ISAS PRESENTATION ON .

NET FRAMEWORK

Submitted by

submitted to

Virender Bhati

Preety Sisodiya

Certificate

This is to certified that this report is entitled to introduction to an .NET FRAMEWORK an original work of Virender. It is further certified that we have done our work under guidance & supervision to the best of our knowledge. We have done this by consulting various sources related to topic.

Mr. Mukesh Bansal (Director)

Miss. Preety Sisodiya (Faculty)

Date:

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Acknowledgement

Presenting the project report in present form, be sincerely feel to acknowledge many individuals who have contributed to the development of this project report we would like to thank the entire NIIT faculty for their invaluable help. A special thanks to Miss Preety Sisodiya (faculty) who gave their valuable time & efforts for our report preparation. We are certain that this report will satisfy everybodies expectations.

Virender bhati

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Tabel of Contents
Why .NET required?..............................................................................................................................5 Design goals and principal features...................................................................................................5 MICROSOFT .NET FRAMEWORK....................................................................................................7 Significance.......................................................................................................................................9 .NET Framework architecture.........................................................................................................10 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)......................................................................................12 Client Application Development..................................................................................................13 Server Application Development.................................................................................................14 Assemblies....................................................................................................................................20 Metadata.......................................................................................................................................21 Base Class Library (BCL)............................................................................................................21 Security............................................................................................................................................22 Standardization and licensing..........................................................................................................22 Versions...........................................................................................................................................23 .NET Framework 1.0....................................................................................................................23 .NET Framework 1.1....................................................................................................................24 .NET Framework 2.0....................................................................................................................24 .NET Framework 3.0....................................................................................................................25 NET vs. Java and the J2EE..............................................................................................................27 Criticism..........................................................................................................................................28 Alternative implementations............................................................................................................29 Base Class Library...............................................................................................................................30 Namespaces.....................................................................................................................................31 .NET Languages..................................................................................................................................35 Microsoft .NET languages...............................................................................................................36 ADO.NET............................................................................................................................................37 ASP.NET.............................................................................................................................................37 ASPX file format.............................................................................................................................37 Other files.....................................................................................................................................38 Performance.....................................................................................................................................39

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Why .NET required?
The creation of the .NET Framework reflects what has been learned over the years about the typical challenges that programmers face and useful approaches to those challenges. Individual programming languages and tools led the way in proving the viability of features such as strong data typing, garbage-collected memory management, exception-based error handling, virtual machine architectures, and comprehensive class libraries. Visual Basic, Powerbuilder, the C++ Standard Template Library (STL), and other languages each implemented at least some of these features, but the Java language and its frameworks J2SE and J2EE became the most notable competitive threat to Microsoft. After failed attempts to include a modified form of Java with Windows, Microsoft set out to create its own products that incorporated the best features of that and other languages. The effort resulted in the Microsoft .NET Framework and its accompanying programming languages and tools.

Design goals and principal features

The .NET Framework was designed with several intentions:

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Interoperability - Because interaction between new and older applications is
commonly required, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the EnterpriseServices namespace of the framework, and access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature.

Common Runtime Engine - Programming languages on the .NET
Framework compile into an intermediate language known as the Common Intermediate Language, or CIL; Microsoft's implementation of CIL is known as Microsoft Intermediate Language, or MSIL. In Microsoft's implementation, this intermediate language is not interpreted, but rather compiled in a manner known as just-in-time compilation (JIT) into native code. The combination of these concepts is called the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), a specification; Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR).

Language Independence - The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type
System, or CTS. The CTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports development in multiple programming languages. This is discussed in more detail in the .NET languages section below.

Base Class Library - The Base Class Library (BCL), sometimes referred to as
the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of types available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction and XML document manipulation.

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Simplified Deployment - Installation of computer software must be carefully
managed to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that it conforms to increasingly stringent security requirements. The .NET framework includes design features and tools that help address these requirements.

Security - .NET allows for code to be run with different trust levels without the
use of a separate sandbox.

The design of the .NET Framework is such that it supports platform independence. That is, a program written to use the framework should run without change on any type of computer for which the framework is implemented. At present, Microsoft has implemented the full framework only on the Windows operating system. Microsoft and others have implemented portions of the framework on non-Windows systems, but to date those implementations are neither complete nor widely used.

MICROSOFT .NET FRAMEWORK
The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software component that can be added to the Microsoft Windows operating system.The .NET framework defines an enviornments that support the development and execution of highly distributed, component based applications. It enables differing computer languages to work together and provides for security, program protability, and a common programming model for the Windows platform. It is important to state, however, that the .NET Framework is not inherently limited to Windows, which means that programs written for it might be portable to non Windows environments in the future.

