Thermal Power Plant Simulation Control | Boiler | Gasification

Thermal Power Plant Simulation and Control
Edited by

Damian Flynn

The Institution of Electrical Engineers

Published by: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, United Kingdom © 2003: The Institution of Electrical Engineers This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention 2003 and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any forms or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: The Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts., SG1 2AY, United Kingdom While the authors and the publishers believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgment when making use of them. Neither the authors nor the publishers assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such liability is disclaimed. The moral rights of the authors to be identified as authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Thermal power plant simulation and control. - (lEE power & energy series ; 43) 1. Electric power-plants - Management 2. Electric power systems - Control 3. Electric power systems - Computer simulation I. Flynn, D. II. Institution of Electrical Engineers 621.311210113

ISBN 0 85296 419 6

Typeset in India by Newgen Imaging Systems Printed in the UK by MPG Books Limited, Bodmin, Cornwall

List of contributors

A. Alessandri Institute for the Studies of Intelligent Systems for Automation National Research Council of Italy Genova, Italy A.E Armor Electric Power Research Institute Palo Alto, California, USA M.D. Brown Atkins Aviation and Defence Systems Bristol, England A. Cipriano Electrical Engineering Department Pontificia Universidad Cat61ica de Chile Santiago, Chile P. Coletta Institute for the Studies of Intelligent Systems for Automation National Research Council of Italy Genova, Italy M. Cregan School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland G.Q. Fan Veritas Software Sydney, Australia

x

List of contributors

D. Flynn

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland
A. Fricker

Innogy plc Swindon, England
R. Garduno-Ramirez

Electrical Research Institute Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico
G.W. Irwin

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland K.Y. Lee Department of Electrical Engineering Pennsylvania State University Pennsylvania, USA A. Leva Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Sciences Politecnico di Milano Milan, Italy
K. Li

School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland
C. Maffezzoni Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Sciences Politecnico di Milano Milan, Italy T. Moelbak

Elsam A/S Fredericia, Denmark

List of contributors J.H. Mortensen Tech-wise A/S Fredericia, Denmark G. Oluwande Innogy plc Swindon, England T. Parisini Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering University of Trieste Trieste, Italy G. Poncia United Technologies Research Center East Hartford, Connecticut, USA G. Prasad School of Computing and Intelligent Systems University of Ulster Londonderry, Northern Ireland N.W. Rees School of Electrical and Telecommunication Engineering The University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia J.A. Ritchie School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, Northern Ireland D. S~iez Electrical Engineering Department Universidad de Chile Santiago, Chile S. Thompson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering The Queen's University of Belfast Belfast. Northern Ireland

xi

Preface

During the past decade power generation has undergone several extremely significant changes. These include deregulation of the electricity industry in many parts of the world, with a greater focus on economic and financial concerns instead of purely engineering issues. In conjunction with this, environmental matters are of increasing interest, leading to an assessment of existing greenhouse gas emissions and the exploitation of renewable energy sources. Additionally, combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) have emerged as an extremely economic and efficient means of electricity generation. Finally, many power plants have been retro-fitted with modern and sophisticated, plant-wide instrumentation and control equipment. These computerbased distribution control systems (DCSs) are intended to enhance regulation control performance and more importantly provide a means for implementing supervisory control/monitoring schemes. These various considerations have led to significant changes in the philosophy of how power stations are operated, while at the same time affording engineers the opportunity to introduce monitoring and plant-wide control schemes which were previously infeasible. However, a distinction has largely arisen between those working in the power and control oriented research communities, with centres of excellence in scattered locations, and engineers engaged in power plant design, operation, consultancy, etc. The objective of this book is to address this issue, through a number of case studies, which illustrate how various methodologies can be applied to various subsystems of power plant operation, or indeed introduced into the overall control hierarchy. The case studies presented focus on what can feasibly be achieved with an indication of the subsequent benefits of doing so, using results from live plant where possible. The level of the book makes it suitable for engineers working in the power generation industry who wish to gain an appreciation of the advances which have taken place in this field within the research community. It should also provide a very useful overview for new and experienced researchers working in this area. A number of the contributions to this book arise from work carried out at, or in collaboration with, universities and research institutions, while others benefit from the experience of practitioners in the industry. A natural consequence of this is that a mixture of viewpoints is offered, with a contrast between the use of academic and industrial

xiv

Preface

terminology. The mathematical content of the book is sufficient to give an indication of the underlying technologies, and the deficiencies of more traditional techniques, with the reader directed to related work for further detail. The text is split into three main parts covering, respectively, power plant simulation, specific control applications and optimisation/monitoring of plant operations. Chapter I provides a brief introduction to power plant fundamentals, outlining different plant configurations, the control requirements of various loops, and the hardware and instrumentation on which these systems are based. An essential aspect of investigating and developing novel control and monitoring schemes is a detailed simulation of the system in question. Chapter 2 illustrates how a complex power plant model can be constructed using an object-oriented approach. The reader is introduced to the Modelica modelling language, and issues such as testing and validation are discussed. Part 2 (Control) comprises five contributions and forms a major part of the book. A number of diverse applications are considered, and differing control strategies are proposed and implemented. Chapter 3 investigates the highly complex problem of both modelling and controlling pulverised fuel coal mills. Linear quadratic and predictive control techniques are investigated, with a supervisory operator support system introduced. Chapter 4 tackles the problem of excitation control of a synchronous machine. Local model network and adaptive control-based approaches are examined in detail. Chapter 5 then examines steam temperature control of a once-through boiler for both the evaporator and superheaters. Linear quadratic Gaussian, fuzzy logic and predictive control schemes are applied, with the benefits of feedforward action using suitable instrumentation strongly highlighted. Chapter 6 examines the problem of controlling combined cycle plant. An objective function is defined based on operational costs, and alternative hierarchical control configurations are examined. Finally, in this section, Chapter 7 explores the development of a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) predictive controller sitting on top of the plant's conventional control systems to improve the overall plant's capabilities. Part 3 (Monitoring, optimisation and supervision) again comprises five contributions, and demonstrates how the ability of distributed control systems to gather plant-wide, real-time data can be constructively employed in a range of applications. Chapter 8 introduces a sophisticated plant-wide, neurofuzzy control scheme with feedback and feedforward actions to provide improved unit manoeuvrability and an improved distribution of control tasks. Chapter 9 then focuses on the task of modelling NOx emissions from a coal-fired power station. A grey-box modelling approach is proposed, taking advantage of a priori knowledge of NOx formation mechanisms. Chapter 10 introduces model-based approaches for fault detection of a high-pressure heater line. Again grey-box identification, coupled with non-linear state estimation techniques are considered, to aid fault diagnostics. Chapter 11 continues with an examination of how the data stores which distributed control systems now offer can be exploited for both fault identification and process monitoring activities. The part concludes in Chapter 12 with an overview of a number of performance support and monitoring applications that have been successfully applied to real plant, largely based around a real-time expert system.

and for their assistance in bringing together the final text. The editor would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors for their contributions. The editor also wishes to acknowledge the significant role played in the creation of this work by Brian Hogg and Edwin Swidenbank in establishing the Control of Power Systems research group at The Queen's University of Belfast. Finally. the advice and encouragement offered by Brendan Fox and Nataga Marta6 from Queen's has been greatly appreciated. Chapter 14 discusses some topics of concern including the impact of age and maintenance requirements on existing units in an increasingly competitive environment. Damian Flynn April 2003 . Finally. and how technology is expanding the capabilities of modern power plant.Preface xv The final part of the book highlights some possibilities and issues for the future. Chapter 13 demonstrates how a physical model of a power plant can be integrated into a predictive control strategy to provide enhanced unit control by recognising the true system characteristics. The support and guidance from Roland Harwood and Wendy Hiles of the IEE has also been most welcome.

1 2. Flynn Power plant historical development Plant configuration and design Control and instrumentation External influences Plant technology developments References 1 2 5 9 13 13 Part 1: Modellingand simulation 2 2.3 2.8 Modelling of power plants A. Leva and C Maffezzoni Introduction Model structuring by the object-oriented approach Basic component models Modelling of distributed control systems Application of dynamic decoupling to power plant models Testing and validation of developed models Concluding remarks and open problems References 17 17 18 27 50 52 53 56 57 . Cregan and D.Contents List of contributors Preface List of abbreviations ix xiii xvii 1 1.4 2.4 1.2 2.1 1.6 2.6 Advances in power plant technology M.7 2.5 1.5 2.3 1.2 1.

7 5 5.Q. Rees and G.4 4. Irwin Introduction Local model networks Controller design Micromachine test facility Results Conclusions References Steam temperature control T.5 5. Mortensen Introduction Plant and control description Advanced evaporator control Advanced superheater control Conclusions References Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant D.5 4.3 3.6 3. Cipriano Introduction A combined cycle thermal power plant Design of supervisory control strategies for a combined cycle thermal power plant Application to the thermal power plant simulator Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgements References 63 63 64 71 80 92 97 97 97 101 101 102 108 113 117 124 127 4 4. Fan Introduction Modelling of coal mills Plant tests.6 4. D.2 4.4 3.4 5.1 4.3 5. Sdez and A.2 3.7 3.H.W.5 3. Moelbak and J. Flynn and G. results and fitting model parameters Mill control Intelligent control and operator advisory systems Conclusions Acknowledgements References Generator excitation control using local model networks M.2 5.6 6 131 131 133 137 147 159 159 161 161 162 168 171 176 177 177 6.3 4.vi Contents Part 2: Control 3 3.3 6.7 .1 5.4 6. l 6.1 3.5 6. W.8 Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills N. Brown.D.6 6.2 6.

2 Power unit requirements for wide-range operation 8.1 9. optimisation and supervision Extending plant load-following capabilities R.2 10.9 Acknowledgements 8.1 7.6 Design of neurofuzzy controllers 8.5 7. Parisini Introduction Description of power plant application Grey-box modelling and identification of a power plant A general approach to receding-horizon estimation for non-linear systems Conclusions References 205 205 207 209 213 221 224 228 238 239 239 9 9. Y Lee 8.2 7.6 243 243 248 253 263 267 267 269 269 271 287 295 307 307 . Poncia Introduction Classical control Of thermal power plants Multivariable control strategies An application: MBPC control of a 320 MW oil-fired plant Conclusions Acknowledgements References Part 3: 8 Monitoring.3 Conventional power unit control 8. Alessandri. Garduno-Ramirez and If.Contents vii 179 179 181 184 189 200 200 201 7 7.10 References Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant S. Thompson and K.4 10.1 Introduction 8. P Coletta and T.6 10 10.2 9.3 9.3 10.7 Multivariable power plant control G. Li Emissions from coal-fired power stations An overview of NOx formation mechanisms NOx emission models for a 500 MW power generation unit Conclusions Acknowledgements References Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line A.4 7.5 Knowledge-based feedforward control 8.5 9.1 10.7 Wide-range load-following 8.8 Summary and conclusions 8.3 7.6 7.5 10.4 Feedforward/feedback control strategy 8.4 9.

4 Applying a physical model-based predictive control strategy 13.4 12.4 14.7 14.1 Introduction 13.7 Advanced plant management systems A.7 Acknowledgements 13.3 12.5 12. Oluwande 345 345 346 350 351 354 360 361 Plant management in a deregulated electricity market Supervisory control System integration and HMI issues Performance monitoring Added value applications Conclusions References Part4: The future 13 Physical model-based coordinated power plant control G.3 11.3 14.1 12.6 11.6 Discussion and conclusions 13.9 Management and integration of power plant operations A.3 Control problems of a thermal power plant 13.5 14.1 14.1 11.5 Simulation results 13.2 14.6 14.4 11.E Armor 395 395 396 401 405 407 410 413 414 415 417 Introduction Age and reliability of plants Improving asset management The impacts of cycling on power plant performance Improving maintenance approaches Power plant networks: redefining information flow Conclusions References Bibliography Index .5 11.7 11.8 Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J.6 12.2 A review of physical model-based thermal power plant control approaches 13. Prasad 365 365 366 368 375 381 389 391 391 13.2 11.2 12.8 14.8 References 14 14. Flynn 309 309 310 311 325 334 338 341 341 Introduction Outline of data mining applications Identification of process and sensor faults Process monitoring and optimisation Non-linear PLS modelling Discussion and conclusions Acknowledgements References 12 12. Ritchie and D. Fricker and G.A.viii Contents 11 11.

List of abbreviations AF ANN API APMS ARMAX ARX ASME AVA AVR BETTA BMS CARIMA CBR CCGT CCR CEGB CFD COL DCDAS DCS DMA EAF EC EDL EKF EPRI FB FERC FF FFPU FGD GHG availability factor artificial neural network application program interface advanced plant management system AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input American Society of Mechanical Engineers added value application automatic voltage regulator British-wide Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements burner management system controlled auto-regressive integrating moving-average case-based reasoning combined cycle gas turbine central control room Central Electricity Generating Board computational fluid dynamics cost of losses distributed control and data acquisition system distributed control system direct memory access equivalent availability factor European Commission electronic dispatch and logging extended Kalman filter Electric Power Research Institute feedback Federal Energy Regulatory Commission feedforward fossil fuel power unit flue gas desulphurisation greenhouse gas .

Systems and Automation Society KBOSS knowledge-based operator support system LMN local model network LP low-pressure LPC lumped parameter components LQ linear quadratic LQG linear quadratic Gaussian LQR linear quadratic regulator LS least squares MBPC model-based predictive controller MCR maximum continuous rating MIMO multi-input multi-output MISO multi-input single-output MLP multilayer perceptron MLR multiple linear regression MVC multivariable steam control NARMAX Non-linear AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input NARX Non-linear AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input NDE non-destructive evaluation NETA New Electricity Trading Arrangements NIPALS non-linear iterative partial least squares NPMPC non-linear physical model-based predictive control OIS operational information system OOM object-oriented modelling OSC one-side components PCA principal component analysis pf pulverised fuel PFBC pressurised fluidised bed combustion PLC programmable logic controller GMV GPC .xviii List of abbreviations generalised minimum variance generalised predictive control HMI human-machine interface HP high-pressure HRSG heat recovery steam generator HSC hierarchical supervisory control IAF integrated application framework ICOAS intelligent control and advisory system IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle ILC integrated load control ILM integrated load management IOAS intelligent operator advisory system IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPP independent power producer ISA Instrumentation.

List of abbreviations PLS PRBS PRESS RBF RLS RMS RSME SCADA SEGPC SISO SMS TSC UV VOC projection to latent structures pseudo-random binary sequence predicted residual sum of squares radial basis function recursive least squares root mean square root squared mean error supervisory control and data acquisition state estimation-based generalised predictive control single-input single-output startup management system two-side components ultraviolet volatile organic compound xix .

At first. from a coal or coal gas supply. Lower Manhattan. 1998. Initial power plant boiler designs generated steam in a simple water tube boiler. Lighting alone. The removal of European Community restrictions on burning gas for power generation. Electricity was delivered over relatively short distances. Cregan and D.9 MPa (8. Since then the topography of the typical power plant has evolved into a highly complex system. and would have been connected to a 30 kW generator. coupled with other factors. However different current plant may now appear. In a search for reduced operating costs. the underlying principles of generation and distribution had been mastered by the end of the nineteenth century. Since then the evolution of power plant design has been largely incremental. DTI.6 bar) and 150 °C (300 °F). utilising new metal alloys. Flynn I. coincided with the widespread construction of generating equipment in the late 1880s and 1890s. The past three decades . and the adoption of electric traction on subway systems. has resulted in increased deployment of CCGT units. Today.c. generating 1300 MW of electricity (Smith.Chapter 1 Advances in power plant technology M.5 MPa (285 bar) and 600 °C (1112 °F). generators were coupled to coal-fired. They typically operated at 0. can operate at supercritical conditions of 28. New York City. and was primarily used for district lighting. simple d. advanced turbine and boiler designs. driven mainly by new technology. plant design has moved on from generating units based on the Rankine cycle. could not provide an economical market for successful commercial generation. 2000). so new applications for electricity needed to be found. which typically achieved thermal efficiencies in the range 30--40 per cent. reciprocating piston steam engines. The popularity of urban electric tramways.I Power plant historical development Fossil fuelled power plants have been supplying electricity for industrial use since the late 1880s. The first central generating station was opened by Thomas Edison in September 1882 at Pearl Street. Now combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units utilising the latest heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plant can achieve efficiencies of 50-60 per cent. however.

1 Premier Power turbine hall . combined with zero or very low environmental emissions (DOE. which then rotates a turbine that drives an alternator. Illustrated in Figure 1. improve unit control and permit more flexible plant operation. a fossil fuel is combusted to raise steam.c.1 is the turbine hall of a modern power station. to provide three-phase a. The short-to-medium term targets that have been mapped out by Vision 21 (US Department of Energy) for new plant designs are 60 per cent thermal efficiency for coal/solid fuels and 75 per cent efficiency for natural gas units. 1. electricity at 50/60 Hz. at the most basic of levels. 1999). Currently integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and advanced pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC) are emerging technologies that are showing great potential for yielding high efficiency and low emissions. New computer-based systems will increase plant automation. New developments in plant design are continually being sought and investigated to improve unit performance. The next 20 years should see this technology develop further.2 Thermal power plant simulation and control have witnessed the integration of microprocessor equipment into every aspect of generation and distribution. At the heart Figure 1. while at the same time maximising unit efficiency and reducing harmful emissions. bringing with it pseudo-intelligent applications which truly harness the rapidly expanding computational power available.2 Plant configuration and design Although there are many variations in power plant configuration and design.

Advances in power plant technology Boiler Turbines 3 Fu~ Air ~ Feedwater Boiler feed pump Figure 1. the kinetic energy of the steam is converted to mechanical torque as the steam expands across the turbines. 1. Figure 1. On exiting the low-pressure turbine the now saturated steam is condensed back into liquid by the cooling water in the condenser. The economiser is the last stage of heating prior to entering the drum. permits 'natural circulation' of the feedwater around the boiler. After the initial high-pressure stage the steam returns to the boiler for reheating. as a result of operating at elevated temperatures and pressures. If the flow becomes unbalanced.2 Simplified power plant of a conventional power plant is the boiler. The temperature of the superheated steam leaving the drum is constrained only by the metallurgical limits of the pipework.9 °C (705. The steam cycle is conveniently analysed by beginning with the feedwater flow from the condenser. The dual role of the drum is to supply feedwater to the walls of the furnace and to separate the resulting steam from incoming water. bled from the turbines. The condenser's hotwell maintains a large reservoir from which boiler feed pumps draw their supply. thereby improving unit efficiency. . One of the advantages of operating in the subcritical region is that the differential density of water and steam. in unbalanced 'forced circulation' boilers the rating of the boiler feed pumps is significantly increased. a practical implementation of the ideal Carnot cycle.1 MPa (220. then boiler feed pumps are required to provide the extra driving force. normally consisting of multiple stages.1 Subcritical plant In subcritical boilers steam temperatures and pressures never exceed the 'critical point' of steam which occurs at 373. which operates by following the thermodynamic Rankine steam cycle.and high-pressure feed heaters which draw heat from steam.2.1 °F) and 22. The temperature and pressure of the feedwater is raised by a series of low. In the turbine. before and after the drum. Hence.2 provides a simplified illustration of the steam flow path in a fossil fuel power plant.6 bar).

3. To turbine ~ 'Drum' boiler P erfee . this requirement is met by the fuel-firing rate for a drum boiler. 1998). When operating at pressures above the critical point of steam there is no clear distinction between the vapour and liquid states. as compared with subcritical plant (Goidich.2 Thermal power plant simulation and control Supercritical plant The world's first supercritical power plant began operating in 1957 and was commercially operated until 1979. While for a supercritical boiler it is the boiler feed pump that determines the steam flow rate. Despite the reduction in operating costs resulting from higher unit efficiency. 2001). whose density can range from vapour-like to liquid-like. is eliminated. to control superheat steam temperatures a once-through boiler first adjusts the fuel-firing rate. normally required to separate the steam from the water. 'Once-through'boiler Figure 1. Currently. Consequently.4 1. Consequently. their development and deployment has been slow.2.7. While supercritical plant should be more efficient than conventional drum plant. Supercritical boilers operate at pressures greater than 22 MPa (220 bar) and are also referred to as 'oncethrough' boilers. 2001). To turbine [[ . since the feedwater circulates only once through the boiler in each steam cycle. This 125 MW installation at the Philo Plant operated at 31 MPa (310 bar) and 621 °C or 1150 °F (Smith. due to the elevated temperatures and pressures. rather a fluid results. their increased installation cost can not often be justified over the life of the plant. a drum. When operating a boiler in the supercritical region improvements can be made to both unit efficiency and heat-rate. as shown in Figure 1.3 Boiler steam flow paths . operating at state-of-the-art steam conditions a 3 per cent improvement in unit efficiency can be achieved. as opposed to using spray water attemperation for a drum boiler (Goidich. Control in a supercritical boiler is somewhat different from that in a drum boiler.

. as their name suggests... Alternatively.. by piping the exhaust gas from the gas turbine into a heat recovery steam generator...~ I Feed water Boiler feed pump Figure 1.3 Simplified CCGT plant Combined cycle gas turbines Combined cycle gas turbines. with its operating simplicity typically leading to higher reliability.4 1. In general. However. combine existing gas and steam technologies into one unit. In terms of overall investment a single-shaft system is typically about 5 per cent lower in cost. the gas turbine and steam turbine are coupled to a single generator.. For startup. 1..... operating on the Rankine cycle.2.. in a CCGT plant the thermal efficiency is extended to approximately 50-60 per cent.3 Control and instrumentation Modern power plant is a complex arrangement of pipework and machinery with a myriad of interacting control loops and support systems... the steam turbine can be disconnected using a hydraulic clutch.. gases Flue HRSG Turbine Alternator II Steam •L Condenser Cooling water . it is the boiler . fewer stability problems and more degrees of freedom in the mechanical design.Advances in power plant technology Gas Turbine Air Alternator 5 ill tl Exhaust. or 'open cycle' operation of the gas turbine alone. in tandem. yielding significant improvements in thermal efficiency over conventional steam plant. They bring together the Rankine cycle from conventional steam plant and the Brayton cycle from gas turbine generators.. the heat recovered in this process is sufficient to drive a steam turbine with an electrical output of approximately 50 per cent of the gas turbine generator... 1~_... However.. Benefits of multishaft arrangements are shorter shafts.4.. for single-shaft systems... A simplified multishaft CCGT plant is illustrated in Figure 1. In both types of plant it is the inherent energy losses in the plant design that constrain their thermal efficiency..

closing the governor valves reduces the generated output. electrically operated safety valves are essential for variable pressure operation to protect against sudden. contain inefficiencies as throttling of the governor valves reduces the available steam flow. since opening the governor valves.1 Combustion control Burning a fossil fuel releases energy in the form of heat. leads to improved unit efficiency. at lower outputs. which is absorbed by the feedwater through convection and radiation mechanisms. Turbine following mode is preferred for thermal base load and nuclear plant. the steam demand signal is often known as the master control signal. Turbine following mode A generating unit may alternatively be configured to operate in turbine following mode. • Boiler following mode Boiler following or 'constant pressure' mode utilises the main steam governor as a fast-acting load controller. These actions alter the main steam pressure. and enables operation of the turbines at lower temperatures and pressures. there are also safety benefits in providing continuous steady state operating conditions. dangerous increases in steam pressure that may occur while the pressure setpoint is low. such units do not respond to frequency deviations and so cannot assist in a network frequency support role. However. The strategic behaviour of the unit is governed by various boiler control configurations. For safety reasons. such units can be operated with their governor valves remaining fully open. creating energy losses. Conversely.3. Sliding pressure mode Although boiler following mode is commonly used. All the main control loops must respond to a central command structure. However. the ability to use the stored energy of the boiler to meet short-term changes in demand is restricted. Variable pressure operation also provides faster unit loading. From this all other individual loop controllers receive their demand or setpoint signal. whereby the combustion controls of the boiler are set to achieve a fixed output. The reduced throttlingback action by the governor control valves. fast-responding. Operating a unit in this mode does. The position of the main steam governor valve is controlled by the valve outlet pressure. For nuclear plant. where the constant steam pressure is replaced by a variable steam pressure mode. sliding pressure mode is an 'instructive' development. Controlling the volume of heat released when burning large quantities of fossil fuel is a demanding and . Consequently. and releasing the stored energy in the boiler.6 Thermal power plant simulation and control control system that is central in determining the overall behaviour of the generating unit. and the behaviour of the master control signal within these arrangements is now discussed. It is the demand for steam that resides at the top of this control hierarchy. meets short-term increases in electrical demand. however. since it allows the generating units to operate continuously at their maximum capacity rating. Due to its importance. so it is the role of the master pressure controller to suitably adjust the fuel-firing rate. not the input as in boiler following. • • 1. which sets their individual setpoints and controls the behaviour of the plant.

3. The natural ingress of air through these openings is referred to as 'tramp air'. The 'swell' and 'shrinkage' effects. The continuous flow of air to the boiler furnace is achieved using forced draft (FD) fans to force air into the furnace and induced draft (ID) fans to extract the combustion gases. soot-blower openings and other orifices in the furnace. air flow. A short list of other (boiler) control loops is as follows: • Coal pnlveriser control regulates the supply ofpulverised fuel to the boiler from coal mills. The internal draft pressure (furnace pressure) is maintained just below atmospheric pressure to prevent hazardous gases from escaping through observation portholes. oxygen. In contrast. Typically. These include a UV flame detector. D r u m level control is closely linked with feedwater control. To ensure safety. to name but a few. which is very much dependent on the fuel being burned. poisonous carbon monoxide and the danger of unburnt fuel accumulating within the boiler. The ideal or 'stoichiometric' ratio for complete combustion of the fuel is impractical and results in incomplete combustion due to unavoidable imperfections in the mixing of fuel and air. a 'three-element' controller is used. numerous sensors supply data on current operating conditions. The fundamental problem of combustion control is to adjust the fuel and air flow rates to match the energy demand of the steam leaving the boiler. is often a limiting factor when the unit is required to respond quickly. resulting from changes in steam demand. steam flow and feedwater flow signals. as well as increasing ID/FD fan requirements. Overseeing the combustion process is the burner management system (BMS) which regulates the extremely hazardous process of firing the fuel. which determines the steam load for the unit. which combines drum level. are confusing to simple single-element controllers. and furnace pressure. along with the startup time of additional mills. residing at the top is the master control signal. NOx and CO sensors.2 Boiler control subsystems Boiler control systems exist in a hierarchial arrangement. Control systems or loop controllers at lower levels derive their demand or setpoint values from the master controller. The time delay between coal entering the mill and reaching the boiler. 1. incomplete combustion results in the formation of black smoke. Steam temperature control regulates the temperature of the steam exiting the boiler after the superheater and reheater stages.a coal-fired boiler being significantly different from that of an oil.or gas-fired boiler. excess air may generate unwanted NOx and SOx emissions and reduce the efficiency of the boiler by carrying useful heat out the chimney. • • .Advances in power plant technology 7 potentially dangerous problem. As previously stated. Without sufficient air flow to the furnace. Excess air is always necessary in a real plant and can be as high as 10 per cent above the 'stoichiometric' ratio to achieve complete combustion. The long time delays associated with these loops make for challenging control.

with the capability to control entire power stations. so as processing power advanced. high-speed communications network.3. uncertain as both have similar functionality and network topologies. pneumatic and then analogue electrical equipment have been introduced for general plant control. flue gas recycling. etc.3 Plant instrumentation More than any other aspect of power generation. The microprocessor permitted new and innovative control solutions to be considered. system functionality grew. it is their ability to handle control on large-scale systems that distinguishes them from their smaller programmable logic controller (PLC) and PC-based counterparts. Today these isolated control systems have evolved into distributed control systems (DCSs). 1. distributed control systems have become the domain of large industrial processes and power plants. the radical transformation in control came with the advent of the microprocessor. A simplified generic DCS network is illustrated in Figure 1.5. Typical tasks may involve programming the distributed control units and adding/removing spare I/O capacity to the network. Since then.ability to handle and store tens of thousands of data points in real time. Arranged in hierarchial order they are: The engineering workstation provides complete control over the DCS. cooling water flow rates. However. each with unique functionality. the DCS has a dual redundant. bidirectional. Centralised administration .8 Thermal power plant simulation and control In addition to the control systems previously described there are many others that are essential for operation: generator excitation. Although distributed control systems are used primarily for loop control their processing power and flexibility has allowed them to handle many other data management applications. . 1.3. however. When power stations were first constructed in the 1880s control was typified by the steam governor.capacity to handle many tens of thousands of signals. which facilitates the transfer of vast amounts of data between nodes. Data management . four distinct types of device can be identified.complete control of distributed units from one single node on the network. leading to stand-alone devices being adopted for individual loop control in the 1970s and early 1980s. At its core. The dichotomy between high-end PLC systems and DCS installations is. The distinguishing features of a DCS can be summarised as: Size . Connected to a typical network. burner angle. Indeed. LP/HP feed heating. where a simple mechanical flywheel with rotating weights was connected to a hydraulic system through a series of sliding linkages and springs. control and instrumentation equipment has changed unrecognisably in the last hundred years.4 Distributed control systems Over the course of the last two decades.

dual or triple redundancy is employed to ensure availability of control equipment at all times. No longer can a station be operated in isolation. allowing the plant operator to control the unit using a human-machine interface (HMI). environmental legislation forcing the procurement of emissions reducing plant and equipment. As already suggested the two areas which have had the most significant influence on station management are liberalisation of the energy markets and environmental legislation. Managing a station today involves juggling a myriad of conflicting external factors. On one side there may be shareholders anticipating a profitable return on their investment.Advances in power plant technology Plant 9 *~put/output 0ffice~etwork '~ Data ~ ~ ~ ~[l~l II~l atwaomr=t ¢:::::q Distributedcontrolunits ~ Operatorworkstation " Figure 1. . where unit efficiency and good engineering practice are the main considerations.4 Externalinfluences The environment in which power stations operate has undergone a radical shakeup over the last two decades and still remains in a state of flux. They are directly connected to plant signals and can usually operate independently of the rest of the DCS. Time stamping new data as it arrives on the network may also be performed.5 Simplifieddistributed control system the task of managing the process database containing all the process data points or 'tags' on the DCS. The data managementworkstationis usually assigned 1. and on the other. The operatorworkstationprovides high-resolution mimics of the plant. Like most other parts of the DCS. Distributed control units are responsible for implementing plant control.

A 'pool' system was introduced. These arrangements were replaced in March 2001 by the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) in an attempt to facilitate greater market freedom for generators and suppliers.10 1. This measure proved sufficiently successful that by 1993 some 50 per cent of new generating capacity in the United States was being constructed by IPPs. as few secrets existed among their members. In an attempt to placate the public the United States introduced the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act in 1978 to allow unregulated generators to supply the grid. In 1992 the Energy Policy Act permitted wholesale customers the choice of supplier. utility managers remained cooperative with their colleagues. Beyond this. The level of cooperation extended to national research and development organisations. In doing so. where generators competed against each other for contracts to generate electricity (Hunt and Shuttleworth. and obligated the relevant utilities to transmit power across their networks. the Electricity Act of 1989 legislated for the breaking up of the nationalised CEGB industry into smaller privately owned companies. in theory. . Here.1 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Power system deregulation During the years between the end of World War II and the 1970s. In the United Kingdom. for example. Growing discontent from the general public was fuelled by the continued price increases in electricity. These organisations engaged in collaborative research and openly shared their findings. benefit from increased competition. With this realisation the next step was to open up the market whereby customers could. These independent power producers (IPPs) were not allowed to sell to end users but it was mandatory for local regulated utilities to purchase their generated output. Their restructuring model resembles that which was implemented in the United Kingdom. the spiralling costs of large generation plant and widespread fears about nuclear generation. utility management in the United States and Europe focused on the major task of building new power plant and improving the transmission and distribution grids to meet the demands of rapidly growing economies. privatisation is not considered an issue. the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) in the United Kingdom and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the United States. The United States has gradually been moving towards increased competition. Plans exist to extend these arrangement to Scotland by creating the British-wide Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangements (BETTA). The new legislation separated the product (generated electricity) from the transportation medium (the transmission grid). The business and technological strategies they employed were all very similar and governed mainly at national level. By doing so it was hoped that nonconventional and independent sources of power would appear. as the majority of electricity companies are investor-owned utilities that are territory based. These changes challenged the long-held belief that electrical generation and distribution was a natural monopoly. 1997). The only competition that existed was between individual concerns trying to install the largest generating unit of the day or the most thermally efficient unit. costs could be unbundled into an 'energy' and a 'delivery' component.4. The United States was the first to truly witness the 'winds of change' for the regulated utilities. particularly in the wholesale market.

