fpw- A-ap-kv-enw-I-fp-am-b- kv-t\-l-kw-hm-ZØns≥d- hm-b-\-°m¿-°v- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- \¬-Im-\p-≈- D-]-tZ-iw?ap≥-[m-c-W-Iƒ- am-‰n-sh-®v- ]-Tn-°p-I,- k-Xyw- a-\- nembm¬- A-Xv- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂-Xn¬- A-l-¥-Im-Wn-°m-Xn-cn°p-I.- C-Xm-Wv- A-a-p-kv-enw- kp-lr-Øp-°-tfm-Sv- ]-d-bm-\p-≈Xv.hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B\
- pw- {]-hm-NI
- N
- c
- y-bpw- ]n-¥p-S¿-∂v- Po-hn-°pIF-∂m-Wv- ap-kv-enw-I-tfm-Sv- ]-d-bm-\p-≈-Xv.-

A-£-c-Pv-Rm-\-an-√m-Ø,- bm-sXm-cp- Kp-c-p-hn-s≥-d-b-Sp-Øpwt]m-bn- H-∂pw- ]-Tn-°m-Ø- hy-Iv-Xn-bm-bn-cp-∂p- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n(A)- F-∂Xv- N-cn-{X- k-Xy-am-Wv.- A-ß-s\-bp-≈- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn°v- D-Zm-Ø-am-b- H-cp- {K-\v-Y-c-N-\- \-S-Øm≥- I-gn-bp-sa-∂v- ]-dbp-∂-Xv- F-ß-s\- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°m-\m-hpw?- t]-cpw- s]-cp-a-bpwt\-Sm-\m-bn-cp-∂p- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- B-{K-l-sa-¶n¬- Jp¿-B≥X-s≥-d- c-N-\-bm-sW-∂v- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- ]-d-bm-am-bn-cp-∂p.F∂m¬- A-t±-lw- k-Xyw- ]-d-™p.- A-√-m-lp-hn-¶¬-\n-∂v- X\n-°v- A-h-Xo¿-W-am-b- h-N-\-ß-fm-Wn-h- F-∂- k-Xyw.C-kv-emw- Xo-{h-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- a-X-a-s√-∂v- C-kv-em-an-te-°vh-∂-ti-jw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- t_m-[y-am-bn-´p-≠m-Ipw.- F-∂m¬- H-cp{In-kv-Xym-\n-bm-bn- Po-hn-®- k-µ¿-`-Øn¬- Xm-¶ƒ- A-ß-s\bm-tWm- I-cp-Xn-bn-cp-∂-Xv?ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- `-o-I-c-∑m-cm-sW-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv- Rm≥- I-cpXn-bn-cp-∂-Xv.- A-ß-s\-bm-Wv- ]-Tn-∏n-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xpw- ]n-∂oSvF-\n-°v- k-Xyw- t_m-[y-s∏-´p.- Ip-cn-ip-bp-≤-߃- ap-X¬- B[p-\n-I-tem-I-Øv- \-S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- kw-`-h-hn-Im-k-ßsf-°-p-dn-®v- ]-Tn-°p-∂- H-cp- N-cn-{X-hn-Zym¿-Yn-°v- Ckv-em-an-s\{]-Xn-°q-´n¬-\n¿-Øm≥-X-°- sX-fn-shm-∂pw- e-`n-°n-√- F-∂Xm-Wv- bm-Ym¿-Yyw.- H-cp- ap-kv-enw- ]-S-°w- s]m-´n-°p-tºmƒkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

43

bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-dX-I¿-®●

sI-´-S-ßn-b- A-Xn-ss[-j-Wn-I-X-

\n¿-h-N-\-ß-fn-se- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fpw- ssh-cp-[y-ß-fpw-

Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- kzo-Im-cy-X-

a-X-ß-tfm-Sp-≈- k-ao-]-\-Øn-se- {]-iv-\-߃-

F.-d-Po-_vsI-´-S-ßn-bA-Xn-ss[-j-Wn-I-X]-sØm≥-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠ns≥-d- A-hk
- m-\Ø
- n¬- bp-IvX
- nhm-Z-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-Iƒ-,- ]p-tcm-Kat\-O-p-°-ƒ- F-∂v- kz-bw- hnti-jn-∏n-®n-cp-∂- P-\h
- n-`m-Kß
- fp-sS- B-th-i-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh¶n¬- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠v- BB-th-is
- Ø- sI-Sp-Øn-°f
- b
- p∂- Xn-cp-ج-hm-Z-Øn-t≥-d-Xmbn-cp-∂p.- ]m-iN
v- m-Xy-cm-j{v- S- kaq-l-ß-fn-se- a-X-Øn-s\-Xn-cmb- t]-m-cm-´-ß-fp-sS- Xp-S¿-®-bmbn- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h-∂- B-ib-ß-sf- {]-tXy-I- t]-cn-´v- hnfn°p-∂- {]-h-W-X-°v- Xp-S-°wIp-dn-®X
- p-Xs
- ∂-bpw- ]-sØm≥]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠n-s≥-d- A-¥y-L´-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂-Xv- {i
t≤-b-am-Wv.- Po-hn-X-Øn¬-\n∂v- a-X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- aq-ey-ßfp-sS-bpw- ]q¿-W-am-b- \n-cm-Ic-W-Øn-eq-sS- a-\p-jy-\v- kmkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

[n-°p-∂- kzm-X-{¥y-am-Wv- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XØn-s≥-d- B-Xy-¥n-I-am-b- e-£y-sa-∂_m-en-i-am-b- \-n-cm-I-c-W-hm-Z-Øn¬- Du∂n-bm-Wv- ]p-tcm-K-a-\-hm-Zw- ap-t∂m-´v- \oßn-b-Xv.- im-kv-{Xw- hn-Im-kw- {]m-]n-®n-´n√m-ØX
- pw- Iq-Sn-bt- Xm-Xn¬- _u-≤n-I- hymbm-a-ß-fn¬- B-i-b-tem-Iw- a-c-hn-∏n-\v- ASn-as
- ∏-´v- In-S∂
- X
- p-sa-√mw- ]-sØm≥-]X
- mw\q-‰m-≠n-s≥-d- A-¥y-Øn-se- ]p-tcm-K-a-\hm-Z-sØ- h-gn-Xn-cn-®p-hn-´-Xn-s≥-d- ^-e-ambn-cp-∂p- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Z- Nn-¥m-KX
- n-If
- n¬- Bth-iw-sIm-≈p-∂- hy-Iv-Xn-I-fpw- sN-dn-bsN-dn-b- Bƒ-°q-´-ß-fpw- D-≠m-bn-Øo¿∂Xv."im-kv-{Xhm-Zw' F-∂v- s]m-Xp-hn¬hnti-jn-∏n-°s
- ∏-´n-cp-∂- ho-£W
- ß
- ƒ- ]sØm≥-]X
- mw- \q-‰m-≠n-s≥-d- A-¥y-Øn¬\n-co-i-z-c,- [m¿-an-I-hm-Zw- (F-Øo-kw)F∂pw- _u-≤n-I- Hu-∂Xy-hm-Zw- (dm-jW-en-kw)- F-∂pw- c-≠m-bn- th¿-Xn-cn-°s∏-´p.- ]-Xn-\m-dv,- ]-Xn-t\-gv,- ]-Xn-s\-´v- \q‰m-≠p-If
- n¬- "\n-co-iz-c- [m¿-an-Ih
- m-Zn-Iƒ'tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- hn-hn-[- `m-K-ß-fn-em-bnaX-Nn-¥-m-K-Xn-Iƒ-s°-Xn-cm-b- B-i-b{]N-c-W-߃- \-S-Øp-I-bp-≠m-bn-´p-s≠¶n-epw- A-sXm-cp- hy-Iv-X-am-b- B-i-b-[mc-bm-bn- th¿-Xn-cn-®v- \n¿-Øn-s°m-≠p-≈]-T-\-߃- \-S-∂n-cp-∂n-√.- F-Ø-o-kv-‰v-,- FØo-kw- Xp-S-ßn-b- ]-Z-߃- [m-cm-f-am-bnD-]t- bm-Kn-°s
- ∏-´n-cp-∂- \n-ch
- [
- n- c-N\
- I
- ƒCw-•o-jv- km-ln-Xy-Øn¬- ]-Xn-s\-´mw- \q‰m-≠n¬- D-≠m-sb-¶n-epw,- tI-h-ew- \n-coiz-c-hm-Zn,- \n-co-iz-c-Øw- F-∂- A¿-Y-I¬]-\-I-fn¬- am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p- A-h- ]-cn-KWn-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv.- Cu- s]m-Xp-]-cn-K-W\-bn¬-\n-∂v- F-Øo-kw- th¿-Xn-cn-™p-hcn-I-bpw- A-sXm-cp- Po-hn-X- ho-£-W-Øn-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

44

"im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- \q-‰m-≠v'- F-∂v- hnti-jn-∏n-°-s∏-´- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠v-,- a-X-\n-cm-I-c-WhmZØn-se- {]tbm-P-\-cm-ln-Xy-sØ- F-Sp-Øp-Im-´n-s°m-≠m-Wv- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®-sbapt∂m-´v- sIm-≠p-t]m-b-Xv.-

s≥-d- D-]-cn-π-h- L-S-\-Iƒ- B¿-Pn-°-p-Ibpw- sN-bv-X-Xv- ]-sØm≥-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠ns≥-d- A-h-km-\-Øn-em-Wv.- \n-c-h-[n- Nn¥I-cp-sS-bpw- km-ln-Xy-Im-c∑
- m-cp-sS-bpw- cN\-Iƒ- B- L-´-Øn¬- a-X-\n-cm-I-c-W- Nn¥m-K-Xn-Iƒ-°v- B-th-i-am-bn- h¿-Øn-°pI-bp-≠m-bn.- hn-{ip-X- Bw-K-te-b- I-hn-bmbn-cp-∂- tXm-a-kv- ss]≥- F-gp-Xn-b- "G-bvPv- Hm^v- do-k¨-'- Xp-Sß
- n-b- Ir-Xn-Iƒ- CuIm-e-L-´-Øn-se- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-I-sf- kzm-[o\n-°p-I-bpw- ss_-_nƒ- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-s∏Sp-Øn-bp-≈- a-XI
- o-b- [m¿-an-Ih
- m-ZØ
- n-s\Xn-cm-b- B-ib
- h
- m-Zs
- Ø- t{]m-Xvk
- m-ln-∏n°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p- F-∂v- Im-Wmw.F-∂m¬- Cu- B-th-i-Ø-≈n-®- im-kv-{Xhn-Im-k-tØm-sS- _-ln-jv-I-cn-°-s∏-´p."im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- \q-‰m-≠v'- F-∂vhnti-jn-∏n-°-s∏-´- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠v-,a-X-\n-cm-I-c-W-hm-Z-Øn-se- {]tbm-P-\-cmln-Xy-sØ- F-Sp-Øp-Im-´n-s°m-≠m-Wv- imkv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®-sb- ap-t∂m-´v- sIm≠p- t ]m- b - X v . - im- k v - { Xw- Po- h n- X - _ mlyamb- k-Xy-ß-fp-sS-bpw- B-i-b-ß-fpsS-bpw- ta-J-e-b-s√-∂pw- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XØn-s≥-d- D-]-cnX-e- bm-Ym¿-Yy-ß-sf- ]-cam-h-[n- eLq-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-eq-sS- Po-hn-Xhp-am-bp-≈- H-cp- tbm-Pn-∏n-\m- W
- v- im-kv{- Xw{i-an-°p-∂-sX-∂p-ap-≈- im-kv-{X- ss\-XnI-X- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-t≠m-Sp-Iq-Sn- D-cp-Øncn-™p-h-∂p.- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- a-s‰mc¿-Y-hp-an-s√-∂v- ]-d-™- aq-ey-\n-cm-I-c-Whm-Zn-Ifp-sS- \m-hS- °
- m≥- im-kv{- X- ss\XnI-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- B-i-b-߃- ]-cym-]v-X-ambn-cp-∂p.- Po-hn-Xw- tI-h-ew- `u-Xn-I-am-bH-cp- {]-{In-b-bm-sW-∂pw- A-Xo-X-{]-Xn-`mk-ßt- fm- B-¥c
- n-I- k-Xy-ßt- fm- a-\p-jyPo-hn-X-Øn-se- L-S-I-ß-f-s√-∂pw- hm-Zn°p-∂-h¿-°v- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]n≥-_-ew\-jv-S-s∏-Sp-∂-Xm-Wv- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠ns≥-d- B-Zy-Z-i-I-ß-fn¬- X-s∂- I-≠-Xv.im-kv-{Xw- h-f-cp-∂-Xv- {]-]-©w,- a-\p-jyP-oh
- n-Xw,- {]-Ir-Xn,- `u-Xn-I- {]-Xn-`m-kß
- ƒ-

kzX-{¥-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-Iƒ- A-h-bp-sS- L-S\-bn¬- H-cp- am-‰-hpw- h-cp-Øm≥- {i-an-°msX- \n-e-\n¬-°-sh,- im-kv-{Xw-- H-cp- h≥h-S-hr-£-am-bn- h-f¿-∂v- ap-t∂-dp-I-bm-WvsN-bvX
- X
- v.- Cu- h-f¿-®- a-\p-jy-s\-bpw- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-sf-bpw- Ip-dn-®p-≈B-i-b-ß-sf-bpw- hn-I-kn-∏n-®p.-

F-∂n-h-bp-sS- hn-im-e-X-bp-sS- km-[y-XIƒ- B-{i-bn-®p-sIm-≠m-Wv- F-∂-Xm-Wva-X-\n-cm-I-c-W-]-c-am-b- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-I-sfbpw- B-i-b-ß-sf-bpw- _-e-lo-\-am-°nØo¿-Ø-Xv.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®-sbbpw- a-X-\n-cm-I-c-W-hm-Z- kz-`m-h-ap-≈- kzX-{¥-Nn-¥s
- b-bpw- A-hb
- p-sS- h-f¿-®I
- s
- fbpw- X-f¿-®-sb-bpw- G-Xm-\pw- h-kv-Xp-XI-fp-≈- H-cp- e-Lp-]-´n-I-bm-bn- \-ap-°n-ßs\- {I-ao-I-cn-°mw-:im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- C-cp-]Xmw- \q-‰m-≠n-s‚-Xp-S-°-Øn¬- kw-`-hn-®-Xv1.- I-gn-™- \q-‰m-≠p-I-sf- A-t]-£n®v- D-]-I-c-W-߃,- B-i-b-߃,- X-Ø-z߃- F-∂n-h-bp-sS- Im-cy-Øn¬- A-º-c∏n-°p-∂- ]-cn-Wm-a-ß-fpw- ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bpwkw-`h
- n-®p.- ]-Xn-t\-gv,- ]-Xn-s\-´v,- ]-sØm≥]-Xv- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fp-sS- B-sI- ]p-tcm-K-Xnsb-bpw- C-cp-]X
- mw- \q-‰m-≠n-se- H-∂v,- c≠v,aq-∂v- ]-Xn-‰m-≠p-Iƒ- \n-jv-{]-`-am-°n-bn-cp∂p.- H-cp- \q-‰m-≠n-\v- ]-I-cw- H-cp- Z-i-I-sa∂- A-\p-]m-X- hy-Xym-kw- {i-t≤-b-am-bncp-∂p.- C-Xm-hs
- ´- C-cp-]X
- mw- \q-‰m-≠n-s≥d\m-emw- Z-iI
- w-sXm-´v,- H-cp- \q-‰m-≠n-\v- Hc¿[-Z-i-Iw- F-∂pw- B-dmw- Z-i-Iw-sXm-´v- Hcp\q-‰m-≠n-\v- H-cp-h¿-jw- F-∂- co-Xn-bn-epwhy-Xym-k-s∏-´p-h-∂p.2.- im-kv-{Xw- tI-h-ew- H-cp- hn-Øv- am{Xam-bn-cp-∂- L-´-Øn-se- _u-≤n-I-X-bn¬Du-∂n-\n-∂p-sIm-≠v- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

3.- im-kv{X-XØ-z-߃- ]p-Xn-b- X-Ø-zß-sf- DZv-]
- m-Zn-∏n-°p-I-bpw- X-Ø-z-ß-ƒ-- A\p-{Ia-am-b-n-- h-fcp-I-bpw--im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-dA-t\z-j-W- ta-J-e-I-sf- hn-]p-e-am-°p-Ibpw- sN-bv-XpsIm-≠n-cp-∂-Xv- ]p-Xn-b- Xcwa-\p-jym-h-t_m-[-ß-fp-sS- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-ambn-Øo¿-∂p.4.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- A-t\z-j-W-ta-Je-Iƒ- hn-]p-e-hpw- hn-I-kn-X-hp-am-bn-Øocp-∂-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn- a-\p-jy≥,- {]-Ir-Xn,- {]]©w F-∂n-h-sb-°-p-dn-®p-≈- [m-c-W-I-fpwap≥-hn-[n-I-fpw- am-dn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂p.- C-XvtI-h-e- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zw,- aq-ey-\n-cm-I-c-W˛aX-\n-tj-[- Po-hn-Xh
- o-£W
- ß
- ƒ- F-∂nh-sb- \n-c-¥-cw- tNm-Zyw- sN-øp-I-bpw- Xf¿-Øp-Ib
- pw- in-Yn-ea
- m-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-bvX
- ph-∂p.kz-X-{¥-Nn-¥-bv-°v- kw-`-hn-®p-h-∂-Xv1.- ss{I-kX
v- h
- - a-Xk
- w-hn-[m-\Ø
- n-s≥dim-kv-{X-hn-cp-≤-hpw- am-\-h-hn-cp-≤-hp-am-b\n-e]
- m-Sp-If
- n¬- {]-Xn-tj[n-®v- B-hn¿-`h
- n®- kz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥m-KX
- n-If
- pw- B-ib
- ß
- f
- pwss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- X-s∂- kz-`m-h-ßfmb- ]m-c-º-cy-h¬-I-c-W-Øn-\pw- A-\ntj[y-`m-hm¿-P-\-Øn-\pw- hn-t[-b-am-bnØo-cp-I-bp-≠m-bn.- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- Po¿-W-XIƒ- X-s∂,- kz-X-{¥- Nn-¥-sb-bpw- _m[n-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.2.- im-kv{- X-sØ- B{-ib
- n-°p-∂p- F∂hm-Z-K-Xn-bn¬- A-Sn-Ø-d-bn-´- kz-X-{¥-Nn¥-bpw- B-i-b-hm-Z-hpw- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥dh-f¿-®-s°m-∏w- ap-t∂-dm≥- km-[n-°m-sXap≥-[m-c-W-I-fn¬- X-d™p-In-S-∂p.3.- im-kv-{Xw-,- a-\p-jy≥,- {]-]-©w,- {]-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿Ir-Xn- F-∂n-h-sb-°-p-dn-®v- ]p-Xn-b- km-[yX-Iƒ- B-cm-™v- I-s≠-Øp-tºmƒ- AXvIq-Sp-X¬- D-b¿-∂- im-kv-{X- km-l-N-cy߃-°n-Sb
- m-°n-sb-¶n¬,- kz-X{- ¥- Nn-¥mtem-I-sØ- a-c-hn-∏v- _u-≤n-I-ta-J-e-sb\n-iv-tN-X-\-am-°p-∂-X-c-Øn¬- {]-Xn-tema-I-am-bn-cp-∂p.4.- ta¬-]d
- ™
- km-lN
- c
- y-Øn-s≥-d- XpS¿-®b
- m-bn-´m-Wv- kz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥b
- psS-bpw- atX-X-c- Po-hn-X-Nn-¥-I-fp-sS-bpw- ta-J-ebn¬- A-kv-Xn-Xz-{]-Xn-k-\v-[n-Iƒ- D-cp-Øncn-™p-h-∂-Xv.5.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- hn-I-k-\- Pm-eI-ß-fn-eq-sS- \-S-Øn-b- Po-hn-X-sØ-°-p-dn®p-≈- A-t\z-j-Ww A-t\-Iw- kz-X-{¥Nn- ¥ m- K - X n- ° m- s c- k- t µ- l - h m- Z n- I - f pwa‰pNn-e-sc- B-kv-Xn-Iy-hm-Zn-I-fp-am-°nam‰p-I-bp-≠m-bn.Cu- ]-´n-I- A]q¿-Wa
- m-Wv.- ]-t£,- imkv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- hn-Im-k-tØm-sSm-∏w- h-f¿∂v- ap-t∂-dp-∂-Xn-\v- kz-X-{¥-Nn-¥-°pwkzX-{¥-Nn-¥-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- cq]-s∏-´p-h-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Za-S-°-ap-≈- Po-hnX-ho-£-W-߃-°pw- km-[n-°p-I-bp-≠mbn-√.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- Po-h¬-k-a-ky-Itfm-Spw- im-kv{Xw- ap-t∂m-´p-sh-®- Po-hn-XsØ-°-p-dn-®p-≈- Kp-W-]-c-am-b- {]-Xym-iI-tfm-Spw- tbm-Pn-°m-\m-hm-sX- kz-X-{¥Nn-¥- a-c-hn-®p-In-S-∂p.- {]-Xo-£-I-fpw- {]Xym-i-I-fpw- am-\-h-cm-in-°v- k-Ωm-\n-®psIm-≠v- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- B-¥-cn-Iam-b- X-e-߃- ti-jn-°p-∂p-≠v- F-∂- ktµ-iw- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]p-Xn-b- Im-e-hf¿-®-bn¬- D-b¿-∂p-\n-∂-t∏mƒ- {]-Xn-tema-I-ß-fm-b- Nn-¥-I-fp-am-bn- kz-X-{¥-Nn-¥°v- ]n≥-Xn-cn-™p-\n¬-t°-≠n-h-∂p.- Pohn-XØ
- n-\v- bm-sXm-cp- Kp-W]
- c
- a
- m-b- {]-Xymi-bpw- \¬-Ip-hm≥ km-[n-°m-Ø- kz-X{¥-Nn-¥- A-Xn-th-Kw- A-Xn-s≥-d- B-thi-t{]-c-W-I-fn¬-\n-∂v- in-Yne-am-hp-I-bpw_p-≤n-]c
- a
- m-b- Hu-∂X
- y-hm-Zn-If
- mbn-- _ln-

45
jv-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- B-i-b-tem-Iwk-¶p-Nn-X-am-hp-I-bpw- A-Xv- H-cp-Iq-´w- ASn-kv-Ym-\-c-ln-X-ß-fm-b- \n-tj-[-ß-fp-sSB-sI-Øp-I-bm-bn- am-dp-Ibpw- sN-bv-X-Xvkz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥b
- p-sS- X-I¿-®s
- b-Øp- S- ¿-∂mbn-cp-∂p.- im-k{v- X-hp-am-bn- {]-Xn-h¿-Øn-°p∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-sØ-bm-Wv- ]n-∂o-Sv- \mwIm-Wp-∂-Xv.- ]-sØm≥-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠ns≥d- B-th-i-`-cn-X-am-b- Bƒ-°q-´w- ]ncn-™p-t]m-hp-I-bp-≠m-bn.- kz-X-{¥-Nn-¥bp-sS- t{]-c-W-I-fn-eq-sS- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øns≥-d- B-i-b-]-c-am-b- A-{]-am-Zn-Ø-hm-ZØn-s≥-d- A-Sn-a-I-fm-bn-Øo¿-∂-h-cn¬- KWy-am-b- ]-¶v,- C-cp-]-Xmw- \q-‰m-≠n-s≥-dXp-S°
- Ø
- n¬-Xs
- ∂- hn-izm-kØ
- n-s≥-db
- pwa-X-]-c-am-b- Po-hn-X-ho-£-W-ß-fp-sS-bpwkp-c-£n-X-am-b- X-e-ß-fn-te-°v- ]n≥-h-en™p.- ti-jn-®-h-cm-Wv- A-hy-Iv-X-ß-fm-bIp-sd-b-[n-Iw- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS-bpw- Nn-¥-Ifp-sS-bpw- hIv-Xm-°-fm-bn- cw-K-Øv- A-hti-jn-°p-I-bpw- B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn¬- a-XØn-\pw- hn-izm-k-Øn-\p-sa-Xn-cm-b- kz-X{¥-am-\-h-Xm-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- Ip-Ø-Im-h-Imiw- G-s‰-Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-Xv.- B-tKmf-Xe
- Ø
- n¬- C-h¿- h-fs
- c- sN-dn-b- H-cp- \yq\-]-£-am-Wv.- C-h-cn¬-X-s∂-bpw- I-Sp-Økz-X-{¥-hm-Zn-I-fpw- an-X-hm-Zn-I-fm-b- kz-X{¥-hm-Zn-I-fpw- a-X-ß-fp-am-bn- c-ay-X-bn¬h¿-Øn-®p-sIm-≠v- \o-ßp-hm≥- Xm¬-]-cy-

s∏-Sp-∂- A-\p-\-b-Øn-s≥-d- h-Iv-Xm-°-fpwA-S-°w- B-i-b-]-c-am-b- `n-∂-X-Iƒ- ]pe¿-Øp-∂- \n-c-h-[n- X-c-°m-cp-≠v.- Cuth¿-Xn-cn-™p-t]m-°m-h-s´,- H-c¿-Y-Øn¬kz-X{- ¥- Nn-¥b
- p-sS- Cu- \q-‰m-≠n-se- I\Ø- ]-cm-P-b-hp-am-Wv.C-¥y-bn¬- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Zs
- a-∂v- hn-ti-jn∏n-°p-∂- sam-ØØ
- n-ep-≈- Nn-¥m-KX
- n-Iƒ°v- C-¥y-°v- sh-fn-bn¬- \n-c-h-[n- D-]-Bi-b-K-Xn-I-fp-≠v.- d-m-j-W-en-kv-‰p-I-fpw- FØ-ok
- v‰
- p-If
- pw- lyq-am-\n-kv‰
- p-If
- pw- Dƒ-s∏sS- kz-X{¥-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-bp-sS- h-Iv-Xm-°ƒ`n-∂- B-i-b-X-e-ß-fn-te-°v- am-dn-\n¬-°p∂-h-cm-Wv.- Cuiz-c- \n-tj-[-Øn-s≥-d-bpw\m-kv-Xn-Iy-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-¶p-Nn-XXzw- H-cp- {]-am-Z-c-ln-X-am-b- X-Ø-z-im-kv{Xw-t]m-se- sIm-≠p-\S- °
- p-∂h
- ¿- C-hc
- n¬]-cn-an-Xa
- m-Wv.- "F-Øo- k
- v‰
- p-Iƒ'- A-hc
- p-sSB-i-b-K-Xn-I-fp-am-bn- ap-t∂m-´v- t]m-Iptºmƒ,- dm-j-W-en-kv-‰p-I-fpw- lyq-a-\n-kv‰p-I-fpw- a-X-hp-am-bn- H-cp- ]-cn-[n-h-sc- hn´pho-gv-N-bpw- k-l-I-c-W-hpw- {]-ISn-∏n-°pI-bpw- s]m-Xp-hm-b- ta-J-e-I-fn-se- k-lI-c-W-sØ- H-cp- B-i-b-K-Xn-bm-bn- Aw-KoI-cn-®p-h-cn-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p-≠v.- kzo-U≥,sU-∑m¿-°v,- t\m¿-sh,- Hm-kv-{Sn-b,- lw-Kdn,- {^m≥-kv- Xp-S-ßn-b- cm-Py-ß-fn¬- "dmj-We
- n-kv‰
- v- N¿-®p-Iƒ'- F-∂d
- n-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂\n-c-h-[n- kv-Ym-]-\-߃- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p≠v.- ss{I-kv-X-h-kv-Ym-]-\-ß-fm-b- N¿-®pI-fn¬-\n-∂pw- C-h- hy-Xym-ks
- ∏-Sp-∂X
- v- k`m-k-{º-Zm-b-ß-sf- \n-cm-I-cn-°p-∂- hn-jb-Øn¬- am-{X-am-Wv.- a-\p-jy-sc- ]-c-kv-]cw- _-\v-[n-∏n-®v- \n¿-Øp-∂-Xn¬- hn-izm-k]-c-am-b- G-tIm-]-\-Øn-\pw- B-Nm-c-]-camb- G-I-`m-h-Øn-\p-ap-≈- ]-¶v- Xn-cn-®-dnbp-∂X
- p-sIm-≠m-Wv- dm-jW
- e
- n-kv‰
- v- N¿-®pI-ƒ- cq-]-s∏-´p-h-∂-Xpw- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ- BL-S-\-sb- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°m≥- \n¿-_-\v-[n-Xam-bn-Øo¿-∂-Xpw.\q-‰m-≠p-I-fm-bn- a-Xw,- km-aq-ly- L-S\-bn¬- sN-ep-Øp-∂- kzm-[o-\-sØ- a-dn-

-C-¥y-bn¬- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-sa-∂v- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂- sam-Ø-Øn-ep-≈- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-Iƒ-°v- C-¥y-°vsh-fn-bn¬- \n-c-h-[n- D-]-B-i-b-K-Xn-I-fp-≠v.- d-m-j-W-en-kv-‰p-I-fpw- F-Ø-o-kv-‰p-I-fpwlyq-am\nkv‰p-I-fpw- Dƒ-s∏-sS- kz-X{¥-Nn-¥m-KXnbp-sS- h-Iv-Xm-°ƒ- `n-∂- B-i-b-X-e-ß-fn-te-°vam-dn-\n¬-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv.
kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

46

a-X-Øn¬-\n-∂p-≈- hn-tam-N-\- {]-Jym-]-\-am-bn- B-hn¿-`-hn-®- kz-X-{¥-Nn-¥-bn¬-\n-∂v- {I-am-\p-KX-am-bn- hn-I-kn-®p-h-∂-Xm-Wv- a-X-c-ln-X- Po-hn-X-Z¿-i-\-ß-fm-b- \nln-en-kw,- A-\m¿-°n-kw,skIyp-e-dn-kw,- dm-j-W-en-kw,- F-bv-Øn-kw- X-p-S-ßn-b-h-sb-√mw.- C-h-bp-sS- L-S-\-Iƒ- X-Ωn¬]ckv-]-c- `n-∂-X-I-fp-≠v.-

I-S-°p-hm≥- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]n-¥p-Wbp-≈tXm- ]n-¥p-W-bn-√m-Ø-tXm- B-bHcp- kz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥°
- pw- km-[n-°p-Ib
- p-≠mbn-√- F-∂v- sX-fn-bn-°p-∂h
- I
- q-Sn-bm-Wv- dmj-W-en-kv-‰v- N¿-®p-Iƒ.- A-ta-cn-°,- {_n´¨- Xp-S-ßn-b- cm-jv-{S-ß-fn-epw- C-Ø-cwN¿-®p-Iƒ- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p-≠v.- ssZ-hsØ- \n¿-_\
- [
v- ]
- q¿-hw- H-gn-hm-°n-s°m-≠vkz-bw- {]-Xy-mb
- \
- a
- m¿-Kß
- ƒ- (sk¬-^v- kP-j≥-kv)- F-∂v- hn-fn-°p-∂- {]m¿-Y-\-Ifn-eq-sS- a-\p-jy-a-\- n-s≥-d- \n- o-a-am-bssZ-h-Zm-l-sØ- i-an-∏n-°p-∂- co-Xn-Iƒ
C-Ø-cw- Nn-e- N¿-®p-I-fn¬- ]-co-£-s∏-´ph-cp-∂p-≠v.- ssZ-h-\n-cm-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d- FØ-o-kv-‰v- am¿-K-Øn¬- Xn-cn-®-Sn-°p-∂- Hcp- am-\-kn-I-i-Iv-Xn- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- ssZhw- {]-Xn-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s≥-d- sX-fn-hp-I-fmWv- bq-tdm-∏n-s≥-d- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Zn-Iƒ- D-]tbm-Kn-®p-h-cp-∂- sk¬-^v- ln-]v-t\m-´n-khp-am-bn- _-\v[
- s
- ∏-´- co-Xn-Iƒ.- F-Øo- k
- v‰vN¿-®p-Iƒ- dm-j-W-en-kv-‰v- N¿-®p-I-sf-t∏mse- a-XØ
- n-se- km-aq-ln-I- G-tIm-]\
- Ø
- ns≥-d- co-Xn-Iƒ- ]-co-£n-°p-∂n-s√-¶n¬t]m-epw- sU-∑m¿-°n-se-bpw- a-‰pw- "F-Øokv-‰v- skm-ssk-‰n-Iƒ' "a-X-Øn-\v- _-Z-emIm-\p-≈'- ]-co-£-W-߃- \n-c-¥-cw- \-SØn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.- G-sXm-∂n¬-\n∂v- ]p-d-Øv- I-S-°m-\m-tWm- kzm-X-{¥yZm-l-Øn-s≥-d-t]-cn¬- Nn-e- a-\p-jy¿- {ian®-Xv- A-Xn-te-°h
- ≥- \n-c¥
- c
- w- F-Øn-t®¿∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂m-Wv- C-sX-√mwhy-Iv-X-am-°p-∂-Xv."dm- j - W - e n- k v - ‰ v - am- \ n- s ^- k v - t ‰m'F∂pw- "F-Ø-o-kv-‰v- ss_-_nƒ' F-∂pwhn-ti-jn-∏n-°-s∏-´- tXm-a-kv- ss]-\n-s≥d- "FbvP
- v- Hm-^v- do-k¨'- F-∂- Ir-Xn-bn¬A-t±-l-w,-- Xm≥- H-cp- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-kn-bmsW-∂v- Xp-d-∂v- ]-d-™n-´p-≠v.- dm-j-W-enkv-‰p-Iƒ-°v- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-kw- B-Im-sa∂-Xm-Wv,- Xm-Xzn-I-am-b- bm-Ym¿-Yyw.- \ncoiz-c-hm-Z-sØ- F-√m- kz-X-{¥- Nn-¥m-[mc-I-fp-sS-bpw- A-Sn-Ø-d-bm-bn- Im-Wp-∂-

kao-]-\-sØ- H-cp-X-cw- ^m-kn-kv-‰v- co-Xnbm-bm-Wv- ]-e- kz-X-{¥- Nn-¥-I-cpw- I-W°m-°p-∂-Xv.- F-∂m¬- Cu- bm-Ym¿-Yywth-≠-{X- a-\- n-em-°n-bn-´n-√m-Ø-h-cm-WvC-¥y-bn-se- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-Iƒ.- \n-co-iz-ch
- mZ-Øn-s≥-d- B-th-i-sØ- _p-≤n-]-c-am-bkzm-X{- ¥y-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sb
- m-fa
- m-bn- I-cp-Xnbn-cp-∂- ]-e-cpw- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv,- Cu-iz-chn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- a-\x-im-kv-{X-]-c-am-bkzo-Im-cy-X- Xn-cn-®-dn-™v- hn-izm-kw- D-d∏n-°p-I-bpw- A-h-cp-sS- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- am‰-߃ h-cp-Øp-I-bpw- D-≠m-bn-´p-≠v- F∂-Xv- C-¥y-bn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- I-≠ns√-∂v- \-Sn-°p-∂p.\n¿-h-N-\-ß-fn-se- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fpwssh-cp-[y-ß-fpwss{I-kv-X-h- a-X-Io-b-[m-c-bp-am-bp-≈{]-Xn-h¿-Ø-\-Øn-eq-sS- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h∂-Xm-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-]c-am-b- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-ew.- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- Xn-∑Iƒ- F-∂- \n-eb
- n¬- kz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥I
- ¿- FSp-Øp-Im-´n-b- {]-h-W-X-I-f-{X-bpw- ss{IkvX
- h
- - a-Xk
- a
- q-lØ
- n¬-\n-∂v- am-\h
- c
- m-in°v- t\-cn-tS-≠n-h-∂- Xn-Iv-Xm-\p-`-h-ß-fmbn-cp-∂p.- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-`I-fp-sS-bpw- A-\v[
- h
- n-izm-kß
- f
- p-sS-bpw- XS-h-d-I-fn¬- izm-kw-ap-´n-°n-S-∂v- \-c-In-®a\p-jy¿- kzm-X-{¥y-Øn-s≥-d- ip-≤-hm-bphn-\m-bn- B-{K-ln-°p-I-bpw- a-X-Øn-s≥-dhn-[n-hn-e-°p-I-sf- ew-Ln-°p-∂-Xn¬- H-cpkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

X-c-w- hn-tam-N-\-]-c-X- A-\p-`-hn-°p-I-bpwsN-bv-Xp-h-∂-Xn-s≥-d- Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn-cp-∂pa-X-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-b- t]m-cm-´-ß-fpw- {]-Xn-i_v-Z-ß-fp-sa-√mw- B-cw-`n-®-Xv.- a-\p-jy-Nn¥sb-bpw- A-t\z-j-W-ß-sf-bpw- X-S- s∏-Sp-Øp-Ib
- pw- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-XØ
- n-s≥-d- apt∂m-´p-t]m-°n-\v- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-´-°q-SpIƒ- hn-Lm-X-am-bn-Øo-cp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂A-\p-`-hw- ss{I-kv-X-h- bq-tdm-∏n-t≥-d-Xmbn-cp-∂p.- kzm-X-{¥y-Zm-l-Øn-s≥-d- t{]-cW-bpw- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-hp-am-bn- h¿-Øn-®-v˛aX-]-c-am-b- Xn-∑-I-fp-sS- D-Xv-`-h-tI-{µwss{I-kv-X-h-X-bm-bn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v- kz-X{¥-Nn-¥-bp-sS- F-Xn¿-`m-K-Øv- \n¬-°p-∂a-Xw- {In-k-vXp-a-X-am-Wv- F-∂p- Im-Wmw.C-kv-emw- Cu- ]-´n-I-bn¬- tN¿-°-s∏-´-X-v
]n¬-°m-e-Øv- am-{X-am-Wv.a-X-Øn¬-\n-∂p-≈- hn-tam-N-\- {]-Jym]-\a
- m-bn- B-hn¿-`h
- n-®- kz-X{- ¥-Nn-¥b
- n¬\n-∂v- {I-am-\p-KX
- a
- m-bn- hn-Ik
- n-®p-h∂
- X
- mWv- a-Xc
- l
- n-X- Po-hn-XZ- ¿-i\
- ß
- f
- m-b- \nlnen-kw,- A-\m¿-°n-kw,- sk-Iyp-ed
- n-kw,- dmj-W-en-kw,- F-bv-Øn-kw- X-p-S-ßn-b-h-sb√mw.- C-h-bp-sS- L-S-\-Iƒ- X-Ωn¬- ]-c-kv]-c- `n-∂-X-I-fp-≠v;-- F¶n¬-t]m-epw- a-X\n-cm-I-c-Ww- F-∂- s]m-Xp-{]-h-W-X-bn¬C-h- H-∂n-°p-∂p.- \n-ln-en-k-hpw- A-\m¿°n-k-hpw- A-Xn-cp-I-S-∂- kzm-X-{¥y-Øns≥-d-bpw- C-O-bp-sS- {`m-¥-am-b- hn-\n-a-bØn-s≥-d-bpw- A-]-I-S-I-c-ß-fm-b- ^-e߃- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- D-Xv-`-hn-®-h-bm-Wv.Xo¿-Øpw- im-k{v- Xo-ba
- m-b- Po-hn-X{- I-aØ
- ns≥-d- km-[y-X-Iƒ- B-cm-bp-∂-Xn-s≥-d^e-am-bn-cp-∂p- sk-Iyp-e-dn-kw.- ]n¬-°me-Øv- P-\m-[n-]-Xy-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- cm-jv-{Sob-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- km-aq-ly- kz-`m-h- \n¿-Wb-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- km-t¶-Xn-I- ]-Zm-h-en-I-fnte-°v- sk-Iyp-e-dn-kw- tN¿-°-s∏-´-Xv- AXn-s≥-d- au-en-I-am-b- A¿-Y-I¬-]-\-I-tfmsS- B-bn-cp-∂n-√.- F-√m- a-Xß
- s
- f-bpw- Htct]m-se- Im-Wp-∂- tI-h-e-am-b- H-cp- ho£-W-sa-∂- A¿-Yw,- C-¥y≥- km-l-N-cy-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿Øn¬- sk-Iyp-e-dn-k-Øn-\v- I-c-K-X-am-hpI-bp-≠m-b-Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬- dmj-W-en-kw-t]m-se- a-X-c-ln-X-hpw- a-X-hncp-≤-hp-am-b- H-cp- Po-hn-X-Z¿-i-\-am-bn- skIyp-e-dn-kw- {_n-´≥,- {^m≥-kv,- A-ta-cn-°Xp-S-ßn-b- cm-Py-ß-fn-epw- a-X-Øn-s\-Xn-cmb- _u-≤n-I- N-e-\-߃- kw-`-hn-®p-h-∂ncp-∂- k-aq-l-ß-fn-epw- ]-cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-´ncp-∂p.- a-X-\n-c-t]-£-X- F-∂- G-sd- D-]tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp-∂- A¿-Yw- sk-Iyp-e-dn-kØn-s≥-d- Xm-Xz-n-I- L-S-\-bp-am-bn- A-{Xtbm-Pn-°p-∂- H-∂-√.dm-j-W-en-kw,- A-Xn-s≥-d- Xm-Xzn-I-amb- au-en-I-X-bn¬- bp-Iv-Xn-bp-sS- A-{]-amZn-Xzw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂- H-cp-X-cw- au-en-Ihm-Z-am-Wv- F-∂v- I-cp-Xp-∂-h-cpw-,- A-X-√km-am-\y-am-b- bp-Iv-Xn-]-c-X-bp-am-bn- _-\v[-s∏-´- Po-hn-X- ho-£-W-am-Wv- F-∂v- Icp-Xp-∂-h-cpw- Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- km-[y-amb- ta-J-e-I-fn¬- im-kv-{X-hpw- bp-Iv-Xn-bpwB-{i-bn-°p-I-bm-Wv- dm-j-W-en-k-sa-∂v\n-co-£n-°p-∂-h-cp-ap-≠v.- a-X-Øn-\-v ]-Icw- Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- N-´-°q-Sm-bn-Øo-cm-hp-∂G-sXm-cp- hy-h-kv-Y-n-Xn-tbm-Spw- hn-tbm-Pnt°-≠- B-h-iyw- dm-j-W-en-kv-‰p-Iƒ-°n√- F-∂- A-`n-{]m-bw- ]m-ivN
- m-Xy-tem-IØ
- vAw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xm-Wv.- Cu-iz-c\n¬- hn-iz-kn-°m-\p-≈- kzm-X-{¥yw- a-\pjy¿-°p-≠v- F-∂- B-ib
- w- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p∂- dm-j-W-en-kv-‰p-I-fp-≠v.- "G-Pv- Hm-^v- dok¨'- F-gp-Xn-b- tXm-ak
- v- ss]¬- Cu-izchn-izm-kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂v- A-t±-lw-Xs∂- hy-Iv-X-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- X-s≥-d- hn-izmk-]-c-am-b- \n-e-]m-Sn-s\-°-p-dn-®-v A-t±-lwF-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-Xv- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:-

47
a\p-jy¿-°n-S-bn¬- \o-Xn-bpw- I-cp-W-bpwkvt\-lh
- pw- hym-]n-∏n-°e
- pw- a-\p-jy-cp-sSip-`-I-c-am-b- `m-hn-sb- sI-´n-∏-Sp-°-ep-amsW-∂v- Rm≥- [-cn-°p-∂p''- (G-bv-Pv- Hm^vdo-k¨,- t]-Pv- 6˛7,- Cw-•o-jv-˛sF.-F.-]n.]-Xn-∏v- 1973).G-Pv- Hm-^v- do-k-Wv- a-e-bm-f- ]-cn-`mj- X-bm-dm-°n-b- U¬-ln- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-bmb- k-\¬- C-Sa
- d
- p-Iv- ]t£,- tXm-ak
- v- ss]\n-s≥-d- B-i-b-sØ- X-In-Sw- a-dn-°p-I-bpwta¬-]-d-™- B-i-bw- A-t±-lw- \n-tj-[n°p-Ib
- m-sW-∂ A¿-YØ
- n¬- ]-cn-`m-js
- ∏Sp-Øp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p-.- (bp-Iv-Xnbp-sS- Im-ew-˛ G-Pv- Hm-^v- do-k¨- a-ebmf- ]-cn-`m-j-,- sF.-F.-]n.- {]-kn-≤o-I-c-Ww1998˛ t\m-°p-I).Cu-iz-cm-kv-Xn-Xz-sØ- _p-≤n-]-c-am-bF-Xn¿-hm-Zß
- ƒ-sIm-≠v- \n-cm-Ic
- n-°p-hm≥km-[y-as
- √-∂- bm-Ym¿-Yy-t_m-[w- Nn-e- dmj-W-en-kv-‰p-Iƒ-°v- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂vk-Ω-Xn-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂p.- Cu- Nn-¥m-K-Xn°m-cpw- a-X-hn-izm-kn-I-fpw- X-Ωn-ep-≠mbn-cp-∂- ku-lm¿-Zw- C-‰-en-bn-epw- Cw-•≠n-epw-a-‰pw- ]-e- ]p-Xn-b- B-i-b-ß-fp-sSbpw- cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn-\v- Im-c-W-am-bn.- tPmk-^v- sa-°m-s_-,- sl≥-{Sn- tam-dn-k¨,se-hn-kv- Xp-S-ßn-b- bp-Iv-Xn-hmZn-Iƒ- Nne- ss{I-kv-X-h-k-`-I-fn-se- Aw-K-ß-fpw]e- N¿-®p-If
- nse- {]-kw-KI
- c
- p-am-bn-cp-∂p-

""Rm≥- H- t c- s bm- c p- ssZ- h - Ø n¬am{Xw- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂p;- - H-∂n-e[n-Iw- ssZh-ap-s≠-∂- hn-izm-kw- F-\n-°n-√.- Cu- Pohn- X - Ø n- \ - ∏ p- d - Ø v - k- t ¥m- j - I - c - a m- b as‰m-cp- Po-hn-Xw- D-≠m-Im-sa-∂v- Rm≥{]Xo-£n-°m-dn-√.- a-X-ß-fp-sS- Np-a-X-e,-

F-t∂m¿-°W
- w.- ssZ-hs
- Ø-°p- d
- n-®v- A-Xna-t\m-l-c-am-bn- {]-kw-Kn-®n-cp-∂- sa-°ms_-sb- tem-I- {]-i-kv-X-\m-°n-b-Xv At±-l-Øn-s≥-d- k-`m-hn-cp-≤- B-i-b-ß-fmbn-cp-∂p.- C-Ø-c-°m-cp-sS- kzm-[-o-\-^-eam-bm-Wv- C-‰-en-,- {_n-´¨,- A-ta-cn-°- XpS-ßn-b- cm-Py-ß-fn¬- "{^o- tKm-Uv- {^wdn-eo-Py-kv- ^-\m-‰-n-kw'- F-∂- H-cp- ]p-XnbB-ib
- K
- X
- n-Xs
- ∂- D-Ss
- e-Sp-°p-Ib
- pw- k`mc-ln-Xa
- m-b- Cu-iz-ch
- n-izm-kw- H-cm-Z¿-ia
- mbn- {]-N-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-Xv.C-¥y-bn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-ta-J-e-sbkw-_-\v-[n-®v- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-]-c-am-b- A-hyIv-X-X-I-fn¬- H-∂v,- dm-j-W-en-k-sØ-bpwG-bv-Øn-k-sØ-bpw- hy-Iv-X-am-bn- hy-htO-Zn-°m-sX- k-ao-]n-®-Xm-Wv.- \n-c-o-iz-chm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- \-s´-√n¬- \n-e-sIm-≈p-∂F-bv-Øn-kØ-n-\v- - km-am-\y-bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zsa-∂- A¿-Yw-Iq-Sn- I¬-]n-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- dmj-W-en-k-Øn-se- hn-izm-k-sØ- Aw-KoI-cn-°p-∂- [m-c-bp-am-bn- F-ß-s\- {]-Xnh¿-Øn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- Nn-¥n-°m-sX- dm-jW-en-kw,- F-bv-Øn-kw- F-∂o- ]-Z-ß-sf]-cym-b-ß-fm-bn- ]-c-kv-]-cw- D-]-tbm-Kn-°pI-bm-Wv- C-¥y-bn-se- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-Iƒ- sNbv-Xp-h-∂-Xv.- Km-\v-[n-Pn-bp-sS- H-cp- {]-[m\in-jy-\m-bn-cp-∂- tKm-d-bp-sS- Nn-¥m-K-XnXn-I®pw- \m-kv-Xn-I-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-epw"dm-Un-°¬'- ho-£-W-K-Xn-°m-cm-bn-cp-∂
a-‰p-]-e- B-Zy-Im-e- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fn-epw]I-cw-sh-°m-\m-hm-Ø- Zr--- V-am-b- H-cm-Z¿i-am-bn- Cu-iz-ch
- n-izm-kw- \n-e\
- n-∂n-cp-∂psh-∂v- Im-Wmw.- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬- C-¥y-bnse- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Z˛kz-X{- ¥- Nn-¥m-ta-Je
- bnse- \n-c-h-[n- k-¶o¿-W-{]-iv-\-ß-fn¬H∂m-Wv,- dm-j-W-en-kw- F-∂- hm-°v- D-]tbm-Kn-®p-sIm-≠v- I-Sp-Ø- \n-co-iz-c-hm-ZNn-¥m-K-Xn- ]p-e¿-Øp-∂- ]-e-cpw- A-h-cpsS- {]-Xy-b-im-kv-{X-sØ- ]-cn-N-b-s∏-SpØm-\n-Sb
- m-bX
- v.- Nn-e¿- a-Xß
- f
- p-am-bn- ISpØ- B-i-b-hn-cp-≤- \n-e-]m-Sp-I-fpw- \n- -

-Cu-iz-cm-kv-Xn-Xz-sØ- _p-≤n-]-c-am-b- F-Xn¿-hm-Z-߃-sIm-≠v- \n-cm-I-cn-°p-hm≥- km-[y-a-s√-∂bm-Ym¿-Yy-t_m-[w- Nn-e- dm-j-W-en-kv-‰p-Iƒ-°v- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- k-Ω-Xn-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂p.- CuNn¥m-K-Xn-°m-cpw- a-X-hn-izm-kn-I-fpw- X-Ωn-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂- ku-lm¿-Zw- C-‰-en-bn-epw- Cw-•-≠n-epwa‰pw- ]-e- ]p-Xn-b- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS-bpw- cq-]o-I-c-W-Øn-\v- Im-c-W-am-bn

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

48

bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- Ip-e-a-ln-a- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-IƒB-i-b-]-c-am-b- A-hy-Iv-X-X-b-p-sS- Im-cy-Øn¬- ]n-s∂-bpw- ap-t∂m-´p-t]m-bn.- aX-sØhy-Iv-Xn-\n-jv-T-am-b- {]-Xn-]-m-Z\-ß-fn-eq-sS- ]-e-hn-[-Øn¬- {]-Xn-tcm-[n-°p-hm≥- {i-an-®-h-cm-WvtI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fn¬- ]-e-cpw.-

l-Ic-W˛_-\v-[-\n-tj-[-hpw- A-h-e-w-_n®p-sh-¶n¬- a-‰p-Nn-e¿- a-X-ß-sf- k-ln-°pI-bpw- k-l-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂- k-ao]-\-]-£-Øm-Wv- \n-∂-Xv.- hy-Iv-X-am-b- {]Xy-b-im-kv-{X- ]-cn-k-cw- H-cp-°p-∂-Xn¬C¥y≥- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- ]-cm-P-b-s∏-´pF-∂¿-Yw.bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- Ip-e-a-ln-a- A-hIm-i-s∏-Sp-∂- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-ZnIƒ- B-ib
- ]
- c
- a
- m-b- A-hy-IvX
- X
- b
- p- s
- S- Imcy-Øn¬- ]n-s∂-bpw- ap-t∂m-´p-t]m-bn.- aXsØ- hy-Iv-Xn-\n-jv-T-am-b- {]-Xn-]-m-Z\-ßfn-eq-sS- ]-e-hn-[-Øn¬- {]-Xn-tcm-[n-°phm≥- {i-an-®-h-cm-Wv- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-IvXn-hm-Zn-I-fn¬- ]-e-cpw.- hn.-Sn.- `-´-Xn-cn-∏mSv,- Ip-‰n-∏p-g- Ir-jv-W-]n-≈,- k-tlm-Z-c≥A-ø-∏≥,- Fw.-kn.- tPm-k-^v,- cm-a-h¿-ΩX-ºm≥- F-∂n-ß-s\- ]-e-cpw- a-X-tØm-Sp≈- k-ao-]-\-ß-fn¬- ssh-hn-[y-hpw- sshcp-[y-hpw- ]p-e¿-Øn-b-h-cm-bn-cp-∂p.- _p-≤Z¿-i-\-Øn-se- \m-kv-Xn-Im-i-b-Øn-s≥-dkzm-[o-\w- G-sd-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂- k-tlm-Zc≥- A-ø-∏≥- a-X-sØ- "[¿-aw'- F-∂v- \ma-I-c-Ww- sN-bv-Xv- hy-Iv-Xn-]-c-am-bn- kzoI-cn-®- B-fm-bn-cp-∂p.""Pm-Xn- th-≠,- a-Xw- th-≠,- ssZ-hwth-≠- a-\p-jy-\v,th-Ww- [¿-aw,- th-Ww- [¿-aw-,- th-Ww[¿-a-w,- b-tYm-Nn-Xw''F-∂- k-tlm-Z-c≥- A-ø-∏-s≥-d- h-cnI-fn-se- B-i-b-hpw- a-s‰m-∂-√.- _p-≤-[¿a-Øn-se- \m-kv-Xn-I-X-sb- B-Z¿-i-am-bnDƒ-s°m-≠-Xn-eq-sS- ]m-iv-Nm-Xy- cm-jv-{Sß-fn-se- \m-kv-Xn-I- k-aq-l-߃- (F-bvØo-kv-‰v- skm-ssk-‰n-Iƒ)- A-\p-h¿-Øn°p-∂-Xn-\v- k-am-\-am-bn- a-X-sØ- km-aqly-N´- °
- q-Sn-s≥-d- `m-Ka
- m-bn- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p∂- \n-e-]m-Sn-em-Wv- k-tlm-Z-c≥- A-ø-∏≥sN-s∂-Øn-bX
- v.- tI-cf
- Ø
- n-se- a-‰p-]e
- - bpIvX
- n-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°pw- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°m≥-]‰
- p-∂\n-e-]m-Sm-bn-cp-∂n-√- A-Xv.- N-´-°q-Sn-s≥-d]p-dØ
- v,- hy-IvX
- n-\n-jvT
- a
- m-b- kzm-X{- ¥y-ho-

ap-t∂m-´v- \o-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv.- A-t±-lw- F-gp
Xp-∂p-:""bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ,- \m-kv-Xn-I¿- F-∂v]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂-h¿-°v- A-h-cp-tS-Xm-b- H-cpk-ap-Zm-bt- am- hn-izm-k- kw-ln-XI
- t- fm- BNm-c\
- n-_\
- [
v- \
- I
- t- fm- \n-tcm-[ß
- t- fm- C√.D-≠m-Im≥- ]m-Sn-√m-ØX
- p-am-Wv.- F-s¥-¶nepw- \ym-b-am-b- {]-tbm-P-\-ap-s≠-¶n¬- G
Xv- a-Xm-Nm-c-hpw- ]-c-ky-am-bn- A-\p-jv-Tn°p-∂-Xn¬- bm-sXm-cp- {]-Xn-_-\v-[-hpwC√m-Ø-h-cm-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ''- (bp-IvXn-hm-Zn- am-kn-I,- - 1972 G-{]n¬,- t]-Pv- 15˛16).£-W-Øn-eq-sS- Po-hn-X-sØ- hy-h-kv-Ymc-lnX-am-b- B-kzm-Z\
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- X-eØ
- n¬F-Øn-°m≥- B-{K-ln-®- ]-ec
- pw- A-hc
- nep≠m-bn-cp-∂p.bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-sØ- \n¿-h-Nn-°p-∂-Xn¬tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- ]-e- X-´nem-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂X
- v- bm-Ym¿-Yy-am-Wv.- bpIvXn-hm-Z-sØ- H-cp- hn-izm-k-kw-ln-X-bm-bncq-]-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥- {i-an-®-h-cpw- \m-kv-XnI-X-sb- H-cp- a-X-am-°n- am-‰m≥- {i-an-®-hcpw- ta¬-]-d-™- c-≠v- L-S-\-sb-bpwAwKo-I-cn-°m-Ø-h-cpw- Dƒ-s∏-sS- tI-c-fØn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- ]-e- X-´p-I-fn-embn-Øo-cp-I-bpw- A-h-cp-sS- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sp-Ifn-se- t\-cn-b- k-am-\-X,- a-X-ß-sf- A-\v[-am-bn- F-Xn¿-°p-I- F-∂-Xn¬- am-{X-samXp-ßn-°q-Sp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- B-i-b-]-c-amb- h-f¿-®-bn-eq-sS- Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- Xp-S¿®-I-fp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- \o-ßp-hm≥- I-gnbm-Ø- H-cp- \n¿-Po-h- X-Ø-z-kw-ln-X-bmbn- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zw- am-dn-bX
- v- A-Xn-s≥-d- ^eam-bn-cp-∂p.a- X - t Øm- S p- ≈ - k- a o- ] - \ - Ø n- s ≥- d kq£v-amw-i-ß-fn¬- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-IvXn-hm-Zn- B-Nm-cy-∑m¿- ]-c-kv-]-cw- `-n-∂-X]p-e¿-Øn-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂X
- v- ]-ca
- m¿-Ya
- m-Wv.ItØ-m-en-°m-ss{I-kv-X-h-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬P-\n-®p-h-f¿-∂- Fw.-kn.- tPm-k-^v- a-X-hpam-bn- c-a-y-X-bn¬- h-¿-Øn-°m≥- B-{K-ln®p-sIm-≠m-Wv- X-s≥-d- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-sØkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Fw.-kn.- tPm-k-^n-s≥-d- ta¬-]-d-™D-≤-c-Wn-bn¬-\n-∂v- D-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h-cp-∂{]-[m-\- B-i-b-߃- C-h-bm-Wv.- 1.- bp-IvXn-hm-Z-Øn-\v- A-Xn-t≥-d-Xm-b- H-cp- N-´-°q
Spw- LS-\-bpw- am-\-Z-Wv-U-ß-fpw- hn-[n-hne-°p-Iƒ- (A-Y-hm- H-cp- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-°v]m-Sp-≈-Xv,- C-√m-Ø-Xv- F-∂n-ß-s\-bp-≈Im-cy-߃)- C-√.- 2.- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-hpw- \mkvX
- n-Ih
- m-Zh
- pw- H-∂m-Wv.- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-IƒX-s∂-bm-Wv- \m-kv-Xn-I-cpw.- 3.- {]-tbm-P\-£a
- X
- b
- p-sS- A-Sn-kvY
- m-\Ø
- n¬- a-XØ
- ns≥-d- Dƒ-LS- \
- b
- n¬- h-cp-∂- G-Xv- Im-cyßsf-bpw- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- kzo-I-cn-°mhp-∂-Xm-Wv.ta¬-]-d-™- B-i-b-ß-sf- ]n¬-°me°m-cpw- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- k-a-Im-en-Icn¬- ]-e-cpw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂n-√.- H-∂m-aXv- kq-Nn-∏n-®- B-i-b-am-b- "N-´-°q-Sn-s≥-dbpw- am-\-Z-Wv-U-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-`m-hw'- bp
Iv-Xn-hm-Zw- aq¿-Ø-am-b- H-cp- B-i-b-a-√- F∂v- ]-db
- p-hm≥- t]m-epw- t{]-cn-∏n-°p-∂X
- mWv.- hy-Iv-X-am-b- am-\-Z-Wv-U-ß-fn-s√-¶n¬F-ß-s\-bm-W-v H-cm-sf- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-bmtWm- A-√-tbm- F-∂v- \n-iv-N-bn-°p-I-sb∂- tNm-Zyw- D-b¿-∂p-h-cp-∂p.- a-X-hn-cp-≤am-b- G-Xv- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-sb-bpw- bp-Iv-Xn-hmZ-am-bn- Im-Wp-∂- k-ao-]-\w- ]n¬-°m-ebpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- kzo-I-cn-®n-´p-s≠-¶n-epwA-sXm-cp- am-\-Z-Wv-U-am-bn- Xm-Xzn-Imw-KoIm-cw- t\-Sn-bn-√- F-∂-Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿G- X m- ≠ v - Fw.- k n- b p- t S- X n- \ v - k- a m- \ wXs∂-bm-Wv- Ip-‰n-∏p-g- Ir-jvW
- ∏
- n- ≈
- b
- p-sS\n-e-]m-Spw.- Ip-‰n-∏p-g- F-gp-Xn-bn-cn-°p-∂XvC-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:""H-∂n-epw- H-cp- {]-tXy-Im-`n-{]m-bwkvYm-]n-°-W-sa-∂v- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°vim-Ty-an-√.- A-`n-{]m-bw- G-Xm-bm-epw- sIm≈mw-;- A-Xn-te-°v- h-∂p-tN-cp-∂- h-gn- ]ng-hn-√m-Ø-Xm-I-Ww,- sX-fn-™n-cn-°-Ww,bp-IvX
- n-°v- tN¿-∂n-cn-°W
- w- F-t∂- A-h¿°v- \n¿-_-\v-[-ap-≈q.- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sfs]m-Xp-sh- _-\v-[n-°p-∂- H-cp- {]-tXy-IA-`n-{]m-b-tam- hn-izm-k-tam- H-cn-°-epw- D≠m-bn-´n-√.- A-ß-s\-sbm-cp- \n-e-h-cp-∂Xv- A-h¿- kzo-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂- hn-Nm-c-]-≤Xn°v- hn-cp-≤-am-Ipw''- (bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zw-:- t]Pv- 8,- Ip-‰n-∏p-g- Ir-jv-W-∏-n-≈,- bp-Iv-Xn-hmZ- {]-N-c-W-th-Zn- {]-kn≤o-I-c-Ww).Cu- B-ib
- w- AwKo-Ic
- n-°p-tºmƒ- bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- kw-L-S-\m-cq-]o-I-c-Whpw- kw-Lm-S-\-hpw- Iq-´m-bv-a-bpw- A-km[y-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬- tI-c-f-Øn-s-e- bp-Iv-Xnhm-Zn- {]-kv-Ym-\-hpw- \n-c-h-[n- bp-Iv-Xn-hmZn- kw-L-S-\-I-fpw -s]m-Xp-hm-b- N-´-°q-SpwNn-´-h-´-ß-fpw- L-S-\-I-fpw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®mWv- ]-Xn-‰m-≠p-If
- m-bn- {]-h¿-Øn-®p-hc
- p-∂Xv.- 1972¬- tI-cf
- - bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-kw-Lw,- kwL-S-\-bm-bn- c-Pn-kv-‰¿- sN-ø-s∏-´-t∏mƒA-Xn-s≥-d- F-gp-Xn- X-bm-dm-°n-b- hy-h-kvY-bn-se- Nn-e- ]-cm-a¿-i-߃- I-Sp-Ø- A`n-{]m-b- `n-∂X
- °
- v- C-Sb
- m-°n-bn-cp-∂p.- Cu`n-∂-X-bp-sS- ^-e-am-bm-Wv- A-°m-e-Øv- ]
e-cpw- kw-LS- \
- b
- n¬-\n-∂pw- hn-´p-\n-∂X
- pwkw-LS- \
- s
- b- F-Xn¿-°p-∂- k-am-¥c
- - {]h¿-Ø-\-ß-fp-am-bn- ap-t∂m-´p-t]m-bn-s°-m≠n-cp-∂-Xpw.-