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The .NET Framework defines two very important entities. The First is the common language runtime (CLR). This is the system that manages the execution of your program. Along with other benefits, the CLR is the part of the .NET Framework that enables programs to be protable, supports mixed-language programming, and provides for security. The second entity is the .NET class library. This library gives your progarm access to the runtime environment. For example, if you want to perform I/O, such as displaying something on the screen, you will use the .NET Class library to do it. Feature which is defines by .NET class library that it can run any where that the .NET run time system is supported. Thus the programmes are automatically portable to all .NET environment. It provides a large body of pre-coded solutions to common program requirements, and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering, and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

The Microsoft .NET Framework is a platform for building, deploying, and running Web Services and applications. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multi-language environment for integrating existing investments with next-generation applications and services as well as the ability to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The pre-coded solutions form the framework's class library and cover a large range of programming needs in areas including: user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The functions of the class library are used by programmers who combine them with their own code to produce applications.

The .NET Framework consists of three main parts:  The common language runtime,  A hierarchical set of unified class libraries  A componentized version of Active Server Pages called ASP.NET.

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Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the program's runtime requirements. This runtime environment, which is also a part of the .NET Framework, is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR).  The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine, so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program.  The CLR also provides other important services such as security mechanisms, memory management, and exception handling.  The class library and the CLR together compose the .NET Framework. The Framework is intended to make it easier to develop computer applications and to reduce the vulnerability of applications and computers to security threats.  CLR manages the execution of .NET code whenever user compile a .NET program the output of compiler is not executable code instead it is a file that contain a special types of pseudo code called Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL).  It is the job of CLR to translate the intermediate code into executable code when a progarm is run.

First released in 2002, it is included with Windows Server 2003 and Windows Vista, and can be installed on most older versions of Windows.

Significance
For software developers, the .NET Framework is a significant change. It brings into the operating system features and responsibilities that previously had been provided individually by programming languages and tools from various sources. The incorporation of the features into the operating system is meant to provide a number of advantages, including:

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Assuring the availability of framework features to all programs written in any of the .NET languages. Providing to programmers a common means of accessing framework features, regardless of programming language. Guarantees of a common behavior within the framework, regardless of programming language. Allowing the operating system to provide some guarantees of program behavior that it otherwise could not offer. Reducing the complexity and limitations of program-to-program communication, even when those programs are written in different .NET languages.

.NET Framework architecture

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Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)
Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

The most important component of the .NET Framework lies in the Common Language Infrastructure, or CLI. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-agnostic platform for application development and execution, including, but not limited to, components for exception handling, garbage collection, security, and interoperability. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime, or CLR. The CLR is composed of five primary parts:

.NET Framework Class Library
The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. The class library is object oriented, providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. This not only makes the .NET Framework types easy to use but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework. For example, the .NET Framework collection classes implement a set of interfaces that you can use to develop your own collection classes. Your collection classes will blend seamlessly with the classes in the .NET Framework. As you would expect from an object-oriented class library, the .NET Framework types enable you to accomplish a range of common programming tasks, including string management, data collection, database connectivity, and file access. In addition to these common tasks, the class library includes types that support a variety of specialized development scenarios. For example, you can use the .NET Framework to develop the following types of applications and services:
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Console applications Windows GUI applications (Windows Forms)

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ASP.NET applications XML Web services Windows services

For example, the Windows Forms classes are a comprehensive set of reusable types that vastly simplify Windows GUI development. If you write an ASP.NET Web Form application, you can use the Windows Forms classes.

Client Application Development

Client applications are the closest to a traditional style of application in Windowsbased programming. These are the types of applications that display windows or forms on the desktop, enabling a user to perform a task. Client applications include applications such as word processors and spreadsheets, as well as custom business applications such as data entry and reporting tools. Client applications usually employ windows, menus, buttons, and other GUI elements, and they likely access local resources, such as the file system, and peripherals such as printers. Another kind of client application is the traditional ActiveX control (now replaced by the managed Windows Forms control) deployed over the Internet as a Web page. This application is much like other client applications: it is executed natively, has access to local resources, and includes graphical elements. In the past, developers created such applications using C or C++ in conjunction with the Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) or with a rapid application development (RAD) environment such as Microsoft® Visual Basic®. The .NET Framework incorporates aspects of these existing products into a single, consistent development environment that drastically simplifies the development of client applications. The Windows Forms classes contained in the .NET Framework are designed to be used for GUI development. You can easily create command windows, buttons, menus, toolbars, and other screen elements with the flexibility necessary to accommodate shifting business needs.