Washington.2 Environmental factors From an environmental perspective. especially when burning coal and heavy oil. carbon monoxide (CO). The two member states who led the way. Coal burning is the single largest man-made source of sulphur dioxide. have focused on reducing emissions by setting stringent targets. In addition. Minimising NOx formation requires correct design of the furnace bumer. with oil burning accounting for a further 25-30 per cent. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are formed during high-temperature burning of fossil fuel. nitric oxide (NO). and the United States to 93 per cent. which then currently generated approximately 56 per cent of the country's . loopholes in the legislation allow individual countries to opt out entirely or comply in a piecemeal fashion. and optimised boiler control. accounting for almost 50 per cent of annual global emissions. in particular the Kyoto Protocol. As of February 2000. on behalf of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). pointed out that to meet that goal the United States would have to retire most of its coal-burning plant. Oxides of sulphur (SOx) are formed when the fossil fuel itself contains sulphur. flue gas desulphurisation plant 'scrubbing' is available.carbon dioxide (CO2). Hence. slightly increase the acidity of the precipitation that falls to earth. Alternatively. nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The treaty specifies that industrial countries have until 2010 to reduce their GHG emissions by particular percentages below 1990 levels. 1. the higher the combustion efficiency the higher the formation of nitric oxide. The European Union committed to cutting its emissions to 92 per cent of its 1990 level. Carbon dioxide and ozone (formed from NO2) are classed among the greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are contributing to global warming. without any restrictions in place. at a luncheon briefing on Capitol Hill. Nitrogen dioxide also contributes to the formation of ground-level ozone (O3) when mixed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a sunlight-initiated oxidation process. are Belgium and the United Kingdom. 1999. and oxygen from the air. Amendments to Directive 96/92/EC on March 2001 committed member states to be fully open to competition by January 2005. Hence. etc. the term acid rain. In addition to the above. The simplest approach to reduce SOx emissions is to burn fuel with a low sulphur content. burning fossil fuel releases undesirable and harmful emissions into the atmosphere . During this time it was assumed that emissions for industrial countries would substantially increase. the current popularity in burning natural gas and low sulphur oil and coal in conventional power stations. when absorbed into the atmosphere. particulate emissions may be produced. combine. but expensive. However. Recent attempts at environmental legislation. sulphur dioxide (SO2). and have already taken action to deregulate their electricity industries. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are formed when nitrogen from either the fuel or air supply. approximately 60 per cent of EU customers have a choice of electricity supplier (Lamoureux. 2001). Unfortunately. the European Commission (EC) is similarly endeavouring to liberate the electricity markets of its 15 member states. both NOx and SOx.4.Advances in power plant technology 11 In Europe. James Markowsky.

and dried coal. Unfortunately. established a target of 10 per cent renewable generation by 2010. Similarly. the United Kingdom. Florida. etc. are substantially larger than those for oil and natural gas combined. world reserves will be severely depleted within 40-50 years. for example. the fuel is gasified and cleaned. Indeed. 2001a. appear to be the most promising technologies at present (DOE. while the latter offers a source of hydrogen for a fuel cell or chemical process.6 Fossil fuel reserves as of 2001 Asia Pacific electric power (ASME. a carboniser receives a mixture of limestone. hydro. Gasification technology has also been combined with fluidised bed designs. The coal is partially gasified to produce syngas and char/limestone residue.) have been presented as part of any future solution to energy needs. i.6. tidal. Here. solar. Gasification and gas reforming. From Figure 1. before being burnt in a conventional combined cycle plant. If the current rate of consumption of gas continues. however. 2001). Given today's technology. In November 1997 the European Commission set itself a target of doubling renewable energy supply from 6 to 12 per cent by 2010. situated in the city of Lakeland. it can be seen that proven reserves of gas are limited. to absorb sulphur compounds. Renewable sources (biomass. the UK Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit proposed a target of 20 per cent renewables . The former produces a gas stream that can be burned for electric power. This would suggest that future technology may focus on 'clean coal' plant.b). America Soviet Union Figure 1.e. The total reserves for coal. 1998).12 Thermal power plant simulation and control 500+ 400 ~ 300 200 g~ lOO e~ o North Southand Europe Former Africa America Cent. as viable alternatives to fossil fuel are somewhat limited. The latter is sent to a pressurised circulating fluidised bed. 1999). wind. burning gas is not a sustainable long-term solution. where it joins a stream of crushed fresh coal which is burned in the boiler furnace (DOE. based on data from the BP Statistical Review Of World Energy (BP. IGCC plant typify emerging technology aimed at combating the emissions problem associated with coal. the production and separation of gas into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In a typical demonstration plant. the only way to generate the power the United States requires and still meet the emissions standard is to burn gas.

US Department of Energy. usually to alarm the operator of plant faults and occasionally to drive simple data trending for fault finding or management summary reports. ASME. An enlightened view of distributed control systems. 2001). April 1999 . intelligent alarm management. Oluwande. December 1998 BP: 'BP statistical review of world energy' 50th edition. Lausterer. 2000). In most cases loop control is implemented using single-input single-output (SISO) linear structures in the form of PI or PID controllers. the control systems used in the DCS are often simply a copy of what had been used in the past. XOR. ASME general position paper. 1. on shorter time-scales. data management systems. 2002) by 2020. in Johannesburg. However. purchasing and accounting. data mining and genetic algorithms for supervisory control. More recently at the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development.5 Plant technology developments Many power stations view the DCS as a direct replacement for older stand-alone analogue or digital controllers. it may remain for nuclear fission (or perhaps someday. September 2002. London. June 2001 DOE: 'Vision 21 program plan'. environmental protection. The potential list of applications is virtually endless (DOE. a pledge was made to increase 'substantially' the use of renewable energy in global energy consumption. with novel and innovative approaches being given consideration. A new vista is opening in power plant control and management. fusion) to meet growing energy needs (VGB. Hence. Federal Energy Technology Center. It is now possible to implement non-linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) model-based control. coordinated plant control (trajectory following and optimisation) or pseudo-intelligence in the form of expert systems. 2001. 1996). artificial neural networks (ANN). etc). 2001 a. OR. For sequence control. Minimal advantage is taken of the high-speed communication network for plant-wide control schemes or supervisory layers. reveals that the constraints of former mechanical and analogue solutions are gone. 1. with programming software allowing these to be tied together to create multilevel control programs. however.Advances in power plant technology 13 by 2020 in March 2002. from intelligent maintenance. from the vast amount of real-time data available only a small proportion is typically used. However.6 References ASME: 'Technology implications for the US of the Kyoto protocol carbon emission goals'. It is also worth noting that electricity consumption is projected to grow by 75 per cent relative to 1999 figures (DOE. the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) postulated a 'coal intensive' scenario with renewables contributing 65 per cent of the primary energy by 2100 (IPCC. These new technologies are embracing all aspects of power plant operation. Worldwide. the DCS provides an abundance of logical function blocks (AND. productivity management. fault diagnostics.

S. Ohio. pp. December 2001b DOE: 'International energy outlook 2002'.recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Board of VGB PowerTech e. US Department of Energy. G. intergovemmental panel on climate change.1658) VGB: 'Research for a sustainable energy supply .: 'Supercritical (once through) boiler technology' (Babcock & Wilcox. June 2001. Barberton. Computing and Control Engineering Journal. 3-5 LAUSTERER. Autumn 2001. US Department of Energy.14 Thermalpower plant simulation and control DOE: 'Environmental benefits of clean coal technologies'. S. US 1998. 63-67 SMITH.V. Foster Wheeler Review. pp.: 'Knowledge-based power plant management .'.A. March 2002 DTI: 'Innovative supercritical boilers for near-term global markets'.the impact of deregulation on it solutions'. 11-14 HUNT. J. climate change 1995: impacts. April 2001. US Department of Energy. 1997) IPCC: 'Working group II to the second assessment report. G. United Kingdom.K. Topical Report Number 18. lEE Control.A. Energy Information Administration. Pub. 1996) LAMOUREUX. 1-8 OLUWANDE. July 2001 . pp.: 'Efficient power operational flexibility: The once-through supercritical boiler'. G. London.: 'Evolution of electric utility restructuring in the UK'. pp. adaptations and mitigation of climate change' (Cambridge University Press. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation.W. September 2000.: 'Competition and choice in electricity' (John Wiley. September 2000 GOIDICH. Department of Trade and Industry. Topical Report Number 17. Proceedings of lEE Control 2000 Conference. Cambridge UK. BR. and SHUTTLEWORTH. 1EEE Power Engineering Review. M.: 'Exploitation of advanced control techniques in power generation'. Chichester. URN 00/1138. April 2001a DOE: 'Software systems in clean coal demonstration projects'.

Part 1 Modelling and simulation .

with evidence given to variables and parameters corresponding to well-defined measurements or physical entities. even for large process variations. not used for system identification but for model validation.Chapter 2 Modelling of power plants A. With reference to the survey papers of Carpanzano et al. Since power plant dynamics operate on a range of time scales. in the range of a few tenths up to a few thousands of a second. i. generally. The models here are referred to as dynamic. they are able to predict transient responses. we shall limit the scope of this chapter to power plants based on the firing of a fossil fuel. For simulation models representing an entire power plant or a large subsystem. Finally. SIMCON-X. i. Maffezzoni 2. This specification naturally leads to a model structuring approach based on the representation of plant components and of their interconnections. (1970). depending on the purpose for which the model is intended.e. Lausterer et al. it is quite common to seek model accuracy over an intermediate time-scale..e. Here.b). . we shall restrict the presentation to the case (most interesting for engineering) where the model is built to allow system simulation over a rather wide range of operation (non-linear model) and is based on first principles and design data. (1976). dating back to the pioneering work of Chien et al. which may also include some model tuning. This will be the implicit assumption in the description of the basic models. Possible experimental data are. There is a long track record of research and engineering effort in this area. passes through the earlier engineering-oriented works of Caseau et al.1 Introduction Modelling power plant processes may be approached from different points of view. Modular Modelling System (1983). Leva and C. (1958). and leads to presently available simulation codes (APROS. conventional thermal and gas turbine plant. 1994a. Maffezzoni et al. Cori et al. it is advisable to focus on the use of a dynamic model over a defined horizon. (1984). ProTRAX. Weber et al. 1989. possibly equipped with heat recovery boilers. (1984). that is.

At present there are well-assessed methods to treat lumped parameter components (LPC) while.2 Classification of plant components and of physical ports From the point of view of model structuring. 1999). 1998). the principal subsystems are the steam generator . 1991. which are quite important in power plant modelling. 1998. there are no unified solutions to describe distributed parameter components (DPC). Elmqvist et al.modelica.. gPROMS. according to the approach proposed by Aime and Maffezzoni (2000). the task of defining a realistic model of the plant distributed control system (DCS) is investigated. 2. 2. a recent international effort to define a standard modelling language. some remarks about the application of dynamic decoupling and methods of model validation are then reported.2. Elmqvist et al. which appears to be most effective in dealing with real-size engineering problems and in sharing modelling knowledge among diverse users. 1999) and software packages (Piela et al. Maffezzoni and Girelli. in the remainder of the chapter we shall adopt the Modelica language as the formalism for writing the described models (whose specification manual is available at www. 1993. among which a fundamental role is certainly played by the following: • The definition of physical ports (also referred to as terminals) as the standard interface to connect a certain component model. The approach is based on a number of paradigms. for example heat exchangers. then a review is presented of basic models for typical power plant components.2. Subsequently. in order to reproduce the structure of the physical system.. • • State of the art OOM is well represented by the development of the Modelica project (1999). the objective here is to review the important knowledge (concerning both methods and applications) accumulated along that track and to transfer it to the unifying framework of object-oriented modelling. abstraction and unconditional connection. As such. In the case of a classical Rankine-cycle unit.. on the contrary. 1992. So.2 Model structuring by the object-oriented approach 2. it is convenient to look at the typical layout of a fossil-fired power plant (Maffezzoni and Kwatny.org) with the minimum extension required to cope with DPC's. The mutual independence of the model interface (the physical ports) and its internal description.1 Foreword Object-oriented modelling (OOM) is a widely accepted technique which has already produced both modelling languages (Mattsson and Andersson. The definition of models in a non-causal form permitting reuse. the chapter is organised as follows: first the basic concepts of object-oriented modelling are introduced with reference to the typical structures met in thermal power plant.18 Thermal power plant simulation and control (1999) and Maffezzoni (1992).

Here. To define the structure of an OSC it is convenient to introduce a physical port through which a component may interact with another. hence we shall refer to types like Quality. MassFlowRate and Enthalpy. We do not report their definitions because of space limitations and because they can be immediately deduced from those given.1 Boiler components The boiler is the most complex subsystem. For instance. "MassFlowRate". MassFlowRate = Real(quantity = Real(q~antity = Real (quantity = = = "Pressure".fl) and LEGO (Coil et al. while there are components. This is illustrated in the previous script by defining Pressure. and DYMOLA (www. lb. Structuring by modules is. valves. Modelling power units by aggregating component models is very convenient because it reflects the physical plant layout and enhances reuse of modelling software. and so forth.e. OSC) like pumps. the condensed water cycle and the electrical subsystem. namely heat exchangers..dynasim.2.2. 2. the thermohydraulic terminal (THT). displayUnit displayUnit = = "Pa". which is specified through the following Modelica script: type type type Pressure MassFlowRate Enthalpy THT Pressure flow Enthalpy p. i. Throughout this work we shall assume that all the required types are defined in this way. while defining small modules implies a larger reuse when the plant structure changes. the process scheme of Figure 2. a matter of choice: defining large modules implies a simpler aggregation structure. being devoted to heat transfer from the combustion gas to water and steam. then considering the nature of the process transformations that they implement. AngularVelocity. unit = = "kg/s"). etc.1 a suggests the model structure of Figure 2.. Note also that Modelica has an extensive library of predefined types. = "J/kg".vtt. TSC). displayUnit connector end THT . and it can be split into a pair of interacting circuits: the water-steam circuit and the air-gas circuit. so in the following the electrical subsystem will be drastically simplified by considering only the electromechanical balance of the alternator.Modelling of power plants 19 (or boiler). The connection between the pump THT Out (outlet) and the valve THT In (inlet) means that the pressure and enthalpy at the pump outlet coincide with the pressure . There are components which take part in one circuit only (one-side components. widely used for power plant simulators. to a certain extent. The structure of the power station's electrical subsystem is not relevant to the principal characteristics of a power unit. appropriate for implementing an object-oriented approach to physical system modelling. "J/kg" ) . h. Plant components may be classified first by looking at the subsystem they belong to. headers. unit = "Pa"). which take part in both circuits (two-side components. "Enthalpy".se). the 'size' of basic modules is chosen according to the best practice employed in engineering dynamic simulators: this choice is compatible with packages like APROS (www. the steam turbine. The Modelica language (like many others) allows type definitions to enhance the clarity of the simulation code. w. 1989). unit "kg/s".

2 could be structured according to the very general approach proposed by Aime and Maffezzoni (2000). is TSC structuring. Pressure and enthalpy are effort variables while mass flow rate is a flow variable. More pragmatically.2 Typical heat exchanger configuration and enthalpy at the valve inlet. Considerably more complex however.1 is as follows: c o n n e c t (PUMP.20 Thermal power plant simulation and control a< Figure 2. PUMP and VALVE are instances of suitable elementary models stored in some library. where gas flowing through the boiler back-pass exchanges heat with the principal bank (A) disposed in cross-flow and with an enclosure panel (B) disposed in long-flow. where. The Modelica script stating the aggregation of Figure 2. the variation in heat transfer configurations of boiler tubular heat exchangers. Out. In) . The THT can be used both for OSCs belonging to the steamwater circuit and to the air-gas circuit. where spatially distributed heat transfer configurations are introduced. in a modular way. of course. The interaction between a couple of neighbouring OSCs can always be modelled by the direct connection of two THTs.1 Simple process scheme and its model structure °t u Gas Figure 2. one can exploit two common properties of boiler heat exchangers: • Gas flows have negligible storage with respect to metal wall and steam-water flows. respectively. . because in this case we need to model. while the mass flow rates at the pump outlet and valve inlet sum to zero.2. A typical situation is depicted in Figure 2. The model of a complex heat exchanging system like that of Figure 2. V A L V E .

This requires the introduction of a specific port that extends the THT to permit transfer of heat independent of mass flow.3 Modular structure for heat exchanging system • The gas ducts may be split into a cascade of gas zones. t) and ~0(x. in simulation code.Modelling of power plants 21 Figure 2.3. we may have transfer of energy by convection (expressed by the group wh). The model structure corresponding to the situation of Figure 2. respectively. where the gas temperature can be assumed to be almost uniform or linearly varying. A typical finite-element discretisation of Tw(x. it has been assumed that the transfer of energy from one gas zone to the adjacent one is solely due to mass transfer. however. There are. t) replaces such functions with their interpolating approximations obtained from two vectors of nodal temperatures and fluxes. Zone splitting is guided by the structure of the tube bank: typically a gas zone extends to include one row or a few rows of tubes. t) and ~0(x.3. radiation and/or diffusion. as implicitly established by the connection of two THTs. Tw(x. which consists of the bank walls' temperature profile Tw(x. In Figure 2. Thus. Tw(x. high-temperature gas volumes (either in the furnace or in other parts of the back-pass) where radiation heat transfer from one gas zone to those adjacent is not negligible. The connection between a bank and a gas zone takes place through a distributed heat transfer terminal (dHT). t) and the heat flux profile ~0(x. t) released to the wall.2 is sketched in Figure 2. t) and qg(x. t) are functions of time t and of the banks' tube abscissa x. denoted in the following by Tw (t) and • (t). In principle. mechanical work is already included in the product wh. t) are represented by two vectors of suitable dimensions. at a boundary surface between two fluid volumes. We may call this physical .

T r Gas wall interaction [aHT] Furnacewall tubes Figure 2. e n d dHT. For instance. the radiation temperature of the gas zone. flow HeatFlow Qw. which will consist of the following variables: • • the mass flow-rate w. f l o w HeatFlow Q.1 Zones interaction Furnace ~ zone i Zones ~ interaction Furnace zone i +1 I I . c o n n e c t o r HT Temperature Tr. e n d HT.g.4. Temperature tempProfile[vectorSize] flow HeatFlux heatFluxProfile[vectorSize] . where the heat transfer terminal (HT) consists of the following two variables: • • Qw. Temperature Tr. the heat rate to the furnace wall Tr. Terminals dHT. the radiation temperature Tr (e. pressure p and heat rate Q at the interface between the gas volumes. c o n n e c t o r THHT extends THT. THHT and HT are defined in the Modelica language as follows: connector parameter dHT Integer vectorSize=l. can be structured as shown in Figure 2. e n d THHT. the flame temperature) of the lumped gas volume.22 Thermal power plant simulation and control Furnace ~ zone i. enthalpy h. where there are neither burners nor secondary air inputs. a model of the furnace zone. . .4 Interactions between furnace zones and walls I port the thermo-hydraulic and heat transfer terminal (THHT).

etc.2 Steam turbine components For the purpose of power plant simulation.Modelling of power plants 23 Note the distinction between He a t F l u x ( W / m 2) and He a t F 1 ow (W).3 is a particular case of that depicted in Figure 2. directly incorporated in the gas zone. When accurate modelling is required.2. Model . turbines are generally modelled as lumped parameters.g. it is usual to split a turbine into a number of cascaded sections. and of more complex heat exchangers and/or storage tanks.3 Condensate cycle components The condensate cycle is composed simple compact components like valves. The extension of a section is typically dictated by some physical discontinuity along the steam expansion. which allows us to define a model or a connector by adding elements to a previously defined one.5) QL = K(T 4 . the gas-wall interaction is summarised by a heat transfer coefficient.3 the interaction between two adjacent zones is very simple (there is no heat transfer besides convection) so that zone interaction becomes trivial and is omitted. 2.2.hR = 0 QL + QR = 0 (2.PR = 0 hL -. such as the presence of steam extraction or a change in the stage design (e. Such clauses are available in any object-oriented modelling language.4) (2.2. AngularSpeed flow Torque end MT . while a mechanical terminal (MT) is needed to represent the power transfer to the shaft. a section being in turn composed of a number of cascaded stages. Interaction between a turbine section and other components at its boundary may simply be modelled by THTs as shown in Figure 2.1) (2.2) (2. The MT consists of the two variables w (angular speed) and r (torque).4: in Figure 2. headers. These scripts employ the Modelica e x t e n d s clause. To fully understand the role of the model ZONES INTERACTION. It should be noted that the situation of Figure 2. when passing from impulse to reaction stages). The MT is represented in Modelica as follows: connector MT omega . The same approach can be used for gas turbines.3) (2. tau. where the situation is even simpler because there are no present physical discontinuities. pumps. we provide here a possible implementation: WL + WR = 0 PL -.T4) where the subscripts 'L' and 'R' denote variables belonging to the left and fight terminals.5.2. 2. respectively. and K is the radiative heat transfer coefficient.

TI I i Model structuring example for the condensate cycle structuring is quite obvious for the former components. whereas non-trivial questions arise for complex heat exchangers such as the condenser. In this case. Since the internal structure of the condensate heat exchangers is quite complex while the design of such large components is highly repetitive. and low-pressure and high-pressure heaters. it is advisable to follow the latter approach. .5 Interactions between turbine sections and boundary components Low pressure I turbine I _ I C°°ling ~ water discharge piping I THT ' ~ Condenser ~ ~ I C°°ling water pump _ Extraction pump Figure 2. An example of structuring is given in Figure 2.6 I T. There are two possible approaches: to build the heat exchanger model as the aggregate of simpler objects or to directly define the heat exchanger as an elementary (indivisible) component. deaerator.24 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Steam extraction I I Turbine Turbine section IH[~HI section [ H [ ~ I I Header Turbine section ] Turbine section ~-----~--] I _ Shaft I IMTI- Alternator Figure 2. physical ports between cycle components are still THTs.6.

3 Aggregation of submodels Reuse of models for different case studies is enhanced by modularity. 2. it is common practice to repeat plant or subsystem designs from one power unit to another.2. structuring of elementary models as non-causal systems and standardisation of physical ports (or terminals). This is discussed in the next section. For instance.Modelling of power plants 25 I Fuel storage I ] THT I Valve position T~Exhaust header ]~ Fuel valve I ~ Atmosphere ~ 1 Compressor I MT I I THT 1 ~ Combustion chamber Shat~ Gas turbine I MT I I Figure 2. which may result from aggregation of a block scheme like that of Figure 2.7. Reusing an aggregate model implies that the model structure and model equations are not accessible to the user (they cannot be changed when using the aggregate).8. The essential components are: • • • the gas turbine the compressor the combustion chamber. where ICT denotes an input control terminal. a non-trivial task. however. Of course. by aggregating model objects internal physical terminals disappear (they saturate with one another) so that the global model of the economiser (including its enclosure) may look as in Figure 2. we may store in a library the model of an economiser. that is a control port where a command signal is issued. However. what are specific to a given instance of the aggregate model are the model .7 2.2. especially because it is often very important not only to predict power release of the turboalternator but also concentration of pollutants to the atmosphere. Model structuring is generally simple.4 Model with an input control terminal Gas turbine components Gas turbines have become increasingly important in power generation.2.3. as sketched in Figure 2. because of the outstanding efficiency achievable by combined cycle plants. Internal modelling of basic components is.

equation end SIMPLEMODEL. When an aggregate model AGGREGATEMODEL is obtained by composing two or more simple models (S IMPLEMODEL1. it can be defined by a Modelica script of the form: model A G G R E G A T E M O D E L SIMPLEMODEL SIMPLEMODELI SIMPLEMODEL SIMPLEMODEL2 end AGGREGATEMODEL..connectorName.SIMPLEMODEL2. 1998. ConnectorType connectorName. connect(SIMPLEMODELl.8 Aggregation of model objects (economiser) parameters which must be transferred from the internal submodels to the resulting aggregate. some quantities may be evaluated by referring to functions . alternative sets of DAEs that describe the system dynamics under different conditions. It is worth noting that the section equation in the format of the simple model is generally constituted by switching differential-algebraic equations (DAEs). 2. (Maffezzoni and Girelli. both for the DAEs and the logical conditions.26 Thermal power plant simulation and control Connectionto enclosuretubes Connectionto gas circuit Connectionto high-pressure condensatecircuit ~T ~ Connectionto enclosuretubes Connection to gas circuit Connection to steam drum Economiser ~T HT Figure 2. 1999). (paramName=paramValue2).2.e. (paramName=paramValuel). S I MPLEMODEL2 in the example).connectorName). i. VariableType variableName.4 Internal model description The typical internal structure of a simple (non-aggregate) model using the Modelica language may be as follows: model SIMPLEMODEL parameter ParamType paramName. Moreover. Maffezzoni etal.

1 Steam properties The large majority of models considered in this chapter require that various thermodynamic properties are evaluated starting from a couple of state variables. the s t e a m . These formulas. where p is the pressure. typically (p. although in the examples presented herein its value . entropy. when required. however. based on (very complex) empirical formulas (Properties of Water and Steam. T). 1989). cannot be used for modelling in their current form. In the case of the full tables these are the (p. being non-linear. conductivity and thermodynamic partial derivatives (in particular specific heats at constant pressure Cp and constant volume Cv) or line derivatives along the saturation curve. like enthalpy.3. the sole practical approach is to build a suitable grid in the thermodynamic plane. Water-steam properties can be computed using steam tables. (p. pressure and density are needed. S) or (p. Within the object-oriented modelling environment. Moreover. The steam tables are implemented as a set of functions receiving two parameters. So. Therefore. T) couple. S entropy and T temperature. This can be a boolean parameter. it is generally required that one or more properties be evaluated from at least three different couples of entry variables. including look-up tables.3.Modelling of power plants 27 of one or more variables. because entry variables are not those needed. so as to allow smooth and accurate approximation over the whole plane. depending on the application. Then. from which the required derivatives can be obtained by symbolic manipulation. not only standard thermodynamic quantities.1. In this work the first option has been chosen.1 The evaluation of steam and other fluid physical properties 2. for dynamic modelling.) 2. S) and (p. It is quite common that the computation of a global power plant model requires many thousands of steam property evaluations at each time step. formulas are very complex and. h enthalpy. Finally. h). 1997). the 'model of the steam-water fluid' is constituted by large look-up tables with the required entry variables. but also viscosity.t a b l e s may be treated either as a set of functions or as a simple model to be incorporated by any component model. All these constructs are compatible with the Modelica language (and with several other modelling formats. they should be used in a Newton-like algorithm to determine even a single property.3 Basic component models 2. with a convenient number and disposition of nodes with respect to the saturation curve. (p. an efficient and accurate treatment of water-steam properties is crucial for power plant simulation. h). in the saturation tables these are the pressure and a two-valued parameter stating whether the liquid or vapour properties are required. yielding either a single property or a vector of properties. Partial differential equations may be treated by finite element or finite difference approximations written as implicit matrix equations (Quarteroni and Valli.

then one can evaluate the gas properties as if the composition was equal to a constant (nominal) value. respectively. the partial derivative of the steam density with respect to pressure at pressure p and entropy S.2. the corresponding vector of entropies is returned. the 'state' required to determine any property of a gaseous mixture comprises the gas composition. For simplicity it will be assumed that all these functions are overloaded for vector treatment. Several functions like these are used in the equations of the models that will be introduced from now on. which can be coded in the functions themselves or as a global variable. accounting also for the chemical kinetics. interacting with the external fluid (gas).1 Heat exchanger segment This describes the dynamics of the fluid flowing into a tube bundle and of the metal wall.2 The boiler's water-steam circuit 2. h) SteamPStablesDdensityDpressure (p. the classical way to build such a model is by the equations of mass. at least in the equilibrium state. so that for example if in the first of the previously mentioned functions the 13 argument is a scalar while h is a vector. For example. and the syntax should be self-explanatory.28 Thermal power plant simulation and control is represented by the strings l i q u i d and v a p o u r for better clarity. 2. Accurate modelling of gas dynamics would require balance equations for the different species involved. for air and flue gases this work adopts the same solution as for steam: two sets of functions similar to those presented are used. This is not difficult to implement in modern programming languages.3. provided a suitable 'nominal' composition is employed. 2. The same simplification can be used for the air.2 Air and flue gas properties Similar to the steam case. as well as some thermodynamic variables like the mixture pressure and temperature. "liquid" ) return the steam entropy at pressure p and enthalpy h. energy and momentum for the fluid . specific heat. from the state variables. when the combustion gas composition undergoes such limited variation so as not to affect the relationships among the relevant thermodynamic properties significantly. etc. leaving only a couple of thermodynamic variables as arguments.3. S ) SteamSATtablesDensity (p. the functions SteamPHtablesEnt ropy (p. There is one function for each property and for each input couple. density. However. As a result. As is known.1.3. The Gas and A i r functions employ two different nominal compositions. In this case. it is also necessary to evaluate various properties of air or flue gas including enthalpy. "vapour" ) SteamSATtablesDenthalpyDpressure (p. the gas functions depend on two state variables only. For one-phase flow. where the function names' prefix is G a s or A i r in lieu of S t e a m and the rest of the syntax is the same. and/or the accuracy required for the model is not very high. the saturated vapour density at pressure p and the derivative of the saturated liquid enthalpy with respect to pressure computed along the saturation curve at pressure p.

as normal.11) (2. in equations (2. the density and specific heat capacity. integrating equations (2. Ai the tube (bundle) internal cross-section.po(t). enthalpy and mass-flow rate of the fluid (depending on the tube abscissa x. in the momentum equation.: / / ) i .6) and (2.Ai~---Pt+ W~x = witPi A Oh Oh (2. 0 _< x <_ L.t o O d t (2. 0 < x < L. the effects of inertia and of kinetic energy variation along x have been neglected. it is convenient to build the model with the following approximations: • The pressure p(x. ~ i P where (8p/Oh)p and (Op/Op)h denote the partial derivatives of p with respect to the thermodynamic state variables h and p.Tw) (2. t) :--. p. t) and Vi is the heat transfer coefficient for turbulent internal flow (Incropera and Witt. g the acceleration due to gravity. 0 < x _< L.e. Assuming turbulent flow in the tubes. t) can be considered 'nearly constant' along x.6)-(2.10) where T is the fluid temperature at (x.8) with respect to x. we obtain: Ai -~ p "~dx-'l-ai ~P h dx ..~ . Tw is the wall (mean) metal temperature. 1985). a suitable correlation for evaluating ~0i is needed.7) and (2. Pw and Cw the metal cross-sectional area. ~oi the heat flux from the metal wall to the fluid. h. • Then.7) (2. We the total external perimeter. i.Pi) + Aig fOL P-~x dx + -~--. t) := wi(t). t) can be considered 'nearly constant' along x. w(x. Note that. pressure.8) (2. To complete the model.to(O. and on the time t).8). ~Pethe heat flux from the external gas to the wall.e. ~oi is usually expressed as: qgi = yi(T . for the sake of the evaluation of p and Op/Ot in equations (2. Since the pressure drop and mass storage in a heat exchanger tube have definitely faster dynamics with respect to thermal energy storage. and Aw. .8).O)i~0i where p. w are the density.--Twwilwil fo L -1 dx = 0 dz Cf (oi ZA. t) ~.p(L. The mass flow-rate w(x.12) Ai(Po . o)i the corresponding total perimeter. t) ~.Modelling of power plants stream and the energy equation for the metal wall: ai~ 29 Ow + ~x = 0 (2. i. z the tube height. p(x.9) dz Cf wlwl ai ~x -'l-p Aig-~x + -~ooi--~i = O AwpwCw ~ 0Zw ----OgetPe -.6) P i . Cf a frictional coefficient.