49
°v- hn-cp-≤-am-Wv- F-∂v- ]-d-tb-≠n-h-cp-∂Xv- ssk-≤m-¥n-I-am-bn- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-hpw\mkv-Xn-I-X-bpw- c-≠m-b-Xp-sIm-≠pw- ]miv-Nm-Xy- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-f-S-°w- ]-e-cpwc≠pw- c-≠m-bn-Ø-s∂- Im-Wp-I-bpw- Bi-b- \n¿-am-Ww- \-S-Øp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-XpsIm-≠m-Wv.- tI-c-f-Øn-se- X-s∂- a-s‰mcp- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn- Nn-¥-I-\pw- {K-\v-Y-Im-c\pam-b- tUm.- em-k¿- Fw.-kn-bp-sS- ho-£W-Øn-\v- hn-cp-≤-am-Wv- A-`n-{]m-bw- {]-ISn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- C-∆n-[-am-Wv.""bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zw- ssZ-hh
- n-izm-kØ
- n-e[
- njv-Tn-X-am-b- Pm-Xn-a-X- ta-J-e-I-fn-te-°vhym-]n-∏n-°p-tºmƒ- e-`n-°p-∂- hn-Pv-Rm\-am-Wv- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Zw- A-s√-¶n¬- \n-kvXn-I-Xzw.- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Z-Øn¬- Iq-Sn-bm-Wvbp-IvX
- n-hm-Zw- a-‰p- ta-Je
- I
- f
- n-te-°v- hym]n∏n-°m-\p-≈- ss[-cyw- kw-`-cn-°m-\m-hp∂Xv''-.""\n-co-iz-ch
- m-Zs
- Ø- bp-IvX
- n-hm-ZØ
- n¬\n-∂v- H-cp-]-S-n- ta-se- \n¿-tØ-≠-Xm-Wv.Pm-Xn-a-X- k-¶¬-]-ß-sf- tNm-Zyw- sN-bvXv- {]-]-©-Øn-\v- H-cp- i-Iv-Xn-bp-≠v- F-∂p≈- hn-izm-k-Øn¬- am-{Xw- \n¬-°p-∂-hc-mW
- v- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Zn-Iƒ- F-∂- t]-cn¬- Adnb-s∏-tS-≠-Xv''.""F-∂m¬- `u-Xn-Im-Xo-Xa
- m-bn- H-cp- iIvXn-bn-s√-∂pw- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]-cn-[nbn¬-s]-´- am-‰¿˛F-\¿-Pn- F-∂- `u-Xn-I-

am-‰-am-Wv- {]-]-©-sØ- `-cn-°p-∂-sX-∂pwa-\- n-em-°n-b-h-cm-Wv- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Zn-Iƒ.Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ- D-≈-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv\m-kv-Xn-I¿- D-≠m-b-Xv.- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-knIƒ- Cu- `q-ap-J-Øp-\n∂-pw- a-d-bp-∂-Xp-hsc- \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-I-fpw- A-h-tcm-sSm-∏w- D≠m-Ipw''- (a-\p-jy-_\
- [
v- ß
- ƒ- bp-IX
v- n-hmZ]-T-\-Øn-eq-sS,- t]-Pv:- 21,- tUm.- em-k¿tX¿-aT
- w,- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Z {]-Nc
- W
- t- h-Zn- {]kn≤o-I-c-Ww).bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- hy-Iv-Xn-\-n-jv-T-amb- H-cm-Z¿-is
- a-∂- \n-eb
- n¬- Cu-iz-ch
- n-izmkw- ]p-e¿-Øp-hm≥- Xm-Xzn-I-am-bn- \¬I-s∏-Sp-∂- kzm-X{- ¥yw- {i-t≤-ba
- m-Wv.- CuXm-Xzn-Ia
- m-b- h-iØ
- n-s\-Xn-cm-Wv,- bp-IvX
- nhm-Zn-If
- pw- \n-co-iz-ch
- m-Zn-If
- pw- H-∂pX-s∂F-∂- \n-e-]m-Sv-˛ Fw.-kn.- Cu- \n-e-]m-SpIm-c-\m-bn-cp-∂-t√m.- B- \n-e-bv-°v- tUm.em-kdn-s≥-d- \n-co-£W
- w Fw.-kn-bp-sS- ho£-W-sØ-bm-Wv- tNm-Zyw- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- \nco-iz-ch
- m-Zn-If
- m-b- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-If
- p-sS- Bi-b-hn-cp-≤- tN-cn-bn-te-°v,- Cu-iz-c-hn-izmkn-I-fm-b- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sf-°-q-Sn- a-X-hnizm-kn-It- fm-sSm-∏w- tN¿-Øp-sh-°p-∂X
- mWv- tUm-Iv-S¿- em-k¿- A-S-°-ap-≈- ]-e-cpsS-bpw- ho-£-W-߃.- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fn-se- B-i-b-]-c-am-b- {[p-hsshhn-[y-ß-fp-sS- H-cp- sN-dn-b- am-Xr-Ibm-Wn-Xv.Fw.-kn-bp-sS- D-≤-c-Wn-bn-se- aq-∂m-aXv- B-i-bw- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- {]-tbmP-\I
- c
- a
- m-b- a-XI
- m-cy-ßs
- f- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°bpw- A-h-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- {]-h¿-Øn°-bp-am-Imw- F-∂-Xm-Wv.- F-∂m¬- ""hyIv-Xn- Po-hn-X-Øn-epw- Ip-Spw-_-Po-hn-X-Ønepw- bm-sXm-cp-hn-[- a-X-N-S-ßp-I-tfm- BNm-cß
- t- fm- ]p-e¿-Øp-hm≥- ]-‰n-s√-∂''- bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn- kw-L-Øn-s≥-d- 1970se- \n-bam-h-en- ""hy-h-kv-Y-I-fpw- N-´-ß-fpw''- A©mw- \-º-d-m-bn- sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈ B-i-bwC-Xn-s\-Xn-cm-Wv.- hy-Iv-Xn-Po-hn-X-Øn¬- a-

Fw.-kn-bp-sS ta¬- D-≤c
- W
- n-bn¬-\n-∂vD-cp-Øn-cn-™p-h-∂- c-≠m-a-sØ- B-i-bw""bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-hpw- \m-kv-Xn-I-X-bpw- (bp-IvXn-hm-Zn-I-fpw- \m-kv-Xn-I-cpw)- H-∂p-X-s∂bm-Wv-''- F-∂m-W-t√m.- C-Xv- h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ-

bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- hy-Iv-Xn-\-n-jv-T-am-b- H-cm-Z¿-i-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-kw]p-e¿-Øp-hm≥- Xm-Xzn-I-am-bn- \¬-I-s∏-Sp-∂- kzm-X-{¥yw- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- Cu- Xm-Xzn-I-am-bh-i-Øn-s\-Xn-cm-Wv,- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fpw- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Zn-I-fpw- H-∂pX-s∂- F-∂- \n-e-]m-Sv-.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

50

-hn-izm-k-t{]-cn-X-am-b- {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fp-sS- sam-Ø-Øn-ep-≈- t]-cm-Wv- a-Xw- F-∂-Xv.- B\n-ebv-°v,- i-cn-bm-b- ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-tam- Cu-i-z-c- hn-izm-k-tam- H-cm-fn¬- D-s≠-¶n¬- A-bmƒH-cp- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- {]-h¿-Ø-\- am¿-K-\n¿-tZ-i-߃-Iq-Sn- Aw-Ko-I-cn-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂p.- ssZ-hØn¬hn-iz-kn-®p-sIm-≠v- a-X-sØ- X≈n-°-f-bp-I- F-∂-Xv- D-]-cn-π-h-am-b- ssk-≤m-¥n-I\m-Sy-Øn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-Wv.
X-sØ- H-gn-hm-°n-bm-epw- km-aq-ly- N-´°
- qSn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-bn- a-°-fp-sS-bpw -a-‰pw- hnhm-l-Øn-epw- B-Nm-c-ß-fn-epw- a-X-Øns≥d- co-Xn-Iƒ- ]n-¥p-S-cp-hm≥- \n¿-_\v[n-X-cm-b- Fw.-kn,- Fw.-_n.-sI,- ]h-\≥,\m-cm-b-W≥- t]-cn-b- Xp-S-ßn-b- Nn-e- BZy-Im-e- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- kw-L-S-\-bp-sS_-ln-jv-I-c-W-Øn-\v- hn-t[-b-cm-bn-Øo-cpI-bp-≠m-bn.-

hn-°p-∂p-≠v.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- a-X-\ntj-[n-sb- Cu-iz-c\
- n-tj-[n- F-∂p-Iq-Sn- ]dbm≥- tI-h-e-bp-Iv-Xn-sIm-≠v- km-[n-°p-∂Xp-am-Wv.- G-‰-hpw- tbm-Pn-®-X;-v- H-cmƒ,Rm≥- H-cp- {]-tXy-I- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- B-f√,H-cp- a-XØ
- n-se-bpw- ssZ-hh
- n-izm-kn-bp-a√,a-X-߃-°v- ]p-d-Øp-≈- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-knbm-Wv- F-∂v- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂-Xm-bncn°pw.-

bp-IX
v- n-hm-Zs
- Ø- a-s‰m-cp- a-Xa
- m-bn- ]cnh¿-Øn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-Wv- C-Øcw- I-Wn-ia
- m-b- \n-e]
- m-Sp-Is
- f-∂v- H-cp-hn`mKw- hm-Zn-®-t∏mƒ,- a-dp-`m-Kw- B- hm-Z-sØI-≠-Xv- bp-Iv-Xn-h-Z-{]-kv-Ym-\-sØ- X-I¿°m-\p-≈- \o-°-am-bm-Wv.- Cu- `n-∂-X- BXy-¥n-I-am-bn- {]-Xn-\n-[m-\w- sN-øp-∂-XvbpIv - X n- h m- Z - Ø n- s ≥- d - B- i - b - ] - c - a m- b XI¿-®-sb-Ø-s∂-bm-Wv.-

a-X-sØ- X≈n-°-f-™v- Cu-iz-c-\n¬hn-iz-kn-°p-I- F-∂-Xv- H-c¿-Y-Øn¬- _p≤n-iq-\y-X-bm-Wv.- tI-h-ew- H-cp- hn-izm-kwsIm-≠p-am-{Xw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- ssZ-h-hp-ambp-≈- _-\v-[w- H-Xp-°n-\n¿-Øm-hp-∂-X-√.H-cmƒ- ssZ-h-Øn¬- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂p- F-∂A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-XvB- A-hI
- m-ih
- m-Zt- Øm-S\
- p-kc
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- ß
- f
- n-√m-Ø- Cu-izc-hn-izm-kw tI-h-ew- am-\-kn-I-am-b- H-ch-kv-Y- am-{X-am-Wv.- hn-izm-k-t{]-cn-X-am-b{]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fp-sS- sam-Ø-Øn-ep-≈- t]cm-Wv- a-Xw- F-∂-Xv.- B- \n-ebv-°v,- i-cnbm-b- ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-tam- Cu-i-z-c- hn-izmk-tam- H-cm-fn¬- D-s≠-¶n¬- A-bmƒ- H-cpa-X-Øn-s≥-d- {]-h¿-Ø-\- am¿-K-\n¿-tZ-i߃-Iq-Sn- Aw-Ko-I-cn-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂p.- ssZhØn¬- hn- i z- k n- ® p- s Im- ≠ v - a- X - s ØX≈n-°-f-bp-I- F-∂-Xv- D-]-cn-π-h-am-bssk-≤m-¥n-I- \m-Sy-Øn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-Wv.a-X-hn-izm-kn-I-f-√m-Ø-h-cpw- Cu-iz-c-hnizm-kn-I-fp-am-b-h¿- kz-bw- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-ZnIƒ- F-∂v- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬t]m-epw- A-h¿- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-f-√,-- H-c¿-YØn¬.- B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn¬-X-s∂- bp-Iv-Xnhm-Zn-I-sf- _m-[n-®n-´p-≈- B-i-b-]-c-am-bA-hy-Iv-X-X-bp-sS- `m-K-am-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-ZnIƒ-°v- hy-IvX
- n-]c
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Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- kzo-Im-cy-X\n-co-iz-c-hm-Zw- tI-h-e-bp-Iv-Xn-hm-ZsØ-°mƒ- D-b¿-∂- ]Sn-bm-Wv- F-∂v- Nnebp-IvX
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- p-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.- H-cp- k-hn-tij- h-kv-Xp-hn¬ B- h-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- h¿-KØn-se- km-am-\y-L-S-I-ß-fp-sS- kz-`m-hwD-≠m-bn-cn-°¬- B-hi
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- pw- k-hn-ti-j- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Zn-If
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- ∂- Cu-iz-c\
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- m-Zn-If
- n-eqsS-bp-ap-≈- a-kv-Xn-jv-I- {]-h¿-Ø-\-Øns≥d- ]-cn-Wn-X-^-e-am-bn- [n-j-Wm-im-enIƒ- a-\- n-em-°n-b- bm-Ym¿-Yy-Øn-s≥-dB-Xa
v- m¿-Yh
- pw- kp-[o-ch
- p-am-b- H-cp- {]-Jym]-\-am-W-Xv''- (bp-Iv-Xn-Nn-¥-bpw- Po-hn-Xhpw.- t]-Pv- 87˛88,- kn.- \m-cm-b-W≥,- bp-IvXn-hm-Z- {]-N-c-W-th-Zn).Cu-iz-cs
- ≥-db
- pw- Cu-iz-ch
- n-izm-kØ
- ns≥-d-bpw- kv-Ym-\w- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-\v- AI-tØm- ]pd-tØm- F-∂v- \n-iv-N-bn-°p-∂Xn¬- sF-I-I-Wv-T-am-b- H-cp- Xo-cp-am-\-Ønse-Øm≥- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- I-gn-™n´n-√.- Nn-e¿- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- ]q¿-WX- \n-co-iz-c-X-z-am-sW-∂v- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ,- a‰p-Nn-e¿- \n-co-iz-cX
- zw- bp-IX
v- n-hm-ZØ
- n-s≥dH-cp- sN-dn-b- L-S-I-am-Wv- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂Xv- X-s∂-bm-Wv,- \n-co-iz-c-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- kvY-m-\- \n¿-W-b-Øn¬- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°vbp-Iv-Xn- \-jv-S-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂- hm-ZØn-s≥-d- sX-fn-hv.- G-sXm-cp- a-X-Øn-s≥-dbpw- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\w- A-Xn-se- ssZ-h-k-¶¬]-hpw- ssZ-hh
- n-izm-kh
- p-am-Wv- F-∂n-cn-s°a-X-ß-sf- X-≈n-°-f-bp-I- F-∂- {]-hr-Ønbn¬- Cu-iz-c-s≥-d- X-≈n-°-f-b-epw- kw-`kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿X-e-Xn-cn-™- ho-£-W-sa-∂v- Im-Wmw.a-\p-jy-{]-Ir-XØ
- n-s≥-d- kzm-`m-hn-Ia
- mb- B-h-iy-s∏-S-em-Wv- Cu-iz-c\n¬ hn-izkn-°p-hm≥- t{]-cn-∏n-°p-∂- am-\-kn-I- kvYn-Xn.- A-\p-`-h-߃- B- am-\-kn-I- kv-YnXn-sb- kzm[o-\n-°p-I-bpw- k-º-∂-am-°pI-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d-bpwssh-Pv-Rm-\n-I-X-bp-sS-bpw- G-sX-¶n-epwNn-e- L-S-I-ß-fp-sS- k-lm-b-tØm-sS- `uXn-Ia
- m-bn- kvY
- m-]n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂n-√- hn-izm-kØn-s≥-d- A-Sn-Ø-d- F-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-am{Xw,- Cu-iz-c-hn-izm-kw- kzo-I-m-cy-a-s√-∂v]-d-bp-hm≥- Hcp- km-am-\y-_p-≤n-ti-jn-bp≈- a-\p-jy-\v- km-[y-ta-b-√.- F-∂n-cn-s°,\n-co-iz-c-Xz-sØ- D-∂-X-am-b- H-cm-Z¿-i-hpwhn-π-h-I-c-am-b- H-cp- am-\-kn-Im-h-kv-Y-bpam-bn- Nn-{Xo-Ic
- n-®p-hc
- p-∂X
- v- A-Xn-cp-IS- ∂
- _u-≤n-I-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- A-]-Iz-am-b- e-£W-am-Wv.- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- A-h-cp-sS- BtKm-f-Xm-Xzn-Im-Nm-cy-∑m-cpw- B-Z¿-i-]n-Xm°-fp-am-bn- sIm-≠p-\-S-°p-∂-h-cn¬- ]-ecpw- bp-hX
- z-Øn-s≥-db
- pw- hn-πh
- N
- n-¥b
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- pw- am-\k
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- m-bn- A-Xn¬\n-∂v- H-cp- {]-tXy-I- im-¥n- t\-Sp-I-bpwsN-bv-Xn-cp-∂p.a-\p-jy-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-sS- G-‰-hpw- kp{]-[m-\-am-b- A-Sn-Ø-d-bm-Wv- \n-co-iz-c-hmZ-sa-∂v- kn-≤m-¥n-®n-cp-∂- d- -en-s≥-d- A\p-`-hw- ta¬-]-d-™-Xm-sW-¶n-epw- kz-X{¥-Nn-¥-bp-sS- hIv-Xm-°ƒ- \n-co-iz-c-hmZ-sØ- A-hc
- p-sS- am¿-Ka
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- ∂-bm-WvC-∂pw- I-cp-Xn-h-cp-∂-Xv.- B-Zy-Im-e- \n-co-

51
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v- \n-cm-Ic
- n-°p-Ib
- m-Wv\m-kv-Xn-I-X''- F-∂- tXm-∂-em-Wv- ta¬]-d-™-Xn¬-\n-∂v- D-≠m-Ip-∂-Xv.- A-X-√,C-X-√,- A-Xn-√,- C-Xn-√- F-∂n-ß-s\- \ntj-[n-°p-∂-Xv- a-X-Øn-se- Nn-e- hn-izm-kß-tfm- {]-Xo-I-ß-tfm- B-bn-cp-∂m¬- B\n-tj-[-sØ- \m-kv-Xn-I-X-sb-∂v- ]-d-bmam-bn-cn-°p-sa-¶n-epw- A-sXm-cp- bp-Iv-Xn-imkv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]-cn-K-W-\- A¿-ln-°p∂n√.b-Ym¿-YØn¬- \m-kv-Xn-I-X- H-cp- Z¿i-\-tam,- Po-hn-X-ho-£-W-tam- A-√.- B\n-e-I-fn-te-°v- A-Xn-s\- hn-I-kn-∏n-°m≥A-Xn-s≥-d- h-Iv-Xm-°ƒ-°v- C-Xp-h-sc- km[n-®n-´p-an-√.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- _p-≤nbp-sS-bpw- bp-Iv-Xn-Nn-¥-bp-sS-bpw- ]n≥-_ew- \m-kv-Xn-I-hm-Z-Øn-\v- D-s≠-∂v- A-hIm-i-hm-Zw- D-∂-bn-°-s∏-Sm-dp-s≠-¶n-epwXm-Xzn-I-am-bpw- {]m-tbm-Kn-I-am-bpw- \m-kvXn-I-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- {]-k-Iv-Xn-bpw- kzo-Imcy-X-bpw- kv-Ym-]n-°m≥- ta¬-]-d-™-h-bp-

a-\p-jy-{]-Ir-X-Øn-s≥-d- kzm-`m-hn-I-am-b- B-h-iy-s∏-S-em-Wv- Cu-iz-c\n¬ hn-iz-kn-°p-hm≥t{]-cn-∏n-°p-∂- am-\-kn-I- kv-Yn-Xn.- A-\p-`-h-߃- B- am-\-kn-I- kv-Yn-Xn-sb- kzm[o-\n-°p-I-bpwk-º-∂-am-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

52

-{]-]©w,- {]-Ir-Xn,- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-Xw,- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- \n-e-\n¬-]v- F-∂n-h-sb-°-p-dn-s®-√mwNn¥n-°p-∂- H-cmƒ-°v- Cu-iz-c-\n-tj-[n-bm-Im≥- A-{X- F-fp-∏w- I-gn-bn-√.- _p-≤n-sb- A-Xn-s≥-dkzm-`m-hn-I-X-bv-°v- F-Xn-cm-b- Zn-i-bn-eq-sS- _-e-{]-tbm-Kw- \-S-Øn- ap-t∂m-´v- \-bn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv\nco-iz-c-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°m¿.

sS- ]n-¥p-W- e-`y-a√
- .- a-XØ
- n-s≥-dt- bm- hnizm-k-Øn-s≥-d-tbm- G-sX-¶n-epw- L-S-Iß-sf- tNm-Zyw- sN-øp-∂X
- n-\v- im-kv{- X-tam,bp-IvX
- n-tbm,- _p-≤n-tbm,- D-]t- bm-Kn-°s
- ∏´m¬- A-Xv- \m-kv-Xn-I-X-bp-sS- ta-∑-bm-bnNn-{Xo-Ic
- n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂- km-lN
- c
- yw,- a-XØ
- ns≥-d- \n-tj-[-sa-∂- k-¶p-Nn-X- hr-ØØn¬- H-Xp-ßp-∂-Xm-Wv- \m-kv-Xn-I-X- F∂v- sX-fn-bn-°p-I-bm-Wv- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- a-s‰m∂n-s≥-d- \n-tj-[-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- _p-≤nbp-sS- X-e-Øn¬- I-S-∂p-h-cp-∂- \m-kv-XnI-Xbv°
- v- kz-X{- ¥-am-b- H-ck
- vX
- n-Xz-an-√- F∂p- h-cp-∂-Xv- A-Xv- H-cp- Po-hn-X-Z¿-i-\-ambn- kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥- {]m-]v-X-a-s√-∂v- hyIv-X-am-°p-∂p.- a-X-hn-izm-kw- im-kv-{Xo-ba-s√-∂v- h-∂m¬- \m-kv-Xn-I-X- im-kv-{Xob-am-Wv- F-∂v- kvY
- m-]n-°s
- ∏-Sp-sa-¶n¬- AXn-se- bp-Iv-Xn- ""a-X-sØ- B-{i-bn-®m-Wv\m-kv-Xn-I-X- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂-Xv''- F-∂m-bt√- h-cp-∂-Xv?- A-t∏m-ƒ,- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- H-c\p-_-\-v[- L-S-I-sa-∂Xn¬-I-hn-™v (a-XØn-s≥-d- H-cp- hn-]-co-Xm-\p-_-\v-[-sa-∂Xn¬- G-sd)- F-¥v- kzo-Im-cy-X-bm-Wv- \mkv-Xn-I-Xbv-°p-≈-Xv?{]-]©w,- {]-Ir-Xn,- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-Xw,{]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- \n-e-\n¬-]v- F-∂n-h-sb°-p-dn-s®-√mw- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- H-cmƒ-°v- Cuiz-c-\n-tj-[n-bm-Im≥- A-{X- F-fp-∏w- I-gnbn-√.- _p-≤n-sb- A-Xn-s≥-d- kzm-`m-hn-I-Xbv-°v- F-Xn-cm-b- Zn-i-bn-eq-sS- _-e-{]-tbmKw- \-S-Øn- ap-t∂m-´v- \-bn-°p-∂-h-cm-Wv\n-co-iz-c-Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°m¿.- Cu-iz-c- hn-izmkw- kzm-`m-hn-Ia
- m¿-Kh
- pw- \n-co-iz-cXz-w- Akzm-`m-hn-I-am¿-K-hp-am-Wv-;- H-cp- i-cm-i-cna-\p-jy-s\- kw-_\
- [
v- n-®v.- Ir-{Xn-aa
- m-bn- Bhn-jv-I-cn-®p-≠m-°-s∏-Sp-∂- H-cm-i-b-Øns≥-d- h-{I-X- \n-co-iz-c-Xz-Øn-\v- ssI-h-cp∂-Xv,- A-Xv- a-\p-jy-lr-Z-b-Øn-s≥-d- kzm`m-hn-IX
- b
- v°
- v- hn-cp-≤a
- m-b- H-∂m-bX
- p-sIm≠m-Wv._p-≤n-]-c-am-b- _-e-{]-tbm-K-Øn-s≥-d]-cn-K-W-\-am-{Xw- A-¿-ln-°p-∂- \n-co-iz-chm-Z-sØ- H-cp- im-kv-{X-sa-∂v- hn-fn-°p-∂-

Xv- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d- aq-ey-sØ- sN-dp-Xm°n- Im-Wn-°-em-Wv.- \n¿-am-Wm-Xv-a-I-ßfm-b- a-\p-jy-]-≤-Xn-I-fn-se- D-]-I-c-W-amWv- im-kv-{Xw.- ssZ-hm-kv-Xn-Iyw- kv-Ym-]n°p-∂-Xn-\m-Wv- im-kv-{Xw- k-lm-b-I-am-bnØo-cp-∂X
- v.- a-XØ
- n-s≥-db
- pw- hn-izm-kØ
- ns≥-d-bpw- \n-c-h-[n- L-S-I-ß-sf- ]n-¥p-W°p-∂-Xn-eq-sS- im-kv-{Xw- \n-e-sIm-≈p-∂Xv- \n-co-iz-chm-ZØ
- n-s≥-d- F-Xn¿-Zn-ib
- n-emsW-∂n-cn-s°,- ""Cu-iz-c\
- n-tj-[Ø
- n-te-°vim-kv-{Xw- a-\p-jy-sc- \-bn-°p-∂p''- F-∂\m-kvX
- n-Ic
- p-sS- A-hI
- m-ih
- m-Zw- Xo¿-Øpw\n-c¿-Y-I-am-b- H-∂m-Wv.- im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥d\n¿-am-Wm-Xv-a-I-Xbv-°v- hn-cp-≤-am-b- H-cp_u-≤n-I- \n-e-hm-c-am-Wv- \m-kv-Xn-I-X.Cu-i-z-c-s\- ]-e-co-Xn-bn¬- Im-Wp-IF∂-Xv- hy-Iv-Xn-I-fp-sS- a-t\m-L-S-\-bp-sS`m-Ka
- m-Wv.- hn-Ik
- n-®- _p-≤n-bpw- {]-h¿-Ø\-£-a-am-b- a-\x-i-Iv-Xn-bp-ap-≈- H-cm-fn¬Cuiz-c-k-¶¬-]w- A-Xn-s≥-d- ]q¿-W-Xbn¬- Im-Wmw-.-- k-Ωn-{i- a-t\m-LS- \
- b
- p-≈h-cn-¬,- Cu-iz-c- k-¶¬-]-Øn-epw- B- LS-\- {]-Xn-^e
- n-°pw.- C-Xn-\v- G-‰h
- pw- an-I®D-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv- a-lm-Xv-am-Km-\v-[n.1931 H-Iv-tSm-_¿- 31˛mw- Xo-b-Xn- ""b-w-KvC-¥y-bn¬''- A-t±-lw- C-ß-s\- F-gp-Xn-:""ssZ-hw- kvt- \-la
- m-sW-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂h
- t- cmsSm-∏w- Rm-\pw- ]-d-bp-∂p- ssZ-hw- kv-t\l-am-sW-∂v.- F-∂m¬- F-s≥-d- A-¥-cm-fØn¬- ssZ-hw- ssZ-h-am-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂pwk¿-thm-]-cn- ssZ-hw- k-Xy-am-sW-∂pwRm≥- ]-d-bm-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- a-\p-jy-\v- ]kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

cn-]q¿-W- hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww- \¬-Im-\m-hp-sa¶n¬- Rm≥- kz-bw- ssZ-hw- k-Xy-am-sW∂v- \n-K-a-\w- sN-øp-∂p.- F-∂m¬- c-≠psIm-√w-ap-ºv- Rm≥- H-cp- ]S-n-Iq-Sn- I-S-∂psN-√p-I-bpw- k-Xy-am-Wv- ssZ-h-sa-∂v- ]-dbp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- G-I-tZ-iw- A≥-]-XvsIm-√-߃-°v- ap-ºv- B-cw-`n-®- A-\-kyqX-hpw- X-o-{h-hp-am-b- k-Xym-t\z-j-W-Øn\v- ti-j-am-Wv- Rm≥- Cu- \n-K-a-\-Øn-seØn-b-Xv.- k-Xy-k-ao-]-\-Øn-\p-≈- G-‰-hpa-Sp-Ø- am¿-Kw- kvt- \-lØ
- n¬- Iq-Sn-bm-sW∂v- Rm≥- ]n-∂o-Sv- I-≠p''- (Km-\v-[n-P-n-bp-w\m-kv-Xn-Iy-hpw.- t]-Pv-:- 11,- tKm-d-bp-sSIrXn,- a-eb-m-f- hn-h¿-Ø-\w).X-s≥-d- a-\- n-se- Cu-iz-c-hn-Nm-cØn\v- Km-\v-[n-Pn- \¬-Ip-∂- B-i-b-]-camb- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-am-Wv- ap-I-fn¬- ]-d-™Xv.- Km-\v-[n-Pn-bp-sS- k-Ωn-{i- a-t\m-L-S-\C-hn-sS- {]-Xn-^-en-°p-∂p-≠v.a-\p-jy-s≥-d- D-≈n-\p-≈n¬- Pz-en-°p∂- H-∂m-Wv- Cu-iz-cm-kv-Xn-Xz-sØ-°-p-dn®p-≈- km-am-\y- t_m-[w.- A-tXm-sSm-∏wX-s∂- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- Nn-¥,- _p-≤n,- Im-gv-NIƒ,- A-\p-`-h-߃- F-∂n-h-sb-√mw- Cuiz-c-hn-izm-k-sØ- Pz-en-∏n-°p-I-bpw- h-f¿Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- {]ap-J- Nn-¥-I-\mbn-cp-∂- thmƒ-´-b¿- Cu-iz-c- \n-tj-[n-bmbm-Wv- s]m-Xp-hn¬- A-dn-bs
- ∏-´n-cp-∂X
- v.- At±-l-Øn-s≥-d- D-≈n¬- ]-t£,- ssZ-hhnizm-kw- cq-V-aq-e-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- sXfn-bn-°p-∂- \n-ch
- [
- n- A-\p-`h
- ß
- f
- p-≠v.- Ah-bn¬- H-∂v- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:H-cn-°¬- thmƒ-´-b¿- H-cp- ]¿-h-X- apIfn¬- {]-`m-X- k-a-bw- sN-e-h-gn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p.- D-Z-b-kq-cy-s≥-d- a-t\m-lm-cn-X- I≠v- B-kz-Zn-® B- {^-©v- X-Ø-z-Nn-¥-I≥ap-´n-t∑¬- \n-∂v- A-dn-bm-sX- ]-d-™p-t]mbn-:- "Hm- ssZ-h-ta,- \n-s∂- Rm≥- hn-iz-kn®p-t]m-Ip-∂p'.- H-cp- \n-an-jw- I-gn-™v- ]cn-k-c-t_m-[w- h-∂v- At±-lw- F-gp-t∂‰t∏mƒ- kz-bw- ]-d-™p-:- "F-∂m¬- an-kv‰¿- thmƒ-´b
- ¿,- ssZ-h]
- p-{X≥- F-s∂m-s°bp-≈-Xv- a-s‰m-cp- Im-cy-am-Wv' (k-a¿-∏-Ww-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿[ym-\-am-kn-I-:- 1994 P-\p-h-cn,- t]-Pv- 10).{In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-se- hn-izm-k- ]-iv-NmØ-e-Øn¬- thmƒ-´-b¿-°v- A-\p-`-h-s∏-´bp-Iv-Xn-cm-ln-Xy-am-Wv- A-t±-l-sØ- \n-coiz-c-\m-bn- {]-Xy-£-Øn¬- tXm-∂n-∏n-°m\n-S-bm-°n-b-Xv.- i-cn-bm-b- hn-izm-k-Øn¬FØn-t®-cm≥- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- km-[n-®n-cps∂-¶n¬- H-cn-°-epw- A-t±-lw- \n-co-iz-c\m-bn- A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.a-X-ß-tfm-Sp-≈- k-ao-]-\-Øn-se{]-iv-\-߃a-Xß
- t- fm-Sp-≈- bp-IX
v- n-hm-Zn-If
- p-sS- kao-]-\-ß-fp-sS- B-sI-Ø-p-I- \n-tj-[-]-cam-Wv.- a-XØ
- n-s≥-d- \-∑I
- s
- f- ]m-sS- \ntj[n-°p-I-bpw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-`q-X-Ime-hpw- kw-kvI
- m-ch
- pw- aq-ey-t_m-[h
- pw- \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xn¬- a-X-߃- h-ln-®- ]-¶ns\- Ip-d®
- p-Im-Wn-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂- bpIvXn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- A-hn-sS-bpw- \n¬-°m-sX- "aXØn-s≥-d- \m-iw- am-\-hn-I-X-bp-sS- H-cm-hiy-am-bn'- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p.- am-\-hn-IX-bp-sS- i-{Xp,- a-\p-jy-cm-in-bp-sS- ]-X-\Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Xn-∑-I-fp-sS-bpw- D-Xv-`-h-tI{µw-,- A-h-km-\n-°m-Ø- Nq-j-W-ß-fp-sS{]-tNm-Z\
- w,- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s≥-db
- pw- ASn-aØ
- Ø
- n-s≥-db
- pw- X-Øz- i
- m-k{v- Xw- F-∂nß-s\- a-X-sØ- sX-‰m-b- co-Xn-bn¬- Nn-{XoI-cn-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- km-ln-Xy߃.- _p-≤n-]q¿-h-hpw- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-T-hpam-bn- a-X-ß-sf- k-ao-]n-°p-∂-Xn-\v- bp-IvXn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- F-°m-eØ
- pw- X-S 
- w- \
- n-∂n´p-≈-Xv- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-eØn-s≥-d-bpw- A-\p-`-h-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-Snkv-Ym-\-Øn¬- "a-Xw'- F-∂v- hn-ti-jn-∏n°p-∂- F-¥n-s\-bpw- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒkao-]n-°p-∂p- F-∂X
- m-Wv.- ]m-iN
v- m-Xy- cm
Py-ß-fn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-°m¿C-S-°m-e-Øv,- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- \-∑-I-sf- AwKo-I-cn-°m-\pw- {]-i-w-kn-°m-\pw- X-bm-dmsb-¶n¬-t]m-epw- C-¥y-bn-se-bpw- tI-c-fØn-se-bpw- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- B- k-∂≤-X- C-Xp-h-sc-bpw- D-≠m-bn-Øo¿-∂n-´n-√.-

53
a-\p-jy¿-°n-S-bn¬- hn-`m-Ko-b-X-bpwtN-cn-Xn-cn-hpw- hnim-ea
- m-\h
- n-Ib
- vX
- s
- °-Xncm-b- a-‰p- {]-h-W-X-I-fpw- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂h-bm-Wv- a-X-߃- F-∂v- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒkm-am-\y-h¬-I-cn-°m-dp-s≠-¶n-epw- G-XvaXw,- G-Xv- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-Øn-em-Wv- ta¬]-d-™- {]-h-W-X-Iƒ- {]-I-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-sX∂v- hn-i-Z-am-bn- ]-Tn-°p-hm≥- ]-e- L-´-ßfn-epw- A-h¿- X-bm-dm-Im-dn-√.- a-X-sa-∂-Xns\- sam-Ø-Øn¬- A-f-°p-hm≥- bp-Iv-Xnhm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- ap≥-\n¿-Wn-Xß
- f
- m-b- Nn-e- A
f-hp-tIm-ep-I-fp-≠v.- A-h- an-°-Xpw- Xp-cpsº-Sp-Øv- \-in-®-Xm-sW-¶n-epw- C-∂pw- bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv- A-tXA-f-hp-tIm-ep-Iƒ- X-s∂-bm-Wv.- am-dn-ba\p-jy-Po-hn-X-Øn-epw- km-l-N-cy-ß-fnepw- a-Xw- \n¿-h-ln-°p-∂- am-\-hn-I-Zu-Xy߃- Xn-cn-®d
- n-bm-\pw- ]-Xn-s\-´v,- ]-sØm≥]-Xv- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn-se- am-\-h-hn-cp-≤- ss{Ikv-X-h- a-X-Io-b-X-bn¬-\n-∂v- kz-`m-h-Ønepw- Kp-W-Øn-epw- th-dn-´p-\n¬-°p-∂- icnbm-b- ssZ-hn-I-a-XsØ-- Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-hm-\pwbp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- {i-an-°m-dn-√.- C-cp-]-Ønsbm-∂mw- \q-‰m-≠n-se- a-\p-jy-cm-in-sbth-´-bm-Sp-∂- A-kv-Xn-Xz- iq-\y-X-bp-sS- adp-a-cp-∂m-bn- h¿-Øn-°p-∂- ssZ-hn-I- a-XØn-s≥-d- k-hn-ti-j- [¿-aß
- f
- n¬- sN-s∂Øp-hm≥- _m-en-i-ß-fm-b- {]-Xnhm-Z-ßfp-sS- Zp¿-_-e- L-S-I-ß-sf- a-p-dp-sI- ]n-Sn®n-cn-°p-∂- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Zn-Iƒ-°v- km-[n-°mdp-an-√.- tI-c-f-Øn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sf-b-

S-°w- ]-e-sc-bpw- a-X-\n-tj-[-Øn-s≥-d-bpwa-X-\n-cm-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-im-kv-{Xob-hpw- am-\-h-hn-cp-≤-hp-am-b- \n-e-]m-Sp-Ifn¬- D-d∏
- n-®p-\n¿-Øp-∂X
- v- ta¬-]d
- ™
- ]cn-an-Xn-Iƒ- X-s∂-bm-Wv.k-aq-l-Øn-se- {]-Xn-tem-a-I-ß-fm-b]e- {]-h-W-X-I-fp-sS-bpw- ]n-Xr-Xzw- a-XØn-\v- I¬-]n-®p- \¬-Im≥- {i-an-°p-∂- bpIv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ,- km-l-N-cy-ß-fp-sS-bpw- kµ¿-`-ß-fp-sS-bpw- kz-`m-h-߃- ]-cn-K-Wn°m-sX-bm-Wv- a-X-sØ- ]-e-t∏m-gpw- ]-g-nNm-cp-∂-Xv.- k-aq-l-Øn-se- kzm-`m-hn-I- Xn∑-Iƒ-°v- {]-Xn-hn-[n- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- D-]tbm-Kn-°s
- ∏-tS-≠- a-Xß
- ƒ,- B- \n-eb
- n¬B-{i-bn-°-s∏-Sm-sX- h-cp-∂n-S-Øv- kw-PmX-am-Ip-∂- {]-iv-\-ß-sf- a-X-hn-em-k-ap-≈_m-ly-L-S-I-ß-fp-sS- am-{Xw- A-Sn-kv-Ym\-Øn¬- a-X-߃-°p-ta¬- sI-´n-sh-°p∂Xv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS- km-aq-ly- hn-iI-e\
- - k-{º-Zm-bØ
- n-s≥-d- ]-cn-an-Xn-sb-bmWv- Im-Wn-°p-∂-Xv.""ap-kv-en-an-s\- sIm-√p-∂-Xv- ln-µp-hn-\v]p-Wy-am-Wv.- ln-µp-hn-s\-˛ Im-^n-dn-s\-˛
sIm-∂m¬- ap-kv-en-an-\v- kz¿-K-hpw.- Cu- hn[-Øn¬- a-\-p-jy-sc- ]-c-kv-]-cw- I-gp-Ødp-°p-hm≥- a-Xw- t{]m-Xv-km-ln-∏n-®p.- a-Xkw-L-´-\-Øn¬- a-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-h¿-°vkz¿-Kw- In-´p-sa-∂v- ]-d™
v- km-[m-cW
- °
- msc- lnw-k°
- pw- A-{I-aØ
- n-\pw- t{]-cn-∏n®p.G-Xm-\pw- h¿-jw-ap-ºv- `o-h-≠n-bn-epw- ]qhm-dn-epw- X-e-ti-cn-bn-epw- \-S-∂- h¿-Ko-be-l-f-Iƒ,- `m-c-X-Øn-se- ]-g-b- N-cn-{Xw-˛
]-≠v- ap-kv-enw-I-fpw- ln-µp-°-fpw- ]-c-kv]-cw- I-gp-Ød
- p-∂- N-cn-{X-ta- D-≠m-bn-´p-≈q˛ ho-≠pw- B-h¿-Øn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°pwF∂-Xn-s≥-d- sX-fn-hm-Wv.- C-Xn¬-\n-∂v- aXw- lyq-a\
- nk-Øn-\v- F-Xn-cm-sW-∂v- hyIvX-am-Wv.- a-Xw- \-in-°m-Øn-S-tØm-fw- Cuh¿-Ko-b- e-l-f-Iƒ- B-h¿-Øn-®p-sIm-≠pan-cn-°pw''.""h¿-Ko-b-X- tcm-K-e-£w- am-{X-am-Wv.a-X-am-Wv- b-Ym¿-Y-- tcm-Kw.- tcm-K-Øn-\v-

-am-\-hn-I-X-bp-sS- i-{Xp,- a-\p-jy-cm-in-bp-sS- ]-X-\-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Xn-∑-I-fp-sS-bpw- D-Xv-`-h-tI-{µw-,A-h-km-\n-°m-Ø- Nq-j-W-ß-fp-sS- {]-tNm-Z-\w,- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-Sn-a-Ø-Øns≥dbpw- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{Xw- F-∂n-ß-s\- a-X-sØ- sX-‰m-b- co-Xn-bn¬- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°p-∂-h-bm-Wvbp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- km-ln-Xy-߃.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

NnIn-Xvk
- n-°m-sX- tcm-Ke
- £
- W
- Ø
- n-\pam{Xw- Nn-In-Xv-kn-®-Xp-sIm-≠v- bm-sXm-cp{]tbm-P-\-hp-an-√.- a-Xw- \-in-°p-tºmƒh¿-Ko-b-X-bpw- A-{]-Xy-£-am-Ipw.- A-XpsIm-≠v- a-X-Øn-s\-Xn-sc-bp-≈- t]m-cm-´w\mw- i-IX
v- n-s∏-Sp-tØ-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- lyqa-\n-kØ
- n¬- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂- G-sXm-cp- hyIv-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- I-S-a-bp-am-W-Xv''- (bp-Iv-Xnhm-Z-Øn-s≥-d- Im-en-I- {]-k-Iv-Xn''- t]-Pv-:31:˛32,- tPm-k-^v- h-S-°≥,- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- {]N-c-W- th-Zn- {]-kn-≤o-I-c-Ww,- 1987).h¿-Ko-b-X-bp-sS- B-hn¿-`m-h-Øn¬- icn-bm-b- a-XX-Øz-߃- sN-ep-Øp-∂- kzm[o-\w- h-fs
- c- sN-dp-Xm-Wv- F-∂v- ]-T\
- ß
- ƒsX-fn-bn-®n-´p-≠v.- a-X-sØ- B-Xv-ao-b,- _mly-am-b- e-£y-ßf
- p-sS- t]-cn¬- Nn-e¿- D]tbm-Kn-°p-∂n-S-Øm-Wv- h¿-Ko-b-X- kw-lmc-i-Iv-Xn-bm-bn- B-hn¿-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- am-\h-cm-in-bp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn-se- kp-Zo¿-La
- mbIm-e-b-f-hn¬- a-X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- hn-izm-kØn-s≥-d-bpw- t]-cn-ep-≈- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-sSbpw- kw-L¿-j-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ]-´n-I- C-X-cIm-c-W-ß-fm-ep-≈- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-sS- ]-´n-Isb-°mƒ- h-f-sc- {l-kz-am-W-v F-∂-Xv- Hcp- N-cn-{X-bm-Ym¿-Yy-am-Wv.- kv-Ym-]-\-h¬I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Nq-j-W-Øn-s≥-d-bpwD-]-I-c-W-ß-fm-bn-Øo¿-∂- Nn-e- Po¿-Wa-X-ß-fn¬- A-h-bp-sS- Po¿-W-X-bp-sS- _ln¿-Ka
- \
- ß
- s
- f-∂- \n-eb
- n¬- B-hn¿-`h
- n®]-e-X-cw- {]-h-W-X-Iƒ- N-cn{X-Øn¬- am\-hn-I-Xbv-s°-Xn-cm-b- {]-Xn-tem-a-I- i-IvXn-If
- m-bn- {]-Xy-£s
- ∏-´n-´p-≠m-bn-cn-°m-sa¶n-epw,- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- \-∑-sb- A-t]-£n®vA-Xn-s≥-d- Xn-∑- sN-dp-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Wv.a-Xs
- Ø- h¿-Ko-bX
- b
- p-sS- D-Xv`
- h
- k
- vY
- m\-hpw am-\-hn-I-Xbv-s°-Xn-cm-b- a-lm-tcmK-hp-am-bn- Im-Wp-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- ho-£W-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-]c
- a
- m-b- h-iw-Iq-Sn- ]cntim-[n-t°-≠-Xp-≠v.- h¿-Ko-b-X- kr-jv-Sn°p-∂- a-X-ß-sf- ]-T-\-ß-fn-eq-sS- th¿-Xncn-®v- \n¿-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- tem-I-Øv- G-‰-hpwIq-Sp-X¬- h¿-Ko-b-X-bpw- hw-io-b-X-bpwa\p-jy-hn-`m-Ko-b-X-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-®n-´p≈aXw- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-amWv.- hn-izm-k-]-c-hpw-

54

B-Nm-c]
- c
- h
- p-am-b- {]-iv\
- ß
- f
- p-sS- t]-cn¬ss{I-kv-X-h¿- ]-c-kv-]-cw- sIm-s∂m-Sp°nb- N-cn-{Xw- bq-tdm-∏n-t≥-d-Xm-Wv.- {]-apJ- N-cn-{X-K-th-j-I-\pw- ss{I-kv-X-h- ssZh-im-k{v- X- Nn-¥I
- \
- p-am-b- tUm-.- km-ap-h¬t^m¿-_¿- F-gp-Xn-bn-´p-≈-Xv- C-{]-Im-c-amWv:- - ""a-XØ
- n-s≥-d- km-aq-ly- {]-kI
- vX
- n-bpwkzo-Im-cy-X-bpw- ss\-k¿-Kn-I-am-b- \-∑-Ifpw- tNm-Zyw- sN-ø-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-\p-≈- ]-ivNm-Ø-e-sam-cp-°n-b-Xv- ss{I-kv-X-h-k-`-Ifm-Wv.- am-\-hn-I-Xbv-s°-Xn-cm-Wv- a-X-ßsf-∂- sX-‰n-≤m-cW
- - {]-Nc
- n-°p-hm≥- ss{Ikv-X-h-a-X-h-n-izm-kn-I-fp-sS- {]-h¿-Ø-\wIm-cW
- a
- m-bn.- N-cn-{X-Øn¬- a-\p-jy≥- a\pjy-s\- sIm-√p-∂X
- c
- Ø
- n¬- sIm-Sn-b- Xn∑bp-sS- B-[n-]-Xy-Øn-\v- h-gn-sbm-cp-°n-bss{I-kv-X-hX-bp-sS- Po¿-W-X-bm-Wv- a-Xwam-\-hn-I-X-bvs°-Xn-cm-Wv- F-∂- a-X-hn-cp≤- hm-ZK
- X
- n-bp-sS- A-Sn-Ød
- b
- m-bn-Øo¿-∂Xv''- (dn-eo-Py≥- B≥-dv- lyp-a-\n-kw,- t]-Pv69˛70,- tUm.- km-ap-h¬- t^m¿-_¿,- {_n´ojv- ln-kv-‰-dn- Iu¨-kn¬- {]-kn-≤o-I-cWw,- 1999 Cw-•-≠v).- tUm-Iv-S¿- km-ap-h¬t^m¿-_¿- X-s≥-d- ]-T-\-Øn¬- a-X-ß-fpsS- Xn-∑-Iƒ- F-Æn-]-d-bp-∂- H-cn-S-ØpwC-kv-em-an-s\- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-´n-√- F-∂-Xv{it≤-b-am-Wv.C-¥y-bn¬- 1857ap-X¬- 1977h-sc-bp-≈120 h¿-j-°m-e-Øn-\p-≈n¬- \-S-∂n-´p-≈h¿-Ko-b- e-l-f-I-sf-bpw- a-X-I-em-]-ß-sfbpw-Ip-dn-®v- K-th-j-Ww- \-S-Øn-b- tUm.B≥-{^m-¶v- X-s≥-d- "I-ayq-W¬- t{]m-ªwkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

kv- C≥- Z- skm-ssk-‰n- Hm-^v- C-¥y'- F∂Ir-Xn-bn¬- C-{]-Im-cw- F-gp-Xp-∂p-:- ""cm-jv{So-b-hpw- a-X-_m-ly-hp-am-b- {]-iv-\-ß-fpsS- t]-cn¬- am-{X-am-Wv- C-¥y-bn-se- a-XI-em-]-߃- an-°-Xpw- kw-`-hn-®n-´p-≈-Xv.F-´v- \q-‰m-≠n-e-[n-I-Im-ew- ]q¿-W-am-tbm`m-Kn-I-am-tbm- ap-kv-enw- `-c-W-Øn≥-Io-gnem-bn-cp-∂- C-¥y-bn¬- B- Im-e-L-´-ßfn¬- a-X-I-em-]-߃- Xo-sc- kw-`-hn-®n-cp∂n-√- F-∂-Xv- {]-tXy-Iw- ]-cn-K-Wn-t°-≠H-c-\p-`-h-am-Wv.- C-S-°m-e-Øv- kn-°p-Im-cpsS-bpw- c-P-]p-{X-cp-sS-bpw- B-{I-a-W-Im-cnI-fm-b- Nn-e- ln-µp-\m-´p-cm-Pm-°-∑m-cp-sSbpw- {]-h¿-Ø\
- ß
- f
- n-se- {]-iv\
- ß
- ƒ-aq-ewD-Xv-`-hn-®- a-X-I-em-]-߃- a-s‰m-cp- co-Xnbn-ep-≈- hn-e-bn-cpج- A-¿-ln-°p-∂-XmWv.- s]m-Xp-hn¬- Pm-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- D-]-PmXn-bp-sS-bpw- h¿-WØ
- n-s≥-db
- pw- D-]h
- ¿-WØn-s≥-d-bpw- t]-cn¬- A-Xy-[n-Iw- in-Yne-am-bn-t∏m-tI-≠- C-¥y-bn¬- kw-L¿-jß-fpw- I-em-]-ß-fpw- lnw-k-I-fpw- \-c-lXy-I-fpw- X-S-bp-∂-Xn¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- am\-hn-I- Z¿-i-\-߃- Im-cy-am-b- ]-¶m-Wv- hln-®p-h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv.- a-\p-jy-sc- G-tIm-]n∏n-°p-∂-Xn¬- a-X-Øn-\p-≈- ]-¶v- C-¥ybn¬- \n¿-h-ln-®p-Im-Wp-∂-Xv,- N-cn-{X-Ønepw- h¿-Øa
- m-\Ø
- n-epw- C-ke
v- mw-Xs
- ∂-bmWv''- (t]-Pv- 108˛ 1999).C-kv-emw-a-Xw-,- a-\p-jy-hn-`m-Ko-b-]-camb- {]-h-W-X-I-fn¬- t\-cn-´v- ]-s¶-Sp-°pI-tbm,- A-Ø-cw- {]-h-W-X-I-sf- t{]m-Xvkm-ln-∏n-°-tbm- sN-bv-X- A-\p-`-hw- N-cn{X-Øn-en-√.- F-∂n-´pw- C-kv-emw- a-‰p- a-Xß-sf-t∏-m-se- h¿-Ko-b-X-bpw- hn-`m-Ko-b-Xbpw- D-≠m-°p-∂p- F-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fpsS- {]-N-c-Ww- C-kv-em-an-se- X-Ø-z-ß-sfbpw- \n-b-a-ß-sf-bpw- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sp-I-sf-bpwth-≠- co-Xn-bn¬- hn-eb
- n-cp-Øm-ØX
- n-s≥d{]-iv-\-am-Wv.- C-kv-em-an-t\m-Sp-≈- bp-Iv-Xnhm-Z- k-ao-]-\w- ]-e- L-´-ß-fn-epw- ap≥[m-c-W-I-sf- A-Sn-kvYm-\-am-°n-bp-≈-XmsW-∂-Xm-Wv- A-\p-`-hw.- k-ao-]-Im-e-Øvap≥-[m-c-W-I-sf- B-{i-bn-®p-≈- C-kv-emwa-X-hn-a¿-i-\w,- C-¥y-bn-se- s]m-Xp-k-aq-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿l-Øn¬- \-n-c-h-[n- {]-iv-\-߃- kr-jv-Sn®n-´p-≠v- F-∂X
- v- {i-t≤-ba
- m-Wv.- a-Xß
- t- fmSp-≈- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS- \n-tj-[m-Xv-a-I\n-e]
- m-Sn-s≥-d- H-cS- nkvY
- m-\a
- m-Wv- a-Xw- h¿Ko-b-X-bpw- hn-`m-Ko-b-X-bpw- am-\-h-hn-cp-≤{]-h-W-X-I-fpw- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂p- F-∂- ap≥hn-[n-sb-¶n¬,-- a-s‰m-cp- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- Im-cWw- ssh-b-Iv-Xn-I-hpw- km-aq-ln-I-hp-a-m-bk-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- kp-c-£n-X-Xz-Øns≥-d-bpw- Im-cy-Øn¬- a-X-߃-°v- bmsXmcp- ]-¶m-fn-Ø-hp-an-√- F-∂- \n-co-£W-am-Wv.- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn-eq-sS- am-\-h-cm-inbp-sS- km-aq-ly-t_m-[-hpw- k-Zm-Nm-ck¶¬-]-ß-fpw- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-Sp-°p-∂Xn¬- a-Xß
- f
- pw- a-XØ
- n-s≥-d- hn-[n- h
- n-e°
- pI-fpw- h-ln-®- ]-¶v- \n- m-c-ß-f-√.- aqey
t_m-[-hpw- B-i-b-ß-fpw- Nn-¥-I-fpw- cq]s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw- aq-ey-t_m-[-Øn-s≥-d-bpw\-∑-bp-sS-bpw- am-\-kn-I-hpw- _p-≤n-]-c-hpam-b- ]-cn-k-cw- k-P-vP-am-°-bpw- sN-bv-XpsIm-≠v- a-X-߃- a-\p-jy-sc- kzm-[o-\n-®psIm-≠n-cp-∂p- F-∂-Xm-Wv- N-cn-{X-]m-Tw.Cu- N-cn-{X-]m-T-sØ- Xn-c-kv-I-cn-°p-Ibm-Wv- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- "a-Xhn-izm-kw- hn-im-e-am-b- ]-c-kv-]-c- [m-c-Wsb- X-S-bp-I-bpw- am-\p-jn-I-am-b- _-\v-[ß-fn¬- kw-L¿-j-߃- D-f-hm-°p-I-bpwsN-øp-∂p'- F-∂v- F-gp-Xn-b- tKm-d- (Km-\v[n-Pn-bpw- \m-kv-Xn-Iy-hpw- t]-Pv-:- 53)- k-ZmNm-c-Øn¬- a-X-Øn-\v- ]-¶n-√- F-∂- B-i
b- K-Xn-°m-c\
- m-bn-cp-∂p.- A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥dho-£-Ww- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:""Ip-sd-°-m-ew- ssZ-hm-kv-Xn-Xz-Øn-ep≈- hn-izm-kw- k-Zm-Nm-c- kz-`m-h-Øn-\p≈- Aw-Ko-I-c-W-am-bn- Xp-S¿-∂v- t]m-∂p.F-∂m¬- bp-≤w,- hn-tZz-jw,- Zm-cn-{Zyw-,- ap≥hn-[n- F-∂n-h-bp-sS- {]-Nm-cw- Im-Wn-°p∂-Xv- ssZ-h-hn-izm-kw- H-cp- ^-e-{]-Z-am-bAw-Ko-I-c-W-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-∂m-Wv.- Im-cWw hy-Iv-X-am-Wv.-- k-Zm-Nm-c-kz-`m-hw- D-d∏p-h-cp-Øm-\p-≈- ]-tcm-£-am-b- am¿-K-amWv- ssZ-h-hn-izm-kw.- k-Zm-Nm-cn-I-sf- ssZhw- A-\p-{K-ln-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw- Zp¿-hr-Øsc- ssZ-hw- in-£n-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw- a-X-hn-

55
izm-kw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- A-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv.kZm-Nm-cs
- Ø- A-t]-£n-®v- a-t‰-sX-¶n-epwhn-t[-\- H-cp- hn-izm-kn-°v,- ssZ-hm-\p-{K-l߃- I-c-K-X-am-Ip-sa-¶n¬- A-]m-b-`o-Xnb-s\y- A-bmƒ- kZm-Nm-c-sØ- A-h-K-Wn°pw.- {]m¿-Y-\,- Bcm-[-\,- N-S-ßv,- kp-Jm\p-`-h- hn¬-]-\- F-∂n-h-bm-Wv- kZm-Nm-c\n-c-X-\m-Im-sX- ssZ-hm-\p-Iq-eyw- k-am¿Pn-°m-\p-≈- am¿-Kß
- ƒ.- a-‰p-≈h
- s
- c- I_fn-∏n-®v- sIm-≈b
- S- n-°p-∂h
- ¿- D-ds
- °- {]m¿Yn-°p-∂p''.""kZm-Nm-cw- H-cp- km-aq-lym-hi
- y-am-Wv,kz¿-KØ
- n-te-°p-≈- ]m-kvt- ]m¿-´√
- .- k-ZmNm-c-Øn-s≥-d- {]m-[m-\y-w- ssZ-h-hn-izm-knIƒ-°v- a-\- n-em-Im-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠v- B-kvXn-I- \m-K-cn-I-X-bn¬- bp-≤-hpw- A-k-a-Xzhpw- sIm-Sp-ºn-cn-sI-m-≠p''- (Km-\v-[n-Pn-bpw\m-k-vXn-Iy-hpw,- t]-Pv- 47˛48,- tKm-d-bp-sSIr-Xn˛- a-e-bm-f- hn-h-¿-Ø-\w).k-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s≥-d- B-h-iy-I-X- bp-IvXn-hm-Zn-Iƒ- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂p-sh-¶n-epw,a-X-Øn-\v- k-Zm-Nm-c-]-c-am-b- Zu-Xy-\n¿-hl-Ww- h-Ish-®p-sIm-Sp-°m≥- A-h¿- Hcp°-a√
- .- km-aq-ly-am-b- H-cm-hi
- y-am-Wv- kZmNm-c-sa-∂v- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ- {]-[m-\-am-bpw,aX-]-cam-b- H-cp- L-S-\-bp-sS- `m-K-a-√- kZm-Nm-cw- F-∂- \n-tj-[-amWv- A¿-Y-ambnh-cp-∂-Xv.- ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-Øn-e-[n-jv-Tn-Xam-b- Po-hn-X-{I-a-߃- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂a-Xß
- f
- m-Wv- a-\p-jy-kZ- m-Nm-cØ
- n-s≥-d- ASn- k v Y m- \ - ] - c - a m- b - t{im- X -   p- I - s f- ∂ bmYm¿-Yyw- \n-tj-[n-°p-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Iƒ- kzm-`m-hn-I-am-bpw- Xm-sg-]-d-bp-∂tNm-Zy-߃-°v- a-dp-]-Sn- \¬-Ip-hm≥- _m[y-kv-Y-cm-Wv.1.- km-aq-ly-]c
- a-mb
- - \n-e\
- n¬-]n¬- Bh-iy-am-bn-h-cp-∂-Xv- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- kZmNm-c-sØ- ]-cn-K-Wn-°p-tºmƒ- B- ]-cn-KW-\-bp-sS- am-\-Z-Wv-Uw- F-¥m-Wv?2.- A-Øc
- s
- am-cp- ]-cn-KW
- \
- b
- n¬- kZmNm-c-Øn-s≥-d- L-S-I-ß-sf-bpw- ]-cn-[n-Isf-bpw- I-s≠-Øp-hm≥- a\p-jy-\v- G-XvA-h-ew-_-am-Wp-≈-Xv?3.- ssZ-h-sØ-bpw- tam-£-sØ-bpwAh-KW
- n-°p-tºmƒ- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- k-Zm-Nmc-Øn-s≥-d- aq-ey-\n¿-W-bw- km-[y-am-Ip∂Xv- G-Xv- hn-[-Øn-em-Wv?4.- tI-h-ew- bm-{¥n-I-am-b- H-cp- L-S-\F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- ]-cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xn-eqsS- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS- k-Zm-Nm-cw- A-Xns≥-d- km-aq-ly- Zu-Xy-ßf
- n¬- ]-cm-Pb
- s
- ∏Sp-I-b-t√- sN-øp-∂-Xv- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬?5.- a-\p-jy-_-\v-[-ß-fn-se- A-h-ew-_ß-sf-∂- \n-e-bn¬- k-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s≥-d- aqe-y-]-c-am-b- {]m-[m-\yw- A-c-°n-´p-d-∏n-°p∂- a-Xß
- ƒ-°v,- hy-hk
- vY
- m-cl
- n-Xa
- m-b- \mkv-Xn-I- kZm-Nm-c-sØ-°mƒ- \n¿-am-WmXv-a-I-am-b- Zu-Xy-\n¿-h-l-Ww- km-[n-°pI-b-t√- sN-øp-∂-Xv?a-X-߃- k-aq-l-Øn¬- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fneq-sS- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øn-b- aq-ey-k-¶¬-]-ß-fpsS-bpw- a-X-Øn-s≥d-bpw- ssZ-hn-I- k-tµi-ß-fp-sS-bpw- {]-k-c-W-Ø-n-eq-sS- am-\-hcm-in-bn¬- cq-]-s∏-´p-h-∂- km-am-\y-am-b- Hcp- ss\-Xn-I- t_m-[Ø
- n-s≥-db
- pw- Nn-e- Awi-ß-sf- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-°n-bm-Wv- \m-kvXn-I¿- A-h-cp-sS- k-Zm-Nm-c-t_m-[w- cq-]s∏-Sp-Øn-sb-Sp-Øn-´p-≈X
- v- F-∂X
- m-Wv- Gsd- Iu-Xp-I-I-c-am-b- h-kv-Xp-X.- {]m-No-\am-b- aq-ey-t_m-[-sØ- a-X-{]-t_m-[-\-ßfp-sS- B-i-bmw-i-߃- kzm-[o-\n-®n-cn-°p∂p- F-∂- N-cn-{X-Øn-se- A-\n-tj-[y- hkv-Xp-X-°v- ]p-dw-Xn-cn-™p-\n-∂p-sIm-≠mWv- \m-kv-Xn-I- Nn-¥-I¿- A-h-cp-sS- k-ZmNm-c- k-¶¬-]-߃- hn-I-kn-∏n-®n-´p-≈-Xv.-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- t{]-c-W-bnepw- i-Iv-Xn-bn-epw- \n-e-sIm-≈p-∂-Xp-sIm≠m-Wv- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- k-Zm-Nm-c- ta-J-e- iIv-X-am-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- {]-h¿Ø-\-ß-sf- i-Iv-X-am-bn- kzm-[o-\n-°p-∂Nn-e- L-S-I-߃- C-s√-¶n¬,- F-{X- kp-µc-am-b- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{X-am-bn-cp-∂m-epw- a-\pjy¿-°v- s]-s´-∂v- kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥- km[n-®p-sh-∂v- h-cn-√.- "kz¿-K-{]m-]v-Xn- D-d-∏v\¬-Ip-∂- a‰p- am¿-K-߃- D-≠m-bn-cp-s∂¶n¬- a-X-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ- k-Zm-Nm-c-sØ- Isøm-gn-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p' F-∂- tKm-db
- p-sS- ho£-Ww- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-c-ln-X-am-Wv.- km-aqly- N-´-°q-Sn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-b-Xpw- km-aq-lyB-h-i-y-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏Sp-∂X
- p-am-b- k-Zm-Nm-cw- kz¿-K{- ]m-]X
v- n-°mbp-≈- a-X-Øn-se- k-Zm-Nm-c-sØ-°mƒA¿-Y-]q¿-W-am-Wv- F-∂m-Wv- tKm-d- k-a¿Yn-°m≥- {i-an-®n-´p-≈-Xv.- ]-t£,- a-X-Ønse- k-Zm-Nm-cw- kz¿-K-{]m-]v-Xn-tbm-sSm-∏wkm-aq-ly- kp-c-£n-X-Xzw,- ssh-b-Iv-Xn-Ihn-Im-kw,- a-\p-jy-]p-tcm-K-Xn,- ka-{Kam-bPo-hn-X-hn-Im-kw- F-∂n-Xym-Zn- _-lp-hn-[e-£y-ß-sf- ap-∂n¬- Im-Wp-∂p-≠v- F-∂Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- a-X-Øn-se- k-Zm-Nm-cwtI-he
- w- tam-£{- ]m-]vX
- n-sb- em-°m-°p-∂Xpw- kz¿-KØ
- n-te-°p-≈- ]m-kvt- ]m¿-´m-bn]-cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-am-Wv- F-∂- bp-IvXn-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS- hn-I-e- ho-£-W-am-Wv- Chn-sS- {]-Xn-bm-bn-Øo-cp-∂-Xv.- A-Ø-c-samcp- ho-£-Ww- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn¬- hn-Ie-am-°-s∏-´- a-X-߃- Im-c-W-am-bn-Øo-cpI-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.a-\p-jy-\n-se- hy-IvX
- n-kØ
- - A-hs
- ≥dkm-aqly-{I-aØ
- n-se- kvY
- m-\w,-- A-h\
- n-seB-Xy-¥n-I- k-Xyw,- A-h-s≥-d- B-hn¿-`mh-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- e-£yw,- A-hs≥d- Po-hn-X-Øn-\v- B-Xy-¥n-I-am-bn- KpW-Ic
- a
- m-b- Im-cy-߃,- A-hs
- \- A¿-Y]
- q¿W-am-°p-∂- L-S-I-߃- F-∂n-h-sb-√mw]-cn-KW
- n-®p-sIm-≠p-≈X
- m-Wv- a-Xß
- f
- n-se
kZm-Nm-c-߃.- ta¬-]-d-™- ]q¿-W-X- Ckve
- m-an-se- k-Zm-Nm-ck
- w-ln-Xb
- v°
- v- am-{XwA-h-Im-i-s∏-´- H-∂m-Wv.- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- ho-

56

£-Ww- ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv,- a-X-sa-∂- \ne-bn¬- C-kv-em-an-\p-ap-∂n¬- am-{X-am-Wv.k-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s≥-d- aq-ey-\n¿-Wn-Xn-bp-sSIm-cy-Øn-ep-≈- bp-IvX
- n-hm-Z- ho-£W
- Ø
- n\v- sh-√p-hn-fn-bm-bn-Øo-cp-I-bpw- a-dp-]-Sn\¬-Ip-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂-Xv- C-kv-emw- H-∂pam-{X-am-Wv.- k-Zm-Nm-c-sØ-°-p-dn-®p-≈- bpIv-Xn-hm-Z- ho-£-W-hpw- C-kv-em-an-I- ho£-W-hpw- A-h-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-X-e-ßfn¬-X-s∂- ]-cn-tim-[n-®m¬- ta¬-]-d-™Im-cyw- hy-IvX
- a
- m-Wv.- tKm-d- k-Zm-Nm-cs
- Ø\n¿-h-Nn-®-Xv- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:""k-Z-m-Nm-cw- A-\p-t]-£-Wo-b-am-bHcp- k-Zm-Nm-c-aq-ey-am-Wv.- G-Im-In-bm-bHcm-{i-a-hm-kn-bp-sS- k-z-`m-hw,- sX-s‰-¥vi-cn-sb-¥v- F-∂v- \mw- I-W-°m-°n- h-cp∂- [m-c-W-I-fp-sS- sh-fn-®-Øn¬- ]-cn-tim[n-°m-sX- A-bm-fp-sS- k-Zm-Nm-c-sØ-∏-‰n\-ap-s°m-∂pw- ]-d-bm≥- I-gn-bp-I-bn-√''.""kZm-Nm-cw- H-cp- km-aq-ly-aq-ey-am-bX
- n\m¬- k-aq-lw- hn-e-a-Xn-°p-∂- km-aq-ly\n-ba
- ß
- ƒ-sIm-≠m-Wv- k-Zm-Nm-ca
- q-ey-\n¿W-bw- sN-tø-≠-Xv''- (Km-\v-[n-Pn-bpw- \mkv-Xn-Iy-hpw,- t]-Pv:- 23).k-aq-lw- hn-ea
- X
- n-°p-∂- aq-ey-߃- sXt‰m- i-cn-tbm- F-∂v- \n¿-W-bn-°p-hm≥- kaq-lØ
- n-s≥-d- X-s∂- am-\Z- W
- U
v- ß
- s
- f- B{i-bn-°p-tºmƒ- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬,- k-Zm-Nmc-Øn-s≥-d- A¿-Y-hpw- A-¥-x-k-Ø-bpw- \jv-S-am-hp-I-bm-Wv- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- am-{X-hp-a√,- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- kz-bw- \n¿-an-X-ß-fmkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

b- aq-ey-߃- hy-Iv-Xn-I-fp-sS- H-‰-s∏´-XpwB-{i-am-hk
- vY
- b
- n-ep-≈X
- p-am-b- km-lN
- c
- yß-fn¬- ]-cn-KW
- n-t°-≠n-hc
- p-∂p-an-√.- kaql-Øn-s≥-d- `m-Ka
- m-bn- h¿-Øn-°p-Ib
- pw- kaq-l-Øn-s≥-d- {I-a-Øn-epw- L-S-\-bn-epwt\m-´-Øn-epw- ]-cn-K-W-\-bn-epw- hy-Iv-XnIƒ- B-bn-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-tºmƒ- am{X-am-Wv- k-Zm-Nm-cØ
- n-s≥-d- B-hi
- y-ap-≠mIp-∂-Xv- F-∂m-Wv- ta¬-]-d-™- tKm-d-bpsS- ho-£-W-Øn¬-\n-∂v- D-cp-Øn-cn-bp-∂Xv.- hy-Iv-Xn-sb- k-Zm-Nm-c-L-S-\-°v- ]p-dtØ-°v- \-bn-°p-I-bpw- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-dbm-{¥n-I- L-S-\-bp-sS- `m-K-am-°n- k-Zm-Nmc-sØ- ]-cn-an-X-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂Cu- ho-£W
- w- A-Xy-[n-Iw- B-]¬-Ic
- h
- pwhy-IX
v- n-°pw- k-aq-lØ
- n-\pw- \n-ch
- [
- n- {]iv\-߃- kr-jSv- n-°p-∂X
- p-am-Wv- F-∂- ImcyØn¬- kw-i-b-ta-Xp-an-√.k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- \n-co-£-W-Øn-\p-ap∂n¬- Ir-{Xn-a-am-b- k-Zm-Nm-c-\n-jv-T- ]men-°m≥- B-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Z- kZm-Nm-cØ
- n-\v- ]-Ic
- w- k-Zm-ka
- b
- h
- pw- X-s∂\n-co-£n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- H-cp- i-Iv-Xnsb- Hm¿-Øp-sIm-≠v- H-‰-s∏-´-Xpw- k-aq-lØn-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sn-I-fn¬-\n-∂v- A-I-∂-Xp-amb- ssh-b-Iv-Xn-Im-h-kv-Y-bn-epw- k-Zm-Nmc- \n-jvT
- - ]p-e¿-Øp-hm-\m-Wv- C-kve
- mw- Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- k-Zm-Nm-cw- ssZ-h-hn-izmk-hpw- a-X-\n-jv-T-bp-am-bn- Km--Va-- m-bn- _\v-[-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂- C-kv-em-an-s≥-dho-£-W-am-Wv- Iq-Sp-X¬- bp-Iv-Xn-`-{Z-hpw{]m-tbm-Kn-Ih
- pw.- a-\p-jy-s\- X-\n-®v,- sshb-Iv-Xn-I-am-b- G-I-X-bn¬-t]m-epw- {i-≤m]q¿-Wa
- m-b- ]-cn-]m-e\
- w- A¿-ln-°p-∂- Hcp{]-Xn-`m-k-am-bn- ]-cn-K-Wn-°p-∂- H-cp-hiwC-kve
- m-an-se- k-Zm-Nm-cØ
- n-\p-≠v.- a-\p-jys≥-d- ssP-hn-Iam-b- kz-Xz-sØ- A-Xy-[nIw- ]-cn-K-Wn-°p-∂- ssZ-hn-I- hy-h-kv-YnXn-bp-sS- A-\n-tj-[y- `m-K-am-Wv- C-kv-eman-s≥-d- k-Zm-Nm-c-kw-ln-X- F-∂v- Xn-cn-®dn-bm≥- k-Xym-t\z-jn-Iƒ-°v- {]-bm-k-ap≠m-In-√.-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

?