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For example, the .NET Framework provides simple properties to adjust visual attributes associated with forms. In some cases, the underlying operating system does not support changing these attributes directly, and in these cases the .NET Framework automatically re-creates the forms. This is one of many ways in which the .NET Framework integrates the developer interface, making coding simpler and more consistent. Unlike ActiveX controls, Windows Forms controls have semitrusted access to a user's computer. This means that binary or natively executing code can access some of the resources on the user's system, such as GUI elements and limited file access, without being able to access or compromise other resources. Because of code access security, many applications that once needed to be installed on a user's system can now be safely deployed through the Web. Your applications can implement the features of a local application while being deployed like a Web page.

Server Application Development
Server-side applications in the managed world are implemented through runtime hosts. Unmanaged applications host the common language runtime, which allows your custom managed code to control the behavior of the server. This model provides you with all the features of the common language runtime and class library while gaining the performance and scalability of the host server. The following illustration shows a basic network schema with managed code running in different server environments. Servers, such as IIS and SQL Server, can perform standard operations while your application logic executes the managed code.

Server-side managed code

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ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to use the .NET Framework to target Web-based applications. However, ASP.NET is more than just a runtime host; it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internetdistributed objects using managed code. Both Web Forms and XML Web services use IIS and ASP.NET as the publishing mechanism for applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .NET Framework.

XML Web services, an important evolution in Web-based technology, are distributed, server-side application components similar to common Web sites. However, unlike Web-based applications, XML Web services components have no UI and are not targeted for browsers such as Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. Instead, XML Web services consist of reusable software components designed to be consumed by other applications, such as traditional client applications, Web-based applications, or even other XML Web services. As a result, XML Web services technology is rapidly moving application development and deployment into the highly distributed environment of the Internet.

If you have used earlier versions of ASP technology, you will immediately notice the improvements that ASP.NET and Web Forms offer. For example, you can develop Web Forms pages in any language that supports the .NET Framework. In addition, your code no longer needs to share the same file with your HTTP text (although it can continue to do so if you prefer). Web Forms pages execute in native machine language because, like any other managed application, they take full advantage of the runtime.
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In contrast, unmanaged ASP pages are always scripted and interpreted. ASP.NET pages are faster, more functional, and easier to develop than unmanaged ASP pages because they interact with the runtime like any managed application.

The .NET Framework also provides a collection of classes and tools to aid in development and consumption of XML Web services applications. XML Web services are built on standards, such as SOAP, a remote procedure-call protocol; XML, an extensible data format; and WSDL, the Web Services Description Language. The .NET Framework is built on these standards to promote interoperability with nonMicrosoft solutions.

For example, the Web Services Description Language tool included with the .NET Framework SDK can query an XML Web service published on the Web, parse its WSDL description, and produce C# or Visual Basic source code that your application can use to become a client of the XML Web service. The source code can create classes derived from classes in the class library that handle all the underlying communication using SOAP and XML parsing. Although you can use the class library to consume XML Web services directly, the Web Services Description Language tool and the other tools contained in the SDK facilitate your development efforts with the .NET Framework.

If you develop and publish your own XML Web service, the .NET Framework provides a set of classes that conform to all the underlying communication standards, such as SOAP, WSDL, and XML. Using those classes enables you to focus on the logic of your service, without concerning yourself with the communications infrastructure required by distributed software development.

Finally, like Web Forms pages in the managed environment, your XML Web service will run with the speed of native machine language using the scalable communication of Internet Information Services IIS.

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Common Type System (CTS) Common Language Specification (CLS) Common Intermediate Language (CIL) Just-in-Time Compiler (JIT) Virtual Execution System (VES)

The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the .NET Framework. A fundamental part of the .NET Framework is Common Language Runtime (CLR), the CTS specifies no particular syntax or keywords, but instead defines a common set of types that can be used with many different language syntaxes. Each language is free to define any syntax it wishes, but if that language is built on the CLR, it will use at least some of the types defined by the CTS. While the creator of a CLR-based language is free to implement only a subset of the types defined by the CTS. Visual Basic.NET, C#, and pretty much every other language used with the .NET Framework rely heavily on the CTS.

The CTS provides every language running on the .NET platform with a base set of data types. While the CTS is responsible for defining the types that can be used across the .NET languages, most languages choose to implement aliases to those types. For example, a four-byte integer value is represented by the CTS type System.Int32. C# defines an alias for this called type called int. Everything in the CTS is an object. Not only is everything an object but even more importantly, all objects implicitly derive from a single base class defined as a part of the CTS. This base class is called System.Object. The designers of CTS were faced with the task of creating a type system in which every thing is an object, but the type system works in an efficient manner, when applicable

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The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft .NET Framework. The specification defines an environment that allows multiple high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms without being rewritten for specific architectures.