the vector equations are affected only by the input and output structure. but even despite this. h(. G. respectively.. . Equation (2. t) are the enthalpy profile and its derivative on the whole domain 0 < x < L. As such. while the state variables (vector H ) remain the same and cannot undergo change. on the fluid properties and on the specific finite element method chosen (applied to the interpolating functions otj and on the weighting functions used for computing the residual over the whole domain 0 < x < L). hz(t) . one obtains a couple of N-vector equations to be used for the computation of the fluid and metal temperature profiles. The position of this element depends on the sign of the flow rate. Details are omitted for brevity and can be found in Lunardi (1999).wi(t) . K and vectors V.9). the matrix E and vector M enforce the boundary condition on the side where the fluid enters the heat-exchanger segment (with enthalpy hiN). 1997). Assuming a positive direction flow that from the 'i' terminal to the 'o' terminal.Tw) + C ~ e where T and Tw are the fluid and metal nodal temperature vectors. t). t) ~ ha(x. Applying the finite element approximation with a Petrov-Galerkin type method (Morton and Parrot. and indicating by m and e the non-zero .t (.. in turn. h(.7) and (2. Moreover. h(. 1997). they have only one non-zero element.14) where ~p and ~ are suitable functions and k = (LCfogi)/(2A~). C.Pi + g L ~ ( p o . Quarteroni and Valli. h(.Wo(t) + F(po(t). such equations take the form AI-I + w i B H + E H : A dp° V . for example the finite element approximation N h(x.12). B. t)) dt (2. and the matrices A..11).. ~ and fi become functions of the nodal enthalpy vector H ( t ) = [hl (t). if weak boundary conditions are imposed (Quarteroni and Valli. . 1980.. but it is important to note that weak boundary conditions do not constrain the first and last element of H to equal the terminal enthalpies. can be written as: Po .D T + D T w + MhIN dt K T w : G ( T . ~e is the nodal external heat flux vector. while h(.30 Thermal power plant simulation and control Equation (2. M depend on dimensional data. t)) + kwilwilO(po. t) and/. to equations (2. F. . If any spatial approximation of the enthalpy profile is assumed. t)) dp°(t) . . t)) = 0 (2.1 1) can be written as: O(po(t). Cf obtained from suitable correlations. D. E. t) := Z j=l hj(t)otj(x) then 69. h(. In the most general case. hu(t)]' and of its derivative i-/(t).13) where the functions 69 and F correspond to the second and first integral of (2...

a heat-exchanger segment uses a coarse approximation for the pressure and flow-rate profiles along the tube (one node for each segment) and a more accurate approximation for the enthalpy/temperature profiles. Cf.Outlet. .omegai.. hi.N] .p. . g.N] . gammai.C[N. Ai. M=[m 0 . A[N. 0]'. This really corresponds to the nature of the process dynamics.M[N] .m.Aw.heatFluxProfile. . cw.h.3). 0). pi. Phie[N]. = Inlet.p. = Outlet.tempProfile.po. = Wall. row. this model can be implemented seamlessly in any language assuming a conditional equation construct like the i f clause in Modelica. .T w [N] . . The external flux vector ~ e is one of the variables included in the dHT (Figure 2. wi.B [N. = L*Cf*omegai/(2*Ai^3).K[N. where hydraulic phenomena in heat exchangers are characterised by a much simpler spatial distribution with respect to thermal phenomena.h.D [N. equation Expression ofvec~rsand matricesdependingontheFE me~odchosen(Lunardi.H[N]. . .G [N. . Hence. E IN. N=I. 1999). e). heightProfile[N]. 0 . It is also worth noting that.N] .ho. ho = H ( 1 ) . E = d i a g ( 0 .N] .Modelling of power plants elements of M and E. while if w < 0 hlN=ho. (vectorSize=N). TW Phie pi wi hi k = Wall.N] .hIN.e. of the wall temperature is naturally incorporated in the model of the gas zone corresponding to the heat-exchanger segment. with the adopted approach. k.w..N] . E = d i a g ( e . 0.w. L.. T [N] . a convenient correlation as a function of the external gas properties and.N].wo. = Inlet. po wo ho = Outlet. this means that ifw >0 hlN=hi. . = Inlet. = -Outlet. M=[0 . possibly. Pressure MassFlowRate Enthalpy Temperature HeatFlux Real Real SpecificVolume V[N]. h o = H ( N ) 31 m]'. A possible Modelica formulation of the model is given by the following script: model H e a t E x c h a n g e r S e g m e n t parameter Length parameter Area parameter Density parameter SpecificHeat parameter HeatXferCoeff parameter FrictionCoeff parameter Integer parameter Length parameter Acceleration dHT THT Wall Inlet.omegae..

gPROMS. called a fully homogeneous model. FunTheta po-pi+g*L*FunPsi(po. where the slip s or the drift velocity VD are given by suitable correlations (Collier. 1981).H. d e r (H)) . In the heat-exchanger segment script.13) and (2. In such cases it is possible to define a variable over one or more continuous spatial coordinates (in gPROMS this is termed a d i s t r i b u t ion domain) and write equations in their partial differential form (using constructs like the partial clause in gPROMS). FunGamma and F u n V t i l d e implement 0 . = m M[N! = 0 . H.heightProfile) A*der if else (H) + w i * B * H + E * H then hIN= M[I] hIN= ho.6)-(2. this value can then be changed when instantiating the model. computed from empirical correlations. ho = H[N]. E[I. Empirical correlations are available for typical conditions. 1998a. a flow model where the vapour and liquid phase velocities may be different but related by a static factor depending on the fluid conditions. In steam generation. the choice of spatial discretisation is made by the user separately from the model. = e. two possible models are applicable to power plant simulation: (a) (b) a flow model where the vapour and liquid phase velocities vv and VLare assumed identical (vv = vL). this model is also called a slip model (vL = svv) or drift model (rE = vv . In these languages. = A*der hi. F and as defined in (2. = M[I] O.g. but the variety of . it is very important to work with two-phase flow heat transfer. In the presented script the heat transfer coefficient )4 has been considered a parameter. = m.N] = e . Accurate modelling may require that it be considered as a variable. which are available in the model. since the data needed for calling these functions are the fluid properties and some geometrical data.32 Thermalpower plant simulation and control (po. . H) * d e r (po) = wi-wo+FunGamma (po.9). A non-trivial aspect of two-phase flow is the evaluation of heat transfer through the boundary layer (Collier. wi>0 end i f . The models presented herein could be implemented in such languages by convenient redefinition of the distributed terminals. E[N.14). because heat transfer is heavily affected by the flow regime.b) provide native support for partial differential equations. + k*wi*abs(wi)*FunVtilde(po. h = 0 . with suitable definition of the density and enthalpy of the two-phase mixture. E[I. the parameter N determines the length of the vectors used for spatial discretisation. For high-pressure evaporations model (a) is often acceptable: in this case the twophase flow representation takes the same form as system (2. . K*der(Tw) = G*(T-Tw)+C*Phie. These can be implemented as functions if required.I] E[N. end H e a t E x c h a n g e r S e g m e n t Note that the parameters used for the vector expansion (like N in this case) must be assigned a (default) value in the prototype models.D * T + D * T w + M * h I N .VD). while h e i g h t P r o f i 1 e is passed to the F u n P s i function implementing 7t as defined in (2.I] = 0. 1981).H) = 0. For completeness it must be said that some modelling languages (e. Moreover.N] = H[I].14) and represents the tube height profile. because the evaporator is often the core of the power generation. In the forced convection regime (which is generally applicable to boiler evaporators). F u n T h e t a . M[N] (po) * V .

1999).2.is so large as to assume.9 Steam drum component . 0Tw dTsat dp Ot dp dt where Tsat(p) is the saturation temperature of the fluid depending on the pressure p. in this case the evaluation of Yi is not necessary. A typical steam drum is equipped with the following fluid inlets and outlets (Figure 2.w~).9) that. that the heat flux to the wall is negligible and that each phase is well stirred. 2. This allows the elimination of Tw and of the corresponding equation. it is often acceptable that the heat transfer coefficient . with a steam quality of Xr. The mixture flow Wr coming from the risers. For boiler dynamic modelling. As the flow rates coming from the risers and from the feedwater are considerable. With this assumption of perfect phase segregation and the further approximations that the pressure is uniform.to be used in equation (2. separates t into a nearly saturated steam flow w v (with steam quality x~) and a saturated water flow (Wr .9): • • • • feedwater inlet wf (usually subcooled liquid) two-phase mixture inlet Wr (coming from the risers) (nearly) saturated steam outlet Wv slightly subcooled water outlet wd (to downcomer tubes). in equation (2. the model equations wf Figure 2.10) .3. the deaerator)..Modelling of power plants 33 situations is very large.2 Steam drum A model of the steam drum is useful for circulation boilers but is also applicable to other components where the vapour and the liquid phase interact within a large volume (for instance. interaction between the two phases at the separation surface turns out to have a negligible effect (Leva et al. Of course.

hi. wd = .19) dM~ dt dEl dt = (Wr .hvprime. Quality xvprime. it is quite difficult to correlate its value to the drum conditions (e.DowncomersOutlet. Of course.Vv) is the liquid mass (V is the total volume of the drum and Pi the liquid density). E1 = ( V . hv.19) represent the steam separation (x~ is a parameter).p .hl. unfortunately. hv = S t e a m O u t l e t . wr = RisersInlet. A possible Modelica script for the drum model is as follows: model S t e a m D r u m parameter parameter THT THT Volume v.0 according to the design specification. ' so setting x v at its nominal value is generally an appropriate choice.97-1. hvs.D o w n c o m e r s O u t l e t .Wtv) + w¢ . Ml = p l ( V .SteamOutlet.Wd W'v)hls + wfhf (Wr Wdhl where Mv = Pv Vv is the steam mass (Pv and Vv are the steam density and volume). The parameter X~vcharacterises the separation efficiency and should be given a value in the interval 0. . w . Equations (2.rov. the unit load). equation wf = F e e d W a t e r I n l e t . his are computed using steam tables with entries p and hv or hi.wv .p (hr-hls)/(hvs-hls). The model has four state variables: p.16) dMv . Pv.34 Thermal power plant simulation and control can be written as follows: . Volume Vl.p.17) (2. hr = RisersInlet. Energy EI. SteamOutlet.w. = = DowncomersOutlet. E v = V v ( p v h v . Mass MI.wd. rols. p p = FeedWaterInlet.V v ) ( p l h l . dt -.15)-(2. hd = DewncomersOutlet. mass conservation in the liquid volume and energy conservation in the liquid volume. 1999) show that steam wetness may have a non-negligible effect on the superheated steam temperature. h . FeedWaterInlet. h~v = hvs . wv = -SteamOutlet. Enthalpy hf.Wv dEv = wvh v ! l dt wvhv (2. xr = wvprime wr*xr/xvprime.hls.15) (2.hr.(1 -XPv) (hvs . p = = RisersInlet. w .wvprime.h . RisersInlet.rovs.h. energy conservation in the steam volume.wv.hvs.w. Quality xr.Vv. MassFlowRate wf. hf = F e e d W a t e r I n l e t . p . mass conservation in the steam volume.wr.g.Ev. Vv. Pl. Experiments (Leva e t a l .p ) is the total steam energy (hv is the steam enthalpy and p the pressure in the cavity).hd.hv.Mv. Xr tOv =tOr-57 Xv (2.18) (2. Density rol. . Pressure p. h .p.his) is the enthalpy of W'v (hvs and his are the saturation vapour and liquid enthalpies).p ) is the total liquid energy (hi is the liquid enthalpy) and ht is the feedwater enthalpy.

hi. This measure can also be combined with the representation of a typical device which prevents the valve from undergoing reverse flow. der(Ev) der(El) M1 = wvprime*hvprime-wv*hv. so that their application to the flow equations is affected by the following limits: • • prediction may be a little conservative in general and even crude in those conditions where the valve should not operate (e. Its model will therefore be expressed by algebraic equations. cavitation) flow prediction at partial valve opening may not be very accurate. 1971)."vapour"). for which storage of any quantity can be neglected. = SteamSATtablesEnthalpy(p. The flow equation (2.10 Control valve component .. = SteamPHtablesDensity(p.g.21) can be written according to a recommended intemational standard. Ev = Vv*(rov*hv-p).hl). Po. = SteamSATtablesEnthalpy(p. except for those cases where specific experimental data are available. derived from sizing formulas. However.vapour. it is necessary to modify the equation to extend its applicability down to w --+ 0. = Vv+Vl.2. though for very small values of w the accuracy is not important. For simulation.hv). rol rols hls = SteamPHtablesDensity(p. y) where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies.Modelling of power plants der(Mv) der(Ml) Mv V rov rovs= hvs end = wvprime-wv.3 Control valve A control valve (see Figure 2. w the mass-flow rate and y the valve stroke."liquid"). Systems and Automation Society (ISA Handbook of Control Valves.20) (2."liquid"). = SteamSATtablesDensity(p. = (wr-wvprlme)*hls+wf*hf-wd*hl. The modification of the flow equation Pi hi ~ w P o ho Figure 2. Since the flow equation (2.21) w = f(Pi. = (wr-wvprime)+wf-wd. Pi and Po the upstream and downstream pressures.10) is a 'small-volume' component. which generally covers all the possible fluid states. hvprime = hvs-(l-xvprime)*(hvs-hls). does not consider this case. 35 = Vv*rov. the robustness of the valve model at low flow rate is very important because it is often necessary to simulate conditions where the valve enters no-flow conditions. 2. which in fact are: ho = hi (2. flow conditions and valve types.21). for instance the Instrumentation. These international standards are conceived to supply formulas applicable for valve sizing. SteamSATtablesDensity(p. SteamDrum. there is no practical alternative to the use of sizing equations.). E1 = Vl*(rol*hl-p).3. = Vl*rol.

h. C v m a x . O u t l e t .. Simplifying assumptions are that the pressure p is uniform. p .23) P qg (3t0)_~ -~dh V (~pp) -~dP ~ = h WiJ -. and m outlet flow rates.Z m Woj (2. equation Inlet. parameter Integer CharID.24) j=l j=l where the notation is analogous to that of the previous models.2. Head losses due to inlet and outlet effects may be incorporated in the model of the upstream and/or wi. 2.. w = -Outlet.0utlet. I n l e t . The model is built by mass and energy conservation for the finite volume V of the header: dh do n p V . Energy storage in the metal body may be relevant. p .T) pwVwcw-dt (2. I n l e t . which are supposed to mix perfectly.3. There are n inlet flow rates.4 Header The typical situation is depicted in Figure 2.w. C h a r I D ) . as is the fluid enthalpy. THT Inlet. where the parameters are the valve Cvmax and the integer identifier CharTD used for selecting the valve characteristics: model C e n t r o l V a l v e p a r a m e t e r Real Cvmax.V ---5-~ = Z dt dt wu(hij -.36 Thermal power plant simulation and control at low w is required to avoid discontinuity of the equation Jacobian when w ~ 0. y .h = Outlet.11 Header component l worn .w = V a l v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c ( I n l e t . wi2 W [] [] [] [] ~//////////////~///////////////A I wol Figure 2. The Modelica script of the control valve may be as follows. Inlet.T) (2. end ControlValve. Real y.22) j=l dTw y S ( T w . h .h) -- + v S ( T w .11.

In this script. p = I n l e t s [i] . hi[i] = I n l e t s [i] . drodh. + gamma*S*(Tw-T). h = O u t l e t s [ i ] . row. + V*drodp*der(p) T = SteamPHtablesTemperature(p.Outlets[m]. With reference to the notation of Figure 2. The Modelica script of the model may be as follows: model H e a d e r parameter Area S.Modelling of power plants 37 downstream tubes.drodp. respectively.h i m i n u s h [n] . ~ hi Figure 2. p. drodh drodp = SteamPHtablesDdensityDenthalpy(p. = .himinush)) = sum(wi)-sum(wo). wi In] . S is the header inner surface and Vw the metal wall volume.p.wo [m] .h. ro. parameter parameter Volume SpecificHeat Density HeatXferCoeff parameter parameter parameter parameter THT MassFlowRate Pressure Density Enthalpy Temperature Real Integer n=l. Equations (2.O u t l e t s [ i ] . himinush[i] = I n l e t s [i] .w. for i in l : m l o o p end for. h.Vw.w.3.2. Inlets[n]. = -gamma*S*(Tw-T). Integer m=l.12 Pumpcomponent Po ho .p.h).5 Pump Storage of mass and energy are negligible and the model is expressed by algebraic equations. = sum(ElementwiseProd(wi. wi [i] = I n l e t s [i] .22)-(2. gamma.h).h).12 the model is formed by the Pij. hi [n] . cw. metal body energy and fluid mass conservation. = SteamPHtablesDdensityDpressure(p. ro*V*der(h)-V*der(p) row*Vw*cw*der(Tw) V*drodh*der(h) wo[i] p = O u t l e t s [ i ] .h).h-h.Tw.h. T. ro = SteamPHtablesDensity(p. equation for i in l : n loop end for. ElementwiseProd is a function requiring two vectors as input and returning a vector formed by their element by element product. 2.24) describe the fluid energy. V. end H e a d e r .

It is also possible to include the total rotor inertia J in the pump model: dl2 rH = rM -. h ) .CharFunID). Inlet. Inlet.38 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control following equations (Dixon. ro.28) where rM is the active motor torque. 1975). I n l e t . .w = -Outlet.Outlet.w.27) are termed the first and second characteristic equations. Shaft. THT MT Torque VolumetricFlowRate Density equation Outlet.p = Inlet. q. 1975. while f l ( ~ . q) and fix(12. q) rH = fii(S-2. because the speed of feedwater pumps is often regulated by an oleodynamic coupling. A Modelica script for the model pump may be as follows (a boolean parameter decides whether the rotor inertia must be included or not and an integer parameter is used for selecting the characteristic functions): model P u m p parameter parameter parameter I n e r t i a J.omega.p+ PumpCharFunI(Shaft.25) (2. q = Inlet. q) (2.%'H -(-2 (2. £2 is the pump shaft speed. assuming that heat losses through the pump body are negligible. Modelling of the pump drive in detail may be complex.dt (2.w/ro. one obtains: w(ho . 1985): Po ----Pi + Pp Pp = f I ( ~ . tauH.26) and (2. Perry and Green.hi) ---. p . A useful approximation can be obtained for centrifugal pumps by assuming a parabolic characteristic equation and introducing suitable dimensionless numbers (Dixon. Boolean IncludeRotInertia. Equations (2.27) where pp is the pump head (Pi and po are the inlet and outlet pressures).26) (2. ro = S t e a m P H t a b l e s D e n s i t y ( I n l e t . A possible simplification can be made when the pump is subject to feedback speed control. Integer CharFunID. To complete the model it may be necessary to include an energy balance for the fluid volume. which is not easy to model. by assuming that the angular speed £2 is nearly equal to its set-point.J .q. q the volumetric flow rate (q = w / p ) and rH is the resistant hydraulic torque applied by the fluid to the shaft. q) are suitable functions derived from the manufacturer's design data. tauH = PumpCharFunII(Shaft'°mega'q'CharFunID) .29) which allows the computation of the outlet enthalpy. The model can be given a more efficient formulation by using dimensionless quantities and/or introducing the pump characteristic angular speed.

33) where Pgi and Pgo are the inlet and outlet pressures. 1992) and accounts both for convection heat transfer and intertube radiation. The gas pressure is not included in the model as it is generally fair to assume that it is atmospheric pressure. . only for certain problems (e.32) where tOg is the gas mass flow rate. Twj (x.tau. In that case. .1 The boiler's air-gas circuit Gas zone The gas zone was introduced in Figure 2.J * d e r ( S h a f t .h-Inlet. .31) ~g = ~rg~ + (1 . the gas zone model may simply be completed by a head-loss equation: Pgi -. O~ej the total perimeter of the j-th tube bundle.Pgo = k w~ Pg (2. o m e g a ) . . while Tgi and Tgo are the gas inlet and outlet temperatures.3 2. I"g is the 'average' gas temperature in the zone.h) = tauH*Shaft. else tauH = Shaft.hgo) = j=l O)ejd~ej dx (2.w*(Outlet. 39 2.g. x) is the heat flux from the gas to the j-th tube bundle at its abscissa x.3. t) is the j-th wall temperature and Yej is the heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the j-th tube bundle.L [nTubeBundles] . Mass and energy storage within the gas volume are generally negligible because of the very low density. q~ej(t. since the mass storage is essentially due to the furnace. Notice that equation (2. The Modelica script for the gas zone model may be as follows: model GasZone parameter parameter parameter parameter Integer Integer Length GeomData nTubeBundles= 1 .Twj). g e o m e t r y D a t a [nTubeBundles] . n (2. t a u . . ~. so that the model is given by the following set of algebraic equations. j = 1.3. omegae [nTubeBundles] .z)rgo (2. Evaluation of Yej is a complex function of the gas properties and the bank geometry.Modelling of power plants if I n c l u d e R o t I n e r t i a t h e n t a u H = S h a f t . e n d if. 1985.3. Stultz and Kitro. tbSizes [nTubeBundles] =ones (nTubeBundles) ./Sg is the average gas density and k is a suitable constant (k ~ 0 is often acceptable because head losses are essentially concentrated in gas dampers and fans). hg i and hgo are the inlet and outlet gas enthalpies. where the generic case of n heat transfer surfaces is considered: wg(hgi . furnace pressure control studies) is it necessary to consider pressure dynamics. e n d Pump.30) q~ej = Yej(Tg .3. is a weighting parameter. Inlet.omega.30) represents gas energy conservation. it can be obtained from empirical correlations set up by boiler manufacturers (Incropera and De Witt.

I n l e t .. h ) ..toi -. p .34) (2. .'..w*(Inlet. I n t O f P h i e O m e g a D x [j] = o m e g a e [ j ] * L [ j ] * A v e r a g e ( t u b e B u n d l e s [ j ] .Outlet. .p = Outlet. ha and hr are the enthalpies of wo (gas flowout.toihi .13 Furnace zone component .. Tgtilde = l a m b d a * G a s P H T a b l e s T e m p e r a t u r e ( I n l e t .. end GasZone. . ..Qo . T g t i l d e . Qi is the radiation heat rate to the upstream zone.. A v e r a g e is a function requiring a vector argument and returning its average.2 Furnace zone A generic furnace zone. Wa(air fl°w): . . 1966. the following equations model the furnace zone: dMg dt dEg dt -.~/2 wi (gas flow in. . Inlet. 2.. Inlet... 1967.. Inlet. . g e o m e t r y D a t a [ j ] ) . . a grey gas approximation..~k.13.Wa q. . Wr(recirculatinggas fl°w) :l. In this script G e o m D a t a is a record type (a feature provided by any language) used for storing geometry data and provided as a parameter to the function GammaFun computing Yej in equation (2. H e a t X f e r C o e f f gammae [nTubeBundles]. dHT tubeBundles[nTubeBundles] (vectorSize=tbSizes).. h e a t F l u x P r o f i l e ) .. THT Inlet.tOo + tOf q.. w . . .Wr (2.tempProfile).35) -.w. infinitely fast combustion kinetics and a diffusion heat radiation mode (Fryling. .3. gammae[j] = G a m m a F u n ( I n l e t .h-Outlet.. wf (fuel flow). . . equation for j in i: n T u b e B u n d l e s loop tubeBundles[j]. Glassman. Temperature Tgtilde..w = -Outlet. . p . h ) + (i l a m b d a ) * G a s P H T a b l e s T e m p e r a t u r e ( O u t l e t .. ~radiatio / /+~ .. .40 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control parameter Real lambda. while hi. end for.31).4. introduced in Figure 2. : S Losses . . may be depicted as in Figure 2. .w. . HeatFlow IntOfPhieOmegaDx[nTubeBundles]..Qw where Qc is the heat rate due to the combustion reaction. Assuming a uniform gas temperature in the zone.heatFluxProfile = gammae[j]*(Tgtilde*ones(tbSizes[j])-tubeBundles[j]. . Qo is the radiation heat rate to the downstream zone and Qw is the total heat rate released to the wall.N~! a / ~ ~ l Gas] c_onv_ectlon_ I_ Wall or ~ walls .woho + tofhf + Qc + toaha + wrhr . Also. frombottom) Figure 2. .h) = sum(IntOfPhieOmegaDx).Oi . .p..3. ho. Hottel and Sarofim. O u t l e t . . 1977). upwards) ~.

der(Mg) der(Eg) Mg Eg Tg Qc Qi Qw = wi-wo+wf+wa+wr.hi)+GasPHtablesTemperature(p.p.35) represent the mass and energy balances. and possibly to the heat release Qc.Q.Qw.p.Tg). . However.wa. it is necessary to extend the affected terminals (in the case of the F u r n a c e Z o n e model. Equations (2.wr. ho p = -GasUpwards. respectively.Modelling of power plants 41 the corresponding flows.Tg)-p*V.w . There are various empirical correlations to use for relating Tg to the inlet and outlet enthalpies. FuelInlet.ho))/2. -~-s nf where Hf is the fuel calorific value and )~s the stoichiometric ratio.wa/lambdas*Hf).h. Neglecting gas composition variations as discussed in section 2. = AirInlet. .h. min(wf*Hf.wo. = GasUpwards. wo .3.w. it is necessary to estimate the flame radiation temperature Tg.Tr. If one cannot neglect the composition variations.Tr.h = RecGasInlet.w = AirInlet. = = (GasPHtablesTemperature(p. If an ideal reaction is assumed. Eg.ho. p = FuelInlet. Tg = Wall.2. the THHTs and the THTs) to . p. Mass MassFlowRate Enthalpy Energy Pressure Temperature HeatFlow equation wi wa hi ha p p Tg = GasFromBottom.GasUpwards.w.p. To interface the model with the i n t e r a c t i o n s modules (see Figure 2. = Mg*GasPTtablesEnthalpy(p.1. V. Tg = RecGasInlet.p.hr. = AirInlet. = wr hr = GasFromBottom. = Wall. = GasUpwards. Wall. if the zone is rather narrow. Qo = GasFromBottom. = GasUpwards.hf. wi*hi-wo*ho+wf*hf+Qc+wa*ha+wr*hr-Qi-Qo-Qw. The matter is quite complex and strongly based on manufacturers' data. wi. end F u r n a c e Z o n e . GasFromBottom.RecGasInlet.h = RecGasInlet./] and To being the inlet and outlet temperatures.AirInlet.h.ha. = GasFromBottom. Tg. Hf.w. = V*GasPTtablesDensity(p.p. Q. one may simply assume Tg = (/] + To)/2.Qw.Qi. the Modelica script implementation may be as follows: model F u r n a c e Z o n e parameter Real parameter ChalorificValue parameter Volume THT THHT HT lambdas.Qo. Qc. Mg. hi and ho. Qc can be simply computed by the following equation: Qc = min ( Wa) tOf/-/f. = GasFromBottom. = GasUpwards.4). = FuelInlet. p Tr.wf. wf hf = FuelInlet.34) and (2. hi.

typically expressed as a vector of mass or molar fractions.h-Right. Left.42 Thermal power plant simulation and control recognize fluid composition.5) can be computed according to empirical correlations (Hottel and Sarofim. Of course.Tr.3. 1992) relating them to the zone geometry and gas properties. Q + R i g h t .Qw/Sw/(N-l). L e f t . THHT Left. end for.w+Right. The Modelica script is complemented by the following two additional models. however. Gas. Tg = Gas. models will then have to include the appropriate balance equations for the relevant species.3. In equation (2. equation Twtilde = A v e r a g e ( W a l l . while the radiation coefficient Kw and the convection coefficient Yc are given by empirical correlations (Stultz and Kitro.Q = K*(Left.Qw = Kw*(Tg^4-Twtilde^4)+gammac*Sw*(Tg-Twtilde).Twtilde. Temperature Tg.5).7"4w)+ ycSw(Tg . p . much lower than Tg.Tw) (2. L e f t . 2. equation Left. parameter Integer N=I.R i g h t . parameter Surface Sw. p = 0.3.Tr^4-Right.36) where Sw is the contact wall surface.36) Tw denotes the average wall temperature: this approximation is not critical because the wall temperature is generally quite uniform and.heatFluxProfile[i] = Gas. Left. for i in I:N loop Wall.3.3 Zones interaction Model equations are given by the system (2. parameter H e a t X f e r C o e f f gammac. end GasWallInteraction. HT Gas. the coefficient K in equation (2. 1967).w = 0. . The Modelica script (treating K as a parameter for simplicity) may be as follows: model ZonesInteraction parameter Real K. end ZonesInteraction.Tr^4) . The Modelica script may be as follows: model G a s W a l l I n t e r a c t i o n parameter Real Kw.h = 0. Q = 0. Right . t e m p P r o f i l e ) . dHT Wall (vectorSize=N).1)-(2.4 Gas-wall interaction The following model equation accounts for radiation and convection heat transfer from gas to wall: Qw = K w ( T 2 . 2.

respectively. using the same symbols of Figure 2. O) rH = f[[(~2N. energy and momentum balances) adiabatic gas plenum (by mass and energy balance only) control damper (by a flow equation similar to a control valve) air preheater coal pulverisers. 2.5 Fan 43 The model is conceptually similar to that of a pump: we use an algebraic model consisting of the first and second characteristic equations. Rotor inertia and enthalpy increases can be taken into account by equations (2. A reasonable trade-off. 2. startup). In general. So.3. details of the above models are omitted here.28) and (2. ideal or real-gas state equations are applicable with suitable formulas or tables for the computation of gas properties. .Pp pp = fl(~QN. Coal pulverisers are described in detail by Ferretti and Maffezzoni (1991) and Cao and Rees (1995).12.4 Steam turbine Depending on the required accuracy (especially with reference to the interaction between the turbine and the feedwater heaters through steam extraction). widely employed is the rotating Ljungstrrm preheater. It is only worth noting that: • • for air and flue gas. while the flow is regulated by inlet vanes. the model equations are: Po = Pi nt.3.39) to variable speed conditions (e. 0) (2. The theory of similarity is generally not applicable: the characteristic equations are then derived from manufacturers' data. To extend the model (2.29). fans are operated at rated speed. one has to keep in mind that q. pp and rH are proportional to I2.39) where S2N is the nominal angular speed and 0 the orientation angle of the inlet vanes.6 Miscellanea To complete the component library for the air-gas circuit we need to model at least the following elements: • • • • • adiabatic gas duct (by mass. q. control dampers are strongly non-linear elements for which the flow characteristics need to be estimated by experimental and/or design data. For the sake of brevity.3.3.3.37) (2. Air preheaters may be of different types. or suitable approximations. which is a complex item of equipment characterised by considerable energy storage. q.g. however. ~ 2 and Y22.37)-(2. the turbine can be presented as a compact or more detailed representation.Modelling of power plants 2.38) (2.