57

Zp¿-am¿-Kn- A-ß-s\-bm-b-Xv- A-h≥- \-∂m-I-W-sa-∂v- A-√m-lpD-t±-in-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠-t√?A-£-a-\m-bn- kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏-´-h≥- £-an-°m-Ø-Xv- Ip-‰-a-m-Ip-∂-sX-ß-s\?a-\p-jy¿- Ip-g-∏-ap-≠m-°p-sa-∂v- a-e-°p-Iƒ- F-ß-s\- a-\- n-em-°n?kv-{Xo-°v- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\-Øn\v- - A-h-Im-i-ap-t≠m?ssZ-h-h-N-\-tam- Zq-X-s≥-d- h-N-\-tam?-

Iq-Sn-°m-gv-NtNm-Zyw-: ""C-Xv- tem-I¿-°p-th-≠nbp-≈- H-cp- D-Zv-t_m-[-\a-√m-sX- a-s‰m-∂p-a-√.- A-Xm-b-Xv- \n-ß-fp-sS- Iq-´-Øn¬-\n∂v- t\-sc- \n-e-sIm-≈m≥- D-t±-in-®-h¿-°v- th-≠n.- tem-I-c£n-Xm-hm-b- A-√m-lp- D-t±-in-°p-∂p-sh-¶n-e√
- m-sX- \n-߃D-t±-in-°p-I-bn-√''- (-Jp¿-B≥-.- 81:27˛30).A-√m-lp- D-t±-in-®m-e-√m-sX- H-cmƒ-°v- -t\-sc- \n-e-sIm≈-W-sa-∂v- D-t±-in-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√- F-∂¿-Yw-!- A-t∏mƒ- Zp¿am¿-K-Øn¬- N-cn-°p-∂- H-cmƒ- A-ß-s\-bm-b-Xv- A-√m-lpD-t±-in-°m-ØX
- p-sIm-≠t- √?- A-bmƒ- t\-sc-bm-hW
- w- F∂vD-t±-in-°m-Ø-Xv- A-√m-lp- D-t±-in-°m-Ø-Xp-sIm-≠-t√?Ah≥- in-£n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv- A-\o-Xn-b-t√?hm-kp-tZ-h≥,- I-Æq¿.-

D-Ø-cw-:- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- i-co-c-hpw- a-\- pw- B-Xv-am-hpw- A-√mlp- kw-hn-[m-\n-®-Xm-Wv.- A-h-bp-sS-sbm-s°- {]-Ir-X-hpw- km[y-X-I-fpw- A-h≥- \n-iv-N-bn-®-Xm-Wv.- A-√mlp- \n-iv-N-bn-®]-cn-[n-°-∏p-dw- A-dn-bm-t\m- ]-d-bm-t\m- {]-h¿-Øn-°m-t\m- a\p-jy-\v- km-[y-am-hn-√.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- C-Om-kzm-X-{¥yw- A-√mlp-hn-s≥-d- ln-X-Øn-\v- hn-t[-b-am-sW-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-\v,- a-\pjy-\v- H-´p-w- kzm-X-{¥y-an-s√-∂¿-Y-an-√.- Nn-¥n-°m-\pw- kw-kmcn-°m-\pw- {]-h¿-Øn-°m-\p-ap-≈- kzm-X-{¥yw- Xo-¿-®-bm-bpwa\p-jy-\p-≠v.- "t\-sc- \n-e-sIm-≈m≥- D-t±-in-®-h¿-°v'- F-∂hm-°v- X-s∂- A-Xn-\v- sX-fn-hm-Wv.- t\-cv- ]-d-b-W-sa-∂v- D-t±in-°p-∂- G-sXm-cmƒ-°pw- A-Xn-\v- kzm-X-{¥y-ap-≠v.- I-≈w]d-b-W-sa-∂v- D-t±-in-°p-∂-h-\v- A-Xn-\pw- kzm-X-{¥y-ap-≠v.c≠n-\pw- A-√m-lp- B-sc-bpw- \n¿-_-\v-[n-X-\m-°p-∂n-√.- CuIm-cyw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B\
- n¬- X-s∂- hy-IvX
- a
- m-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- ""h√h-\pw- (hn-iz-kn-°m≥)- D-t±-in-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬- A-h≥- hn-izkn-°-s´.- h-√-h-\pw- (A-hn-iz-kn-°m≥)- D-t±-in-°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬A-h≥- A-hn-iz-kn-°-s´''- (18:-29).- a-\p-jy-\v- Xm≥- D-t±-in-°p∂- \n-e-]m-Sv- kzo-I-cn-°m≥- kzm-X-{¥y-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°-W-sa-∂vtem-Ic
- £
- n-Xm-hv- D-t±-in-®X
- p-sIm-≠m-Wv- C-Xv- km-[y-am-Ip-∂Xv.kv-s]-jy¬-

\-∑-Xn-∑-Iƒ- hn-th-Nn-°m-\p-≈- I-gn-hpw- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw- temI-c-£n-Xm-hv- \¬-In-bn-cp-∂n-s√-¶n¬- t\-sc- \n-e-sIm-≈-Wsa-∂v- D-t±-in-°m≥- a-\p-jy-\v- I-gn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- C-Xm-WvtNm-Zy-I¿-Øm-hv- D-≤-cn-®- kq-Iv-X-ß-fp-sS- Xm¬-]-cyw.****

tNm-Zyw-: Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""Xo-¿-®-bm-bpw- a-\p-jy≥kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-tß-b-‰w- A-£a-\m-bn-s°m≠m-Wv''- (70:-19).- ""A-√m-lp- £-an-°p-∂-h-cp-sS- Iq-sS-bm-Ip∂p''- (2:-249),- £-a-bpsS- a-l-Ø-z-hpw- £-am-ep-°ƒ-°v- e-`n°p-∂- t\-´-hpw- Jp¿-B≥- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p-≠v.- 70:-19- {]Im-cw- a-\p-jy≥- kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏-´-Xp-X-s∂- A-£-a-\m-bm-Wv.]n-s∂- A-h-s\-ß-s\- £-an-°m≥- I-gn-bpw?- A-£-a- ImWn-°p-∂-h-s\- A-√m-lp-hn-\v- in-£n-°p-hm≥- ]m-Sp-t≠m?ep-_v-\- sI,- \n-e-ºq¿-

D-Ø-cw-:-

A-£-a -am-{X-a-√,- Im-aw,- t{Im-[w,- tam-lw- Xp-Sßnb- ]-e- hn-Im-c-ß-fpw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn- L-S-\-bn¬A-√m-lp- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- A-tXm-sSm-∏w- B- hn-Im-c-ßsf-sbm-s°- \n-b-{¥n-°m-\p-≈- hn-th-N-\- ti-jn-bpw- A-h≥a-\p-jy-\v- \¬-In-bn-´p-≠v.- A-£-a- Dƒ-s∏-sS- \n-tj-[m-Xv-a-Iam-b- kz-`m-h-ß-fpw- Nn-e- k-µ¿-`-ß-fn¬- H-cp-]-cn-[n-h-sc- a-\pjy-\v- {]-tbm-P-\-I-c-am-bn-cn-°pw.- Nn-e- t\-´-߃- I-c-K-X-am°m-\pw- \-jv-S-߃- H-gn-hm-°m-\pw- A-£-a-tbm-sS- D-Xv-km-ln°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v- Nn-e-t∏mƒ- km-[n-t®-°pw.- F-∂m¬- £-aA-\n-hm-cy-am-b- k-µ-¿-`-ß-fn¬- A-£-a- tZm-jw- h-cp-Øp-Ibpw- sN-øpw.- kv-t\-lw- {]-I-Sn-∏n-t°-≠- [m-cm-fw- k-µ¿-`-߃°n-S-bn¬- tIm-]w- A-\n-hm-cy-am-Ip-∂- Np-cp-°w- Nn-e- k-µ¿-`ß-fpw- D-≠m-Ipw.A-£-a- Im-Wn-°p-∂-Xn-s\- in-£m¿-l-am-b- H-cp- Ip-‰-ambnA-√m-lp- hn-[n-®n-´n-√.- _m-[y-X-Iƒ- \n-d-th-‰p-∂-Xn-t\m,- Zp¿hr-Øn-Iƒ- H-gn-hm-°p-∂-Xn-t\m- A-£-a- H-cp- X-S- -am-I-cp-sX]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

58

s]-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºv- _-\v-[-hn-tO-Zw- H-gn-hm-°m≥- ]-ct∂-bp-≈q.- ssew-Kn-I hn-Im-cw- a-\p-jy-{]-Ir-Xn-bn¬am-h[n- {i-an-°W-sa-∂pw- Ip-Spw-_- a-[y-kv-Y-∑m¿- A-\pA√m-lp- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xm-Wv.- F-∂m¬- £-a-tbmsS- B- hn-Im-c-sØ-- A-\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-b- _-\v-[-ß-fn¬- \n- Iq-Sn-°m-gv-N- c-Rv-P-\-{i-aw- \-S-Ø-W-sa-∂pw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n¬- (4:34,-35)- \n¿-tZ-in-®n-´p-≠v.- Xz-em-Jv- H-‰-b-Sn-°-√- aq-∂v- L-´b-{¥n-s®m-Xp-°m≥- a-\p-jy-\v- I-gn-b-Ww.- A-£-a- \n-anß-fn-em-bn-´m-Wv- \-S-∏m-t°-≠-sX-∂pw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- (2:Øw- A-hn-ln-X- _-\v-[-ß-fn-te-°v- \o-ßn-bm¬- A-√m-lp- in229)- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂p.£n-°pw.- hn-Im-c-ß-sf- b-tYm-Nn-Xw- \n-b-{¥n-°m≥- A-√m-lp\¬-In-b- I-gn-hv- hn-\n-tbm-Kn-°m-Ø-Xm-Wv- Ip-‰w.`¿-Øm-hv- X-\n-°v- \¬-In-b- hn-hm-l-aq-eyw- (a-lv¿)- Xm≥aS
°
n-s°m-Sp-°m-sa-∂pw- X-s∂- hn-hm-l_
- \
- [
v- Ø
- n¬-\n-∂v- tam***
Nn-∏n-®v- X-c-W-sa-∂pw- `m-cy- \n¿-tZ-in-®-Xn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\tNm-Zyw-: a-\p-jy-kr-jv-Sn-∏n-\v- ap-ºm-bn- "Rm≥- `q-an-bn¬Øn¬- `¿-Øm-hv- A-h-sf- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w- sN-øp-∂-Xn-\m-WvH-cp- {]-Xn-\n-[n-sb- \n-iv-N-bn-°m≥- t]m-Ip-∂p'- F-∂v- ssZJp¬-Av- F-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂X
- v.- Cu- km-lN
- c
- y-Øn¬- kz-¥w- Xm¬hw- a-e°
- p-It- fm-Sv- A-t\z-jn-°p-Ib
- p-≠m-bn.- A-t∏mƒ- "`qan]-cy-{]-Im-ca
- √
- - `m-cy-bp-sS- B-hi
- y-{]-Im-ca
- m-Wv- A-bmƒ- hnhmbn¬- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-≠m-°p-I-bpw- c-Iv-Xw- Nn-¥p-I-bpw- sNøpl-tam-N-\w- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- A-Xn-\m¬- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w- kw-_∂- H-cp- kr-jv-Sn-sb- \o- \n-iv-N-bn-°p-I-bm-tWm?- R-߃\v-[n-®- B-\p-Iq-ey-ß-tfm- A-h-Im-i-ß-tfm- e-`n-°m≥- `mcy\n-s∂- kvX
- p-Xn-°p-Ib
- pw- {]-Io¿-Øn-°p-Ib
- pw- \n-s≥-d- hnip°v- A¿-lX
- b
- p-≠m-bn-cn-°p-Ib
- n-√.- 2:-220 kq-IvX
- Ø
- n-epw- {]mam≤n-sb- hm-gØ
v- p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂n-t√?'- F-∂v- a-e°
- p-Iƒ- {]XnWn-I-am-b- \-_n- h-N-\-Øn-epw- C-Xp-kw-_-\-v[-am-b- \n¿-tZ-iI-cn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn- (Jp¿-B≥- 2:-30).ap-≠v.`q-an-bn¬- {]-iv\
- ß
- f
- p-≠m-°p-Ib
- pw- c-IvX
- w- Nn-¥p-Ib
- pw`¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- \yq-\-X-I-tfm- Kp-cp-X-c-am-b- tcm-K-ß-tfmsN-øp-∂- Cu- a-\p-jy-kr-jv-Sn-sb-°-p-dn-®p-≈- ]-cn-Pv-Rm-\wI-Sp-Ø- s]-cp-am-‰- Zq-jy-ß-tfm- a-t‰m- \n-an-Øw- `m-cy- G-I-]F-hn-sS-\n-∂m-bn-cn-°pw- a-e°
- p-Iƒ-°v- e-`n-®n-cn-°p-I?- BZw£o-b-am-bn- hn-hm-l-_-\v-[w- d-±m-°p-∂-Xn-\m-Wv- ^-kv-Jv- F∂v\-_n-°v- ap-ºpw- G-sX-¶n-epw- A-PvR
- m-X- tI-{µ-ßf
- n¬- CØ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- X-s≥-d- ]n-Xm-hv- Xm≥- C-jv-S-s∏-Sm-Ø- H-cmƒ-°vcw- kr-jv-Sn-Iƒ- D-≠m-bn-cn-°m-tam?X-s∂- hnhm-lw- sN-bv-Xv- sIm-Sp-Ø-Xn-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- J≥km-Av- F-∂- k-z-lm-_n- h\n-X- ]-cm-Xn-s∏-´-t∏mƒ- \-_n-(A)\-kzo¿- ]-≈n-°¬,- dn-bm-ZvB- hn-hm-l-_-\v-[w- Zp¿-_-e-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xm-Wv- C-Xn-\p-≈- sXD-Ø-cw-:-- A-√m-lp- a-e-°p-I-tfm-Sv- A-t\z-jn-°p-I-b-√-;- A-hfn-hv.- kv-{Xo-bp-sS- B-h-iy-{]-Im-cw- \ym-bm-[n-]-\m-Wv- ^-kvsc- hn-h-c-a-dn-bn-°p-I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-X-Xv.- J-eo-^- F-∂- ]-Z-ØnJv- \-S∏
- m-t°-≠X
- v.- C-¥y≥- \n-ba
- a
- \
- p-kc
- n-®v- tIm-SX
- n-°v- am{X\m-Wv- km-am-\y-am-bn- {]-Xn-\n-[n- F-∂v- A¿-Yw- \¬-I-s∏-Spsa- ^-kv-Jv- \-S-Øm≥- A-h-Im-i-ap-≈q.∂-Xv.- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬- H-t´-sd- A¿-Y-- km-[y-X-bp-≈- H-cp- ]-Z***
am-Wv- J-eo-^.- Nn-e- Zu-Xy-ß-fpw- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Ø-ß-fpw- G-s‰Sp-Øv- kz-X-{¥-am-bn- \n¿-h-ln-°p-∂- kv-Ym-\-]-Xn- F-∂- A¿tNm-Zyw-: ""\n-iv-N-b-am-bpw- C-Xv- (Jp¿-B≥)- am-\y-\m-bY-hpw- J-eo-^- F-∂- ]-Z-Øn-\p-≠v.- a-e-°p-Iƒ-°n-√m-Ø- CuH-cp- Zq-X-s≥-d- hm-°m-Ip-∂p''- (hn.-Jp.- 81:-19).kzm-X-{¥yw- Zp-cp-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øm-\p-≈- km-[y-X- ]-cn-K-WnJp¿-B≥- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- h-N-\-am-sW-∂- ap-kv-enw-I-fp®m-bn-cn-°mw- a-\p-jy¿- Ip-g-∏-ap-≠m-°p-I-bpw- c-Iv-Xw- Nn-¥psS- hm-Z-Øn-s\-Xn-c-t√- C-∏-d-™-Xv?I-bpw- sN-øm-\p-≈- km-[y-X-sb- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- a-e-°p-Iƒi-in-[-c≥,- a-Æm¿-°m-SvB-i-¶- {]-I-Sn-∏n-®-Xv.- a-\p-jy¿-°v- ap-ºv- `q-an-bn¬- A-√m-lpa-s‰m-cp- krjv-Sn- hn-`m-K-sØ- hn-\y-kn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw- A-h¿D-Ø-cw-:- A-√m-lp- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-(A)-tbm-Sv- t\-cn-´v- kw-kmIp-g-∏-߃- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xn-\m¬- A-√m-lp- A-h-sc- \-in-∏n-°pcn-®p-sh-∂-√,- A-√m-lp- \n-tbm-Kn-®- H-cp- Zq-X≥- (Pn-_v-c-o¬I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX-∂pw- B- h-kv-Xp-X- a-\- n-em-°n-bm-Wv- a\pF-∂- am-e-m-J)- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-(A)-°v- ssZ-hn-I-h-N-\-߃- Fjy¿- Ip-g-∏-ap-≠m-°m-\p-≈- km-[y-X-sb- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- a-eØ-n-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp-sh-∂m-Wv- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-epw- {]-hm-N°p-Iƒ- B-i¶
- - {]-IS- n-∏n-®s
- X-∂pw- Nn-e- hym-Jym-Xm-°ƒ- A`nI- h-N-\-ß-fn-epw- hy-Iv-X-am-°n-bn-´p-≈-Xv.- 81:-19 ¬- am-\y-\m{]m-b-s∏-´n-´p-≠v.- ]-t£,- A-Xn-\v- {]m-am-Wn-I-am-b- sX-fn-hnb- Zq-X≥- F-∂p- ]-d-™-Xv- Pn-_v-c-o-en-(K)-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®ms≥-d-sbm-∂pw- ]n≥-_-ew- Im-Wp-∂n-√.Ip-∂p.- K-Zy-hpw- ]-Zy-hp-a-√m-Ø,- a-\p-jy¿-°m¿-°pw- A-\p-I***

tNm-Zyw-:

C-kv-emw- kv-{Xo-°v- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\-Øn-\p-≈Ah-Im-iw- \¬-Ip-∂p-t≠m?- D-s≠-¶n¬- G-sX-√mw- L-´ß-fn¬?- hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww- {]-Xo-£n-°p-∂p.hn-P-b-e-£v-an,- Xr-iq¿-

D-Ø-cw-:-C-kv-em-an¬- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w- aq-∂v- X-c-Øn-ep-≠v.-

cn-°m≥- km-[n-°m-Ø- A-km-[m-cW
- a
- m-b- ssi-en-bn¬- hn-ip≤Jp¿-B≥- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-°v- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- BssZ-hn-I-{K-\v-Yw- A-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºn¬- sh-√p-hn-fn- D-b¿Øp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-t∏mƒ- A-h¿- A-Xn-s\-Xn-cn¬- ]-e-X-cwBtcm-]-W-߃- D-∂-bn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.- G-tXm- ]n-im-Nv- ]-d™p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂- h-N-\-߃- ap-l-Ω-Zv- G-‰p-]-d-bp-I-bm-sW∂v- Nn-e¿- P¬-]n-®p.- G-tXm- I-hn- ]-d-™p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-XmsW-∂pw- G-tXm- tPym-Xv-ky≥- N-a-bv-°p-∂- h-N-\-ß-fm-sW∂pw- B-t£-]n-®-h-c-pw- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- C-Ø-cw- Zp-cm-tcm-]-Wß-sf- J-Wv-Un-°p-∂-Xv- IqSn-bm-Wv- 81:-19 kq-Iv-Xw-.-

H-∂,-v- Xz-em-Jv.- c-≠v-,-- Jp¬-Av- A-Y-hm- Jp-ex,- aq-∂v-,- ^-kvJv.]p-cp-j≥- ap≥-I-sø-Sp-Øv- hn-hm-l-_-‘w- H-gn-hm-°p-∂-Xn-\mWv- Xz-em-Jv- F-∂p- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv,- C-ß-s\- hn-hm-l-_-\v-[w- th¿kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

59

Rm-\-dn-bp-∂- C-kv-emw
sam-ln-Xv- tPm-j-n,- ss\-\n-‰mƒsIm-®n-bn-se- t^m-dw- t^m¿- s^-bv-Øv- & -{^-t‰¿-Wn-‰n- F-∂- kw-L-S-\- tZ-io-b-X-e-Øn¬,ap-kv-enw-I-f-√m-Ø- k¿-h-I-em-im-e-m- hn-Zym¿-Y-n-Iƒ-°p-th-≠n- Cw-•o-jn¬- \-S-Øn-b- {]-_-\v[-c-N-\m- a-Xv-k-c-Øn¬- c-≠-mw- k-Ωm-\w- e-`n-®- {]-_-\v-[w.- -I-gn-™- e-°-Øn¬- sI-m-Sp-Ø_o-\m- e-£v-an- t\-{]man-s‚- te-J-\Øn¬ c-≠mw- k-Ωm-\-sa-∂-Xv- aq-∂m-w- k-Ωm-\sa-∂vXncp-Øn- hm-bn-°m-\-t]-£.

]-cn-`m-j-:- sI.-F-kv.- A-_v-Zp¬- I-cow.

^v-f-m-jv-_m-°v- 1
F.-Un.- 622.- A-td-_y-bn-se- a-°m-\-Kcw.-- Nq-Sv- \n-d-™- H-cp- th-\¬-Im-ew.- {]Xn\n-[n-k-`- Iq-Sn-bn-cn-°-p-I-bm-Wv.- A-_q-kp^v-bm≥- \m-´n-se- {]-[m-\n-I-sf-sb-√mw- hnfn-®p-Iq-´n-bn-´p-≠v.- tim-I-aq-I-\m-bn- Im-Ws∏-´- A-_q-kp-^v-bm-s\- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-®vNn-{X-Ø-p-∂-ep-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b- X-Sp-°p-Ifn¬- A-h¿- C-cp-∂p.- A-ip-`-I-c-am-b-sXt¥m- kw-`-hn-®n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂v- hy-Iv-X-amIp-∂- A-¥-co-£w.A-_q-kp-^v-bm≥- F-t∏m-gpw- D-√m-khm-\m-b- H-cp- a-\p-jy-\m-bn-cp-∂p.- A-\pbm-bn-I-fp-sS- tN-m-Zyw- sN-ø-s∏-Sm-Ø- t\Xm-hv.- I-Av-_-bp-sS- kw-c-£-I-cpw- G-‰hpw- I-p-eo-\-tKm-{X-am-b- "Jp-ssd-i-n'-s≥-d-t\-Xm-hpsa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- A-_q-kp-^v-bm\v- Zpx-Jn-X-\m-th-≠- Im-c-W-ß-sfm-∂pwD-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- {]-hm-NI-s\-∂v- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´p-sIm-≠v- X-s≥-dX-s∂- tKm-{X-Øn¬-s]-´- ap-l-Ω-Zv- F-∂H-cp- bp-hm-hv- H-tc-sbm-cp- ssZ-h-sØ- am{Xsa- B-cm-[n-°m-hq- F-∂- H-cp- ]p-Ø≥- hnizm-k-hp-am-bn- h-∂n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.- B-fpIƒ- ap-gp-h≥- B- hn-izm-k-Øn¬- B-IrjvS- c
- m-hp-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂p.- ]p-Xn-b- a-XØ
- n\v- ap-l-Ω-Zv- C-kv-emw- F-∂v- t]-cv- \¬-Inbn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Xn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ-°vap-kv-enw-Iƒ- F-∂pw.- ]-Øp- h¿-j-tØmf-am-bn- Jp-ssd-in- I
- f
- p-sS- B-{I-aW
- Ø
- n-s\Xn-cn¬- H-cp- h-en-b- {]-Xn-tcm-[-\n-c- X-s∂A-h¿- ]-Sp-Øp-b¿-Øn-°-gn-™p.Cu- ]p-Xn-b- hn-izm-k-sØ- ap-f-bn-¬-

X-s∂- \p-≈n-°-f-bm≥- A-_q-kp^vbm≥F-ºm-Spw- {i-an-®X
- m-Wv.- k-Ω¿-ZX
- {- ¥-߃ap-X¬- a¿-Z-\-ap-d-Iƒ-h-sc- ]-b-‰n-t\m-°n.]t£,- ap-l-Ω-Zv- a-\p-jy-cp-sS-sb-√mw- lrZ-b-ß-fn¬- I-b-dn-∏-‰n-b- a-´m-Wv.- A-t±-lwhn-Pb
- n-bm-Ip-∂X
- v- A-_q-kp^vb
- m-\v- k-ln°m-hp-∂-Xn-\p-a-∏p-d-am-bn-cp-∂p.- \-_n-sbC-√m-Xm-°m-\p-≈- h-gn-bt- \-zj
- n-®m-Wv- Cutbm-Kw- hn-fn-®p-Iq-´n-b-Xv.- A-t±-lw- Po-hn®n-cn-°p-∂n-S-tØm-fw,- X-ß-fp-sS- B-[n-]Xy-Øn-\v- `o-j-Wn-bm-Ip-sa-∂- A-_q-kp^v-bm-s≥-d- A-`n-{]m-b-tØm-Sv- F-√m-h-cpwtbm-Pn-®p.- \-_n-sb- h-[n-°m-\p-≈- H-cp]-≤-Xn- A-h¿- X-bm-dm-°p-I-bpw- A-Xv- \S∏n¬-h-cp-tØ-≠-Xv- F-ß-s\- F-∂v- Btem-Nn-®v- D-d-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-ti-j-amWv- tbm-Kw- ]n-cn-™-Xv.Ip-d-®p-Zn-h-k-߃-I-gn-™v- \-_n- A
\p-bm-bn-Iƒ-s°m-∏w- kw-km-cn-®n-cn-°ptºmƒ- H-cp- Zq-X≥- I-S-∂p-h-∂v- \-_n-bpsS- _m-ey-Im-e-kp-lr-Øpw- A-Sp-Ø- A\p-bm-bn-bp-am-b- A-_q-_°
- d
- n-s≥-d- sN-hn-

hm-b-\-°m-tcm-Sv"Rm\-dn-bp-∂- C-kve
- mw'-- F-∂- t]cn¬- I-gn-™- 3 e-°-ß-fn¬- {]-kn≤o-I-cn-®- te-J-\-ß-fpw- Cu- te-J-\hpw- kvt\-l- kw-hm-ZØ
- n-s‚- A-`n-{]mb-ß-fm-bn- I-W-°m-°-cp-Xv.- A-ap-kvenw- kp-lr-Øp-°-fp-sS- hn-e-bn-cpج- F-∂- \n-ebv°
- v- am-{X-am-Wv- Ch{]-kn-≤o-I-cn-°p-∂-Xv.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

bn¬- F-t¥m- a-{¥n-®p.- ap-l-Ω-Zn-s\- h[n°m-\p-≈- i-{Xp-°f
- p-sS- ]-≤X
- n-sb-°p- d
- n®vZq-X≥- \¬-In-b- hn-h-cw- A-_q-_-°¿At±-l-sØ- A-dn-bn-®p.\-_n- a-°h
- n-´v- a-s‰-hn-sS-sb-¶n-epw- A`bw- tX-S-W-sa-∂v- A-t±-lw- A-`y¿-Y-n-®p.{]-hm-N-I≥- h-g-ßn-bn-√.- Cu- hn-j-bØn¬- ssZ-h-I¬-]-\-°v- th-≠n- Im-Øncn-°m≥- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- A-t±-l-tØm-SvA-t]-£n-®p.- A¬-]-k-a-bw- [ym-\-\n-aKv\-\m-bn-cp-∂- ti-jw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- ]-d-™p-:""ap-kv-enw-I-tf,- ]-em-b-\-Øn-\p-≈- k-a-bam-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- C≥-im- A
- √
- mlv,- -- k-Xyw- hnP-bn-°pw.- ssZ-hk
- t- µ-iw- {]-Nc
- n-∏n-®p-sIm≠v- C-kv-em-an-s\ \-ap-°v- _-e-s∏-Sp-Ømw.\mw- F-hn-sS-t∏-m-bm-epw- A-√m-lp- \-ΩpsS- kw-c-£-W-Øn-\p-≠m-hpw''.A-Sp-Ø-Zn-h-kw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- a-°- hn-´p.bYv-c-n-_n-te-°m-Wv- \-_n- t]m-b-Xv.- A-XvF.-Un.- 622¬- B-bn-cp-∂p.- bYvc
- n- _
- v- ]n∂oSv- a-Zo-\-bm-bn.- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- ]-em-b-\Øn-\v- ap-ºp-Xs
- ∂- A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥-d- [mcmfw- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- a-Zo-\-bn¬- Xm-a-k-apd-∏n-®p-I-gn-™n-cp-∂p.- ]-Øv- h¿-j-Øn-\p≈n¬- X-s∂- C-kv-emw- h-f¿-®-bp-sS- D-®mh-kv-Y-bn-se-Øn.]q¿-h-Z¿-i-\wa-X-ß-fn¬- G-‰hp-a-[n-Iw- sX-‰n-≤-cn°-s∏-´- a-Xam-Wv- C-kv-emw.- hn-izm-kn-IƒC-ke
v- m-an-s\-s°m-≠- v- B-Wb
- n-Sp-∂p.- FXncm-fn-Iƒ- C-ke
v- m-an-s\- \-in-∏n-°p-sa-∂v- {]Xn-Pv-R-sb-Sp-°p-∂p.- tem-I-Øn-se- H-cphen-b-hn-`m-Kw- P-\-X-°v- G-‰-hpw- {]n-b-¶-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

60

c-am-b- H-cp- X-Ø-z-im-kv-{Xw- F-ß-s\- as‰m-cp- h-en-b- hn`m-K-Øn-\v- A-\n-jv-S-I-c-ambn?- F-®v.F.-B¿.- Kn-_v,- tXma-kv- Im¿-en≥,- cm-a-I-r-jv-W- ]-c-a-lw-k,- Sn.-U-ªy.-B¿t\mƒ-Uv,- t_m-kv-h¿-Øv- kv-an-Øv,- a-l-m-Xv-am-Km-\v-[n- XpS-ßn-b- hn-th-I-a-Xn-I-fm-b- Ip-sd- A-ap-kv-enw-Iƒ C-kvem-an-s\-Xn-cm-b- Ip-{]-Nc-W-ß-fn-se- Im-]-Sy-sØ- Xp-d∂p-Im-´n-b-h-cm-Wv.- A-h-cp-sS- B¿-P-h-ap-≈-- I-s≠-Ø-epIƒ- A-h¿- tem-I-Øn-\v- k-a¿-]-n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- sX‰n-≤m-c-W-I-fpw- sX-‰m-b- hym-Jym-\-ß-fp-am-Wv- C-kv-eman-s≥-d- {]Xn-Om-b-°v- I-f-¶-ta¬-]n-®-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-s\G-sd- hn-Ir-X-am-°m≥- A-h¿-°v- I-gn-™n-´p-s≠-¶n-epw,C-kv-emw- Cu- B-t£-]-߃-s°-√mw- A-Xo-X-am-bn- \ne-sIm-≈p-∂p.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ku-µ-cyw- A-Xn-s≥-d- ]q¿-W-X-bn¬-X-s∂- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p.- Cu- ku-µ-cyw- A¬]-sa-¶n-epw- B-kz-Zn-°p-∂-h¿-- C-kv-em-an-s\- \n-µn-°p-sa∂v- tXm-∂p-∂n-√.- bm-sXm-cp- ap≥-hn-[n-I-fpw- Iq-Sm-sX- Ckv-em-an-s\- ]-Tn-°p-∂- H-cmƒ-°v- k-Xyw- I-s≠-Øm≥- Ign-bpw.sl-en-\n-°v- ^n-tem-k^
- ¿- tπm-´n-\o-kn-s≥-d- A-`n-{]mb-Øn¬- C-cp-´n-\v- kz-¥-am-bn- A-kv-Xn-Xz-an-√.- {]-Im-i-an√m-bva
- b
- m-Wv- C-cp-´v.- a-[y-\q-‰m-≠n¬- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂- sk≥dvA-K-kv-‰n-s≥-d- A-`n-{]m-b-hpw- A-Xp-X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p.""ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- A-`m-h-am-Wv- Xn-∑''- F-∂v- A-t±-lw- hniz-kn-®p.- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn-Iƒ- \-√-h-cm-Wv.- Xn-∑a-\p-jy-s≥-d- A-Pv-R-X-bn¬-\n-∂pw- DXv-`-hn-°p-∂p.- APvR-X-bn-√m-Xm-°m≥- A-Xn-s\-°-p-dn-®v- ho-≠pw- kw-km-cn®-Xp-sIm-≠m-bn-√.- A-dn-hv- t\-Sp-I-tb-- A-Xn-\v- h-gn-bp-≈q.{]-t_m-[-\w,- i-cn-bm-b- hn-h-cw,- A-\v-[-hn-izm-k-ß-fn-√mXm-°¬- F-∂n-h-bn-eq-sS- am-{X-sa- \-ap-°v- C-Xv- t\-Sms\m-°q.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- km-aq-ln-I-am-b- am-‰-Øn-\v- G-‰hp-a-[n-Iw- kzm-[o-\w- sN-ep-Øn-b- A-Xy-[n-Iw- kp-µ-cam-b- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fn-sem-∂m-Wv- C-kv-em-an-I- Nn-¥.- Ckvem-an-s\-Xn-sc- a-‰p-k-aq-l-߃- sh-®p-]p-e¿-Ø-p-∂- [m-cW-Iƒ- F-{X- A-S-n-kv-Ym-\-c-ln-X-am-sW-∂v- sX-fn-bn-°p∂- H-cp- kw-`-h-N-cn-{Xw- hn-h-cn-°mw-:{_n-´o-jv- {]-[m-\a
- {- ¥n-bm-bn-cp-∂- hn-eyw- •m-Uvk
- v‰
- ¨H-cn-°¬- Jp¿-B≥- ssI-bn¬-]n-Sn-®p-sIm-≠v- {_n-´o-jv]m¿-e-sa≥-dn¬- {]-Jym-]n-®p-:- ""Cu- {K-\v-Yw- \n-e-\n¬-°p∂n-S-tØm-fw- tem-I-Øv- k-am-[m-\-ap-≠m-hn-√''.- A-t±-lØn-s≥-d-- tZ-jyw- ap-gp-h≥- {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-sS- i-Iv-Xnsb- sh-√p-hn-fn-®p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂- Hm-t´m-a≥-Xp¿-°n-I-tfmSm-bn-cp-∂p.- ]t£,- C-Xn-\v- ]-gn-Nm-cn-b-Xv- Jp¿-B-s\-bpw.Xm≥- Jp¿-B≥- hm-bn-®n-´n-s√-∂v- A-t±-lw-X-s∂- ]n-∂oSvXp-d-∂v- k-Ω-Xn-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.-

C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- D-b¿-®\-√-h-cm-b- a-\p-jy-cp-sS- kw-c-£-W-Øn-\pw- Zp-jv-S\n{K-l-Øn-\pw- \-∑-bp-sS- kw-kv-Ym-]-\-Øn-\pw- Rm≥- Imem-Im-eß
- f
- n¬- A-hX
- c
- n-°psa-∂v- `-Kh
- m≥- {io-Ir-jW
v- ≥]-d-™p- (`-K-h-Xv-Ko-X).- Jp¿B≥- ]-d-™p-:- F-t∏mƒ- Xn∑- s]-cp-Ip-I-bpw- \-∑- A-Sn-®-a¿-Ø-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- sN-øp∂p-thm,- A-t∏m-sgm-s°- P-\ß
- s
- f- t\¿-am¿-KØ
- n¬- \bn°-p-∂-Xn-\v- th-≠n- ssZ-hw- {]-Nm-c-I-∑m-sc- A-b-°p-∂p.N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sn-eq-sS- \-ap-°v- C-Xn-s\- hne-bn-cp-Øm-w.- N-cn-{Xw,- h¿-j-Øn-se- E-Xp-°ƒ-t]m-se,H-cp- hr-Ø-Øn-em-Wv- k-©-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- Xp-S¿-®-bm-bn- hnhn-[- kw-kv-Im-c-߃- D-Xv-`-hn-°p-I-bpw- \-in-°p-I-bpwsN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- km-aq-ln-I-im-kv-{X- X-Ø-za\p-k-cn-®v- Hm-tcm- kw-kv-Im-c-hpw- aq-∂v- X-e-ß-fn-eq-sS-bmWv I-S-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv-˛ Im-S-Xzw,- \m-K-cn-I-X,- Po¿-W-X.DZm-l-c-Ww-:-- kn-\v-[p-\-Zo-X-S- kw-kv-Im-cw,- {Ko-°v,- tdma≥,- a-bm-kv,- A-k-‰n-Iv- kw-kv-Im-c-߃.- kmw-kv-Im-cn-Iam-bn- h-f¿-®b
- p-sS- D-Øpw-KX
- b
- n-se-Øn-bt- i-jw- B- kaqlw- Po¿-Wn-°m≥- Xp-S-ßp-∂p.- P-\-X-bp-sS- [m-¿-an-I- \ne-hm-cw- \-in-®p-Xp-S-ßp-∂p.- kzm¿-Y-Nn-¥- Iq-Sp-∂p.- kmaq-ln-I-am-b- D-∂-X-n-°v- h-o-gv-N-h-cp-tºmƒ- P-\-߃- a-XØn¬- B-izm-kw- sIm-≈p-∂p.- ]-t£,- B- Xm-ßv- i-IvX-a-√m-sX- h-cp-I-bpw- sh-dpw- Du-l-Øn-epw- A-\v-[-hn-izmk-ß-fn-epw- am-{X-am-bn- H-Xp-ßp-I-bpw- sN-øp-tºmƒ- a-XØn-s≥-d- ]n-Sn- A-bb
- p-∂p.- A-t∏m-gm-Wv- ]p-Xn-b- H-cp- BXvao-b- hn-π-h-Øn-s≥-d- \m-µn- Ip-dn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- A-Xv- kw`-hn-°p-tºmƒ- H-cp- hr-Øw- ]q¿-Øn-bm-hp-Ib
- pw- H-cp- ]pXnb- kw-kvI
- m-cw- ]n-dh
- n-sb-Sp-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂p.- A-ØcwH-cm-Xv-ao-b- hn-π-h-Øn-s≥-d- aq-∂v- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- N-cn{X-Øn¬- Im-Wmw.1.- ln-µp-a-X-Øn¬- A-\v-[-hn-izm-kw- s]-cp-In- A-[x]-X-\-Øn-te-°v- \o-ßn-b-t∏mƒ- _p-≤≥- A-h-X-cn-®p.- 2.{Ko-°v- tdm-a≥- km-{am-Py-w- Po¿-W-X-bn-te-°v- \o-ßp-Ibpw- B-`y-¥-c- {]-iv-\-߃- aq¿-O-n-°p-I-bpw- \m-kv-Xn-Xzwh-f-cp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-t∏mƒ- tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp- A-h-X-cn-®p.3.- 7˛mw- \q-‰m-≠v- C-Xp-t]m-se- A-kv-Y-n-c-X-bp-sS- L-´-ambn-cp-∂p.- b-lq-Z-a-X-hpw- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-hpw- £-tbm-∑p-Jam-bn-°g-- n-™n-cp-∂p.- B-`y-¥-c- kw-L¿-j-߃- A-h-sb]n-Sn-®p-e-®p.- t]¿-jy≥- ss_-k≥-d-bv≥- km-{am-Py-߃c-Iv-X-cq-£n-X-am-b- bp-≤-ß-fm¬- B-Sn-bp-e-™p.- A-td_y-bn¬- \n-co-iz-ch
- m-Zw- \n-d™
p.- a-{¥-hm-ZØ
- n-epw- hn{Klm-cm-[-\-bn-epw- bp-≤-Øn-epw- B-bn-cp-∂p- B-fp-Iƒ-°vXm¬-]-cyw.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

Cu-sbm-cp- km-l-N-cy-Øn-em-Wv- A-td-_y-bp-sS- hgn- bp-sS- tPm-en-bm-Wv- sN-bv-X-Xv.- [m-\y-Øn¬-\n-∂v- A-XvØn-cn-hv- B-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xv.- ap-l-Ω-Zn-\v- Jp¿-B≥- A-h-X- ]-Xn-cn-s\- A-cn-®p-am-‰n.- a-X-ß-fn¬- I-S-∂p-Iq-dn-b- A¿-Yan-√m-Ø- B-Nm-c-{I-a-ß-sf- A-sXm-gn-hm-°n.- ]u-tc-m-lncn-®p.- C-kv-emw- C-hn-sS- ]n-d-hn-sb-Sp-Øp.ap-l-Ω-Zn-\v- Pn-_v-co--en-eq-sS- B-Zy-am-bn- Zn-hy-k-tµ-iw- Xy-sØbpw- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- ]-¶m-fn-I-sf-bpw- ssZ-h-Øne-`n-®- ln-dmKp-lb
- n¬- \n-∂pw- a-\p-jy-lr-Zb
- ß
- f
- n-te-°p- te-°-Sp-∏n-°p-sa-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂- a-[y-kv-Y-∑m-sc-bpw- C-kv≈- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ssP-{X-bm-{X- A-{X-°v- F-fp-∏-ta-dn-b- emw- D-∑q-e-\w- sN-bv-X- coXn- B-cn-epw- a-Xn-∏p-f-hm-°mXm-bn-cp-∂n-√.- A-t\-Iw- A-Kv-\n-]-co-£-W-߃- t\-cn-´m- Xn-cn-°p-I-bn-√.a-\p-jy≥- ssZ-h-tØm-Sv- h-f-sc- A-Sp-Ø-h-\m-sW-∂mWv- ap-t∂-dn-b-Xv.- 20 h¿-j-Øn-\p-≈n¬- C-kv-emw- {]m-ap- v[
- n-® Jp¿-B\
- n-I- Im-gvN
- ∏
- m-Sv.- ssZJyw- t\-Sn.- hm-fn-eq-sS-bm-bn-cp-∂n-√- a-\p-jy-lr-Zb
- ß
- f
- n¬- Wv- a-\p-jy-sc- kw-_\
C-kv-emw- kv-Ym-\w- t\-Sn-b-Xv;- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- B-¥-cn-I- h-Ø-n-ep-≈- A-\v-[-am-b-Io-gv-h-W-°w- C-kv-emw- \n-cp-Xv- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.- bp-IvX
- n-bm-Wv- Jp¿-B\
- n¬- \n-d™
pku-µ-cy-am-Wv- P-\-ß-sf-sbm-∂m-sI- C-kv-em-an-te-°v- km-ls
\n¬-°p-∂- H-cp- L-S-Iw.- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- A-kv-Xn-Xz-hpwASp-∏n-®-Xv.G-I-Xz-hpw- sX-fn-bn-°p-∂- hm-Z-ap-J-߃- Jp¿-B-≥-- Aha-X-X-Ø-z-߃X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v.1.- Xu-lo-Zv- (G-Is
- sZ-hh
- n-izm-kw)-:- ssZ-ha
- p-t≠m?- AA-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- Xu-lo-Zv- (ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- G-I\m-Zn-Im-ew- ap-X¬- Cu- tNm-Zy-Øn-\v- D-Ø-cw- I-≠p-]n-SnXzw)C-kv-em-an-se- G-‰-hpw- {][m-\-s∏-´- kn-≤m-¥-am-Wv.°m-\p-≈- {i-a-Øn-em-Wv- Nn-¥-I-∑m¿.- Aw-Ko-Ir-X-am-bssZh
w- A-Xyp-¬-Ir-jv-S-\m-Wv.- {]-Ir-Xn-°v- bm-sXm-cpF-√m- X-Øz-- -im-kv-{X-ß-fpw- H-∂p-t]m-se- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°pssZhnI-Xz-hp-an-√- F-∂v- C-kv-emw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂p.- C-kv∂- kn-≤m-¥w;- H-cp- ]-c-a-i-Iv-Xn-bn-ep-≈- hn-izm-kw.- Aema
ns
≥d- ku-µ-cyw- a-p-gp-h≥- A-√m-lp- F-∂- ]-Z-Øn¬cq-]n-bpw- {Xn-Im-e-Pv-R-\pw- \n-Xy-\pw- k¿-h-hym-]n-bp-ambAS
ß
nb
n-cn-°p-∂p.- ssZ-hw- F-∂- A¿-YØ
- n-ep-≈- "A¬ssZ-hw.- A-cn-kv-t‰m-´n¬- ssZ-h-sØ- aq-e-Im-c-W-sa-∂v- hnCe
ml
v
'
F∂
X
ns
≥d
Npc
ps
°g

mW
v- ""A-√m-lp''-.ti-jn-∏n-®p.- th-Z-w-- ]-dbp-∂p---- :-""A-h≥- G-I-\m-Wv.- H-‰- ssZA-Xn-\v- _-lp-h-N-\-an-√-˛enwKt`-Z-an-√-.- a-s‰m-∂p-am-bpwh-ta-bp-≈q''- (A-Y-¿-h-th-Zw- XII - 5,20). {In-kv-Xo-b- hncq-]-km-Zr-iy-ß-fn-√.- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-™p-:izm-k-{]-Im-chpw-- H-‰- ssZ-h-ta-bp-≈q.- A-Sp-Ø-Im-e-Øm""\n-߃- A-√m-lp- F-∂v- hn-fn-®p-sIm-≈p-I.- A-s√bn- {^-©v- F≥-sse‰v-sa≥-dv- Nn-¥-I-∑m¿- Du-∂n-∏-d-™Xv H-cp- {]-Ir-Xn- a-X-sØ-°-p-dn-®m-Wv.- ssZ-h-hn-izm-k-an- ¶n¬- d-lv-am-s\-∂v- hn-fn-®p-sIm-≈p-I.- G-Xv- hn-fn-®m-epw√m-Ø- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn-I-fp-sS- \n-e-]m-Sp-Iƒ-s°-Xn-sc- \n- A-h-\v- A-Xyp¬-Ir-jv-S-ß-fm-b- \m-a-ß-fp-≠v''- (17:-110)-.e-bp-d-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v,- ssZ-h-an-√m-Ø- B- tem-I-sØ-°-p- {]hm-N-I-Xzw-(A-¬-˛c-n-km-ex-)dn-®v- Nn-¥n-°p-∂X
- v- A-bp-IvX
- n-bm-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂m-Wv- Ch¿]u-cm-Wn-I- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- B-cw-`-Øn¬- c-≠v- kw]-d-™-Xv.- \yq-´≥- C-tX- A-`n-{]m-bw- X-s∂-bm-Wv- {]-I- kv-Im-c-߃- ta¬-t°m-bv-a- t\-Sn-bn-cp-∂p.- C≥-tUm˛- bqSn-∏n-®-Xv.- ssZ-h-ap-t≠m- F-∂-Xv- Im-cy-Im-c-W-_-\v-[-ß- tdm-]y≥- kw-kv-Im-c-hpw- sk-an-‰n-Iv- kw-kv-Im-c-hpw. lnfp-sS- tNm-Zy-am-W,-v- hn-izm-kØ
- n-t≥-dX
- √
- - F-∂v- tU-kv°¿- µp-˛_p-≤-a-X-ß-ƒ- B-Zy-tØ-Xn-epw- C-kv-emw-,- Pq-Zm-bnS-v-kv- ]-d-™p.- B-[p-\n-I- X-Ø-z-Nn-¥-bp-sS- {i-≤m-tI-{µ- kw,- {In-kv-Xym-\n-‰n- F-∂n-h- c-≠mw- hn-`m-K-Øn-epw- s]am-bn- am-dn- Cu- hn-izm-kw.- \n-e-hn¬- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂- F√m- Sp-∂-p.- C≥-tUm˛- bq-tdm-]y≥- kw-kv-Im-c-Øn¬- ssZ-hA-cm-P-IX-z-ß-fpw- 7˛mw- \q-‰m-≠n¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- {]- Øn-s≥-d- {]-Xn-_nw-_-߃- D-≠m-°n.- ssZ-h-Øn-\v- cq-]th-i-\-tØm-sS- Xp-S-®p-am-‰-s∏-´p.- A-Xn-\v- Im-c-W-am-bXv- ߃- \¬-In.- sk-an-‰n-Iv- a-X-ß-fn¬- ssZ-h-Øn-\-v cq-]wC-kv-em-an-s≥-d- G-I-ssZ-h-kn-≤m-¥-am-bn-cp-∂p.D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- H-cp- kr-jv-Sn-bp-sS- cq-]-Øn-ep-am-bn-cp-∂nJp¿-B≥- ]-d-™p-:- ""]-d-bp-I,- A-h≥-˛A-√m-lp- GI- √- Ckv-em-an-I- ssZ-h-k-¶¬-]w-.- ln-µp-a-X-Ø-n¬ A-h\m-Wv.- A-√m-lp- H-cp-\n-e-°pw- B-tcm-S-pw- B-{i-b-an-√m- Xm-c- k-¶¬-]w-- (ssZ-hw- a-\p-jy-\m-bn- Im-em-Im-e-ßØ-h-\pw,- k¿-h-N-cm-N-c-ß-fp-sS-bpw- B-{i-b-tI-{µ-hp-am- fn¬- A-h-X-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂- hn-izm-kw) {]-_-e-am-Wv.- F
Ip-∂p.- A-h≥- k-¥m-\-ß-sf- P-\n-∏n-®n-´n-√.- A-h≥- B- ∂m¬- C-kv-emw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- -ssZ-hw- Nn-e- a-\p-jy-sccp-sS-bpw- k-¥m-\-hp-a-√.- A-h-\v- Xp-ey-am-bn- B-cp-an-√''- X-s≥-d- k-tµ-i-hm-l-I-cm-bn- \n-iv-N-bn-°p-∂p- F-∂m-Wv.(112:-1-˛5).C-kv-emw- A-k-ln-jv-Wp-X-bp-sS-bpw- {Iq-c-X-bp-sS-bpw- m-Wv- F-∂v- Ip-‰s
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂h
- c
- p-≠v.- ap-lΩ
- Z- n-\v- apºpG-I-ssZ-h-kn-≤m-¥-Øn-s≥-d- ]p-\-c-h-X-c-W-am-Wv- a-Xa
Ckv-em-an-eq-sS- tem-Iw- I-≠-Xv.- C-kv-emw- H-cp- A-cn-∏- ≠m-bn-cp-∂- B-Zw,- t\m-l,- A-{_-lmw-,- tam-k-kv,- tPmkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

61

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

62

k-^v,- tPm¨,- Po-k-kv,- tkm-f-a≥- Xp-S-ß-n-b- {]-hm-N-It{i-Wn-sb- ap-gp-h≥- Jp¿-B-\n¬- F-Sp-Ø-p-]-d-™-v B-Zcn-°p-∂p-≠v- F-∂- Im-cyw- C-h-sc- A-Xv-`p-X-s∏-Sp-Øn-tb°mw.- A-h-km-\-sØ- {]-hm-N-I≥- am-{Xam-Wv- ap-l-Ω-Zv.A-√m-lp- A-√m-sX- a-s‰m-cp- ssZ-h-an-√.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- A-hs≥-d- Zq-X-\m-Wv- F-∂-Xm-Wv- C-kv-em-an≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\hn-izm-k-w. ap-l-Ω-Zv- {]-hm-N-I-∑m-cp-sS- ap-{Z-bm-Wv.- F∂m¬- A-t±-lw- H-cp- A-Xn-am-\p-jt- \m- A-\i
- z-ct- \m- A√.F.Un.- 570˛¬- ap-l-Ω-Zv- `q-Pm-X-\m-bn.-- 40 h-b- -p-hsc- H-cp- km-[m-c-W-°m-c-s≥-d- Po-hn-X-am-bn-cp-∂p- A-t±lw- \-bn-®-Xv.- ]-t£,- A-tß-b-‰w- k-Xy-k-\v-[-\pw- hniz-kv-X-\pw- am-\y-\pw- F-∂- Jym-Xn- A-t±-lw- Cu-Im-eØv- t\-Sn-bn-cp-∂p.- A-td-_y-bn¬- \n-e-\n-∂n-cp-∂- bp-IvXn-t_m-[an-√m- Ø
- - _-lp-ssZ-hm-cm-[\
- b
- n¬- A-t±-lw- Jn∂-\m-bn-cp-∂p.- A-Sp-Øp-≈- ln-dm-Kp-l-bn¬-t]m-bn- [ym\-\n-a-Kv-\-\m-hp-I- A-t±-lw- ]-Xn-hm-°n-bn-cp-∂p.- Cu- Kpl-bn¬-sh-®m-Wv- F.-Un.- 610se- sse-e-Øp¬- J-Zv-dn-s≥dcm-hn-¬- Pn-_v-co-¬- F-∂- a-e-°v- h-gn- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- Jp¿B\n--s≥-d- B-Zy-k-tµ-iw- e-`n-®-Xv.- 23 h¿-j-tØm-fw- At±-l-Øn-\v- Jp¿-B-\n-I- k-tµ-i-߃- e-`n-®p-sIm-≠n-cp∂p.- C-Xn-\n-S-bn¬- B-bn-c-߃- C-kv-emw- hn-iz-kn®p.I¿-I-i-am-b- F-Xn¿-]-p-I-fp-≠m-bn-´pw- A-h-sb-√mw- A-t±lw- X-c-Ww- sN-bv-Xp.- A-h-km-\-Im-e-am-b-t∏mƒ- a-°bn¬- am-{X-a-√,- Zq-c-tZ-i-ß-fn¬-h-sc- A-t±-lw- ]-c-am-[nIm-cw- t\-Sn.- Ip-‰-a-‰- kz-`m-h-am-bn-cp-∂p- A-t±-l-Øn-t≥d-Xv;- ]-c-a-Z-bm-ep-hpw.- A-tß-b‰-sØ- \-S-]-Sn-bm-bn-´pw{]-Xn-tcm-[-Øn-\m-bn-´pw- am-{X-sa- A-t±-lw- bp-≤-Øn-\vA-\p-aX
- n- \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p-≈q.- ac-Ww-hs
- c- A-t±-lw- hn\oX-\m-bn- Po-hn-®p.- F.-Un.- 632¬- A-t±-lw- \n-cym-X-\m-bn.{]-hm-NI
- X
- zw- sX-fn-bn-°m≥- F-s¥-¶n-epw- A-Xv`
- p-Xw- ImWn-°-W-sa-∂v- {]-Xn-tbm-Kn-Iƒ- ap-l-Ω-Zn-t\m-Sv- B-h-iys∏-Sp-tºmƒ,- ssZ-hw- X-\n-°v- \¬-In-b- Zn-hy-k-tµ-iw(Jp¿-B≥)- B-Wv- X-s≥-d- A-Xv-`p-Xw- F-∂m-W-t±-lw]d-™n-cp-∂-Xv.th-Z-߃C-kv-emw- H-cp- ]p-Xn-b- a-X-am-sW-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zv- A-hIm-i-s∏-´n-√.- G-I-ssZ-h-hn-izm-kw- Dƒ-s°m-≠- ]u-cmWn-I- a-X-ß-fp-sS- H-cm-h¿-Ø-\-am-Wv- C-kv-em-sa-∂v- At±lw- k-a¿-Y-n-®p.- ap≥- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-ß-fn¬- I-f-hm-bn- Iq-´nt®¿-°-ep-Iƒ- D-≠m-hp-I-bpw- A-ß-s\- B- a-X-߃- Zpjn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-t∏mgm-Wv- C-kv-emw- h-∂-Xv.- am-dn-hc-p-∂- Im-e-Øn-\-\p-kr-X-am-bn- A-h-km-\-sØ- ]-cn-]q¿-