To clarify, the CLI is a specification, not an implementation, and is often confused with the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which contains aspects outside the scope of the specification.

Common Intermediate Language (CIL) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the .NET Framework. Languages which target the .NET Framework compile to CIL, which is assembled into bytecode. CIL resembles an object oriented assembly language, and is entirely stack-based. It is executed by a virtual machine. The primary .NET languages are C#, Visual Basic .NET, C++/CLI, and J#.

CIL was originally known as Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) during the beta releases of the .NET languages. Due to standardization of C# and the Common Language Infrastructure, the bytecode is now officially known as CIL. Because of this legacy, CIL is still frequently referred to as MSIL, especially by long-standing users of the .NET languages.

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In computing, just-in-time compilation (JIT), also known as dynamic translation, is a technique for improving the runtime performance of a computer program. It converts, at runtime, code from one format into another, for example bytecode into native machine code. The performance improvement originates from caching the results of translating blocks of code, and not simply evaluating each line or operand separately (see Interpreted language), or compiling the code at development time. JIT builds upon two earlier ideas in run-time environments: bytecode compilation and dynamic compilation In a bytecode-compiled system, source code is translated to an intermediate representation known as bytecode. Bytecode is not the machine code for any particular computer, and may be portable among computer architectures. The bytecode is then interpreted, or run on a virtual machine.

A dynamic compilation environment is one in which the compiler can be used during execution. For instance, most Common Lisp systems have a compile function which can compile new functions created during the run. While advantageous in interactive debugging, dynamic compilation is less useful in a hands-off deployed system. In a JIT environment, bytecode compilation is the first step, reducing source code to a portable and optimizable intermediate representation. The bytecode is deployed onto the target system. When code is executed, the runtime environment's compiler translates it into native machine code. This can be done on a per-file, per-function or even on any arbitrary code fragment; code can be compiled when it is about to be executed (hence the name "just-in-time").

The goal is to combine many of the advantages of native and bytecode compilation: Much of the "heavy lifting" of parsing the original source code and performing basic optimization is handled at compile time, prior to deployment: compilation from bytecode to machine code is much faster than from source. The deployed bytecode is portable, unlike machine code for any given architecture. Compilers from bytecode to machine code are easier to write, because the portable bytecode compiler has already done much of the work.
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This also generally offers far better performance than interpreters as the compiled code is stored in memory cache at runtime, such that subsequent recompilation or reinterpretation of compiled code can be skipped, while also giving flexibility to automatically recompile and optimise code that is found at runtime to be frequently executed.

However, JIT may have a drawback by causing a slight delay in initial execution of an application, due to the time taken to compile the bytecode. Sometimes this delay is called "startup time delay". In general, the more optimization JIT performs, the better code it will generate. However, the longer delay users will experience. Therefore a well written JIT has to make the trade-offs between the compilation time and the quality of the code it hopes to generate.

The Virtual Execution System(VES) provides an environment for executing managed code. It provides direct support for a set of built-in data types, defines a hypothetical machine with an associated machine model and state, a set of control flow constructs, and an exception handling model.To a large extent, the purpose of the VES is to provide the support required to execute the Common Intermediate Language instruction set.

Assemblies
The intermediate MSIL code is housed in .NET assemblies, which for the Windows implementation means a Portable Executable (PE) file (EXE or DLL). Assemblies are
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the .NET unit of deployment, versioning and security. The assembly consists of one or more files, but one of these must contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly. The complete name of an assembly contains its simple text name, version number, culture and public key token; it must contain the name, but the others are optional. The public key token is generated when the assembly is created, and is a value that uniquely represents the name and contents of all the assembly files, and a private key known only to the creator of the assembly. Two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical. If an assembly is tampered with (for example, by hackers), the public key can be used to detect the tampering.

Metadata
All CIL is self-describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks on metadata to ensure that the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers can create their own metadata through custom attributes

Base Class Library (BCL)
The Base Class Library (BCL), sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL) (which is a superset including the Microsoft.* namespaces), is a library of classes available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation, and so forth. The BCL is much larger than other libraries, but has much more functionality in one package.

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Security
.NET has its own security mechanism, with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS), and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated with a specific assembly. Typically the evidence is the source of the assembly (whether it is installed on the local machine, or has been downloaded from the intranet or Internet). Code Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to perform a call stack walk: every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the required permission and if any assembly is not granted the permission then a security exception is thrown.

When an assembly is loaded the CLR performs various tests. Two such tests are validation and verification. During validation the CLR checks that the assembly contains valid metadata and CIL, and it checks that the internal tables are correct. Verification is not so exact. The verification mechanism checks to see if the code does anything that is 'unsafe'. The algorithm used is quite conservative and hence sometimes code that is 'safe' is not verified. Unsafe code will only be executed if the assembly has the 'skip verification' permission, which generally means code that is installed on the local machine.