5 Control stage The control stage is usually an impulse stage equipped with a set of independently operated control valves. but for turbine operation at rated speed and at reasonably high load ( > 2 0 per cent) one may assume 0 -~ const. the computation of rm is simply given by: rm = Pm/S-2 (2.43) and the angular speed S2 is a state variable of the 'shaft' model. The evaluation of the section efficiency r/ might be quite complex (Salisbury.3 Energy equation hi .43) as . Pi.5 consists of two variables.1 (Generic) turbine section Mass and energy storage in the steam volume are negligible. Partial arc admission is applied to ensure good thermodynamic .44 Thermal power plant simulation and control compatible with the object-oriented approach. applies to all turbine sections but the control stage.2 Flow equation In this case the Stodola law (Cooke. Of course. We may note that the mechanical terminal (MT) of Figure 2.4 Power output Pm = to(hi . the angular speed $2 and the torque rm.3. so that the model consists of the following algebraic equations.42) where Pm is the total mechanical power transferred from the steam to the wheel.3.4. Excluding the latter. which allow the steam flow to be admitted in full-arc or partial-arc mode. Pi and Pi are the upstream pressure and density. and Po.4. of course. 1950).3. with Po the downstream pressure and kT is a constant (which can be derived from design and/or experimental data).4. 2. The possible inconsistency of formula (2. 2.3.ho) (2. 1985) proved to be quite accurate: W = kT~/1 -. a generic turbine section is constituted as a cascade of similar stages (generally reaction stages) without any extraction in between.hlso)r/ (2.41) where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies. 2. is to structure the model according to the scheme of Figure 2. 2.ho = (hi .4.40) where w is the mass flow rate.5.rs2 (2.f2 ~ 0 is naturally avoided bearing in mind that ~ ~ 0 as . rs = Po/Pi. which. hlso is a function of hi. 2.4.3. hlso is the enthalpy that would be at the outlet if the expansion were iso-entropic and r/is the section efficiency.f2 --+ O.

as nozzle conditions are more variable in the control stage with respect to the downstream stages. reference must be made to its structure. corresponding to the m sectors into which the control stage is partitioned. . schematically shown in Figure 2.40) and for the computation of the thermodynamic efficiency r/. To develop a model of the control stage.15 may be replaced by a global approximate model (Maffezzoni and Kwatny. where it is indicated that there are m parallel lines. each one equipped with a control valve.43). in fact.5 Condensate and feedwater cycle The principal components in the considered subsystem are the following: (a) (b) (c) deaerator condenser feedwater heaters. Among the model objects of Figure 2.40)-(2.14.15. under this condition it can be proved that it is subject to quite limited errors. At the outlet of the control stage. with possible refinements for the flow equation (2. which is based on particular steam turbine design parameters. A detailed model can be built by assembling elementary modules according to the scheme of Figure 2. The approximate model is determined under the restriction that the control valves are moved according to a fixed opening program.3. we must only specify that the 'nozzle and wheel sector' is.Modelling of power plants 45 From the boiler Impulse chamber To the downstream stages Valve m Nozzle Figure 2. 1999). 2. activated by a master control signal.15. The model of Figure 2.14 Turbine control stage component efficiency at partial load. the steam flows coming from the different paths mix to form the total flow feeding the downstream turbine stages. the model of an impulse turbine stage for which we may apply the modelling approach expressed by equations (2.

to meet the two possible designs: vertical or horizontal shell heaters. the combustion chamber and the turbine (Coen et al.46 Thermal power plant simulation and control D - Control valve m _ wheel sector L_ Header ~ ICT' ~ ~ N°zzle& ~ Control wheel -valve sector L_ Header I--- ~ Control ~ ~ Nozzle& ICTI wheel ~ valve sector U +-q [___ Figure 2. The interaction structure would be quite complex (especially for feedwater heaters). for instance. 2.15 Model structuring for turbine control stage I They are complex heat exchangers. whose models might also he obtained by assembling smaller model objects. 1987). To this end. so that it is advisable to conceive simple models of the components (a)-(c).6. the condenser is a typical tube and shell heat exchanger where condensation takes place.. 2.6 Gas turbine Apart from auxiliary equipment. there are three principal components of gas turbines: the compressor.3.1 Compressor Thanks to the very limited mass of air in the compressor volume. the model consists of two characteristic algebraic equations describing the global machine performance . derived from mass and energy balances applied to suitable control volumes: the detailed formulation is rather tedious and is beyond the scope of this work. it is generally required to build two types of model for feedwater heaters. The model equations are. the tube bundle could be modelled by a heat exchanger segment interfaced to a two-phase cavity through a condensing thin layer. exploiting the standardisation of the mechanical design. as usual.3.

THT Inlet. eta = { h I S O . the two characteristic equations may be written as r p . Enthalpy hiS©.p. for unit simulation the functions gl and g2 are required to cover quite extended off-design conditions. Mb) = g 2 (nf. Inlet.w.h)).p.h) *(AirPHtablesCp(Inlet. the blade Mach number Mb := ~ D/~/y R Ti.Outlet. while hIso is the enthalpy that there would be at the outlet with an isoentropic compressor (of course hiso depends on pi.Inlet. it is useful to introduce the following three dimensionless quantities: • • • the pressure ratio rp := Po/Pi between the outlet and inlet pressure.p.h)-AirPHtablesCv(Inlet. .h)/AirPHtablesCv(Inlet. Simple approximations with low-order polynomials generally work only in a quite restricted operation domain. w / ( A i r P H t a b l e s D e n s i t y ( I n l e t . I n l e t .Mb. The net mechanical power transferred to the air is Pm = w(ho hi).gammaR. M b .I n l e t . To this aim. p . defined as hlso q-.Modelling of power plants 47 (Coen et al.45) hi hi (2. Pi the inlet gas density.ho -- (2.. hISO = AirPStablesEnthalpy(Outlet. I2 the rotor angular speed and D the mean wheel diameter. the flow number nf :-. Then. Mb) where r/is the compressor global efficiency.eta.p.nf. equation gammaR = AirPHtablesCp(Inlet. w = -Outlet..AirPHtablesEntropy(Inlet. possibly validated and extended by experimental data.p. p . Mb = Shaft. p / I n l e t .44) (2.to/pi~QD3. end C o m p r e s s o r . If air composition variations due to air humidity are neglected. o m e g a * D ^ 3 ) .46) -- where hi and ho are the inlet and outlet enthalpies. nf = I n l e t . C h a r F u n I D ) .p.h)).Inlet. Inlet.g l (nf. M b . C h a r F u n I D ) . Inlet.. where w is the mass flow rate. R the ideal gas constant and Ti the inlet gas temperature. I n l e t .[ n l e t . 1987). h .p. eta = C o m p r e s s o r C h a r F u n G 2 { n f . rp = C o m p r e s s o r C h a r F u n G l { n f . h ) * S h a f t . Real rp. where F is the ratio between the gas specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume. h ) / ( O u t l e t .omega*D*sqrt(gammaR*AirPHtablesTemperature{Inlet. MT Shaft.Inlet. parameter length D.h)). po and hi). the Modelica script of the compressor model is as follows: - model Compressor parameter integer CharFunID. The major problem is that. They can be built as suitable interpolations of manufacturers' data. rp = O u t l e t . h ) .

formed by the following equations: = tOa q.47) (2. suitable functions or tables are required to . pg the pressure in the chamber volume. The scope of the model is generally twofold: (1) (2) to predict the chamber outlet gas enthalpy. Pa the density of the inlet air and k a suitable constant. Mg the mass of the gas stored in the combustion chamber.g.waha -Jr-wf (hf q.tog dt dEg dt (2.Q1 Pa . modelling NOx and CO production is deeply affected by reaction kinetics and by the actual temperature field in the combustion chamber volume. so that mass and energy storage should be considered. While meeting scope (1) is quite easy by global mass and energy balance. When both scopes (1) and (2) are relevant. first-principles modelling does not guarantee reasonable accuracy for task (2). Of course. Eg the corresponding energy.toghg .nf) . neural networks) of more detailed design or experimental data.49) -. wg the outlet combustion gas flow rate. the combustion chamber has a certain storage volume. wf is the fuel flow rate. to complete the model. to predict the production of pollutant emissions (mainly NOx and CO).pg) w h e r e pg is the gas density corresponding to h g . low-order.6.VJf -. since gas turbine combustion chambers are operated with a large excess of air. For this reason. based on global mass. combustion is always complete and most of the chamber volume is close to the exit temperature.2 Combustion chamber Though rather small. Pa the pressure before the air nozzles.47)-(2.Pg = kwza Pa where Wa is the total inlet air flow rate.49) represent the mass and energy balances and the pressure losses. p g . Q1 the heat losses.48 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 2. hf and Hf the enthalpy and the calorific value of the fuel. It is worth noting that. it is assumed that the pressure drop is across the air nozzles and that the mass Mg and energy Eg can be evaluated from the outlet gas enthalpy: M g = VcPg Eg = V c ( p g h g . ha the inlet air enthalpy. hg the outlet gas enthalpy.3.48) (2. only the first part will be considered. and a 'chemical' part based on non-linear interpolations (e. respectively. momentum and energy balances. Equations (2. In the model. a possible solution is to organise the model into two parts: a 'thermo-mechanical' part. Here.

ha). . 2.44) can be implemented by the simple Stodola law (Cooke. . a significant simplification because the first characteristic equation (2.g. parameter CalorificValue parameter E n t h a l p y hf.\Pal ( p--~°)2 (2.h. = Vc*GasPHTablesDensity(pg.w. parameter Volume Vc. H20). Mg. = FuelInlet.wg.pg.p. predicting pollutant concentration at the chamber outlet. pg = FuelInlet.3. 1985): W= kT~l -. THT Hf. ha. ~mperature and density from enthalpy and pressu~). 2. For the case of power plant simulation.6. Moreover. however. = k*wa^2/AirPHTablesDensity(pa. reaction kinetics can be considered so fast that all the reactions are at their equilibrium. FuelInlet. hf .AirInlet.wf. Mass MassFlowRate Enthalpy Pressure Energy HeatFlow equation wa ha = AirInlet. There is. p der(Mg) der(Eg) pa-pg Mg Eg Q1 = wa+wf-wg.w = AirInlet. = wa*ha+wf*(hf+Hf)-wg*hg-Ql.w.50) where only the constant kT is derived from design data.Modelling of power plants 49 compu~ gas prope~ies (e. this makes the model quite complex.h pa = A i r I n l e t . combustion modelling is aimed at two different scopes: (1) (2) predicting heat release in combustion chambers. NOx. In this script. Eg. = GasOutlet.h. = Mg*hg-Vc*pg. F u n Q l o s s is a function devoted to computing the heat losses. = FuelInlet. pa. = GasOutlet.3.3 Turbine The model of the turbine is built using the same line of reasoning as that of the compressor.wg). QI. The Modelica script of the model can be as follows: model C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r parameter R e a l k.hg). end C o m b u s t i o n C h a m b e r . CO2.hg.7 Special problems in modelling combustion processes Combustion of fossil fuel is a complex chemical process which involves many components either contained in the reactants or produced by the reaction itself (like CO. = FunQloss(wa.p. wa. wf . wg hg pg = -GasOutlet.GasOutlet.

) ignoring most auxiliary signals devoted to logics. Because of the essential role of automation in modern power plant.de and www.50 Thermal power plant simulation and control For scope (1). 1979) that if a large furnace is modelled by 10-20 layers. for which 'very high' equilibrium constants can be assumed.org). with further simplification of the model. control functions may be simulated by a simpler library consisting of generic blocks (lead-lag. the correct simulation of the DCS is necessary to assess power plant performances during the design phase.isa. in particular the computation of flame/gas emissivity which is due to the superposition of the non-luminous gas emissivity (due to CO2 and H20) and of the luminous soot emissivity (formed in the combustion flame). The block diagrams. which concern both logic control functions and modulating control. (www. DIN IEC 3B/256/CD (1999). the reactions involved are the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon.g. interlocks.2).normung. replace any (complex) functional group consisting of cascaded control blocks by a global control function implementing the same control concept while ignoring equipment and instrumentation details.din.4 Modelling of distributed control systems A power plant DCS is a very complex system involving many thousands of signals and specified by hundreds of I/O diagrams collected in a CAD database. Siegel and Howell (1972) and Perry and Green (1985). Then. neural network training). gas temperatures can be predicted quite well at least at sufficiently high load. DIN 40719-6 (1992). ANSI/ISA 5.01-1995 and many others. can actually be considered as a control software specification. so that even the control components are treated . the correct evaluation of radiation temperature is very important: experimental validation showed (Caruso et al. On the contrary.3. Empirical models combined with the first-principle models used for purpose (1) yield good results (Ferretti and Piroddi. A crucial issue is the evaluation of radiation in a large furnace. as discussed by Hottel and Sarofim (1967). though they need experimental tuning (e. Since radiation depends on T 4. The system specification is generally expressed by functional block diagrams. protection and so on. because NOx production is very sensitive to local flame temperature. 2. describing the control strategy assuming a functional equivalence. based on some international standard such as IEC 1131 (1993). 2001).1. thus using a control block library tailored to the appropriate international standard.e. simple lumped parameter balances do not give reliable results for scope (2) above. What is generally needed is the computation of combustion gas composition and the evaluation of gas properties (see section 2. ANSI/ISA 88. i. There are two possible approaches to DCS modelling: (1) reproduce the control specification with a one-to-one correspondence of blocks (at least for the functional areas under investigation). even the digital nature of the real control system may be not relevant.1. PID.. etc. (2) In the second case.

activating zero-time switching of discrete and logical variables while stopping continuous-time integration. Experience of Matlab/Simulink ® for detailed modelling and testing of a power plant DCS is reported by Carpanzano et al.se.vtt. Problems may arise. the Modelica script of a sequence step.. Detailed DCS modelling is typically approached in two steps: (1) (2) build a control library consistent with the selected industrial standard. with unscheduled events. possibly in the same way as CAD tools for control do. recognize systems that combine continuous process simulation with events. . very important when actual DCS verification is needed. however.org). assemble block diagrams using constructs provided by the modelling language for model aggregation. Then. www. (2000). As an example. 1993) in Figure 2. As an example. in particular to deal with discrete-time. i. but the validity of the model is not ensured. It is widely applied to check control strategies in the early stages of the design process.dynasim. (2001) and shows that this environment can be effectively customised to be consistent with a DIN standard (1992). in these cases the interaction between the continuous time and event driven parts (including sampled signal control systems) is to a certain extent left to the user. It is worth stressing that most power plant simulation environments do not support hybrid systems modelling. A full treatment of hybrid modelling is supported in Modelica (www. is reported in Figure 2.modelica. hybrid systems. event-driven and logical blocks. Coil et al.e. Detailed modelling of control software specifications or designs is. however. we may mention the solution implemented by Guagliardi et al. implementation problems are not critical. 1989). described using the functional block diagram (FBD) formalism (IEC1131-3. The continuous process simulator modelled by the specialised power plant simulation code LEGO runs with a fixed integration step and acts as a server for a Matlab/Simulink ® application where the DCS is modelled.fi. Such generic control components are generally available in the libraries of power plant simulation packages (www. however.Modelling of power plants 51 as continuous-time dynamic systems. Implementing the two-step procedure for real-size systems requires that the modelling language is equipped with control-oriented libraries and paradigms. two major problems need to be tackled: (a) (b) consider system complexity with adequate support for analysis. while respecting the process control concept. Synchronous events that are scheduled at the simulation start are correctly processed.16a. especially because it is often not necessary to simulate events (including those related to the sampling process).16b. the extension of the modelling power and generalisation to any relation-triggered event implies further effort in the model specification. where a client-server architecture is provided. The approach based on functional equivalence requires the analyst to develop a subjective translation of the original control scheme into a compact functional equivalent.

Moreover. end LogicController.dynasim. then the two parts can be solved in two steps at any integration instant. 1998) and is also supported in Dymola (www. which ensure numerical stability even for rather large integration steps. and state variables. It is known that when the system is stiff. We may recognise such a situation in power plant models. because the gas inertia is very small. such as pressures and flow rates.e. 1989). . that are characterised by fast dynamics.5 Application of dynamic decoupling to power plant models In general.e. For instance. This expedient has been applied in power plant simulators (Busi et al. 02. a largescale non-linear system (by a Newton-like method) must be solved.Info = 01.52 Thermal power plant simulation and control logicalSignal Info. that are characterised by slow dynamics. equation Ol.g.se). I2. I3. backward Euler) for the fast part and an explicit method (e. a more efficient solution may be obtained by decoupling the integration of the two subsystems. Info = not II. where the system splitting is under the user's control. a branch with little discharge capacity).Info a n d I2. in the one-phase subnet of the steam-water circuit there are state variables. Info or I3. then the net can be split into two subnets by 'freezing' the node pressure when solving that part of the net containing the inlet branch. The dynamic decoupling stemming from different-scale dynamics can effectively be introduced in power plant modelling with the concept of 'weak interaction' in recognition of typical situations found in thermo-hydraulic networks: • When part of a pressure net is linked to another one through a weak branch (i.g. at every integration step. if the number of 'fast' state variables is small with respect to the total. connector boolean 0! 13 02 a b Figure 2.e.. 1985. forward Euler) for the slow part. 02. a node characterised by a slowly varying pressure). typically a 'slow' and 'fast' subsystem.. i. . However. Output LogicalSignal 01. flue gas dynamics are very fast.Info. This approach may make the numerical solution quite involved because. stabilisation of the integration process may be obtained by using implicit integration methods (Brenan et al.17. e n d Logicalsignal. Bartolini et al. dynamic decoupling is applicable to dynamic system simulation when the system consists of sections characterised by different dynamics..Info. such as temperatures. using an implicit method (e. When a pressure net contains a node with a large capacity having one inlet branch (i. according to the recursive scheme of Figure 2. block LogicController input LogicalSignal If.16 Simple controller specified in FBD and implemented in Modelica 2.

momentum and energy balances are more tightly coupled. to a certain extent.17 Recursive scheme for dynamic decoupling In fact. Experience (Leva et al. dynamic decoupiing is relevant to a number of typical physical situations and can be systematically applied to split the system integration into a considerable number of small tasks. a process simulation environment oriented to thermohydraulic networks. flue gas hydraulics.Modelling of power plants k=k+ 1 53 I o' e st y. in the simulation of the circulation loop) where mass. testing and validation may involve either a component. . Very often it is necessary to customise. and so on. we have to tackle the following problems related to 'model certification': • • • testing intrinsic correctness of model. e.e.g. model validation versus design data. model validation by experimental tests. which has a 'weak' dynamic participation in a certain equation. model correctness versus physical principles. 1998). In all the above situations. which may concern both steady-state and transient conditions.am cs I 1 o' es ow yoamic J I Figure 2. a library CM on the basis of some specific feature of the case at hand. generally only available for steady-state conditions. 1999) showed that the application of these decoupling criteria requires particular care when dealing with two-phase flows (e.6 Testing and validation of developed models We consider the case where a model is developed by aggregating component representations based on first principles.. In power plant modelling. and each component model (CM) is either taken from a library or built by analysing the component design data. A typical situation is that the model is structured into components by looking at the design flow diagrams. subsystem or the whole system. the application of dynamic decoupling can be extended with the introduction of the concept of 'weak variable'. Then. i. 2.. These principles have been systematically implemented in the development of ProcSim (Bartolini et al. 1998). the solution of feedwater system hydraulics.g. either because it is slowly varying or because it has a minor effect (Casella and Maffezzoni.

Testing can be done during simulation. steady-state validation is quite significant.6. non-linearities are very important and many complex phenomena (particularly combustion and heat transfer in the furnace and through the convection banks) can be captured even in the steady-state. required to performance. a Modelica script may consist of two sections: one corresponding to the standard model and always active. the creation of new component models or the modification of existing ones (by the mechanisms of inheritance.g.1 When a powerful object-oriented modelling environment is employed. that is the identification of the actual source of modelling errors. for instance when the component model is part of a larger model where certain significant transient conditions may be simulated. Thus.6. Once the model is equipped with this section. For power plants. which may be split in two parts: (a) (b) dimensional parameters (geometrical and physical data). validation versus design data is a basic step toward model 'certification'. design data allow validation component by component. As an example. the other computing the mass and energy of all the species and phases that are present (e. so devoting a subsidiary model section to their computation reduces the simulation effort. steady-state design code computations. momentum and energy conservation. Note that often it is not advisable to take masses and energies as state variables. the sole source of information for modelling consists of design data. It should also be noted that using design data for validation means that component models are usually built with 'tuning knobs' expressing uncertainties about model parameters: those knobs are actually set to minimise the discrepancies between . evaluate plant Moreover. Cases of extensive validation by design data are reported by Castoro and Oldnati (1995) and Maffezzoni and Aime (2000). the correctness testing can be done at any time and in any relevant condition.g. 2. typically expressed by empirical or semi-empirical correlations (e. override and polymorphism) is quite easy. In these cases. since design data are generally detailed and extensive (they cover plant operation in different conditions) and incorporate the best knowledge about the plant before commissioning.2 Model validation versus design data Power plant simulation is frequently used during the late phases of plant design or during plant construction. Thanks to their detail. if the environment permits access to its variables in that phase. the plant manufacturer has important additional knowledge about component behaviour.54 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Testing intrinsic model correctness 2. heat transfer correlations). It is then very important to establish procedures ensuring that the new models respect the fundamental principles of mass. performing the necessary computations on the logged variables. or after simulation. those of liquid and vapour in a drum) and active only when some global logic variable or parameter is set true. This can be done at the component level (aggregate models inherit this property from submodels) by equipping each CM with a switchable monitoring function devoted to automatic checks.

So. 1974) and a drum boiler (Coil and Busi. and concern limited parts of the plant (a few relevant variables). Validation programmes are also reported also for a once-through boiler (Cori et al.Modelling of power plants 55 model outputs and design data. normally as part of special research programmes. 1977).. which is designed to record and store data in forms suitable for steady-state performance evaluation. One of the major problems is that open-loop tests are very critical to obtain because a boiler is not . steady-state validation (with the inherent parameter tuning) must always precede dynamic validation. Two different examples are worth mentioning: the first relating to a commercial unit (Astr/3m and Bell. it is necessary to combine information coming from design data with information coming from measurements. correction (fouling) factors of the involved coefficients can be tuned. there is no systematic method to integrate all the available information: it is difficult to properly weigh experimental measurements with respect to design computations because experiments cover the whole field of operation irregularly and measurements are incomplete. The major source of experimental data is the supervision system. dynamic validation may consider selected plant responses for which ad hoc experiments are then performed. Such data are generally sufficient for an extensive validation of the plant model in the steadystate.6. it is worth mentioning the assessment of heat balances concerning the convection part of a fossil fired boiler: • • Design data and manufacturer's correlations lead to the formulation of gas zone models incorporating heat transfer coefficients. steady-state experimental data allow thermal balances across the different convection banks to be computed.3 Model validation versus experiments Unlike design data. So. As an example. (1984) and Castoro and Oldrati (1995). 2. It is clear that step responses are much more significant for validation because the plant dynamics are sufficiently excited. since process measurements are sampled at a slow rate for routine supervision purposes. even though the available measurements do not allow independent validation of each component model (for instance temperatures of combustion gases are not measured in the different plant sections because of technological problems and for cost reasons). Moreover. experience shows that reconciliation of measurement data is often required when using standard instrumentation. As an example. 1993) subject to small pseudo-random excitation and the second to a laboratory boiler to which extensive step response tests have been applied (Leva et al. Examples of this procedure are reported by Maffezzoni et al. 1999). based on these. dynamic validation of power plant models is sporadically available. where possible. Unfortunately. However. the parameterisation of the flow characteristics and efficiency curves for a gas turbine may be found in Maffezzoni and Aime (2000).. Once steady-state model assessment has been done. experiments generally supply an incomplete set of data. but they are very costly in commercial plant.

56 Thermal power plant simulation and control asymptotically stable and tends to move away from its equilibrium point. 1986) and the behaviour of drum level at very low loads. 1999) adopt a model structured approach oriented to components. From the reported experience it may be inferred that pressure. which has been assumed herein) overcome the above drawbacks. with special emphasis on its stability (Kwatny and Berg. for which simple zero-dimensional models based on first principles fail. For all these reasons. hybrid systems modelling is not supported in a general and rigorous form. improvements in symbolic and numerical techniques to efficiently deal with hybrid systems and to exploit dynamic decoupling in the simulation of large-scale power plant models. 2. For that reason. though application libraries are not yet available for power plants. Emerging standards in object-oriented modelling (such as Modelica. Further investigation and development is required on the following aspects: • full integration between lumped-parameter and distributed parameter modelling. • • .g.. the strong interactions among the different sections of the plant make it difficult to identify the source of plant-model discrepancies. closed-loop tests do not highlight the process dynamics. CO. and aggregation to form subsystems can be used. So. we have outlined here the basic principles by which a component library can be developed.) in furnaces and combustion chambers. 1993). while more problems have been found in the validation of steam temperature dynamics.7 Concluding remarks and open problems Modelling by component for power plants has been greatly enhanced by objectoriented techniques based on non-causal model formulation and model connection through physical ports. On the other hand. etc. level and load dynamics are well reproduced by large-scale modular models. Control systems are also considered with the aim of facing real-size control engineering problems based on two key issues: adherence to widely accepted standards (e. being strongly dependent on control actions. In addition. modelling of pollutant production (NOx. the underlying modelling language suffers from the following drawbacks: • • component models are neither inspectable nor assignable in descriptive form. the results of dynamic model validation are quite limited for thermal power plant and also for available test databases for independent model validation. Though many existing simulation codes treating power plant (Carpanzano etal. dynamic measurements are rather scarce so that isolation of components for validation is impossible. IEC 1131 and 1499) and proper consideration of the hybrid nature of the control-process combination (which is essential when control system functionality has to be tested). particularly with reference to the complex heat exchangers employed both in conventional and heat recovery boilers. Areas substantially lacking in validation of boiler dynamics modelling are the behaviour of furnaces at low loads (Kwatny and Bauerle.

www.. C. P. 1999. E.: 'Modelling and simulation of combined lumped and distributed systems by an object-oriented approach'. 3. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation. to the authors' knowledge. T. Proceedings of 1 lth IMACS World Congress. K. Finally. and DE MARCO. as is necessary when developing a power plant project in any phase of its life cycle.. CAMPBELL. C. A. J. C. K. Marseille 2001 CARUSO. 1979 (in Italian) CASEAU.: 'Fuzzy logic control of vertical spindle mills'. L. and QUATELA. 443-450 CARPANZANO.. E. Cancan 1995 pp.fi.. 1998. S.: 'Numerical solution of initial-value problems in differential algebraic Equations' (North-Holland. and REES. D. L. and MAFFEZZONI.Modelling of power plants 57 For aspects peculiar to an engineering environment (crucial to enable modelling and simulation for engineering practice).: 'Modular testing of logic control functions with Matlab'. S.. Simulation. 71. S. G.: 'A nonlinear model for steam generation process'. COLOMBO. 2000.. Preprint 12th IFAC World Congress.. and MAFFEZZONI. Proceedings ESS '99. Journ~es de I'AIM. (4-6). 183-193 BRENAN. A preliminary effort has been made with the prototype environment MOSES (Maffezzoni and Girelli.. there is a substantial lack of model libraries for power plant applications.. FERRARINI L. A. we may observe that modelling and simulation environments are generally not equipped to efficiently manage large amounts of data.8 References AIME. W. Modelica) and to software tools supporting them.. 49-55 CARPANZANO.: 'One-dimensional mathematical model of a furnace'.: 'Numerical simulation of a steam generator'. 345-351 APROS home page. but the state of the art is far from satisfactory. which combines object-oriented modelling and database management. N.. P. 1998). However. Technical report ENEL 372053-14. Likge. Proceedings 13th European Simulation Symposium..: 'Simulation environments for industrial process control'.g. R. M. 2. LEVA. C. pp.: 'A process simulation environment based on visual programming and dynamic decoupling'. 1993 BARTOLINI.. G. pp. (3). and MAFFEZZONI. This could be the scope for international cooperation to eliminate this dearth by developing libraries in a non-proprietary language to be shared by interested contributors. and BELL. 1970 (in French) . A. and MAFFEZZONI. pp.vtt. much attention has been given here to object-oriented modelling languages (e. as such languages are quite recent. FERRARINI L. F. Oslo 1985 CAO. P. R.. DE MARCO A. IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems.. and MALHOUITRE. /~STROM. Amsterdam 1989) BUSI. P.. GODIN. 395-398. and PETZOLD.: 'An efficient modelling technique for power plant training simulators: the FAST method'. L. 53. Sydney. E. Erlangen-Nuremberg.. pp.

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. C. G. and EITELBERG.. IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems (invited paper). S. C.. FRANKE. Preprint 12th IFAC World Congress. H. L. 121-147 MAFFEZZONI.: 'Combustion engineering . Politecnico di Milano. IFAC Symposium on Power Plants and Power Systems Control 2000.: 'Drum level regulation at all loads: a study of system dynamics and conventional control structures'.. E P.org 'ISA standard ANSI/ISA-88. C. Mathematical Modelling of Systems. G. and GIRELLI. 11-26 LUNARDI. 1998a) 'gPROMS: introductory user guide'. Brussels.: 'Control of electric power generating plants'. 1999) . and AIME. R. 182-187. H.. Pergamon. www.: 'Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer' (John Wiley. J. 1966) GLASSMAN. 15-23 MAFFEZZONI.: 'Simulation analysis of the stability of coal fired furnaces at low load'.: 'MOSES: Modular modelling of physical systems in an object-oriented database'.: 'Radiative transfer' (McGraw-Hill.: 'Modular modelling applied to a Benson boiler'. New York. Chichester. H. A. (ISA. and SPELTA. S. C.: 'Compact dynamic modelling of gas turbine including N Ox emissions'. (2). 1992 pp. 1999 (in Italian) MAFFEZZONI.. H. A. Master thesis. Control Engineering Practice. 1998. pp. Proceedings first IFAC Workshop on Modelling and Control of Electric Power Plants. 1984 LEVA. June 2000 (in Italian) HOTTEL. Technical report. I. Process Systems Enterprise. 7..a reference book on fuel burning and steam generation' (Combustion Engineering Inc. G. and SAROFIM. D. 1999. MAFFEZZONI. 1986 KWATNY. A. New York. J. 4. E. 1985. 1967) 'IEC1131-3 programmable controllers: programming languages'. in LEVINE. (1). 1993 LAUSTERER. and BERG. G. Sydney..: 'Issues in modelling and simulation of power plants'. New York. 1971.: 'Simulink has a new partner: LegoPC'. 'Combustion' (Academic Press. G. New York.: 'The finite element method in the dynamic simulation of heat exchangers'.. 1993 INCROPERA.isa. A.Modelling of power plants 59 FRYLING. (Ed. M. Info@teoresi bulletin. G. 2nd edn.01-1995'..) ISA: 'ISA handbook of control valves' (ISA.: 'Validation of drum boiler models through complete dynamic tests'. G. Proceedings 2nd IFAC Workshop Modelling and Control of Electric Power Plants. pp. R. K. P. F. Technical report. 1995) KWATNY. L.): Control systems applications.. and BAUERLE. W. C. pp.. and BENELLI. 1998b GUAGLIARDI. Munich. 2000 MAFFEZZONI. MIGLIAVACCA. (CRC Press. 2nd edn. Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione.. C. IEC TC65/SC65B.. Process Systems Enterprise. 1977) 'gPROMS: advanced user guide'. G. J. and DE WITT. and KWATNY. Philadelphia..) ISA home page.

overview and general theory. M.. and PARROT. C. 4th enlarged printing'. P. New York. Computers and Chemical Engineering. 'Modelling and simulation of hanford K-Area boiler-turbine-generator system'.: 'Thermal radiation heat transfer' (McGraw-Hill.60 Thermal power plant simulation and control MAFFEZZONI. EPPERLY. and MARCOCCI.an object-oriented modelling language'. J. KONOPACKI. R. E. Journal of Computational Physics. K. 7. Technical report ABB SIMCON. and HOWELL. (Springer-Verlag. S. C. Amsterdam. pp.2'. C. C. A.. H. 1994b STULTZ. EPRI.. T.) WEBER. 53-72 'Properties of water and steam in SI Units. K.. 15.: 'OMOLA . J. (8). and HERGET.: 'Computer-aided modelling of large power plants'. D. W. Proceedings first IFAC Workshop 'Modelling and Control of Electric Power Plants. New York.. MAGNANI.: 'Numerical approximation of partial differential equations' (Springer-Verlag. 1972) 'SIMCON-X engineering station: model development'. M. 1984 MAFFEZZONI. (Eds. Berlin. 1980..): 'Recent advances in computer aided control systems engineering' (Elsevier. Technical report. and VALLI. A. v. 1983 MORTON.): 'Steam: its generation and use' (Babcock & Wilcox. J. 1989) ProTRAX home page. R. pp. 40th edn. FERRARINI. K. an object-oriented computer environment for modelling and analysis: the modelling language'. L. R. S. G.. G. In JAMSHIDI. (Eds. Pergamon. and WESTERBERG. Control Engineering Practice. 957-968 MATTSSON. 1992. A.. Technical report ERDA 76-151. D. and CARPANZANO.: 'Perry's chemical engineers' handbook' (McGrawHill. 36. Berlin.) SALISBURY. Technical report CS/NP-2989. WESTERBERG.. Barberton. 1950) SIEGEL.. New York.: 'Steam turbines and their cycles' (John Wiley. 1994a 'SIMCON-X Profile'. B. 1999.. K. 249-270 PERRY.com QUARTERONI.. 1976 . E M. pp. www.. 1999 'Modular modelling system (MMS): a code for the dynamic simulation of fossil and nuclear power plants. A. and ANDERSSON.: 'Generalized galerkin methods for first-order hyperbolic equations'. 1985) PIELA. 2nd edn.. 1. S. A. Modelica Design Group. W. 1997. M. 1992) 'Modelica: a unified object-oriented language for physical systems modelling language secification.traxcorp. and MASSIMO. and KITRO.. and GREEN. W. C. 'ASCEND. 1991. L.: 'Object-oriented models for advanced automation engineering'. Technical report ABB SIMCON.