W-am-b- sh-fn-s]-S-en-\v- H-cp- {I-am-\p-K-X-am-b- ]-cn-Wm-awth-Z-{K-\v-Y-ß-fn¬- Zr-iy-am-bn-cp-∂p.- A-h-km-\-sØ- shfn-s]-S¬- Jp¿-B-\n-eq-sS-bm-Wv- A-h-X-cn-®-Xv.- Jp¿-B≥I-gn-™p-t]m-b- F-√m- ssZ-hn-I- {K-\v-Y-ß-sf-bpw- i-cnsh-®p-sIm-≠m-Wv- h-∂-Xv.- {]-hm-N-I-∑m-cp-sS- F-Æsa-{Xsb-∂v- -- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-™n-´n-√.Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p:-- ""\n-\°v- \mw- ap-ºv- hn-h-cn-®p-X∂n-´p-≈- Zq-X-∑m-sc-bpw- hn-h-cn-®p- X-∂n-´n-√m-Ø- Zq-X-∑msc-bpw- (\mw- \n-tbm-Kn-®p)''- (4:-164).a-‰p- a-X-{K-\v-Y-߃- ssZ-h-Øm¬- A-h-Xo¿-W-am-bXm-tWm- A-√-tbm- F-∂v- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°v- Xo¿-Øp-]-dbm-\m-hn-√.- A-h- A-ß-s\-bm-Imw- F-t∂- ]-d-bm≥- ]‰q.Jp¿B≥- I-gn-™m¬- "th-Zß'-fn-em-Wv- ssZ-h-sØ-°-pdn-®v- Iq-Sp-X-em-bn- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-´p-≈-Xv.- ap≥-th-Z-{K-\v-Yß-fn¬-\n-∂v- Jp¿-B\n-s\- hy-Xy-kv-X-am-°p-∂-sX¥mWv?{]-Y-a-hpw- {]-[m-\-hp-am-b- kw-K-Xn- A-Xn-s≥-d- km¿h-eu-In-I-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sm-Wv.- ap≥-[m-c-W-Iƒ-°v- Jp¿B≥- hn-e-I¬-]n-°-p-∂n-√.- ap≥-th-Z-{K-\v-Y-߃,- sX-cs™-Sp-°s
- ∏-´- P-\ß
- s
- f-°p- d
- n-®pw- hm-KvZ- Ø
- `
- q-an-sb-°p- dn-®pw- kw-km-cn-®-t∏mƒ- Jp¿-B≥- tem-I-tØm-Spw- temI-P-\-X-tbm-Sp-am-Wv- kw-km-cn-®-Xv.- \-thm-∞-m-\- Im-eL-´-Øn-\v- h-f-sc- ap-ºv- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°-s∏-´-Xm-sW-¶n-epwJp¿-B-\n¬- F-ºm-Spw- am-\-hn-I-X-bp-sS- B¿-{Z-X- Zr-iyam-Wv.- B-Zn-]m-]-hp-am-bn- P-\n-°p-Itbm,- I-gn-™- P-∑ß-fn-se- {]-h¿-Øn-I-fp-sS- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-Ø-w- G-¬-]n-°s∏-Sp-I-tbm- sN-bv-X- a-\p-jy-sc-°-p-dn-®v- C-X-c-th-Z-߃kw-km-cn-°p-tºmƒ,- a-\p-jy≥- kr-jv-Sn-bp-sS- sIm-Sp-apSn-bm-sW-∂pw- F-√m- a-\p-j-y-cpw- \n-jv-I-f-¶-cm-bn- P-\n°p-∂p- F-∂p-am-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- kz-¥w{]h¿-Øn-Iƒ-°v- am-{X-sa- A-bmƒ- D-Ø-c-hm-Zn-b-m-Iq- F∂pw- Jp¿-B≥- Xo¿-Øv- ]-d-™p.Jp-¿-B-\n-s≥-d- bp-Iv-Xn-`-{Z-Xbp-Iv-Xn-bn-e-[n-jv-Tn-X-am-bn-cn-°-Ww- hn-izmkw- F-∂mWv- C-kv-em-an-I- Xm¬-]-cyw.- -{]m-]-©n-I- k-Xy-ß-fp-sS\n-co-£W
- ß
- f
- n-eq-sS- bp-IvX
- n]q¿-ha
- m-bn-Øs
- ∂- {]-]©
- \m-Y-\n-ep-≈- hn-izm-kw- h-f¿-Øn-sb-S-p-°m≥- I-gn-bpw.A-t∏mƒ- im-kv-{X-Øn-\pw- C-kv-em-an-\p-an-S-bn¬- bm-sXmcp- ssh-cp-[-y-hp-ap-≠m-Ip-∂n-√.- A-hkm-\-sØ- ssZ-hn-Ia-X-sa-∂-\n-e-bn¬- a-‰p- ssZ-hn-I-{K-\v-Y-ß-fn-se- k-tµ-iß-sf- Jp¿-B≥- Bh¿-Øn-°p-I-bpw- {]m-[m-\y-ap-≈-Xpw-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

63

\n- -m-c-ß-fp-am-b- Im-cy-ß-sf- H-cp-t]m-se- ssI-Im-cywsN-øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- Jp¿-B≥- B-Xv-ao-b-X-bn-te-°p≈- H-cp- h-gn-Im-´n-sb-∂-Xn-ep-]-cn- k-Zm-N-m-c-sØ-bpw- [m¿an-I-X-sb-bpw- Ip-dn-®v- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂- H-cp- {K-\v-Yw-Iq-Sn-bmWv.- Cu- tem-I-Øv- a-\p-jy≥- D-Ø-a-\m-bn- Po-hn-t°-≠sX-ß-s\- F-∂-Xp- kw-_-\v-[n-® hy-h-kv-Y-I-fpw- Jp¿B-\n¬- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-∂p-≠v.- Jp¿-B≥- H-cp- ]-m-cm-b-W{K-\vY
- w- am-{X-a√
- ,- H-cp- {]m-am-Wn-I{- K-\vY
- w-Iq-Sn-bm-Wv.- D¬t_m-[-\-hpw- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-hp-am-Wv.-

t[-b-\m-Ip-∂p- F-∂- bm-Ym¿-Y-yw- I-W-°n-se-Sp-Øv,- CuPn-hn-X-Øn-\p-a-∏p-d-Ø-p-≈- H-cp- Po-hn-X-sØ-°-p-dn-®v- Ahs\- t_m-[-hm-\m-°p-∂p.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- Hm-tcm- {]-h¿-Ønbpw- ssZ-hw- Im-Wp-I-bpw- A-h- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-bpw- sNøp-∂p- F-∂v- A-h≥- hn-iz-kn-°-Ww.- k-Zm-Nm-c-aq-ey-ßfptS-Xm-b- H-cp- s]-cp-am-‰-®-´w,- a-\p-jy-\v- \¬-Ip-I-bm-WvC-Xp-h-gn- C-kv-emw- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- a-c-Wm-\-¥-cw- \-∑- sNbvX-h-\v- kz¿-Kw- e-`n-°p-sa-∂- hni-zm-kw- a-\p-jy-s\- sX‰vsN-øp-∂-Xn¬-\n-∂p-w- X-S-bp-∂p.-

]-c-tem-I- hn-izm-kw-

Ckv-em-an-s≥-d- A-\p-im-k-\-߃-

ssK-_v- (a-d-™-Xv)-,- i-lm-Z- (sX-fn-™-Xv-˛ km-£nXzw)- F-∂n-h-bm-Wv- C-kv-em-an¬- A-Xn-{]-[m-\-ß-fm-bc-≠v- hn-`-P-\-߃.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- {K-l-W-i-Iv-Xn-°v- A∏p-d-am-Wv- B-Zy-tØ-sX-¶n¬- c-≠m-a-tØ-X-Xv- C-{µn-b tKm-N-c-am-Wv.- {]m-]-©n-I- k-Xy-ß-fp-sS- H-cp- Aw-iw- am{X-sa- sh-fn-hm-bn-°m-Wp-∂p-≈q.- A-Zr-iy-X-bm-Wv- {]-]©w- ap-gp-h≥.- ]-c-tem-I-sØ-°-p-dn-®p-≈- C-kv-em-an-I- Img-v-N-∏m-Sv- C-ß-s\- hn-i-Z-am-°mw-:-

"Z-bm-]-c-\pw- I-cp-Wm-\n-[n-bp-am-b- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d\m-a-Øn¬'- F-∂- hm-Iy-tØm-sS-bm-Wv- Jp¿-B-\n-se-- Hm-tcm- A-[ym-b-hpw- B-cw-`n-°p-∂-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-I-]m-Tß-fp-sS- ]-Ip-Xn- k-Øb
- pw- Cu- hm-Iy-Øn-eS- ß
- n-bn-cn°p∂p.- -ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- C-O-°v- k-ºq¿-W-am-bn- Io-g-S-ßpIF-∂m-a-m-Wv- C-kv-em-sa-∂- ]-Z-Øn-s≥-d- A¿-Y-w.- B- ]Zwk-am-[m-\-sØ-bpw- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v.-

1.- A-¥y-\mƒ-:- ssZ-hw- \n-iv-N-bn-°p-∂- H-cp- Zn-h-kw.A-Xn-`-bm-\-I-am-b- H-cp- hn-]-Øn-eq-sS- Cu- tem-I-Øn-\vA-h-k-m-\-ap-≠m-Ipw.-

C-kve
- m-an-Im-[ym-]\
- ß
- f
- p-sS- {]-[m-\- t{km-X 
- v- Jp¿B-\pw- kp-∂-Øp-am-Wv.- ap-ºv- hn-h-cn-®-Xp-t]m-se- C-kvem-an-s≥-d- G-‰-hpw- {]-[m-\-s∏-´- X-Ø-z-߃- aq-∂v- h-Ip∏n¬-s]-Sp-∂p.-

2.- D-b¿-sØ-gp-t∂¬-]v-:- a-cn-®-h-cp-sS- i-co-c-߃- Ahcp-sS- J-_-dp-I-fn¬-\n-∂pw- D-b¿-Ø-s∏-Sp-∂-Xpw- kz-¥wB-Xv-am-°-fp-am-bn- Iq-´n-t®¿-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp-am-Wv.3.- \ym-b-hn-[n- Zn-h-kw-:- hn-[n-Zn-h-kw- F-√m- a-\p-jysc-bpw- ssZ-h-k-∂n-[n-bn¬- sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.- G-I\m-bn,- a-‰m-cp-sS-bpw- Xp-W-bn-√m-sX,- \n-cm-{i-b-\m-bn,- kz¥w- \-∑- Xn-∑I
- f
- p-sS- I-W°
- p-Iƒ- tem-Ic
- £
- n-Xm-hn-s≥dap-ºn¬- k-a¿-]-n-°p-∂p.4.- A-¥n-a-hn-[n-:- ssZ-h-Øn¬- hn-iz-kn-°p-I-bpw- Ahs\- A-\p-k-cn-°p-I-bpw- A-h-\v- I-ogv-s]-Sp-I-bpw- sN-bvX-h¿-°v- D-u-lm-Xo-X-am-b- kw-Xr-]v-Xn-bm-W-v e-`n-°p-I.ssZ-hs
- Ø- \n-tj-[n-°p-Ib
- pw- A-hs
- ≥-d- I¬-]\
- I
- ƒ- AwKo-I-cn-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I-bpw- Xn-∑-Iƒ- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-I-bpwsN-bX
v- h
- ¿-°v- A-Xy-¥w- `-bm-\I
- a
- m-b- \-cI
- i
- n-£b
- m-bncn°pw- D-≠m-hp-I.-

1.-Xu-lo-Zv- -- (ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- G-I-Xzw)- 2.- A¬-˛ c-nkm-ex-- ({]-hm-NI
- X
- zw),- 3.- A¬-BJ
- n-dx- - (]-ct- em-Iw).- Jp¿B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""A√m-lp-hn-s\- ]-cn-]q¿-W-am-bn- h-Wßp-I.- A-h-s≥-d- A-[n-Im-cm-h-Im-i-ß-fn¬- a-‰m-sc-bpw]-¶v- tN¿-°m-Xn-cn-°p-I''-.- (4:-36).- ""tem-I¿-°v- A-\p-{K-lam-bn-´-√m-sX- \n-s∂- \mw- ({]-hm-N-I-s\)- A-b-®n-´n-√''(21:-107).-""Cu- sF-ln-I- Po-hn-Xw- H-cp- I-fn-bpw- hn-t\m-Zhpw- am-{X-am-Wv.- ]-c-tem-I- Po-hn-X-am-Wv- b-Ym¿-Y-- Po-hnXw.- A-h-\-dn-™n-cp-s∂-¶n¬-!''-- (9:-64).ssZ-hØ
- n-s≥-d- C-Ob
- \
- p-kc
- n-®v- \-∑s
- N-øp-Ib
- pw- ssZh-Øn¬- ]-c-a-am-b- hn-izm-kw- A¿-]-n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-XpsIm-≠v- kz¿-Kw- I-c-kv-Y-am-°p-hm-\m-Wv- C-kv-emw- a-\pjy- s \- DZv - t _m- [ n- ∏ n- ° p- ∂ - X v . - as‰m- c ¿- Y - Ø n¬ - ] d™m¬- hn-izm-k-hpw- {]-hr-Øn-bpw- X-Ωn¬- _-\v-[-ap≠m-h-Ww.- hn-izm-k-hpw- k¬-I¿-a-ß-fp-am-Wv- C-kv-em-ans≥-d- A-Xn-{]-[m-\-am-b- aq-e-°-√p-Iƒ.-

]-c-tem-I-hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- {]-k-Iv-Xn- C-kv-em-an-se¥m-Wv- F-∂v- ]-e-t∏m-gpw- tNm-Zn-°-s∏-Smdp-≠v.- H-cp- a-\p{]hm-N-I-s\- Jp¿-B≥- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- C-kv-emjy-s≥-d- kz-Im-cy-Po-hn-X-Øn-epw- s]m-Xp-Po-hn-X-Øn-epw- an-Im-[ym-]-\-ß-f-p-sS- Po-h-\p-≈- D-Zm-l-c-W-sa-∂pw- a-\pA-bmƒ- I-W-°v- ]-dtb-≠n-h-cp-sa-∂v- C-kv-emw- Ft∏m- jykz-`m-h-Øn-s≥-d- G-‰-hpw- \-√- am-Xr-I-sb-∂p-am-Wv.gpw- D-Zv-t_m-[n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂-Xp- X-s∂bm- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-Xs
- ∂- {]-hm-NI
- s
- ≥-d- N-cy-Iƒ- {]-Im-it- KmW-v- A-Xn-\p-≈- a-dp-]-Sn.- a-\p-jy≥- {]-tem-`-\-߃-°v- hn- ]p-c-ß-f-m-bn- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p.- a-\p-jy-s\- kv-t\-ln-°pkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

64

I.- \-√-h-\m-I-s´,-- ]m-]n-bm-I-s´˛- F-√m-h¿-°pw- \-∑sNøp-I- C-h-bm-Wv- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- Im-X¬.A-©v- {]-[m-\-I¿-a-߃- Hm-tcm- hn-izm-kn-°pw- \n¿_-\v-[-am-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h-bm-Wv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d]©-kv-Xw-`-߃.1.- i-lm-Z-x- (hn-izm-k-{]-Jym-]-\w-)A-√m-lp-h-√m-sX- a-s‰m-cp- ssZ-h-an-s√-∂pw- ap-l-Ω-ZvssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- k-tµ-i-hm-l-I-\m-sW-∂pw- Rm≥- km£y-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-I-bm-Wv- i-lm-Zx- (em- Cem-l- C-√-√mlp-,- ap-l-Ω-Zp¿-d-kq-ep-√mln-'').2.- \-a-kv-Im-cw-:- Jp¿-B-≥- ]m-cm-b-W-hpw- ssZ-h-kvXp-Xn-bp-am-Wv- C-Xn¬- {]-[m-\w.- hn-hn-[- im-co-cn-I- \n-ebpw- C-Xn-ep-≠v.- A-©v- t\-c-ß-fn-em-bn- Zn-h-k-hpw- \-SØp-∂- Cu- A-\p-jv-T-m-\-I¿-a-w- H-cp- am-\-kn-I- kw-Xr-]vXn-bpw- ssh-Im-cn-I- tam-N-\-hpw- \¬-Ip-∂p.3.- {h-X-w-:- d-a-fm≥-am-k-Øn¬- ]p-e¿-®- ap-X¬- k-\v[y-h-sc- {h-Xw- A-\-p-jv-Tn-°¬.- {h-X-Øn-\v- B-Xv-ao-b-hpwssh-b-Iv-Xn-I-hpw- im-co-cn-I-hp-am-b- H-t´-sd- Kp-W-ß-fp≠v.- A-Xv- a-\p-jy-s\- £-am-io-e-\m-°p-∂p.- k-l-Po-hnI-fp-sS- C-√m-bv-a-bn-epw- th-Z-\-bn-epw- I-jv-S-∏m-Sp-I-fn-epap≈- k-lm-\p-`q-Xn-bp-sS- {]-I-S-\w- Iq-Sn-bm-Wv- {h-Xw.5.- k-I-m-Øv-:- k-º-∂≥- X-s≥-d- k-ºm-Zy-Øn-s≥-d- Hcp\n-ivN
- n-Xh
- n-ln-Xw- ]m-hs
- ∏-´h
- ¿-°v- Hm-tcm- h¿-jh
- pw- \¬Ip-∂-Xm-Wv- k-I-m-Øv.- k-I-m-Øv - C-kv-em-an¬- \n-¿-_-\v[-am-Wv.- k-º-Øn¬-\n-∂v- -- H-cp- \n-iv-Nn-X i-X-am-\w- -Ip-dhv- sN-øp-I- F-∂-X-√- {]-[m-\w.- B-Xv-ao-b-am-bn- h-f-sc-b[n-Iw- k-ºm-Zyw- C-Xp-h-gn- A-bmƒ-°v- e-`n-°p-∂p.- C-Xns≥-d- am-\p-jn-Ih
- pw- km-aq-ln-Ih
- pw- km-ºØ
- n-Ih
- pw- cmjv{So-b-hp-am-b- {]-k-Iv-Xn- h-f-sc- h-ep-Xm-Wv.5.- l-Pv-Pv-:- a-°-bn-te-°p-≈- Xo¿-Y-m-S-\w.km-º-Øn-I-am-bpw- im-co-cn-I-am-bpw- am-\-kn-I-hp-amb- I-gn-hp-s≠-¶n¬,- kv-{Xo- ]p-cp-j- t`Za-n-√m-sX,- F-√map-kv-enw-Iƒ-°pw- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- H-cp-X-h-W- l-Pv-Pv- sNø¬- \n¿-_-\v-[-am-Wv.- hn-izmkn-I-fp-sS- H-cp- hm¿-jn-Ik-tΩ-f-\-am-Wv- a-°-bn¬- \-S-°p-∂-Xv.- tem-I-Øv- k-a-m[m-\-]-c-am-b- H-cp- A-¥-co-£ap-s≠-¶n-te- l-Pv-Pv- km[y-am-Iq.i-co-Ax- (C-kv-em-an-I- \n-b-a-߃)Jp-¿-B-\n¬-\n-∂m-Wv- \n-b-a-ß-fp-sS- D-Xv-`-hw.- a-\pjy-s≥-d- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃,- a-\p-jy-_-\v-[-߃,- a-\p-jy-

s≥-d- hn-izm-k-{]-am-W-߃- Xp-S-ßn-b- F-√m- hn-j-b-ßfn-epw- B-gv-∂n-d-ßn-b- \n-b-a-ß-fm-Wv- i-co-Ax.- [¿-a-hpw\o-Xn-bp-am-Wv- Cu- \n-b-a-ß-fp-sS-sb-√mw- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\L-S-I-߃.B-lm-cw,- h-kv-{Xw,- hn-t\m-Zw,- ip-Nn-Xzw,- k-º-Øv,sXm-gn¬,- hn-hm-lw,- hn-hm-l-tam-N-\w- Xp-S-ß-n-b- \m-\mhn-j-b-ß-fn¬- a-\p-jy≥- ]m-en-t°-≠- a-cym-Z-I-sf-bpwhy-hk
- vY
- I
- s
- f-bpw-Ip-dn-®v- Jp¿-B\
- n-epw- l-Zo-kn-epw- hniZ-am-bn- {]-Jym-]n-°p∂p-≠v.Jp¿-B-\n¬-- A-√m-lp- ]-d-™p-:- ""\n-߃-° v- \mw\m-Ww- a-d-bv-°p-∂-Xn-\pw- A-e-¶m-c-Øn-\pw- h-kv-{X-߃\¬-In-bn-cn-°p-∂p''- (7:-26).""ip-≤n-bp-≈-h-sc- A-√m-lp- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp-∂p''- (9:-108).""A-√m-lp- I-®-hSw- A-\p-h-Zn-®p.- ]-en-i- \n-tcm-[n-°p-Ibpw- sN-bv-Xp-''- (2:-275).hn-b¿-∏m-dp-∂X
- n-\v- ap-ºv- Iq-en- sIm-Sp-°m≥- \-_n- I¬]n-®p- (l-Zo-kv)-.kz-¥w- B-Xv-am-hn-s\- h-cp-Xn-bn¬- \n¿-Øp-I- F-∂Xm-Wv- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b- Pn-lm-Zv- (l-Zo-kv).A-Ω-bp-sS- Im¬-Np-h-´n-emW-v- kz¿-Kw- (l-Zo-kv-).C-kv-em-an-I- A-[ym-]-\-߃- F-°m-e-tØ-°pw- A-\p-KpW-am-Ip-∂{- X- bp-Iv-Xn-`{- Z-am-Wv.- G-Is
- sZ-h- hn-izm-kw- Du∂n-∏-d-bp-I-bpw- k-Xy-hpw- am-\-hn-I-X-bpw- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\K-pW
- ß
- f
- m-bn- kzo-Ic
- n-°p-Ib
- pw- sN-øp-∂- C-kve
- mw- km¿h-eu-In-I-am-Wv.a-[y-Im-eb
- q-tdm-∏v- A-\[
v- I
- m-cØ
- n-epw- A-ek
- X
- b
- n-epwB-≠n-cp-∂-t∏mƒ- A-td-_y≥- a-W-em-c-Wy-ß-fn-em-Wva-\p-jy-h¿-K-Øn-\v- ap-gp-h≥- {]-Xym-i-bm-bn- C-kv-em-apwJp¿-B-\pw- B-K-X-am-b-X-v.- _-e-{]-tbm-K-w- sIm-≠v- H-cp{]-kv-Ym-\-Øn-\pw- Bbp - v- \o-≠p-In-´n-bn-´n-√.- a-\p-jy\n¬- B- {]-kv-Ym-\w- F-ß-s\- kzm-[o-\w- sN-ep-Øp∂p- F-∂-Xn-s\- B-{i-bn-®m-Wv- A-Xn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®.- Cutem-Iw- ap-gp-h≥- ku-c-`yw- hn-X-dn-b- H-c-p- a-lm-kw-kv-I-mc-Øn-s≥-d- D-Z-b-am-Wv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ]n-d-hn-tbm-sStemIw- Z¿-in-®-Xv.""A-√m-lp-th-,- F-\n-°v- \o- hn-Pv-Rm-\w- h¿-[n-∏-n-®vX-tc-W-ta-!''-- (Jp¿-B-≥-:- 20:-14).hn-Pv-Rm-\w- t\-Sm≥- C-kv-emw- A-Xn-s≥-d- A-\p-bmbn-I-tfm-Sv- B-lz-m-\w- sN-øp-∂p.- hn-Pv-Rm-\-am-Wv- a-\pjy-s\- ssZ-h-Øn¬- {]n-b-¶-c-\m-°p-∂-Xv.- C¬-av- (Pv-Rm-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

\w)- F-∂- ]-Zw- Jp¿-B-\n¬- 750 X-h-W- B-h¿-Øn-®p-hcp-∂p-≠v.- a-\p-tjy-O-bp-sS- A-t\-Iw- hn-P-b-ß-fp-sS- ]n∂n¬- C-kv-emw- h-ln-®- ]-¶v- \n-kv-Xp-e-am-bncp-∂p.kw-kv-Im-cw-:- G-I-ssZ-h- kn-≤m-¥w- C-kv-emw- ]p-\-ch-X-cn-∏n-®p.- G-I-ssZ-h- hn-izm-k-Ø-n-eq-∂n-b- H-c-p-∂-Xam-b- kw-kv-Im-cw- h-f¿-Øn-sb-Sp-°m≥- C-kv-em-an-\v- I-gn™p.- [m¿-an-I-X-bn¬,- Ip-Spw-_-_-\v-[-ß-fn¬,- s]-cp-am‰co-Xn-If
- n¬- F-√mw- C-kve
- mw- D-∂X
- a
- m-b- am-\Z- W
- vU
- ß
- ƒkr-jv-Sn-®p.- ]q¿-W-a-\-t -m-sS- a-‰p- kw-kv-Im-c-ß-fn¬-\n∂pw- ]p-Xn-b- A-dn-hp-Iƒ- I-Sw-sIm-≈p-I-bpw- A-Xv- kz¥-am-bn- h-f¿-Øn-sb-Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp- F-∂-Xv- X-s∂C-kv-emw- hn-Pv-Rm-\-Øn-\v- \¬-In-b- {]m-[m-\y-sØ-bmWv- hy-IvX
- a
- m-°p-∂X
- v.- im-kv{- Xw,- I-e,- km-ln-Xyw,- kwKoXw,- hm-kv-Xp-hn-Zy- Xp-S-ß-n-b- F-√m- ta-J-e-I-fn-epw- ]p-dsa-\n-∂v- e-`y-am-b- F-√m- \-√-h-i-ß-fpw- Dƒ-s°m-≠v- X\Xm-b- H-cp- ssi-en- h-f¿-Øn-sb-Sp-°m≥- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°vIgn-™p.im-kv-{Xw-:- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- cw-K-{]-th-i-\-Øn-\v- ap-ºvA-Pv-R-X-bp-sS- Im-e-am-bn-cp-∂p.- ]-Tn-°p-I,- \n-co-£n-°pI,- a-\ 
- n-em-°p-I-- F-∂n-ßs
- \-bp-≈- Jp¿-Bs
- ≥-d- Bh¿Øn-®p-≈- B-lzm-\w ap-k-venw-I-fn¬- im-kv-{Xo-bm-`n-cpNn- h-f¿-Øp-Ib
- pw- A-Xn-s≥-d- ^-ea
- m-bn- im-kv{- Xo-b- ]cyth-£-Wß-fpw- A-t\z-j-W-ß-fpw- \m-´n-ep-S-\o-f-ap-≠mhp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- a-s‰m-cm¿-Y-Øn¬- ]-d-™m¬- {]-hmN-I-\v- ssZ-h-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- ]-I¿-∂p-In-´n-b- ssZhn-I- shfn-]m-Sn-\p-ti-jw- C-kv-em-an-I- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿- `u-Xn-I-imkv-{X-sØ- D-b-c-ß-fn-se-Øn-®p.`q-an-im-kv-{Xw-:- A¬-aAv-aq-s≥-d- `-c-W-Im-e-Øv- `q-]Sw\n¿an-®p.{]-Ir-Xn-N-cn-{Xw-:- C-_v-\p-Jp-ssX-_- "D-bq-\p-¬- A-Iv_¿-'- F-∂- t]-cn¬- H-cp- h-en-b- hn-Pv-Rm-\-tIm-iw- \n¿an-®p.
ssP-hi
- m-kv{- Xw-:- A-_q-l\
- o-^v- A¬- Zn-\h
- c
- n,- A_qsk-bv-Zv- A¬- A-kv-am- F-∂o- im-kv-{X-Pv-R¿- sN-Sn-I-sf°p-dn-®v- B-[n-Im-cn-I- {K-\v-Y-߃- c-Nn-®p.P-¥p-im-kv-{Xw-:- A¬-Pm-ln-kv- F-gp-Xn-b- In-Xm-_p¬l-b-hm≥- h-f-sc- {]-kn-≤-am-Wv.- C-_v-\p-ko-\- F-∂XØz-Pv-Rm-\n- F-gp-Xn-b- in-^- F-∂- {K-\v-Yw- ar-K-ßfpsS- a-\x-im-kv-{X-hpw- i-co-c-im-kv-{X-hpw- k-hn-kv-X-cw{]-Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂p.-

65

_n- A-°-߃- (0˛9)- tem-I-{]-i-kv-X-am-Wv-.- BƒPn-{_sb-°-p-dn-®v- A-d-_n-Iƒ- [m-cm-fw- {K-\v-Y-ß-sf-gp-Xn.- {SnKvt\m-sa-{Sn-sb-°-p-dn-®v- \m-kn-dp-±o≥- A¬-Xq--kn- c-Nn-®- "InXm-_p-»n-I¬- A¬-In-Ø'-- au-en-I-{]m-[m-\y-ap≈- Ir-Xnbm-Wv.- B-Zy-Im-e- A-d-_n- I-e-bn-epw- hm-kv-Xp-hn-Zy-bnepw- tPy-m-a-{Sn-bp-sS-bpw- I-W-°n-s≥-d-bpw- kzm-[o-\w- sXfn-™p-Im-Wmw.ssh-Zy-im-kv-{Xw-:- A-en- C-_v-\p- Cu-k-bp-sS- X-Zv-Ind-Xp- ¬- I-ll
v- m-en≥,- A-_q-Ae
- n- C-_\
v- p-ko-\b
- p-sS- A¬Im-\q-\p-^nØ-z-n-∫v,-- - A¬-X-z-_-vcn-bp-sS- "^n¿-Zu-kp¬-lnIv-a'-- F-∂n-h- ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- A-d-_n-Iƒ- \¬-Inb- an--I-®- kw-`m-h-\-I-fm-Wv.- C-_v-\p-d-jv-Zpw- A¬-dm-knbpw- ssh-Zy-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- kw-`m-h-\-Iƒ- sN-bv-Xp.km-t¶-Xn-I- hn-Zy-:- Du¿-P-X-{¥-Øn-epw- F-©-n-\o-bdnw-Kn-epw- A-∂v- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- ]p-tcm-K-Xn- t\-Sn.- D-Z-m-:A¬-P-km-cn-bp-sS- ]n-kv-‰¨-]-ºv.I-e:- - I-e,- km-ln-Xyw,- X-Øz- N
- n-¥- F-∂n-hb
- p-sS- hf¿®-°v- ap≥-Im-e- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-- a-l-Øm-b- kw-`m-h-\-IƒA¿-]n-®p.- A¬-K- -m-en,- D-a¿-J-ømw,- dq-an,- A¬-_-dq-\nXp-S-ßn-b-h¿- Ah-cn¬- Nn-e¿- am-{Xw.ssh-Pv-Rm-\n-I- km-ln-Xy-Øn-s≥-d- t{]m-Iv-Xm-°-fmb- K- -m-en,- A¬-I-n-¥n,- A-_q-ssd-lm≥,- A¬_-dq-\-n,C-_v-\p-J¬-Zq-≥-,- P-em-e-p-±-o≥-dq-an,- A¬-an-kv-c-n,- dm-_n-bA¬-A-Z-hn-ø,- ^-co-Zp-±o≥- A-Ø¿,- \n-km-an- k-\m-bv F∂n-h¿- B- Im-e-L-´-Øn-s≥-d- a-\x-km-£n- kq-£n-∏pIm-cm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-h-cn¬- an-°-h-cpw- h-en-b- tem-I-k-©mcn-If
- m-bn-cp-∂p.- C-ke
v- m-an-I- kw-kI
v- m-cw- B- Im-cW
- ß
- ƒsIm-≠p-X-s∂- hn-hn-[- kzm-[o-\-ß-fp-sS- H-cp- an-{in-X-ambn.- 12˛mw- \q-‰m-≠n¬- kq-^-n-kw- H-cp- h-en-b- {]-kv-Ym-\am-bn- cq-]m-¥-c-s∏-´p.- \n-co-iz-c-hm-Z-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- hn-c-IvXn-bp-sS-bpw- hn-Nn-{X- kw-tbm-P-\-Øn-eq-sS- ssZ-h-sØ]m-Sn-∏p-Ig
- Ø
v- p-∂X
- m-Wv- ]-e- kq-^n-{]-kY
v- m-\ß
- f
- pw.- Chb-m-I-s´- C-kv-em-an-I- hn-cp-≤-ß-fpw.a-\x-im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m-cpw,- X-Ø-z-Pv-Rm-\n-I-fpw- im-kv{X-Pv-R-cpw- hn-Pv-Rm-\m-t\z-j-I-cpw- C-kv-em-an-I- kw-kvIm-c-Øn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®-bp-sS- Im-e-Øv- H-cp- kn-≤m-¥w-Xs∂- D-≠m-°n;- i-co-ch
- f
- ¿-®°
- v- B-lm-cw,- B-Xva
- o-b- hf¿®-°v- hn-Pv-Rm-\w.C-kv-em-an-s\-°-p-dn-®v- H-cp- hn-a¿-i-\-]-T-\w-

tem-I-sØ-hn-sS-bpw- C-kv-emw- C-∂v- a-X-au-en-I-hm-ZK-Wn-X-im-kv-{Xw-:- Jp-_m-cn-k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-ep-≈- A-d- hp-am-bpw- `o-I-c- {]-kv-Ym-\-ß-fp-am-bpw- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- _kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

66

\v-[-s∏-´p-In-S-°p∂-X-m-bn- -]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p-.- sa-jo-≥-K¨ap-ºn¬-sh-®v- \-a-kv-Im-cw- \n¿-h-ln-°p-∂-- H-cp- ap-kv-enwH-fn-t∏-m-cm-fn-bp-sS- N-n-{Xw- \-Ω-p-sS- Hm¿-a-bn¬- \-Sp-°-ap≠m-°p-∂p.- F-¥p-sIm-≠m-Wv- Pn-lm-Zn-\v- \n-tj-[m-Xv-aI-am-b- H-cp- hn-h-£- D-≠m-b-Xv?- G-‰-hpw- k-l-n-jv-Wp-Xbp-≈- a-X-ß-fn-sem-∂m-b- C-kv-em-an-s\,- F-¥p-sIm-≠-v
a-tZ-m-∑-Ø-X-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p-?- c-Iv-X-cq-£nX- k-a-c-߃- kn-°v-,- ln-µp-a-X-ß-fn-te-°v- hym-]n-®n-´ps≠-¶n-epw- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- t]-cm-Wv- C-X-p-aq-ew- G-‰-hp-a[n-Iw- I-f-¶-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-\v- F-s¥-¶n-epw- tcmKw- ]n-Sn-s]-´n-´p-t≠m?- k-Xy-an-Xm-Wv.- C-kve
- mw- F-∂s
- Øbpw- t]m-se- ]-cn-ip-≤-am-bn-Ø-s∂- \n-e-sIm-≈p-∂p.]t£,- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ,- hn-izm-k-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- A-\p-jv-Tm\-ßf
- n¬-\n-∂pw- _-lp-Zq-cw- A-I∂
- p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- ssZth-O-°v- hn-cp-≤-am-bn- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- in-bm-°-fpw- kp-∂nI-fp-am-bn- hn-`P
- n-°s
- ∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.- a-X]
- W
- U
v- n-X∑
- m¿- Jp¿B\n--s\- ssI-]n-Sn-bn¬- H-Xp-°n- A-h¿- kz-¥w- \n-eb
- n¬C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- kw-c-£-I-cpw- i-co-A-Øn-s≥-d- hym-JymXm-°-fp-am-bn- am-dn.Cu-sbm-cp- {]-Xn-k-\v-[n-bn-em-Wv- kq-^n-k-w- C-hn-sSth-cp-d-®-Xv.- hn-ip-≤-∑m¿- B-cm-[n-°-s∏-´p.- a-s‰m-cp- Zp-c¥w- C-Pv-Xn-lm-Zn-s≥-d- A-¥y-am-bn-cp-∂p.- ^-e-tam- C-kvem-an-s≥-d- B-Zy-Im-e-Øp-≠m-b- N-e-\-i-Iv-Xn- ap-gp-h≥aq-°pw-Ip-Ønho-Wp.- Jp¿-B\
- n-Ia
- m-bn- Pn-lm-Zn-s≥-d- A¿
Y-w- B-{I-a-Ww- F-t∂m- hn-ip-≤- bp-≤-sa-t∂m- A-√.- ASn-®-a¿-Ø-en-s\-Xn-sc-bp-≈- H-cp- sN-dp-Øp-\n¬-]m-WvPnlm-Zv.- B-[ym-Xv-an-I- hn-ip-≤n-°p-th-≠n-bp-≈- H-cp- bXv-\w.- A-Xv- "Im-^n-dp'-I-fp-sS- D-∑q-e-\w- D-t±-in-°p-∂n-√.Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-™p-:- "ssZ-hw- D-t±-in-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- `q-anbn-se- ap-gp-h≥- a-\p-jy-cpw- hn-izm-kn-If
- m-tb-s\.- (]-t£,ssZ-hw- A-ßs
- \- D-t±-in-®n-√)-.- \n-߃- a-\p-jy-s\- hnizmk-Øn-te-°v- \n¿-_-\v-[n-°p-I-bm-tWm?-''- (10:-99).Jp¿-B≥- hm-Iy-ß-fp-sS- A¿-Y-w- X-ß-fp-sS- kzm¿-YXm¬-]c
- y-߃-°p-th-≠n- ]n¬-°m-e- \q-‰m-≠p-If
- n-se- Nne- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿- am-‰na-dn-®-Xm-bn- tXm-∂p-∂p.- D-Zm-l-cW-Øn-\v- \ym-b-a-√m-Ø- Im-c-W-߃-°p-th-≠n- _-lp`m-cy-Xzw- \n-e-\n¿-ج,- Jp¿-B\n-s≥-d- hn-[n-s°-Xn-sckv-{Xo-I-sf- A-Sn-®-a¿-ج,- aq-∂v- X-z-em-Jv- H-∂n-®v- sNm√p-∂- hn-hm-ltam-N-\- co-Xn,- Pn-lm-Zn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- \-SØp-∂- B-{I-a-W-ß-sf- \ym-bo-I-cn-°¬- Xp-S-ßn-b- sNbv-Xn-I-sf-√mw- ssZ-h-hm-Iy-Øn-s≥-d- {]-I-S-am-b- \n-tj-

[-ß-fm-Wv.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- A-¥x-k-Ø-bn¬- am-bw- tN¿°m≥- B¿-°pw- I-gn-™n-´n-s√-¶n-epw- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- i-cnbm-b- h-gn-bn¬-\n-∂pw- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- am-dn-t∏m-bn-´p-≠v.C-¥ybn¬- C-kv-emwC¥y-°v- C-kv-em-ap-am-bn- B-Zy-ap-≠m-b- _-\v-[w- ae_m-dn-se-Øn-b- A-d-_n- hym-]m-cn-Iƒ- h-gn-bpw- ]n-∂o-SvC-¥y-sb-°-p-dn-®v- {K-\-vY-߃- c-Nn-®- A¬-_-dq-\n,- C-_v\p-_-Øq-Ø- F-∂n-h¿- hgn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- 12˛mw- \q-‰m≠n-se- B-{I-aW-ßs-fØ-p-S¿-∂v- U¬-ln-bn¬- `-c-Wwkv-Ym-]n-®- ap-kv-enw- cm-Pm-°-∑m-¿- - C-¥y-bn-se- C-kv-eman-s≥-d- km-∂n-[yw- hn-fn-®-dn-bn-®p.- ap-Kƒ-hw-i-Øn-s≥-d`-cW
- w- C-¥y-bn¬- kvY
- m-]n-Xa
- m-bt- Xm-sS- C-kve
- mw- C¥ybn¬- kv-Yn-c-{]-Xn-jv-T- t\-Sn.{]m-No-\- C-¥y≥- kw-kv-Im-c-hpw- A-Xn-s≥-d- hn-Pv-Rm\-ti-J-c-hpw- C-kv-em-an-I- kw-kv-Im-c-Øn-s≥-d- h-f¿-®-°vh-en-b- kw-`m-h\
- I
- ƒ- sN-øp-Ib
- p-≠m-bn.- C-¥ybp-sS- k-wkv-Im-cw,- km-ln-Xyw,- kw-Ko-Xw,- h-m-kv-Xp-hn-Zy- Xp-S-ßnb-h-bp-sS- h-f¿-®-°pw- C-kv-emw- Im-c-W-am-bn.- c-≠v- a-lØm-b- kw-kv-Im-c- ]m-c-º-cy-ß-fp-sS- kw-tbm-P-\-tØmsS- H-cp- k-¶-c-kw-kv-Im-cw- C-hn-sS P-∑-sa-Sp-Øp.- sshhn-[y-ß-fm-b- A-dn-hn-s≥-d- Cu- ssI-am-‰-hpw- a-‰p- {]-h¿Ø-\-ß-fpw- k-l-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-dbpw-- ]-c-kv-]-c- _-lp-am\-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-¥-co-£w- kr-jv-Sn-®p.C-¥y-bn-se- {_n-´o-jv- tIm-f-\n- hm-gv-N-°m-e-Øv- a-Xssa-{Xn-°v- lm-\n-I-c-am-b- co-Xn-bn¬- {_n-´o-jp-Im¿- s]mXp-P-\-ß-fp-sS- hn-Im-c-߃-°v- Xo-]n-Sn-°p-∂- co-Xn-bn¬sX-‰n-≤m-c-W-Iƒ- ]-c-Øn.- hn-hn-[- a-X-hn-`m-K-߃- X-Ωnep-≈- kw-L¿-jw- h¿-[n-®p-h-∂p.- A-I¬-®-bp-sS-bpw- shdp-∏n-s≥-db
- pw- A-hn-izmk-Øn-s≥-db
- pw- s]m-Xp-hm-b- A¥co-£-Øn-\n-S-°v- Pm-Xo-b- ]m¿-´n-Iƒ-°v- h-f-cm≥- h-f-°qdp-≈- a-Æv- e-`n-®p.- cm-Pyw sh-´n-ap-d-n-°-s∏-´p.- C-¥y-bpw]m-°n-kv-Xm-\pw- P-∑-sa-Sp-Øp.- h¿-Ko-b- e-l-f-bp-≠m-bn.k-am-[m-\w- ]p-\x-kv-Ym-]n-°-s∏-´-t∏mƒ- H-∂m-bn-cp-∂a\ -p-Iƒ- Nn-∂n-®n-Xdn-t∏-m-bn-cp-∂p.kzm-X-{¥yw- e-`-n-®- v- A-c-\q-‰m-≠p- ]n-∂n-´- - C-¥y H-cpa-tX-X-c- cm-jv-{S-am-Wv.- hn-hn-[- a-X-hn-izm-kn-Iƒ- C-hn-sSsF-Iy-tØm-sS- k-l-h-kn-°p-∂p.- B-h-iy-an-√m-sX- iIvXn- ]m-gm-°n-°-f-bp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v- H-cp- {]-tbm-P-\-hp-an-√F-∂v- ln-µp-°ƒ-°pw- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°pw- a-\- -n-em-bn-´p≠v;- s]m-Xp-Xm¬-]-cy-Øn-\p-th-≠n- H-∂n-®v- \n¬-°-W-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

sa-∂pw.-- F-∂n-´pw- P-\a
- \
-  
- p-If
- n- ¬- A-Sn-™p-Iq-Sn-b- Nne∂p.- ap-l-Ω-Zn-\v- F-Xn-cm-bn- s]m-cp-Xn-b- F-√m- tKm-{XsX-‰n-≤m-c-W-Iƒ- C-∂pw- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p.- Im-ew- hn-´pØ-e-h-∑m-cpw- A-_q-kp-^v-bm-t\m-sSm-∏w- ap-l-Ω-Zn-s≥dt]m-b- Cu- A-h-in-jv-S-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- tam-N-\w- t\-Sm≥ap-ºn¬- Io-g-S-ßn.- X-\n-s°-Xn-sc- hm-tf-¥n-b- F-√m-h¿G-I t]mw-hg
- n- C-ke
v- m-an-s\-°p- d
- n-®v- i-cn-bm-b- hn-hc
- ß
- ƒ°pw,- A-h-cp-sS- Ahn-th-Iw- ap-gp-h≥- £-an-®v- A-t±-lw_-lp-P\
- ß
- s
- f- A-dn-bn-°p-Ib
- m-Wv.- A-Xp-hg
- n- C-∂v- \nes]m-Xp-am-∏v- \¬-In.- I-Av-_-bp-sS- A-I-Øp-≠-m-bn-cp-∂hn-ep-≈- F-√m- sX-‰n-≤m-c-W-I-fpw- A-h-km-\n-°pw.ssZ-h-ß-fp-sS- hn-{K-l-߃- ap-gp-h≥- F-Sp-Øp-am-‰n.- GIssZ-h- hn-izm-kw- a-°-bn¬- ]p-\x-kv-Ym-]n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bmC-∂-sØ- tem-I-Øv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- {]-k-Iv-Xn
bn-cp-∂p.- tPm-en-I-sf-√mw- A-h-km-\n-∏n-®v- ssh-Ip-t∂C-∂v- tem-Iw- A-]-cn-Nn-X-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- H-cp- kw-tbm-Kcw- A-t±-lw- {]m¿-Y-\m- -\n-a-Kv-\-\m-bn-.- B- k-µ¿-`-Øn¬am-Wv.- - tem-Iw- t\-cn-Sp-∂- {]-iv-\-߃- hn-hn-[-ß-fm-Wv.A-t±-l-Øn-\v- H-cp- ssZ-hn-I- k-tµ-iw- e-`n-®p.- ""A-√m]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn-bp-sS- A-k¥p-en-Xm-h-kv-Y,- `o-I-c-{]-kv-Ymlp-hn-s≥-d- k-lm-b-hpw- hn-P-b-hpw- h-cn-I-bpw- B-fp-Iƒ\߃-,- B-b-p-[-∏-¥-bw,- H-∂mw- tem-I-hpw- aq-∂mw-temIq-´w-Iq-´-am-bn- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- a-X-Øn¬- {]-th-in-°pI-hpw- X-Ωn¬- hn-I-k-\-Øn-e-p-≈- G-‰-°p-d-®n¬,- I-p-‰∂-Xv- Xm-¶ƒ- Im-Wp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xm¬,- Xm-¶-fp-sS- \m-YIr-Xy-ß-fp-sS- h¿-[-\-hv,- a-\p-jym-h-Im-i-ew-L-\-߃s\- kv-XpXn-°p-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w- A-h-s≥-d- ]-cn-ip-≤n-sbXp-S-ßn-b-h-sb-√mw- X-s∂- tem-I- kw-kv-Im-c-Øn-\v- kwhm-gv-Øp-I-bpw- A-h-t\m-Sv- ]m-]tam-N-\w- tX-Sp-I-bpw`-hn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- A-]-I-S-ß-fm-Wv.- Cu-sbm-cp- ]sNøp-I.- \n-iv-N-b-am-bpw- A-h≥- h-f-sc- ]-iv-Nm-Øm-]wcn-X-kv-Yn-Xn-bn¬- C-kv-em-an-I- X-Ø-z-߃-°v- {]-k-Iv-Xnkzo-I-cn-°p-∂-h-\mIp-∂p-''- (110:-1˛3).- F.-Un.- 630¬- ln-Pvh¿-[n-°p-I-bm-Wv.- hy-Iv-Xn-bp-sS-bpw- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d-bpwd-bp-sS- 7˛mw- h¿-jw- C-kv-emw- H-cp- k-ºq¿-W- a-X-am-bnA-`n-hr-≤n-bm-Wv- C-kvemw- e-£y-an-Sp-∂-Xv.D-b¿-Ø-s∏-´p.a-\p-jym-h-Im-i-ß-sf-°-p-dn-®v- Jp¿-B-\n¬- A-t\-IwkvY
- e
- ß
- f
- n¬- hn-hc
- n-°p-∂p-≠v.- ku-lr-Zw,- k-aX
- zw,- temD-]-kw-lm-cw-:- h-f-sc- \n-Kq-V-am-b- k-Xy-߃- A-XnI-\o-Xn- F-∂n-h-sb-°-p-dn-®p-≈- k-¶¬-]w- ]-Sn-™m-d≥e-fn-X-am-b- ssi-en-bn¬- tem-I-Øn-\v- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-®v- sIm\m-Sp-I-fn¬- {]-Nm-cw- t\-Sn-b-Xv- 18˛mw- \q-‰m-t≠m-sS- am{XSp-°m≥- I-gn-™p- F-∂-Xn-em-Wv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- ku-µam-Wv.- ]-t£,- C-h-sb-°-p-dn-®v- Jp¿-B≥- F-{X-tbm- \qcyw- Ip-Sn-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv.- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- i-Iv-Xn- A-tX-s‰‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºv- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- C-kv-em-an-s≥dSp-Ø-h-cp-sS- - F-fn-a-bn-epw.- {]-hm-N-I≥- a-\p-jy-h¿-K-Ønkm¿-h-tZ-io-b- Z¿-i-\-߃- H-cp- {]--Im-i-tKm-]p-c-am-bn- \n\m-sI- D-Ø-a-- am-Xr-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- tPme-\n¬-°p-∂p.en- A-Xn-_r-l-Ø-m-bn-cp-∂p.- Jp¿-B\n-s≥-d- A-am-\p-jnI-X- H-∂p-sIm-≠v- am-{X-am-Wv- tIh-ew- 20 h¿-j-Øn-\p^v-fm-jv- _m-°v- 2
≈n¬- h-f-sc-b-[n-Iw- F-Xn¿-]-p-Iƒ- t\-cn-tS-≠n-h-∂n-´pw,F.-Un.- 630.- kv-Y-ew- a-°.- B-fp-Iƒ- Xn-ßn-\n-d-™C-kv-em-an-\v- C-{X-b-[n-Iw- D-∂-Xn-bn-se-Øm≥- I-gn-™Xv.A-ßm-Sn.- A-hn-S-sØ- i-_v-Z-tIm-em-l-e-߃-°n-S-bn¬ssZ-h-Øn¬-\-n-∂p-≈- B-Zy-k-tµ-iw- e-`n-®-Xn-\p-ti-jwa-°-bn-te-°v- A-e-dn-∏-m-™p-h-cp-∂- I-p-Xn-c-I-fp-sS- Ip-f1389 h¿jw- ]n-∂n-´p-Ig
- n-™p.- C-kve
- mw- tem-Ia
- m-sI- {]Nº-Sn-sbm-®-Iƒ- B-cpw- tI-´-tX-bn-√.- hm-bp-a-Wv-U-ew- \ncn-®p.- hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d- Cu- i-Iv-Xn- \mw- Xn-cn-®-dn-tbd-sb- s]m-Sn-]-S-e-߃- D-b¿-∂p.- Ip-Xn-c-∏p-d-tØ-dn-b- Hcp≠- Im-ew- I-gn-™n-cn-°p-∂p.- C-ke
v- m-an-s≥-d- B-¥c
- - hnipssk-\n-I- \n-c- \-K-c-Øn-te-°v- ]m-™-S-°p-I-bm-bn-cp≤n-- {]-IS- a
- m-Ip-∂- H-cS- b
- m-fw- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°m≥- F-t∂mSv∂p.- \-K-c-hm-kn-Iƒ- `-b-∏m-tSm-sS- B- Im-gv-N- I-≠p.B-h-iy-s∏-´m¬- Rm≥- ]-d-bpw.- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- ]-c-kv-]cwFs∂-¶n-ep-sam-cp-Zn-h-kw- C-Xv- Im-tW-≠n-h-cp-sa-∂-XvI-≠p-ap-´p-tºmƒ- h-f-sc- a-t\m-l-c-am-b- co-Xn-bn¬- \-SAh¿- `-b-s∏-´n-cp-∂-Xv- bm-Ym¿-Yy--am-h-p-∂p!Øp-∂- B-iw-km- {]-I-S-\-amW-sX-∂v.- H-cmƒ- ]-d-bp-∂p:ap-lΩ
- Z- v- tP-Xm-hm-bn- Xn-cn-s®-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- H-‰°
- √A- e
- m-ap- A-sse-°pw.- (k-am-[m-\w- Xm-¶f
- n-ep-≠m-hs
- ´!)]-Xn-\m-bn-cw- h-cp-∂- ]-S-bm-fn-I-fp-am-bn.- 7 h¿-j-߃-°phAs
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pwRm≥kamap-ºv- Po-h-\pw-sIm-≠v- t]-Sn-t®m-Sn-b- A-tX- \-K-c-Øn-te[m-\w- B-iw-kn-°p-∂p).- Rm-\pw- Fs≥-d- F√m- hm-b-\°v- cm-Pm-hm-bn-´m-Wv- ap-l-Ω-Zn-s≥-d- Cu- Xn-cn-®p-h-c-hv.°m¿-°pw- B-iw-kn-°-s´-!- A- -em-ap- A-sse-°pw-!ap-l-Ω-Zn-\v- C-Xv- hn-P-b-Øn-s≥-d- Zn-h-k-am-bn-cp-∂p.B-cm-epw- X-S-b-s∏-Sm-sX,- A-t±-lw- a-°-bn-se-Øn.- Ckvem-an-I- Zu-Xy-Øn-\v- bp-Iv-Xn-]q¿-h-am-b- H-c-¥y-am-bn-cn-°pkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

67

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

68

a-Iv-Xn- kw-hm-Z-P-bw-!ap-Iv-Xn- hn-fw-_-cw-!1847˛ 1912 Im-e-L-´-Øn¬Po-hn-®- {i-t≤-b-\m-b- km-aq-ly-]-cn-jv-I¿-Ø-m-hpw ]-{X-{]-h¿-Ø-I-\pw- {]-t_m-[-I\p-am-bn-cp-∂p- a-‡n-X-߃.- {Iv-kv-Xy≥- an-j-W-dn-am¿- C-kv-em-an-s\-Xn-sc- \-S-Øn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂- - - hn-a¿-i-\-ß-ƒ-°vhm-b-S-∏≥- a-dp-]-Sn-sIm-S-Øp-sIm-≠v- A-t±-l-sa-gp-Xn-b- te-J-\-߃- C-∂pw- {-]-k-‡-am-Wv.- a-‡n-X-ß-fp-sS- HcpsN-dp-Ir-Xn- A-tX-]S- n- {]-kn-≤o-Ic- n-°p-Ib
- m-Wv.- H-cp-\q-‰m-≠p-ap-ºs- Ø- a-eb
- m-fam-bX
- n-\m¬- A¬]w- Zp¿-{KmlyXtXm-∂n-tb-°mw.k-øn-Zv- k-\m-D-√- a-‡n- X-߃kz¿-Kw- ]q-I-W-sa-¶n¬kz¿-Km-[n-I-m-cn-bn¬- B-{i-bn-°-Ww]-e-cpw- tN¿-∂v- skm-ssk-‰n-bm-bn-cn-°p-∂- tbm-Ky-∑m¿X-߃-°p-≈- ]q-Py-X-bpw- a-X-tbm-Ky-X-bpw- Im-Wn-∏m-\m-bn_-lp-P-\- k-aq-l-Øn¬-Nm-Sn- {]-kv-Xm-hn-°p-∂- kw-K-Xn-Iƒaq-U-Z¿-∏-W-ß-fm-bn- `-hn-°p-∂- Im-c-W-sa-s¥-∂v- Xn-c-°mØXpw- A-dn-bm-Ø-Xpw- lr-Z-bm-\-µ-I-c-sa-∂v- G-h-\pw- k-ΩXn°pw.{In-kv-Xp-a-X-{]-am-W-ß-fn-ep-≈- Ir-{Xn-a-ß-sf- Im-Wn-®vAXp-I-sf- \o-°n-®v- {]-am-Ww- ip-≤-s∏-Sp-Øm-\m-bn- {In-kv-Xphn-s≥-d- A-Nv-O-\m¬- \n-b-an-°-s∏-´- Rm≥-;- ]q¿-∆w- ap-X¬- C∂p-h-sc- D-≠m-b- skm-ssk-‰n-°m¿- a-\x-]q¿-∆-w- {]-h¿-Øn-®Hm-tcm- Ir-{Xn-a-ß-sf- I-≠p-]n-Sn-®v- _-lp-P-\- tIm¿-´n¬- sXfn-bn-°p-I-bpw- A-Xp-I-sf- \n-߃- k-Ω-Xn-®v- {]-am-W-Øn¬\n-∂v- \o-°n- {]-am-W-sØ- C-kv-emw-a-X-tØm-sSm-∏n-°p-I-bpwsN-bv-Xp.- "a-Iv-Xn- X-߃- B-tLm-jw'- F-∂pw- "{In-kv-Xo-ba\x-]q¿-ht- am-jW
- w'- F-∂p-ap-≈- F-s≥-d- te-J\
- ß
- ƒ- km£nbm-Ip-∂p.C-ß-s\- ssZ-hw- Xm-\m-bn- sX-fn-®pw- D-d-∏n-®pw- Im-Wn-°p∂-Xn¬- Ku-\n-°m-sX- kn-≤m¥-a-Ø-cm-bn- ta¬-Im-Wn-®- 5˛mw\-º¿- {Sm-Iv-‰v-ap-X-em-b- tXm-∂n-b-hm-k- te-J-\-߃- {]-kn-≤kv-s]-jy¬-

s∏-Sp-Øp-∂X
- v- ssZ-ho-jSv- Ø
- n-s∂-Xn-cm-Ib
- m¬- A-Xp-Iƒ- \nßfp-sS- D-t±-i-߃-°pw- {]-am-W-߃-°pw- hn-cp-≤-am-bn- `-hn°p∂p.ta-∏-Sn- {Sm-Iv-‰v- B-k-I-em¬- {In-kv-Xo-b- {]-am-W-߃-°vF-Xn-cm-Ip-∂p.- ]-t£,- _p-≤n- A-\v-[-Im-c-s∏-´n-cn-°-sIm-≠v\n-߃- A-dn-bp-∂n-√.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- G-Xm-\pw- k-w-K-Xn-I-sftNm-tZym-Ø-c- co-Xn-bn¬- hn-h-cn-°p-∂p.- ta-∏-Sn- A-\v-[-Im-csØ- A-I‰
- n- k-Xym-t\z-jW
- m-hI
- m-is
- Ø- \-in-∏n-°m-sX- kz¿Km-[n-Im-cn-bn¬- B-{i-bn-°p-sa-∂v- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂p.1.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ ap-l-Ω-Zo-b- k-tlm-Z-cm-!- aq-V-X- D-t]£n-°p-I,- \n-s≥-d- \-a-kv-Im-cw- sIm-≠pw- t\m-ºp-sIm-≠pwc£-bp-≠m-Ip-∂-X-√.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ {In-kv-Xo-b- kv-t\-ln-Xm-!- aq-Vm-‘-Im-c-Øn¬\n-∂v- C-kve
- mw-aX
- - {]-Im-iØ
- n¬- h-cn-I.- \-ak
- vI
- m-cw-sIm-≠pwt\m-ºp-sIm-≠pw- c-£-{]m-]n-°p-sa-∂p-≈- hn-izm-kw- aq-V-Xbm-Ip-∂p-sh-¶n¬- {]-Y-a- aq-V≥- \n-߃-°v- ssZ-h-am-bn-cn-°p∂- {In-kX
v- p- B-sW-∂v- \n-߃- H-∂m-aX
- v- k-ΩX
- n-°W
- w.- F¥psIm-s≠-∂m¬,- "\n-Xy-Po-hs
- \- {]m-]n-t°-Ws
- a-¶n¬- F-¥v- sNø-Ws
- a-∂v- B- a-\p-jy-t\m-Sv- tNm-Xn- ®
- m-sd- I¬-]\
- I
- f
- n¬- BNcn-°W
- w- F-∂pw- (a-Øm.-19.-16,-17)- \-ak
- vI
- m-cw- sIm-≠pw- t\mºpsIm-≠pw- A-√m-sX- Cu- Pm-Xn- \o-ßp-∂-X-√-m- F-∂pw- (a-Øm.]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

69

17˛21)- {]m¿-∞n-°p-tºmƒ- hm-Xn-eS- ®
- v- c-lk
- y-Øn-ep-≈- \ns≥d]n-Xm-hn-t\m-Sv- {]m¿-∞-n-°q- F-∂pw- (a-Øm.- 6,-6)- D-]-h-kn-°ptºmƒ- I-]-S- `-Iv-Xn-°m-sc-t∏-m-se- ap-jn-™- ap-Jw- B-°-cpsX-∂pw- (a-Øm-.- 6,-16)- hn-kv-Xm-c- Zn-h-kw- A-h-\-h-s≥-d- {]-hr-Øn-°p -X-°-]-I-cw- \¬-Ipw- F-∂pw- (a-Øm.- 16,-17)- a-in-lm]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.- C-Xn-\m¬- \-a-kv-Im-cw-,- t\m-ºv- F-∂o- I¿Ω-ß-sf- c-£m¿-∞-am-°n- ]-d-™p- F-∂v- am-{X-a-√m- a-in-lmXm-\pw- \-a-kv-I-cn-®pw- t\m-ºv- t\m-‰pw- h-∂n-cp-∂p.- \-a-kv-°mc-sØ- {]m¿-∞-\- F-∂pw- t\m-ºn-s\- D-]-hm-kw- F-∂pw- {]tbm-Kn-®pw,- A-Xp-I-sf- \n-c-kn-®v- h-cp-∂-Xv- aq-V-X-bm-sW-∂v]q¿-∆-k-`-bm-b- kp-dn-bm-\n-°m¿- hn-[n-°p-∂pw- D-≠v.2.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ ]m-]-an-√m-Ø- tb-ip- a-cn-®-Xv- F-¥n-\vF-∂pw- \n-߃- tNm-Zn-°p-am-bn-cn-°pw,- A-Xv- ]m-]n-I-fp-sS- Pmay-°m-c-\m-bn- h-∂-Xn-\m¬- R-ß-fp-sS- k-I-e- ]m-]-ß-tf-bpwh-ln-®p- a-cn-®-Xm-Ip-∂p.- F-∂m¬- ap-l-a-Zp- (\-_n)- h-en-b- ]m]n-bm-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- X-s∂- sX-fn-bn-°p-∂p.- F-ßns\- F-∂m¬- "\n-s≥-d- ]m-]-Øn-\v- am-∏v- tNm-Zn-°q'-,- (ap-D-an≥)"\n-s≥-d- ssZ-h-sØ- kv-Xp-Xn-°p-I-bpw- am-∏v- tNm-Zn-°p-I-bpwsN-øq'-,- (\-kv¿)- ssZ-hw- \n-s≥-d- B-Zy-tØ-bpw- H-Sp-hn-e-tØbpw- ]m-]-sØ- £-an-°p-am-dm-I-s´'- (^-X-lv)- F-∂o- kq-d-ØpI-fn¬- Im-Wp-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- ]m-]m-\v-[-Im-c-am-Wv.- ta¬- hm-N-I-߃Jp¿-B≥- {]-am-W-Øn-s∂m-Ø-tXm- A-√-tbm- F-∂p-≈- hnkvXm-c- `m-K-sØ- \n¿-Øn- ]-d-b-s∏-´- kw-K-Xn-I-sf- sIm-≠p-ImWp-∂- A-dn-hp- tZm-j-sØ- am-{Xw- Im-Wn-°p-∂p.- ]m-]-Øn-\vam-∏v- tNm-Zn-°q.- ssZ-h-sØ- kv-Xp-Xn-°q,- ]m-]-sØ- £-an-°pam-dm-I-s´-!'- F-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn¬- D-≠m-b- I¬-]-\-IƒsIm-≠v- B- ]-cn-ip-≤- \-_n-sb- ]m-]n- F-∂v- ]-d-bm≥- H-cp-ßnb-Xv- aq-V-X- X-s∂.- F-¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬- "X-∂n¬- hn-iz-kn°p-∂- ]m-]n-Iƒ-°v- Pm-ay-°m-c-\m-bn- ]m-]-ß-sf- h-ln-°p-∂ap-d-°v- tb-ip-hn¬- hn-iz-kn-®- ]m-]n-Iƒ-°v- ]-I-cw- ]m-]-atij-an-√m-Ø- tb-ip- i-]n-°-s∏-´pw- \m-\m- Zpx-J-I-jv-S-߃- A\p`-hn-®pw- \n-e-hn-fn-®pw- Ip-cn-in-t∑¬- In-S-∂v- {]m-W-s\- hn-´pwC-cn-°p-∂p.- F-∂p-am-{X-hp-a-√,- ]m-]-in-£-bm-b- tLm-cm-Kv-\n\-c-I-Øn¬- aq-∂p-Zn-h-kw- In-S-t∂m- C-cp-t∂m- \-S-t∂m- I-gn®n-cn-°p-∂p.- _-lp-am-\-s∏-´-- \-c-I- {]-th-i-\w-sIm-≠v- _-enbm-b a-c-Ww-sIm-≠v- tam-Nn-°-s∏-´p- F-∂v- hn-iz-kn-®pw- B-\µn-®pw- h-cp-∂- \n-߃- (skm-ssk-‰n-°m¿)- ta¬-{]-Im-cw- Pmay°m-c-\m-b- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- i]n-°-s∏-Sm-sX-bpw- I-jv-S-s∏-´vacn-°m-sX-bpw- ]m-Xm-f- ]m-Xn-cn-bm-bn- ]m-Xm-f-Øn¬- {]-thin-°m-sX-bpw- kz-¥a
- l
- n-ab
- n¬- kz-¥k
- Y
v- m-\Ø
- n-cp-∂v- X-∂n¬hn-iz-kn-®h
- c
- n¬- ]m-]n-If
- m-bh
- ¿-°v- ]-Ic
- w- ]m-]s
- am-´p-an-√mØ-