Standardization and licensing
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In August, 2000, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, and Intel worked to standardize CLI and the C# programming language. By December, 2001, both were ratified ECMA standards (ECMA 335 and ECMA 334). ISO followed in April, 2003 (ISO/IEC 23271 and ISO/IEC 23270). While Microsoft and their partners hold patents for CLI and C#, ECMA and ISO requires that all patents essential to implementation be made available under "reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms." In addition to meeting these terms, the companies have agreed to make the patents available royalty-free. However, this does not apply for the part of the .NET Framework which is not covered by the ECMA/ISO standard, which includes Windows Forms, ADO.NET, and ASP.NET. Patents that Microsoft holds in these areas may deter non-Microsoft implementations of the full framework.

Versions
Microsoft started development on the .NET Framework in the late 90s originally under the name of Next Generation Windows Services (NGWS). By late 2000 the first beta versions of .NET 1.0 were being released.

.NET Framework 1.0

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This is the first release of the .NET Framework that was released on February 13, 2002. It is available on its own as a redistributable package or in a software development kit. It is also part of the first release of Microsoft Visual Studio .NET (also known as Visual Studio .NET 2002).

.NET Framework 1.1

This is the first major .NET Framework upgrade. It is available on its own as a redistributable package or in a software development kit. It is also part of the second release of Microsoft Visual Studio .NET (released as Visual Studio .NET 2003). This is the first version of the .NET Framework to be included as part of the Windows operating system - it is part of Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2003 originally shipped with the 1.1 RTM version.

Changes since 1.0
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Built-in support for mobile ASP.NET controls. Previously available as an addon for .NET Framework, now part of the framework. Security changes - enable Windows Forms assemblies to execute in a semitrusted manner from the Internet, and enable Code Access Security in ASP.NET applications. Built-in support for ODBC and Oracle databases. Previously available as an add-on for .NET Framework 1.0, now part of the framework. .NET Compact Framework - a version of the .NET Framework for small devices. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) support. Numerous API changes. For a detailed list, see GotDotNet: API Changes between versions of the .NET Framework.

.NET Framework 2.0

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Released with Visual Studio .NET 2005, Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and BizTalk 2006.
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The 2.0 Redistributable Package can be downloaded for free from Microsoft. The 2.0 Software Development Kit (SDK) can be downloaded for free from Microsoft. It is included as part of Visual Studio 2005 and Microsoft SQL Server 2005. Version 2.0 is the last version with support for Windows 2000

.NET Framework 2.0 shipped with Windows Server 2003 R2 (not installed by default).

Changes since 1.1
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Numerous API changes. A new hosting API for native applications wishing to host an instance of the .NET runtime. The new API gives a fine grain control on the behavior of the runtime with regards to multithreading, memory allocation, assembly loading and more (detailed reference). It was initially developed to efficiently host the runtime in Microsoft SQL Server, which implements its own scheduler and memory manager. Full 64-bit support for both the x64 and the IA64 hardware platforms. Language support for Generics built directly into the .NET CLR. Many additional and improved ASP.NET web controls. New data controls with declarative data binding. New personalization features for ASP.NET, such as support for themes, skins and webparts. .NET Micro Framework - a version of the .NET Framework related to the Smart Personal Objects Technology initiative more....

.NET Framework 3.0

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Architecture of the .NET Framework 3.0
.NET Framework 3.0, formerly called WinFX,[3] includes a new set of managed code APIs that are an integral part of Windows Vista and Windows Server "Longhorn" operating systems. It is also available for Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 as a download. There are no major architectural changes included with this release; .NET Framework 3.0 includes version 2.0 of the Common Language Runtime. The .NET 3.0 installer available from Microsoft checks to see if .NET 2.0 is already installed. If not, it installs it and then installs .NET 3.0 components. Otherwise it just installs .NET 3.0 components. This means that if you do not have .NET 2.0 installed, you do not need to install it; you can install .NET 3.0 straight away. .NET 1.1 and its service-pack, however, must be installed separately, preferably before installing .NET 3.0.