Part 2 Control .

1996.1 Introduction There can be no doubt that the ideas of modelling and control have generally been found quite acceptable within the electric power generation industry.W. The reasons for this lack of interest are uncertain but relate very much to the idea that modelling mills is very difficult. Fan 3. . and that mills are subject to all sorts of disturbances such as wear. This is in spite of the fact that it is now accepted that coal mills and their poor dynamic response are major factors in the slow load take-up rate and they are also a regular cause of plant shut-down (Maffezzoni. An area of power plant control that has received much less attention from modelling and control specialists is the coal mills. where the future automation of this important area may be going. 1987) and water level control (Kwatny and Maffezzoni. if not impossible. indeed it has been suggested that performance equal to that of oil-fired plant is possible (Rees. 1993). however. Against this. With the introduction of modem distributed control systems (DCSs). Rees and G. Peer and Leung. The control vendors and the applied control literature now regularly describe 'modem' control systems for the industry. load pressure control (Maffezzoni. 1989). beyond the wit of the engineer to model. it is now possible to implement many of the ideas resulting from modelling and control studies.Q.Chapter 3 Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills N. 1986). and from that of others. 1996. In the rest of this chapter we take a closer look at the modelling and control of coal mills and give some ideas from our own experience. there is plenty of evidence that properly modelled and controlled mills can respond much better than at present. 1992. Waddington and Maples. choking and unknown coal properties. 1997). Particular attention has been paid to steam temperature control (Mann and Lausterer. 2002). although control engineers generally feel much more could be done than is currently the case (Rees and Lu. Nakamura and Uchida.

1973) or heat balance analysis (Dolezal and Varcop. 1997. whilst the heavier particles hit the side of the classifier cone and drop back onto the mill table for further processing. Slightly more complicated models based on overall mass balancing (O'Kelly. Hougen. This mill is very popular because it is economical. In addition some of the heavier particles entrained in the primary air-coal mix lose their velocity and fall back onto the mill table as shown. it has very low coal storage so that good control is very important.2 Modelling of coal mills The problem of the transient performance of coal mills has been recognised for some time.2. We will discuss this matter soon but first we need to look a bit more closely at the mills themselves. 1980. primary. Robinson. Whilst these models have been beneficial it is now recognised that some aspects of particle size distribution as well as the complicated internal structure of the mill must be considered (Corti et al. 1985). As in the separator the classifier contains a significant mass of suspended coal.64 Thermal power plant simulation and control 3. whilst particles that are travelling fast enough enter the classifier zone. 1970) have also been developed. It is determined largely by the intemal mill behaviour and the classifier settings which . The coal output then moves towards the throat of the mill where it mixes with high-speed hot primary air.1 the main inputs to the mill are the raw coal and the primary air while the output is the pf flow. together with the mass of coal on the mill table and the three recirculating loads. however. The coal then moves under centrifugal force outwards and under three passive rollers where grinding and crushing take place. for further grinding. 3. Rees and Mee. As shown in Figure 3. The lighter particles are drawn out of the resulting vortex as classified pf fuel for the burners. secondary and tertiary. 1986. These masses of coal.1 Vertical spindle mills There are many types of coal mills in use. consisting of a first-order lag and a pure transport delay. introduced models of coal mills relating input demand to firing rate by transfer functions. play a major role in the dynamic behaviour of the mill. Early work by Profos (1959) on pressure and combustion control. raw coal enters the mill down a chute dropping on to a constant speed of rotation table or bowl. Numerous studies based on these models using step response or frequency response testing have been carried out both for single-input single-output (SISO) systems and multivariable control (Bollinger and Snowden.. The size distribution of the pf flow particles or 'finers' is usually required to be less than 75 microns and cannot be measured. The heavier coal particles are immediately returned back to the bowl for further grinding whilst the lighter particles are entrained in the air flow and carried into the separator section. Typical values of these parameters for different types of mills were given.. 1980). These particles are given a swirl behaviour by vanes or deflector plates. 1983.1. The separator contains a large amount of coal particles in suspension by the powerful air flow. Neal et al. In operation. with one of the most popular types being the pressurised vertical spindle bowl mill as shown in Figure 3.

Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills Raw coal 65 from feeder 06~O Deflector plates Tertiary recirculating load Secondary recirculating load Primary recirculating load Flash drying zone Mill throat Figure 3.1 Physical structure of a vertical spindle mill .

. rhsr e and rhtre are the recirculating loads and rhpff. Other important variables around the mill are mill temperature.2 Schematic of a vertical spindle mill . and rhgc the output of the grinding mills.. which is easily measured and controlled by hot air and cold air dampers.. 3. and the differential pressure between the top part of the mill and the under bowl. mill motor current. but no satisfactory measuring equipment has yet been developed. mtre mtff ClassifierMtfl.2 show the key mill structure and the variables necessary to write the mass balances. rhsff and thtff represent the entrained coal flow picked up at the throat. which gives some indication of mill load. This AP measurement is very useful in helping to understand mill recirculating load.1 and 3. ~pf fT. There is no doubt that mill control would be much improved if particle size measurements were available. rhrc and rhpf represent the raw coal flow entering the mill and the pulverised fuel flow leaving.~ ~ Phsff ~r~_~ ] [ I m~r~ i Separator I I M~. The size distribution of the raw coal input is measured infrequently using mechanical sieves and the particles are mainly in the range 75 microns to 70 mm.2 Modelling vertical spindle mills . Figures 3. separator and classifier by the primary airflow rhpa. Roll Figure 3.66 Thermal power plant simulation and control are usually not varied during mill operation. rhg the flow of coal to the grinding table.mass balance models A useful physical model of the mill can be developed using internal mass balances. A block diagram schematic of the mill is shown in Figure 3.2.2. Air flow can be measured accurately although the measurement is often noisy. I ii ow. rhff = kfrhrc is the amount of fine coal in the raw feed that is blown straight out of the mill. Mpr is the mass of coal on the table. rhpre.

1981). ksre and ktre are the appropriate steady-state gains and the time constants rpre.thff where w0 and Wl represent the moisture in the raw coal and in the coal on the bowl. The recirculating loads in equation (3.4) (3.rhsre q.w0 (1 .thre 1 -wl (3.ksrerhsff rhtre q. dt (3.kprerhpff (3. for example.kf)rhrc q-.ksre)rhsff . the flow of raw coal from the chute to the grinding zone has been modelled in terms of centrifugal effects and the difference in height of the raw coal as it flows across the coal bed. Eleven particle sizes are assumed in the raw coal but the grinding model is much simplified over the size mass balance model (Prasher.1 .rhtre /hpf = ff/tff .rhtff.2) (3. 1996) than a control model.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 67 A detailed transient model of the mill based on Figure 3.2) can be adequately determined from drhpre rpre dt t'sre drnsre dt rhpre q. treatment of the grinding zone includes an analysis based on known communition theory and established breaking rate functions and breakage distribution functions. The entrainment of coal from the table into the separator and classifier is examined using Lagrangian particle calculations and empirically determined classification functions. A more control-oriented model has been developed by Fan (1994) and Fan and Rees (1994).kpre)rnpff .3) rare = ff/pre -[.8) .-dt where kpre.2 has been developed by Robinson (1985). The following mass balances can be written by inspection: rhg -. It is an excellent reference model and highly recommended reading but too complicated for most control studies. In the bowl modelling.7) (3. This model considers coal in 15 particle sizes with detailed physically based models developed for each box.thtre -[.rhsff dt dMtr = (1 -. Likewise.6) .5) (3.2 but the processes in each box are simplified. rsre and rtre are due to aeroresistance and inertia to the flow with the finer particles having longer time delays.1) (3.ktrerhtff d/htre "t'tre.-rhsr e -4. As a consequence of all this detail the model consists of 76 ordinary differential equations and is more of a knowledge-based model (Maffezzoni. This model uses the same physical structure as shown in Figure 3. The suspended mass of coal in the separator Msr and the classifier Mtr can be calculated from dMsr = (1 .

(3. which results in the rolls being described by 1 drhgc R dt -. Prasher. the density of the air and the volume of the mill occupied by the fine coal particles near the classifier. Since a small amount of 'finer' coal enters the mill in the raw coal and gets blown straight out again as pf coal it is appropriate to add this flow to equation (3.rhgc (3. Kunii and Levenspiel (1969) show that the entrained particles travel at the same velocity as the carrier air and from this it is straightforward to show (Fan.thg -. 1981). 1981). 1994) that rhpff = kpr Mprrhpa (3. rhsff and rhtff. 1994.10) where R is the size reduction rate of the raw coal particles and rhgc is defined as the flow of ground coal such that 80 per cent of the particles will pass through a 75 micron sieve. This can be determined in a complex way using the size mass balance concept (Prasher.14) .68 Thermal power plant simulation and control To complete the model we need to determine the mass of coal Mpr on the table and the entrainment flows rhpff. 1994).13) where all the shaping constants have the same structure as kpf but with their own local parameter values.9) dt However from the entrainment point of view it is the ground coal conditions at the rim (throat) that matter so that we really need to know the flow output of the grinding rolls rhgc. To determine the entrainment rate of the coal by the air at the throat. The coal mass balance on the table can be written as dMpr -.13) so that rhpf : kpf(Mtr + Mff)rnpa -.rhpff.11) where kpr is a shaping factor that depends on the area of the particle flow path. (3. the area of the primary air flow path. Assuming that the mass of primary air passes quickly through the mill then the secondary and tertiary final flows can be expressed by similar formulas: rhsff = ksrMsrrhpa rhtff = ktrMtrrhpa (3.rhtre. In this study R has been determined by measuring the weight of coal in each of 11 sieve sizes and feeding this information into a Matlab program for calculation (Fan. in the separator and in the classifier we need to find a relationship between the air mass flow rate at the point of interest and the pick-up rate of the coal particles. but a simpler model is used here based on the idea of 'similarity' (Fan. The particles are picked up by the drag force and will be entrained as long as this force is greater than the gravitational force.rhg .12) (3.

. 3. pressure and energy issues Whilst the mass balance model describes the pf flow quite well. Likewise mill differential pressure A P measured between the mill under-bowl and the separator is a critical variable since it is an indirect measure of mill recirculating load .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 69 :D Sum6 Gain9 Small portion fine coal (%) . it is essential for any control studies that thermodynamic and hydrodynamic effects are also considered. ]. An interesting non-linear model is described for the entrainment of coal of the larger ground size at the bowl rim.. The mill temperature Tm measured at the mill outlet is a critical variable from a safety viewpoint.3..2.10) except that of the two particle sizes in the ground coal the production of one is seen as proportional to the mass of raw coal on the table while the production of the other is proportional to the mass of the larger size ground coal on the table.Matlab/Simulink ® simulation A complete Simulink simulation model of the mill based on the above mass balance is shown in Figure 3.. This model uses three particle sizes that are carried through all the calculations.15) where nl is an experimentally fitted constant and Mgc is the mass of ground coal on the table. and must be controlled within narrow bands. Raw coal (l~g/s) Primar air (kg/s) Figure 3..too high a A p .3 Verticalspindle mill.Q Mill pf flow (kg/s) I ~ Transfer Fen3 Coal returned due to classification (%) Coal near classifier (kg) Gain7 Co.3 Modelling vertical spindle mills . The grinding model is similar to equation (3. A non-linear function such as this allows saturation to be modelled as might occur for example in mill choking. It is interesting to compare the above model with the more empirical model developed by O'Kelly (1997).. u 2 e d due ~ ~ ' to air velocity (%) Transfer Fen2 Mill level (kg) Coal returned due to mill rim (%) dmd Raw coal Saturation Transport (kg/s) Sum aulrll Grinding zo~e~Vtable (kg) ..temperature.. This is expressed as rhpff = kpr(mprmgc) n' thpa (3.

It is assumed that the mill temperature is measured in the mill pf outlet duct and that this lumped parameter Tm is the same as the mill body. 3. By standard techniques these quantities can be written as: C)pai = Clthpa(Tpa . . A P and E are outlined below.= qin -. The simulation equations for Tm. Mill wear can also be related to A P. coal and air mass temperature in the mill.qpfo -.16) where the 0 terms represent the input and output heat in the primary air.to0)thrc(Ta . 3. This pressure loss is caused by frictional losses. picking up coal from the table. changes in the air flow path area due to the suspended coal. suggest that significant improvements are possible using this approach. however.2. Early results. and Mm and Cn are the mass of metal in the mill and its specific heat. raw coal and the moisture. It may be possible to improve the temperature model by including heat generated during grinding so that the temperature of the coal bed differs from the measured pf outlet temperature. This would require a higher-order dynamic model and much more information on coal mass and surface parameters.Tm A simple and useful model of mill temperature can be obtained from a global input/output energy balance.qout = 0pai + qrei + C)moi-. The mill energy balance then results in MmCn---~.2.70 Thermal power plant simulation and control indicates possible mill overload and will trip the plant. Equation (3.3.tol)rhrc where Tpa and Ta are the primary air and ambient air temperature.2 Mill differential pressure .Tin)C2 C)moi -----to0rhrc(Ta .1 Mill t e m p e r a t u r e .Ümoo dTm (3.Tin) C)rci = (1 . rhair is the air flow outlet of the mill and the coefficients Ci are the appropriate specific heats. and energy lost by the air in picking up the coal. a differential pressure A P is developed between the under-bowl pressure and the pressure in the separator.qpao .A P As the primary air flows through the mill. Another useful measurement and model relates to the energy E needed to drive the mill and its coal load.Tin)C3 qpao = C1 thairTm 0pro = C2rhpfTm qmoo = C3tolrhrcTm + Co(wo . The problem is complex because there is a mixture of single-phase air flow below the bowl and two-phase coal/air flow in the separator.3.16) with the above substitutions represents the temperature equation used in the simulations.

3 Energy model Large coal mills consume significant amounts of power amounting to about 500 kW at full load. then the energy E required by a mill charged with coal mass m is E = m E u + W.18) Assuming Eu is given by Bond's law (Kunii and Levenspiel. Details are given in Fan (1994) with the resulting equation for A P being kree-Tds . the global model is represented by a set of constant-coefficient lumped-parameter models. useful information about mill wear. coal hardness and other operational issues can be resolved. Unfortunately there is little coal mill data available so that most of the few models available in the literature are qualitatively evaluated or checked against a number of simple step responses. If Eu is the energy required by a unit mass of coal particles to be ground from size Zl to size z2 and W is the energy required to drive an empty mill.3. Some frequency response testing has been performed (Neal et al.3 Plant tests.z l I/2) (3. kre and krl are complex functions of mill air flow. Consequently. A similar relationship for the consumed energy is given by Corti et al. and it has been suggested by Corti et al. the mill power consumption E is mainly a function of the amount of coal mass m on the mill grinding table. kpa.•2 A P = kpedh + kpadth~a + (1 + Tms) 2dmrc + krldMtr (3. 1969) then E = mkB(Z21/2 -.17) where dh is the distance between the mill entry and the measuring point.19) where kB is a constant depending on the coal.Modelling and control o f pulverised fuel coal mills 71 A global model for A P can be developed from an energy balance between the air input and the mill measuring point. It should be noted that the mass of the mill M is constant. These parameters can be determined off-line and stored in a look-up table relating their values to operating conditions or they can be determined adaptively on-line. results and fitting model parameters Models of physical plant are of course only as good as how well they fit the data. (1986) that data collection was being carried out by ENEL in Italy. This will be discussed in subsequent sections. 3. 3.. In addition by observing the mill power requirements for coal pulverising.2. Since z2 is determined by the mill classification settings which are fixed. . The parameters kpe. (1986). (3. 1980). and the raw coal distribution is more or less constant.

or air flow with constant fuel set-point. power demand was set constant. and a step change was applied to fuel flow with constant primary air setpoint. Three different mill control configurations were used. the model has the same 70 per cent load parameters as the previous simulation. data from the special tests and design data were used in a heuristic way. It can be seen that the model responses are quite satisfactory. temperatures and flows from all around the boiler turbine plant. on an empty mill to determine the no-load relationship between mill A P and primary air.4 where the mill power and mill A p outputs are shown. plant power demand was ramped up and down with the normal mill mass/mass control in place so that fuel and primary air varied. In this test the mill PA flow was constant and the feeder speed step changed after 90 and 430 samples. the data are not available for general use. In the other two experiments mill controls were removed. Deterioration in the results is obvious both for . It was quickly found that a large number of parameters were constant throughout plant operation. for example. This means that step and ramp changes are made and during the experiments normal plant controls are maintained except around the mills. Rather steady-state data.2 when fitted to data collected from power stations in New South Wales. In Figure 3. Since the experiments were carefully designed it was possible to fit many of the parameters to the data by simple least squares. The fitted model test results against the data are shown in Figure 3.5 a similar test is carried out but at 80 per cent load. Data logging includes the mills (six of them) and appropriate pressures.72 Thermal power plant simulation and control In this section we describe some model data fitting carried out using the model from section 3. In the first experiment. it is worth mentioning the fact that the data was collected from experiments carried out on two plants. The tests were also carried out for new mill rollers and worn mills. Following each step the plant was allowed to settle before the next step occurred. No particular parameter identification method was used to fit the model parameters. It was developed in a collaborative project between the University of New South Wales and Pacific Power International in a project designed to develop and test modern control concepts as applied to coal mills. Once the first set of parameters was determined the simulation model was run in parallel with the mill and the resulting error signal was then used to further refine parameters. Australia. The experiments were specially designed by the modellers. Although this approach might appear somewhat ad hoc it is a very effective engineering approach and an excellent way of building up knowledge and understanding of the plant for modeller and plant engineer alike. transient data. Extensive experiments were carried out for five different power demands between 60 and 90 per cent MCR. The parameters used in the model were determined for 70 per cent load as the feeder speed indicates. Unfortunately. However. one a 500 MW plant and the other a 660 MW plant. To cope with these variations a distributed model parameter set was determined as discussed later. but a small set of parameters varied with load and other factors such as wear. plant technical staff and operators so that model parameter estimation was possible without excessively disturbing the plant or placing too much demand on the operators. In passing. In addition special tests were carried out.

15 1. 300 . 700 .3 I I l I l I I [ 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.1 1. In the first 600 samples the feeder speed was constant and the air varied.model output. 600 . I I I I I I I d 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Figure 3. Sample time = 3 s steady-state values and for the transient response. 1. 900 .2 1. A similar test at 50 per cent load showed even worse transient performance.05 C [ I I I i I I I 100 22 20 o = 18 16 14 I 200 .25 ~.4 Step changes in feeder speed at 70per cent load (fixed parameter model): solid line -field test data. 400 . 800 . 500 .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 75 73 70 65 L 6C 100 360 ~" 340 320 o 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 300 280 b 1. Figure 3. dotted line . After 800 samples both feeder speed .6 shows the results of a more complicated test.

It can b e seen t h a t the data fit for a fixed m o d e l for this test is n o t very g o o d a n d especially after 800 s a m p l e s w h e r e the error increases. . . . Sample time = 3 s a n d air vary t h r o u g h r a t h e r large c h a n g e s .5 Step changes in feeder speedat 80per cent load (fixedparameter model). . . ~7 16 14 I I [ l I l I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Figure 3. . . . . . 100 i i i r 70 ¢~'ll~r~Pd~t'~'~|L~'g~ t 200 300 400 500 f i i i I 600 i I 700 800 400 380 360 340 32O 300 1. In this data the mill is ' c h o k i n g ' d u e to the h i g h coal flow a n d low air flow. . ~ - - .. .6 1. . . . S u c h a n e v e n t is n o t u n u s u a l and c o u l d c a u s e the mill to b e shut down. T h i s . . . . . . ..5 e~ I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1. . dotted line . .. . . .4 1. .74 Thermal power plant simulation and control 85 80 75 .2 24 I I I I I I I 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I 500 I 600 700 800 ~" o 22 20 . .model output. .." solid line -field test data. . .3 1. .

Llll i . ~ . Sample time = 3 s p h e n o m e n o n . ~ l . . .5 22 ~ o i.LO 75 i I 500 lO'O0 1500 300 b 250 0 500 ' 1o'o 0 1500 15 0.4. . ~ m .6 Step changes in both airflow and feeder speed (fixed parameter model): solid line -field test data. L i = ~ .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 90 80 70 60 50 40 0 450 ~" 400 350 o . . dotted line . It might be noted that in these figures we have not chosen to show the p f flow from the mill. 500 0 ' 1 00 O' 1500 20 18 16 d 14 I 0 500 1000 15oo Figure 3. This is because it cannot be measured and so cannot be c o m p a r e d with the model. is largely missed by our fixed parameter model.model output. ~L. m . . however. We will discuss this in section 3.

- .76 Thermal power plant simulation and control 7 5 .%-" ~ -=- 18 16 14 I I I I I I I I d 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Figure 3..... ..-. " - t .. .r.15 1....3 1. . ~T -.......... . ..T r T 70 65 LT.model output.. .test data. .. T h i s difficulty can b e o v e r c o m e by u s i n g a d i s t r i b u t e d p a r a m e t e r set m o d e l w h e r e different p a r a m e t e r s are u s e d for different o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s as m e a s u r e d . Sample time = 3 s T h e mill m o d e l l i n g p r o b l e m s j u s t d e s c r i b e d are d u e to the n o n .. i i 60 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 360 340 o e~ ~ 320 300 280 0 1.. . ...25 I I l I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 t~ 1..l i n e a r i t i e s in the p l a n t so t h a t one set o f p a r a m e t e r values w i t h the s i m p l e m o d e l c a n n o t g l o b a l l y fit the data..1 C 1. ......2 1.. dotted line ..7 Step changes in feeder speed at 70 per cent load (distributed parameter model): solid line ..05 I I I I I I I I 0 22 100 I 200 I 300 I 400 I 500 I 600 I 700 I 800 I 900 ~ 20 - - . .

35 1. 70 a 400 0 1 O0 .model output.45 I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1. 300 . dotted line . 600 700 800 ~' 380 360 340 320 3O0 0 1. .8 Step changes in feeder speed at 80 per cent load (distributed parameter model): solid line .43.3 1.4 1.2 0 24 22 2o I l l I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 14 d 0 I I I I I I I 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Figure 3.test data. 500 . 400 .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 85 77 8o 75 LI. By dividing the operating space up into regions and then forming a database of parameter sets for each region a more satisfactory model can be produced. Sample time = 3 s by mill feeder speed and PA flow.25 1.6 are shown with the distributed models in Figures 3.7-3. The results of the same experiments shown in Figures 3. 200 . .9 and are obviously much .

50 40 450 ~" 400 I I I a 5OO i 1000 i 1500 o 350 300 b 2513 1.9 are particularly interesting since they show the 'choking' behaviour well. Figure 3.4 1. Sample time = 3 s improved. dotted line .. The modelling results shown in this section are very encouraging.:. The results of Figure 3.78 Thermal power plant simulation and control 90 80 70 i ~" 60 ~.. It should be remembered.test data..10 shows the distributed results for a 'worn mill' over a range of loads and these are also good.2 1 ' 500 i 10'0 0 i 1500 0..6 1.model output. however.8 1. 500 10 0 1500 Figure 3.. that to obtain this behaviour requires a lot of plant ..9 Step changes in both airflow and feeder speed (distributed parameter model): solid line .8 22 20 18 16 14 L I 500 1000 1500 i l y ..

for all loads a n d for c h a n g e s in o t h e r factors such as coal calorific value a n d m o i s ture. w h i c h m u s t be d o n e for g o o d a n d w o m mills.5 a n alternative a p p r o a c h will b e discussed. dotted line . Sample time = 3 s testing a n d data collection. a n d thus requires a large database. .4 1.test data.Modelling and control o f pulverised fuel coal mills 80 79 60 t~ 50 0 350 300 o ~ 200 i 400 I-- I I -- / 600 800 1000 1200 1400 --.~ I I I I I I b 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1. In section 3.model output.6 1.10 Operation with a worn mill (distributed parameter model): solid line .8 1.250 200 0 2 .2 1 I I I I I I 0 24 "~ o Z~ d 22 20 18 16 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 I ~ I I I I 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Figure3.

There are a number of key issues that must be discussed in relationship to Figure 3. With most plants now controlled by distributed control systems.4 3..g. The two most important issues are the use of pulverised fuel pf feedback in the fuel control loop and the contents of the milling group box. The unit load controller essentially maintains the balance between thermal power in the boiler. In operation the unit demand sets the set-point for pressure and power output. the use of derivative control in the feedforward signals. and mechanical-electrical power developed by the turbine generator.. either locally (LC) or remotely (RC) from the load dispatch centre. In practice. Fundamental to this balance is the steam pressure at the inlet to the throttle valves (TVs) or turbine governor valves.~ I Steampressure Pulverised fuel measuremer ~ m e ~ surerr er tf___q I set-point Bo~l~t~Pl~eSrS. and the controlled variables are fuel flow and TV position. it is helpful to fit mill control into the broader base of unit control.. since fuel gas composition is strongly linked with furnace behaviour. ~ FUce~Air .. [02 set point I [ I 02 controller F 1 [ Flue gas r-] [ I Steampressure output ~ ] ~ Heat~Bc le-~r .1 Mill control General issues To understand mill control and all its issues..4. The figure also shows an oxygen controller.11. but increasingly coordinated or integrated controls are used as shown in Figure 3. Isu'. L. MW measurement I TV position measurement i ~A1 ~ ] nator ]M~ output Figure 3. In this figure the controlled outputs are steam pressure and MW load.. and the control systems do the rest.11 Unit fuel. Variations of the controller structure are also possible. it is 0 2measurement aemana / ~-] ~ I gen. e. air and MW controllers and power plant . it is fairly straightforward to set controller parameter values for stable operation over an acceptable load range._ Gen.11.80 Thermal power plant simulation and control 3. There are many ways in which this can be done.

2 Control studies on a single mill As we have seen it is very important that the milling group and hence the individual mills provide the correct amount of fuel. Primary air flow and temperature are significant influences in mill control as we shall now see. .~ demand [ Fuel controller [-~ PIPI + +__~ ~+ ~ +1~ ! 1 4 .~ 6 I Pressure measurement Feeder speedmeasurement1 I controller I HOtair [ . . . 6 Figure 3. . In addition.12 shows a more detailed description of the unit fuel control part of Figure 3. . In the rest of the chapter we will first consider the control of a single mill in an attempt to improve how an individual mill is actually controlled. . For safe and efficient mill and furnace operation primary and secondary air flow must also be correct. . . . . Feeder1 Submail 2 controlsystem • 3 ~ 4 ~ 5 .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 81 . . Pressure set-point + ( ~ Steampressure controller 1-----] + PID ~ . Figure 3. . . . . . . . The above two issues of fuel flow measurement and multiple mill use are key issues in overall mill control. . . . . . . Mill performance is also influenced by mechanical issues like mill wear. Secondary air flow is important in the furnace but does not affect the mill. there are major mill problems due to the uncertainty in mill input. . The final part of the chapter will then discuss overall mill control and the development of an intelligent operator advisory system. . . . 3. . . . . . .12 Unit fuel control with air/fuel mass/mass submill control not possible to measure the pf feedback and in addition the milling block is not just one mill but many mills . .11. . . since pf flow cannot be measured. This means that depending on load. . . . but transiently there are significant differences resulting in challenging environmental problems during load change that significantly reduce maximum load change rates. . . . . ~ Hot air damper 1 . . . . In addition.4. mills must be switched in and out of service. . . In steady-state operation this is a satisfactory thing to do. These operator diagnostic issues are of great importance and must be considered in the development of any useful mill control system. . . . .up to eight for example for a 500 MW unit. . I Fuel control signal [ I. . . Note that the fuel demand is for the entire mill group and this has to be split into the fuel demand for each of the individual mills. . . . especially calorific value and wetness. . . . Its control is usually fairly simple and is done by measuring the air pressure . . it is usual to replace this measurement by the feeder speed measurement of fuel flow. . . . . . as set by the unit demand. mill choking and mill fire.

PA flow spd.. The basic idea behind the control of primary air and fuel to the mill.Air damper • . the submill control system. The air temperature is set by the requirements of having the coal sufficiently dry in the mill whilst at the same time not having the mill temperature too high and thus risking mill explosion. spd. This load line is predetermined for a mill and shows the relationship between the air mass flow and the coal mass flow required for the mill to operate in the safe air-fuel range of 1. is fairly straightforward and is based on the so-called 'load line' of the mill. In this mode the overall fuel demand is compared with the fuel being produced as measured by the feeder speed. The minimum air flow is set by the need to establish a satisfactory recirculating load in the mill.. which is usually used since it allows fuel to move first. In the PA controller the feeder speed and the computed air flow are compared with the load line in the function generator (FG) and an error signal generated to drive the Fuel [ demandlb~ (Frompres.f. meas.5-2.82 Thermalpower plant simulation and control in the hot air duct to the burners and controlling this by simple feedback to a desired set-point.' feedback Othermill fdr."~ demand J ~ l pf -O I ~ I ~ ~ ~ MILL PA flow STemp "~" Cold • air ql I Hot air Figure 3. a PI fuel controller then regulates the feeder speed as required. set-point LFdr. Where:* . Note that it is a purely static relationship and most mills are only operated at 40-100 per cent MCR. measurement Mill temp. .5. computation | . controller) Fuel controller ~ ~ Fuelcontrol I ' " I ] r signalto mills S~ Fdr. There are a number of ways of controlling the mill to meet all these requirements with the most usual being so-called mass/mass mill control. PA controller pf Mill temp.13 for the air follow mode. The mass/mass mill controller can be operated in either air follow mode or coal follow mode with the basic idea being shown in Figure 3.13 Mass~mass control of mill (air follow mode) . spd. The box RB is the rnnback controller whose purpose will be described later.Sensors ~ Raw c o a l j Fuel control ~ l J signal ~ " i oa.