X-߃- ]m-]-ta-‰v- ]-d-™pw- tNm-Zn-®pw- c-£-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xn¬B-t£-]n-°p-∂X
- v- F-{X- Iu-Xp-Iw-!- ]n-g®
- h
- s
- ≥-d- ]n-gX
- o¿°mw,km-Z-cw- h-f-™-h-s\- Im-®n- D-gn-™m-epw- h-f-h-v Xo-cp-∂-X√m.ssZ-h-am-b- tb-ip- Xm≥- N-Øp- ao≥-]n-Sn-®-Xpw- a-\p-jy-t{ijvTc
- m-b- ap-lΩ
- Z- v- \-_n- ssI- \-\°
- m-sX- ]n-Sn-®X
- pw- tI-´mtemNn-°p-∂X
- n¬- k¿-ht- bm-Ky-Xb
- pw- Zn-hy-t{i-jvT
- X
- b
- pw- ap-lΩ
- Zv\-_n-bn¬- C-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- A-`n-{]m-bs
- ∏-Sm-Ø- _p-≤n- BZmw]p-{X-cn¬- Im-Wp-∂-X-√.3.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ \-_n-am¿- k-I-e-cpw- ]m-]n-I-fm-Ip-∂p-sh∂v- A-h-cp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn¬-X-s∂- Im-Wp-∂p.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- (\-_n)Xm-\pw- ]m-]n-bm-sW-∂v- Xm≥- X-s∂- k-Ω-Xn-°p-∂p.- F-∂m¬a-inlm- ]m-]w- C-√m-Ø-h≥- F-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- X-s∂- km-£y-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- t_m-[w- C-√m-bv-a-X-s∂.-- \n-tbm-K-]p-cpj-cm-b- k-Xym-Xv-am-°-sf- ]m-]n-I-fm-°n- N-a-®p-≠m-°n-b- N-cn{X-sa-gp-Øp-Im¿- ho-≠pw- \-∂m-°n-°q-Sm-Ø- Ip-i-h-s≥-d]m{Xw-t]m-se- hm-fp-sIm-≠pw- £m-aw-sIm-≠pw- ]-´-W-߃k-ln-Xw- \-in-®X
- v- (G-im- b
- m.- F-da
- n-b)- A-h¿-°p-≈- in£bmbn-cp-∂X
- n-\m¬- B-hI
- - N-cn-{X-ßs
- f- km-£y-s∏-Sp-Øn- ]cnip≤m- X v - a m- ° - s f ]m- ] n- I - s f- ∂ v - ]- d - b p- ∂ - h ¿- `- b - s ∏- t S- ≠ XmIp∂p.ap-lΩ
- Z- p-\_
- n- Xm-\m-bn- k-ΩX
- n-®n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂p- ]-d™Xpw- Pv-Rm-\-K-\v-[-an-√m-bv-a-bm-Ip-∂p.- Cu- h-I- k-Ω-Xw- {InkvXp-hn¬-\n-∂pw- D-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- ]-t£,- Ip-cp-Sm-b- I-Æp-IƒImWp-∂n-√.- "H-cp-Ø≥- tb-ip-thm-Sv- \-√- Kp-tcm,- F-∂v- ]-d™t∏mƒ- F-s∂- \-√-h≥- F-∂v- ]-d-™-Xv- F-¥v?- ssZ-hw- H-cp
h≥- H-gn-sI- \-√-h≥- H-cp-Ø-\pw- C-√- (a-Øm.- 19, 17) F-∂vtb-ip- ]-d™
X
- n-s≥-d- D-t±-iw- [-cn-°Ø
- °
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- w- C-√msX]n-g®
- ncn-°p-∂p'.- "\-√h
- ≥'- F-∂p- ]-d™
X
- n-s≥-d- km-≤yw- ]cnip-≤≥,- ]m-]a
- n-√m-Øh
- ≥- F-∂m-Ip-∂p- F-∂v- {In-kvX
- p-hn-s≥dsam-gn-X-s∂- A-dn-bn-°p-∂p.- F-ßn-s\- F-∂m¬- {In-kv-Xp-hns≥-d- B-¥c
- w- cq-]m-Ir-Xn-sIm-t≠m- kz-`m-h- {]-Ir-Xn-sIm-t≠m\-∂m-b-h≥- F-∂m-bn-cp-∂p.- F-¶n¬- ssZ-hw- H-gn-sI- H-cp-Ø\pw- C-√m-sb-∂v- J-Wv-Un-®v- ]-d-bp-∂-X-√.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- tbipXm-\pw- ]m-]n-bm-sW-∂v- k-Ω-Xn-®p- F-∂p- h-cp-∂p.F-∂m¬- {k-jv-Sm-kv-Yn-Xn-bpw- kr-jv-Sn- kz-`m-h-hpw- A-dn™- PvR
- m-\n-Iƒ- {kjv{- Sm-hn-s≥-d- k-∂n-[n-bn¬- kr-jvS- n-bmbX-߃- ]n-g-®-h-cm-sW-∂pw- X-߃-°p-≈- B-[m-cw- {k-jv-Smhn-s≥-d- I-cp-W- am-{X-am-sW-∂pw- D-≈- hn-izm-kw-sIm-≠v- \-√h≥- {k-jv-Sm-hm-b- X-ºp-cm≥- am-{X-am-sW-∂pw- X-߃- ]n-g-®]m-]n-I-fm-sW-∂pw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- A-h-Im-i- ap-d-bm-b- `-Iv-Xnkºq¿-ÆX
- b
- m-sW-∂v- A-dn-bØ
- °
- - PvR
- m-\w- D-≠m-Ip-∂X
- n\v-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

70

am¿-K-sam-∂p-an-√m-sX- Po-hn-°p-∂- P-\w- `-Iv-X-∑m-sc- ]m-]n-Ifm-°n- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn¬- hy-k-\n-t°-≠-Xn-√.{In-kv-Xo-b- {]-am-Ww- k-I-e- \-_n-am-sc-bpw- ]m-]n-I-fm-°nIm-Wn-°p-∂p.- C-kvemw- a-Xm-[-m-c-am-b- Jp¿-B≥- k-Xym-Xv-am°-sf- \n-b-an-®-b-®- k-Xy-kz-cq-]-s≥-d- kz-¥-h-N-\-am-Ip-∂p.a-\p-jy-{]-th-i-\-Øn-∂n-S-h-cm-sX- C-∂p-h-sc- ]-cn-ip-≤m-h-kvY-bn¬- C-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- {In-kv-Xp- ap-X¬-°p-≈- ap≥\-_n-am-cm-k-I-e-cpw- ]-cn-ip-≤-cm-sW-∂v- hn-[n-°p-∂p.- a-Xv-kc-_p-≤n-If
- m-b- a-\p-jy- {]-th-i\
- Ø
- n-∂n-Sh
- ∂
- n-cn-°p-∂- {InkvXo-b- {]-am-Ww- {In-kv-Xp- H-gn-sI-bp-≈- k-I-e-sc-bpw- ]m-]n-Ifm-°n- Im-Wn-°p-∂p.4.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n- km-[m-c-W-t]m-se- am-Xm]n-Xm-°∑
- m-cn¬-\n-∂v- P-\n-®p.- tb-ip-thm- A-X`
v- p-Xm-hk
- Y
v- b
- n¬P-\n-®p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- C-cp-fn¬- D-cp-f-em-Ip-∂p.- ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_nkm-[m-c-W- t]m-se- P-\n-®-Xp-sIm-≠v- A-]-hm-Z-tam- B-t£]-tam- C-√m-sX- Po-hn-®p.- kz-¥-P-\-hpw- A-\y-P-\-hpw- hn-izkn°m-\pw- A-hc
- p-sS- k-lm-bw-sIm-≠v- hn-tcm-[n-Is
- f- P-bn∏m\pwkw-KX
- n-h∂
- p.- {In-kX
v- p- A-∏≥- C-√m-sX- P-\n-®X
- p-sIm-≠v- A]hm-Z-s∏-Sm-\pw- Xm≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn¬- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m-cpw- (tbm.- 7.5)- Aw-_X
- m-\pw- hn-iz-kn-°m-Xn-cn-∏m-\pw- A-Xp-\n-an-Øw- tbipAw-_-sb- X-≈n-∏-d-bm-\pw- (a-Øm.- 12:-48,- tbm.- 2:-4)- Nm¿-®°m¿- {`m-¥-s\-∂v- sNm-√n- tb-ip-sh- ]n-Sn-∏m≥- H-cp-ßm-\pw(am¿-t°m-.- 3:-21)- A-h-km-\w- Aw-_-sb- X-≈n-∏-d-™- a-lm]m-]w- Im-c-W-am-bn- \m-fp- Zo¿-Ln-®n-cn-∏m≥- C-S-h-cm-sX- ap-∏
Øn-aq-∂mw- h-b- n¬- I-gp-th-dm-\pw- (]p-d-∏m-Sv- 20:-12)- kw-K-Xnh-∂p.- C-Xv- A-Xv-`p-Xm-h-kv-Y-X-s∂- F-¶n¬- Ip-Xv-kn-Xm-h-kvYa-s‰m-∂n-s√-∂v- ]-d-b-Ww.5.- skm-ssk-‰n-:˛- ap-lΩ
- Z- p-(\-_n)- h-gn-bm-{X-°m-sc- sIm≈sN-bv-Xpw-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p.- h-f-sc- bp-≤-߃- \-S-Øn.- A-t\-IscsIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øn.- tb-ip-thm- H-cp-h-t≥-d-Xp- I-h-cp-I-tbm- A-]l-cn-°-tbm- H-cp-h-s\- sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Øp-I-tbm- sN-bv-Xn-´n-√,Xm≥- tem-I-Øn¬- h-∂-Xv- sIm-√p-hm-\m-bn-´-√,- ]-e-cp-sShos≠-Sp-∏m¿-∞w- X-s≥-d- Po-h-s\- sIm-Sp-∏m-\m-sW-∂v- tbip]-d-™ncn-°p-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- sIm-Sp-Øp- sIm-≈-em-Ip-∂p.- {In-kv-Xoba-Xm-[m-c-Øn-∂Sn-bm-[m-c- I¿-Øm-hm-b- tam-i- A-t\-I- bp-≤߃- \-S-Øn,- A-t\-I-sc- sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Ø-n.- kv-{Xo-I-sf-bpwIp-™p-ßs
- f-bpw- \p-dp-°n,- Ip-am-cn-Is
- f- X-\n-°m-bn- F-Sp-∏n®p.ar-K-߃,- hr-£-߃,- k-ky-߃-t]m-epw- \-in-∏n-®p.- \-K-c߃- tI-he
- w- Z-ln-∏n-®p.- hn-ti-jn-®v- F-s∂-t∏-ms
- e- H-cp- Zo¿LZ¿-in-sb- \n-s≥-d- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m-cn¬- \n-∂v- F-gp-t∂¬-]n-°pw

(B-h¿-Ø-\.- 18:-15)- F-∂v- tam-im- ]-d-™- {]-Im-cw- F-gp-t∂‰Xv- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bm-bn-cn-°p-tºmƒ- tam-i-sbt∏-m-se- \-St°≠-Xpw- \-S-tØ-≠-Xpw- \ym-bm-\p-k-c-W- am-‰-߃- h-cp-tØ≠-Xpw- ap-lΩ
- Z- p-\_
- n-°p-≈- A-hI
- m-ih
- pw- Np-aX
- e
- b
- pw- BIp∂p.- Cu- \n-e-bn¬- B-t£-]n-®-Xv- _p-≤n-bn-√m-bv-a-X-s∂.tb-ip- Xm-\pw- X-s≥-d- A-hk
- Y
v- t- ]m-se- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-IbpwI-¬-]n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- Xm≥- tem-I-Øn¬- h-∂Xv- sIm-√p-hm-\m-bn-´-√.- ]-e-cp-sS- ho-s≠-Sp-∏m¿-∞w- X-s≥-dP-oh
- s
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X
- m-bn- skm-ssk‰n]-d-™-Xv- a-lm- h-©-\-bm-Ip-∂p.- F-∂m¬- tb-ip- ]-d-™-Xv,Rm≥- k-am-[m-\w- h-cp-Øp-hm≥- h-∂-h-s\-∂v- \n-cq-]n-t°-≠.k
- a
- m-[m-\w- A-√,- hm-fn-s\- A-s{X (a-Øm.- 10:-34) F-∂m-Ip∂p.ho-≠pw- h-kv-{X-ß-sf- hn-‰v- hm-fp- hm-ßm-\pw- tbi-p- I¬-]n®p(eq-°p.- 2:-2 36).- C-Xn\m¬- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- a-\°-cp-Øpw- Dt±i-km-[y-hpw- hm-fp-]tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xn¬- B-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- kv]jv-Sw- sX-fn-bp-∂p.- Dt±-i-{]-Im-cw- a-\p-j-y-tcm-Sv- bp-≤w- sN-øphm-\pw- sIm-√p-hm-\pw- I-gn-bm-sX- h-∂- tJ-Zw- k-ln-°m-sX{In-kv-Xo-b¿-°v- {]-tXy-I- B-lm-c-am-b- ]-∂n-I-sf- A-\-h-[n\-in-∏n-®p- (a-Øm-bn- 8:-32).- tJ-Zw- Xo¿-Øp-Iq-Sm-sX- t]m-Ip-∂h-gn-°-Sp-Øv- \n-∂n-cp-∂- IXn-cp-I-sf- I-h¿-∂p- (a-Øm-bn- 12:1).- I-gp-X-I-sf- I-h¿-s∂-Sp-∏n-®p- (a-Øm.- 21:-7).- C-Xn-\v- ]p-d-saap-∏-Xv- h-b- n-\-Iw- {]-h¿-Øn-®-sXm-∂pw- {]-kv-Xm-hn-°m-sXaq-∂v- sIm-√s
- Ø- \-S]
- S- n- am-{Xw- Im-Wn-®X
- n-\m¬- B- Im-esØ\-S]
- S- n-Iƒ- A-øa
- m-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂v- i-¶n-t°-≠n-h∂
- p.- hn-tijn®v- ap-∏-Xmw- h-b- n-\v- ti-jw- D-≠m-b-Xm-bn- Im-Wn-°-s∏-Sp∂a-l-Xzm-h-kv-Y-I-fn¬- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m-cpw- am-Xm-hv- Xm-\pw- tbmPn®pw- hn-iz-kn-®pw- Im-Wm-Ø-Xn¬- ]-e-hn-[w- kw-i-bn-t°-≠Xva-\p-jy- A-h-Im-i-am-Ip-∂p.- Ip-d-™-Im-e-sØ- \-S-]-Sn- ImWn®pw- A-[n-I- Im-et- Ø-Xv- a-d®
- p-sh-®pw- D-¥n-°b
- ‰
- n-bm¬- Xms\Du-cn-t∏m-cp-∂-Xn¬- k-tµ-l-an-√.6.- skm-ssk-‰n-:˛- {In-kvX
- p-hs
- \- a-\p-jy-sc-√mw- Zp-jn-°bpw\n-µn-°-bpw- sN-bv-Xp- F-¶n-epw- Xm≥- {]Xn-{In-b- sN-øm-sX£-an-®p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xp- I-Æ-S-®p- I-°¬- B-Ip-∂p.- P-\-Øn¬tZm-j-s∏-´p- bm-sXm-cp- I-gn-hpw- C-√.- Hm-Sn-bpw- H-fn-®pw- \-S-°p∂- ]p-≈n- {]-Xn-{In-b- sN-øm-Ø-Xv- £-a-bpw- im-¥-_p-≤n-bpam-sW-∂v- {In-kv-Xo-b¿- H-gn-sI- a-\p-jy-cn¬- B-cpw- ]-d-bp-∂X-√.- C-Xpw- {In-kv-Xo-b- Kp-W-am-Ip-∂p.- £-a- F-∂v- tIƒ-°p∂-Xn-s≥-d- kz-`m-h-sa-¥v?- A-Xv- h-tc-≠- kv-Ym-\-ta-Xv?- F-∂dn-tb-≠- `m-Kyw- C-√.- F-ßn--s\- B-bm-epw- skm-ssk-‰n- hnNm-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-km-[yw- X-s∂.- {In-kv-Xp- £-an-®n-´n-√.- H-´pwC-√.- k¿-∏w- X-∂-Øm≥- ISn-°pw-t]m-se- I-gn-bp-∂-Xn-s\-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

71

sNbv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-S-bm-fw- tN-m-Zn-®-h-cn¬- tIm-]n-®v- hy`nNm-c-k-¥-Xn- F-∂v- ]-d-™p- (a-Øm--.-16:-4).- s]m≥-hm-Wn-`-°mcp-sS- ta-i-I-sf-bpw- {]m-hv- hn¬-°p-∂-h-cp-sS- ]o-T-ß-sf-bpwa-dn-®n-´p-.- (a-Øm--.- 21:-12).- A-h-sc- N-Ω-´n-Iƒ- sIm-≠-Sn-®p- (tbm.2:-15).- hn-i-∂v- sN-∂-t∏mƒ- ]-gw- C-√m-Xn-cp-∂- tIm-]w- sIm≠v- A-Øn-hr-£-sØ- i-]n-®p-W-°n- (a-Øm.-- 21:-19)-.- X-s∂- ]nSn°m≥- h-∂-h-sc- a-dn-®n-´p- (tbm-.- 18:-6)-.- C-Xp-I-sf-√mw- £-a-bn√m-bv-a-bm¬- sN-bv-X- {Iq-c-X- X-s∂.7.- skm-ssk-‰n-:˛- ap-lΩ
- Z- p-\_
- n- N-{µ-s\- c-≠m-°n- ]n-f¿∂pF-∂pw- a-‰v- A-Xn-i-b-ß-fpw- Im-Wn-®p- F-∂pw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- hnizm-k-tbm-Ky-a-√.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- a-cn-®v- H-cp- \q-dp-h¿-jw- I-gn
™-Xn¬- ]n-s∂- F-gp-X-s∏-´-Xm-Ip-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xp- A-W-™p- a-W-∏n-°-em-Ip-∂p.- {In-kvXo-b- {]-am-W-am-b- {In-kv-Xp-N-cn-{Xw- {In-kv-Xp- I-gp-th-dn-b-Xn¬]n-s∂- \q-dv- h¿-j-߃-°-Iw- ]-e-cpw- ]-te- X-h-W-bmbn- Fgp-Xn-b-Xm-sW-∂p-≠m-b- F-s≥-d- B-t£-]-Øn-\v- ]-Icw- \-ap°pw- H-∂p- ]-db
- W
- s
- a-∂p-≠m-b- hn-Nm-cw- sIm-≠v- skm-ssk‰n\q-dp-h¿-j-sa-s∂m-cp- Im-ew- \n¿-W-bn-®v- ]-d-™-Xm-Ip-∂p.- Fs¥-∂m¬- F-s≥-d- B-t£-]-sØ- ]q¿-∆-hn-Zzm-∑m¿- k-Ω-Xn°p-∂-Xpw- N-cn-{Xw- km-£n-bm-Ip-∂-Xp-am-Ip-∂p.- \ym-b-am-bsX-f-n-hp-Iƒ- Rm≥- Im-Wn-®n-´pw- D-≠v.- Iq-Sm-sX- {In-kv-Xo-b{]-am-Ww- kq-£v-a-Øn¬- N-cn-{X-am-I-bm¬- ]n¬-°mew- F-gpX-s∏-Sm≥- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´-Xpw- X-s∂.- Jp¿-B≥- F-∂-Xv- thZm-[m-c-am-I-bm¬- ]n¬-°m-ew- F-gp-X-s∏-Sm≥- A-h-Im-i-an-√.N-{µ-∏n-f¿-∏v- Jp¿-B\
- n¬- kq-Nn-∏n-°s
- ∏-´n-cn-°b
- m¬- AXv- ]n¬°m-ew- F-gp-X-s∏-´-Xm-sW-∂v- ]-d-™-Xv- A-_-≤w-X-s∂.- t-hZ-sa-∂pw- N-cn-{X-sa-∂pw- D-≈- hy-Xy-kv-X-X- A-dn-bm-Ø- tZmj-am-Ip-∂p.- A-Xn-i-b- {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ- Im-tW-≠-Xv- A-h-c-h-cpsS- N-cn-{X-Øn¬- B-I-bm¬- {In-kv-Xp-N-cn-{Xw- t]m-se- ap-lΩ-Zp-\-_n-N-cn-{X-Øn¬- Im¨-am-\p-ap-≠v.- A-Xv- ]n¬-°m-ewFgp-Xs
- ∏-´X
- m-Ib
- m¬- hn-izm-kt- bm-Ky-as
- √-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂]
- £
- w{In-kv-Xp- sN-bv-X-Xm-bn- ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂- A-Xn-i-b-߃- ap-gp-h\pw- \n-tj-[-bp-Iv-X-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.- F-ß-s\- F-∂m¬- ]p-Xp\n-b-a-am-b- {Inkv-Xp- N-cn-{Xw- I-gp-th-‰-Øn-\v- ti-jw- ]-e-cpw]-e- X-hW
- b
- m-bn- F-gp-Xn-bX
- m-sW-∂v- {In-kvXp- k-ap-Zm-bß
- ƒF-√mw- k-Ω-Xn-°p-∂p.- Iq-Sm-sX- F-gp-Xn-b- B-fpw- F-gp-X-s∏´Im-e-hpw- \niv-N-b-an-√m-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- ]p-Xn-b-Xpw- ]-g-b-Xpam-bc-≠v- {]-am-W-ß-fpw- ]n¬-°m-ew- F-gp-X-s∏-´-Xm-sW-∂v- k-ΩXn-®pw- A-Xp-I-sf- {]-am-W-ß-fm-°n- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®pw- h-cp-∂\n-߃- ]n¬-°m-ew- F-gp-Xs
- ∏-´X
- v- hn-izm-kt- bm-Ky-as
- √-∂v- ]d™-Xv- A-Xv-`p-Xw-X-s∂.8.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ A-Xn-i-bw- ssZ-h-i-Iv-Xn-bn-en-cn-°p-∂p.-

Rm≥- H-cp- {]-kw-Kn- am-{X-am-Wv- F-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)- Xm\mbn- ]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.- B-I-bm¬- bm-sXm-cp- A-Xn-i-b-hpw- apl-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)- Im-Wn-®n-´n-s√-∂v- kv-]-jv-S-am-Ip-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- {]-am-Ww- hm-bn-°m-sX- {]-Xn-hm-Zn-°¬B-Ip-∂p.- ]n-Xm-hv- sN-ø-p-∂-X-√m-sX- ]p-{X-\v- H-∂pw- I-gn-bp∂-X-√ F-∂v- {In-kv-Xp- ]-d-™p- (tbm-.- 5:˛19)- F-∂pw- A-Xn-i
bw- tNm-Zn-®-h-sc- hy-`n-Nm-c- k-¥-Xn- F-∂pw- A-W-en-°p-´nIƒF-∂pw- B-t£-]n-®v- ]-d-™-X-√m-sX- Im-Wn-®n-´n-√ (a-Øm.12:˛34˛39) F-∂pw- kz-¥-{]-am-W-Øn¬- C-cn-s°- {]n-b- skmssk-‰n- ap-l-Ω-Zp-\-_n- ]-d-s™-∂v- Im-Wn-°p-∂- a-cym-Z- h-N\-Øn¬- B-t£-]n-®-Xv- tbm-Ky-X-tbm- aq-V-X-tbm- B-Ip-∂p.{In-kv-Xp-hn-s\-t∏-m-se- B-t£-]n-°m-Xn-cp-∂-Xn¬- D-≠m-bAkq-b- B-bn-cn-°mw.9.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-c-W-sØ-°p-dn-®v- Jp¿B-\n¬- c-t≠-S-Øv- ]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.- Cu-km-\-_n-sb- ssZhw- a-cn-∏n-°p-sa-∂v,- A-h-s\- X-s≥-d- A-Sp-°-te-°v- ssI-s°m≈p-∂p-w- F-∂pw- ]-d-™p.- ]n-s∂- tb-ip- sIm-√-s∏-´n-´n-√m,F-∂pw- A-hs
- \- X-s≥-d- A-Sp-°t- e-°v- tN¿-Øp-sIm-≠v- F∂pw]-d-bp-∂p.- Cu- Im-cy-Øn¬- Jp¿-B≥- ]-c-kv-]-c- hn-cp-≤-am-bn]n-i-Iv- ]-d-bp-∂p.- F-∂m¬- Jp¿-B≥- D-≠m-Ip-∂-Xn-\v- h-f-sc°-m-ew- ap-tº- F-gp-X-s∏-´- {]-kn-≤-am-bn-cn-°p-∂- C-©o-en¬tb-ip- Ip-cn-in-t∑¬- a-cn-®p- F-∂v- ]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- ssI-Im-´n- A-h-e-£-W-sa-∂v- ]-d-bn-°e-s{X.- Jp¿-B≥- F-∂pw- kq-dm- B-b-Øp- F-∂pw- {In-kv-Xob¿- ]p-d-s∏-Sn-bn-°p-∂- H-®-I-fn¬- ap-k¬-am-\¿- Ku-\n-t°-≠Xn-√.- X-Ø-bn¬- \n∂p-≠m-Ip-∂- H-®-t]m-se- am-{Xw- hn-Nm-cn°p-∂p.- F-¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬- ]q¿-∆n-I- Ku-c-h-∑m¿- tXm-∂nb-hm-kw- `m-j-s∏-Sp-Øn- C-´n-cn-°p-∂- `m-jm-¥-c- `m-K-ß-sfI-≠pw- tI-´pw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p.- Ip-cp-S≥- A-\v-[-sc- Xp-S¿∂- k-{º-Zm-b-Øn-em-sW-∂v- ta-se-gp-Xn-b- a-e-bmf- hm-N-IwsIm-≠v- sX-fn-bp-∂p.- F-ßn-s\- F-∂m¬- "a-cn-°pw'- F-∂pw"sIm-√-s∏-´n-´n-√m'- F-∂pw- ]-d-™-Xn¬- ]-c-kv-]-c- hn-tcm-[wD-t≠m?- a-cn-°-epw- sIm-√-s∏-S-epw- H-∂m-tWm- F-∂pw- a-cn-∏n°pw- F-∂v- ]-d-™n-cn-s°- sIm-√-s∏-´p- F-∂p-≠m-b- {]-kv-Xmh-sØ- \n-tj-[n-®p- sIm-√s
- ∏-´n-´n-√m- F-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂X
- n¬- ]ni
Iv- D-t≠m?- F-∂pw- H-∂mw- ]m-Tw- hm-bn∏m≥- B-cw-`n-°p-∂Ip-´n-I-tfm-Sv- tNm-Zn-°p-∂-Xm-bm¬- ]n-i-Iv- F-∂pw- ]-c-kv-]-cwhn-tcm-[w- F-∂pw- ]-d-™-Xv- X-t≥-d-S-an-√m-Ø- sIm-≠m-´-amsW-∂v- ]-d-bpw.sIm-√-s∏-´n-´n-√m- F-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-™-Xv- ]n-i-Im-Ip∂p- F-∂v- ]-d-™-Xpw- A-dn-hn-√m-bv-a-X-s∂.- Cu- Im-cy-Øn¬{In-kv-Xo-b- C-©o-en-s\- km-£-n-bm-°n-bpw- A-Xv- Jp¿-B≥-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

72

D≠m-Ip-∂-Xn-\v- h-f-sc-°-m-ew- ap-sº- {]-kn-≤-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂pF-∂v- kv-Ym-]n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- Cu- kv-Ym-]-\-bpw- A-_≤w-X-s∂.- C-©o¬- F-∂- ]p-Xp-\n-b-aw- F-gp-X-s∏-´- Im-e-hpw{]-am-Wa
- m-°n- F-Sp-°s
- ∏-´- Im-eh
- pw- A-Xn-s≥-d- \n-eb
- pw- C∂n∂-{]-Im-c-am-sW-∂v- "Xr-»n-h-t]-cq¿'- ssZ-h-]p-{X¿-°v- k-Ωm\n-°-s∏-´- k-Ωm-\-°p-dn-∏n¬- Im-Wn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-Xp-IƒF-√mw- ]n¬-Im-e- te-J-\-߃- B-I-sIm-≠v- hn-izm-k-tbmKy-a-s√-∂v- skm-ssk-‰n- Xm-\pw- k-Ω-Xn-°p-∂p.10.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ tb-ip- a-cn-s®-¶n-epw- aq-∂mw- \mƒ- Pohn®p-b¿-Øp.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- tam-Sn-sIm-≠v- tam-Sn-bm-°¬- B-Ip-∂p.Po-hn-®p-b¿-Øv- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-X-√m-sX- k-z¬-]-_p-≤n-bp-≈A¬-]-\n-epw- sX-fn-bp-∂-X-√.- `m-cy-`¿-Øm-°-∑m-cp-sS- kwtbmK- k-{º-Zm-b-Øn¬- ]-d-™p-tIƒ-°p-∂p.- Po-hn-®p-b¿-Øp
F∂v- in-jy¿- am-{Xw- ]-d-bp-∂p.- I-≠-Xm-b- A-\y- km-£nIm¨-am≥- C-√.- `m-cy-bp-sS- G-I- sam-gn-sb- _-es
- ∏-Sp-Øn- Ahfn-ep-≈- K¿-`w- a-cn-®- `¿-Xr-Zm-\-sa-∂v- Po-hn-®p-b¿-Øn-b-Xn-s\D-d-∏n-°mw,- A-∂v- a-cn-®-Xpw- i-cn-bm-sW-∂v- h-cp-Ømw.11.- skm-ssk-‰n-˛:- \m-en¬- A-[n-Iw- `m-cy-am¿- B-hm-sa-∂vssZ-hw- X-\n-°v- A-\p-h-Zn-s®-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)- ]-d-I-bpwA-[n-Iw- `m-cy-am-sc- ]-cn-{K-ln-°-bpw- A-h-cn¬- c-kn-®v- Im-ewI-gn-°p-I-bpw-sN-bv-Xp.- tb-ip- \-∑-sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠v- k-©-cn-®p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- tXm-≠n- Xo-≠¬- B-Ip-∂p.- {In-kv-Xp-hns≥-d- Aw-_-ta-cn-sb- ap-l-Ω-Zp-\-_n- `m-cy-bm-°n- ]-cn-{K-ln-°psa-∂v- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- tIƒ-°p-tºmƒ- D-≠m-Ip-∂Pf-Xzw- Im-c-W-am-bn- Cu- B-t£-]w- ]-d-bp-∂-Xm-Ip-∂p.- `mcyD-≠m-h¬- \-_n-kv-Ym-\-Øn-\v- `w-K-am-sW-∂v- [-cn-∏n-®m¬- ]-dbm-Xn-cn-°p-sa-∂p-≈- A¬-]-_p-≤n-bm-Ip-∂p.- k-tem-tam≥,- Zmho-Zv,- A-{_-l-mw,- tam-i- F-∂o- \-_n-am¿-°pw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n°pw- ssZ-hw- H-∂p-X-s∂- B-I-sIm-≠v- ap≥- \-_n-Iƒ-°pwA-\p-h-Zn-®-Xp-t]m-se- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-°pw- A-\p-h-Zn-®-Xm-sW∂v- A-dn-b-Ø-°- ssh-`-hw- C-√m-Xm-b-Xn-\m¬- hy-k-\n-°-Ww.-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- I-p-e-]n-Xm-hpw- {In-kv-Xp- A-h-Im-iw-]-d-™knw-lm-k-\-]-Xn-bpw- B-b- Zm-ho-Zv- \-_n-°v- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂- ]e`m-cy-am¿-°v- ]p-d-sa- "b-dp-i-te-an¬- sh-®v- A-\p-h-Zn-°-s∏-´- `mcy-am¿'-- (2˛mw- i-ap-sh.-- 5,-13)- F-{X- F-∂pw- `m-cy-am-cn¬- c-kn-°b-√m-sX- Zm-ho-Zv- \-_n-°pw- a-‰p-\-_n-am¿-°pw- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂B-h-iyw- F-¥v- F-∂pw- Hm¿-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- _p-≤n-Iq¿-Ωbmbn-cn-°mw.{In-kv-Xp- Xm-\pw- kv-{Xo-I-fn¬- c-kn-°m-Ø- ]pcp-j-\m-bncp-∂p- F-∂v- ]-db
- p-∂X
- m-bm¬- A-Xpw- A-dn-hn-√m-bva
- b
- n¬- tN¿°-s∏-Spw.- F-¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬- ]q¿-Æ\
- m-b- a-\p-jy≥- BsW-

∂v- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂- A-h-kv-Y-°v- H-cp- `m-Khpw- Ip-d-™p-Iq-Sm.]p-cp-j-Xz-hpw- D-s≠-∂v- k-Ω-Xn-°-Ww.- A-tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn- X-≈sb- k-t¥m-jn-∏n-°m-\m-bn- ]n-≈-bn¬- hm¬-keyw- Im-Wnt°-≠- D-]m-bw- {In-kv-Xp- {]-h¿-Øn-®pw- C-cn-°p-∂p-.- (a-Øm.19˛14).- X-\n-°v- X-s∂-bpw- X-e-sh-∏m≥- kv-Y-e-an-√m-sX- (a-Øm.8˛20)- Im-ew- I-gn-®- ]p-cp-j≥- `m-cy-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn- In-S-°m-\pwk-t¥m-jn-°m-\pw- D-≠m-Ip-∂- _p≤n-ap-´v- B-tem-Nn-®v- `m-cybp-am-bn- sI-´n-®p-g-e-≠m- F-∂v- sh-®-Xv- D-Ø-aw- F-∂-√m-sX{]-tXy-I-X- H-∂pw- C-√.12.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ kp-µ-cn-I-fm-b- kv-{Xo-I-fn-epw- kp-K-\v-[ß-fn-epw- B-Ip-∂p- X-\n-°v- k-t¥m-j-sa-∂v- ap-l-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)G-‰p-]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xp-]m-sem-gn-bm-Ø- tN-em-Ip-∂p.- B-Zy- ]pcp-j-s≥-d- kp-J-k-t¥m-j-߃-°v- ap-Jy- ]m-{X-am-°n- ssZ-hwkz¿-K-Øn¬- I¬-]n-®p-sIm-Sp-Ø-Xv- kv-{Xo- {]-P-sb- B-Ip-∂p.A-Xn-∂-\p-k-cn-®v- ku-`m-Ky-ap-≈- kv-{Xo-I-fn-epw- B-Xv-am-hn\vk-t¥mjw- sIm-Sp-°p-∂- kp-K-\v-[-ß-fn-epw- B-Ip-∂p- X-s≥dk-t¥m-j-sa-∂v- ]-d-™-Xv- sX-‰m-sW-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- sN-dp-_p≤n-X-s∂.- {In-kv-Xp- Xm-\pw- ]-cn-a-f- ssX-e-Øn-epw- kv-{Xo-bnepw- k-t¥m-j-s∏-´p- kv-{Xo-I-sf-sIm-≠v- ssX-ew- ]q-in-∏n-®p-(a-Øm.- 27˛7 ap-X¬).13.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ t]m-‰p- a-I-s≥-d- `m-cy- ssk-\-_- F-∂h-fp-sS- A-g-Iv- I-≠v- tam-ln-®v- ap-l-Ω-Zp-\-_n-A-h-sf- Xs≥-d`m-cy-bm-°n.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- kz-¥- G-´n-se- ]m-´m-Ip-∂p.- t]m-‰p-aI\pw- a-cp-a-I-\pw- A-\y- ]p-{X≥- A-√m-sX- X-\p-P≥- B-Ip-∂X-s√-∂pw- B-Sv- B-fm-Ip-∂-X-s√-∂pw- N-Wv-Um-f-\pw- A-dn-bp∂p.- X-e-sXm-´- A-∏-s\-∂pw- t\¿-®-bm-sS-∂pw- ]-d-™p ap-Xen-\pw- ]m-]-]p-Wy-߃-°pw- A-h-Im-in-I-fm°p-∂- A-Pv-Rm\m-Nm-cw- C-kv-emw- a-X-Øn¬- C-√.- a-\p-jy-]p-{X-\m-b- {In-kvXp-hn-s\- ssZ-h]
- p-{X-\m-°n-bpw- B-´n-s\- ]p-Wy-hm-f\
- m-°n-bpwhn-iz-kn-°p-∂-h¿- t]m-‰p-a-I≥- F-∂pw- kz-¥-a-I≥- F-∂pwD≈- hy-Xy-kv-X-X- A-dn-bp-∂-X-√.t]m-‰p-a-I-s≥-d- `m-cy- X-\p-P-s≥-d- `m-cy-°v- Xp-ey-am-Ip-∂p.F-¶n¬- t]m-‰p- a-I-s≥-d- Aw-_- X-s≥-d- `m-cy-°v- k-aw- B-thWw.- A-Xv- B-Ip-∂-X-√.- a-I≥- F-∂p- ]-d-™-Xn-\m¬- a-I-\mbn-Øo-cp-∂p- F-¶n¬- `m-cy- F-∂v- ]-d-™-Xn-\m¬- `m-cy-bpwB-I-Ww,- A-Xpw- B-Ip-∂-X-√- F-∂o- hy-Xy-kv-X-X-bpw- t]m‰pa-I≥- A-\y≥-X-s∂- F-∂p-≈- ]-c-am¿-∞-X-bpw- kv-Ym-]n-∏m\m-bn- t]m-‰p- a-I-s≥-d- `m-cy-sb- X-\n-°v- `m-cy-bm-°p-hm≥D≠mb- I¬-]-\- {]-Im-cw- `m-cy- B-°n-b-Xm-Ip-∂p.- C-Xv- Ip-‰I-c-am-Ip-∂-X-√.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

73

F-∂m¬- {In-kX
v- p-hn-s≥-d- Ip-e]
- n-Xm-hm-b- "tem-Øv'- X-s≥da-I-sf- ]-cn-{K-ln-®-Xn¬- (sb-lq-Zm-s≥-d- I-Sn-™q¬- ]p-{X-\mb- G¿- F-∂-h-s≥-d- `m-cy- Xm-am¿- F-∂-h-sf- sb-lq-Zm- ]-cn-{Kln-®v- K¿-`w- D-≠m-bn.- D¬-]-Øn.-- 38:-18)- D-≠m-b- k-¥m-\-Øn¬ta-cn-bpw- ta-cn-bn¬- {In-kv-Xp-hpw- P-\n-®p-.- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- tKm{X-]n-Xm-hm-b- "sb-lq-Zm'- F-∂-h≥- kz-¥-a-I-s≥-d- `m-cy-bp-sS\-Kv-\-X- I-≠p.- A-hƒ- K¿-`w- [-cn-®p.- (tem-Øv- kz-¥-a-°fmb- aq-Ø-h-fn-epw- C-f-b-h-fn-epw- {]-th-in-®p,- C-cp-h¿-°pwK¿`w- D-≠m-bn (D¬-]-Øn- 19,- 33 ap-X¬- 37h-sc).-- Cu- h-j-fXzw- H-∂pw- Hm¿-°m-sX- \n- m-c-am-b- Cu- kw-K-Xn- ]-d-™-Xvhn-th-I-tZm-jw-X-s∂.14.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ ap-l-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)- a-cn-®v- `q-an-bn¬- A-Sßn.- {In-kv-Xp- Po-h-t\m-Sn-cn-°p-∂p.- In-bm-a-Øv- \m-fn¬- hn-kvX-cn-°m≥- h-cp-sa-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- X-s∂- ]-d-bp-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- N-°-c-sIm-≠v- N-{I-ap-≠m-°¬- B-Ip∂p.- B-´n-\pw- \m-b-°pw- t\¿-®- sIm-Sp-°m-sa-∂v- Jp¿-B-\n¬h-∂n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- ]-d-bp-∂- a-q-VX-t]m-se- C-cn-°p-∂p.{InkvX
- p- Po-hn-®n-cn-°p-∂p,- Im-em-hk
- m-\w-hc
- pw- F-∂p-≈- Jp¿B≥- h-N-\-sØ- _-e-s∏-Sp-Øp∂p-sh-¶n¬- h-cp-hm-\p-≈- Bh-iyw- C-∂-sX-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xn-s\-bpw- _-e-s∏-SptØ-≠-Xv- A-h-Im-i-ap-d-bm-Ip-∂p.- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂- B-hiyw- Fs¥-∂m¬,- X-Xv-k-a-bw- hn-tcm-[n-I-fn¬-\n-∂v- c-£n-∏m\m-bn- {Inkv-Xp-hn-s\- Im-Wm-Xm-°n-b-Xp-sIm-≠v- a-c-Wm-h-Imiw- \n-d-th-‰m-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- B-I-bm¬- sIm-e-s∏-Sp-Ø-n- k-t¥mjn-®-h-cpw- sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn¬- k-t¥m-jn-°p-∂-h-cp-am-b- hn-tcm[n-Iƒ- c-≠pw- tI-h-ew- \-in-®p- sIm-e-s∏-´n-´n-s√-∂p-≈- hmkv-X-h-Øn¬- hniz-kn-®n-cn-°p-∂- _-\v-[p-hm-b- ap-kv-enw-Iƒtem-I- hn-Pb
- ∑
- m-cm-bn-cn-°p-∂- Im-ew- tb-ip- _-\v[
- p-P\
- Ø
- n¬Im-W-s∏-´pw- Pohn-®n-cp-∂- a-c-Wm-h-Im-i-sØ- \n-d-th-‰n-bpw`q-X\
- n¿-am-Wa
- m-b- tZ-lw- e-bn-®v- `q-Xmw-iß
- ƒ- A-Xm-Xn¬- tN¿∂v- ]q¿-Øn-bm-tI-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p - F-∂-√m-sX- hn-kv-X-cn-°m≥A-√.- hn-kv-Xm-cm-[n-Im-cw- k¿-∆-i-Iv-X-\n¬- C-cn-°p-∂p.- hntcm-[n-I-fm¬- - sIm-√-s∏-´-h≥- - hn-kv-Xm-cm-[n-Im-cn-bm-hm≥\ym-b-an-√.15.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ I-en-a-Øp-≈- (ssZ-h-h-N-\w)- F-∂pwdp-lp-≈- (ssZ-h- BXv-am-hv)- F-∂pw- "\n-km'- F-∂- kq-d-Øn¬]-d-™n-cn-°p-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ C-Xv- Ip-´n-I-fp-sS- ssIsIm-´n-°-fn-bm-Ip-∂p."dq-lp-≈'- F-∂- \m-a-Øn-\p-≈- A¿-∞w- ssZ-hm-Xv-am-hm-sW∂v- ssZ-hh
- n-izm-kn-If
- n¬- H-cp- aq-V\
- pw- ]-db
- p-∂X
- √
- m.- F∂m¬dq-lp- F-∂-Xv- ssZ-h- B-Pv-R-bm¬- D-≈-Xm-Ip-∂sIm-≠v- Jp¿-

B≥- {]-Im-cw- "ssZ-h- B-Pv-R'- F-∂¿-∞-ap-≠m-Ip-∂p-sh-∂v13,- 14 kw-h¬-k-c-߃-°v- ap-ºv- "Xr-in-h-t]-cq¿- {In-kv-Xo-bhm-b-S-∏v'- F-s∂-gp-Xn-b- te-J-\-Øn¬- hn-h-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- AXm-Xv- {]-am-W-sØ- B-[m-c-am-°p-∂- ]-£w- A-Xm-Xn-s≥-d- hymJym-\-ß-sf- tc-J-bm-°p-∂-Xv- D-Ø-aw- F-∂v- I-≠p-]-T-n-°m\m-bn- Rm≥- ss_-_nƒ- tc-J-I-sf-Ø-s∂- km-£n-bm-°n-hcp-∂p.- 14 kw-h-Xv-k-c-߃-°v- ap-ºv- sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂- ]m-Tws]-s´∂p- a-d∂
- v- G-´n-se- ]m-´p-Xs
- ∂- ]m-Sp-∂X
- v- _m-en-i- kn≤m¥-am-Ip-∂p.16.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ ap-l-Ω-Zp-(\-_n)-bp-sS- `m-cy- B-bn-imF-∂-hƒ- Zp¿-∂-S-∏p-Im-cn-bm-Ip-∂p.Sn.- X-߃-:˛- C-Xv- N-WvU
- m-f_
- p-≤n-bm-Ip-∂p.- sX-fn-hpw- \ym
b-hp-an-√m-Ø- tXm-∂n-bh
- m-k- kw-km-cw-sIm-≠v- _-lp-P\
- s
- ØtIm-]-Øn-em-°n- C-f-°m≥- H-cp-ßn-b-Xv- _p-≤n-tZm-jw-X-s∂.D-≈-sa-√mw- C-cp-fm-bn- In-S-°p-∂-Xn¬- k¿-°m¿- \n-b-aw-t]mepw- Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xn¬- hy-k-\n-°-Ww.- B-Zmw- ]p-{X¿- C-{XtØm-fw- sN-Ip-Øm-\n¬- Io-g-S-ßn-°-m-Wp-∂-Xn¬- k-¶-S-s∏´n-cn-°b
- √
- m-sX- Ip-‰I
- c
- a
- m-b- Cu- A-]I
- o¿-Øn- {]-tbm-KØ
- n¬Rm≥- hy-k-\n-°p-∂n-√.- {]-Xn-hm-Z-Øn-\v- H-cp-ßp-∂pw- C-√mF-∂m¬- \n-߃- skm-ssk-‰n-°p-≈- _p-≤n-hn-ti-jX
- b
- pw- a\pjy- Kp-W-ß-sf- ]-Tn-∏n-°m≥- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂- \n-߃-°p≈- th-Zm-[m-c- Kp-W-tØ-bpw- P-\w- A-dn-™n-cn-∏m≥- th-≠n{]-kv-Xm-hn-®-Xm-Ip-∂p.- tZ-i-ap-k¬-am-\¿- \o-N-P-\-tØm-f-sa¶n-epw- A-£-cm-`ym-k-Øn¬- F-Æ-s∏-Sm-sX- A-\y-cn¬- B{ibn-®pw- k-ºm-Zyw- sIm-Sp-Øp- hm-s]m-Øn- A-t]-£n-®pw- bmNn®pw- Im-ew- I-gn-°p-∂- tZm-jw- ]-e- Zq-jy-߃-°pw- Im-c-W-am
Ip-∂p.- Cu- h-I-- \-S-]-Sn-bn¬- k-t¥m-j-hpw- A-Xv- Nq-≠n-∏-d
bp-∂-Xn¬- ap-jn-∏pw- I-≠p-h-cp-∂-Xn¬- hy-k-\n-°p-∂p.17.- skm-ssk-‰n-:-˛ k-I-e- \-_n-I-fn-epw- G-‰-hpw- h-en-b-h\pw- H-Sp-hn-e-Ø-h-\pw- Cu-km- \-_n-bm-Ip-∂p.- Xm≥- aq-ew-am
{Xw- c-£-bp-≈q- F-∂p- {In-kv-Xo-b¿- hm-Zn-°p-∂p.- (ta-∏-Sn- 5˛mw\-{ºv- {Sm-Iv-S,-v- c-≠mw- `m-Kw- 5˛mw-h-cn).Sn.- X-߃-:-˛ k-Xy-sØ- an-Yy- P-bn-°p-∂-X-√m.- sl-!- tbmKy-cm-b- skm-ssk-‰n-°m-tc-!- \n-߃-°v- k-emw.- A-\m-h-iyhm-Z-߃- D-t]-£n-°-Ww.- k-Xy-kz-cq-]-s≥-d- k-Xy-sØ- kvYm-]n-°p-∂-Xn¬- k-tµ-lw- th-≠m.- ssZ-hw- a-lm- i-Iv-Xn-bp≈-h≥- A-√-tbm?- A-h≥- {In-kv-Xo-b- hm-Z-sØ- {In-kv-Xo-bskm-ssk-‰n- B-b- \n-ßs
- f-s°-m≠
- p-Xs
- ∂- A-dp-∏n-®p.- F-s≥dhm-Z-sØ- D-d-∏n-®p.- lm-!- A-h-s≥-d- a-ln-a-sb- a-\p-jy-\-dn-bp∂n-√m.- Xm≥- F-gp-Xp-∂-Xpw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xpw- C-∂-sX-∂v- A-dnbp-∂- i-Iv-Xn- X-Xv-k-a-bw- \n-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- \o-°n-°-f-bp-∂-Xv-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

74

F-{X- A-Xn-i-bw-!- {In-kv-Xp- \-_n-I-fn¬- h-en-b-h-\m-sW-∂v(h-en-b- \-_n- B-sW-∂v)- \n-߃- skm-ssk-‰n- kv-Y-m-]n-®tXm-Sp-Iq-Sn- {In-kv-Xo-b¿- C-∆n-[w- hm-Z-n-°p-∂p- F-∂pw- {]-kn≤-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xn¬- Rm≥- G-‰-hpw- k-t¥m-jn°p-∂p.- F-s≥db-Xv\
- w- ap-gp-hs
- \- ^-en-®p.- \n-ßf
- n-Xn-s\- am-‰m-sX-bpw- \n-߃am-dm-sX-bpw- C-cn-∏m-\m-bn- {]-tXy-Iw- \n-ß-tfm-Sv- A-t]-£n°p-∂p.ssZ-hw- {Xn-tb-I-s\-∂v- kv-]-jv-Sw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xpw- \n-ßfp-sS- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn¬- H-‰-bm-bn- \n-∂n-cp-∂-Xp-am-b- tbm-l∂m-s≥-d- H-∂mw- te-J-\-Øn¬- A-©n¬- G-gmw- h-N-\w- \n¿Ωn-X-sa-∂v- I-tTm-c- Ip-Tm-cw- h-gn-bm-bn- \n-ß-sf- [-cn-∏n-®-Xn¬\n-ß-fpw- aw-K-em-]p-cw- ap-X¬-°p-≈- skm-ssk-‰n-I-fpw- Bh-N-\w- Xn¿-Ωn-X-sa-∂v- tbm-Pn-®v- {]-am-W-Øn¬- \n-∂v- \o-°n°-f-™p- (a-Iv-Xn- X-߃- B-tLm-jw- a-io-lm- a-X- aq-e- \miw- F-∂- te-J-\w- km-£n)- C-Xn-\m¬- {Xo-tb-Iw- \-in-®p.c≠m-a-sØ- hm-Zw- {In-kv-Xp- aq-∂n¬- H-∂pw- ssZ-h- ]p-{X-\pwA-√m,- a-\p-jy-\pw- {]-[m-\- \-_n-bpw- B-Ip-∂p- F-∂m-bn-cp∂p.- A-Xn-te-°v- H-∂mw- Xo-sam- ˛ c-≠n¬- A-©mw- h-N-\sØ- Rm≥- km-£y-s∏-Sp-Øn- h-∂-Xn¬- "a-\p-jy-\m-b- tbip'- F-∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂- hm-Iy-sØ- B- h-N-\-Øn¬-\n-∂v- \n߃- \o-°n- \n-ß-fp-sS- hm-Z-sØ- ho-≠pw- D-d-∏n-°m≥- H-cpßn- F-¶n-epw- k¿-∆-i-Iv-X≥- \n-ß-fn¬- tbm-Pn-°m-sX- {In-kvXp- h-en-b- \-_n- X-s∂- F-∂v- \n-ß-sf-s°-m-≠v- {]-kn-≤-s∏Sp-Øn-®p.- k-Xy-sØ- D-d-∏n-®p.- k-Xy- kn-≤m-¥n-bm-b- ssZ-htØm-Sv- F-Xn¿-Øv- \n¬-°m≥- sl-!- a-\p-jym,- \n-\-°v- i-Iv-Xn-

bp-t≠m?- A-l-¶m-cw- H-gn-®v- ssZ-h- D-t±-i-tØm-Sv- tbm-Pn-°q.{In-kv-Xphn-s\-°mƒ- h-en-b- \-_n- ap-l-Ω-Zp-\-_n-bm-sW∂v- tam-im- ]-d-™-Xn-s\- sX-fn-bn-®p-d-∏n-®-Xm-b- "{In-kv-Xo-ba-\-]q¿-∆- tam-j-Ww'- "ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-b-h-Im-i- t]m-j-Ww'F-∂- te-J-\-hpw- F-t∂-°mƒ- h-en-b- \-_n- ap-l-Ω-Zp-\-_nbm-sW-∂v- {In-kv-Xp-Xm≥- ]-d-™-Xn-s\- sX-fn-bn-®v- D-d-∏n-®Xm-b- "]m¿-°-eo-Øm- t]m¿-°-fw'- F-∂- te-J-\-hpw- {]-kn-≤s∏-´pw,- ]-Øv- sIm-√-am-bn-´v- F-Xn-cn-√m-°-f-Øn¬- _-e-s∏-´pwC-cn-°p-∂p.- C-ß-s\- F-√m- h-gn-°pw- sX-fn-™n-cn-°p-∂- Ckvemw- a-X-tØm-Sv- X-Xv-k-a-bw- kn-≤m-¥n-®v- \n¬-°p-∂p- F-¶n¬a-\p-jym-hI
- m-i- {]-Im-cw- Xm-ak
- n-bm-sX- k-Xy-Øn¬- h-cp-sa∂vhn-iz-kn-°p-∂p.{In-kv-Xo-b- k-tl-m-Z-c-∑m-sc-!- k-tlm-Z-cn-I-sf-!- a-Xv-k-c-hpwkn-≤m-¥-hpw- ss]-im-Nn-I- kz-`m-h-am-sW-∂v- \n-߃- A-dnbp-∂p.- A-Xp-I-sf- D-t]-£n-®v- kz-¥- B-Xv-am-°-fn¬- kv-t\l-ap-≈-h-cm-bn- kz¿-§m-[n-Im-cn-bm-b- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn¬- kt¶-Xw- {]m-]n-°p-I.- c-£- F-∂-Xv- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn¬- C-cn°p-∂p- F-∂v- k-Xy-kz-cq-]-\pw- Z-bm-ep-hp-am-b- X-ºp-cm≥- ]-e{]-Im-tc-W- A-dn-bn-®pw- \n-ß-fp-sS- {]-hr-Øn-Iƒ-sIm-≠v- \nß-sf- t_m-[y-s∏-Sp-Øn-bpw- h-cp-∂-Xn¬- \n-߃- B-tem-Nn°m-Ø-Xv- F-{X- I-jv-Sw-!- k-Xy-k-z-cq-]≥- \n-ß-fn¬- I-cp-W-bp≈-h-\m-bn- \n-ß-sf- k-Xy-am¿-Km-Nm-cn-I-fm-°n- c-£n-°p-am-dmI-s´.- B-ao≥.-

\o- hm-bn-°-p-IP-ao-e- C-{_m-lnwI-hn-Xhn-Pv-Rm-\- hn-lm-bp- n¬D-b¿-∂p-]-d-°p-hm≥Xp-Sn-°pw-- am-\-k-߃Xp-d-°q- hn-Pv-Rm-\-Øn≥A-£-b-J-\n-bm-bth-Z-{K-\v-Y-amw- Jp¿-B≥-.""\o- hm-bn-°p-I,- \n-s∂kr-jv-Sn-®-h-\mw- \n-s≥-d\m-Y≥-X≥- \m-a-Øn¬''F-∂m-Zy-am-bn- \-_n-tbm-Sv{k-jv-Sm-hn≥-I¬-]-\- \mwIm-Wp-∂p- Jp¿-B-\n¬.Xn-cp-Zq-X-cn-eq-sSam-\-h-Ip--e-tØm-Spw-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂phm-bn-°m≥-,- ]-Tn-°p-hm≥-.A-Pv-Rm-\w- X-f-®n-´A-\v-[-Im-c-Øn¬- X-∏n-˛
Ø-S-bp-t∂m¿-s°-s∂-∂pwsh-fn-®w- \¬-Ipw- {K-\v-Yw.hm-b-\,- b-dn-hn-te°p-s≈m-cp- h-m-Xm-b-\w.-Pv-Rm-\-Øn≥- {]-`-b-XvXp-d-∂m¬- Im-Wm-am¿-°pw.-hn-kv-a-b-ß-fn-te-sdhn-kv-a-b-am-Wo- {K-\v-Yw!-A-Xy-p-Zm-c-\mw- \m-Y≥\¬-In-b- h-c-Zm-\w.--

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75

hy-Iv-Xn-Xz- hn-I-k-\w-:C-kv-em-an-I- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\-߃Sn.-sI.- bq-kp-^v-

B-I¿-j-I-am-b- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-eq-sS- B-fp-I-fp-sS- a-\w- I-h-

bm-Wv-.- ]p-©n-cn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p-∂h¿- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- k-t¥m-j-Øn-s≥-d- H-cp- `m-Kw- \¬-Ip-I-bpwA-h-cp-sS- Zpx-Jw- H-c-f-thm-fw- Zq-co-I-cn-°p-I-bp-am-Wv- sN-øp∂Xv.- a-‰p-≈-h-cp-sS- Zp-cn-Xw- A-I-‰n- A-h¿-°v- k-t¥m-jw- {]-Zm\w- sN-øp-I- F-∂-Xv- C-kv-em-an¬- H-cp- hen-b- ]p-Wy-I¿-a-amWv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv- \-_n- (A)- {]-k∂
- h
- Z- \
- t- Øm-sS- ktlmZ-c-s\- I-≠p-ap-´p-∂-Xv- [¿-a-am-Wv- - F-∂p- ]-Tn-∏n-®-Xv.- F-∂m¬hn-jm-Z-`m-h-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn- a-‰p-≈-h-sc- I-≠p-ap-´p-∂-h≥- X-s≥dZpx-J-Øn-s≥-d- H-cp- `m-K-am-Wv- a-‰p-≈-h¿-°v- k-Ωm-\n-°p-∂-Xv.]p-©n-cn- ]p-Wy-am-sW-¶n-epw- s]m-´n-®n-cn- ]-e¿-°pw- A-temkc-ap-≠m-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\v- t]m-d-te¬-]n-°p-∂Xm-Wv.- - {]-hm-NI
- ≥- A-´l
- k
- n-®n-cp-∂n-√- F-∂X
- v- C-hn-sS- {]kvXm-hy-am-Wv.a-\- -pw- i-co-c-hpw- h-kv-{X-hpw- sh-fp-∏p-≈-Xm-bn-cn-°p-IF-∂X
- m-Wv- hy-IX
v- n-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- a-s‰m-cp- L-SI
- w.- C-ke
v- m-ans≥dA-¥- -Ø-X-s∂- a-\- -n-s≥-d- hn-ip-≤n-bm-Wv.- "a-\- -n-s\- kwkv-I-cn-®-h≥- hn-P-bn-®p- A-Xn-s\- I-f-¶-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-h≥- ]-cmPb-s∏-´p-'- F-∂m-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- D-Zv-tLm-jn-°p-∂-Xv.- k-º-Øpwk-¥m-\-ß-fpw- {]-tbm-P-\w- sN-øm-Ø- A-¥y-Zn-\-Øn¬- ip≤am-b- a-\ 
- p- a
- m-bn- h-cp-∂h
- \
- v- am-{X-sa- c-£b
- p-≈q-sh-∂pw- Jp¿B≥- {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂p-≠v.- i-co-c-ip-≤n-°pw- C-kv-emw- h-f-sc-{]m-[m-\yw- \¬-Ip-∂p-≠v.- ]-e- B-cm-[\
- m- I¿-aß
- ƒ-°pw- AXvH-gn-®p-Iq-Sm-\m-hm-Ø-Xm-Wv.- h-kv-{Xw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- am-\y-X- shfn-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- hn-e-Iq-Sn-bXpw- `w-Kn-bp-≈-Xp-

cm≥- B-{K-ln-°m-Ø-h¿- hn-c-f-am-Wv.- F-ß-s\- \-√- hy-Iv-XnX-zw- B¿-Pn-s®-Sp-°mw- F-∂v- ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂- H-t´-sd- {K-\v-Y-߃hn-]-Wn-bn-ep-≠v.- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz- hn-I-k-\-sØ-°mƒ- km-º-ØnI-hn-Ik
- \
- w- e-£yw-sh-®v- I-®h
- S- - Xm¬-]c
- y-tØm-sS- Cu- cwKØv- X-]m¬- tIm-gvkp-Iƒ- \-S-Øp-∂-h-cpw- \-Ωp-sS- \m-´n-ep≠v.I-]-S- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- ap-Jwaq-Sn-b-Wn-™v- B-fp-I-sf- ]m´nem-°m-\p-≈- Iu-i-e-ß-fm-Wv- C-h¿- A-`y-kn-∏n-°m-dp-≈-Xv.F-∂m¬- Pm-S-I-fpw- A-`n-\-b-hpw- Iq-Sm-sX- P-\-lr-Z-b-ß-fn¬kv-Yn-c-{]-Xn-jv-T- t\-Sm-\p-≈- am¿-K-ß-fm-Wv- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz- hn-Ik\- cw-K-Øv- C-kv-emw- \¬-Ip-∂-Xv.k-t¥m-j-I-c-am-b- Po-hn-X-am-Wv- \msa-√m-h-cpw- e-£yw-sh°p-∂-Xv.- ]-W-hpw- {]-Xm-]-hpw- t\-Sn-b-Xp-sIm-≠v- am-{Xw- AXvssI-h-cp-I-bn-√-;- a-‰p-≈-h¿- \-sΩ- kv-t\-ln-°p-∂p-≠v- F-∂dn-bp-tºmƒ- am-{X-am-Wv- b-Ym¿-Y-Øn¬- k-t¥m-jw- A-\p-`-hs∏-Sp-I.- B-fp-Iƒ- \-sΩ- kv-t\-ln-°-W-sa-¶n¬- \mw- F-¥mWv- sN-tø-≠X
- v?- ]-Wa
- p-≈X
- p-sIm-≠v- Im-cy-an-√.- Im-cW
- w- ]W°m-tcm-Sv- s]m-Xp-sh- P-\-߃-°v- A-kq-b-bm-Wp-≠m-Im-dp-≈Xv.- A-[n-Im-c-Øn-eq-sS-bpw- A-Xv- km-[y-a-√.- Im-c-Ww- A-[nImcn-h¿-Kt- Øm-Sv- A-a¿-jh
- pw- A-cn-ih
- p-am-Wv- ]-ec
- pw- sh-®p-]pe¿Øp-∂-Xv.- ]n-s∂- P-\-{]o-Xn- B¿-Pn-°m-\p-≈- h-gn-sb-¥m-Wv-?C-hn-sS-bm-Wv- hy-IvX
- n-Xz- hn-Ik
- \
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- {]-kI
- vX
- n- D-b¿∂ph-cp-∂Xv.ap-J-{]-k-∂-X- B-I¿-j-I- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-s≥-d- ap-J-ap-{Zkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