.NET Framework 3.0 consists of four major new components:

Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF), formerly code-named Avalon; a new user interface subsystem and API based on XML and vector graphics,
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which will make use of 3D computer graphics hardware and Direct3D

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technologies. See WPF SDK for developer articles and documentation on WPF. Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), formerly code-named Indigo; a service-oriented messaging system which allows programs to interoperate locally or remotely similar to web services. Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) allows for building of task automation and integrated transactions using workflows. Windows CardSpace (WCS), formerly code-named InfoCard; a software component which securely stores a person's digital identities and provides a unified interface for choosing the identity for a particular transaction, such as logging in to a website

NET vs. Java and the J2EE
The CLI and C# have many similarities to Sun's JVM and Java. They are strong competitors. Both are based on a virtual machine model that hides the details of the computer hardware on which their programs run. Both use their own intermediate byte-code, Microsoft calling theirs Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) and Sun Java bytecode. On .NET, the byte-code is always JIT-compiled: with Java, the bytecode can be either interpreted or JIT-compiled. Both provide extensive class libraries that address many common programming requirements, and both address many security issues that are present in other approaches. The namespaces provided in the .NET Framework closely resemble the platform packages in Java EE API Specification both in style and invocation. .NET in its complete form (Microsoft's implementation) is currently only fully available on Windows platforms, whereas Java is fully available on many platforms. .NET was built from the ground-up to support multiple programming languages while targeting Microsoft Windows, while the Java platform was initially

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built to support only the Java language on many operating system platforms under the slogan, "Write once, run anywhere." Microsoft's reference implementation of .NET is closed source, whereas Sun's reference implementation of Java is becoming GPL (including the class library, the compiler, the virtual machine, and the various tools associated with the Java Platform). However, the third-party Mono project is developing an open source implementation of subsets of the .NET Framework, including the Common Language Runtime, for the Linux, Solaris, Mac OS, and Windows platforms. The current version supports version 1.1 of .NET, and the project is planning full support for 2.0. Meanwhile, the Java Virtual Machine environment is host to many alternative languages not supported by Sun.

Criticism
Some concerns and criticisms relating to the .NET Framework include:

With the introduction of the .NET framework, the old Visual Basic language was replaced by the Visual Basic .NET language, which caused controversy among transitioning developers. Several backward and forward incompatibilities exist between .NET 1.0, .NET 1.1, and .NET. These are well-documented however, and mostly include security fixes, changes in the underlying implementation (such as the GetHashCode() implementation), as well as marking many methods as Obsolete. Additionally, the framework allows running different versions sideby-side, to alleviate problems of version incompatibility. Applications running in a managed environment such as the Microsoft framework's CLR or Java's JVM tend to require more system resources than functionally similar applications that access machine resources more directly. However, some applications have been shown to perform better in .NET than in their native version. This could be due to the use of relatively well-performing functions in the .NET framework, JITting of managed code, or other aspects of the CLR.
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Although it is more a business decision than a real criticism on the framework, some people have expressed concern that the framework is too much tied to the Microsoft Windows operating system. However, the
existence of alternative implementations for other platforms (though not yet complete) begin to alleviate this criticism.

There is also concern in the development community about the fact that a .NET assembly, as produced by the .NET programming environments, can be reverseengineered to reveal some of the programming techniques and algorithms used by an application. While this kind of reverse-engineering is possible with all programs, those that compile to byte-code, as .NET and Java do, are somewhat more vulnerable. Reverse engineering can lead to the loss of trade secrets and the bypassing of license control mechanisms. Some developers are using obfuscation and other techniques in an attempt to protect their intellectual property and license revenues. Indeed Microsoft includes a tool called the "dotfuscator community edition" - a product of PreEmptive Solutions, in the full version of Visual Studio 2005. Microsoft has applied for patents on some parts of the Framеwork. An agreement was made however between Microsoft and Novell whereby Microsoft agreed to not sue Novell or its customers for patent infringement, allowing the implementation of these parts in the open-source Mono implementation of .NET. According to a statement on the blog of Mono project leader Miguel de Icaza, this agreement extends to Mono but only for Novell developers and users. It was criticized by the Open source community because it violates the principles of giving equal rights to all users of a particular program (see Patent Agreement with Microsoft). On February 2007, the Free Software Foundation announced that it is reviewing Novell's right to sell GNU software, which makes up much of a Linux operating system, because of this agreement..However Eben Moglen later said that he was quoted out of context, and referring to possible changes that could made to the GPL version 3, that would block similar deals in the future

Alternative implementations
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The Microsoft .NET Framework is the predominant implementation of .NET technologies. Other implementations for parts of the framework exist. Since the runtime engine is described by a ECMA/ISO specification, other implementations of it are unencumbered by copyright issues. It is more difficult to develop alternatives to the base class library (BCL), which is not described by an open standard, and may be subject to copyright restrictions. Additionally, parts of the BCL have Windowsspecific functionality and behavior, so implementation on non-Windows platforms can be problematic.

Some alternative implementations of parts of the framework are listed here.