~ demand [ . I I . This method is shown in Figure 3. spdN. 2~U U:L Imeasurement tl Mill temp. as shown. -point "\ P T / .O C RC° ~ d a i r M I L ~L - - " I . Where: * . 1989). and if they are equal no change in feeder speed from its normal mass/mass value is used._.. Should this value rise too high then the runback controller (RB) reduces the coal feeder speed to a minimum value securing safe operation of the mill. Any difference. . Its transient operation is. the recirculating load. This pressure ratio is compared to a predetermined constant KRLD.~ _. the recirculating load derivative. instead of the fuel demand error.PA flow computation I1_Air damper . poor since it does not continuously use information about the internal coal storage in the mill.-Sensors ~ils. 1989). which is then used to control hot primary air flow. set . x / ~ I ~ Fdr. however.otair Figure 3. however.14 where the main difference can be seen to be the use of feeder speed as a control variable working on a pressure measurement ratio. since a high A P indicates dangerous mill operation (ICAL. The performance of the mass/mass controller can be improved using a method based on the Hardgrove grindability index (ICAL..14 Mill control using Hardgrove index . The mill mass/mass controller is simple and reliable and extensively used.£-"x. The pressure ratio is defined as A P divided by A Pair. The mill AP measures the resistance of the mill to the primary air flow and is thus indirectly measuring the amount of coal in the recirculating load in the operating mill.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 83 hot air damper thus modulating air flow. which is an important factor in dynamic mill control. ] Milltemp.. Fuel ] Fuelcontroller ~ demand x~ 1--7 Fuelcontrol [ (Frompres~? " ~ signalto mills| controller) ~ _ _ ~ Othermill PA flowmeas. ] .~ " . will cause a change in feeder speed with an increase in pressure ratio indicating too high a recirculating load and vice versa. . Simultaneously the temperature control loop adjusts the cold air input so that the mill outlet temperature remains at its set-point." %wi7 I ' PAiow[ ~ Fi~~°ntr°l ] K I ~ Coalfeeder ~ temp.

4. Parameters of the model can then be fitted to .. however. The difference in the speed of response causes significant pollution problems during transients. when integrated into the coordinated control of the overall plant.3 Mill control using p f flow Many attempts have been made to develop suitable instruments for on-line measurement of pf flow (Maffezzoni. Improved pulveriser control is usually achieved by lagging the PA flow to the load demand change whilst having the feeder speed respond immediately and including a lead feedforward signal from the PA flow measurement (Peet and Leung. the output of the mills in the form o f p f flow or energy is not measured. This of course is not surprising since the pf flow is now controlled directly by feedback. modifying the pressure ratio. 1994. such as load. 1987). In both the above control systems. More success has been achieved by inferential methods. because of the out-of-balance fuel-air ratio. The mass/mass controller by contrast does not produce this extra coal. reasons given by the industry for the low take-up rate of the system. The model can be obtained either by linearising a dynamic model of the system (Fan. It should be noted in passing. rapidly resulting in an overshoot in feeder response. attempts are made using lag-lead filter networks. The reasons for this can be seen from Figure 3. is discussed. or on a more ad hoc basis (Clarke et al. excellent performance is possible from this control system . the lag and lead settings are strongly affected by the operating conditions of the mill. and a number of these are working on-line (Waddington and Maples. All on-line experiments or simulation studies seem to show significant improvement in the mill control provided that good estimates of the pf flow can be determined. The results of Figure 3. provided all the functions required to set up the Hardgrove control loops are known. 1986) most of which have not been satisfactory. 1993). have performance almost matching oil-fired systems. Here the airflow measurement A Pair changes instantaneously. The essence of the idea is to set up a linear dynamic model of the boiler turbine and mills such that the pf flow and other important states of the mill are observable from available measurements. when appropriately tuned. however. The sensitivity of the controller performance to its parameter values and the cost of setting the system up properly are. In section 3.15c where the Hardgrove controller has an overshoot in coal on the grinding table following a demand change. 1989).4. wear and moisture. The extra coal contains a percentage of fines that are immediately transported to the pf flow. usually based on Kalman filtering using mill models. that the basic problem with the mass/mass control remains.indeed it has even been suggested that pulverised fuel mills might.3 the performance of the mass/mass controller and the Hardgrove controller. ICAL. 1989) that. no account is made for the dynamics of the primary air response and the coal response. It has been suggested (Fan.15 show that for a mill operating alone under mass/mass control or Hardgrove control the performance of the Hardgrove controller is significantly faster. 3. if one is available. namely.84 Thermal power plant simulation and control Based on this idea the feeder speed can either be increased or decreased to take into account the transient effects of the recirculating load. Unfortunately. In practice. 1994).

.=_ 1500 'r-.r~ b 15 10 5 0 5 100 150 200 "~ 2500 2000 ¢~ ~0 .2 0 30 5 0 I / I 100 150 200 "~ o 25 20 7- . 1000 ol) o o 500 0 I I I c 15 0 50 i 100 i 150 i 200 "~ 10 ~ 5 0 I I I d 0 50 100 150 200 Figure 3....Hardgrove.. L ~ E .... Properly set up....8 e- '~ 0. Standard Kalman filter (KF) programs can then be run to determine the filter gains.mass~mass. requiring skilful setting up and plant testing if robust estimates are to be available. the KF filter feedback system produces a time leading fuel estimation signal that can provide significant . dotted line . The whole process is non-trivial.4 0.15 Simulation results for mill control following fuel change: solid line .Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 85 0. Sample time = 20 s plant data with process and measurement noise parameters being particularly important. however..6 e EL a 0.

~ .17d).... where particular emphasis is placed on obtaining good low-order models.. as well as the mill and its controllers... Pressure measurement ~ ~ ~ ' ] PID pressure ] controller [ ~ u .. From Figure 3... .17a and b the throttle valve pressure and generator output responses are faster using feedback of the estimated pf due to the observed faster change in pf flow (Figure 3. ... .. . . . . . fast actuators are needed on the . (1989) and Fan (1994).. 1987). It should be noted that the simulation contains the boiler turbine systems and the pressure and power output controllers.. .16 was simulated in Matlab/Simulink ® (Fan. Figure 3. The responses show some oscillation but this is not serious.. 1994). . ..fuel control ~__ _ s!gna} . The results shown in Figure 3.. The process is well described by Clarke et al.. ~ ~ "[ controller [ "l ... . . .. i Steam/energy flow Figure 3..86 Thermal power plant simulation and control Fuel estimation ] ^1 _x .. costly. . .. To get some idea of the performance of the pf estimated controller the system of Figure 3. ..19a shows that the power output response of the Hardgrove controller is almost twice as fast... . . . The figure indicates that the pf controller keeps much tighter control of the generated power output and this is very significant since the stability to such unknown disturbances is very important. .16 Matlab/Simulink ® simulation of mill and power plant with mill control using estimated p f flow improvement. 1994. ... . however. .19 simulation results are shown of the mass/mass controller with estimated pf feedback compared with the system under Hardgrove control. .~ "J Pressure measurements Kalman filter 14 . . In Figure 3.... I | l . .. Waddington and Maples. Waddington. Even better performance of the pf feedback is shown in Figure 3.. 1989... [ " ] demand ' -- ' I ~ ~" Power output measurement PI power ~ controller Derived TV position reheater I ] dynamics ~ J o r '... Kalman filter estimators have been operating successfully in a number of power stations in the UK since the 1980s (Clarke et al. To achieve this response.. [ [ G ..18 where a 20 per cent disturbance in the fuel input energy has occurred at 50 samples..17 show the performance of the mass/mass controller under feeder speed feedback and pf feedback for a step increase in power demand at 10 samples. . . . . . . .

17 Plant control using feeder speed and estimated pf flow feedback: solid line . These relationships are usually difficult to obtain and must be determined regularly for each mill.fuel estimation feedback.5 I-10 a 5 100 150 200 460 440 o 420 4013 50 I I b 100 150 200 30 25 20 15 10 I I I 50 18 16 O 100 150 200 14 12 10 5o 100 ' 150 ' 200 Figure3. and even slight modelling errors dramatically affect performance. dotted line .feeder speed feedback. such as the relationship between mill pressure and mass flow. By contrast a properly tuned mass/mass controller . Sample time = 1 s control feeder and precise knowledge is required about the mill.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 12 11"5 ! o i I i 87 11 .> 10.

18 System response to fuel step disturbance: solid line -fuel estimation feedback. Sample time = 10 s . .5 16 15.5 II . 11 . . . . ~ I I 50 100 150 200 250 300 Figure3. I I I I 50 1O0 150 200 250 300 630 Z~ I I 628 626 ~9 J t .5 17 16. . \ g 624 622 [ ) I I I 50 17.-& 10. dotted line -feeder speed feedback. . . . .5 iI II i "~• ~.5 50 100 150 200 250 300 12 I I I I I 11. . .5 .88 Thermal power plant simulation and control 16 Z~ 15. . . . 15 14. .5 i 1O0 150 200 250 300 I I I I I II rl q~ 0 "-T . . ..

Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 8O0 ~600 400 200 o 0 6O ea~ I I I I i i i i 89 1O0 200 300 400 500 ~.. Sample time = 2 s .Hardgrove feedback... dotted line ..19 Simulation results of system with Hardgrove and KF feedback: solid line . t~ I 1O0 200 300 400 500 15 i i I 10 ---- . 5 ~ d ~ 0 I I I I 0 1O0 200 300 400 500 Figure 3.Kalman filter feedback......~ 40 o ~- 20 o 0 I I i i l O0 200 300 400 500 20 15 R 10 e~ 5 0 0 ....~...

90

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with pf feedback performs acceptably well, is easy to set up, very robust, and does not require high-performance actuators. Hardgrove control is therefore not very often used in industry whilst mass/mass controllers with pf feedback are becoming more popular (Waddington and Maples, 1987). The tuning of the mill control systems shown in Figures 3.11 and 3.12 has been carried out using simulation, plant knowledge and control experience. Most of the controllers are PI or PID controllers, which are part of a complex multivariable system that includes pressure control, electrical power and throttle valve control as well as local submill controllers. The procedure used is to tune the inner loops first, then the subsystem loops and finally add in feedforward compensation. The method has proved quite quick and satisfactory. The controller settings also vary with the mode of control, e.g. boiler or turbine following, so this must also be considered. The control system developed in this section is outlined in Figure 3.20. It is similar to the scheme of Maffezzoni (1986), which includes a special instrument for measuring pf flow as against the use of a soft sensor here. Note also the inclusion of limits in the control valves/dampers that are a function of mill level. 3.4.4 Advanced multivariable and predictive control

The control described in section 3.4.3 is essentially SISO control with ad hoc procedures used in the design. Mills, besides being highly non-linear, are also multivariable. In this section we examine the use of multivariable control using linear quadratic (LQ) and predictive control techniques. Rees and Mee (1973) describe a very simple study of mill control using LQ techniques. The resulting control scheme decoupled the two major control loops and added dynamic LQ designed compensators. Major studies using LQ control were

Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills

91

carried out in the UK in the 1980s resulting in a number of power stations adopting LQ methods on-line (Clarke et al., 1989; Waddington, 1994; Waddington and Maples, 1987). Significant improvements in mill control were shown. In more recent times there has been some attempt made to control mills using predictive control with quite interesting results (O' Kelly, 1997; Palizban et al., 1995; Rees, 1997). In the simulation study described by O'Kelly the model used is similar to the model of section 3.2. Hard non-linearities are placed on both state and control variables with tests driving the plant over the whole non-linear operating region. A fairly simple receding horizon predictive controller forms the basis of the control and is implemented in Simulink on a 486 platform. Figure 3.21 shows the response of the mill during start-up. In developing the responses it is assumed that the mill model used by the controller acceptable. The simulation assumes that mill wanning starts at t = 0 and at 20 minutes the feeder is started at its minimum speed. At 30 mins mill loading commences at around 10 per cent rated flow per minute until the mill reaches its operating condition. After 90 mins the results show the mill responding to fast ramp changes. The results of Figure 3.21 show that the predictive controller has excellent setpoint tracking control even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. In the start-up test shown, the performance of the controls is superior to the current control. Robustness studies have shown that the controller is not sensitive to quite large modelling errors and will respond well provided that the linear model response is regularly updated and the general direction of the model response is correct. The controller does not require excessive computing performance and is capable of being implemented on most modem DCSs. Advanced techniques of mill control using fuzzy logic and neural network concepts have also been tried in simulation with promising results (Cai et al., 1997; Cao and Rees, 1995).

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92

Thermal power plant simulation and control

3.5

Intelligent control and operator advisory systems

In the work that has been described so far, it has been shown that it is possible to develop non-linear dynamic models of a vertical spindle mill and to use these models to better understand the mill and design improved control systems. This is especially true for normal operation of the mill where the model is a satisfactory global predictor of plant behaviour. Mills, however, are also subject to regular non-normal changes caused by such factors as roller wear, coal grindability and calorific value changes, moisture content, mill blockage and the like, and these major events which are not modelled currently require experienced operator intervention or mill shut-down. It might therefore be expected that any successful advanced mill control system would be able to handle all these conditions. This can only be done, however, by combining mill controllers with some type of knowledge-based system to take into account the critical events that have just been described. To the authors' knowledge, no such system exists for coal mills, although some expert systems have been used for power plant control (Majanne et al., 1991). In this section, we try to show what could be done by listing some work from our own experience, mainly simulation studies, but carried out in collaboration with the local power industry. The motivation for doing such work is quite strong, since it can be estimated that substantial savings can be made from such factors as fewer mill fires, fewer mill runbacks, automatic operation of the mill over a wider range, optimal mill operation, and rapid diagnoses of mill faults. An intelligent control and advisory system (ICOAS) adds considerable expertise to the existing control system. It can be developed either as part of the existing DCS or as a stand-alone system. Its two major features are the intelligent operator advisory system and its associated alarms (IOAS), and the hierarchical supervisory control (HSC). The IOAS performs quick and early diagnostics of plant faults and possible causes and it also gives reasoning behind the alarms and recommended operator actions. A 'history' feature allows this information to be stored for future use and operator training. The HSC integrates the existing controls with plant operational knowledge and operation. It can also supply limits to controlled process variables to ensure mill stability under all operating conditions. An important feature of ICOAS is its use as a 'soft sensor', using either the process model or a Kalman filter. These estimates can then be used to improve the IOAS and to create useful indices for features such as mill wear, the effect of excessive moisture and other operational issues not included in the dynamic models. Included with the ICOAS is an additional advanced graphical user interface (GUI), which displays all the additional information developed above in a form compatible with existing plant graphics.

3.5.1

Knowledge-based operator support system

The ICOAS system just described can be extremely complex and there are many problems in modelling, expert control and the like, to be overcome. A prototype ICOAS

Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills
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has been developed by the University of New South Wales in a collaborative project with the utility Pacific Power International (PPI). The system known as KnowledgeBased Operator Support System (KBOSS) has been installed in stand-alone mode in a small Bailey Infi90 DCS (Fan and Rees, 1997). It has been tested, for a limited number of plant faults, including mill wear, mill choking and mill optimisation on a Matlab/Simulink ® boiler, turbine and mill simulation and also partially tested on a 500 MW power plant. The essential features of KBOSS are shown in Figure 3.22. The scope of KBOSS essentially covers the IOAS part of the ICOAS system. The KBOSS rule base has been developed to recognise 15 faults or operational conditions covered by approximately 50 rules. The rule sets have been developed to provide a range of examples or scenarios including plant faults (feeder blockage, worn mills), operational problems (mill choking, mill moisture) and supervisory control (auto mill load sharing). Rule development has been achieved by surveying the operational literature, talking with plant experts, carrying out mill tests and reading training and maintenance literature. Direct experience of faults has also been included. To extend the work to cover all major faults, a more formal knowledge-base development process is needed, as described by AI-Dabbagh et al. (1993) and Parker (2003). The system described

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Thermal power plant simulation and control

in Figure 3.22 has been developed using a reference model combined with a fuzzy logic/pure rule base inference mechanism. For normal process behaviour the model matches the plant behaviour and no advice needs to be presented to the operator. However, when there is a system mismatch, the knowledge base is searched and appropriate advice given to the operator for action. The searching mechanism used in the knowledge base is multilayered with a branch tree structure. This means that the complete knowledge base need not be searched for all situations, thus increasing search efficiency and reducing the computational burden. A key feature of the KBOSS system is the existence of a good reference model. In section 3.3 it has been shown that this requires a large database and this entails extensive plant experimentation. Furthermore, each time the worn mill rolls are replaced (approximately 6,000-10,000 hrs) a completely new model of the mill must be established. To avoid this problem, KBOSS uses a special adaptive control system that continuously computes local dynamic models. Snapshots of these models are then stored in the database as the reference models. These snapshots will only need to be changed when future plant behaviour indicates significant differences between the database reference model and the latest dynamic model. A point of significant interest is that the adaptive model can be used very effectively by any advanced model-based controller such as those described in section 3.4.4. The above system seems to work quite well in its limited task for both simulation and plant studies as the two examples in the next section indicate. 3.5.1.1 Mill runback and KBOSS control

The mill runback controller described in section 3.4 is essentially a switch which detects high mill load defined by a specified value of high mill A P (4.5 kPa). Whilst it is certainly the case that the mill should be shut down to minimum load if the high A P is due to mill overload, high A P can be caused by other factors which do not require such action. Since shutting down to minimum load is an operational loss and under certain circumstances can result in mill instability, there is a considerable incentive to be sure that runback is absolutely necessary. In Figure 3.23, the high mill A P has been caused not by load, but by high moisture content in the raw coal and reduced mill grindability. This can be determined by KBOSS using not just a mill A P measurement but also mill power, mill level and other soft sensed mill conditions, together with a set of rules. Once this possibility has been recognised, the operating condition can be alleviated without running the plant down. Figure 3.23 shows that when using the runback controller, the plant is run back to base load when 4.5 kPa is reached. However using KBOSS stops A P rising above 4.5 kPa so that the mill can continue running.

3.5.1.2 Optimal grinding control Mills consume large amounts of power so it makes sense to try to optimise the coal grinding process. Experiments show that there is a best depth for the most efficient coal grinding and that this depth can be related to mill power and the soft sensed mill

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Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills

97

level through a set of knowledge-based rules. The results of Figure 3.24 show that an expert system can hold the mill power in a tight optimum range (350-400 kW) as shown in Figure 3.24a. Note that in Figure 3.24d the mill control keeps A P just below its critical value.

3.6

Conclusions

In this chapter we have looked at some problems associated with the control of vertical spindle coal mills. It is now well recognised that all the various types of coal mills associated with power plant have difficult control problems and often restrict plant take-up of load or cause plant shut-down. The chapter shows that, contrary to conventional wisdom, it is possible to develop fairly simple models of coal mills which can be used to obtain better performance. The chapter develops a vertical spindle mill model to better understand mill control. This can be done by estimating pf flow from the mill and by evaluating the internal mill recirculating loads. This information can also be used as part of an intelligent control system to improve operator performance and the analysis of mill alarms. The results given in the chapter are largely the outcome of simulation studies. Limited studies have however been carried out on a 500 MW plant in a collaborative project with PPI. These studies also show promising results indicating that mill control is a fruitful area for research and development.

3.7

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the support given to this project by the former Australian Electrical Research Board and by Pacific Power International. The latter support was made possible by Mr Don Parker of PPI whose knowledge and enthusiasm were a great help. Dr Michael Cheng must also be thanked for his work on the simulation and site tests towards the end of the project.

3.8

References

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and ALASIVRU. DEMARCO. (Ed.. D.: 'Boiler-turbine dynamics in power plant control'. pp.: 'Concepts.: 'Control of electric power'. N. pp. Pittsburgh. Proceedings of the IFAC 13th Tri-annual World Congress.. 1986.: 'An intelligent expert system (KBOSS) for power plant coal mill supervision and control'.. vol. R. 33-38 . RADICE. 49-55 CLARKE.. 2/1-2/6 CORTI. 1989) KUNII.. O. 1997. San Francisco. Windsor.. R. Proceedings of the Electrical Engineering Congress.. Cancun. 1996. W.. practice and trends in fossil fired power plant control'.S. lEE Colloquium. and VARCOP.: 'Control and modelling of coal mills'. Q. Huntington. RVORONEN. (1). and UCHIDA. 1. 29-35 ICAL: 'General principles of coal milling' (ICAL Publication. 1992. Germany. and ZIZZO. 1989. N.. 1453-1482) MAFFEZZONI. G. 1989/27 pp. Berlin. G. C.: 'Fluidisation Engineering' (Krieger. G. Control Engineering Practice. L. L. 1996. and REES.. A. J. New York. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Power Plants.98 Thermalpower plant simulation and control CAO. in LEVINE. T. WADDINGTON. S. 1989. and WALLACE. New York. pp. Supervision and Safety for Technical Process. G. New York. 101-108 HOUGEN. and LAUSTERER. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Power Plants and Power Systems. 1986. 1-13 MAJANNE. H. pp. pp. J. pp. and LEVENSPIEL.. M.. 1970) FAN. W. Beijing. ISA Transactions.. C. 1-9 MAFFEZZONI. 1969) KWATNY. 4. G. Mexico. (1). Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems. Germany. ME thesis. China. KURKI. Sydney. O.: 'Modelling of vertical spindle mills in power plant'. 1994 FAN. W. Q.: 'Optimal regulation for thermal power plant'.: 'Hierarchical online diagnostics system for power plants'. N. pp. P.: 'Fuzzy logic control of vertical spindle mills'.): 'The Control Handbook' (CRC Press. A. Connecticut.. 1995.: 'Control strategies for pulverised coal fired systems'.: 'The application of Kalman filters to load/pressure control of coal fired boilers'. J. M. and REES. Digest No. A. 1994.: 'Modeling and control of vertical spindle mills in power plant'. 235-240 FAN.: 'Temperature control using state feedback in fossil power plant'. Q. University of New South Wales. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plant and Power Systems. (1). pp. Baden-Baden. 19. IEEE Control Systems Magazine.: 'Process dynamics' (Barking Elsevier. 37-42 NAKAMURA. and REES. K. Y. J. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Fault Detection. 92-97 DOLEZAL. C. O... W. K. N. pp. and MAFFEZZONI. 9. 1991 MANN. pp. 1980. G.

Mexico. pp. New York. E: 'Dynamics of superheater control'. 150-155 ROBINSON. 2107-2114 O'KELLY. 34-43 REES. 1. 208-213 PALIZBAN. Australia. J. 1980. 51-63 WADDINGTON. H. Hong Kong. 1959. E: 'A model of the transient operation of a coal pulveriser'. pp. W. 25-36 .: 'Some thoughts on the advanced control of electric power plants'. N. Proceedings of the IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants. Journal of the Institute of Energy... C. and MAPLES. E A. A. O'KELLY. 1993. Beijing. Combustion. China. N.. R. Cancun. China. E: 'Dynamic simulation application in modem power plant control and design'. G. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Automatic Control of Mining.: 'Prototype design of operator knowledge base support system for pf mills'. pp. Chemical Engineering Science.: 'The control of large coal and oil fired generating units'. pp. 2003 PEET.: 'Advanced power plant control for large load changes and disturbances'.: 'Determination of mill and boiler characteristics and their effect on steam pressure control'. pp. 35. no. C. 641-649 REES.: 'Practical optimal predictive control of power plant coal mills'. Proceedings of the IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants. and WILSON.: 'Kalman filter applications for coal fired generating unit control'. 1. and MEE. 379-384 WADDINGTON.. pp. pp. G. 1994.. H. 24. pp. D. C. E A. pp. University of New South Wales. T. Beijing.: 'Synthesis of advanced mill control'. N. R W. G. Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems. K. 1995. Mineral and Metal Processing. J. 389.. 51.Modelling and control of pulverised fuel coal mills 99 NEAL. W.. 2002. (1). (4). and REES. (2). Transactions Institute of Measurement and Control. 209-228 REES. 1973. WADDINGTON. IEE Control'94 Conference. lEE Power Engineering Journal. and LEUNG. 177-183 PARKER. ME thesis. W. and LU. pp. Sydney. X.: 'Crushing and grinding process handbook' (John Wiley. 1981) PROFOS. 1997. N. W. L. D. 31.: 'Simulation and control studies of coal fired boiler systems'. 1987. 121-129 PRASHER. J. pp.. W. 1997. Proceedings of the IEE 2nd APSCOM Conference. J. 1985.

Accurate plant modelling and subsequent controller design is paramount to attaining the required performance and to seeking future improvements in design and operating procedures. and use this in an appropriate control scheme. Irwin 4. 1992).1 Introduction The increasing complexity of electric power systems. W. with adaptive control strategies lies in the robustness of the parameter estimation stage. Flynn and G. In power systems. as such. D. However. these methods tend to be very complex and. One solution to these problems is to obtain an accurate non-linear model of the plant. the tuning and integration of the large number of control loops typically found in a power station can prove to be a costly and time-consuming business. filters or delays.. 1991).Chapter 4 Generator excitation control using local model networks M. yet relatively easily applied modelling technique. it must incorporate a reliable jacketing scheme. such as adaptive control. neural networks have been applied to load forecasting. However. that attempt to improve overall control of turbo-generator systems. Moreover. Brown. yields a powerful. have had limited success in industry (Unbehauen. alarm processing and system diagnostics. Conventional fixed parameter control technology is unable to provide the most effective plant and system control over the full non-linear power plant operating range (Kanniah et al. 1984). Recently. The main difficulty. neural networks have generated considerable interest as an alternative nonlinear modelling tool (Hunt et al.. extending their operational stability margins (Wu and Hogg. Research studies have suggested a number of strategies. drives the need for continuing improvements in power plant performance and control. however. coupled with the demands of economic and operational requirements. Utilising the ability of the neural network to approximate arbitrarily non-linear vector functions and combining this with dynamic elements such as integrators. the application .D. 1996). if a self-tuning controller is to be a practical prospect. So.

black-box approach makes it difficult to incorporate a priori system information. This chapter investigates the use of LM control for generator excitation control. of the LMN is given by: M = F(~k. 1997). when used to control a laboratory-based microalternator system. The micromachine test facility is then described and all three controllers are compared against a series of typical disturbance rejection and set-point-following scenarios. ¢Pis a function of the current ~-- controller Inputs controller Model/ controller Output Interpolation~)-----------~[ controller Model/ regions Figure 4. An alternative approach that facilitates the use of conventional control techniques within a non-linear context is the local model network (LMN). The chapter begins with a description of the LM technique and explains how the technique is used to both model the generator system and to form a transparent and simple non-linear controller. and are multiplied by a basis or interpolation function Pi (¢P).1 Local model network structure . The architecture can be considered as a generalisation of a radial basis function neural network and is similar in form to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy inference system. the non-transparent. and secondly. and compares its performance with both a conventional fixed gain controller and a more sophisticated model-based self-tuning regulator. The output. i=1 The M individual local models fi (~) are functions of the measurement vector ~. 4. Figure 4. ¢p) = Z fi(¢)Pi(CP). making it very difficult to analyse their behaviour and to prove stability.102 Thermal power plant simulation and control of neural networks for modelling and control does have some fundamental limitations. neural network modelling fails to exploit the significant theoretical results available in the conventional modelling and control domain.2 Local model networks Local model networks are a recent development in the neural network field (MurraySmith and Johansen. ~. Firstly.1.

1) + . is that a priori knowledge of the process can be utilised in model structure selection. such that Pi (~0) --~ 1 in regions of ~0 where the local f / 0 are such that F(. state space. and y(k) and u(k) are the plant input and output at time k.2. by the exciter voltage. and the operating point vector. the number and initial position of the interpolation functions. . adaptive control schemes. such that M M aJ = Z i=l PJ (¢p(k)) aij.) is a good approximation to ~. a linear single-input single-output (SISO) ARX model of the generator-exciter system (Wu and Hogg. if the local models are of the linear ARX form. The basis functions Pi (~0) are commonly chosen to be normalised Gaussian functions: exp (-II~0 .n~) where n. VR.1) where the system output.. It is worth noting that in comparison with. over other nonlinear modelling techniques. where the equivalent f f j and fljare time varying to represent non-linearities in plant behaviour.l ) u ( k .then the LM network represents the non-linear ARX model ~(k + 1) = otly(k) + ct2y(k . ARMAX (AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous input). Hence. the form of the local models. for example. kd is .. 4. 1988) can be formed as: a ( z . and can be generated from a subset of the measurement data available.. For the present application of an automatic voltage regulator (AVR). The interpolation function can be viewed as a model validity function. while Pi (~0) ~ 0 when the local f / 0 are such that F(. etc. In order to take advantage of established linear techniques at the control design stage it is customary to use linear local models such as ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input). + f l n u ( k . ~o(k)..cill2/2a 2) Pi(~O) = EM_I exp (--lifo - cill2/2~ 2) where ci and ai represent the centre and width of each multidimensional Gaussian function.Generator excitation control using local model networks 103 operating region vector.) is not a good approximation to ~. ~t. e. VT. . then the parameters ~j and flj are dependent on the operating point.l ) y ( k ) = B ( z .g. here they depend on the operating point (Brown et al. flJ = E i=l PJ (~o(k)) bij. and if aij and bij are the parameters of the local linear ARX models. u(k). y(k).1 Plant modelling A major advantage that the local model network structure offers. n~ > 0.kd) + ~(k) (4.nc~) + ~ou(k) + ~lu(k . is represented by the terminal voltage. and the system input. rather than using the full model input vector. 1997). of the synchronous machine.+ Ctn~+ly(k .1) + .

1999). synchronised to an infinite busbar system. as the vector [Pr(k) QT(k)]. . based on both simulation and practical studies. and reactive power output. steady-state vt/vr res ~onsetime • .. The response time is determined as the time to reach approximately 63 per cent of the final. convenient and intuitive to select the operating point ~o(k).bnb z-nb where na and nb are the orders of the respective polynomials. ."" • q.104 Thermal power plant simulation and control the time delay in an integer number of samples.5 Reactive power (p u ) 0 02 ~e~\~° Figure 4.. response time and gain characteristics were examined. the number of local models required to adequately cover the operating space for the application. and z -1 is the backward shift operator. Each local linear model can then be identified for small perturbations about different values of PT and QT. For the local model network it is. has suggested that second-order ARX models are sufficient to capture the main dynamics of the AVR loop.3. In an attempt to determine M. and hence suitable selections are na = 2. QT.8 0.1 + a l z -1 + a 2 z -2 + . Here the polynomials A ( z . . is normally defined in terms of its real power output. ~(k) is a zero mean white noise sequence disturbing the system. Pr. The operating point of an alternator. therefore.2 and 4. Previous work by the authors and others.1) and B ( z .l ) = bo + b l z -1 + b2z -2 q. +anaz -ha B(z . at sample time k.1) are deft ned as: A(z -1) -. 4020- ~ ~ ~ 105 2 0. These were obtained by performing open-loop step tests in simulation across a wide range of operating points. .2 Synchronous machine response time characteristic . . Figures 4. . n b = 1 (Brown and Irwin.

..2 is re-examined it indicates that the minimum plant response time is around 1... This requirement potentially conflicts with the actual response time of the turbogenerator itself and could lead to ill-conditioning of the linear optimisation due to oversampling effects.... By inspection. . In order to create a more parsimonious representation. i ..u. Such an arrangement ... It is clear that the turbo-generator system is highly non-linear.... training of the LMN was performed using training data sampled at 300 ms. i ~e~\9 8 io. followed by linear optimisation of the local linear models (aij and bij) (Brown et al..6 s which would suggest a steady-state sampling interval of approximately 300 ms. particularly when operating at leading power factors where QT < 0.. It is also interesting to remember that a synchronous machine is open-loop unstable when PT is high and QT sufficiently negative. seven local models were considered sufficient to provide an accurate representation.3 Synchronous machine gain characteristic value. the local linear models were identified using a linear optimisation method with a sampling period of 20 ms..Generator excitation control using local model networks vt/vr gain 105 4000 - 000 2000 ""' ".. in order to establish the interpolation region parameters. a hybrid optimisation strategy was implemented... However. Subsequently.......... 1997). given that the operating point changes comparatively slowly.. Reactive power(p... Consequently. ° 200 0. with the interpolation region parameters fixed.5 ..... whereby a least squares cost function was minimised using non-linear optimisation for the centres and widths (ci and o-i ) of the interpolation functions..... ...) 0 02 Figure 4. while the gain equates the variation in terminal voltage to that of the exciter input. •~ 1000- i i... . The cost function was formed as the predictive errors of the LMN against an extended training data set.. while an AVR requires a sample period of 10-20 ms to enable boost/buck excitation transient response post fault.... with the majority of these models being centred in the leading power factor region where the variation in non-linearity is changing most rapidly. if Figure 4....