76

am-b- h-kv-{X-߃- [-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\v- C-kv-em-an¬- hn-e-°p-I-fn√.ap-¥n-b- sN-cn-∏pw- Ip-∏m-b-hpw- [-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-l-¶m-c-am-tWmF-∂- A-\p-N-c-∑m-cp-sS- tNm-Zy-Øn-\v- "A-√m-lp- `w-Kn-bp-≈-h\m-Wv-,- A-h≥- `w-Kn- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp-∂p'-- F-∂m-Wv- {]-hm-N-I≥{]-Xn-h-Nn-®-Xv.a-‰p-≈-hsc-- Atem-k-c-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂- - Zp¿-K-\v-[-ap-≠m-Ip∂-Xv- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\v- tIm-´w-h-cp-Øp-∂-Xm-Wv.- D-≈n-Xn-∂v- ]≈n-bn¬- t]m-Ip-∂-Xv- {]-hm-N-I≥- hn-e-°n-b-Xv- C-hn-sS- kv-a-cWo-ba
- m-Wv.- \-_n- (A)- ssk-\_
- - (J)-bp-sS- ho-´n¬-\n-∂v- tX≥Ip-Sn-°m-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- C-Xn¬- {]-Xn-tj-[n-®v- l-^v-k- (J)bpw- B-bn-i- (J)-bpw- {]-hm-N-I≥- A-h-cp-sS- A-Sp-°¬- h-∂t∏mƒ- Xm-¶-sf- a-B-^o¿- - a-W-°p-∂-t√m- F-∂v- ]-d-™p,CXv- tI-´- {]-hm-N-I≥- tX≥- Ip-Sn-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-epw- th-s≠∂v- sh-°m≥- X-bm-dm-bn.- tI-h-ew- H-cp- a-c-°-d-bp-sS- K-\v-[-wt]m-epw- Xn-cp-ta-\n-bn¬-\n-∂v- h-an-°p-∂-Xv- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- CjvS-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√- F-∂m-Wv- C-Xv- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- F-s≥-dk-a-p-Zm-b-Øn-\v- hn-j-a-I-c-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-s√-¶n¬- Hm-tcm- \akv-Im-c-Øn-\v- ap-ºpw- Rm≥- A-h-tcm-Sv- ]-√v- tX-°m≥- I¬-]n°p-am-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂- Xn-cp-h-N-\-hpw- C-hn-sS- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.{]-hm-N-I≥- ]-´n-Wn-bn-em-Wv- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂-sX-¶n-epw k-p-K-\v[w- ]q-ip-I-bpw- A-Xn-\v- t{]-c-W-\¬-Ip-I-bpw-- sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v.]-t£,- kp-K-\v-[w- D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-h¿- B-fp-Iƒ-°v- X-e-thZ-\-bp-≠m-°p-∂- cq-£-K-\v-[-߃- h¿-Pn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.em-fnXy-am-Wv- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\v- am-‰v- Iq-´p-∂- a-s‰m-cp- kz`m-h-Kp-Ww.- X≥-t]m-cn-a-bpw- s]m-ß-®-hpw- Im-Wn-°p-∂-h-scB-cpw- C-jv-S-s∏-Sp-I-bn-√.- H-cn-°¬- {]-hm-N-I-t\m-Sv- B-tcmtNm-Zn-®p-:- "Zq-X-tc,-- A-√m-lp-hpw- B-fp-I-fpw- F-s∂- C-jv-Ss∏Sm≥- Rm≥- F-¥m-Wp- sN-tø-≠-X-v?'.-- \-_n- (A)- ]-d-™p:"\o- Zp≥-bm-hn¬- hn-c-Iv-Xn- Im-Wn-°p-I.- F-¶n¬- A-√m-lp- \n-

I-hn-X-

s∂- C-jv-S-s∏-Spw.- P-\-ß-fp-sS- A-Sp-°-ep-≈-Xv- sIm-Xn-°mXn-cn-°p-I.- F-¶n¬- P-\-ß-fpw- \n-s∂- C-jv-S-s∏-Spw'-.- k-ºØpw- kv-Ym-\-am-\-ß-fpw- B¿-Pn-®p-I-gn-™m¬- B-fp-Iƒ- Xs≥-d- sNm¬-]-Sn-bn¬- h-cpw- F-∂- A-_-≤-[m-c-W-bm-Wv- ]-esc-bpw- B- h-gn-°v- ]-c°
- w- ]m-bm≥- t{]-cn-∏n-°p-∂X
- v.- F-∂m¬em-fn-Xy-Øn-eq-sS- am-{X-sa- A-√m-lp-hpw- a-\p-jy-cpw- \-sΩkvt\-ln-°p-I-bp-≈q- F-∂m-Wv- {]-hm-N-I≥- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.kz-bw- ]p-I-gv-Øp-∂-Xv- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\v- hn-Lv-\w- h-cp-Øp∂- Im-cy-ß-fn¬-s]-´-Xm-Wv.- A-√m-lp- hn-e-°n-b- H-cp- Zp¿-KpW-hp-am-W-Xv.- "\n-߃- kz-bw- ]-cn-ip-≤-cm-I-cp-Xv.- A-√m-lpA-h≥- D-t±-in-°p-∂-h¿-°v- hn-ip-≤-n- \¬-Ip-∂p'- F-∂- Jp¿B≥- h-N-\w- A-Xm-Wv- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- a-‰p-≈-h¿- X-s∂]p-I-gv-Ø-Ww- F-∂v- B-{K-ln-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-epw- C-kv-em-an-Iho-£-W-Øn¬- A-`n-e-j-Wo-b-a-√.- ap-J-kv-Xp-Xn- ]-d-bp-∂-hs≥-d- hm-bn¬- a-Æv- hm-cn-bn-S-W-sa-∂m-Wv- {]-am-Ww.- a-‰p-≈-hcp-sS- {]-iw-k-°v- th-≠n- sN-øp-∂- k¬-I¿-a-߃- A-Xv- [¿-ak-ac
- t- am- Zm-\[
- ¿-at- am- a-X- {]-t_m-[\
- t- am- F-¥p-Xs
- ∂-bm-sW¶n-epw- \n-j-^
v- -e-am-sW-∂m-Wv- {]-hm-N-I-h-N-\-Øn-ep-≈-Xv.hn-\-bw,- em-fn-Xyw-,- ]-tcm-]-Im-cw- Xp-S-ßn-b- k-Zv-Kp-W-ßfm-Wv- H-cm-fp-sS- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\v- am-‰v- Iq-´p-∂- a-‰-p-- Im-cy-߃.{]-hm-N-I- Po-hn-Xw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬- C-Ø-c-Ønep-≈- H-t´-sd- kz-`m-h- Kp-W-ß-fp-sS- `q-an-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p- AsX∂v- Im-Wmw.- kz-`m-h-Kp-W-߃- sIm-≠p-am-{Xw- Xn-cp-ta-\n-bnte-°v- B-I¿-jn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- C-kv-emw- B-t«-jn-°p-I-bpwsN-bv-X-h¿- A-\-h-[n-bm-Wv.- Xm¶ƒ- D-Ø-a- kz-`m-h-Øn-s≥-dD-S-a-bm-Wv- F-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- hn-ti-jn-∏n-®- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- (A)bp-sS- Po-hn-X-Øn¬- hy-Iv-X-n-Xz- hn-I-k-\w- B-{K-ln-°p-∂h¿°v- A-Xp-ey-am-b- am-Xr-I-bp-≠v.-

D-Ø-cwlm-^n-kv- A-_v-Zp¬- A-en,- C-S-h-

]q¿-h- N-{I-hm-fw- X-∂n-e¿-°-s\-Øn- t\m-°-sh-,]m-cn-s\-sbm-fn-™p-t\m-°n- ]p-©n-cn- hn-X-d-sh-,k-a-kv-X- tem-Ikr-jv-Sn-]-cn-]m-e-I-s\- I-≠p-Rm≥an-gn-°v- ap-∂n-em-bv- sX-fn-™- k¿-h-kr-jv-Sn-Pm-e-an¬-!C-º-am¿-∂- {ip-Xn-Iƒ-ao-´n- ]-£n-Iƒ- ]m-Sp-∂-Xp-wC-c-ºn-bm¿-Ø-e-®n-Sp-∂- km-K-c-Øn-s∂m-®-bpwkp-J-X-tem-S-em-bn- h-∂n-Sp-∂- sX-∂¬- \m-Z-hpwk¿-h-]-cn-]m-e-I-s≥-d- Io¿-Ø-\-ß-f-√-tbm-!B-cp-b¿-Øn-hm-\-tem-Iw- kv-Xw-`-an-√m- co-Xn-bn¬?B-cp-in¬-]n- kq-cy-N-{µ-Xm-c-I-߃- X-∂p-sS?B-cp- ]q-in- N-m-cp-X-bm¿-∂p-≈- h¿-Ww- ]q-°-fn¬-?B-hp-tam- a-\p-jy-\n-Xn-s\m-s°-b-¥y-\mƒ-h-sc?-!-

A-`w-Kp-cw- N-en-®n-Sp-∂,- \mw- h-kn-°pw- `q-an-bpwA-£n-Iƒ-°-Xo-X-amw- A-\-¥-amw- {K-l-ß-fpwAw-_-c-Øn-\p-Ω-\¬-In-Spw- Kn-cn-\n-c-I-fpwB-cp-sa- ]-S-®n-Sm-sX- Xm-s\-bp¨-a-bm¿-∂-tXm?iq-\y-X-bn¬- \n-∂n-sXm-s°- bpXv-`-hn-®p-sh-∂-Xvip-\y-am-b- _p-≤n-bp-≈-h-s≥-d- hm-Z-a-√-tbm-!A-Jn-e-hpw- ]-S-®- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\m-b \m-Y-s\A-h-K-Wn-®n-Sp-∂-sX-¥p-bp-Iv-Xn-bm-Wv- tkm-Z-cm?kzm¿-Y-\m-bn- \o-b-S-®,- \n-s≥-d- Nn-¥m-Pm-e-Iwk-a-b-am-bv,- Xp-d-°p-hm≥- sh-fn-®-sa-ßp-sa-Øp-hm≥
kz¿-K-cm-Pyw- \m-sf- \n-s≥-d- tK-l-am-°n- am-‰p-hm≥k-I-e-a-dn-bp-s∂m-tc-I- \m-Y-s\- h-W-ßn-Sq.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

77

]m-gm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw{_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-ß-fpw-

A-_v-Zp√- Pn-Pn- tPm¿-Pv""ssZ-hw- ho-≠p-w- A-cp-ƒ-sN-bv-Xp:- "\-ap-°v- \-Ωp-sS- Om-b-bn-epw- km-Zr-iy-Øn-epw- a\p-

H-cp- C-W-tbm-sSm-Øp-≈- Po-hn-XwF-sXm-cp- a-\p-jy-s≥-d-bpw- B-{Kl-hpw- B-h-iy-hp-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬{In-kv-Xp-a-X-Ø-n¬- I-\ym-{h-X-a-m-Ncn-°p-∂- kv-{Xo-I-fpw- {_-“-N-cy-a-\pjv-Tn-°p-∂- ]p-cp-j-∑-m-cp-ap-≠v.C-Xn-\v- ss_-_n-f-n-s≥d]n≥-_-e-ap-t≠m?H-cp- hn-i-I-e-\w-

jy-s\- kr-jv-Sn-°mw.- A-h¿-°v- I-S-en-se- a-Xv-ky-ß-fp-sS-ta-epw- B-Im-i-Øn-se- ]-d-hI-fp-sS-bpw- \m¬-Im-en-I-fp-sS-bpw- `q-an- ap-gp-h-s≥-d-bpw- `q-an-bn¬- C-g-bp-∂- k¿-h- Po-hnX-I-fp-sS-bpw-taepw- - B-[n-]Xyw- D-≠m-bn-cn-°-s´'-.- A-ß-s\- ssZ-hw- X-s≥-d- Om-b-bn¬a-\p-jy-s\- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- Om-b-bn¬- A-hn-Sp-∂v- A-h-s\- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- kv{Xobpw- ]p-cp-j-\p-am-bn- A-h-sc- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- ssZ-hw- A-h-sc- C-ß-s\- A\p-{K-ln-®p.- "\n߃- k-¥m-\- ]p-jv-Sn-bp-≈-h-cm-bn- s]-cp-Ip-hn≥.- `q-an-bn¬- \n-d-™v- A-Xn-s\- Io-g-S-°phn≥.- I-S-en-se- a-Xv-ky-ß-fp-sS-bpw- B-Im-i-Øn-se- ]-d-h-I-fp-sS-bpw- `q-an-bn¬- N-cn-°p∂- k-I-e- Po-hn--I-fp-sS-bpw-ta¬- \n-߃-°v- B-[n-]-Xyw- D-≠m-bn-cn-°-s´'' (D¬-]-Øn]p-kv-X-Iw- 1:- 26˛29)-.- ""ssZ-h-am-b- I¿-Øm-hv- A-cp-ƒ-sN-bv-Xp-:- "a-\p-jy≥- G-I-\m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- \-∂-√.A-h-\v- tN¿-∂- C-W-sb- Rm≥- \¬-Ipw'-.- ssZ-h-a-m-b- I¿-Øm-hv- `q-an-bn-se- k-I-e- ar-Kß-sf-bpw- B-Im-i-Øn-se- k-I-e- ]-£n-I-sf-bpw- a-Æn¬-\n-∂pw- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øn.- A-h-bv°v- a-\p-jy≥- F-¥v- t]-cn-Sp-sa-∂v- A-dn-bm≥- A-hn-Sp-∂v- A-h-sb- A-h-s≥-d- ap-ºn¬- sIm≠p-h-∂p.- a-\p-jy≥- hn-fn-®-Xv- A-h-bv-°v- t]-cm-bn-Øo¿-∂p.- F-√m- I-∂p-Im-en-Iƒ-°pwB-Im-i-Øn-se- ]-d-h-Iƒ-°pw- h-b-en-se- ar-K-߃-°pw- A-h≥- t]-cn-´p.- F-∂m¬- X-\n°v- C-W-ßn-b- C-W-sb- I-≠n-√.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- ssZ-h-am-b- I¿-Øm-hv- a-\p-jy-s\- Km-V\n-{Z-bn-em-gv-Øn.- D-d-ßn-°n-S-∂- A-h-s≥-d- hm-cn-sb-√p-I-fn¬-\n-∂pw- H-∂v- F-Sp-Ø-Xn-\pti-jw- A-hn-Sw- amw-kw-sIm-≠v- aq-Sn.- a-\p-jy-\n¬-\n-∂v- F-Sp-Ø- hm-cn-sb-√p-sIm-≠v- Ahn-Sp-∂v- H-cp- kv{- Xo-°v- cq-]w-sIm-Sp-Øp.- A-hs
- f- A-hs
- ≥-d- ap-ºn¬- sIm-≠p-h∂
- p.- At∏mƒA-h≥- ]-d-™p-:- "HSp-hn¬- C-Xm- F-s≥-d- A-kv-Ynbn¬-\n-∂p-≈- A-kv-Yn-bpw- amw-kØn¬-\n-∂p-≈- amw-k-hpw'-.- \-c-\n¬-\n-∂pw- F-Sp-°-s∏-´-Xp-sIm-≠v- \m-cn-sb-∂v- C-hƒhn-fn-°-s∏-Spw-.- A-Xn-\m¬- ]p-cp-j≥- am-Xm-]n-Xm-°-sf- hn-´v- `m-cy-tbm-Sv- tN-cpw.- A-h¿H‰- i-co-c-am-bn-Øo-cpw'-' (D¬-]-Øn- 2:-18˛25).""A-hn-Sp-∂v- tNm-Zn-®p-:- "\o- \-Kv-\-\m-sW-∂v- \n-t∂m-Sv- B-cv- ]-d-™p?- Xn-∂-cp-sX-∂vRm≥- I¬-]n-®- hr-£-Øn-s≥-d- ]-gw- \o- Xn-t∂m'-?- A-h≥- ]-d-™p-:- "A-ßv- F-\n-°vIq´n-\p-X-∂- kv-{Xo- B- a-c-Øn-s≥-d- ]-gw- F-\n-°v- X-∂p.- Rm≥- A-Xv- Xn-∂p'-.- ssZ-hkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

78
amb- I¿-Øm-hv- kv-{Xo-tbm-Sv- tNm-Zn-®p:-"- \o- F-¥m-Wv- Cu- sN-bv-X-Xv-'?- A-hƒ- ]-d™p-:- "k¿-]w- F-s∂- h-©n-®p.- Rm≥- ]-gw- Xn-∂p'- (D¬-]-Øn- 3:-12,-13)-.
- A-tX- A-[ym-bw- 16˛mw- hm-Iyw-:- ""A-hn-Sp-∂v- kv-{Xo-tbm-Sv- ]-d-™p-:- \n-s≥-dK¿-`m-cn-jv-S-X-Iƒ- Rm≥- h¿-[n-∏n-°pw.- \-o- th-Z-\-tbm-sS- Ip-™p-ß-sf- {]-k-hn°pw.- F-¶n-epw- \n-\-°v- `¿-Øm-hn¬- A-`n-em-j-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°pw.- A-h≥- \n-s∂- `-cn°p-I-bpw- sN-øpw''-.ta¬-hn-h-cn-®- ss_-_nƒ- `m-K-߃- ]-cm-a¿-in-®-Xv- a-\p-jy-kr-jv-Sn-bpw- AXn¬C-W-°v- ]-c-a- Im-cp-Wn-I-\m-b- ssZ-hw- \¬-In-bn-cn-°p-∂- {]m-[m-\y-hpw- a-\- n-em°p-∂-Xn-\v- th-≠n-bm-Wv.- I-tØm-en-°m- k-`-bn¬- A-t\-Im-bn-cw- k-tlm-Z-cn-am¿\q-‰m-≠p-I-fm-bn- A-\p-jv-Tn-®p-t]m-cp-∂- I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw- A-Xn-\v- A-h-sc- t{]-cn∏n-°p-∂h
- ¿- ]-db
- p-∂- \ym-bh
- m-Zß
- f
- n-se- s]m-ů
- c
- ß
- fpw- ss_-_n-fn-s≥-d- Xs∂sh-fn-®-Øn¬- H-cp- ]p-\¿-hn-Nn-¥-\-Øn-\v- hn-t[-b-am-°p-I-sb-∂- D-t±-i-tØm-sSbp-am-Wv C-sX-gp-Xp-∂-Xv.ssZ-h-am-b- I¿-Øm-hv- a-\p-jy-s\- kr-jv-Sn-®-ti-jw- A-h-s\- A-\p-{K-ln-®p-sIm≠v- ]-d-™-Xv- \mw- -hm-bn-®p.- a-\p-jy- kr-jv-Sn-bn¬- kv-{Xo-bpw- ]p-cp-j-\pw- ]-c-kv]c- ]q-c-I-ß-fm-Wv- F-∂pw- A-h¿- A-t\ym-\yw- C-W-I-fm-bn- Po-hn-°-W-sa-∂pwk-¥m-\-]p-jv-Sn-bp-≈-h-cm-bn- `q-an-bn¬- \n-d-™v- A-Xn-s\- Io-g-S-°-W-sa-∂pam-WvssZ-hw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv.- k-¥m-\-ß-sf- {]-k-hn-°p-I- F-∂- a-l-Øm-b- Zu-Xyw- ssZ-ham-b- I¿-Øm-hv- kv-{Xo-sb- B-Wv G¬-]n-®n-´p-≈-Xv.- k¿-]-cq-]n-bm-b- km-Øm-\m¬h-©n-°-s∏-´v- ssZ-hI¬-]-\- [n-°-cn-®- B-Z-an(A)-s≥-d- `m-cy-bm-b- l-∆-°v- - ssZhw- in-£- hn-[n-®- `m-K-hpw- \mw- hm-bn-®p.- A-Xn¬- kv-{Xo-°v- K¿-`m-cn-jv-S-X-Iƒ- h¿[n-°p-I-bpw- th-Z-\-tbm-sS- Ip-™p-ß-sf- {]-k-hn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øm≥- I¿-Øm-hmbssZ-hw- I¬-]n-®p.- F-¶n-epw- \n-\-°v- `¿-Øm-hn¬- A-`n-em-j-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°pw.- Ah≥- \n-s∂- `-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-øpw- F-∂- k-am-izm-k-hpw- \¬-In.- C-Xv- kq-Nn-∏n-°p∂-Xv- a-\p-jy-h¿-K-Øn-\v- \n-e-\n¬-]v- \¬-In-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- ]-c-kv-]-cw- C-W-I-fm-bp≈- kv-{Xo-bp-sS-bpw- ]p-cp-j-s≥-d-bpw- Po-hn-X-{I-aw- h-gn-bm-Wv- F-∂-t√?-- A-Xm-Wt√m- B-Zy-am-bn- kv-{Xo-sb- ap-ºn¬- \n¿-Øn-b-t∏mƒ- B-Zw- (K)- C-ß-s\- ]-d-™Xm-bn- D¬-]-Øn- ]p-kv-X-Iw- km-£yw- \¬-Ip-∂-Xv:- -""H-Sp-hn¬- C-Xm- F-s≥-d- A-kvYn-bn¬-\n-∂p-≈- A-kv-Yn-bpw- amw-k-Øn¬-\n-∂p-≈- amw-k-hpw.....- ]p-cp-j≥- am-Xm]n-Xm-°-sf- hn-´v- `m-cy-tbm-Sv- tN-cpw.- A-h¿- H-‰- i-co-c-am-bn-Øo-cpw''-.- C-Xv- a-\p-jyh¿-K-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-in-e-bm-Wv.ItØm-en-°m-k-`-bn-se- H-cp-]m-Sv- \n-c-]-cm-[n-I-fm-b s]¨-Ip-´n-I-sf- {]-Ir-Xnhn-cp-≤-hpw- ss_-_n-fn-s≥-d- B-i-b- kw-ln-X-I-fn-se-hn-sS-bpw- I-s≠-Øm≥- I-gnbm-ØXpw-,-- "{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-am¿'- F-∂- s]m-bv-hm-Kv-Zm-\-hp-am-bn- I-\ym{h-Xw- F-∂ t]-cn¬- I-\ym-a-T-ß-fp-sS- a-Xn-ep-Iƒ-°p-≈n¬- X-f-®n-Sp-∂- {Iq-c-am-b-A-\m-Nm-c-tØm-Sv- _p-≤n-bpw- Nn-¥m-ti-jn-bp-ap-≈-,- G-I-ssZ-h-Øn-epw- A-h-s≥-dhn-[n-hn-e-°p-I-fn-epw- A-h-s≥-d- {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- Cu-km-\-_n-(K)-bn-epw- hn-iz-kn°p-∂-h¿- {]-Xn-I-cn-t°-≠- k-a-bw- A-Xn-{I-an-®n-cn-°-p-∂p.I-\ym-{h-Xw- A-\p-jvT
- n-°p-∂- km-[p-°f
- m-b- Hm-tcm-cp-Øc
- pw- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- \n߃Hm-tcm-cp-Ø-cpw- B-cp-sS-tbm- X-e-bn-ep-Zn-®,-- ss_-_n-fp-am-tbm- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-Øn¬{In-kv-Xp-sh-∂v- hn-fn-°p-∂- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-\-ß-fp-am-tbm- bm-sXmcp- A-Snkv-Ym-\-hp-an-√m-Ø-,- tb-ip-sh-∂- {In-kv-Xp- H-cn-°-epw- ]-cm-a¿-in-®-Xm-bn- ss_-_nfn-sem-cp- sN-dp-kq-N-\-t]m-ep-an-√m-Ø- H-cp- s]m-bv-hm-Kv-Zm-\-Øn-s≥-d- t]-cn-em-WvI-gn-bp-∂X
- v.- ssZ-ha
- m-b- I¿-Øm-hv- I-\n-™v- \¬-In-b- a-lØ
- m-b- H-c\
- p-{K-lw- ]mgm°n-°-f-bp-I-bm-Wv- \n-߃- s-- N-øp-∂-Xv.- am-Xr-Xzw˛- A-Xm-Wv- H-cp- kv-{Xo-°v- C-ltem-I-Øv- \¬-I-s∏-´-Xn¬- G-‰-hpw- a-l-Øm-b- A-\p-{K-lw.- A-Xv- ]m-gm-°n-°-f™n-´v- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\-\m-fn¬- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-bm-Imw- F-∂-Xv- H-cp- ]m-gv°n-\m-hv- am-{X-am-Wv.- Im-c-Ww- tb-ip- H-cn-°-epw- A-ß-s\- H-cp- hm-Kv-Zm-\w- Xm≥{]-t_m-[-\w- sN-bv-X- C-{km-tb¬- k-aq-l-Øn\p- \-¬-In-b-Xm-bn- ss_-_n-fn¬- ]cma¿-i-an-√.- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\- \m-fn¬- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-I-fm-Imw- F-∂v- ]m-gv-°n\m-hv- Im-Wp-∂- k-tlm-Z-cn-am-tc,-- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\- \m-fn-s\-∏-‰n-bpw- hn-hm-l-sØ-∏-‰nbpw- tb-ip- ]-d-™-Xm-bn- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-Øn¬- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- Fkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

79
¥msW∂v- - t\m-°p-I.a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw- 22˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 23 ap-X-ep-≈- hm-Iy-߃- ImWpI:- ""]p-\-cp-∞-m-\-an-s√-∂p- ]-d-bp-∂- k-Zq-°n--b¿- A-∂p-X-s∂- A-h-s\- k-ao-]n®v- tNm-Zn-®p-:- "Kp-tcm,- H-cp-h≥- k-¥m-\-an-√m-sX- a-cn-®m¬- A-h-s≥-d- k-tlm-Z-c≥B- hn-[-h-sb- hn-hm-lw- sN-bv-Xv- k-tlm-Z-c-\v- k-¥m-\-ß-sf- D¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°-W-sa∂v- tams-i- A-\p-im-kn-®n-´p-≠v.- R-ß-fp-sS- C-S-bn¬- G-gv- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m-cp-≠m-bncp-∂p.- H-∂m-a≥- hn-hm-lw- sN-bv-Xp.- k-¥m-\-an-√m-sX,-- `m-cy-sb- k-tlm-Z-c-\v- hn-´psIm-≠v- A-h≥- a-c-W-a-S-™p.- C-ß-s\-Ø-s∂- c-≠m-a-\pw- aq-∂m-a-\pw- G-gm-a≥-hsc-bpw.- A-h-km-\w- B- kv-{Xo-bpw- a-c-W-a-S-™p.- A-Xn-\m¬- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\-\m-fn¬A-hƒ- Cu- G-gp-t]-cn¬- B-cp-sS- `m-cy-bm-bn-cn-°pw?- A-h¿-s°-√mw- A-hƒ- `m-cybm-bn-cp-∂n-´p-≠-t√m!' tb-ip- a-dp-]-Sn- ]-d-™p-:- "hn-ip-≤-en-Jn-X-ß-tfm- ssZ-h-Øns≥-d- i-Iv-Xn-tbm- a-\- n-em-°m-Ø-Xn-\m¬- \n-߃-°v- sX-‰-p-]-‰n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- ]p-\cp-∞m- \
- Ø
- n¬- A-h¿- hn-hm-lw- sN-øp-It- bm- sN-bvX
- p-sIm-Sp-°p-It- bm- C-√.- ]ns∂tbm,-- A-h¿- kz-¿-K-Zq-X-∑m-sc-t∏-m-se-bm-bn-cn-°pw''-.am-¿-t°m-kn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-jw- 12˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 18 ap-X¬- 27h-sc-bp-≈- hmIyßfn-epw-,- eq-t°m-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw- 20˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 27 ap-X¬- 40h-sc-bp-≈hmIy-ßfn-epw- C-°m-cyw- hm-bn-°mw.- Cu- kp-hn-ti-j- `m-Kß
- ƒ- hm-bn-°p-∂- GsXmcmƒ-°pw- a-\- n-em-hp-I- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\- \m-fn¬- hn-hm-l-tam- h-[q-h-c-∑m-tcm- (a-Whm-f-\pw- a-W-hm-´n-bpw)- D-≠m-hp-I-bn-s√-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv.- ]n-s∂-sb-ß-s\- I-\ym{h-X-a-\p-jv-Tn-®v- ]p-\-cp-∞-m-\-\m-fn¬- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-bm-Im≥- k-tlm-Z-cnam-tc- \n-߃-°v- I-gn-bpw?- tb-ip-hn¬- (Cu-km-\-_n)- ssZ-h-]p-{X-kv-Ym-\w- A-Snt®¬-]n-°m≥- {i-an-®-h-cp-sS- kzm¿-Y-Xm¬-]-cy-ß-fpw- Ip-Sn-e- _p-≤n-bp-am-Wv- \n-c]-cm-[n-I-fm-b- A-t\-Iw- km-[p-k-tlm-Z-cn-am-sc- I-\ym-{h-Xw- A-\p-jv-T-n-®m¬- A¥yZn-\-Øn¬- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-am-cm-Imw- F-∂- a-co-Nn-I-bn¬- X-f-®n-´-Xv.I-\ym-{h-Xw- Xn-I-®pw- {]-Ir-Xn-hn-cp-≤-hpw- ssZ-hw- `-c-ta¬-]n-®- Np-a-X-e-I-fn¬\n-∂p-≈- H-fn-t®m-´-hpw- X-∑q-ew- ssZ-h-\n-tj-[-hp-am-Ip-∂p.- A-\-¥-Z-bm-ep-hpw- ]-ca-Im-cp-Wn-I-\p-am-b- G-I-ssZ-h-sØ- ]n-Xm-hpw- ]p-{X-\pw- ]-cn-ip-≤m-Xv-am-hp-sa-∂vhn-`-Pn-°p-I-bpw- {Xn-Xz-sa-∂- G-I-Xzw- kv-Ym-]n-°m≥- {i-an-°p-I-bpw- H-∏w- A-\-¥Z-bm-ep-hm-b- ssZ-h-Øm¬- A-b-°-s∏-´- {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- tb-ip-hn¬- ssZ-h-]p-{Xkv-Ym-\w- B-tcm-]n-°p-I-bpw- A-Sn-t®¬-]n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂- k-`m-[n-Im-cn-Iƒ°vC-Xn-\pw- \ym-bo-I-c-W-ß-fp-≠m-Ipw.- A-Xv- ]-t£,- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-\-ß-fnem-hn-√,- a-dn-®v- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- \in-∏n-°m≥- {i-an-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn\m-bn- am-\-km-¥-c-sa-∂- I-≈-°-Y-bp-≠m-°n- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- in-jy-{]-ap-J- kv-Ym\wA-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-I-bpw- B-[p-\n-I- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- kv-Ym-]-I-\m-hp-I-bpw- sNbvX- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-\-ß-fn-em-hpw.]u-tem-kv- tIm-dn-t¥m-kp-Im¿-°v- F-gp-Xn-b- H-∂mw- te-J-\w- 7˛mw- A-[ym-bØn-em-Wv- ]u-tem-km-b- km-hqƒ- hn-hm-l-_-\v-[-sØ-∏-‰n- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- D-Zvt_m-[n-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- A-X-√m-sX- ss_-_n-fn¬- H-cn-S-Øpw-˛ ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-Øn-tem]-gb
- \
- n-ba
- Ø
- n-tem-˛ I-\ym-{h-Xw- F-∂- t]-cn-ep-≈- {]-Ir-Xn-hn-cp-≤h
- pw- ssZ-h- \ntj[-I-c-hp-am-b- Cu- A-\m-Nm-c-Øn-\v- H-cp- sX-fn-hp-an-√.- k-`-m-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- -G-‰-hpwkzm-[o-\n-®, t-- b-ip-hn-s≥-d- injy-\-√m-Ø,-- hn-Pm-Xo-b-cp-sS- A-t∏m-kv-X-e≥- F-∂vkz-bw- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂- ]u-tem-kv- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ-°v- hn-hm-l-sØ-∏-‰n-bp-≈kz¥w- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sv- hn-h-cn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I.- ]u-tem-kv- tIm-dn-t¥m-kpIm¿-°v- F-gp-Xn-b- H-∂mw- te-J-\w- G-gmw- A-[ym-bw- H-∂v- ap-X-ep-≈- hm-Iy-߃-:""C-\n- \n-߃- F-gp-Xn-t®m-Zn-®- Im-cy-ß-sf-∏-‰n- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-°mw.- kv-{Xo-sb- kv-]¿in-°m-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- ]p-cp-j-\p- \-√-Xv.- F-∂m¬- hy-`n-Nm-cw- sN-øm≥- {]-tem-`\-߃- D-≠m-Im-sa-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v- ]p-cp-j-\v- `m-cy-bpw- kv-{Xo-°v- `¿-Øm-hpw- D-≠mbn-cn-°-s´.- `¿-Øm-hv- `m-cy-tbm-Sp-≈- Zm-º-Xy-[¿-aw- \n-d-th-‰-Ww.- A-Xp-t]m-se-Øs∂- `m-cy-bpw.- `m-cy-bp-sS- i-co-c-Øn¬- A-hƒ-°-√- A-[n-Im-cw,-- `¿-Øm-hn-\m-Wv.A-Xp-t]m-se-Ø-s∂- `¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- i-co-c-Ønt∑¬- A-h-\-√-,- `m-cy-°m-Wv- A-[nIm-cw.- {]m¿-Y-\m- Po-hn-X-Øn-\m-bn- C-cp-h-cpw- Xo-cp-am-\n-°p-∂- Ip-sd-°m-e-tØ-°√m-sX- ]-ck
- ]
v- c
- w- \¬-tI-≠- A-hI
- m-iß
- ƒ- \n-tj-[n-°c
- p-Xv.- A-Xn-\p-ti-jw- H∂n®vkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

80
tN-cp-I-bpw- th-Ww.- A-√m-Ø-]-£w- kw-b-a-\-°p-d-hv- \n-an-Øw- ]n-im-Nv- \n-ß-sf{]-tem-`n-∏n-°pw.- C-Xv- H-cp- B-\p-Iq-ey-am-bn-´m-Wv- Rm≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv,- I¬-]-\-bmbn-´-√.- F-√m-h-cpw- F-s∂-t∏-m-se- B-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬- F-∂v- Rm≥- B-in-°p-∂p.F∂m¬- ssZ-h-Øn¬-\n-∂v- Hm-tcm-cp-Ø¿-°pw- {]-tXy-I- Zm-\-ß-fm-W-t√m- e-`n-°p∂-Xv.- A-hn-hm-ln-X-tcm-Spw- hn-[-h-I-tfm-Spw- Rm≥- ]-d-bp-∂p:-- F-s∂-t∏-m-se- B-bncn-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- A-h¿-°p- \-√-Xv.- F-∂m¬- kw-b-a-\w- km-[y-a-√m-Ø-h¿- hn-hm-lwsN-ø-s´.- hn-Im-cw-sIm-≠v- Z-ln-°p-∂-Xn-s\-°mƒ- hn-hm-ln-X-cm-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv- \-√Xv''.Cu- `m-Kw- hm-bn-°p-∂- H-cmƒ-°pw- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- A-`n-{]m-b-sØ-∏-‰n-tbm\n-e-]m-Sp-I-sf-∏-‰n-tbm- J-Wv-Un-X-am-b- A-`n-{]m-bw- kz-cq-]n-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√.- H-tck-a-bw- hn-hm-l-sØ- F-Xn¿-°p-I-bpw- A-tX-t]m-se- A-\p-Iq-en-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp∂- \n-e-]m-Sv!-- ]u-tem-kv- hn-hm-l-sØ- A-\p-Iq-en-°p-∂-Xv- ssZ-hw- {]-]-©-Ønte¿-s]-Sp-Øn-b- k-¥m-\- ku-`m-Ky-Øn-\-√,- a-dn-®v- hn-Im-c-]-c-am-b- H-cm-h-iyw- F∂\n-e-bn¬- am-{X-am-Wv.- A-tX- ]u-tem-kp-X-s∂- ]-d-bp-∂p- "F-√m-h-cpw- F-s∂-t∏-mse- B-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ F-∂v- R-m≥- B-i-n-°p-∂p'- A-Xm-b-Xv- A-hn-hm-ln-X-cm-bncp-s∂-¶n¬- F-∂v!- C-h-n-sS-sbm-cp- kw-i-bw- D-Zn-°p-I- kzm-`m-hn-Iw- am-{X-am-Wv.- {Inkv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂- ]u-tem-kn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- F-√m-h-cpw- ]utem-sk-∂- km-hq-fn-s≥-d- D-]-tZ-iw- kzo-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- A-hn-hm-ln-X-cm-bn-cn-°p-Ibpw- sN-bv-Xm¬- A-h-cp-sS- B- X-e-ap-d-Itfm-sS- {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- F-∂- ]u-temkn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- A-\yw-\n-∂v- t]m-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-t√?- A-Y-hm- B-sc-¶n-epwP-\n-®m¬- A-Xv- hy-`n-Nm-c-Øn-ep-≈- P-\-\-am-hp-I-bn-t√?G-gmw- A-[ym-bw- 25˛mw- hmIyw- ap-X¬- 35 h-sc- Im-Wp-I-- :-- ""A-hn-hm-ln-X-sc∏‰n- I¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- I¬-]-\-sbm-∂pw- F-\n-°v- e-`n-®n-´n-√.- F-∂m¬- hn-iz-kv-X-\mbn-cn-°p-hm≥- I¿-Øm-hn¬-\n-∂v- I-cp-W- e-`n-®-h≥- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬- F-s≥-d- A-`n{]m-bw- Rm≥- ]-d-bp-∂p.- B-k-∂-am-b- hn-]-Xv-k-\v-[n- I-W-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ- Hmtcm-cp-Ø-cpw- C-t∏m-g-sØ- \n-e-bn¬- Xp-Scp-∂-Xm-bn-cn-°pw- \-√-sX-∂v- Rm≥- I-cpXp-∂p.- \-o- k`m-cy-\m-sW-¶n¬- kz-X-{¥-\m-hm≥- {i-an-t°-≠.-- hn-`m-cy-\m-sW-¶n¬hn-hm-ln-X-\m-hp-I-bpw- th-≠.- \o-- hn-hm-lw- I-gn-°p-s∂-¶n¬- A-Xn¬- ]m-]-an-√.I-\y-I- hn-hm-ln-X-bm-bm¬- A-h-fpw- ]m-]w- sN-øp-∂n-√- F-∂n-cn-°n-epw- hn-hm-lnX-cm-Ip-∂-h¿-°v- eu-In-I-t¢-i-߃- D-≠m-Ipw.- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- \n-ß-sf- H-gn-hm-°m\m-Wv- F-s≥-d- {i-aw.- k-tlm-Z-c-tc,-- k-a-bw- ]-cn-an-X-am-Wv.- C-\n-ta¬- `m-cy-am-cp-≈h¿- C-√m-Ø-h-sc-t∏-m-se-bpw- (C-Xv- B-Zy-sØ- \n-e-]m-Sn-\v- I-S-I-hn-cp-≤-am-Wv˛teJ-I≥-)- hn-e-]n-°p-∂-h¿- hn-e-]n-°m-Ø-h-sc-t∏-m-se-bpw- B-Àm-Zn-°p-∂-h¿- BÀm-Zn-°m-Ø-h-sc-t∏-m-se-bpw- hm-ßp-∂-h¿- H-∂pw- ssI-h-i-an-√m-Ø-h-sc-t∏-m-sebpw- tem-I-Im-cy-ß-fn¬- C-S-s]-Sm-Ø-h-sc-bpw- t]m-se-bm-bn-cn-°-s´-.- F-s¥-∂m¬Cu- tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- cq-]-`m-h-߃- am-dn-a-dn-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- \n-߃-°v- D-XvI-Wv-T-bp-≠m-h-cp-Xv- F-∂v- Rm≥- B-{K-ln-°p-∂p.- A-hn-hm-ln-X≥- I¿-Øm-hn-s\F-ß-s\- kw-{]o-X-\m-°m-sa-∂v- Nn-¥n-®v- I¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- Im-cy-ß-fn¬- X¬-]-c-\mIp-∂p.- hn-hm-ln-X≥- kz-`m-cy-sb- F-ß-s\- {]o-Xn-s∏-Sp-Ø-mw- F-∂v- Nn-¥n-®v- euInI-Im-cy-ß-fn¬- X-¬-]-c-\m-Ip-∂p.- A-h-s≥-d- Xm¬-]-cy-߃- hn-`-Pn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p.- A-hn-hm-ln-X-bm-b- kv-{Xo-bpw- I-\y-I-bpw- B-Xv-am-hn-epw- i-co-c-Øn-epw- hnip≤n-- ]m-en-°m-\m-bn- I¿-Øm-hn-s≥-d- Im-cy-ß-fn¬- X¬-]-c-cm-Wv.- hn-hm-ln-X-bmbkv-{Xo-bm-I-s´- `¿-Øm-hn-s\- F-ß-s\- k-t¥m-jn-∏n-°m-sa-∂p- Nn-¥n-®v- eu-In-IIm-cy-ß-fn¬- X¬-]-cbm-Ip-∂p.- Rm≥- C-Xv- ]-d-bp-∂v- \n-ß-fp-sS- \-∑-°v- th-≠nbm-Wv.- \n-ß-fp-sS- kzm-X-{¥y-sØ- X-S-bm-\-√;-- {]-Xyp-X- \n-߃-°v- D-Nn-X-am-b- PohnX-{I-a-hpw- I¿-Øm-hn-s\- G-Im-{K-am-bn- ip-{iq-jn-°m≥- A-h-k-c-hpw- D-≠m-Im≥th-≠n-bm-Wv''-.C-Xv- hm-bn-°p-∂- H-cmƒ-°v- ip-`m-]v-Xn-hn-izm-kn-bm-b- H-cp- {]-t_m-[-I-s\-b-√,a-dn-®v- \n-cm-i-\pw- H-∏w- Kq-V-am-b- Nn-e- e-£y-߃- t\-Sm-\m-bn- Ip-dp-°p-h-gn- kzoI-cn-°p-∂- H-cp- C-Sp-ßn-b- a-\- p-≈- a-\p-jy-s\-bm-Wv Im-Wm-\m-hp-I.- hn-hm-ln-Xcm-Ip-∂-Xpw- `m-cy-tbm-Sv- tN-cp-∂-Xpw- ]u-tem-km-b- km-hq-fn-s≥-d- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sn¬eu-In-I- t¢-i-ß-fm-Wv.- kz-¥w- A-\pbm-bn-I-sf- c-£n-°m-\p-≈- hy-{K-X-bpw- -tbiphn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- Ip-‰n-b-‰p-t]m-Ipw- F-∂- Zp-cm-{K-l-hpw- ]utem-kn-s≥-dkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

81
hn-hm-l-ho-£-W-Øn¬- Z¿-in-°mw.-tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- \-in-∏n-°m\p≈-- km-hq-fn-s≥-d- \n-Kq-VX
- {- ¥-am-hmw C-X.v- - F-√m-hc
- pw- {_-la
v- N
- m-cn-If
- m-bm¬- ]ns∂A-\-¥-c-X-e-ap-d-I-sf- \-in-∏n-°m≥- ]-p-Xn-b- km-hq-fp-am¿- B-h-iyw- h-cn-√-t√m!"ktlm-Z-c-tc,-- k-a-bw- ]-cn-an-X-am-Wv'- F-∂- ap-∂-dn-bn-∏n-eq-sS- G-‰-hpw- A-Sp-Øka-b-Øv- tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- hn-[n- \-S-∏m-°-s∏-Sp-sa-∂v- -km-hq-ƒ- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- `bs∏-Sp-ØpI-bm-hmw.--- A-ß-s\-bm-hp-tºmƒ- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- Iq-Sp-X¬- A-\p-k-c-Wbp-≈-h-cm-Ip-at√m-.-- 36 ap-X-¬- 38 h-sc-bp-≈- hm-Iy-ßfn-eq-sS-- X-s≥-d- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sv- H
∂p-Iq-Sn- D-d-∏n-°p-hm-\m-Wv- ]u-tem-km-b- km-hqƒ- {i-an-°p-∂-Xv:-- ""H-cp-h-\v- X-s≥-dI-\y-It- bm-Sv- kw-ba
- \
- t- Øm-Sp-Iq-Sn- s]-cp-am-dm≥- km-[n-°p-Ib
- ns√-∂v- tXm-∂n-bm¬A-hƒ- bu-h-\-Øn-s≥-d- h-k-¥w- ]n-∂n-´-h-sf-¶n-epw- A-\n-hm-cy-sa-¶n¬- A-h-s≥dln-X-w-t]m-se- {]-h¿-Øn-°-s´.- A-h¿- hn-hm-lw- I-gn-°-s´.- A-Xv- ]m-]-a-√.- F-∂m¬B-Xv-a-kw-b-a-\w- ]m-en-°m≥- I-gn-bp-∂-h-\m-sW-¶n¬- X-s≥-d- I-\y-I-sb- I-\y-Ibm-bn-Ø-s∂- kq-£n-°m≥- Zr--V-\n-iv-N-bw- sN-øp-s∂-¶n¬- A-h-s≥-d- {]-hr-ØnDØ-aa
- m-Wv.- X-s≥-d- I-\y-Is
- b- hn-hm-lw- sN-øp-∂h
- ≥- D-NnX-am-bn- {]-h¿-Øn-°p∂p.F-∂m¬- hn-hm-lw- sN-øm-Xn-cn-°p-∂-h≥- Iq-Sp-X¬- «m-L-\o-b-am-Wv''-.C-Xm-Wv- B-[p-\n-I- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- ]-c-am-Nm-cy-\m-b- ]u-tem-kv- F-∂km-hq-fn-s≥-d- hn-hm-l-sØ-∏-‰n-bpw- ]-c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I-\m-b- ssZ-hw- X-s≥-d- kr-jv-SnI-fn¬- D-Ø-a-\m-b- a-\p-jy-\v- \¬-In-b- C-W-tbm-sSm-Øp-≈- Po-hn-X-sØ-∏-‰n-bp-ap≈- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sv.- G-gmw- A-[ym-bw- 36˛mw- hm-Iy-Øn-s≥-d- hn-i-Zo-I-c-Ww- {]-kv-Xp-XA-[ym-b-Øn-s≥-d- Xm-sg- sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ""Cu- hm-Iyw- hn-hm-l_-\v-[-Øn¬- G¿-s]-Sm-sX- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-Xw- ]m-en-®p-sIm-≈mw- F-∂- hm-Kv-Zm-\tØm-sS- kv-{Xo-bpw- ]p-cp-j-\pw- H-cp-an-®v- Po-hn-°p-I-sb-∂- H-cp- B-Nm-c-sØ-bmhmw- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- H-cp-]-t£,- Cu-sbm-cp- Zp-cm-Nm-c-am-hmw,- B-[p-\n-I- ss{Ikv-X-h-k-aq-l-Øn-se- I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-ß-fpw.-- C-\n-bpw- {]-kv-XpX- hm-Iy-Øn-\v- c-≠v- hy-Xy-kv-X- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-߃- Iq-Sn-bp-≠v.- F-∂m¬- H-cp- ]nXmhn-\v- A-hn-hm-ln-X-bm-b- X-s≥-d- ]p-{Xn-sb- hn-hm-lw- I-gn-®p-sIm-Sp-°m-\p-≈- I-S∏m-Sn-s\-bm-Wv- C-hn-sS- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- F-t∂m- hn-hm-l- hm-Kv-Zm-\w- am-{Xw- \-S
Øn-b- kv-{Xo- ]p-cp-j-∑m¿- X-Ωn-ep-≈- _-\v-[-Øn¬- A-\p-Nn-X- k-ao-]-\-߃- H-gnhm-°m≥- I-gn-bp-∂n-s√-∂p-I-≠m¬- A-h¿- hn-hm-lw- I-gn-°-s´- F-t∂m- Cu- hmIysØ- hym-Jym-\n-°p-∂-h-cp-≠v.- C-hn-sS- A-\p-Nn-X- k-ao-]-\-߃- F-∂-Xv- kv-{Xo]p-cp-j- _-\v-[-Øn-se- A-s√-¶n¬- hn-hm-l- Po-hn-X-Øn-se- kv-{Xo-]p-cp-j- kw-tbmKam-Wv- F-∂v- a-\- n-em-°mw''-.
- ssZ-hw- A-\p-h-Zn-®p-X-∂- ]-cn-ip-≤-am-b- H-c-\p-{K-l-sØ- A-\p-Nn-X- k-ao-]-\sa-∂v- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°m≥-hn-[w- km-hqƒ- F-∂- ]u-tem-kv-,- {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- F-∂vhn-fn-°m≥- B-{K-ln-°-s∏-Sp-∂- kz-¥w- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- kzm-[o-\-h-e-b-Øn-em-°n!k-`-bn-se- hn-izm-kn-Iƒ- F-√m-h-cpw- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-hpw- I-\ym-{h-X-hpw- A-\pjvTn-®m¬- `q-an-bn¬- \n-d-™v- s]-cp-In- A-Xn-s\- Io-g-S-°p-I- F-∂- ssZ-h-I¬-]-\Fß-s\- \n-d-th-‰pw?- k-`- F-ß-s\- \n-e-\n¬-°pw?- C-sX-√mw- tN¿-Øp-hm-bn-®m¬tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-I-sf- h¿-[n-°p-∂-h-cm-Im-sX- X-S-bp-hm-\pw- h-gn-Xn-cn-®phn-Sp-hm-\p-am-Wv- A-t∏m-kv-X-e-kv-Ym-\w- kz-bw- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´- ]u-tem-sk-∂- kmhq-fn-s≥-d- {i-asa-∂p- hy-‡-am-hpw-.- A-Xn¬- A-bmƒ- H-cp- ]-cn-[n-h-sc- hn-P-bn-®psh-∂p-th-Ww- C-∂-sØ- ss{I-kv-X-h- k-tlm-Z-cn-am-cp-sS- I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw- ]p-tcmln-X-∑m-cp-sS- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-ß-fpw- Im-Wp-tºmƒ- a-\- n-em-°m≥.tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- F-∂v- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp-∂- ss{I-kv-X-h-tcm-Sv- H-cptNm-Zyw.- \n-߃- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-I-tfm?- A-tXm- ]u-tem-sk-∂- km-hqfn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-I-tfm? tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-bm-bn-Iƒ- F-∂m-Wv- D-Ø-c-sa-¶n¬H-∂v- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- tb-ip-sh-∂v- ss{I-kv-X-h¿- hn-fn-°p-∂- Cu-km-\-_n-(K)- ssZ-h]p-{X-\-√m-sb-∂v- tb-ip-X-s∂- {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂-Xv- Xn-cn-®-dn-bp-I-bpw- "{]-hm-N-I-s\{]-hm-N-I-\m-bn- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂-h-\v- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- {]-Xn-^-e-hpw- \o-Xn-am-s\- \oXnam-\m-bn- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂-h-\v- \o-Xn-am-s≥-d- {]-Xn-^-e-hpw'-- F-∂- tb-ip-h-N-\-Øns≥-d- k-Ø- Dƒ-s°m-≈p-Ibpw- sN-øp-I-.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- {]-h-N-\-߃- A-£-c-m¿Y-Øn¬- \n-d-thdp-I-bm-Wv- B-[p-\n-I- ss{I-kv-X-h- k-aq-l-Øn¬˛- {]-hm-N-I≥kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

82
kz-¥w- tZ-i-Øpw- kz-`-h-\-Øn-ep-am-Wv- A-h-a-Xn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv- F-∂- {]-h-N-\w.-- I-\ym-a-dn-bw- F-∂v- ss{I-kv-X-h¿- hn-fn-°p-∂-,- adv-bw- F-∂v- C-kv-emw- ]-cn-N-bs∏-Sp-Ø-p-∂,-- Cu-km-\-_n- (A)-bp-sS- am-Xm-hv- I-\ym-{h-Xw- A-\p-jv-Tn-°p-∂- F-√mk-tlm-Z-cn-am-cp-sS-bpw- c-£-I-bpw- BZ¿-i-hp-am-sW-∂v- {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- A-h-Imi-s∏-Sp-∂p.- a-dn-bw- \n-Xy-I\
- y-Ib
- m-sW-∂v- ss{I-kvX
- h
- ¿
- - - A-hI
- m-is
- ∏-Sp-∂p.- ss__nƒ- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-Øn-se- sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- ]-cn-tim-[n-®v- Cu- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-s≥dbm-Ym¿-Yyw- {K-ln-°m≥- {i-an-°mw.- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw- 1˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 18
ap-X¬- 25h-sc-bp-≈- hm-Iy-߃-:- ""tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- P-\-\w- C-{]-Im-c-am-bn-cp∂p.- A-h-s≥-d- am-Xm-hm-b- a-dn-b-hpw- tPm-k-^pw- X-Ωn-ep-≈- hn-hm-l- \n-iv-N-bwIgn-™n-cn-s°,- A-h¿- k-l-h-kn-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºv- Ahƒ- ]-cn-ip-≤m-Xv-am-hn-\m¬K¿-`n-Wn-bm-bn- Im-W-s∏-´p.- A-h-fp-sS- `¿-Øm-hm-b- tPm-k-^v- \o-Xn-am-\m-I-bm-epwA-h-sf- A-]-am-\n-X-bm-°m≥- C-jv-S-s∏-Sm-bv-I-bm-epw- A-h-sf- c-l-ky-am-bn- D-t]£n-°m≥- Xo-cp-am-\n-®p.- A-h≥- C-tX-Ip-dn-®v- B-tem-Nn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-s°- I¿-Ømhn-s≥-d- Zq-X≥- kz-]v-\-Øn¬- {]-Xy-£-s∏-´v- A-h-t\m-Sv- ]-d-™p-:-- Zm-ho-Zn-s≥-d- ]p{X-\m-b- tPm-k-t^,- a-dn-b-sØ- `m-cy-bm-bn- kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥- i-¶n-t°-≠.- A-hƒK¿-`w-[-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- ]-cn-ip-≤m-Xv-am-hn¬-\n-∂m-Wv.- A-hƒ- H-cp- ]p-{X-s\- {]-khn-°pw.- \o- A-h-\v- tb-ip- F-∂v- t]-cn-SW
-- w.- F-s¥-∂m¬- A-h≥- X-s≥-d- P-\-sØA-h-cp-sS- ]m-]-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- tam-Nn-∏n-°pw.- I-\y-I- K¿-`w-[-cn-®v- H-cp- ]p-{X-s\- {]khn-°pw.- ssZ-hw- \-tΩm-Sp-Iq-sS- F-∂¿-Y-ap-≈- F-Ωm-\p-th¬- F-∂v- A-h≥- hn-fn°-s∏-Spw- F-∂v- {]-hm-N-I-∑m¿- ap-tJ-\- A-cp-fn-s®-bv-X-Xv- ]q¿-Øn-bm-Im≥- th-≠nbm-Wv- C-sX-√mw- kw-`-hn-®-Xv.- tPm-k-^v- \n-{Z-bn¬-\n-∂p-W¿-∂v,- I¿-Øm-hn-s≥-dZq-X≥- I¬-]n-®-Xp-t]m-se- {]-h¿-Øn-®p.- A-h≥- X-s≥-d- `m-cy-sb- kzo-I-cn-®p.- ]p{Xs\- {]-k-hn-°p-∂-Xp-h-sc- A-h-sf- A-h≥- A-dn-™n-√''-.
- A-t∏mƒ- A-Xn-\p-ti-jw- tPm-k-^v- X-s≥-d- `m-cy-sb- A-dn-™n-cn-°pw,- A-dn™n-cn-°mw.- 1˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 25˛mw- hm-Iy-Øn-s≥-d- h-n-i-Zo-I-c-Ww- sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ""sk-an-‰n-Iv- ssi-en-b-\p-k-cn-®v- {]-k-hn-°p-∂-Xp-h-sc- F-∂v- ]-d-bptºmƒ- A-Xn-\p-ti-jw- F-¥v- kw-`-hn-®p- F-∂-Xn-s\-]∏-‰n- kq-N-\-sbm-∂p-an-√''-.
- Cu- {]-kv-Xm-h-\- A-ß-s\-Ø-s∂- sXm-≠-sXm-Sm-sX- hn-gp-ß-W-tam- A-tXmss_-_n-fn-se- Xp-S¿-∂v- h-cp-∂- A-[ym-b-ß-fn-se- hn-h-c-W-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- Im-cy-߃{K-ln-°m≥- {i-an-°-W-tam?- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw- 13˛mw A-[ym-bw- 53 apX¬56h-scbp-≈-- hm-Iy-߃- Im-Wp-I-:-""tb-ip- Cu- D-]-a-Iƒ- A-h-km-\n-∏n-®-ti-jw- A-hn-sS-\n-∂v- ]p-d-s∏-´v- kz-tZ-iØp-h-∂v- A-h-cp-sS- kn-\-tKm-Kn¬- ]-Tn-∏n-®p.- A-h¿- hn-kv-a-b-`-cn-X-cm-bn- tNm-Zn-®p:- "C-h-\v- Cu- Pv-Rm-\-hpw- i-Iv-Xn-bpw- F-hn-sS-\n-∂v?- C-h≥- B- X-®-s≥-d- a-I-\-t√?adn-b-a-t√- C-h-s≥-d- A-Ω?- bm-t°m-_v,- tPm-k-^v,- in-a-tbm≥,- bq-Zm-kv- F-∂n-h-ct√- C-h-s≥-d- k-tlm-Z-c-∑m¿?- C-h-s≥-d- k-tlm-Z-cn-am-sc-√mw- \-Ωp-sS- Iq-´-Øn-ep≠-t√m!''-- C-Xv- hm-bn-°p-∂- B¿-°pw- a-\- n-em-hp-I- a-dn-ban-\pw- - tPm-k-^n-\pwtb-ip-hn-s\°-qS- m-sX- \m-ev- ]p-{X-∑m-cpw- ]p-{Xn-am- c
- pw- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv.- CtXIm-cyw-X-s∂- a¿-t°m-kpw- (6˛mw- A-[ym-bw- H-∂p-ap-X¬- aq-∂p-h-sc- hm-Iy-߃)tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- C-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- hy-Iv-X-am-bpw- a-\- n-em-hp-I- tb-ip-hn-s\K¿-`w- [-cn-°p-tºmƒ- I-\y-I-bm-bn-cp-∂- a-dn-b-sØ- `¿-Øm-hm-b- tPm-k-^v- A-dn™n-s√-¶n-epw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- P-\-\-Øn-\v- ti-jw- X-s≥-d- `m-cy-bm-b- a-dn-b-tØm-SvtPm-k-^v- kw-k¿-K-Øn-te¿-s]-Sp-I-bpw- A-h¿-°v- ]p-{X-∑m-cpw- ]p-{Xn-am-cpw- D-≠mhp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp- F-∂-t√?- A-t∏mƒ-,- \n-Xy-I-\-y-I-bm-Wv- a-dn-bw- F-∂- ss{I-kvX-h-k-`-bp-sS- hm-Zw- \n-c¿-Y-I-a-t√?- ]p-cp-j-kw-k¿-K-ap-≠m-hp-I-bpw- k¥m-\-ßfp-≠m-hp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X- a-dn-bw- \n-Xy-I-\y-I-bm-sW-∂pw- A-h¿- F-√m- I-\ym-{h-X°m-cp-sS-bpw- c-£I
- b
- m-sW-∂pw- ]-d™
v- hn-iz-kn-∏n-®v- ]m-hw- k-tlm-Zc
- n-am-sc- I_fn-∏n-°p-I-bm-Wv sN-øp-∂-sX-∂p- hy-‡w-.- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-\-ß-sf- i-cnbmw-h-Æw- a-\- n-em-°p-I.- tb-ip- H-cn-°-epw- Xm≥- ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-Wv- F-∂v- A-hIm-i-s∏-´n-´n-√.- Xm≥- {]-hm-N-I-\m-Wv- F-∂v- B-h¿-Øn-®v- {]-Jym-]n-®n-´p-ap-≠v.aØmbn-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-jw- 15˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 24˛mw- hm-Iy-Øn¬- tb-ip- hy-Iv-X-ambpw- {]-Jym-]n-°p-∂p- "Xm≥- C-{km-tb¬- `-h-\-Øn-se- \-jv-S-s∏-´- Ip-™m-Sp-I-fpsS- A-Sp-tØ-°v- am-{X-am-Wv- A-b-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv-'- F-∂v.- a-Øm-bn-bp-sS- kp-hnti-jw- 1˛mw- A-[ym-bw- 21˛mw- hm-Iyw- Im-Wp-I-:- ""A-hƒ- H-cp- ]p-{X-s\- {]-k-hnkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