Microsoft's Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure is a shared source implementation of the CLR component of the .NET Framework. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP, FreeBSD, and Mac OS X 10.2. Portable.NET (part of DotGNU) provides an implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), portions of the .NET Base Class Library (BCL), and a C# compiler. It supports a variety of CPUs and operating systems. Mono is an implementation of the CLI and portions of the .NET Base Class Library (BCL), and provides additional functionality. It is dual-licensed under free software and proprietary software licenses. Mono is being developed by Novell, Inc. It includes support for ASP.NET, ADO.NET, and evolving support for Windows Forms libraries. It also includes a C# compiler, and a VB.NET compiler is in pre-beta form.

Base Class Library
TThe Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the .NET Framework. In order to make the programmer's job easier, .NET includes the BCL in order to encapsulate a large number of common

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functions, such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, and XML document manipulation. It is much larger in scope than standard libraries for most other languages, including C++, and would be comparable in scope to the standard libraries of Java. The BCL is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL), which is a superset including the Microsoft.* namespaces. The BCL is updated with each version of the .NET Framework.

Namespaces
Some of these namespaces may or may not be officially considered part of the BCL by Microsoft, but all are included as part of the standard libraries that are provided with the .NET Framework.

System
This namespace includes the core needs for programming. It includes base types like String, DateTime, Boolean, and so forth, support for environments such as the console, math functions, and base classes for attributes, exceptions, and arrays.

System.CodeDom
This library provides the ability to create code and run it, at runtime.

System.Collections
Defines many common containers or collections used in programming, such as lists, queues, stacks, hashtables, and dictionaries. It includes support for generics.

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System.ComponentModel
Provides the ability to implement the run-time and design-time behavior of components and controls. It contains the infrastructure "for implementing attributes and type converters, binding to data sources, and licensing components."

System.Configuration
Provides the infrastructure for handling configuration data.

System.Data
This namespace represents the ADO.NET architecture, which is set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services.

System.Deployment
Allows you to customize the way your application upgrades when using ClickOnce.

System.Diagnostics
Gives you the ability to diagnose your application. It includes event logging, performance counters, tracing, and interaction with system processes.

System.DirectoryServices
Provides easy access to Active Directory from managed code. System.Drawing Provides access to GDI+ graphics functionality, including support for 2D and vector graphics, imaging, printing, and text services. System.EnterpriseServices "Provides .NET objects with access to COM+ services making the .NET Framework objects more practical for enterprise applications."

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System.Globalization
Provides help for writing internationalized applications. "Culture-related information, including the language, the country/region, the calendars in use, [and] the format patterns for dates, currency, and numbers" can be defined.

System.IO
Allows you to read from and write to different streams, such as files or other data streams. Also provides a connection to the file system.

System.Management
Allows you to query for information, "such as how much free space is left on the disk, what is the current CPU utilization, which database a certain application is connected to, and much more."

System.Media
Provides you the ability to play system sounds and .wav files.

System.Messaging
Allows "you to connect to, monitor, and administer message queues on the network and send, receive, or peek messages." .NET Remoting is another name for some of the functionality provided. This namespace is being superseded by Windows Communication Foundation.

System.Net
Provides an interface "for many of the protocols used on networks today," such as HTTP, FTP, and SMTP. Secure communication is supported by protocols such as SSL.

System.Reflection
Provides an object view of types, methods, and fields. You have "the ability to dynamically create and invoke types."

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System.Resources
Allows you to manage many different resources in the application in order to internationalize an application for different cultures and languages.

System.Runtime
Allows you to manage the runtime behavior of an application or the CLR. Some of the included abilities are interoping with COM or other native code, writing distributed applications, and serializing objects into binary or SOAP.

System.Security
"Provides the underlying structure of the common language runtime security system." This namespace allows you to build security into your application based on policy and permissions. It provides services such as cryptography.

System.ServiceProcess
Allows you to create applications that run as a service within Windows.

System.Text
Supports various encodings, regular expressions, and a more efficient mechanism for manipulating strings (StringBuilder).

System.Threading
Helps facilitate multithreaded programming. It allows the synchronizing of "thread activities and access to data" and provides "a pool of system-supplied threads."

System.Timers
"Allows you to raise an event on a specified interval."

System.Transactions
Provides support for local or distributed transactions.

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System.Web
Provides various web related functionality. It enables browser-server communication and the creating XML Web Services. Most or all of these libraries are referred to as the ASP.NET architecture.

System.Windows.Forms
This namespace contains the Windows Forms architecture which provides access to the older Windows API for writing graphical applications for Windows from within managed code. This system is being superseded by the Windows Presentation Foundation.