. 0... .. . ~ _ ~ ~ 4).4 i ... ! " : 0..4 LMN interpolation regions reduces the amount of training data required.... This type of perturbation is permissible on real plant.2 0 Interpolation on model 2 0.. The training data itself was obtained on a laboratory micromachine by superimposing a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRB S) on the exciter input with a 20 ms sample period.6 Reactive power 4).. . ': .106 Thermal power plant simulation and control Interpolation on model 1 0..i ...1 0 0. . i .2 0. and would be largely undetectable ....4 . and it..i .6 . 0..4 0. . i ' 1 0 ~ .2 o.i ... ' . ..3 0.4 Real power b Reactive power Figure 4..5 0. i .. speeds up the optimisation process. furthermore...3 . .5 0.~ .. . while driving the plant across different regions of the operating space..2 0 0..1 07 0.

4 1 ~).. .2 0 0.. ~ ~ ~ ' ...4 d Figure 4.. The result of the optimisation process was that the original figure of seven local models was reduced to five. ! ' "1 C . : ..4 0..5 i. 0.. :.. The normalised interpolation regions for the models are shown in Figure 4.. The data was then decimated to create the LMN model with a sample period of 300 ms. <.2 Real power Reactive power LMN interpolation regions (Continued) as the operating point of the machine changes during scheduled load-following or two-shifting operations. .30.. : 0....4.:...Generator excitation control using local model networks 107 Interpolation on model 3 0..2 .

2 0.4 0. However. this is not surprising given that individual models were deliberately placed in the leading power factor region...3 0. in the same manner as the local models. generalised predictive control or pole placement. 4. . to be used. Since these local controllers are interpolated to form a composite control output. The fixed gain controller is intended to be representative of existing commercial implementations.g. with commercial power system control manufacturers beginning to apply such strategies to their own automatic voltage regulators. self-tuning and fixed gain controllers are also described. conventional linear control theory can be exploited within a nonlinear control framework. PID. examination of the individual linear models reveals that some of them are both unstable and non-minimum phase. Consequently.108 Thermal power plant simulation and control Interpolation on model 5 0. The transparency of the LM structure permits any suitable linear design method. For comparison between the individual schemes.. In this way. for this study . e.1 0 0.1 Local model network control The local model network has been formed from second-order linear models. P ~l 2 0 Real p o w e r Figure 4. while prototype self-tuning schemes have performed acceptably in power stations (Malik et al.6 "1 . which makes it relatively straightforward to design appropriate linear controllers for each model.. the designer can shape the response of each controller to ensure uniform control performance across the entire operating range.3 Controller design Having developed a non-linear model of the turbo-generator system it now remains to design controllers for each of the individual local models. 1992).4 LMN interpolation regions (Continued) 4.3.

and since nb = 1.a2)z -1 ~-- whereupon. + gngZ -ng. . and the scalar term wo. A convenient approach for choosing S(z . Hence.1 ) y ( k ) .. kd the time delay in an integer number of samples. and R(z -1) = ro + rlz -1 + r2z -2 -1. the GMV controller equation is defined as (B(z -1) + wo) u(k) = . in this case na 2 and if it is assumed that kd = 1 and nw = 0.1 ) y ( k + kd) + W ( z .w2Z .l ) u ( k ) .l ÷ S2z -2. . . Wn the natural frequency.R ( z . stable. ...' ~~ 2) ~2~-~-1)] Sl------exp(-~oJnTs)[exp(-wnTs ~ 2 ~ .l ) r ( k ) where r(k) is the set-point.l u ( k ) ] • bo + wo 1 Controller design is completed by selecting the polynomial S(z -1) = 1 + SlZ .Generator excitation control using local model networks 109 the generalised minimum variance (GMV) algorithm (Wellstead and Zarrop. (4.2 -~. ~<1: ~ > 1: si = .l ) is to assume that it is a discrete.z-kdG(z -1) where G(z -1) = go + glz -l + g2z -2 + . and Ts the sampling period.2 × exp (-~ognTs)× cos (o)nTs 1 ~ .[-(go + g l z .1 --[.rnr z-nr S(Z -1) = 1 + slz . ..1 ) + e x p ( w n T s s2 = exp (-2~wnTs) where ~ is the damping ratio.al) + (s2 .WnwZ -nw" G(z -1) is introduced as S(z -1) ----A(z -1) -I. Form the plant pseudo-output y (k) as y(k + kd) = S ( z .b l z . it follows that G(z -1) = go + glz -1 = (sl .G ( z . Since. 1991) has been selected. -k.2) For a regulator application r(k) = 0. y(k) the system output and u(k) the system input at sample time k. using the discrete equivalent pole positions to an ideal continuous second-order filter. the controller equation reduces to u(k) -.l ) y ( k ) ÷ R(z-t)r(k). -~.. second-order filter.1 ) = / / 3 0 -~-//)lZ .l + s2z -2 + "'" + SnsZ-ns W ( Z .

an outer loop incorporating the process and feedback regulator.1. 1975).k<0 (4..3. w0. the scheme can be thought of as consisting of two loops . by introducing a damping torque through regulating the field flux linkage. For large steam turbine generators. which is then subsequently applied to the plant. The output of each controller is then multiplied by the respective interpolation function.1 Power system stabilisation For practical implementation. suitable S(z -l) and W(z -1) polynomials can be selected for each of the five controllers. 4. turbine shafts cannot be regarded as infinitely stiff. and the resulting weighted signals are summed to form the full control signal. Any vibrations can lead to operational difficulties of power system stabilisers. and an inner loop containing a recursive parameter estimator and design calculation.w(k) -1 <. . Consequently. the voltage regulator can introduce negative damping into a power system. etc. For the micromachine arrangement. permits detuning of the control signals and becomes necessary when dealing with non-minimum phase systems. requires the stabilising signal to be limited. Since there are five local models. 1984).3) where VT(k) is the terminal voltage. while ~ is a factor that determines how much weight is placed on the speed signal. Hence. These five controllers are operated in parallel and all receive the same input from the plant. the auxiliary signal may be conveniently derived from electrical output power. in phase with variations in shaft speed (Bayne et al. and speed detectors have to be restricted to points along the turbine shaft corresponding to nodes of oscillation. although the potential for excessive terminal voltage excursions during mechanical power changes. The selection of w0 trades closeness of desired output reference following against control effort. The inclusion of an auxiliary signal w(k) in y(k) introduces a power system stabilisation (PSS) function to enhance system damping (Kanniah et al. with almost all the negative damping for a regulated machine originating in the AVR. the plant output y(k) can be gainfully modified as follows y(k)=VT(k)+~.2 Self-tuning control Self-tuning control relies on the principle of separating estimation of unknown process parameters from the controller design (Isermann and Lachmann. where w0 > 0. 4.110 Thermal power plant simulation and control The weighting factor. ~o(k) the rotor shaft speed. excessive vibrations are not considered an issue and speed is adopted as an auxiliary signal. 1985).. tailored to the particular operating region.3. Under some circumstances.

1 Supervision schemes The non-linear nature of power systems implies that the model of equation (4. the excitation present on a system is not sufficiently rich in frequency. If it is. This arrangement contrasts with the LM architecture where the local model parameters are fixed.2. and artificial input signals must be introduced. and the relative contribution of the individual models is determined based on the current operating point. and ease of comparison.1 ) y ( k ) = B ( z . To ensure . The parameters of the plant model are allowed to adapt with time. a self-tuning controller must incorporate a reliable and robust supervision scheme if it is to work safely in practice (Astrom and Wittenmark.kd) + ~(k) and recursive least squares (RLS) identification can then be employed to identify the parameters of the A(z -1) and B(z -1) polynomials on-line (Wellstead and Zarrop. The task here is slightly more challenging than before since two fixed polynomials are required for the entire operating region. line switching and occasional major disturbances such as short-circuits or lightning surges. under normal circumstances. simulating a white noise process.1 < X < O. For the process of identification it is essential that the dynamics of the process are persistently exciting to eliminate ambiguity in the relationship between plant input and output signals. As before the plant input u(k) is the exciter voltage and the plant output y(k) is formed. as (B(z -1) + wo)u(k) = . given that a power system is frequently subjected to various disturbances such as transformer tap-changing.1) is again appropriate: A ( z . Four such methods are now briefly outlined. and are commonly referred to as jacketing software. For convenience.3). 1991).1 ) u ( k .3. as y(k) = V T ( k ) + L o g ( k ) . A number of methods have been developed in the literature to ensure satisfactory operation of self-tuning controllers. A PRBS is often selected.1 ) r ( k ) and the polynomial S(z -1) and the scalar term w0 can again be suitably selected by the user. 1989). These usually take the form of protection algorithms for the parameter estimator. the identified model is used to design a generalised minimum variance controller. subsequently.1) is only valid for a small region about a given operating point. However. equation (4. So.Generator excitation control using local model networks 111 An important aspect of adaptive control is the need for an estimated model of the plant.G ( z . rather than individual polynomials for each local controller. and in this way the non-linearities of the system can effectively be captured.2). 4. assumed that the estimated parameters represent the true parameters then a selection of methods becomes available to design the self-tuning controller itself.1 ) y ( k ) + R ( z . The SISO ARX model of equation (4. as equation (4.

4. r/. Individual moving boundaries are therefore introduced to protect each of the parameters against such disturbances (Wu and Hogg. and will only be switched on again once the terminal voltage returns to its preset level. leading to ill-conditioning of the estimator and a model that does not represent the process behaviour. 1985). remaining there for a fixed time.T4s)" The controller is typically tuned from open-circuit step response tests. a steady-state control error may be anticipated. By adjusting r/and the time period over which the mean is calculated the adaptability of the parameters can therefore be controlled. of the mean value of the estimated parameter. 1995).3. leading eventually to estimator wind-up. which are not due to a change in the process dynamics. the deviation of this signal from its set-point has been selected as an estimator deactivation indicator.3 Fixed gain automatic voltage regulator For industrial applications. and uncertainties in the parameters will rise. This ensures that the estimator will remain deactivated during severe oscillations and generator hunting. VAr limiting under leading power factor operation. an automatic voltage regulator is traditionally implemented as a proportional filter with a transfer function of the form K (1 + Tls) (1 + T3s) (1 q.. However. etc. while at the same time not discarding important information too rapidly. the synchronous machine outputs may vary to an excessive degree. The permissible positive and negative deviations for each parameter are determined as a weighted fraction. It is important that the parameter estimator should be able to track slowly varying process conditions. Consequently. This problem can be counteracted by monitoring the Kalman gain vector of the estimator. . overflux protection during generator synchronisation. so that should this measure exceed a preset level then the forgetting factor is reset (Brown et al. Being intended for industrial use.112 Thermal power plant simulation and control that the estimator inputs are persistently exciting the energy (variance) of the control signal can be monitored. for a generator system there may be long periods at constant operating conditions. Since the purpose of the control scheme is to regulate the terminal voltage. During a transient condition. Finally. This leads to a scheme involving a variable forgetting factor (Isermann and Lachmann. 1988). the software will also contain provision to restrict the AVR output under field forcing conditions to avoid overheating the rotor. and as the controller does not incorporate integral action. which may cause the estimator to discard old information. Transient disturbances on a power system may give rise to abrupt changes in the estimated parameters.Z2s) (1 -k. if the terminal voltage deviation exceeds a preset limit the estimator will be switched off. perhaps the most important feature of the supervision scheme is deciding when the estimator should be used.

with associated step-up transformer and double transmission line (Hogg. It should be noted though that the derivation of the fixed gain controller gains is based on an analytical model of the generator system. and consequently the selection of individual gains is not a trivial exercise. therefore. saturation. variations in busbar voltage and frequency. and other non-linearities present on a real machine.5. 1996).4 Micromachine test facility The local model network controller was initially developed and tested using a simulation of a single-machine infinite-busbar system. driven by a boiler/turbine system. hysteresis. However. . computational delays. Figure 4. such models are difficult to obtain in practice.. an alternative fixed gain control scheme is proposed consisting of an AVR coupled with a PSS. A~o Figure 4. it does provide a means of verifying simulations as well as permitting control systems to be tested under real-time conditions. A full-scale generator will have up to six or more rotating masses. to expect results comparable to a full-scale power station.5 Fixed gain AVR implementation Experience shows that the above arrangement is not able to match the steady-state regulation or transient damping capabilities of the previously outlined schemes (Flynn et al. 1981). Fault studies and long-term operation tests. The controller parameters were obtained using eigenvalue analysis with a linearised tenth-order state variable turbo-generator model (Ahson and Hogg. Consequently. a simulation environment has difficulty in representing effects such as non-ideal transducer characteristics leading to limited resolution and noise. However.Generator excitation control using local model networks Terminal voltage. VT 113 VTref 5/ -k I F Exciter voltage. While this is readily available for a laboratory machine. A laboratory micromachine provides a practical test-bed for both measurement and control algorithms under an industrial environment. have proved the acceptable performance of this controller over a wide range of operating conditions and environments. 1979). VR G(I + Tls ) ( | + T2s ) Speed deviation. while a micromachine system typically constitutes a two-rotating mass system. 4. through simulation and on a microaltemator. It is unrealistic.

four-pole microalternator. Figure 4.2. In an electrically noisy power station environment.Field excitation d. The transmission system is simulated by lumped-parameter n-networks.c.6. improved control can only truly be achieved if enhancements in measurement strategies are introduced. . tied to the busbar through a transformer and artificial transmission lines (Flynn etal. . consists of a specially designed synchronous generator. whose armature current is controlled by the analogue turbine simulation. with an associated turbine simulator. motor ~ . while any subsequent filtering may further degrade the information content. 4. A three-stage turbine with reheater and a fast electrohydraulic governor is emulated. Harmonic interference and unbalanced generator operation inevitably lead to distortion and ripple. 4.. with tapping ratios from 65 to 116 per cent available in seven steps. This transformer is connected through a transmission line simulation to the laboratory busbar. motor. whose parameters have been selected to match those of a full-size machine. the harmonic content in the signals will . with each turbine stage.c. The weighted sum of signals from each stage is proportional to the turbine mechanical power. The synchronous machine is a 3 kVA. especially during transient conditions. reheater and governor being simulated by a single time constant.4. ~ Generator Transmission line system Turbine simulation 9 Valve demand Figure 4. . .4.1 Micromachine system Micromachine system The micromachine system. .4. The alternator is driven by a separately excited d. 220 V. Provision is made for the application of short-circuits at the secondary terminals of the transmission transformer or half-way through the line. representing a typical double line transmission system. It is also possible to switch out one of the transmission lines. Therefore. 50 Hz. reliable and accurate measurements of generator terminal quantities are difficult to achieve.2 Hardware platform The performance of any control system depends almost entirely on the quality of information received. 1997). The alternator is directly connected to a delta-star transformer which has an onload tap-changing device on the secondary terminals.1 Fourier measurement algorithm Signals from a synchronous machine are contaminated by harmonics and noise. If a three-phase system is perfectly balanced.6 4.114 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Field voltage ]_ amplifier ].

are then obtained as an algebraic sum of past samples as follows.. + a6 cos 6t + bl sin t + b2 sin 2t + • • • + b5 sin 5t (4. + a6cos6t0 + bl sin to + be sin 2t0 + • . moving window approximation to the general Fourier series for a periodic waveform (Brown et al. centred around the main power frequency of 50 Hz. The Fourier algorithm effectively acts as a band-pass filter.U4 .U5 .UII) Jr" I(U2 . .4) an expression for F(t) with 12 unknown coefficients is obtained. . a0 Uo = F(to) =-~ +al cost0 + azcos2t0 + .U6) q.U8 -1= UIO)] (4.1(UI "4. 1995). . so that any unsymmetrical behaviour will invalidate the measurements obtained. As a compromise between accuracy and computational burden.5) bl = l [ ( u 3 .4 ( U 2 q. can be expressed by its Fourier series as Oo F(t) = -~ + ~_~(an Cos(nt) + bn sin(nt)). applying equation (4.+ al cos t ÷ • .U5 .U9) -[.U8 . An advanced algorithm based on a finite Fourier series has instead been adopted. offsets. The applied Fourier analysis algorithm is based on an N sample point. The fundamental components. .4 ( U I . permitting existing RMS techniques to be applied. F(t). Repeating for the remaining sample points. Any periodic waveform. During even severe transients the Fourier algorithm supplies continuous feedback signals. + b5 sin 5t0. . al = l [ ( U o . during transients the RMS measurement may cause violent fluctuations in the controller signal due to the highly oscillatory nature of the estimated feedback signals. al and bl.U7 . High-frequency noise. However.U4 . Consequently.c. The harmonic content will also have no effect on the final calculation of the terminal quantities. . and that often means that more advanced control algorithms work no better than their simpler counterparts. So. d. bs] is created. physical systems are rarely perfectly balanced.U7 =[. permitting smooth control. a system of 12 equations in the 12 unknown coefficients [a0 ..UlO) Jr. .4) for the sampled point U0.. N is selected to be 12.U11)].Generator excitation control using local model networks 115 cancel out. n=l Through approximating the series as a0 ao F(t) = -~. and low frequencies are completely rejected.

7.116 Thermalpowerplant simulationand control The time series filter equations (4. Figure 4. c. The disc rotates through Lamps& _ L _ _ _ _ \ \" ~ ~. .M.c.ock ~ Mlcrocontroller . Equivalent expressions may be formed in terms of the fundamental components of the line voltages.6) are executed at every sample interval to provide a moving average of the fundamental components of the periodic waveform. Squared phase voltage q Slotteddisc Machine speed I l Rotor angle Figure4.5) and (4.7 Speedand rotorangle measurement . since the neutral point of a synchronous machine is generally inaccessible: ~/3(alCl - VT:V/~+b26 +bldl)+(aldl .2 Measurement of machine speed and rotor angle Measurement of machine speed and rotor angle is achieved here by attaching an aluminium disc. and Cl and dl of the equivalent phase current then the electrical terminal quantities of voltage (VT).v/~ 4. with four slots cut at approximately 90 ° intervals. An average value can be taken for each quantity by repeating this process across all three phases. to the non-drive end of the alternator rotor by a flexible coupling. If al and bl are the fundamental components of a phase voltage.. current (IT). cycle. assuming 12 samples per a. / .blCl) 4~/3 IT= ?+4 2 ~/3(aldl Q~ - -blCl)-(alCl + b l d l ) 4.4. real (PT) and reactive power (QT) can be calculated as 1 PT =~(alCl + bldl) VT= +b2 2 IT= ? +d2 2 QT=~(aldl-blCl).2.

They are then transmitted along with speed and rotor angle. although the mains signal is available in the laboratory environment. The machine rotor angle is determined in a similar manner to that for speed.3 VME hardware system The measurement and control algorithms have been implemented on a standard VMEbus based system. for testing on the micromachine system. 4.. Previously. through a hardware link. 1996). triggering the reading of a l MHz counter. The multitasking parallel implementation of the measurement and control algorithms is facilitated by the use of transputers. and to record measurements of machine speed and rotor angle. 1994).4. The angle measured is that between the terminal voltage and the generated EME rather than the true transmission angle between the infinite busbar and the generated EMF of the machine. the infinite busbar voltage is difficult to measure and so the terminal voltage of the machine would be used instead. comprehensive tests . Indeed. An Intel 8751 programmable microcontroller generates an interrupt signal at 12 times the system frequency. and is well established in many industries.Generator excitation control using local model networks 117 a fixed head that contains an optical transducer consisting of three lamps. This creates a system with vastly increased computing power. 4.5 Results Having outlined the development of a local model network controller. Each time a slot passes through the fixed head a pulse is generated. corresponding to a complete revolution of the disc. which triggers the master Motorola 68020 board to read in samples of the filtered electrical waveforms from the analogue I/O board. In a power station. The Fourier measurement algorithm is then performed on the transputer. The waveforms from the voltage and current transformers are directed through signal conditioning circuits and anti-aliasing low-pass filters. A moving average of the last four counts is calculated. to produce the four electrical terminal quantities. and potentially provides the control systems designer with the opportunity to implement virtually any advanced control strategy. A line voltage signal is squared and similarly triggers a further read of the 1 MHz counter. This structurally open-ended environment is already being used by power system control manufacturers (White et al. the control system has been integrated with and tested on existing industrial implementations (Flynn et al. every l0 ms (for a four-pole machine).2. On completion of a read sequence. The VME transputer can be linked to an external network containing any number of processors. before reaching an analogue I/O board. and associated light detectors and circuitry. The three-phase voltages and currents are sampled using installed instrumentation on the micromachine. the raw values are passed to shared direct memory access (DMA) memory for retrieval by an IMS BO11 T800 transputer.. as a measure of the machine speed. the algorithm was subsequently implemented on the VME system using a single transputer module. This policy has been adopted for measurement of the rotor angle on the micromachine. to a program running on a TMB04 transputer board.

05 pu after 4 s. after 2 s. with large improvements in the second rotor angle swing and subsequent oscillations. confirming the fact that they have been tuned for different nominal operating points. the contribution from controllers 1 and 2 is insignificant. Prior to the fault.. The performance of the controllers is illustrated under the following test conditions: • Three-phase-earth short circuit. with individual local controllers being phased in and out at various stages of the event. at an operating point of P'r = 0.2 pu. at an operating point of Pr = 0. 1993). STR and composite LMN controller inputs. although the STR is significantly more vigorous .4a and b. prior to commencing each test. During these tests.1 pu. it is clear that the LMN and self-tuning controllers provide significantly better damping than the fixed gain controller (despite the explicit inclusion of a PSS). and then combined to form the composite response of Figure 4.11 shows the output of the LMN local controllers. and from position 6 to 5 after 9 s.11 that the controller responses vary significantly. to assist in preserving steady-state stability (Hirayama et al. its main role is actually to maintain machine rotor angle. at an operating point of PT = 0.118 Thermal power plant simulation and control were conducted in simulation to ensure both the short-term transient and long-term dynamic stability of the turbo-generator system. therefore. which can be understood by examining the interpolation functions of Figure 4. By contrast. to aid estimation model convergence. duration 180 ms.10 shows the FGC.8 pu and QT = 0.10. While at first sight the main purpose of an automatic voltage regulator should be to minimise deviations of the terminal voltage. and.5 and QT = 0. comparison is made with self-tuning (STR) and fixed gain controller (FGC) schemes.8 and 4.this is partly due to the injection of a PRBS. . and subsequent set-point recovery after 9 s. Figure 4. Voltage set-point change of A VTref --0. following the clearing of the short-circuit. -'- • • Figures 4. following both severe and minor disturbances. during the first few seconds. the protection software for the self-tuning controller will ensure that the estimator is deactivated during the voltage transients. and the relative contributions of the individual controllers changes significantly. During the fault.12. From the responses. It can be seen in Figure 4.9 illustrate the terminal voltage and rotor angle responses for the three controllers following the three-phase short-circuit at the sending end of the transmission line. For all controllers the terminal voltage rapidly recovers. Figure 4. at the sending end of the transmission line system. Paradoxically.6 pu and QT = 0. Transformer tap change from position 5 to 6 after 4 s. reducing the rotor angle oscillations is more important than minimising voltage deviations after a fault condition. It should be noted that the self-tuning controller is tuned at each operating point. which effectively freezes the identified model parameters.2 pu. The responses are somewhat similar in shape. by applying a PRBS input as part of the on-line estimation process. which are subsequently multiplied by the weightings of Figure 4. the operating point changes rapidly causing highly non-linear behaviour.

1 119 o 0. . .8 Three-phase short-circuit. .3 1.Generator excitation control using local model networks 1.2 1.rotor angle . .7 0.9 > ~ 0. .terminal voltage 85 8O 75 70 65 60 • .9 Three-phase short-circuit .6 0. .5 i i i i i i 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 Figure 4. . . 55 50 45 0 i i L i i h 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Figure 4.8 0. .

14 illustrate the terminal voltage and rotor angle responses following successive voltage set-point changes. 2 O > 0 -2 -3 -4 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 2 1 o 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 [ I I I I I 1 2 3 4 5 6 b Time (s) Figure 4.13 and 4.16 .120 Thermal power plant simulation and control 5: i .10 Three-phase short-circuit. the controller remains vigorous in operation. the LMN responses are well damped with a short settling time. The steady-state voltage regulation for all the controllers is acceptable. Figure 4.controller outputs Figures 4. although the STR response is now more clearly overdamped and. Here.~.15. as seen from Figure 4.

10 i t I i i t l 2 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Three-phase short-circuit .Generator excitation control using local model networks 121 2 0 o -2 -3 -4 -5 c Figure 4. I 1 Three-phase short-circuit .lmn controller outputs 2 & ~-o a< 1 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 L i 0 1 2 11 I i J i 3 4 5 6 Time (s) Figure 4.controller outputs (Continued) L I i [-.L M N local controller outputs .

6 0.12 g 1.lmn controller weights [ 0.LMN interpolation weightings 1.12 Three-phase short-circuit .15 1.122 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0.4 0.terminal voltage .13 "~ 1.7 0.3 0.2 ol .11 > 1.5 ¢3 i i . 7~ gN i i i 0 1 2 3 Time (s) 4 5 6 7 Figure 4.3 ~ 1.13 10 15 Voltage set-point changes ._= e~ 2 0~ .09 El . [-.08 1.07 i o 5 Time (s) Figure 4.1 .14 1.

As a final point.'. Finally. The LMN controller proves slightly better at minimising the rotor swings..Generator excitation control using local model networks 123 54 52 50 48 46 *6 44 42 ~ 40 38 I . while during the transient phase the contribution from controller 2 is significantly reduced. .18 illustrate the voltage and rotor angle responses. the tap change between positions 5 and 6 corresponds to an 8 per cent variation in the output of the delta-star transformer. In a similar manner to the voltage set-point test. 0 5 Time (s) 10 15 Figure 4. the rotor angle is increased.19 shows the relative weightings of the LMN local controllers. the majority of the control signal is formed from models 2. while that from controllers 3 and 5 is decreased. it can be seen that controller 1 does not play a significant role either in steady-state or during transients for any of the test scenarios presented. it is unlikely in practice that the generator will be required to operate at such low output levels.1 pu. This model is required to ensure that the LMN controller is capable of maintaining performance over the entire operating region.1 pu and QT = 0. i. with the LMN and STR controllers again providing excellent damping with a very fast transient response. By examining Figure 4. 3 and 5 at the original operating point.17 and 4.14 Voltage set-point changes . with the STR response marginally over-damped. Figures 4. Figure 4.e.4a it can be seen that the associated model is centred at an operating point of approximately PT = 0. It is interesting to note that the contribution from controllers 2 and 4 is increased at the higher operating point. leaving controllers 3 and 5 to each provide approximately 40 per cent of the excitation signal. The presence of a PRBS during the first 3-4 seconds can again be seen on the STR responses.rotor angle displays the relative contributions of the five local controllers. however.

6 ~o e~ o l 0 u~ 2 -3 -4 -5 i i 5 a 10 Time (s) 15 5 I--Imnl ~. but requires the availability of an analytical model of the synchronous .124 Thermal power plant simulation and control 2 . Even the fixed gain scheme presented here would provide much improved performance. and offer relatively crude performance with a steady-state control error and poor regulatory capabilities.controller outputs 4.6 Conclusions Industrial AVR implementations are typically based on proportional filters. 2 Q > 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 5 b Time (s) i 10 15 Figure 4.15 Voltage set-point changes .

lmn controller weights [ 0.25 e~o .2 0.1 0.~ -| -2 -3 -4 -5 0 C ' 5 Time (s) ' 10 15 Figure 4..~.16 Voltage set-point changes .. .. ./N~ f 5 Time (s) 10 15 Figure 4.15 0.~ 0._~...~.a.L M N interpolation weightings .35 0..~ .~.controller outputs (Continued) 0.3 m 3 5 I -.15 Voltage set-point changes .Generator excitation control using local model networks 125 ~.a~.~.~ .05 0 0 /~. eo Q 2 0 ~...4 0.

95 0.1 1.18 Transformer tap changing .15 1.terminal voltage 55 50 45 40 o 35 30 25 i i 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 14 Figure 4.05 0 .rotor angle .=.17 Transformer tap changing . E- 1 0.9 0 2 4 i i i 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 14 Figure 4.126 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1.

the interpolation regions and GMV parameters for the LMN controller were selected off-line. while maintaining performance over the entire operating regime.05 0 0 ~ 2 4 6 8 Time (s) 10 12 14 Figure 4. but requires significant protection software to safeguard the on-line model estimation.3 . A range of tests was performed and the LMN controller provided excellent disturbance rejection and set-point-following capabilities.LMN interpolation weightings machine to determine the control gains. 533-548 .: 'Application of multivariable frequency methods to control of turbogenerators'. leading to a much more robust implementation._ r 1 r 127 I- lmn controller weights I 0.1 0.7 References AHSON. I. the performance of the LMN controller was compared with a GMV self-tuning controller and a fixed gain arrangement comprising an AVR and PSS. pp. Control. 30.19 Transformer tap changing .=.Generator excitation control using local model networks 0. taO 1~ ~ 3 2 0. 4. B. Subsequently. Using information from plant tests and previous simulation studies. J. Generalised minimum variance controllers were then designed for each of the local models. Using a laboratory micromachine setup.4 0. and HOGG.35 0. estimates were obtained for the non-linear interpolation regions and the structure of the local linear models. (4). S. a hybrid optimisation algorithm was applied to provide a parsimonious representation to capture the non-linear dynamics of the system. The performance of the self-tuning controller was comparable with the LMN scheme. 1979.25 0. W. The LMN approach to improved excitation control is therefore seen as a low-risk option compared with self-tuning control and more complex non-linear techniques such as neural networks. a local model network controller has been developed for the excitation loop of a synchronous machine.45 .2 0.15 0. By contrast. Int. Consequently.

1992. and IRWIN. and LACHMANN. Power Apparatus and Systems. J. W. G.control and signal processing' (John Wiley. W. D. MAO. pp 625-638 KANNIAH.128 Thermal power plant simulation and control ASTROM. 1975.: 'Neural control of turbogenerator systems'. pp. 103.. 1995. San Diego. 1996. 144. P. 108-112 ISERMANN.: 'Parameter adaptive control with configuration aids and supervision functions'. NAGAMURA.: 'A self-tuning automatic voltage regulator designed for an industrial environment'.. G.. C.: 'Modelling of nonlinear systems'. Automatica. H. M.. pp. M. and WITTENMARK. 1991) . E.: 'Multiple model approaches to modelling and control' (Taylor and Francis. 1993. Y. MURAKAMI. J.. and ZARROP. G. Automatica. 94.: 'Transputer implementation of adaptive control for a turbogenerator system'. 1996. J. 28. S. MCLOONE. H. A. D. pp. Y. (2). 1999 American Control Conference.a survey'. 602-609 HOGG. 1141-1146 BROWN. 201-218 WELLSTEAD. D. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 1985. D. B. M. 1997. W. SWIDENBANK. (11). H. 21-38 FLYNN.. M.: 'Tests with a microcomputer based adaptive synchronous machine stabilizer on a 400 MW thermal unit'. London. (1). B. B.. W.): 'Modelling of dynamic systems' (P. K. and GAWTHROP.: 'Self-tuning systems . pp. J. R. H. TONE.: 'Excitation control of synchronous generators using adaptive regulators'. B. SWIDENBANK. pp. and TAKAGI. E. J. P. (5). IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Peregrinus.. D. G. D. P. 1961-1973 HIRAYAMA. D. 17.. T. (4). R. 1999. 1981) pp. and HOPE. IEEE Trans.: 'Non-linear internal model control using local model networks'. P. O. pp. and HANCOCK. P.: 'Static exciter control to improve transient stability'. 897-910 MALIK. ZBILOWSKI. Portugal. O.. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 429-434 FLYNN. in NICHOLSON. X. MALIK. (6). G. PRAKASH. 6-12 MURRAY-SMITH. H. 33. R. and IRWIN. 1984.. (Ed. W. P. TAKAGI. London and New York..: 'Digital AVR application to power plants'. EURACO Workshop on 'Control of nonlinear systems: theory and applications'. 1997. pp.: 'Neural networks for control systems . K. SHIBATA. 1997) UNBEHAUEN. BROWN.: 'Non-linear identification and control of turbogenerators using local model networks'.. pp. K. (1). pp. Power Apparatus and Systems..: 'Adaptive control' (Addison-Wesley. and HOGG. and JOHANSEN. SWIDENBANK. HOGG. E. K. pp. B. IRWIN. 8. 1992. K. M. 1989) BAYNE. Int. E. W.. and WATSON.. 4213-4217 BROWN. G. (6). (6). G. IEEE Trans. Automatica. and ZACHARIAH..: 'Representation and control of turbogenerators in electric power systems'. SBARBARO. K. Journal of Electric Power & Energy Systems. W. LIGHTBODY. and HOGG. 11. 21. B. W. HOPE. S.. KUNDUR. lEE Proceedings Part. pp. D.. 112-149 HUNT. 505-514 BROWN. J. H. M. 8..