83

°pw.- \o- A-h-\v- tb-ip- F-∂v- t]-cn-S-Ww.F-s¥-∂m¬- A-h≥- X-s≥-d- P-\-sØ- Ah-cp-sS- ]m-]ß
- f
- n¬-\n-∂pw- tam-Nn-∏n-°pw''.C-{km-tb-en-s≥-d- {]-hm-N-I-\m-bn- ssZ-h\n-tbm-Kn-X-\m-b-,- I-\y-I-bm-bn-cp-∂- a-dnb-Øn¬- ssZ-h-Øm¬- D-cp-hm-°-s∏´- krjv-Sn-bm-Wv- tb-ip-.- C-Xv- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-I.{]-hm-N-I-s\- {]-hm-N-I-\m-bn- kzo-I-cn-°p∂-h\
- v- {]-hm-NI
- s
- ≥-d- {]-Xn-^e
- h
- pw- \oXnam-s\- \o-Xn-am-\m-bn- kzo-Ic
- n-°p-∂h
- \
- v- \oXn-am-s≥-d- {]-Xn-^-e-hpw- (a-Øm-bn- 10:-40,41)- F-∂- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- h-N-\w- kzo-I-cn°p-I.]p-d-∏m-Sv- ]p-kv-X-Iw- 20˛mw-A-[ym-bwH-∂v- ap-Xe
- p-≈- hm-Iy-߃- ]-cn-tim-[n-°pI.-- A-hn-sS- {Xn-Xz-tam- ssZ-ham-Xm-thm- ]cm-a¿-in-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂n-√.- G
- I
- s
- sZ-hh
- n-izm-knI-fm-hp-Ib
- pw- ssZ-hØ
- n-s≥-d- {]-hm-NI
- ∑
- m-

sc- {]-hm-NI
- ∑
- m-cm-bn- Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p-Ib
- pwB-Z-cn-°p-I-bpw- A-h-cp-sS- {]-t_m-[-\߃- t\-cm-b-hn-[w- ]n≥-]-‰p-I-bpw- sN-øp∂-h-cm-Wv- hn-[n-Zn-h-k-Øn¬- kz¿-K-{]m]v-X-cm-hp-I.- A-Xn-\m¬- ktlm-Z-c-∑m-tc,-k-tlm-Z-cn-am-tc,-- tb-ip ]-Tn-∏n-®- B-Z¿-isØ- \-in-∏n-°m\pw- A-t±-lØ
- n-s≥-d- A\p-bm-bn-I-sf- hn-Uv-Vn-I-fm-°n- \n-Xy-\-cIm-Kv-\n-bn¬- X-≈m-\p-a-m-bn- {]-Ir-Xn-°pwA-Xn-s≥-d- \n-e-\n¬-]n-\pw- F-Xn-cm-bn-´p≈- I-\ym-{h-X-ß-fpw- {_-lv-a-N-cy-{h-X-ßfpw- D-]-tZ-in-®- ]u-tem-sk-∂- km-hq-fns≥-d- B-Z¿-i-߃- D-t]-£n-®v- ssZ-hw\¬-In-b- Np-a-X-e-Iƒ- \n-dth-‰n- G-I-ssZh-sØ- am-{Xw- B-cm-[n-®v- Ah-t\-m-Sp-am{Xw- {]m¿-Yn-°p-I-bpw- k-lm-bw- tX-Sp-Ibpw- sN-øp-I.- F-¶n¬- A-¥n-a- hn-[n-Zn-hkw- Cu-km-\-_n-(K)-b-S-°w- F-√m- {]-

hm-NI
- ∑
- m-cpw- F-Øn-t®-cp-∂- kz¿-KØ
- n¬{]-th-i-\w- t\-Smw.- A-s√-¶n¬- \n-Xy-\cIm-Kv-\n-bn¬- F-dn-b-s∏-Spw.- H-cn-°-epwtb-ip-hn-s≥-d- a-W-hm-´n-bm-Im≥- I-gn-bn-√.Im-c-Ww- tb-ip-hn-t≥-d-Xm-bn- A-ß-s\sbm-cp- {]-t_m-[-\-tam- hm-Kv-Zm-\-tam- C√.- F-s≥-d- Cu- Ip-dn-∏v- A-Xv- a-\- n-em°m≥- k-lm-b-I-am-sb-¶n¬- Rm≥- kt¥m-j-hm-\m-bn.- Im-c-Ww- C-√m-Ø- hmKvZm-\-Øn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- hn-e-tb-dn-b- Po-hnXw- \-in-∏n-®v- \-c-Im-Kv-\n-bn-te-°p-≈bm{X-bn¬- F-s≥-d- c-≠v- k-tlm-Z-cn-am-cp≠v.- k-Xy-hn-izm-kn-I-fm-bn- G-I-ssZ-h-hnizm-k-Øn¬- i-c-Ww- tX-Sp-∂-h-cm-bn- Fs≥-d- kw-lm-Zc
- n-am-sc-¶n-epw- am-dn-bn-cp-s∂¶n¬.- A-Xn-\v- ]-c-a-Im-cp-Wn-I-\m-b- A-√mlp- C-S-h-cp-Ø-s´.- B-ao≥.-

sh-fn-®-Øn-te-°vF-kv.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- ap-_m-dIv- _m-J-hn- (sh-™m-d-aq-Sv)k- X y- h n- i zm- k n- s b- kw- _ - \ v [ n- ® nStØm-fw- a-\- -n-\p≈-n-se- I-cp-Øpw Dt±iip-≤n-bpw- B-cm-[-\-I-fpsS- Xp-Sn-∏m-Wv.\-ak
- I
-v m-cw,- \n¿-_\
- [
-v Z- m-\w,- {h-Xw,- lPvP,v Aw-K-ip-≤o-I-c-Ww-,- `-P-\w,- sF-On-IZm\w,- ]-c-k-lm-b-w,- -a-øn-Øv- ]-cn-]m-e-\w,A-`n-hm-Z-\w,- \-∑- D-]-tZ-in-°¬,-- £-Wwkzo- I - c n- ° ¬,- hn- P v - R m- \ - k- Z -   n¬]s¶Sp-°¬,- Ip-Spw-_-k-µ¿-i-\w,-tcm-Knsb-- k-µ¿-in-°¬-- - Xp-S-ßn- ap-gp-h≥- Imcy-ß-fn-epw- Cu- e-£y-ip-≤n- A-Xy-¥mt]-£n-X-am-Wv.- hn-ip-≤- C-kv-emw- hn-`mh-\- sN-øp-∂- km-aq-ly-˛ Ip-Spw-_-˛ hyIvXn- _-\v-[-ß-fn-se-√mw- sa-®-s∏-´- D-t±-iya
- m- W
- v- ap-Jy-hn-jb
- w.- ]-ct- em-IØ
- n-se- ]m
tY-b-ß-fm-Ip-∂- Cu- I¿-a-ß-fn¬- I-f-¶wtN¿-Øm¬- A-h≥- Xo-cm-\-jv-S-Øn-em-Ipsa-∂-Xn¬- kw-i-b-an-√.D-a¿-(J),- \-_n-(A)- A-dn-bn-®-Xm-bn- ]d-bp-∂p-:- ""{]-hr-Øn-Iƒ- D-t±-iy--a\
- p-kc
- n®mWv- I-W-°m-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- Hm-tcm- a\p-jy-\pw- A-h≥- Ip-Xn-b-tX- I-c-kv-Y-am-Iq...-..''a-\p-jy-a-\- v- H-cp- hn-f-°p-am-S-Øn-\vXp-ey-am-Wv.- k-Xy-hn-izm-kn-sb- kw-_\
- v[n
®n-St- Øm-fw- hn-izm-kØ
- n-s≥-d- {]-`- AhnsSsX-fn-™p- I-ØW
- w.- A-t∏mƒ- X-tamabamb- `u-Xn-It- em-Iw- A-hs
- ≥-d- ap-∂n¬- sXfnbp-∂- H-cp- bm-Ym¿-Yy-am-bn- cq-]m-¥cs∏Spw.-

hn-f-°v- ssI-h-i-ap-≈-h-s\-ßpwhn-izw- Zo-]-a-bwsh¨-a- a-\- n¬- hn-f-ßn-\-`-{Z-\vta-t∑-e-ar-X-a-bwF-∂- D-≈q-cn-s≥-d- - h-cn-Iƒ- D-≈n¬X-´p-∂X
- v- b-Ym¿-Y- sh-fn-®w- lr-ØS- Ø
- n¬Im-Øp-kq-£n-®-h¿-°m-Wv.sh-fn-®w- k¿-h- \-∑-I-fp-sS-bpw- tI-Zmc-am-Wv.- {]-]©
- \
- m-Y≥- X-s∂- ]-cn-Nb
- s
- ∏Sp-Øp-∂-Xpw- "A-√m-lp- B-Im-i-`q-an-IfpsS- sh-fn-®-'-am-sW-∂m-Wv.
C-cp-´n¬- kp-Jk
- p-jp-]vX
- n-bn-em-≠- Atd-_y≥- D-]-Zzo-]nte-°v- sh-fn-®-sa-Øn-®{]-hm- N
- I
- - ]q-Khs\-(A) s-- ]m-dp-°m-Ø- Ad-_n-°q-´-sØ-∏-‰n- h-≈-tØmƒ- h¿-Wn-®Xv- C-{]-Im-c-am-Wv-:""A-h¿-°n-cp-t´- {]n-b-an-{X-aq-Xns°-Sp-°-bm-bv- ssI-Øn-cn- sIm-≠psN-∂m¬an-∂m-an-\p-ßn¬- sN-dp-Xmw-sh-fn-®wt]m-epw- k-ln-°m-Ø- X-a 
- n-tX-tXm...
sh-fn-®-Øn-s≥-d- sX-fn-®-Øn¬- Xn-cn®-dn-b-s∏-Sm-Ø-Xmbn- H-∂p-an-√.- C-cp-´n-seI-b-dpw- ]m-ºm-bn-tØ-m-∂mw-.- sh-fn-®-Øn\m-sW-¶n¬- A-sX-{X- sN-dp-Xm-sW-¶n¬t]m-epw- tL-m-cm-\v-[-Im-c-sØ- am-‰p-∂Xn¬- A-\¬-]-am-b- ]-¶p-h-ln-°m-\p-≠v.kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

{]-hm-NI
- \
- m-b- aq-km-\_
- n-(K)-°-v A√mlp\¬-In-b- Zn-hym-Xv-`p-X-ß-fnsem-∂m-bn-- Iøn-se- {]-Im-iw- \¬-In-b-X-v bm-Zr-Nv-O-nIX-bm-Im≥- h-gn-bn-√.- A-sXm-cp- {]-Xo-I-ambn-cp-∂p.- ^-tdm-h≥- {]-`r-Xn-Iƒ- Ir-Xyambn- N-a-®- A-Sn-a-Ø-Øn-s≥-d- C-cp-´n-s\am-‰m≥- {]-Im-i-hpw- I-øn-te-¥n- I-S-∂ph∂- H-cp- {]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-\ZuXy-Øn-s≥-d- _-ln¿-kv-^p-c-Ww.Xm¬-°m-en-I- X-´-I-am-b- Cu- tem-IØp-\n-∂pw- C-cp-´n-te-°v- I-S°
- p-tºmƒ- a\ n-s≥-d- hn-izm-k- hn-f°
- m-bn-cn-°pw- kXyhn-izm-kn-°v- A-hn-sS- sh-fn-®-am-bn- Xn-cn®p-In-´p-I.am-Xm-hn- s
- ≥-d- K¿-`m-ib
- am-b-- aq-∂v- Ccpfp-I-fp-sS- A-I-Ø-f-Øn-e-I-s∏-´- \n-jv-If-¶-\m-b- H-cp- in-ip-hn-\v- sh-fn-®-ta-In-bXvkm-£m¬- {]-Im-i-am-b- {]-]-©-\m-Y≥Xs∂-!]-ct- em-IØ
- n¬- {]-Im-iØ
- n-s≥-d- AIº-Sn-tbm-sS- k-Xy-hn-izm-kn- ap-t∂dptºmƒX-∏n-Ø-S-bp-∂- X-tam-K¿-Ø-Øn¬- k-Xy\n-tj-[n- s
- ]--´p-t]m-Ip-sa-∂-v ]-cn-ip-≤- Jp¿B
≥- ]-cn-Nb
- s
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- sX-fn™lr-Zb
- t- Øm-sS- \-ap-°-v {]m¿Yn°mw.- \mYmR-ß-sf- F-∂pw- k-Xy-hnizm-k-Øn-s≥dsh-fn-®-Øn-¬- \-bn-®m-epw-!- Bao≥.-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

84

a-X-ß-fp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn-seA-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fpw- k-tµ-l-ß-fpw

tem-I-Øv- A-\-h-[n- a-X-ß-fp-≠v.- C-h-bv-s°-√mw- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-T-hpw- hy-Iv-X-hpamb- N-cn-{X-`q-X-Im-e-apt≠m?- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]n≥-_-etØmsS- am-\-h-cm-in-sb- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p-∂- aX-ß-fm-tWm- C-h-sb-√mw?Hchte-m-I-\w.--

\m-kzn-dp-±o≥,- ]-´m-ºn-

a-X-ß-fn¬- Nn-e-Xn-\v- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-T-hpw- hy-Iv-X-hp-am-b- N-cn-{X-`q-X-Im-e-ap-≠v.- tc-Js∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]n≥-_-e-tØm-sS- am-\-h-cm-in-sb- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°p-∂a-X-ß-tf-°mƒ- Iq-Sp-X¬- F-Æw- A-hy-Iv-X-am-b- N-cn-{X-ap-≈-h-bm-Wv.- tem-I-Øv- Bhn¿-`-hn-°p-I-bpw- a-Æ-Sn-bp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xv- a-X-ß-fp-sS- Ir-Xy-am-b- I-W-°p-Iƒ- e-`y-as√-¶n-epw- G-Xm-≠v- aq-hm-bn-c-Øn-e-[n-Iw- a-X-ß-fp-sS- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- tc-J-Iƒ- I-s≠Øn-bn-´p-≠v.-(1)- C-hn-sS- "N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- tc-J-Iƒ'- F-∂v- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- {]m-Iv-X-\a-X-ß-fp-sS- kz-`m-h-ß-fn-te-°v- sh-fn-®w-ho-ip-∂- A-hin-jv-S-ß-fpw- h-kv-Xp-°-f-pw- Nnlv\-ß-fpw- Dƒ-s∏-sS-bp-≈- Im-cy-ß-sf-bm-Wv.- C-∏-d-™- aq-hm-bn-c-Øn-e-[n-Iw- a-X-ß-fpsS- hy-Iv-X-am-b- Nn-{Xw- e-`y-am-bn-´n-√- F-∂-Xpw- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- F-hn-sS- D-Xv-`-hn-®p,- F{X-Im-ew- \n-e-\n-∂p,- {]-[m-\- khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ- Fs¥-√m-am-bn-cp-∂p,- F-ß-s\- Xn-tcm`-hn-®p- Xp-S-ßn-b- tNm-Zy-߃-°v- hy-Iv-X-am-b- D-Ø-c-߃- e-`y-a-√m-Ø-h-bm-Wv- aq-hmbn-c-Øn-e-[n-Iw- a-X-ß-fpw.- {]m-Ir-X- k-aq-l-ß-fp-sS- Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- Nn-{X-ß-fn-te°v- ]q¿-W-am-b- H-sc-Øn-t\m´w- -- B-[p-\n-I- \-c-hw-i-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- C-\n-bpw- km-[y-ambn-´n-√m-Ø- kv-Yn-Xn-°v- h-cpw-Im-e-ß-fn¬,- {]m-Iv-X\- a-X-ß-fp-sS- Iq-Sp-X¬- an-gn-hm¿∂- hn-h-c-ß-fpw- h-kv-Xp-X-I-fpw- A-dn-hp-I-fpw- e-`n-°p-sa-∂v- hn-i-z-kn-°p-hm-\pw- km-[ya-√."sk-an-‰n-Iv'- kz-`m-h-ß-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b- aX-߃-°m-Wv- K-th-j-I¿- hy-Iv-X-am-b- N-cn{X-hpw- N-cn-{X- ]iv-Nm-X-e-hpw- I-s≠-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv.- b-lq-Z-˛ss{I-kv-X-h-˛ C-kv-emw- aX-߃- H-tc- ]m-c-º-cy-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-¶¬-]-ß-fp-sS-bpw- h-gn- Xn-cn-™p-t]mb- B-ib-ß-fp-sS-bpw- kz-`m-h-ß-tfm-Sv- Iq-Sn-b-h-bm-Wv - F-∂-Xv- s]m-Xp-hm-b- H-cp- \n-co-£-Wam-Wv.- ]-t£,- kq-£v-a- X-e-Øn¬- C-h- ]-c-kv-]cw- th¿-Xn-cn-™p-\n¬-°p-I-bpw- th-dnkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

´- kz-Xz-߃- ]pe¿-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.sk-an-‰n-Iv- a-X-ß-fp-sS- hw-i-]n-Xr-Xzw- lo{_p- `m-j-bn-se- en-Jn-X-ß-sf- B-{i-bn®v- \n-e-\n-∂- km-_n˛b-lq-Z- a-X-߃-°vXp-ey-am-bn- ho-Xn-®v- \¬-In-b- K-th-j-I\m-Wv- B-≥t- U-gvk
- ¨- t\m¿-am≥(- 2).- b-lq-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

85

Z- a-X-Øn-s≥-d-b{X- hy-Iv-X-am-b- N-cn-{Xw- km-_na-X-Øn-\n-√.- A-tXm-sSm-∏w-X-s∂- b-lq-Z- a-X-sØsk-an-‰n-Iv- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- ]n-Xr-kv-Ym-\-Øv- Im-Wp∂-Xv- h-kv-Xp-Xm-]-c-hp-a-√- F-∂v- K-th-j-I-cm-btX-m-a-kv- Im¬-hn-\pw- ^v-sf-U-dn-Iv- ayq-®-dpw- A-`n{]m-b-s∏-´n-´p-≠v (3). A{_-lmw,- tam-si- F-∂n-hsc- tI-{µo-I-cn-®p-sIm-≠p-≈- sk-an-‰n-Iv- k-¶¬-]ß-sf- Iq-Sn-b- tXm-Xn¬- {]-Xn-^e
- n-∏n-°p-∂X
- p-sIm≠m-Wv- b-lq-Z-a-X-sØ- sk-an-‰n-Iv- ]n-Xr-Xz-Øn-s≥d- tI-{µ-kv-Ym-\-Øv- \n¿-Øp-∂-Xv.- F-∂m¬- ta¬]-d-™- {]-hm-N-I- t{ijv-T-cp-sS- \m-a-߃- kv-Ym\-Øpw- A-kv-Ym-\-Øpw- D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p- F∂-Xn¬-I-hn-™v,- A-h-cp-sS- ]m-c-º-cy-hpw- Xp-S¿®-bpw- Ir-Xy-am-bn- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sm≥- bl-q-Z- a-XØn-\v- A-h-Im-i-an-s√-∂v- lo{_p- en-Jn-X-ß-sf-°p-dn-®v- K-th-jW
- w- \-SØ
- n-b- s{]m-^.-ep-Uh
v- n-ßv- tamdn-k¨- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v -(4).- B-[p-\n-I- blq-Z- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- kv-Yn-Xn- ta¬-h-kv-Xp-X- A-c-°n´p-d-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- b-lq-Z- ]-T-\-߃- {ian-®p-h-∂n-´p-≈-Xv- d-∫n-am-cpw- ]p-tcm-ln-X-cpw- Ir{Xn-aa
- m-bn- B-hn-jvI
- c
- n-®- B-ib
- ß
- ƒ-°v- tc-JI
- ƒI-s≠-Øp-∂-Xn-\pw- X¬-aq-Zn-s≥-d- Zp¿-hym-Jym-\߃-°v- \ym-bo-I-c-Ww- I-s≠-Øp-hm-\p-am-Wv.- BNm-cw,- hn-izm-kw,- A-\p-jv-Tm-\w,- km-aq-ly- \n-b-a߃- F-∂n-h-bn-se-√mw- \q-‰m-≠p-tXm-dpw- b-lq-Za-Xw- \n-c-¥-cw- am-dn-s°m-≠n-cp-∂-Xm-bn- Im-Wmw.Cu- am-‰-Øn-\v- ssZ-hn-I-am-b- ]-cn-th-jw- D-≠m-°nsb-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\v- ]p-tcm-ln-X¿- {i-an-®n-´p-ap-≠v.- aX-]-c-am-b- H-cp- k-aq-l-L-S-\-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\Øn¬- b-lq-Z¿-°v- D-≠m-bn-Øo-tc-≠n-bn-cp-∂- iIv-Xn-bpw- ti-jn-bpw- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-°-s∏-´p-t]m-Im-\pw{]-hm-k-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- ]-em-b-\-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- ]m-Xbn¬- b-lq-Z¿- sN-s∂-Øp-hm-\pw- ss{I-kv-X-h- aX- km-{am-Py-ß-fp-sS- \n-c-¥-c- i-{Xp-Xbv-°v- A-h¿hn-t[-b-am-bn-Øo-cm-\pw- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy- \n¿-an-X-ßfm-b- a-X- B-i-b-߃- Im-c-W-am-bn-´p-s≠-∂v- Kth-j-I¿- I-s≠-Øp-∂p(5).- C-X-c- a-X-ß-fp-sS- {Iqc-am-b- I-S-∂m-{I-a-W-ß-fm-Wv- X-ß-fp-sS- th-cp-Isf- A-dp-Øp-ap-dn-®-v I-f-™-Xv- F-∂v- b-lq-Z- N-cn{X-Im-c-∑m¿- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ- A-h¿- D-t±-in-°p-∂-Xv-

{In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fpw- ap-kv-enw-I-fp-am-Wv- X-ß-fp-sS- k-I-e- Zp-cnX-߃-°pw- Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv.- F-∂m¬- k-Xy-Øn¬- b-lq-Za-X-Øn-s≥-d- ]u-tcm-ln-Xy-˛ \n¿-an-X- a-X-L-S-\-bpw- kw-hn-[m\-ß-fpw- B- k-aq-l-sØ- in-Yn-e-am-°p-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-Xv- F∂- N-cn-{X- kXyw- Im-Wm-Xn-cp-∂p-Iq-Sm.- b-lq-Z-a-X-Øn-s≥-dN-cn-{X-hp-ambn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- ]-T-\-ß-sf- A-Xn-k-¶o¿-W-am-°p∂-Xn-\pw- ta¬-]-d-™- {]-iv-\w- Im-c-W-am-bn-cp-∂n-´p-≠v.b-lq-Z-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- ]-T-\-߃\n-c-h-[n- k-¶o¿-W-X-Iƒ- \n-d-™-Xm-Wv.- ss_-_nƒ- ]-g-b\n-b-a-sØ- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-°n-bp-≈- ]-T-\-߃-sIm-≠p-am-{Xwb-lq-Z-kw-kv-Ir-Xn-bp-sS- th-cp-I-fn¬- sN-s∂-Øp-hm≥- I-gnbn-√.- an-Zv-cm-jp-Iƒ,- si¿-^o-\p-Iƒ-,- \p-km-Jp-Iƒ,- ln-Iv-bmIƒ- Xp-S-ßn-b- t]-c-p-I-fn¬- b-lq-Z- ]p-tcm-ln-X¿,- ]-g-b- \n-b
a- _m-ly-ß-fm-b- \n-c-h-[n- I-Y-Iƒ,- D-]-I-Y-Iƒ,- sF-Xn-ly߃,- a-X-\n-b-a-߃,- B-Nm-c-߃,- Io-gv-h-g-°-߃,- Zn-hy-tcJ-Iƒ- Xp-S-ßn-b-h-sb-√mw- ]n¬-°m-e-Øv- kr-jv-Sn-®n-´p-≠v.ss_-_nƒ- ]-gb
- \
- n-ba
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- ]-T\
- Ø
- n¬- ss{I-kX
v- h
- - Kthj-I¿- I-s≠-Øn-b-Xpw- C-tem-ln-kv-‰p-Iƒ,- bm-lv-hn-kv-‰p-IƒF-∂n-ß-s\- c-≠m-bn- th¿-Xn-cn-™v- \n¬-°p-∂- ss_-_nƒssi-en-˛ B-Jym-\-ß-fp-sS- h-Iv-Xm-°-sf-°p-dn-®v- t_m-[-ap-fhm-°p-∂-Xp-am-b- ]-g-b-\n-b-a-Øn-se- L-S-\-Iƒ- blq-Z-]p-tcmln-X-cp-sS- ssI-I-S-Ø-ep-I-fn¬- \n-∂p-≠m-b- L-S-\m-]-c-am-bA-]-{`w-i-am-Wv- F-∂m-Wv- {^-©v- K-th-j-I-\m-b- km-ap-h¬dn-Uo-^n-s≥-d- I-s≠-ج -(6).- Cu- hn-j-b-w- Cu- D-]-\ym-kØn-s≥-d- e-£y-a-s√-¶n-epw,- b-lq-Z- a-X-]-T-\-Øn-s≥-d- k-¶o¿W-X-I-fn¬- C-Xp-Iq-Sn- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-sa-∂-Xn-\m¬- C-hn-sS- ]-cm-a¿in-®-Xm-Wv.- a-X-ß-fp-sS- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e-]-T-\w- H-cp- hn-]p-e-am-bssh-PvR
- m-\n-I- im-Jb
- m-bn- h-f¿-∂v- ]-¥e
- n-®- C-cp-]Xmw- \q‰m≠n¬-t]m-epw,- b-lq-Z- a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-]-T-\w- \n-c-h-[nk¶o¿W-X-I-fn-epw- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fn-epw- h-gn-ap-´n- \n¬-°p-∂pF-∂-Xv- H-cp- bm-Ym¿-Yy-am-Wv.- t]mƒ- t{_m-Kn-kv- F-gp-Xn-b``History of Semitic Religions'' F-∂- Ir-Xn- C-°m-cyw- hy-IvX-am-°p-∂p-≠v -(7).- ssZ-h-imkv-{Xw,- th-Z-hn-Pv-Rm-\w,- B-Nm-c߃-,- A-\p-jv-Tm-\-߃,- th-Z-hym-Jym-\-߃- F-∂n-h-bp-ambn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- {K-\v-Y-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ]-T-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw- _m-lpeyw-sIm-≠v- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv- B-[p-\n-I- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d]-iv-Nm-Ø-e- N-cn-{Xw.- hy-Iv-X-am-b- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- th-dn´ssZ-h-im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Ip-Ø-I- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´p-sIm-≠vss{I-kv-X-h- {K-\v-Y-I¿-Øm-°ƒ- a-X-]-T-\-˛Xm-c-X-ay- ta-J-ebn¬- B-[n-]-Xy-Øn-\v- {i-an-°p-∂-Xv- Im-Wmw.- ""F- ap-X¬-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

86

CkUv- h-sc- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´-Xpw- sa-Un-‰-td-\nb≥- ]-I¬-t]m-se- hy-Iv-X-hp-am-b- N-cn-{X-ap-≈- aX-am-Wv- {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw''- F-∂m-Wv- tPm¨- Kn¬-{Inkv-‰v- F-∂- ss{I-kv-X-h- ]-Wv-Un-X≥- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv(8).F-∂m¬- F ap-X¬- Ck-Uv- h-sc-bp-≈- ]-c-º-cbn¬- Nn-e- L-S-I-߃- hn´p-t]mhp-I-tbm,- a-‰p-Nne-Xn¬- - I-Sp-Ø- k-tµ-l-ß-fp-sS-bpw- kw-i-b-ßfp-sS-bpw- \n-g¬- ]-Xn-bp-I-tbm- sN-bv-Xn-´p-s≠-∂pwsa-Un-‰t- d-\n-b≥- ]-Ie
- p-Iƒ- Nn-et- ∏m-sg-¶n-epw- kqcy-{]-Im-i-an-√m-Xm-bn-Øo-cm-dp-≠v- F-∂-Xpw- h-kvXp-X-Iƒ- am-{X-am-Wv.- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{Xhp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- ]-T-\-ß-fn-epw- A-t\z-j-Wß-fn-epw- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fp-≠v- F-∂p-≈-Xv- tI-h-ewH-cp- A-h-Im-i-hm-Zw- am-{X-a-√,- A-sXm-cp- h-kv-XpX-X-s∂-bm-Wv.- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- kz-Xzw,- ssZ-hn-IX,- Zu-Xy-߃,- Po-hn-Xw,- k-tµ-i-߃- F-∂n-hsXm-´v- ss_-_nƒ,- A-Xn-s≥d- au-en-I-L-S-\,- i-cnb-m-b- k-tµ-i-߃,- c-N-\,- cN-\m-Im-ew,- c-N-bnXm-°ƒ,- Im-t\m-\n-I-X,- hym-Jym\w-,- A-h-ew-_]-c-am-b- kzo-Im-cy-X-bpw- {]m-am-Wn-I-X-bpw,- a-X-]c-am-b- kz-Xz-\n¿-an-Xn-bn-se- kv-Ym\-hpw- A-S-°wF-√m- Im-cy-ß-fpw- k-tµ-l-ß-fp-sSbpw- A-hy-IvX-X-bp-sS-bpw- \n-g¬- ]-Xn-™p-In-S-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv.A-t∏m-kv-X-e-∑m-cp-sS- Im-ew-sXm-´v- B-[p-\n-IIm-ew-h-sc,- Ir-Xy-am-bn- ]-d-™m¬- F.-Un.- 35 ap
X¬- F.-Un.- 2004 h-sc-bp-≈- \o-≠- Im-e-L-´-Øn\n-S-bn¬,- {In-kv-Xp-sh-∂- ss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- tI
{µ- _n-µp-hn-\pw- {In-kvX
- p-aX
- Ø
- n-\pw- F-Xn-sc- Db¿∂p-h-∂n-´p-≈- F-√m- tNm-Zy-ß-fpw- kw-i-b-ß-fpsS- `n-∂-am-b- hm-Z-K-Xn-I-fpw- A-Xy-¥n-I-am-bn- sNs∂-Øp-∂-Xv- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-Ø-n-\vk-tµ-l-˛kw-i-b-˛ A-hy-Iv-X-Xm- ap-Iv-X-am-b- H-cpA-kv-Xn-Xzw- C-√- F-∂- bm-Ym¿-Yy-Øn-te-°m-Wv.{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- ]n-d-hn,- kw-`-hn-®-Xv- F.-Un.- 30,32,- 35 F-∂o- h¿-j-ß-fn-sem-∂m-Wv- F-∂- A-`n{]m-bw- ]-e- ss{I-kvX
- h
- k
- `
- m-Nc
- n-{X-Im-c∑
- m-cpw- tc
J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- ss{I-kv-X-h- N-cn-{X-sØ- kw_-\v-[n-®v- C-Xv- kp-{]-[m-\-am-b- H-cp- \yq-\-X-bm-Wv.ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- ]p-{X-\pw- a\p-jy-c-£-bp-sS- G-ID-]m-bh
- pw- {In-kvX
- p-aX
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- a¿-ah
- pam-b- {Inkv-

Xp-hn-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®n-S-tØm-fw- C-Ø-c-Øn-ep-≈- `n-∂-X-Ifpw- A-hy-Iv-X-X-tbm-fw- sN-s∂-Øp-∂- -Ir-Xy-X-bn-√m-bv-a-bpwkw-`-hn-°m≥- ]m-Sn-√m-Ø-Xm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-ß-s\- kw-`-hn-®n-cn°p-∂p- F-∂-Xn-s≥d- A¿-Y-߃- Xm-sg- ]-d-bp-∂-h-bm-Wv-:1.- ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-b- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s\- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øn-sbSp-°p∂-Xn¬- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- cq-]-I¿-Øm-°ƒ,- ssZ-hn-IXbv°v- \n-c-°m-Ø- C-S-s]-S-ep-Iƒ- \-S-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.2.- {In-kv-Xp-hn-\v- B-[p-\n-I- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-te-Xn-\v- kam\-am-b- H-cp- ]-cn-K-W-\- B-Zy-Im-e-Øv- e-`n-®n-cp-∂n-√.- AXve`n-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-t±-l-Øn--s≥-d- P-\-\-h¿-jw- in-em-kam\-am-b- Z-rV
-- -X-tbm-sS- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øp-am-bn-cp-∂p.3.- h-f¿-∂p- hn-I-kn-®v- tem-I-hym-]-I-am-b- H-cp- kv-Ym-]-\am-bn- ss{I-kv-X-X- h-f¿-∂n-´pw-,- P-\-\- h¿-j-Øn-se- A-Ir-Xy
X Aw-Ko-Ir-X-am-b- H-cp- hn-tbm-Pn-∏m-bn- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p-≠v.tem-I-hym-]-I-am-bn- ]-S¿-∂p-I-gn-™n-´p-≈- H-cp- a-X-Øn¬ta¬-]-d-™- X-c-Øn¬- Aw-Ko-Ir-X-am-b- H-cp- `n-∂-X- \n-e-\n¬°p-∂p- F-∂-Xn-\¿-Yw- `n-∂-X-Iƒ-°v- ap-I-fn¬- G-I-X-bp-sSk-Xy-kv-Yn-Xn- kv-Ym-]n-°p-hm≥- km[n-°p-am-dv- {In-kv-Xp-a-XØn\v- bp-Iv-Xn-`-{Z-X-bpw- ssZ-hn-I-X-bp-an-√- F-∂p-X-s∂-bm-Wv.tb-ip- H-cp- {]-hm-NI
- \
- pw- a-\p-jy-\p-am-bn-cp-∂p- F-∂X
- mWvC-kv-em-an-s≥-d- kp-hn-Zn-X-am-b- ho-£-W-tIm¨.- C-Xn-s\-Xncn¬- \n¬-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- XØ-z-am-b,- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ssZ-h-]p-{X-hm-Zw.- B-[p\n-I- Im-eL´-Øn¬- \n-e-bp-d-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v,- ]-T-\-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-t\z-j-Wß-fp-sS-bpw- N-cn-{X-c-N-\-I-fp-sS-bpw- k-lm-b-tØm-sS- tb-iphn-s≥-d- Im-e-tØ-°v- Xn-cn-™p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ- \-ap-°v- e-`n°p∂- N-n-{X-Øn-\p-t]m-epw- ss{I-kv-X-h- hm-Z-K-Xn- {]-Im-c-ap-≈ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-b- {In-kv-Xp-hn-t≥-d-sX-∂v- sX-fn-®v- ]-d-bm-hp-∂X-c-Øn-ep-≈,- hy-Iv-X-X- Im-Wp-∂n-√.- ss_-_nƒ- A-S-°-ap≈F-√m- ss{I-kvX
- h
- - {]-am-Wß
- f
- pw- {In-kvX
- p-hn-s\- hn-jb
- a
- m°nF-gp-X-s∏-´- te-m-I- `m-j-I-fn-se- F-√m- Ir-Xn-I-fpw- ]-Tn-®pwhm-bn-®pw- A-h-ew-_n-®pw- I-gn-™-ti-j-hpw- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-ho£-W- {]-Im-c-ap-≈- H-cp- tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp-hn¬- kw-i-b-c-ln-Xhpw- k-tµ-l-ap-Iv-X-hp-am-b- am-\-kn-Im-h-kv-Y-tbm-sS- sN-s∂Øp-hm≥- H-cp- b-Ym¿-Y- k-Xym-t\z-jn-t°m,- A-t\z-j-I-t\mI-gn-bp-∂n-√- F-∂-Xm-Wv- h-kv-Xp-X-.-- ]m-c-º-cy-am-bn- ssI-am-dnh-cp-∂- hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- kp-hn-ti-j-Øn-se- Nn-e- ]-cma¿-i-ß-fp-sS-bpw- Zp¿-_-e-am-b- km-[q-I-c-Ww,- Ku-c-h-ta-dn-b{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- ssZ-h- ]p-{X-Xz-sa-∂- hn-j-b-Øn¬- a-Xn-bm-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

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87

Ip-∂n-√- F-∂¿-Yw.{In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- Im-e-Øv- A-t±-lw-- ssZ-h-]p{X-\m-bn- ]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-´n-cp-∂p- F-∂v- ss_-_nƒt]m-epw- J-Wv-Un-X-am-bn- hm-Zn-®n-´n-√.- F-∂m¬- kphn-ti-j-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a-Øn-se- te-J-\ß-fp-sS-bpw- c-N-\- \-S-∂- Im-e-L-´-Øn¬- {InkvXp-hn-s≥-d- A-t∏m-kv-X-e- ]-´n-I-bn¬- h-cp-∂-h-cpwA-√m-Ø-h-cp-am-b- {-]-ap-J¿,- A-t±-l-sØ- H-cp- a\p-jy-]p-{X≥- am-{X-am-bm-Wv- I-≠n-cp-∂-Xv- F-∂Xn-\v- HutZym-KnI- {In-kv-Xp-a-X- N-cn-{X-{K-\v-Y-ßfn¬-X-s∂- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v.- A-dn-bq-kv,- s\-kv-tXmdn-bk
- v,- bq-tk-_n-bk
- v- Xp-Sß
- n-b- {]-ap-J¿- Hu-tZymKn-I- {In-kv-Xp-a-XØn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-Øn-se- hn-L-S\-hm-Zn-I-fpw- ]mc-º-cy- \n-cm-k-Øn-s≥-d- B-Zn-a- ]nXm-°-fp-am-bn- Xo¿-∂-Xpw- F.-Un.- 325se- \n-Jymkq-\-l-tZm-kn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- X-bm-dm°-s∏-´- ]-´n-I-bn¬- Dƒ-tN¿-°-s∏-´- hn-izm-k-hncp-≤-cp-sS- Iq-´-Øn¬,- ta¬-]-d-™-h¿-°-v ]p-d-saC-cp-\q-‰n- A-dp-]-Xp-t]¿- thsd-bp-ap-≠v- F-∂-Xpw(9)
.- k-Xym-t\z-jn-I-tfm-Sv- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- {In-kv-Xp- F∂- tI-{µ- _n-µp-hn-\p-ta¬-X-s∂- A-hy-Iv-X-X-I-fpsS- I-\-Ø- \n-g¬- Km-V-am-bn- ]-Xn-™v- In-S-°p∂-Xn-\m¬- {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw- kphy-Iv-X-am-b- H-cp- Ncn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-Øn-\p-≈- tbm-Ky-Xbn¬-\n-∂p-X-s∂- ]p-dw-X-≈-s∏-´v- t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂pF-∂m-Wv.- C-Xv- tI-h-ew,- aX-Øn-\-I-Øp-≈- Ahm-¥-co-I-c-W-Øn-s≥-d- am-{Xw- {]-iv-\-a-√- F-∂-Xv{i-t≤-b-am-Wv.tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- i-cn-bm-b- kz-Xzw- I-s≠-Øp-hm\p-≈- Xo-{h-am-b- {i-a-ß-ƒ- I-gn-™- \q-‰m-≠p-I-fnse-√mw- \-S-∂n-´p-≠v.- tb-ip- H-cp- N-cn-{X- ]p-cp-j-\s√-∂pw- A-h≥- kp-hn-ti-j- I¿-Øm-°-fp-sSk¶¬-]-am-b- H-cm-i-b-am-sW-∂pw- Z-r-V-am-bn- hniz-kn-°p-∂-h¿- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-\-I-Øv- \n-∂p-Xs∂- A-h-cp-sS- hm-Z-K-Xn-Iƒ- D-∂-bn-®n-´p-≠v.- ss__nƒ- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-sf- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-am-°n- {In-kv-Xphn-s≥-d- ssZ-h-]p-{X- hm-Z-Øn-s\-Xn-cn¬- D-b¿-∂vh-∂n-´p-≈- B-i-b-ß-fn¬- Nn-e-Xv- C-h-bm-Wv-:1.- tb-ip- H-cp- km-[m-c-W- b-lq-Z- hw-i-P-\m-bncp-∂p.- A¬-]w- hn-πh
- I
- c
- a
- m-b- B-ib
- ß
- f
- p-sS- hIv-

Xm-hm-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\m¬- A-h-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-sØ- sFXn-ly-h¬I-cn-°m≥- ]p-Xn-b-\n-b-a- I¿-Øm-°ƒ°v- km-[n-®p.2.- tb-ip- H-cp- {]-hm-N-I≥- am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p.- Ah≥- tamsi-bp-sS- ]-c-º-c-bn-se- an-I-®- Pv-Rm-\n-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p.3.- N-cn-{X-tc-J-Iƒ- e-`y-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂- X-cØn¬- P-\n-®vPo-hn-®v- a-cn-®p-t]m-b- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xnbpw- km-aq-ly- ]-cn-jv-I¿Øm-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p- A-t±-lw.4.- N-cn-{X-]p-cp-j\
- m-b- tb-ip-hn-s\- ]n≥-X≈
- n-s°m-≠v- ssZh]p-{X-\m-b- tb-ip-hn-s\- B-hn-jvI-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv- kp-hn-tij- I¿-Øm-°ƒ- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.5.- A-Xn-{]m-No-\-am-b- H-cm-i-b-am-b- ssZ-h-Øn-\v- a-\p-jyt\m-Sp-≈- ko-am-Xo-X-am-b- kv-t\-l-sØ- B-hn-jv-I-cn-°m≥ss_-_nƒ- c-N-bn-Xm-°ƒ- B-hn-jv-I-cn-®- H-cp- {]-Xo-I-am-Wvtb-ip- {In-kv-Xp-hn-t≥-d-Xv.- A-Xn-\v- N-cn-{X-]-c-hpw- h-kv-Xp-Xm]-c-hp-am-b- kzo-Im-cy-X-tbm- km-w-K-Xy-tam- D-≠m-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂n-√.- H-cp- `m-h\
- m- kr-jSv- a
- m-b- C-Xn-lm-kw- t]m-se-tbm- Imhy˛K-Zy- c-N-\-t]m-se-tbm- k-Zp-t±-i-y-]-c-am-b- c-N-\-bm-Wv- ss__nƒ-;- tb-ip- A-Xn-se- an-gn-hp-‰- I-Ym-]m-{X-hpw.ss_-_n-fn-s\- A-h-e-a-_n-®p-sIm-≠p-≈- ]-T-\-ß-fpwAt\z-j-W-ß-fpw- C-∂pw- \n-c-¥-cw- \-S-∂p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂pF-∂-Xv- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- Cu- kz-`m-h-tØm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b,- k-ao-]-Ime-Øv- ]p-d-Øn-d-ßn-b- H-cp- Ir-Xn-bn¬- C-{]-I-m-cw- Im-Wmw-:""tb-ip-hn-s\- ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-°n-s°m-≠v- ]p-Xn-b- \n-b-aw- FgpXm≥,- kp-hn-ti-j-I¿- Xp-\n-bp-I-tbm- \n¿-_-\v-[n-X-cm-I-tbmsN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv- tb-ip-hn-s\∏--‰ n- N-cn-{X-tc-J-Iƒ- A-h¿\¬-Im-sX- t]m-b-Xv.- b-lq-Z- {]-am-Wn-am-cp-sS- \n¿-_-\v-[-Øn\vh-g-ßn- tdm-a≥- `-c-W-Iq-Sw- A-t\-Iw- hn-π-h-Im-cn-I-sf- Ip-cni-nt- e-‰n-bt- ∏mƒ- A-Xn-sem-cmƒ- tb-ip-hm-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-°me-sØ- N-cn-{X-tc-J-I-fn¬- tb-ip- kv-Ym-\w- ]n-Sn-°m-\n-S-bn-√.A-t±-ls
- Ø- ss-Zh
- ]
- p-{X-\m-°n- ]p-\¿\n¿-Wb
- w- sN-bvX
- - ss__nƒ- C-d-ßn-b-Xv- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- Po-hn-X-Im-e-L-´-Øn-\v- h-fscsIm-√ß
- ƒ-°v- ti-ja
- m-bn-cp-∂p-.- F-¶n-epw- tb-ip-hn-s\- Adnbmhp-∂- A-t±-l-Øn-s≥-d- in-jy-cm-b- kp-hn-ti-j-I-∑m¿- A-∂pwD-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- ]-t£,- ssZ-hn-I- ]-Z-hn-bn-te-°v- D-b¿-Ø-s∏-´H-cp- tb-iphn-s\-bm-Wv- A-h¿- P-\-߃-°v- ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Ønb-Xv.- hn-izm-kn-I-sf- kr-jv-Sn-®v- H-cp- ]p-Xn-b- a-Xw- kv-Ym-]n°pI- F-∂- D-t±-i-Øn-\v- ]n-∂n¬- kp-hn-ti-j-I-∑m¿- h¿-Øn®-Xp-sIm-≠v- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- H-cp- b-Ym¿-Y- N-cn-{Xw- \-ap-°v- e`n°m-sX- t]m-bn''.-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

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11.- ""kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn-se- {]Xn-]m-Zn-X- h-kv-XpX-Is
- f- ]-ck
- v]
- c
- w- s]m-cp-Øs
- ∏-Sp-Øp-hm-\pw- NneB-i-b-ß-sf- Iq-´n°-e¿-Øp-hm-\p-ap-≈- b-Pv-RwXp-S¿-∂p-sIm-≠n-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- Nne- kp-hn-ti-j- iI-e-ß-sf- Iq-´n-tbm-Pn-∏n-®-Xn-\v- C-t∏mƒ- e-`n-®n´p-≈- I-sø-gp-Øv- {]-Xn-I-fpw- G-Xm-\pw- {]m-No-\{K-\vY
- ß
- f
- n-se- D-≤c
- W
- n-If
- pw- k-m£
- n-\n¬-°p-∂p.F.-Un.- 397¬- Im¿-tØ-Pn¬- k-`- k-tΩ-fn-®-t∏mƒAw-Ko-Ic
- n-®- ss_-_n-fn¬- ]-cn-jvI
- c
- n-°p-Ib
- pw- kam-l-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-X- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fm-Wv- D≠m-bn-cp-∂X
- v.- C-t∏mƒ- {]-Nm-cØ
- n-ep-≈- kp-hntij-ß-fp-sS- G-‰-hpw- ]-g-b- {]-Xn-Iƒ-°v- aq-∂mw- \q‰m-≠n-tesd- ]-g°
- a
- n-s√-∂v- I-s≠-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- BZyw- F-gp-Xn-b- {]-Xn-Iƒ- F-ß-s\- A-{]-Xy-£-amsb-∂v- hy-Iv-X-a-√.- kp-hn-ti-j-ß-fn-se- B-i-b߃- k-a-{K-am-bn- ]p-\-cm-hn-jv-I-cn-®-t∏mƒ- N-cn{X-Øn-se- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- kp-hn-ti-j-a-√- ]p-d-Øph-∂-Xv.- A-t∏m-kv-Xm-en-Iv-k-`-bp-sS- kp-hn-ti-j-amWv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- tb-ip-hn-s\- kw-_\
- v[
- n-®- hnizmk- tbm-Ky-am-b- hn-h-c-߃- h-f-sc°-p-d-t®- kp-hnti-j-Øn-ep-≈q.- C-Xv- am¿-´n≥- ssU-_n-en-b-kv-,H-tUmƒ-^v- _pƒ-Sv-am≥- Xp-S-ßn-b- {]-i-kv-X- \n-cq]-I-∑m-cp-sS- A-`n-{]m-b-am-Wv.-

t{]-c-W-bm-bn-Øo¿-∂n-´p-≈-Xv- Im-Wmw.- tb-ip-{In-kv-Xp,- ss__nƒ,- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- X-Xz-߃- Xp-S-ßnb-h-sb-√mw- i-Iv-X-am-bn- tNm-Zyw- sN-ø-s∏-´n-´p-≠v.- J-Wv-Un-Xam-b- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- sh-fn-®-Øn¬- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-Ihy-Iv-Xn-Xzw- kv-Ym-]n-X-am-bn-´n-√- F-∂-Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv- Nn-e- Kth-j-I¿- A-Ø-c-Øn¬- H-cmƒ- Po-hn-®n-cp-∂n-cn-°m-\n-S-bn-√F-∂v- Nn-¥n-®p-t]m-b-Xv.-

12.- ""tem-I-Øn-se- P-\-k-w-Jy-bn¬- H-cp- \-√-iX-am-\w- b-lq-Z-cpw- {In-kv-Xym-\n-I-fp-am-bn-cn-t°Ah¿- H-Øp-Iq-Sn- ss_-_nƒ- N-cn-{X-am-sW-∂v- Xocpam-\n-®m¬- A-Xv- Aw-Ko-Icn-°m-hp-∂- P-\-ß-tfChn-sS-bp-≈q''-.-

ss{I-kX
v- h
- - en-Jn-Xß
- f
- p-am-bn- _-\[
v- s
- ∏-´v- D-X`
v- h
- n-®- ktµl-ß-fpw- {In-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d- kz-Xz-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- kw-i-bß-fpw- Iq-Sn-t®¿-∂- \n-c-h-[n- Kp-cp-X-c-ß-fm-b- tNm-Zy-߃F°m-e-Øpw- ss{I-kv-X-hn-I-X-s°-Xn-cn¬- D-b¿-∂p-h-∂n-´p-≈Xp-sIm-≠m-Wv- ""{In-kv-Xp-a-Xw- k-tµ-ln-I-sf- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂p;]-t£,- tNm-Zy-ß-sf- {Iq-c-am-bn- A-Sn-®-a¿-Øp-∂p''-- F-∂v- ss{Ikv-X-h- hn-a¿-i-I-\m-b- se-hn-kv- {]-kv-Xm-hn-®-Xv.- A-Sn-®-a¿-Øs∏-´- tNm-Zy-ß-fn¬-\n-∂-v D-b¿-∂p-h-∂n-´p-≈- B-i-b-ß-fm-Wv{In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- sI-´p-d-∏n-s\- X-I¿-°p-∂- a-X-hn-cp-≤- {]h-W-X-I-fm-bn- ]-cn-W-an-®-Xv- F-∂v- Im-Wmw.- ]-t£,- F-°m-eØpw- ss{I-kv-X-h- an-j-W-dn-am¿,- ta¬-]-d-™- bm-Ym¿-Yy-wAw-Ko-I-cn-°p-hm≥- X-bm-dm-bn-´n-√.- C-kv-em-ap-am-bn- X-m-c-X-aywsN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠v- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-sØ- "N-cn-{X- `{Z-X-bp-≈- H-cpaX'-am-bn- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°m-\m-Wv- A-h¿- {i-an-®n-´p-≈-Xv.-

13.- ""c-£m-N-cn-{Xw- c-Nn-°p-∂-Xn-s≥-d- {]-[m-\Dt±-iyw- N-cn-{X-]-T-\-a-√.- a-dn-®- '-tb-ip- ssZ-h-]p{X-\m-b- {In-kv-Xp-hm-sW-∂v- \n-߃- hn-iz-kn-°p∂-Xn-\pw- A-ß-s\- hn-iz-kn-°p-I-\n-an-Øw- A-hs≥-d- \m-a-Øn¬- \n-߃-°v- Po-h≥- D-≠m-Ip-∂Xn-\pw- th-≠n-bm-Wv- Rm≥- kp-hn-ti-jw- c-Nn-®Xv'F-∂p-≈- tbm-l-∂m-s≥-d- hm-°p-Iƒ-°-\p-k-cn-®v{In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ- Po-hn-°p-∂-Xn-\p-th-≠n-bm-Wv''-.14.- _p-≤n-]-c-hpw- hn-izm-k-]-c-hp-am-b- Im-cy-ßfn¬- a-Xn-bm-b- {]-m-am-Wn-I-X ss_-_n-fn-\v- I¬]n-°p-hm≥- I-gn-bm-sX- h-cp-∂X
- n-s≥-d- {]-iv\
- ß
- ƒ,ta¬- D-≤c
- n-®X
- p-t]m-se-bp-≈- A-t\z-jW
- ß
- ƒ-°v-

15.- Jp¿-B≥- h-c-®p-Im-Wn-°p-∂- Cu-km-\-_n-(K)-bp-sShy-Iv-Xn-Xz-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- J-Wv-Un-X-am-bnkv-Ym-]n-°p-∂- Im-cy-Øn¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\- {]am-W-ß-fm-b- Jp¿-B-\pw- l-Zo-Y-pw- ]q¿-W-am-bpw- hn-P-bn-®n-´p≠v.- s]m-Xp-hm-b- H-cp- N-cn-{X-[m-c-bp-sS- C-S-bn¬- h-cp-∂-Xpw{]-t_m-[n-X- k-aq-l-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- ktµ-l-ß-sfZq-co-I-cn-°p-∂- {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fn-eq-sS- kq-cy-{]-Im-iw-t]m-sesX-fn-™p-In-´p-∂-Xp-am-b- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-Xz-am-Wv- Cu-km- \_nbp-tS-Xv.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- ""C-kv-em-an-se- Cu-km-\-_n-bpw{In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-se- tb-ip-hpw- H-cmƒ- X-s∂''- F-∂- t_m-[wsh-®p-]p-e¿-Øp-I-bpw,- F-∂m¬- ss_-_nƒ- kr-jv-Sn-®- k-tµl-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- I-c-I-b-dp-hm-\m-Im-sX- hn-j-an-°p-I-bpw- sNøp-∂- k-Xym-t\z-jn-Ifm-b- {In-kv-Xym-\n-Iƒ-°v- \-√-Xv,- Jp¿B-\n-I- ho-£-W-ß-fn-te-°v- Xn-cn-bp-I-bpw- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- icn-bm-b- hy-Iv-Xn-Xzw- a-\- n-em-°p-∂-Xn-\v- Jp¿-B\n-I- am-\-ZWv-U-߃- A-h-ew-_n-°p-I-bp-am-Wv.-

16.- C-kve
- m-an-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-hp-am-bn- _-\v[
- s
- ∏-Sp-Øn- ]-cn-tim[n-°p-tºmƒ- ss{I-kv-X-h- A-h-Im-i-hm-Z-߃-°v- \n-e-\n¬-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

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89

]n-√.- tem-I-a-X-ß-fp-sS- Iq-´-Øn¬- N-cn-{X-]-c-amb- hy-Iv-X-X- G-sd-bp-≈- a-X-sa-∂- kv-Ym-\w- C-kvem-an-\v- am-{Xw- A-h-Im-i-s∏-´-Xm-Wv-˛ {In-kv-Xp-aXw- C-°m-cy-Øn¬- c-≠mw-kvY
- m-\t- Ø- h-cp-∂p-≈q.""{In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- B-hn¿-`m-h-Øn-\p-ti-jw- DXv-`-hn-®- a-X-am-Wv- C-kv-emw''- F-∂-Xp-sIm-≠v- ""Ckv-em-an-s≥d- N-cn-{X-Øn-\v- Iq-Sp-X¬- hy-Iv-X-X-bpwB-[p-\n-I- k-aq-l-tØmSv- A-Sp-∏-hp-ap-≠v''- F-∂vNn-e- N-cn-{X-Im-c∑
- m¿-Xs
- ∂- ss{I-kvX
- h- ]-£Ø
- p\n-∂p-sIm-≠v- Aw-Ko-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v.-

fpw- (an-√-X-- A-_o-Ipw- C-_v-d-m-lo-a- ˛\n-ß-fp-sS- ]n-Xm-hm-bC-_v-d-m-lo-an-s≥-d- am¿-Kw- Xp-S-ßn-b-h- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃)- ta¬]-d-™-Xn-s≥-d- sX-fn-hp-I-fm-Wv.- Np-cp-°-Øn¬- c-≠v- `n-∂- kzXz-ß-fp-≈- a-X-߃- F∂- \n-e-bn¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- B-[p\nI- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- N-cn-{X-߃- X-Ωn-epw- Im-cy-am-bA-¥-c-߃-X-s∂- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p-≠v.C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- a-X-]-c-am-b- N-cn-{X-Øn-\p-≈- Kp-W-ß-fpwss{I-kv-X-h-X-bp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn-\p-≈- tZm-j-ß-fpw- c-≠v- hyXy-kv-X- ]-´n-I-I-fm-bn- C-{]-Imcw- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂-Xm-Wv-:C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- N-cn-{Xw-

17.- ]-t£,- Im-e-Øn-s≥-d- ]-cn-K-W-\-bn¬- ]pXp-Xm-bn- Bhn¿-`-hn-®- a-X-am-Wv- C-kv-emw- F-∂sX-‰m-b- Im-c-W-a-√,- Cu- hy-Iv-X-X-°v- \n-Zm-\-sa∂-Xv- {]-kv-Xm-hy-am-Wv.am-\-h-cm-in-bp-sS- D-Xv-`-h-Im-ew-sXm-´v- B-[p-\nI- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- Po-hn-X-L-´w-h-sc-bp-≈- A-Xn-KmV-am-b- H-cp- _-\v-[-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Xp-S¿-®-bp-sS-bpwX-ew- kq-£v-a-am-bn- ]-cn-em-fn-°p-hm≥- km-[n-®n-´p≈- th-Z-am-Wv- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- F-∂-Xm-Wv- Ckv-em-an-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- hy-Iv-X-X-°v- i-cn-bmb- Imc-Ww.- a-X-sØ- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- I-Æn-I-fpam-bn- Km-V-am-bn- tIm¿-Øn-W-°n-s°m-≠p-≈- Ckv-em-an-I- th-Z-{K-\v-Y-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-se- ]-cm-a¿i-߃- A-\-\y-ß-fm-b- B-i-b-ß-fp-sS- kq-N-I߃- Iq-Sn-bm-Wv.- C-Sap-dn-bm-Ø- N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-dXp-S¿-®-bn-eq-sS- A-¥y- {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- ap-l-Ω-Zv\-_n-sb- ]q¿-h-Im-e-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-n-∏n-®v- \n¿-Øp∂- Jp¿-B≥,- B-[p-\n-I- Im-e-L-´-Øn-se- ap-kven-an-s\- B-Za
- n-s≥-d- Im-eL
- ´- Ø
- n-se- ap-kve
- n-an-s≥d- hn-izm-k-]-c-am-b- au-en-I- G-I-X-bn¬- C-g-tN¿Øv- \n¿-Øp-∂p- F-∂p-Im-Wmw.- Im-e-hpw- Im-eL-´-hpw- {]-hm-N-I-Zu-Xy-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- {]-t_m-[-\Øn-s≥-d-bpw- k-ao-]-\-ß-fpw- D-]-cn-π-h-X-e-Øn¬am-dn-bm¬-t]m-epw- Hm-tcm- Im-e-L-´-Øn-se-bpw- Ckv-em-an-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-I-cm-b- {]-hm-N-I-∑m-cpw- Ah-cp-sS- k-aq-l-hpw- ap-ºp-w- ti-j-hp-ap-≈- {]-hm-NI-∑m-cpw- A-h-cp-sS- {]-t_m-[n-X-cp-am-bn- H-cp- ]m-ckv-]-cy-Øn-s≥-d- Km-V-X- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂-Xv- ImWmw.- Jp¿-B-\n¬- D-]-tbm-K-n-®n-´p-≈- H-‰-s∏-´-XpwA-√m-Ø-Xp-am-b- \n-c-h-[n- ]-Z-ß-fpw- {]-tbm-K-ß-

1.- B-Zn-a- a-\p-jy-\n¬-\n-∂v- B-cw-`n-°p-∂- Hcp- kp-Zr-V-amb- A-Sn-Ø-d-bn-em-Wv- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- N-cn-{Xw- Du-∂n-\n¬-°p∂-Xv.2.- {]-hm-N-I-∑m¿- H-∂n-\v- ]n-d-sI- H-∂m-bn- Ah-X-cn-®-h-cmI-bm¬,- A-h¿- H-tc-sb-m-cp- a-X-Øn-s≥d- Im-e-t`-Z-߃-°pwk-aq-lm-h-kv-Y-Iƒ-°pw- A-\p-kr-X-am-b- k-tµ-i- hm-l-I-cpw{]-t_m-[-I-cp-am-bn-cp-∂p-˛ X-Zzm-cm- A-h¿- H-cp- i-rw-J-e-bn-seIÆn-Iƒ-X-s∂-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p.3.- C-kv-emw- F-∂-Xv- C-S-°m-e-Øv- B-hn¿-`-hn-®- H-cp- a-Xhy-Xn-cn-Iv-X-X-bp-sS- t]-c-√.- a-dn-®v- N-cn-{X-]-c-am-b- Xp-S¿-®-bpsS- B-sI- hn-ti-j-W-am-Wv.4.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn¬- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- B-cw-`-a-√,- ]q¿-WX-bm-Wv- kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- B-b-Xn-\m¬- C-kv-emw-a-X- kv-Ym-]I≥,- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- G-I- {]hm-N-I≥- Xp-S-ßn-b- k-¶p-Nn-Xhn-ti-j-W-߃- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-°v- tbm-Nn-®-X-√.5.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bp-sS- Po-hn-X-˛{]-t_m-[-\-hpw,- hn-ip-≤Jp¿-B-\p-a-S-°w- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- F-√m- B-[n-Im-cn-I- {]-am-Wß-fpw- hy-Iv-X-am-b- N-cn-{X-hpw- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-e- hn-h-c-W-ß-fpwe-`y-am-b-h-bm-Wv.- Du-l-߃-°n-Sw-\¬-Im-Ø- hy-Iv-X-X-bpwZr-VX
- b
- p-am-Wv- C-h- c-≠n-s≥-db
- pw- kz-`m-hß
- ƒ.- tb-ip-hn-s≥dIm-cy-Øn-te-Xn-\v- k-am-\-am-b- k-tµ-l-߃- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_nbp-sS- Im-cy-Øn¬- C-kv-emw-a-X- hn-izm-kn-Iƒ-°n-√-˛ ap-l-ΩZv\-_n-bp-sS- {]-hm-N-I-Xzw- \n-tj-[n-®p-sIm-≠-v H-cmƒ-°v- C-kvem-an-s≥-d- hr-Ø-Øn¬- \n¬-°m-\m-hn-√.- F-∂m¬- tb-ip-hns≥-d- ssZ-h- ]p-{X-Xz- Nn-¥m-K-Xn-bn¬- sI-´n-∏-Sp-Ø- {In-kv-Xpa-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{X-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- {]-iv-\-ß-fp-sS- ]-´nI\o-≠-Xm-Wv-˛ Nn-e-Xp-am-{Xw- Xm-sg- Ip-dn-°p-∂p-:2.- {In-kv-Xp-a-X-Øn-s≥-d- N-cn-{Xw-

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

90

1.- tb-ip- ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-Wv- F-∂- B-i-bw- Ah-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-eq-sS- N-cn-{X-sØ-bpw- am-\-h-cmin-sb-bpw- {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw- c-≠m-bn- hn-`-Pn-°p-∂p.2.- tb-ip-hn-eq-sS-bp-≈- c-£-bn¬- tI-{µo-I-cn°p-∂- {In-kv-Xp-a-Xw,- A-t±-l-Ø-n-\v- ap-ºp-≈- am\-hc
- m-in-sb- c-£b
- n¬-\n-∂pw- ssZ-hØ
- n¬-\n-∂pwA-\y-h¬-I-cn-°p-∂p.- 3.- {]-hm-N-I∑m-cn¬-\n-∂pw]q¿-h- Im-e-L-´-Øn-se- a-\p-jy-]-c-º-c-bn¬-\n-∂pap-≈- Xp-S¿-®-bm-Wv- tb-ip-hn-s≥-d- ssZ-h-]p-{X-Xzhm-Z-Øn-eq-sS- \n-tj-[n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- a-\p-jy-cm-inbp-sS- N-cn-{X-Øn¬- C-S-bv-°v- B-hn¿-`-hn-°p-∂- Hcp- {]-h-W-X- F-∂- {]-Xo-Xn-bm-Wv- C-Xp-h-gn- krjvSn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- 4.- tb-ip-hn-s\°-p-dn-®pw- A-hs≥-d- ssZ-h-Xzw- c-£m-Zu-Xyw- F-∂n-h-sb-Ip-dn-®pwJ-Wv-Un-X-am-b- B-i-b-߃- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°m≥- {InkvX
- p-aX
- Ø
- n-\v- km-[n-°p-∂n-√˛- tb-ip-hn-s\- X-s∂]-eX
- c
- Ø
- n¬- hym-Jym-\n-°p-Ib
- pw- A-hX
- c
- n-∏n-°pI-bpw- sN-øp-∂- hn-i-I-e-\-ß-fpw- A-h-tem-I-\-ßfpw- e-`y-am-bn-´p-≠v.- 5.- k-tµ-l-ap-Iv-X-am-b- H-cp- thZ-{K-\v-Y-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- D-b¿-Øn-°m-´p-hm≥- km[n-°m-Ø- hn[-Øn¬- ss_-_nƒ- k-¶o¿-W-X-Iƒ°v- Io-gn-em-Wv- ˛Jp¿-B-\p-am-bn- Xm-c-X-ayw- sN-øptºmƒ.- B-`y-¥-c- ssh-cp-[y-ß-fpw- N-cn-{X-]-iv-NmØ-eØ
- n-se- A-hy-IvX
- X
- I
- f
- pw- ]p-Ia
- d
- I
- f
- pw- ss__n-fn-s\- A-Xn-s≥-d- kzo-Im-cy-X-bn¬-\n-∂v- kz-bwX-S-™p-sh-°p-∂-h-bm-Wv.
N-cn-{X-Øn-s≥-d- {]-hm-lK
- X
- n-s°-Xn-cn¬- s]-s´∂-v- D-b¿-∂p-h-∂- H-cp- k-¶o¿-W-X- F-∂- \n-e-bnem-Wv- a-\p-jy-cm-in-bp-sS- kzm-`m-hn-I-[m-c-bn¬- {Inkv-Xp- tI-{µo-Ir-X-am-b- ss{I-kv-X-h-a-Xw- {]-Xn-jvTn-°-s∏-´n-´p-≈-Xv.- {]-hm-N-I-]-c-º-c-bn-se- H-cmƒs]-s´-∂v,- ssZ-h-]p-{X-\m-bn- am-dp-∂n-S-Øv- {In-kv-Xpa-Xw- N-cn-{X-[m-c-bp-sS- kzm-`m-hn-I-X-sb- X-S -s∏Sp-Øp-∂p.- Ckv-em-am-I-s´- B-Zn-a- a-\p-jy-\pw- {]hm-N-I-\p-am-b- B-Z-an¬-\n-∂v- B-cw`n-®v,- \n¿-hn-Lv\w- Xp-S¿-∂- H-cp- [m-c-bn-eq-sS- A-¥y- {]-hm-N-I≥ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bn¬- F-Øp-tºmƒ,- ]q¿-W-h-f¿®{]m-]n-®- H-cp- a-X-am-bn- am-\-h-cm-in-°v- ap-∂n¬- Db¿-∂p-\n¬-°p-∂p.- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- G-sXm-cp- k-Xym-

t\z-jn-°pw,- C-h- X-Ωn-ep-≈- `n-∂-X-Iƒ- a-\- n-em-°m≥- km[n-°p-Ib
- pw- C-kve
- m-an-s≥-d- A-\\
- y-Xb
- pw- ]q¿-WX
- b
- pw- I-s≠Øn- Po-hnXw- [-\y-am-°p-hm≥- `m-Kyw- e-`n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp∂p.A-h-ew-_-߃
1.