System.Xml
"Provides standards-based support for processing XML," including reading, writing, schemas, serialization, searching, and transforming

.NET Languages

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.NET Languages are computer programming languages that are used to produce programs that execute within the Microsoft .NET Framework. Microsoft provides several such languages, including C#, Visual Basic .NET, and C++/CLI. Regardless of which .NET language is used, the output of the language compiler is a representation of the same logic in an intermediate language named Common Intermediate Language. Before the program is executed, CIL is compiled to object code appropriate for the machine on which the program is executing. This last compilation step is usually performed by the Common Language Runtime component of the framework at the moment the program is invoked, though it can be manually performed at an earlier stage. While there are currently over 40 languages with compilers for the .NET Framework, only a small number of them are widely used and supported by Microsoft. The remainder is composed of languages developed by third party vendors.

Microsoft .NET languages
C# - Microsoft's flagship .NET Framework language which bears similarities to the C++ and Java languages. Visual Basic .NET - A completely redesigned version of the Visual Basic language for the .NET Framework. This also includes Visual Basic 2005 (v8.0). C++/CLI and the deprecated Managed C++ - A managed version of the C++ language. J# - A Java and J++ .NET transitional language. JScript .NET - A compiled version of the JScript language. Windows PowerShell - An interactive command line shell/scripting environment which provides full access to the .NET frameworks. IronPython - A .NET implementation of the Python programming language developed by Jim Hugunin at Microsoft. F#, a member of the ML programming language family.

• • • • • • • •

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ADO.NET
ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. It is a part of the base class library that is included with the Microsoft .NET Framework. It is commonly used by programmers to access and modify data stored in relational database systems, though it can also be used to access data in non-relational sources. ADO.NET is sometimes considered an evolution of ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) technology, but was changed so extensively that it can be perceived as an entirely new product

ASP.NET
ASP.NET is a set of web application development technologies marketed by Microsoft. Programmers can use it to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. It is part of Microsoft's .NET platform and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime, meaning programmers can write ASP.NET code using any Microsoft .NET language.

ASPX file format
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ASPX is a text file format used to create Webform pages; in programming jargon, the ASPX file typically contains static HTML or XHTML markup, as well as markup defining Web Controls and Web User Controls where the developer places all the required static and dynamic content for the web page. Additionally, dynamic code which runs on the server can be placed in a page within a block <% -- dynamic code -- %> which is similar to other web development technologies such as PHP, JSP, and ASP, but this practice is generally discouraged except for Databinding. The recommended method for dealing with dynamic program code is to use the codebehind model, which places this code in a separate file or in a specially designated script tag. Code-behind files are typically named something to the effect of MyPage.aspx.cs or MyPage.aspx.vb based on the ASPX file name (this practice is automatic in Microsoft Visual Studio and other IDEs). When using this style of programming, the developer writes code to respond to different events, like the page being loaded, or a control being clicked, rather than a procedural walk through the document.

Other files
Other file extensions associated with different versions of ASP.NET include:
• • • • • •

asax - Global.asax, used for application-level logic and event handling ascx - Web UserControls: custom controls to be placed onto web pages. ashx - custom HTTP handlers asmx - web service pages. axd - when enabled in web.config requesting trace.axd outputs application-level tracing. browser - browser capabilities files stored in XML format; introduced in version 3.0. ASP.NET 2 includes many of these by default, to support common web browsers. These specify which browsers have which capabilities, so that ASP.NET 2 can automatically customize and optimize its output accordingly. Special .browser files are available for free download to handle, for instance, the W3C Validator, so that it properly shows standards-compliant pages as being standards-compliant. Replaces the harder-to-use BrowserCaps section that was in machine.config and could be overridden in web.config in ASP.NET 1.x.

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• • • •

config - web.config is the only file in a specific Web application to use this extension by default (machine.config similarly affects the entire Web server and all applications on it), however ASP.NET provides facilities to create and consume other config files. These are stored in XML format, so as to allow configuration changes to be made with simplicity. cs/vb - In ASP.NET 2 any cs/vb files placed inside the App_Code folder are dynamically compiled and available to the whole application. master - Master Pages; introduced in version 2.0 sitemap - sitemap configuration files skin - theme skin files

Performance
ASP.NET aims for performance benefits over other script-based technologies ( including ASP Classic ) by compiling the server-side code to one or a few DLL files on the web server. This happens transparently in the background the first time a page is requested (i.e., the developer need not perform a separate compilation step for pages). This provides the ease of development offered by scripting languages with the performance benefits of a compiled binary. The ASPX and other resource files are placed in a virtual host on an Internet Information Services ( or other compatible ASP.NET servers; see Other Implementations, below ). The first time a client requests a page, the .NET framework parses and compiles the file(s) into a .NET assembly and sends the response; subsequent requests are served from the dll files. Developers can also choose to pre-compile their code before deployment, eliminating the need for just-in-time compilation in a production environment.

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