Kenneth Boa, World Religions and You, Victor Books, 1977 PP. 113, Vol.I,

2.

Sir Norman Anderson, 1976, PP. 167-168, The Worlds Religions,
Grand Rapids, Ml. William B. Eerdmans publishing company,

3.

History of World Religions Vol-II, PP: 319, 320 Dr. Thomas Kalviyo,
Prof. Fredrich Muecher 1989, Bergmans Press, OSLO,

4.

Holy Scriptus of Jewis, Vol -I PP:18, Prof. Ludwing Morrison, 1989, Stutgurt.,

5.

Relgion and Faiths of Jewish- History and Modern Events, PP. 69-72,73
Dr. Brozman Iliyovich, Cosmo Books, 1972.

6.

The holy scriptus of Israyel, Samual reddieff, Kelvin Publishing Ltd, 1979,
PP. 63-64,

7.

History of semitic Religions, Vol-II, PP: 14-15, 1989 Paul Broggies,
London, (U.K. press),

8.

Christianity and Islam, John Ghil Christ, PP: 13-14 Newhop mission,
1995, Stutghert,

9.

History Apostalil age, Faiths and Acts PP: 230-231, Dr. Herbert Gazlane,
New light mission - 1992, Stutghert,

10. Facts and Faith of Christianity, Prof. Mario Gibzon, 1989 Vol- II, P; 7-8-9,
Institute of Historical Studies, London,
11. Secular Gospel- Historical Study in Malayalam. PP: 2, Dr. Lazar Thermadam,
2002, Kevin Bookds, Alappuzha, Keralam,
12. Ibid -PP: 3,
13. Ibid -PP:8,
14. Ibid -PP: 9,
15. Jesus Christ - Myth or Reality, John Veber, PP. 19-20, Reaching Truth Press,
London- 1989,
16. Islam and Christianity, PP. 70-71 Dr. Paul Forman, Mission of World Press,
1989- London,
17. Understanding Non-Christian Religions PP: 6,7, Josh MC Dowell,
Stewart don, 1982.

kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

a-\p-jy-Ip-e-Øn-s≥-d-

A¿- Y - h - Ø m- b krjv-S-n-X-s∂-bm-Wv- im-kv-{Xw.- F-∂m¬F-√mw- ]-Zm¿-Yn-I-am-sW-∂pw- B-b-Xn\m¬- a-\p-jy-\v- F-Øn-s∏-Sm-\m-Im-Ø,hni-Zo-I-cn-°m-\m-Im-Ø- ta-J-e-bn-√- F∂p-ap-≈- [m-c-W- im-kv-{X-tem-I-Øv- h-fcp-I-bpw- {I-ta-W- im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- G-sdA{]-am-Zn-Øw- I¬-]n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bp-ap-≠mbn.- im-kv-{X- ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bp-sS- Hm-tcm- GSp-I-fpw- a-\p-jy-\n¬- A-l-¶m-c-hpw- ssZh-\n-µ-bpw- h-f¿-Øn.- "tUm-fn'- ]n-d-∂vhoW-t∏mƒ- "kr-jvS- n-∏n¬- ssZ-hØ
- n-s≥d]-Wn- Ip-d-™p'- F-∂- A-l-¥-bp-sS- Ko¿hm-Ww- ap-g-ßn-b-Xv- \mw- tI-´-Xm-W-t√m!-

91
^-en-°p-∂X
- v.- `u-Xn-Ih
- m-ZØ
- n-s≥-d- Im¬]-\n-I- A-P-ø-X-bn¬-\n-∂v- D-S-se-Sp-Ø"B-Xv-a-hn-izm-kw-aq-ew'- ssZ-hn-I-X-sb]pOn-®p-X-≈n-b-Xn-s≥-d- kzm-`m-hn-I- ]-cnWn-Xn-b-s{X- A-Xv.- "im-kv-{X-Øn-s≥-dBk-∂-am-b- \n-iv-N-e-X'- F-∂- ap≥-hyYC-d-°n-sh-°m≥- a-Zy-hpw- a-Zn-cm-£n-bpw(sk-Iv-kpw- _n-b-dpw)- A-Øm-Wn-bm-°p∂- Xo¿-Øpw- \n-Ir-jv-S-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Snte-°v- _p-≤n-cm-£-k-∑m-sc-∂v- tem-Iwkm-£y-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-h-sc- \-bn-°p-∂-Xv-

XØ-z-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v- am-{X-sa-˛ F-hn-sSbpw- Im-Wp-∂- Cu- B-i-sb-bpw- B-i-¶sb-bpw- ^-e-{]-Z-am-b- co-Xn-bn¬- ]-cn-lcn-°m-\m-Iq.- ]-t£,- ap≥-hn-[n-Iq-Sm-sXF√mw- {i-≤n-®p-tIƒ-°p-I-bpw- G-‰-hpwDØ-a-am-b-Xv- ]n≥-]-‰p-I-bpw- sN-øm-\p-≈l-r-Z-b- hn-im-e-X- \mw- h-f¿-Øn-sb-Sp-°Ww.- tæ-Oa
- m-bh
- - Xn-ck
- vI
- c
- n-°m-\pw- D-Øa-am-bX
- v- hm-cn-∏p- W
- c
- m-\p-ap-≈- kzm-X{- ¥yw\mw- t\-S-Ww.- A-t∏mƒ- am-{X-am-Wv- \mwHm-tcm-cp-Ø-cpw- b-Ym¿-Y-- _p-≤n-bp-≈- \c-

im-kv-{X-]p-tcm-K-Xn-bpwssZ-h-\n-tj-[-hpwA-_p-lw-\,- k-em-e-

- F-∂m¬- In-´n-b- A-dn-hp-Iƒ- Iq-Sp-X¬A-dn-hv- B-h-iy-s∏-Sp-∂p- F-∂- k-XywXncn-®-dn™-t∏mƒ- {Xn-i-¶p-kz¿-K-Øn¬\n-∂pw- Xm-tgm-´p-h-cm≥- ˛a-\- -\p-h-Zn-°p∂n-√m-sb-¶n-epw-˛ im-kv-{X-tem-Iw- \n¿-_\v-[n-X-am-bn-cn-°-bm-Wv.`u-Xn-I-am-bn- am-{Xw- Nn-¥n-°p-I-bpwIm-cy-߃- hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂_p-≤n-iq-\y-X-bp-sS- "_p-≤n-bp-≈'- _-enbm-Sp-I-fm-bn- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿- am-dn.A¶p-ia
- n-√m-Ø- B-ib
- n-epw- G-tXm- {]Xnk-\v-[n-bp-sS- B-i-¶-bn-epw-s]-´v- D-g-ep∂Im-gv-N-bm-Wv- ]-e- B-[p-\n-I- im-kv-{X-Imc-∑m-cp-sS-bpw- Nn-¥m-i-I-e-ß-fn¬- {]-Xn-

bYm¿-Y-- _p-≤n-bp-sS- Xm¬-]-cy-am-b- ssZhn-IX
- - Aw-Ko-Ic
- n-°p-∂X
- n-ep-≈- hn-ap-JXam-{X-am-Wv.- im-k{v- X-Øn-se- C-\n-bpw- DØcw- e-`n-°m-Ø- H-cp-]m-Sv- h-en-b- tNm-Zy߃-°v- H-cn-°-epw- D-Ø-cw- e-`n-°n-√F∂v- k-Ω-Xn-°p-∂-tXm-sSm-∏w- im-kv-{Xtem-Iw- t_m-[-a-\-s -∂- \n-Xy- {]-tlfnI-sb-t∏-m-epw- hn-h-cn-®v- X-cm-\m-Ip-∂- {]Xn-`-sb- {]-Xo-£n-°p-∂p-!- aq-V-am-b- Cu{]-Xym-i-bp-sS- ]n-∂n¬- h¿-Øn-°p-∂-XpwCu- hn-ap-J-X- X-s∂.am-\-h-Ip-e-Øn-s≥-d- k¿-h-tXm-∑p-Jamb- h- f ¿- ® - ° pw- im- i z- X - c- £ - ° pwBXva- kw-kv-I-c-W-Øn-\p-sa-√mw- D-X-Ip∂- H-cp- \n-Xy-\q-X-\- _-lp-ap-J- am¿-K-Z¿i-\-Øn-\v- am-{X-sa-˛ a¿-Xys≥-d- s]m-cp-fdn-bp-∂- {k-jv-Sm-hm-b- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-dkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

\m-bn- am-dp-I.Cu- Hu-∂-Xy-Øn-te-°v- a-\p-jy-s\ssI-]n-Sn-®p-b¿-Øm≥- I-gn-bp-∂- Htcsbm
cp- ssZ-hn-I- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\-am-Wv- Ckvemw.tem-I-Øv- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂- k-I-e- Z¿-i\-ß-fpw- Cu- bm-Ym¿-Y-y-Øn-\p-≈- km
£y-]-{X-ß-fm-sW-∂v- Im-e-hpw- ]-T-\-ßfpw- hn-fn-t®m-Xp-∂p.- Nn-¥n-°m-sX- Dƒs°m-≈m-t\m- \n¿-_-\v-[-am-bn- AwKo-Icn-°m-t\m- A-Xv- B-sc-bpw- \n¿-_-‘n-°p∂n-√.- H-∂m-a-sØ- {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- \q-lv(K-)- X-s≥-d- P-\-ß-tfm-Sv- ]-d-™-Xm-bn]-cn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- D-≤-cn-°p-∂p-:""\n-߃-s°-¥p-]-‰n?- A-√mlp-hn-\vHcp- Kmw-`o-cy-hpw- \n-߃- {]-Xo-£n-°p∂n-t√?- \n-ß-sf- A-h≥- ]-e- L-´-ß-fnem-bn- kr-jv-Sn-®n-cn-°-bm-W-t√m.- \n-߃I-≠n-t√-;- F-ß-s\-bm-Wv- A-√m-lp- A-Sp°p-I-fm-bn-´v- G-gv- B-Im-i-߃- kr-jv-Sn®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- F-∂v?- N-{µ-s\- A-hn-sSAh≥- H-cp- {]-Im-i-am-°n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.kqcy-s\- A-h≥- hn-f-°p-am-°n-bn-cn-°p∂p''- (71:-14˛16).G-Im-cm-[y-\m-b- {k-jvSm-hn-s\- a-\ 
- nem-°m≥- A-h-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn- a-lm-Xv-ay-ßsf- ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Sp-Øn- a-\p-jy-a-kv-Xn-jv-IsØ- Nn-t¥m-±-o-]v-X-am-°p-I-bm-Wn-hn-sS.\n-c-£-c-\pw- km-£-c-\pw- im-kv-{X-Im-c-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿\p-sa-√mw- D-]-I-cn-°p-∂- co-Xn.- B-Im-isØ-°p-dn-®v- C-Xp-h-sc-bp-≈- Nn-¥-bpw- ]T-\-ß-fpw- a-\p-jy- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-s≥-d- L-´ß-sf-°-p-dn-®v- C-Xn-\-Iw- t\-Sn-b- A-dn-hpwNn-¥n-°p-∂- H-cp- a-\p-jy-s\- kw-_-\v-[n®v- X-s≥-d- {kjv-Sm-hn-s\- Dƒ-s°m-≈m≥]-cym-]v-X-am-Wv.- \q-lv- (K)- ]-d-™- Bim-kv-{X- Iu-Xp-I-ß-fp-sS- ]-T-\-hpw- At\z-j-W-hpw- C-∂pw- \mw- Xp-S-cp-I-bm-Wv.{]-Im-i-Øn-s≥-d- t{km-X- m-b- kq-cy-s\hn-fs
- °-∂pw- (kn-dm-Pv),- kq-cy-{]-Im-iw- {]Xn-^-en-∏n-°p-I-am-{Xw- sN-øp-∂- N-{µ-s\H-cp- {]-Im-i-sa-∂pw- (ap-\o¿)- {]-tbm-Kn-®Xn-ep-≈- Ir-Xy-X- C-∂v- am-{X-am-Wv- \-ap°v- t_-m-[y-s∏-´-sX-¶n¬- k-l-{km-_v-Z߃-°v- ap-ºv- a-\p-jy-tcm-SX
- v- ]-d™
- ssZhn-I-sh-fn-]m-Sn-s≥-d- k-Xy-X-sb-°-p-dn-®vC\n-bpw- kw-i-b-tam?
Jp¿-B-\n-se- im-kv-{X-Nn-¥-sb-°-pdn®v- ]-Tn-°p-tºmƒ- C-\n-bpw- ]-e-XpwF∂-√- H-´-\-h-[n- ]-T-\-ß-fpw- I-≠p-]nSp-Øß
- f
- pw- \-S°
- m-\p-≠v- F-∂p-Xs
- ∂-bmWv- a-\- n-em-Ip-∂-Xv.""B-Im-i-ß-fn-ep-≈-Xpw- `q-an-bn-ep-≈Xpw- A-√m-lp- \n-߃-°v- A-[o-\s
- ∏-Sp-ØnØ-∂n-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂v- \n-߃- I-≠n-t√''?....- (31:-20).""B-Im-i-ß-fn-ep-≈-Xpw- `q-an-bn-ep-≈Xp-sa-√mw- X-s≥-d- h-I-bm-bn- Ah≥- \n
߃-°v- A-[o-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-Ø-cn-I-bpw- sNbv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- P-\-߃-°vXo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- ]-e- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ßfp-ap-≠v''- (45:-13).A-√m-lp- X-s≥-d- h-Ib
- m-bn- \-ap-°v- A[o-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-X-∂n-´p-≈- ]-Zm¿-Y-n-I- kz`m-h-ap-≈- kr-jv-Sn-I-sf-°-p-dn-®v,- a-\p-jy\v- \¬-I-s∏-´- _p-≤n-s°m-≠v- a-\- n-em°m-\m-Ip-∂- k¿-h-Xpw-˛ kq-cy-\v- ap-I-fnepw- Xm-sg-bp-ap-≈-sX-√mw-˛ C-∂-h-\-dn-bp∂- H-cp- A-ao-_-sb-°mƒ- hy-Iv-X-am-bn-Øs∂- A-dn-bpw F-∂m-Wn-hn-sS-\n-∂pw- \ap°v- a-\- n-em-Ip-∂-Xv.- Cu- h-N-\-ß-fn-se"B-Im-i-ß-fn-ep-≈-Xv-'- F-∂- {]-tbm-Kw{]-tXy-Iw- {i-t≤-b-am-Wv.- F-∂m¬- G-gvB-Im-i-ß-sf-∂v- Jp¿-B≥- {]-Xn-]m-Zn-®ta-Je
- b
- p-sS- D-]c
- n-tem-It- Ø-°v- I-S°
- m≥\-ap-°v- I-gn-bn-√- F-∂- h-kv-Xp-X-bpw- C
tXm-sSm-∏w- Dƒ-s°m-t≈-≠-Xm-Wv.- ssZhn-IZ- m-\s
- a-∂- t_m-[a
- n-√m-sX- A-dn-hn-epwI- g n- h n- e pw- a- ‰ pw- A- l - ¶ - c n- ° p- ∂ - h ¿-

92
""Rm≥- A-dn-bp-∂p-,- \n-ß-f-dn-bp-∂n-√''F∂v- {k-jv-Sm-hm-b- ssZ-hw- A-¥y-th-ZØn-e-p-S-\o-fw- ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- C-S-°n-sS- kv-acn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬....""\n-t∂m-S-h¿- B-Xv-am-hn-s\-∏-‰n- tNmZn-°p-∂p.- ]-d-bp-I-:- B-Xv-am-hv- F-s≥-d- c
£n-Xm-hn-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬-s]-´X
- m-Ip-∂p.A-dn-hn¬-\n-∂v- A¬-]a
- √
- m-sX- \n-߃-°v\¬-I-s]∏-´n-´n-√''- (17:-85) F-∂p-- ]-d-™psIm-≠v- a-\p-jy-\v- \¬-Is
- ∏-´- _p-≤n-bpsS]-cn-an-Xn- A-√m-lp- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p.Cß-s\- P-K-∂n-b-¥m-hm-b- A-√m-lp- hyIvX
- a
- m-°n-b- A-hs
- ≥-d- kr-jSv- n-If
- n¬- D∂X-\m-b- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- km-[y-XI
- f
- pw- km[pX-I-fpw- ]-cn-an-Xn-I-fpw- b-tYm-Nn-Xw- Dƒ
s°m-≈p-tºm-gm-Wv- a-\p-jy≥- hn-\-bm-\znX-\m-b- hn-izm-knbm-bn- h-f-cp-∂-Xv.- ssZhØn-\v- Io-sgm-Xp-ßn-b- hn-izm-kn-I-fm-Wvk-∑m¿-Kw- t\-Sn- im-iz-X- tam-£-Øn-s≥d`-h-\-am-b- kz¿-K-Øn-\v- A¿-l-cm-Ip-∂-Xv.A-√m-lp- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""hn-iz-kn-°p-Ibpw- k-Xv-I¿-aw- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-I-bpw- sNbv-X-h-s\- A-h-s≥-d- hn-izm-k-Øn-s≥-d-t]cn¬- A-h-cp-sS- c-£n-Xm-hv- k-∑m¿-K-Ønte-°v- h-gn- \-S-Øp-I-bpw- A-Sn-bn-eq-sSAcp-hn-Iƒ- H-gp-Ip-∂- tXm-´-Øn-te-°v- {]th-in-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øpw''- (10:-9)-."\-Ωƒ- C-hn-sS-bp-≈-Xp-X-s∂- \-ΩƒF-¥p-sIm-≠v- C-hn-sS-bp-≠v- F-∂v- a-\- nem-°m≥- th-≠n-bm-Wv'- F-∂- `u-Xn-I-amb- X-Ø-z-Nn-¥-sb- A¬-]w- hn-im-e-am-°n(Why and for What) F-¥n-\m-Wv- C-hnsS-bp-≈-Xv- F-∂- {]-k-Iv-X-am-b- Nn-¥-IqSn- Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øp-tºmƒ- A-Xv- tI-h-e- `-uXn-I-X-bn¬-\n-∂p-b¿-∂v- A¿-Y-k-ºq¿-Whpw- k-a-{K-hp-am-b- H-cm-i-b-am-bn- am-dp-∂p.a-\p-jy-\pw- k¿-h- kr-jv-Sn-Pm-e-߃-°pwc-£-I-\pw- {k-jv-Sm-hpw- B-cm-[y-\p-am-bnH-tc-sbm-cp- ssZ-hw- am-{X-am-Wp-≈-sX-∂k-Xy-apƒ-s°m-≠v- A-h-s\- am-{Xw- B-cm[-n-°m≥,- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- kr-jv-Sn- a-m-lmXva
- y-ßf
- n-eq-sS- A-hs
- \- Xn-cn-®d
- n-bm≥,- Ah-s≥-d- hn-[n-hn-e-°p-Iƒ-°-\p-kr-X-am-bnPo-hn-X-sØ- ]-cn-h¿-Øn-∏n-®v- B-Xv-a- kwkv-I-c-Ww- t\-Sn- kz¿-Kw- I-c-kv-Y-am-°phm\p-≈- H-cp- X-´-I-Øn-em-Wv- \m-ap-≈-XvF-∂- Xn-cn-®-dn-hv- \-Ωƒ- F-¥p-sIm-≠v- Chn-sS-bp-≠v- F-∂-Xn-\p-≈- i-cn-bm-b- Dƒ°m-gv-N- \¬-Ip-∂p.""C-Xv- (Jp¿-B≥)- k-Xy-am-sW-∂v- Ah¿-°v- hy-Iv-X-am-I-Ø-°-h-Æw- hn-hn-[
kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Zn°p-I-fn-epw- A-h-cn¬-X-s∂-bpw- \-Ωp-sSZrjv-Sm-¥-߃- h-gntb- \mw- A-h¿-°v- ImWn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.- \n-s≥-d- c-£nXm-hv- G-Xv- Im-cy-Øn-\pw- km-£n-bm-WvF-∂-Xp-X-s∂- a-Xn-bm-b-X-t√?''- (41:-53).A-\p-Zn-\w- \-ap-°v- hy-Iv-X-am-bn-s°m≠n-cn-°p-∂- A-dn-hp-I-fpw,- h-en-b- t\-´-ßfm-bn- \mw- D-Zv-tLm-jn-°p-∂- I-≠p-]n-SpØ-ß-fpw- F-√mw- A-√m-lp- \-ap-°v- shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn- Ø
- c
- p-∂- ssZ-hn-IZ- r-jvS- m-¥ß
- f-s{X.- G-Im-cm-[y-\m-b- A-√m-lp- a-\p-jy\v- \¬-In-b- A-¥n-a-hpw- F-∂m¬- km¿h-eu-In-I-hpw- k-∑m¿-K-Z¿-i-I- {K-\v-Y-hpam-b- ]-cn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- k-Xy-am-sW-∂vXn-cn-®-dn-bm≥- A-¥y-\mƒ-h-sc- C-Xv- XpS¿-∂p-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°pw.A-`u-an-I- Po-hn-X-sØ- im-kv-{X-Øn\v- A-`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-°m≥- I-gn-™m¬- A-Xnt≥-d-Xm-b- im-kv-{X-im-J- hn-I-kn-∏n-s®-Sp°m≥-am-{Xw- \-Ωp-sS- _u-≤n-I- \n-e-hmcw- D-b-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- th-h-em-Xn-Iƒ- Xocp-sa-∂- "k-am-[m-\'-Øn-em-Wv- ]-e-cp-ap-≈Xv.- F-∂m¬- A-hn-sS-bpw- Im-eß
- f
- p-sS- bm{X-°n-S-bn¬- C-∂-sØ- `u-an-I- Po-hn-Xmh-kv-Y-bp-sS- {]-Xn-k-\v-[n- ]p-\x-kv-Ym-]n°- s ∏- S p- s a- ∂ p- ≈ - X v - C- h n- s S- \ n- ∂ p- ≈ A\p-`h-]m-T-a-t√? `u-Xn-I-X-bp-sS- A-{]am-Zn-Ø- I¬-]-\- \n-cm-i-bp-sS-tbm- A¿Y-iq-\y-am-b- {]-Xym-i-bp-sS-tbm- ss\-c-¥cy-Øn-\v- am-{X-am-Wv- k-lm-b-I-am-hp-I- F∂¿-Y-w.- ]-e-t∏m-gp-a-Xv- Xo¿-Øpw- A-[-aam-b-Xn-te-°v- a-\p-jy-s\- \-bn-°p-I-bpwsN-øpw.- B-b-Xn-\m¬- am-\-h-X-bp-sS- icnbm-b- tam-£-Øn-\pw- D-∂-Xn-°pw- h-gn-Im´n-bm-b,- I-≈- I-sø-gp-Øv- tIm-ep-I-tf-Xpta- Xo-≠n-bn-´n-√m-Ø- ssZ-hn-I- sh-fn-]mSpI-fp-sS- ti-J-c-am-b- Jp¿-B-\n-te-°v- a-Sßp-I-bm-Wv- F-√m- {]-Xn-k-\v-[n-I-sf-bpwX-c-Ww- sN-øm-\p-≈- t]mw-h-gn.Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-:""Zp¿-aq¿-Øn-sb-˛A-Xn-s\- h¿-Pn-°p-Ibpw,- A-√m-lp-hn-te-°v- hn-\b
- t- Øm-sS- aSßp-I-bpw- sN-bv-X-h-cm-tcm- A-h¿-°m-Wvk-t¥m-j-hm¿-Ø.- A-Xn-\m¬- F-s≥-d- Zmk-∑m¿-°v- \o- k-t¥m-j-hm¿-Ø- A-dn-bn°p-I.- A-Xm-b-Xv- hm-°v- {i-≤n-®p-tIƒ-°pI-bpw- A-Xn¬- G-‰-hpw- \-√-Xv- ]n≥-]-‰pI-bpw- sN-øp-∂h
- ¿-°v.- A-°q-´¿-°m-Ip-∂pA-√m-lp- am¿-K-Z¿-i-\w- \¬-In-bn-´p-≈-Xv.A-h¿- X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p- _p-≤n-am-∑m¿-''(39:17,-18).-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

93

£-Wn-°m-sX- h-cp-∂A-X-n-YnD-kv-am≥- ]m-e-°m-gn-

at\m-l-c-am-b- `-q-an.- F-{X- I-≠m-epw- aXnh-cm-Ø- Zr-iy-߃.- F-{X- Po-hn-®m-epwsIm-Xn-Xo-cm-Ø- Po-hn-Xw.- F-√m-h¿-°pwB-{K-l-ap-≠v-;- Zo¿-L-Im-ew- Po-hn-°m≥.]-t£,- \-S∏
- n-√!- - £-Wn-°m-sX- h-s∂-Øp∂,- F-√m-hc
- pw- `-b°
- p-∂,- sh-dp-°p-∂- Hcphn-cp-∂p-Im-c≥-˛ a-c-Ww-.- ]-Ww-sIm-t≠m{]-Xm-]w-sIm-t≠m- A-[n-Im-cw-sIm-t≠mAXn¬-\n-∂v- c-£e
- `
- n-°m≥- t]m-Ip-∂n-√.A-sX,- Po-hn-Xw,- {l-kzw.-- \-iz-cw.- H-cp- Ihn- ]-d-™-Xp-t]m-se- "\n-an-j-߃-°p≈n¬- am- ™ p- t ]m- I p- ∂ - ln- a - _ n- µ p.- ' AsX-t∏mƒ- am-™p-t]m-Ipw?- A-dn-bn-√-;k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\m-b- {k-jv-Sm-hn-\-√m-sX.a-c-Ww- A-Xv- bm-Ym¿-Y-y-am-Wv.- [-\n-I-

\pw- Z-cn-{Z-\pw A-tcm-Khm-\pw- tcm-Kn-bpwh-en-b-h-\pw sN-dn-b-h-\pw- ]-Wv-Un-X-\pw]m-a-c-\-pw- cm-Pm-hpw- {]-P-bpw- A-Sn-a-bpwD-S-a-bpw- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- ap-Iv-X-c-√.- A-√mlp- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""G-sXm-cp- tZ-l-hpw- a-cWw- B-kz-Zn-°p-∂X
- m-Wv''- (3:-185).- A-Xn¬\n-∂v- c-£-s∏-Sm≥- B¿-°pw- km-[y-a-√.Hm-Sn-sbm-fn-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√.- h-f-sc- `-{Z-amb- tIm-´s
- I-´n- A-Xn-s≥-d- D-≈n-s≥-db
- p-≈nse- H-cp- ap-dn-bn¬- ]p-d-Øn-d-ßm-sX- I-gn™m-epw- A-h-\v- c-£-bn-√.- ""\n-߃- Fhn-sS-bm-bn-cp-∂m-epw- a-c-Ww- \n-ß-sf- ]nSn-Iq-Sp-∂-Xm-Wv.- \n-߃,-- `-{Z-am-bn- sI-´nD-b¿-Ø-s∏-´- tIm-´-Iƒ-°p-≈nem-bm¬t]m-epw''- (4:-78).kv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

F-¥m-Wv- a-c-Ww?- A-Xn-\v- hy-Iv-X-amsbm-cp- \n¿-hN
- \
- w- \¬-Im≥- im-kv{- X-Øn\v- I-gn-™n-´n-√.- A-Xv- a-\p-jy-_p-≤n-sbA-º-c-∏n-°p-∂- H-cp- h-kv-Xp-X-bm-Wv;- BXv-am-hp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´- H-cp- Im-cy-am-Wv.B-Xa
v- m-hn-s\-°p-dn-®m-Is
- ´- a-\p-jy¿-°v- Nne- Du-l-ß-f-√m-sX- hy-Iv-X-am-b- A-dn-hn√.- ""\n-t∂m-S-h¿- B-Xv-am-hn-s\-∏-‰n- tNmZn-°p-∂p.- ]-d-bp-I-:- B-Xv-am-hv- F-s≥-dc£n-Xm-hn-s≥-d- Im-cy-Øn¬-s]-´-Xm-Ip∂p.- A- d n- h n¬- \ n- ∂ v - A¬- ] - a - √ m- s X\n߃-°v- \¬-I-s∏-´n-´n-√''- (17:-85).\-√- B-tcm-Kyap-≈,-- Zr-VK
- m-{X-\pw- [oc-\p-am-b- H-cp- bp-hm-hn-\v- s]-s´-s∂m-cps\©p-th-Z\
- .- - \n-an-jß
- ƒ-°I
- w- A-bmƒ-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿N-e\-a-‰v- P-U-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂p.- \-Ωƒ- ]dbpw- : - ""\- √ - B- t cm- K y- h m- \ m- b n- c p- ∂ p.Ah≥- t]m-bn''.- A-sX- A-h≥- t]m-bn.A-ß-s\- H-cp-]m-Sp-t]¿- \n-Xy-hpw- t]m-bns°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- ]-WvU
- n-Xt- \m,- km-lnXy-Im-c-t\m,- tUm-Iv-S-tdm,- im-kv-{X-Pv-Rt\m- B-cp-am-I-s´,- A-h-[n-sb-Øn-bm¬acn-®p-t]m-tI-≠-h-c-m-Wv.- A-h-cp-sS- A-dnhp-sIm-≠pw- I-gn-hp-sIm-≠pw- {]-ikv-XnsIm-≠pw- B-Xva
- m-hn-s\- ]n-Sn-°m≥-hc
- p-∂a-e-°p-I-sf- Xn-cn-®-b-°m≥- I-gn-bn-√.- ]S®-h-s≥-d- hn-[n- A-ew-L-\o-bw.- ""H-cmƒ
°pw- A-bm-fp-sS- A-h-[n- h-s∂-Øn-bm¬A-√m-lp- \o-´n-s°m-Sp-°p-I-bn-√''- (63:-11).a-c-Ww-!- A-Xv- B-i-I-sf- A-dp-Øp-apdn°p-∂p.- B-kzm-Z-\-ß-sf- X-®p-S-°p-∂p.C∂v- a-\p-jy¿- `u-Xn-I- kp-J-t`m-K-ß-sfA-Xn-bm-bn- kv-t\-ln-°p-∂p.- a-c-Ww- F
∂m-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂v- hy-Iv-X-am-bn- A-dn-bp-ambn-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-h¿-°v- G-‰-hpw- sh-dp-∏p≈- H-∂m-bn- `u-Xn-I-kp-Jw- am-dp-am-bncp∂p.a-c-W-sØ- cw-Kt_m-[-an-√m-Ø- tImam-fn- F-∂v- \-Ωƒ- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°m-dp-≠v.k-Xy-Øn¬- cw-K-t_m-[-an-√m-Ø- tIm-amfn-Iƒ- \-Ωƒ- a-\p-jy-cm-Wv.- bu-h-\-Øns≥-d- {]-k-cn-∏n-epw- I-fn-Nn-cn-Iƒ-°n-S-bnepw- "{]-Xo-£n-°m-sX'- h-s∂-Øp∂-XpsIm-≠m-Wv- a-c-W-sØ- tIm-am-fn- F-∂vhn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- G-Xp- \n-an-j-hpw- acWw-h-s∂-Øm-sa-∂- k-Xyw- Hm¿-°m-sXB¿-Øp-√-kn-®v- ssZ-h-sØ- a-d-∂v- Po-hn°p-∂- a-\p-jy¿-X-s∂-b-t√- B- t]-cn∂¿l¿...-?-!A-]-I-S-Øn-s≥-d-tbm- tcm-K-Øn-s≥-dtbm- cq-]Ø
- n¬- a-cW
- w- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- ta¬Nm-Sn-ho-gp-∂p.- C-c-bp-sS- ta¬- knw-lw- NmSn-ho-gpw-t]m-se.- A-tXm-sS- A-hs
- ≥-d- icocw- Zp¿-_-e-am-Ip-∂p.- \m-Un-˛R-c-ºp-IƒX-f-cp-∂p.- i-_-vZw- t\-cn-b-Xm-Ip-∂p.- Hm¿ai-IvX
- n- A-kvX
- a
- n-°p-∂p.- H-Sp-hn¬- "a-cW
- w'A-hs
- ≥-d- ta¬- ]q¿-Wa
- m-bpw- B-[n-]X
- ywt\-Sp-∂p.-

94
\m-b'- C-∂-bmƒ.....- "A-¥-cn-®' C-∂bmƒ.....- "a¿-lqw'-....- F-∂n-ß-s\.B-bp- v- A-Y-hm- Po-hn-Xw- hn-cn-bp-Ibpw- hm-Sn-s°m-gn-bp-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂- H-cp]q-t]m-se-bm-Wv.- A-s√-¶n¬- {]-Im-iw- ]cØn- A-W-™p-t]m-Ip-∂- hn-f-°v.- A-Xpa-s√-¶n¬- sh-Æo-dm-bn- am-dp-∂- H-cp- Xo°\¬.F-{X-tbm- iva
- i
- m-\ß-fpw- J-_d
- p-If
- pw\-Ωƒ- I-≠n-´p-≠v.- J-_-dn-S-Øn-se- Ip-‰ns∏m-¥-Iƒ-°n-S-bn¬- s]m-¥n-\n¬-°p-∂I-√p-Iƒ- {i-≤n-®n-´p-≠v.- B- I-√p-Iƒ-°nS-bn¬- Xm-sg-,- Cl-tem-I-sØ- A-tß-b‰w- Im-an-®h
- c
- p-≠m-bn-cn-°mw.- sF-ln-Ik
- pJ-t`m-K-߃- t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥-th-≠n- F
¥pw-sN-bv-X-h-cp-≠m-tb-°mw.- A-Xn-\p-≈]-c°
- w-]m-®n-en-\n-Sb
- n¬- A-h¿- h-s∂-Øn
b-tXm- B-d-Sn- a-Æn¬-!F-∂n-´pw......-!- F-∂n-´p-sa-t¥- A-Zr-iyß-fd
- n-bp-∂- {]-]©
- \
- m-Ys
- \- a-\ 
- n-em-°phm-\pw- A-h-\v- Io-gv-s]-´v- Po-hn-°p-hm-\pwA-hs
- ≥-d- A-Sn-aI
- ƒ- a-Sn-Im-Wn-°p-∂p?- Ah-s\- kv-a-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬-,- A-h-s\-am-{XwBc-m-[n-°p-∂-Xn¬- a-Sp-∏p-Im-Wn-°p-∂p?\-Ω-fm-sc-¶n-epw- B-h-iy-s∏-´-X-\p-kcn-®m-tWm- \-Ωƒ- ]n-d-∂p-ho-W-Xv?- \-ΩƒtN-m-Zn-®n-´m-tWm- C-hn-sS-bp-≈- ku-I-cyß-sf-√mw- \-ap-°v- e-`n-®-Xv?- - H-cn-°-ep-a√!- G-I-\pw- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\pw- k¿-h-Pv-R\p-am-b- {k-jSv- m-hn-s≥-d- Im-cp-Wy-Øn-s≥da-Ip-tSm-Zm-l-c-W-ßm-Wn-sX-√mw-;- H-cp-Imcy-Øn-epw- bm-sXm-cp- ]-¶pIm-cp-an-√m-Ø,kr-jv-Sn-I-fp-sS- cq-]-Øn¬- A-h-X-cn-°mØ-,- A-\m-Zn-bpw- A-\-¥-\p-am-b- {kjvSmhn-s≥-d.
F-¥m-Wo- `u-Xn-I-Po-hn-Xw-?- A-XvI\n-™p-\¬-In-b- Hu-Zm-cy-hm-\m-b- {]-]
©-\m-Y≥- \-ap-°X
- v- hy-IvX
- a
- m-°n-Øc
- p-∂-

a-c-Ww.....-!- A-sX-{X-am-{Xw- A-Sp-ØmWv.- A-Xv- \-tΩm-Spw- \-Ωƒ- A-Xn-t\m-SpwA-\p-Zn-\w- A-Sp-Øp-sIm-t≠-bn-cn-°p-∂p.F-∂n-´pw- \-Ωƒ- Nn-¥n-°p-∂n-√!- \n-iv-NnX- A-h-[n- \-Ωn-eq-sS- I-S-∂p-t]m-bm¬]ns∂- \-Ωƒ- A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv- "]-tc-Xkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

Xv- Im-Wp-I-:""\mw- BIm-i-Øp-\n-∂v- sh-≈w- C-d°n-bn-´v- A-Xp-aq-ew- a-\p-jy¿-°pw- Im-enIƒ-°pw- `-£n-°m-\p-≈- `q-an-bn-se- k-ky߃- C-S-I-e¿-∂v- h-f¿-∂p.- A-ß-s\- `qanA-Xn-s≥-d- A-e-¶m-c-a-Wn-bp-I-bpw- A-XvA-gI
- m¿-∂X
- m-Ip-Ib
- pw,- A-hs
- bm-s°- Ickv-Y-am-°m≥- X-߃-°v- I-gn-bp-am-dm-sb∂v- A-Xn-s≥-d- D-Sa
- k
- Y
v- ¿- hn-Nm-cn-°p-Ib
- pwsN-bv-X-t∏m-g-Xm- H-cp- cm-{Xn-tbm- ]-I-tem\-Ωp-sS- I¬-]\
- - A-Xn-\v- h-s∂-Øp-Ib
- pw,X-te-Zn-h-kw- A-h-sbm-∂pw- A-hn-sS- \ne-\n-∂n-t´-bn-√m-Ø-a-´n¬- \m-a-h-sb- D-∑qe-\w- sN-ø-s∏-´- A-h-kv-Y-bn-em-°p-I-bpwsN-øp-∂p.- C-Xp-t]m-se- am-{X-am-Ip-∂p- sFln-I-Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- D-]-a.- Nn-¥n-°p-∂B-fp-Iƒ-°p-th-≠n- A-{]-Im-cw- \mw- sXfn-hp-Iƒ- hn-i-Zo-I-cn-°p-∂p''- (10:-24).""(\-_n-tb),- \o- A-h¿-°v- sF-ln-IPo-hn-XØ
- n-s≥-d- D-]a- hn-hc
- n-®p-sIm-Sp-°pI-:- B-Im-i-Øp-\n-∂v- \mw- sh-≈-an-d-°n.A-Xp-aq-ew- `q-an-bn¬- k-ky-߃- C-SI
- e
- ¿∂v- h-f¿-∂p.- Xm-a-kn-bm-sX- A-Xv- Im-‰pIƒ- ]-d-Øn-°-f-bp-∂- Xp-cp-ºm-bn-Øo¿∂p (A-Xp-t]m-se-b-s{X- sF-ln-I- Po-hnXw).-- A-√m-lp- G-Xp- Im-cy-Øn-\pw- I-gnhp≈-h-\m-Ip-∂p''- (18:-45).sF-ln-I-Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- \n- m-c-Xbm-Wv- Cu- h-N-\-߃- \-ap-°v- a-\- n-em°n-Ø-cp-∂-Xv.- C-X-n-\p-th-≠n,- ]m-c-{Xn-Item-I-sØ- im-iz-X-hn-P-bw- \-jv-S-s∏-SpØ-cp-sX-∂m-Wv- C-kv-emw- a-\p-jy-sc- ]Tn∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p:""F-∂m¬- ]-c-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- ap-ºn¬Cl-tem-IØ
- n-se- kp-Jm-\p-`h
- w- Xp-NvO
- wam-{X-am-Ip-∂p''- (9:-38).""Cu- sF-ln-I-Po-hn-Xw- hn-t\m-Z-hpwI-fn-bp-a√
- m-sX- a-s‰m-∂p- a
- √
- .- Xo¿-®b
- m-bpw-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿-

95
∂-Xpw''- (20:131).Cu- I¬-]-\- Xn-cp-ta-\n- A-£-cm¿-YØn¬- A-\p-kc
- n-°p-Ib
- pw- A-\p-Nc
- ∑
- m-scA-Xn-\v- t{]-cn-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.-

]-ct- em-Iw-Xs
- ∂-bm-Wv- b-Ym¿-Y-- Po-hn-Xw.A-h¿- a-\ 
- n-em-°n-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬''- (29:-64).a-\p-jy≥- k-hn-ti-j_
- p-≤n-bp-≈h
- \
- mWv;- - Nn-¥m-ti-jn-bp-≈h
- \
- m-Wv.- X-s≥-d- Nn¥m-ti-jn- D-]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øp-hm≥- {i-an®m¬- C-l-tem-I- Po-hn-X-Øn-s≥-d- \-iz-cX-bpw- ]m-c-{Xn-I-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- B-h-iyI-X-bpw- A-h-\v- t_m-[y-am-Ipw.- ]-´n-bpw]q-®b
- p-sam-s°- N-Øp-t]m-Ip-∂X
- p-t]m-seXm-\pw- N-Øp-t]m-Ip-∂p,- A-Xn-\p-ti-jwip-≤-iq-\y-X-bm-Wp-≈-Xv- F-∂p-]-d-bm≥a-\p-jy-s≥-d- k-hn-ti-j-X-Iƒ- a-\- n-em°p-∂- Nn-¥m-ti-jn-bp-≈- H-cmƒ-°v- I-gnbn-√.`u-Xn-IP
- o-hn-XØ
- n¬- A-≈n-∏n-Sn-®v- ]mc-{Xn-I-Po-hn-X-sØ- hn-kv-a-cn-®v- I-gn-bp-∂h¿-°pw- A-Xn-s\- \n-tj-[n-°p-∂-h¿-°pwA-√m-lp- Xm-°o-Xv- \¬-Ip-∂p-:- ""sF-lnI-Po-hn-X-sØ-bpw- A-Xn-s≥-d- A-e-¶m-csØ-bp-am-Wv- B-sc-¶n-epw -D-t±-in-°p-∂sX-¶n¬- A-h-cp-sS- {]-h¿-Ø-\-߃- Ahn-sS- (C-l-tem-I-Øv)- sh-®v- A-h¿-°v\mw- \n-d-th-‰n-s°-m-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-Wv.- A-h¿°-hn-sS- bm-sXm-cp- I-p-d-hpw- h-cp-Ø-s∏Sp-I-bn-√.- ]-c-tem-I-Øv- \-c-I-a-√m-sXas‰m-∂pw- In-´m-\n-√m-Øh
- c
- m-Ip-∂p- A-°q´¿.- A-h¿- C-hn-sS- {]-h¿-Øn-®-sX-√mw
s]m-fn-™p-t]m-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h¿- sN-bvXp-sIm-≠n-cp-∂-sX-√mw- ^e-iq-\y-a-s{X''(11:-15,-16).C-l-tem-I-Øn-se- A-\p-{K-l-߃B-kz-Zn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- a-\p-jy≥,- BA-\p-{K-l-߃- B-cv- \¬-Ip-∂p- F-∂v- Nn¥n-°p-hm≥- _-m-[y-kv-Y-\m-Wv.- X-s∂klm-bn-°p-∂-h-tcm-Spw- X-s≥-d- ap-X-emfn-tbm-Spw- X-s≥-d- ta-ep-tZym-K-kv-Y-tcm-Spw\-µn- Im-Wn-°p-∂-Xn¬- bm-sXm-cp- ]n-ip-

°pw- Im-Wn-°m-Ø- a-\p-jy≥- X-\n-°v- Pohn-Xw- X-∂-\p-{K-ln-®-,- X-\n-°p-th-≠n- {]]-©-sØ- kw-hn-[m-\n-®,- X-\n-°p-th-≠nhm-bp-hpw- sh-≈-hpw- sh-fn-®-hpw- a-s‰-√mA-\p-{K-lß
- f
- pw- \¬-In-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂G-I-\m-b- {k-jv-Sm-hn-t\m-Sv- \-µn- Im-Wn°m≥- X-bm-dm-Ip-∂n-s√-¶n¬- A-h≥- in£m¿-l-\-s√-∂v- B¿-°p- ]-d-bm-\m-Ipw?ap-l-Ω-Zv-\-_n-(A)-bp-sS- Po-hn-X-sØ°p-dn-®v- \mw- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- A-t±-lw- H-cp`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-Iq-Sn-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- ]-t£,Hcp- `-cW
- m-[n-]s
- ≥-d- B-Uw-_c
- ]
- q¿-Wa
- mb- Po-hn-X-co-Xn-b-√- A-t±-lw- kzo-I-cn-®Xv;- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- hn-\-b-ap-≈- H-c-Sn-a-bpwZq-X-\p-am-b- H-cm-fp-sS- e-fn-X-Po-hn-am-Wv.- ]e-t∏m-gpw- ]-´n-Wn-bn-em-bn-cp-∂p- A-t±-lw.""H-cn-°¬- D-a-dp¬- J-Xzm-_v-(J)- \_n
(A)-sb- Im-Wm≥- sN-∂p.- A-t±-lw- a-W¬sIm-≠v- \n¿-an-®- I-´n-en¬- C-cn-°p-I-bmbn-cp-∂p.- C-cp-]m¿-iz-ß-fn-epw- a-W¬-]-‰n∏n-Sn-®- ]m-Sp-I-fp-≠v.- A-Xv- I-≠-t∏mƒ- Da¿- (J)- I-c-™p.- Xn-cp-ta-\n-(A)- tNm-Zn®p:- "F-¥m-Wv- D-a-td,- \n-s∂- I-c-bn-®-Xv?'D-a¿-(J)- ]-d-™p-:- "In-kv-d-˛ssI-k¿- N-{Ih¿-Øn-am-sc-bpw- A-h¿-°p-≈- kp-J-kuI-cy-ß-sf-bpw- ]-‰n- Rm≥- Hm¿-Øp.- Xm¶fm-hs
- ´- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- Zq-X\
- m-Wv.- Xm¶fp-sS- ]m¿-iz-ß-fn¬- a-W¬-X-cn-Iƒ- A-Sbm-fw- ho-gv-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p''- (_p-Jm-cn).A-√m-lp- \-_n-(A)-tbm-Sv- ]-d-bp-∂p-:""A-h-cn¬- (a-\p-jy-cn¬)- ]-e- hn-`m-K-߃°v- \mw- sF-ln-I-Po-hn-Xm-e-¶m-cw- A-\p`-hn∏n-®-Xn-te-°v- \n-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sn-Iƒ\o- ]m-bn-°-cp-Xv.- A-Xn-eq-sS- \mw- A-hsc- ]co-£n-°m≥- (D-t±-in-°p-∂p).- \n-s≥dc£n- X m- h v - \¬- I p- ∂ - D- ] - P o- h - \ - a mIp-∂p Iq-Sp-X¬- D-Ø-a-hpw- \n-e-\n¬-°pkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

A-\p-h-Zn-°-s∏-´- kp-J-ku-I-cy-߃t]m-epw- sh-Sn-™v- k-aq-l-Øn¬-\n-∂pwIp-Spw-_-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- A-I-∂p-\n-∂,-v- A[zm-\n-°m-sX-,- [-\w- k-ºm-Zn-°m-sX- "BXv-ao-b- Po-hn-I-fm-bn'- A-e-™p-\-S-∂v-,A-\y-cp-sS- Hm-im-cw-]-‰n- Po-hn-°m≥- C-kvemw- A-\p-im-kn-°p-∂n-√.- C-lt- em-IØ
- n\p-th-≠n- ]-c-tem-I-sØ- A-h-K-Wn-°-cpsX-∂p-am-{Xw.- G-Xv- ta-J-e-bn-em-bn-cp-∂mepw- ssZ-h-sØ- hn-kv-a-cn-®p-Iq-Sm.- hn-ip≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""A-ß-s\- \-akv-I-m-cw- \n-¿-h-ln-°-s∏-´p-I-gn-™m¬\n-߃- `q-an-bn¬- hym-]n-®p-sIm-≈p-Ib
- pw,A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- A-\p-{K-l-Øn¬-\n-∂vtX-Sn-s°m-≈p-I-bpw-sN-øp-I.- \n-߃A-√m-lpsh- [m-cm-f-am-bn- Hm¿-°p-I-bpwsN-øp-I.- \n-߃- hnP-bw- {]m-]n-t®-°mw''(62:-10).{]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- in-£-W-Øn¬- h-f¿∂- A-\p-N-c-∑m¿- C-l-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- \n m-c-X-bpw- \-iz-c-X-bpw- i-cn-°pw- a-\- nem-°n-;- ]-ct- em-IØ
- n-s≥-d- A-\i
- z-cX
- b
- pwa-lØ
- z- h
- pw- {K-ln-®p.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-Xs
- ∂C-l-tem-I-tØm-Sv- A¬-]w- Nm-bv-hv- Iq-Sntbm- F- ∂ - tXm- ∂ ¬- s Im- ≠ p- a m- { XwAhcn¬- Nn-e¿- ]-iv-Nm-Ø-]n-®v- I-c-™p.am-Xm-]n-Xm-°-tfm-Spw- a-‰p- Ip-Spw-_mw-K-ßtfm-Spw- C-W-I-tfm-Spw- A-b¬-°m-tcmSpsam-s°-bp-≈- _m-[y-XI
- ƒ- ]q¿-Wa
- m-bpw\n-d-th-‰m≥- A-h¿- Xm¬-]-cyw- Im-Wn-®p.\n-i-bp-sS- im-¥-X-bn¬- tem-Iw- \n-{Z-bnem-bn-cn-s°- A-h¿- D-W¿-∂n-cp-∂v- c-£nXm-hn-s≥-d- in-£-sb-°p-dn-t®m¿-Øv- tXßn-°-c-™p.- kz¿-K-{]m-]v-Xn-°p-th-≠nD≈p-Xp-d-∂v- {]m¿-Yn-®p.i-co-cw- aq-Sn-s∏m-Øn-bm≥-X-°- h-ep∏ap-≈- Xp-Wn-bn-√m-sX- Cu- tem-I-tØm-Svbm-{X- ]-d-™- an-kv-A-_p-_v-\p- D-ssa¿(O)- A-h-cn-ep-≠v.- (C-kv-em-an-te-°v- I-S∂p-h-cp-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºv- A-t±-lw- [-\n-I-\mbn-cp-∂p).- A-t±-l-sØ-tbm¿-Øv,- t\m-ºpXp-d-°m≥- ap-ºn-se-Øn-b- `-£-Ww- I-gn°m-\m-hm-sX- s]m-´n-°-c-™- A-_v-Zp-¿-dlv-am-\p-_v-\p-Hu-^v- A-h-cn-ep-≠v.- hn-hm-

2004 sk-]v-‰w-_¿l-Øn-s≥-d- {]-Y-a-cm-{Xn-bn¬-X-s∂- bp-≤Øn-\p-≈- hn-fn-tI-´-t∏mƒ- C-W-sb- hnt´®p-sIm-≠v- A-S¿-°-fw- e-£y-am-°n-°p-Xn®v- ho-c-ar-Xyp-{]m-]n-®- l≥-Z-e-(O)- A-hcn-ep-≠v.- D-lvZ- vb
- p-≤Ø
- n¬- ap-kve
- nw-Iƒ- ]cm-P-b-Øn-s≥-d- ]-S-hn-se-Øn- \n¬-°p-∂k-a-bw- "D-lv-Zv- a-e-bp-sS- ]n-∂n¬-\n-∂pwkz¿-K-Øn-s≥-d- kp-K-\v-[w- F-\n-°v- A-\p`-h-s∏-Sp-∂p'-- F-∂p-]-d-™v- i-{Xp-°-fp-sSt\-sc- No-dn-b-Sp-Ø-v a-c-Ww-h-cn-®- A-\-kp_v-\p∂-Zv¿-(O)- A-h-cn-ep-≠v.- X-s≥-d- kº-Øv- ap-gp-h-\pw- {k-jvSm-hn-s≥-d- am¿-KØn¬- Zm-\w- sN-bv-X- A-_q-_-°-dpw-(O)h≥-kw-Jy-sIm-Sp-Øv- dqam-In-W¿- Pq-X∑
- mcn¬-\n-∂pw- hm-ßn- ap-kv-enw-Iƒ-°v- Zm-\wsN-bv-X- D-kv-am\pw-(J)- A-h-cn-ep-≠v.F-¥p-sIm-≠n-h¿......?- A-h¿- k-Xyw{K-ln-®p.- b-Ym¿-Y- Po-hn-Xw- A-Y-hm- imiz-X- ku-`m-Ky- Po-hn-Xw-˛ A-Xv- ]-c-temI-Øm-sW-∂-h¿- a-\- n-em-°n.- A-√m-lp]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""F-∂m¬- ku-`m-Kyw- kn-≤n®-hc
- m-Is
- ´,- A-h¿- kz¿-KØ
- n-em-bn- c
- n-°pw.....''-- (11:-108).B-[p-\n-I- k-aq-l-Øn-\v- Cu- bm-Ym¿Yy-sØ-°p-dn-®v- Nn-¥n-°m≥- k-a-b-an-√.AY-hm- A-Xn-\-h¿- X-b-m-dm-Ip-∂n-√.- Bkzm-Z-\-ß-fp-sS- ]n-∂m-se- a-c-W-∏m-®n-enem-W-[n-I-hpw.- B-Xv-ao-b- Nn-¥bv-°v- ka-b-an-√.- I-Æo¿-]m-S-ß-fn¬- hn-Øp-hn-X®p-sIm-≠v- ap-t∂-dn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂- FÆa-‰- ko-cn-b-ep-I-fp-sS- A-\-¥-am-b- {]-bmW-Øn¬- kv-{Xo-Iƒ- X-f-®n-S-s∏-´n-cn-°p∂p.- Zr-iy˛ {im-hy- am-[y-aß
- f
- p-sS-bpw- {In°-‰v-t]m-ep-≈- hn-t\m-Z-ß-fp-sS-bpw- \o-cmfn-∏-nSn-Ø-Øn¬- bp-h-X- sR-cn-™-a¿-∂ncn-°p-∂p-!kv-{Xo-kp-Jw- tX-Sn- _m-t¶m-°n-te-°v]-d-∂- H-cp- bp-hm-hn-s≥-d- I-Y- G-tXm- HcpA-d_
- n- am-Kk
- n-\n¬- hm-bn-®t- Xm¿-°p-∂p.tem-Uv-Pv- ap-dn-bn¬- A-£-a-\m-bn- A-bmƒIm-Øn-cn-s°- A-Wn-s™m-cp-ßn-b- kp-µcn- ap-dn-bn¬- {]-th-in-°p-∂p.- A-hs
- f- I≠]m-sS- A-bmƒ- F-Wo-‰v- B-Z-c-]q¿-h-w- Ah-fp-sS- ap-ºn¬- k-m-jv-Smw-K-{]-Wm-aw- sNbv-Xp.- B- \n-Ir-jv-S-am-b- km-jv-SmwK-{]Wm-aØ
- n¬-\n-∂v- ]n-∂o-Sb
- mƒ-°v- D-bc
- m≥I-gn-™n-√.- B- In-S-∏n¬-X-s∂- A-bmƒA-¥y-izm-kw- h-en-®n-cp-∂p.- F-{X \o-N-

96

am-sbm-cp- a-c-Ww-!\mw- \n-tXy-\- ]-{Xw- hm-bn-°p-∂-h¿.H-cp- Zn-h-kw- F-{X- A-]-I-S-a-c-W- hm¿-ØI-ƒ- \mw- hm-bn-®p-X-≈p-∂p!-- H-cp- Zn-\-∏{X-Øn-s≥-d- ]-{Xm-[n-]¿- A-]I
- S- Ø
- n¬-s]´v- a-cn-®-Xn-s≥-d- sR-´-en¬-\n-∂v- ap-Iv-X-amIpwap-ºv- ]n-t‰-Zn-h-ksØ- ]-{X-ß-f-n¬- as‰m-cp- ]-{X-Øn-s≥-d- do-Py-W¬- am-t\-P¿A-]-I-S-Øn¬- a-cn-®-Xpw ]-e- kv-Y-e-ßfn-epw- A-]-I-S-ß-fp-sS- ]-c-º-c-Iƒ- \-S-∂Xpw- H-cp- U-k\
- n-te-sd- t]¿- a-cn-®Xpw \mwhm-bn-®p-!- tdm-Un¬- X-fw-sI-´n-°-n-S-°p-∂Np-Sp-tNm-cb
- pw- X-et- ®m-dpw- F-√n≥-Ij
- vW
- ß-fpw- dn-t∏m¿-´¿-am-cpsS- hn-i-Zo-I-c-WØn¬- A-s√-¶n¬- t^m-t´m-bn¬-,- A-s√¶n¬- Zr-iy-am-[y-a-Øn¬- \-Ωƒ- I-≠-dnbpw.- ]-t£,- A-sX-√mw- \n-an-j-߃-°Iw- hn-kv-ar-Xn-bn-em-Ipw.- bm-sXm-cp- Kp-W]m-T-hpw- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- Dƒ-s°m-≈n-√.A-√m-lp- ]-d-bp-∂p-:- ""A-h¿- A-√m-lphn-s\- a-d-∂p.- A-t∏mƒ- A-√m-lp- A-hscbpw- a-d-∂p''- (9:-67).- A-Xn-\n-S-bn-embncn-°mw- th¿-]m-Sn-s≥-d- k-a-b-sa-Øp-∂-Xv.B-bp- v- A-h-km-\n-°p-I-bm-Wv.- B-{K-l߃-°v- hn-cm-a-am-bn.- I-Æp-Iƒ- Xp-dn-°p∂p.- i-_-vZw- \n-e-bv-°p-∂p.- t]-cp-tI-´- Bip-]-{Xn-.- {]-K-Xv-`-cm-b- tUm-Iv-S¿-am¿,- hne-]n-Sn-∏p-≈- a-cp-∂p-Iƒ,- H-∂p-sIm-≠pwc-£-bn-√-.- ""A-√,- ({]m-W≥)- sXm-≠-°pgn-bn¬- F-Øp-Ib
- pw- a-{¥n-°m-\m-cp-≠v- F∂-v- ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-I-bpw-,- A-Xv- F-s≥-d- th¿]m-Sm-sW-∂v- A-h≥- hn-Nm-cn-°p-I-bpw,- IW-¶m¬- I-W-¶m-ep-am-bn- Iq-´n-∏n-W-bp-Ibpw sN-bv-Xm¬''- (75:-26˛29).- A-tXm-sS- F√mw- I-gn-™p.- ]n-s∂- hn-e-Ip-d-™- h-kv{X-Øn¬- s]m-Xn-™v- sIm-´m-c-Øn¬-\n∂pw- A-s√-¶-n¬- Ip-Sn-en¬-\n-∂pw- iv-a-im\-Øn-te-°v.- ar-Zp-e-sa-Ø-bn¬-\n-∂pwkv-s]-jy¬- ]-Xn-∏v-

aÆn-s≥-d- am-f-Øn-te-°v.- a-Æp-hm-cn-bn-´vF-√m-h-cpw- Xn-cn-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p.- X-\n-®mbm¬- t]-Sn-bm-Ip-sa-∂v- I-cp-Xn- D-‰-h-cm-cpwIq-´n-\v- \n¬-°p-∂n-√.- a-Wn-°q-dp-Iƒ-°Iw- A-h≥- hn-ka
v- c
- n-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂p.- A-hs
- ≥dk-ºm-Zy-߃- a-‰p-≈h
- ¿- A-\p-`h
- n-°p-∂p.am-kß
- ƒ-°I
- w- C-WI
- ƒ- ]p-\¿-hn-hm-lwsN-ø-s∏-Sp-∂p._p-≤n-bp-≈-h-tc-,- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- ]m-]wsN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂-h-tc,-- sh-Sn-bp-I;]-iv-Nm-Ø-]n-°p-I.- ""\n-߃- Hm¿-°m-Xncn-s°- s]-s´-∂v- \n-߃-°v- in-£- h-s∂Øp-∂-Xn-\v- ap-ºm-bn- \n-ß-fp-sS- c-£n-Xmhn-¶¬-\n-∂v- \n-߃-°v- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°-s∏´-Xn¬- G-‰h
- pw- D-Øa
- a
- m-bX
- v- \n-߃- ]n≥]-‰p-I-bpw- sN-øp-I''-(39:-55).""A-∂v- \n-s≥-d- c-£n-Xm-hn-te-°m-bncn-°pw- sX-fn-®p-sIm-≠p-t]m-Ip-∂-Xv.- F∂m¬- A-h≥- hn-iz-kn-®n-√.- \-a-kv-I-cn-®Xp-an-√.- ]-t£,- A-h≥- \n-tj-[n-°p-I-bpw]n-¥n-cn-bp-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- F-∂n-´v- Zp-c-`nam-\w- \-Sn-®p-sIm-≠v- A-h-s≥-d- kz-¥-°mcp-sS- A-Sp-tØ-°v- t]m-bn.- (in-£)- \n-\t°-‰-hpw- A¿-l-am-b-Xp-X-s∂,- \n-\-t°‰-hpw- A¿-l-am-b-Xp-X-s∂.- ho-≠pw- \n-\t°-‰-hpw- A¿-l-am-b-Xp-X-s∂,- \n-\-t°‰-hpw- A¿-l-am-b-Xp-X-s∂.- a-\p-jy≥- hnNm-cn-°p-∂p-thm-;- A-h≥- sh-dp-sX-bß
- v- hnt´-°s
- ∏-Sp-sa-∂v!- - A-h≥- {k-hn-°s
- ∏-Sp-∂ip-¢-Øn¬-\n-∂p-≈- H-cp- I-W-am-bn-cp-∂nt√?- ]n-s∂- A-h≥- H-cp- {`q-Wa
- m-bn.- F∂n´v- A-√m-lp- (A-h-s\)- kr-jv-Sn-®v- kw-hn[m-\n-®p.- A-ß-s\- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- B-Wpws]-Æp-am-Ip-∂- c-≠v- C-W-I-sf- A-h≥- D≠m-°n.- A-ßs
- \-bp-≈h
- ≥- a-cn-®h
- s
- c- Pohn-∏n-°m≥- I-gn-hp-≈h
- \
- t√.....?- (75:-30˛40).-

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