Proc UPEC. and HOGG. (5). D. Coventry. K. B. W. W.. 1994. pp. W. Automatica. and FARSI. IEE Control '94. J. 1988. pp. 1991. J. 27. 845-852 ZACHARIAH K. S.: 'Application of digital selftuning techniques for turbine generator AVRs'. M. B. 1990. 135. and HOGG. J.: 'Commissioning of a power system stabilizer using a dynamic signal analyzer'. J. FINCH. (6). H. pp 463--473 WU. Q. 623-626 . 356-361 WU. and HINGSTON. H..: 'Laboratory evaluation of adaptive controllers for synchronous generators'. Aberdeen. R. IEE Proceedings Part. pp. B.: 'Robust self-tuning regulator for a synchronous generator'.Generator excitation control using local model networks 129 WHITE. ZACHARIAH. Q.

Chapter 5 Steam temperature control T.1.in a technical sense as well as in a business sense.1 Introduction A power production system is a very complex structure . es rvo systems Figure 5.1 Control levels in a power production system .see Figure 5. At all levels optimisation is very important and top-level performance is dependent on the performance of all the underlying levels. The steam temperature control of a power plant is part of the process control level and strongly interacts with the plant control level as well as the servo system level. Mortensen 5. Moelbak and J.H. In a control sense it can be regarded as a multilevel distributed system .

After introducing the processes in question and outlining conventional control strategies.e. soot blowing. Efficiency: If the steady-state variations can be reduced significantly. lifetime improvements can be obtained to some degree by introducing better control performance. lack of power sales. headers and turbine can of course be advantageous. etc. increased wear of the plant and reduced availability.25 per cent.g. e. This chapter will focus on steam temperature control based on the experiences of Elsam-owned power plant in Denmark with emphasis on once-through boilers. but it is crucial in so-called special situations such as load changes.g. fault situations. the load-following capability is increasingly becoming an important commercial parameter in the competition. e. An important point when determining the upper set-point limit is the temperature distribution across the superheater pipes to the outlet header. leading to large fuel cost savings. Nevertheless. start/stop of coal mills. lead to improved load-following capability. but will most often be of major economic significance. it is an important advantage . Due to the fundamental . The reasons for the extensive attention to this problem are mainly found in issues such as: • • • • Plant lifetime: The steam temperature control has a significant influence on the variation of the steam temperatures and accordingly on the thermal stress of the plant. Availability: The improved overall stability and the resulting reduced probability of forced plant outage is an indirect advantage of improving the steam temperature control. Improving the boiler stability in general can. of course. the costs incurred will most probably exceed the profits as regards increased lifetime. The steam temperature control has no influence on this distribution.132 Thermal power plant simulation and control The control of steam temperatures in power plants is one of the most widely discussed control problems in power plants. time of occurrence. the focus will be on advanced control strategies. the potential for increasing the set-point is of course modest. A significant reduction in the low cycle fatigue of superheaters. a forced outage of a coalfired base-load unit will imply additional fuel costs for restart. ±2 °C during steady-state operation. -4-10°C during steadystate operation due to a poorly performing control loop. The costs of a forced outage will be dependent on plant size. If the variation in the steam temperatures is large.g. Load-following eapahility: Improved steam temperature control improves the boiler stability. A rule of thumb says that increasing the live steam temperature by 10 °C will increase the efficiency of a 400 MWe unit by approximately 0. Since the power market is becoming increasingly liberalised. duration. which can improve the load-following capability of the plant significantly. For small temperature variations. the outlet set-point can be increased and the turbine efficiency will increase accordingly. If the fluctuations during normal operation are already small.

Steam temperature control

133

differences in behaviour the discussions will be separated into evaporator control and superheater control.

5.2
5.2.1

Plant and control description
Plant description

A characteristic feature of the once-through boiler is that the pumps force the feedwater/steam through the boiler tubing, which in principle is arranged a continuous pipe. In contrast to a drum boiler there is no large internal water reservoir. The nomenclature used throughout this chapter is shown in Figure 5.2. The boiler process includes several steam superheating processes - most often boilers include superheaters in a number of levels often divided into parallel lines thus giving typically 4-8 high pressure superheaters and 2-4 intermediate pressure superheaters. Each of these processes serves as an energy transferring system-energy being transferred from the flue gas to the steam. Each superheater is equipped with an attemperator device (water injection at the inlet) for control of the steam outlet temperature. A superheater process with its typical instrumentation is shown in Figure 5.3.

Once-through boiler

ser

m

Is

%11 Feedwater

Figure 5.2

Outline of steam power plant. Eco: economiser; Eva: evaporator; Sh: high-pressure superheater; Ish: intermediate pressure superheater; Att: attemperator

134

Thermal power plant simulation and control
rhi

Steam outlet Steam

Energy transfer from flue gas

Ill

Figure 5.3

Superheater process with typical instrumentation: To: outlet steam temperature (°C); Ti: inlet steam temperature (°C); X: valve position (%); mi: water injection flow (kg/s)

5.2.2

Control characteristics

The interactions between the inputs and outputs of the once-through boiler can be set up in a matrix equation:

y(s) = G(s)u(s)

psh3(s)
rshl(S)l Zsh2(s)l=lg
Tsh3(s) / ]qsh2(s)l

I-g~(s) g~*2(~) g~(s)g~(s)g+(s) 1 ~,hfue,(S) 1
(s)
/g41(s) Lgs+(s)

g (s> O g;2(s) g33 (s)
g4z(s)
gs-2(s) g43(s) g53(s)

o
0 g~(s) g54(s)

i /,mfw S,,
/,ha,, (s)/ .
/rhatt2(s)/

(5.1)

g ~ ( s ) l Lrhatt3(s).J

The sign of the response is shown as a superscript on the individual transfer functions. The control problem can be characterised as being: • • • • multivariable the dynamics are of high order (lumped system) the dynamics (time constants and gains) are load dependent it is exposed to major stochastic disturbances from flue gases

5.2.3

Conventional control

5.2.3.1 Evaporator control The control of the steam temperature in the low part of the boiler is tightly connected to the control of the live steam pressure, utilising the main boiler inputs, feedwater flow and fuel flow. The reason why the control of these two variables is so very tightly

Steam temperature control

135

Load demand(La)

Temp. ~,

I ~ Kp(Ld) Ti(Ld)
Enthalpy Pressure
Kp(td) ~'i(Ld)

~Fe FF edwater
~,demand

L

FF Fuel
~, demand

Figure 5.4

Control diagram for Benson boiler: fl (x), f2(x): set-point generation from load demand; F FI (s), F F2(s): feedforward transfer functions; Cl(S), C2(s): decoupling network; PI(D): feedback controllers with proportional gain and integral time scheduling from load demand

connected can be found in equation (5.1), where it is clear that we are dealing with a fully connected 2 × 2 system from mfw and mfuel to Tsnl and Psh3. The conventional control of feedwater and fuel flow is normally divided into a feedforward control (FF) and a feedback control (FB). Figure 5.4 shows an example of a control diagram structured according to the above.

5.2.3.2

Feedforward control

The purpose of the feedforward control structure from the load demand to the feedwater and fuel demand is to feed the correct amount of feedwater and fuel to the boiler. From a static point of view the required input is known for each parameter to operate the boiler at a certain load point. This is given through the gain = 1 part of the feedforward structure. The other part of the feedforward is a filter which ensures that the feedwater and the fuel are fed to the boiler in a dynamically optimal way thus

136

Thermal power plant simulation and control

ensuring that no control fault arise - neither for the temperature nor for the live steam pressure during load changes. Because of the presence of large time constants in the boiler due to the large metal masses and delays in the firing system there is a limitation to how hard the feedback loops can be tuned. This implies that if it is required to operate the plant at large load gradients or it is desired to stress the plant as little as possible the presence and correct tuning of the feedforward part is very important.

5.2.3.3 Feedback control The purpose of the feedback control is to reject disturbances (the feedforward blocks act as a good 'reference follower' as described above) which mostly originate from the furnace during normal operation (mainly due to changes in fuel flow and quality). The feedback control consists of a temperature and a pressure control loop. The Tshl temperature is controlled by a cascaded control loop. The enthalpy at the evaporator outlet is PI controlled in the inner loop, while the Tshl temperature is PI controlled in the outer loop, as illustrated in Figure 5.4. The reason for controlling the entbalpy at the evaporator outlet instead of the steam temperature is that in this way non-linearities originating from the steam characteristics are automatically incorporated. The proportional and integral part of the PI controllers must be scheduled according to the actual load point since the gain and time constant of the boiler are highly dependent on the load point (because of the change in steam flow). The live steam pressure is controlled by a single PID-based control loop. For this loop the parameters of the PID controller must also be dependent on the actual load point following the same arguments as above. Since the boiler process is fully connected (the feedwater flow and the fuel flow affect both the steam temperature and the live steam pressure) it is important to introduce a decoupling network between the two feedback loops. Consequently, the two feedback loops can be tuned independently and with as high a bandwidth as possible since no oscillatory modes will arise between the two feedback loops. Isermann (1989) presents three different representations of a decoupling network.

5.2.3.4

Superheater control

As can be seen from equation (5.1) the superheaters form part of a multivariable system. Nevertheless, the superheater control problem is conventionally considered as a SISO control problem. A simple example of an existing scheme for steam temperature control is shown in Figure 5.5. This is a cascade control based on fixed PID controllers in which the controlled variable is the outlet temperature. The inner loop is required to reject temperature disturbances originating upstream. The inner loop is, of course, much faster that the outer loop. Due to the load dependent dynamic and gain variations, a strategy based on fixed controllers, like that shown in Figure 5.5, can only be well tuned in one operating point.

Steam temperature control

137

ro

+

_

-

To, re f

+

x~ef

Figure 5.5

Pl-based control strategy at Skaerbaekvaerket, Unit 2

Performance can be improved relatively easily by introducing load-dependent gain scheduling in the inner control loop. In special cases where the superheater operation is close to the wet steam range, gain scheduling in the outer loop might also be beneficial. Furthermore, introduction of feedforward disturbance compensation may also improve performance, e.g. using fuel flow as an indicator of combustion disturbances. Further details on conventional superheater control can be found in Klefenz (1986).

5.3

Advanced evaporator control

Adopting the control structure described in section 5.2.3 and assuming model-based tuning has been performed, it is possible to obtain good performance, for the loadfollowing operation as well as for disturbance rejection during steady-state operation. To estimate the boiler dynamics for the purpose of performing model-based tuning, an open-loop test must be performed or estimation performed in closed loop. Both tasks might be difficult. Furthermore, for plant equipped with non-programmable control systems the implementation of the conventional way is quite tedious. To overcome these difficulties, an alternative concept has been developed. The objective was to improve the load-following capability of existing power plant units. During fast load changes, the major problem is to keep certain critical variables (e.g. steam temperature and steam pressure) within predefined limits, as excessive

138

Thermal power plant simulation and control

Load demand ""~1 Scheduled LQG controler

r

Existingboiler controlsystem

l

Boiler

Figure 5.6

Scheduled LQG controller with feedforward action from load demand signal as a complement to an existing boiler control system

deviations will seriously affect the lifetime of the components or cause a trip. One way of improving the load-following capability of power plants is to improve the control of these critical variables. In order to increase the robustness and facilitate commissioning and switching between automatic and manual modes, the control system has been designed as a complement to the existing boiler control system. Figure 5.6 shows how an optimising LQG controller is connected to the boiler process and the existing control system. It can be seen from the figure that the optimising LQG controller calculates an additive control signal, Uad~t, from the control error, e, and from the load demand, which is added to the control signal from the existing control system. The process to be controlled thus comprises the boiler as well as the existing boiler control system. The additive control signal, Uaad, can be weighted between 0 and 1, which facilitates commissioning and switching between automatic and manual operating modes. In stationary operation when the control error is 0 and the load demand is constant, the additive control signal is 0, because no integral action is included in the optimising controller (this is normally present in the existing boiler control system). When a control error arises, or when a load change is imposed on the boiler, the optimising controller will be active.

5.3.1

L Q G controller

The problem of finding the control law for a linear state space system, when the states are directly measurable, can be solved by minimising a performance index formulated as a weighted quadratic function of the states and the control signal. Minimising this function results in an optimal linear controller known as the linear quadratic regulator

Steam temperature control

139

(LQR). When stochastic perturbations are considered, the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulator is obtained. In this case the states must also be estimated. The state space model of the system to be controlled is:

x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + w(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + v(k)

(5.2)

wherex is the state vector, u the input vector andy the output vector. The process noise w(k) and the measurement noise v(k) are assumed to be sequences of independent random variables with zero mean value and covariance: E[w(k)] -- 0, E[v(k)] = 0,

E[w(k)wT(k)] = Rw, E[v(k)vT(k)] = Rv,

(5.3)

E[w(k)vT(k)] = O.
According to the separation theorem (Isermann, 1989) the design of the LQG controller can be divided into two parts, one concerned with an optimal control problem and another concerned with an optimal filtering problem. These two issues will be described below. Optimal control: The performance index is defined as:

I =E
Lk=0

xT(k)Qlx(k) + uT(k)Q2u(k

(5.4)

where Q1, positive definite, and Q2, positive semidefinite, are weighting matrices used for tuning the controller. The linear state feedback controller is given by:

u(~) = -Lx(k)

(5.5)

which minimises the performance index. This is calculated by (Isermann, 1989): L = (Q2 + BTSB) -1BTSA (5.6)

where S is given as the stationary solution to the discrete Riccati matrix equation:

S = QI +ATSA -ATSB(Q2 + BTSB) -1BTSA.
Optimal filtering: A Kalman filter is introduced: ~(k + 1) = AJ~(k) + B u ( k ) + K ( y ( k ) - CYc(k))

(5.7)

#(k) = C~(k).
where .~ is the estimated state and K the Kalman gain.

(5.8)

140

Thermal power plant simulation and control The Kalman gain K can be calculated as (Srderstrrm, 1994): K = A P C T ( c P C T + Rv) -1 (5.9)

where P is the stationary solution to the discrete Riccati matrix equation: P = Rw + APA T - A P C T (CPC T + R v ) - 1CPA T" (5.10)

According to the separation theorem, the state estimate .~ can be used in the control law given in equation (5.5). Another approach is to identify a model in the directly parameterised innovations form, where the Kalman gain is estimated together with the model parameters: .~(k + 1) = A~(k) + Bu(k) + Ke(k) y(k) = CYc(k) + e(k). It can be shown that equations (5.2) and (5.11) are statistically equivalent descriptions (Van Overschee and Moor, 1996). Since there is often no available knowledge about the covariances in equation (5.3), this method is a good alternative.

(5.11)

5.3.2

L Q G controller with f e e d f o r w a r d action

A state space model of the system to be controlled including a measurable disturbance d(k), is obtained: x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bdd(k) + w(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + v(k). Feedforward and feedback control based on the LQG theory can then be introduced, as will be explained. In the concept derived, the feedforward feedback parts are tuned individually, which is preferable. The feedforward controller is given as: uff(k) = -Lff.~ff(k) with the open-loop state estimator: kff(k + 1) = AJ:ff (k) + Buff(k) + Bdd(k). (5.14) (5.13)

(5.12)

The feedforward controller matrix, Lff, is calculated as described in the previous section.

is also calculated as described in the previous section.L ~ f b ( k ) (5.k +l)r-----~ ~ff(k) 1V u~k) J--]. The structure of the LQG controller with feedforward action is shown in Figure 5. Lfb.~fb(k)) ~fb(k) = C~fb(k).(k)~ I I Lx(kl) l ~ + ueo(kl + Figure 5. (5.(~) X(ko) ..7. g(k) ~..16) The feedback controller matrix.15) with the closed-loop state estimator: .~fb(k + 1) = aYcfb(k) + Bu(k) + K(y(k) .Steam temperature control 141 The feedback controller is given as Ufb(k ) = . 7 LQG feedforward and feedback controller .

.5) and (5. is therefore expected to improve the load-following capability of the unit. am}..U(Oq)(0/ -..Otl) ~1+1 .~ l (5. is known as a scheduling variable u and in this context is assumed to be a scalar.4 Case study The plant used for test purposes is the Skaerbaekvaerket unit 2 (SKV2). At SKV2 oscillations in Tshlb and partly Teva and Psh3 (Figure 5. K.3 If it is known how the dynamics of a process change with the operating conditions. K) is given and for each model the state feedback matrices Lff and Lfb are calculated from equations (5. it is possible to adjust the controller parameters accordingly. m-l. but also in Psh3 keeping ATeva < 8 °C/min. 5. An alternative to the described scheduling policy would be to designate each controller to a specific operating range. . B. Hence during load changes..1. about 25 °C in the steam temperature after superheater lb (Tshlb) with a maximum gradient in the evaporator temperature of 8 °C/min.17) wherel=l . A measurable process variable.err. descriptive of the operating condition and used to adjust the controller parameters. A disadvantage of this method is that security is not provided for placement of the closed-loop poles when interloping between the frozen operating points. one needs to perform some automatic adjustment of the inactive controllers. . C. By applying the described scheduling policy this problem is automatically overcome.. A set J = {oq . .142 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Scheduling an LQG controller 5. known as gain scheduling. C.. . .U(~I+I) -. The maximum allowable deviations in the outlet pressure (Psh3) are about 7 bar. m . An alternative and more preferable method is to perform the scheduling directly on the calculated control signals: U(Ol) = U(Oll) d. . Bo.6). a 265 MW coal-fired unit equipped with a Benson boiler. the design goal is to decrease the deviations primarily in Tshlb. The LQG controller (A.18) where l = 1. . To obtain a bumpless change from one controller to another.3. containing m values of the scheduling variable is chosen and arranged according to: o~ > 0t'j i for i > j. Improvement of the control of these variables and especially of Tshlb during load changes. . L) can be scheduled between the frozen operating points using linear interpolation: X(a) = X ( a l ) + X(at+l) -X(at) ~1+1 --~1 (u-at) (5. B. For each value of a in the set J a linear model (A.4) are considered as the limiting factor in the load-following capability for the boiler and hence the unit as a whole.3.

19) for the operating points JsKv2 = {115 MW. Eleventh-order linear state space models of the following form are the basis for the controller design: x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bad(k) + Ke(k) y(k) = Cx(k) + e(k) (5. Figure 5.err control error on steam temperature after superheater lb. 91%}. the following control inputs are used: • • additive control signal to fuel flow.err is shown in Figure 5. Teva. 71%. Psh3. both resulting in an . MathWorks.err and Tshlb. The offset in TsH. if/fuel. Figure 5.err and Tshlb. rhfw. 1994. The sensitivity function from the load disturbance PB to the outputs Psh3. 5. since there are practically no deviations in either Psh3 or in Tshlb.err evaporator temperature.Steam temperature control In the optimising control system. subspace system-identification method (Van Overschee and Moor. Theoretically.add.err is significantly reduced (~ 10 dB). with the open-loop observer as given by equation (5. Feedforward control and parameter scheduling are introduced using the boiler load demand PB. The test results show that an almost perfect dynamic compensation of the load disturbance has been obtained with the feedforward controller. The distribution was not chosen to be equally spaced because of dedicated load intervals for start/stop of coal mills. this plot reveals that the impact of the load change on Psh3. The action of the LQ feedforward controller can be interpreted as follows: the decrease in the steam temperature (note that the control error is defined as the reference value minus the measured value) is compensated for by increasing the fuel rate and decreasing the feedwater rate.13) are designed for each operating point in JSKV2.4.14).8 at the 187 MW operating point. The models were estimated from SKV2 data (PRBS excitation of controllable inputs (u : Uadd) and ramps in boiler load demand (d = PB)) using the N4SID.3. 187 MW.1 Feedforward control Feedforward controllers of the form (5. 1995).10 shows the corresponding additive control signals.err is caused by the existence of a deadband in the existing control system. Tshlb. 143 The following controlled output variables are used: • • • control error on outlet steam pressure. for cases with and without the LQ feedforward controller active. 130 MW. 240 MW} = {43%. The number of load points (four) was chosen to be the minimum possible while allowing for the non-linear dynamic behaviour of the combined boiler and existing control system. 49%. The load range to be covered was chosen so that the normal operating range is covered.9 shows the responses to a load change from 200 to 180 MW at a gradient of 4 MW/min.add additive control signal to feedwater flow.

= -10 -20 .WithoutLQ ?ed."~"'fi ~0 10-3 :: i i i i i .7 -30 -40 lO-3 Q feedforward " • [ - Without LQ feedforward 10-2 co (rad/s) 10-1 Figure 5."~' [ x x \ With LQ feedforward Without LQ feedforward o 5 a= -10 -2 i t i i i L i i i 0 2 4 6 8 Time (min.8 Sensitivity function Load change from 200 MW to 180 MW at 4 MW/min.% 5 i i i ~ i L i i -2 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 Time (min. (187 M W ) 20 10 ' i I ! ' ! ' ' i ! ' ' ! ! ' ! ~" "O 0 .) 10 12 14 16 18 Figure 5. (187 MW) 20 lOm = ' i i ' i iiii ~ i i i i'ii 0 -10 -20 -30 .9 Load change from 200 to 180 MW . 10-2 co (tad/s) . I With LQ feedforward Without LQ feedforward .) r 10 12 14 16 18 t ~" / .err.foTaTs ' 10-l Sensitivity from PB to TshJb' err.xb i. / / "-.144 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Sensitivity from PB to Psh3.

Steam temperature control 0.15) and (5.5 kg/s) disturbance is introduced.2 0 i J 3 ~0. In practice this is done by tuning the controller with good fuel disturbance rejection properties. . which affect the steam temperatures and the steam pressure. and specifically to reduce the impact of starting/stopping coal mills on the controlled variables since this event typically occurs during load changes.err are shown with and without the LQG feedback controller.10 Corresponding additive control signals increased steam temperature. in the form of a redistribution of the coal and combustion air flow to the furnace. In order to test the controller performance a test case is examined in which a 5 per cent fuel ( ~ 1. Figure 5.) 12 14 16 18 2 0 -6 i i I I J J i I -2 0 2 4 6 8 l0 Time (rain.3. Start/stop of coal mills introduces significant transient disturbances in the furnace.4. which ultimately results in a reduced steam-pressure deviation. It is intended.err and Tshlb. to reject disturbances entering the furnace. A coal mill start/stop has not been used for comparison purposes since the stochastic content in this disturbance is too high. $.11 the responses for the outputs Psh3.16). It can be seen that the deviations in both outputs are reduced significantly.2 Feedback control The purpose of the feedback part of the LQG controller with coordinated feedforward action is defined as a general improvement in the stability of the boiler. Similar improvements have been obtained for all operating points in JsKv2.6 0.12 shows the generated control signals together with the imposed fuel disturbance.) 12 14 16 18 Figure 5.2 -2 I 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (min. by designing the LQG controller given by equations (5.4 e~0 145 Load change from 200 to 180 MW at 4 MW/min 0. These two actions have a mutually opposite impact on the steam pressure. In Figure 5.

5 i i -1.5 -2 110 I 210 3'0 Time (rain.Disturbance signal - 40 5'0 60 2 0 -2 -4 ~5 0 l'O 2'o 3'o Time (rain.. / ] 30 410 Time (rain.146 Thermal power plant simulation and control LQG FB test with fuel disturbance (130 MW) i r i r 2 o r~l ok ^ v ~e" 2 -4 ~6 I I I I I I 0 10 20 30 40 Time (mind i i 50 60 70 15 10 i ! i r r O o i"= 5 0 --5 i -10 -15 -20 10 2~) \ -.) ..) ._.510 With LQG FB Without LQG FB 610 70 Figure 5.11 Response of Psh3.err to fuel disturbance LQG FB-test with fuel disturbance (130 MW) • i i i i i o.FB control signal .) 4o 5'o 6o Figure 5..12 Generated control signals .err and Tshl.

as shown in Figure 5. so it is relevant to survey the predominant methods. Adaptivity was obtained by on-line identification of the model parameters using the recursive least squares (RLS) identification method.w ( t + j)]2 + )~ ~--~[Au(t + j .10 have been obtained with the scheduled LQG feedforward and feedback controller. As shown in Figure 5.. independent of disturbances. 5. the GPC controller was introduced in the outer control loop. Below. with the load-dependent .9 and 5. the development within steam temperature control has until now . 5. In order to adjust to load-dependent non-linearities the feedforward and the feedback control signals are scheduled according to the policy shown in equation (5. N.1)l 2 j=l (5. is the control horizon and )~ is the control weight.20) where A u ( t + j . Furthermore. Similar results to those shown in Figures 5. Here N1 and N2 are the minimum and maximum cost horizons. The objective of the steam temperature control is to maintain specified temperatures after the superheater.5 Cost~benefit a s s e s s m e n t 147 The resulting control system consists of the LQ feedforward compensator and the LQG feedback controller as shown in Figure 5.Steam temperature control 5. which minimises the performance function: PcPc = E + j ) .almost exclusively focused on feedback control. The common characteristics of the power plant involved in the field tests are: • • coal-fired once-through boiler most dominant disturbances: start/stop of coal mills. (1987).1) = 0 for j > N. Further details regarding GPC control theory can be found in Clarke et al.18).3. All controllers discussed in this section were tuned according to identical criteria.4 Advanced superheater control As previously mentioned. an evaluation on a general level will be attempted.7. starting with practical applications at Elsam power plants.1 G e n e r a l i s e d p r e d i c t i v e control Each strategy was compared to an adaptive control scheme based on the generalised predictive control (GPC) concept.4.3. The field test results reveal that the maximum allowable load gradient can be increased from 4 to 8 MW/min. soot blowing and load changes. The outlet temperature is most often controlled by injection of water before the heating surface.13. the test results indicate that it is possible to perform smaller (40-50 MW) load changes without coal mill start/stop at a gradient of 10-12 MW/min.

Figure 5.13 were included to limit the scheduling signals.15 shows another field test result in which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill start after 40 minutes. The main objectives of the supervisor function are to ensure anti-wind-up in the identification algorithm. a result of faster and larger control actions on the control device (water flow). as the second superheater of the boiler is divided into two parallel lines to which the old and the new control strategies were applied. Further details can be found in Moelbak (1991). Unit 2 dynamics it was scheduled as a function of the load (steam flow).Min. which can be introduced without causing instability because the model-based controller explicitly utilises process knowledge. of course. The minimum/maximum selectors in Figure 5. a supervisory function is a necessity. Again the improvements are evident. and effectively rejecting the disturbance by 60 minutes. The improvements are. As this is an adaptive strategy.0°/° ]0B~ 1 mh.148 Thermal power plant simulation and control T~ ~ T°'ref mst~ msteam. Figure 5. an online check of model validity and explicit utilisation of a priori process knowledge. A comparison between the two strategies can be carried out simultaneously.13 Adaptive and predictive control strategy based on GPC at Skaerbaekvaerket. The results confirm .the improvement in temperature regulation is obvious. with the GPC controller reducing the variation in outlet steam temperature.14 shows an example of a field test during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing and a load gradient .J xA~.value r" x~f Figure 5.

.) 60 i 70 I 80 90 Figure 5. V '~ .... To compensate for the high-order and load-dependent dynamics of the superheater a PTx-model of the superheater is used: PTx (s) -1 thsteam Ts (5..... . ..2 PTx control At the 380 MWe Esbjergvaerket..Steam temperature control o~'~ 460 I GPC based control I i PI based control I .13.. 5.....16......4...typically x is in ...... . Unit 2 during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing and a load gradient. :.. ) ~ i i ............ .. ~ ..... .) F i 60 70 80 90 2O 15 ~1 o o i i - GPCbased control Plbasedcontrol [ i : i . i i _ I • i i I i 440 © 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time(min..i . .. A so-called 'simple' model-based strategy as shown in Figure 5.. Note the separate references for each steam temperature that control of the superheater temperatures can be improved using some kind of model-based control method rather than fixed parameter PID controllers. Unit 3 two model-based control strategies were compared: • • A strategy based on GPC and the main principles such as the strategy shown in Figure 5..21) where the time constant T is adjusted according to the load conditions and the order of the model x is determined by the design of the superheater .14 Field test at Skaerbaekvaerket. The 'simple' model-based strategy is actually a cascade control with a PI controller in the inner loop and a P controller in the outer loop.. . ~ 10 5 0 0 i 10 i 20 i 30 i 40 50 Time(min. 149 455 _1 445 . ... ...

. i .. . i • i i . II : ... ef Max.re f msteam "-] ri + thst IO0%B~ . . F Figure 5....1 15 .16 ••X. . ool r---: Gpc b~'sedcont~o...) . M:~ ..i . value PTx control strategy used infield tests at Esbjergvaerket.15 Field test at Skaerbaekvaerket.. . E 445 440 435 430 © 425 0 I I 1 I I I 10 . Unit 2 during which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill start.) ~ J 60 70 80 90 Figure 5... Unit 3 .¢... . . . Note the separate references for each steam temperature + To..150 Thermal power plant simulation and control (.. 60 70 80 90 25 .. 20 30 40 50 T i m e (min. O' 0 i 10 i 20 i 30 i i • 40 50 Time (min.9 460 455 450 _--[• I l G P C b a s e d control] P1 b a s e d control I ' ~ ' i ' ..

. .Steam temperature control 151 the range 3-6. ' . .) i i 60 70 80 90 15 . .- PTx based control GPC based control ' ' I I I I I v'e- ly/V .the scheduling function will adapt the model to cover the total operating range. It is sufficient to perform one step response for establishing the PTx model . the full control range of both control valves was used. . . .. Due to load-dependent variations in the differential pressure it may be necessary to introduce gain scheduling of the PI controller. t. This type of strategy has been widely used by Siemens and others. Unit 3 during which the boiler was exposed to soot blowing .. .18 the boiler was exposed to one of the most significant disturbances the stopping of a coal mill. . . . . .- i i i i i PTx based control GPC based control . During this sequence.the maximum deviation is approximately 2 °C for both controllers. ... . Comparing the two model-based strategies it can be concluded from the field tests that the differences in performance are only marginal. N ~ 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min. Sliding pressure operation and steam temperatures near the saturation conditions may necessitate gain scheduling of the P controller as well.17 Field tests at Esbjergvaerket. . . .) 60 70 80 90 Figure5. . . In this case the maximum deviation was approximately 8 °C for both controllers. In Figure 5. most probably a result of slightly different closed-loop bandwidths which again are a result of minor differences in the tuning of the controllers. . . The water injection flows behave in much the same way. . .) 570 2 565 560 555 © 550 .17 shows that both model-based controllers produce very tight control during soot blowing . . 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min. . .. . . Figure 5. . . ~" 10 ..

PTx based control GPC based control 10 20 30 40 50 Time (rain... In the fuzzy controller.152 Thermal power plant simulation and control 570 565 ~560 ~555 © 550 I I I ~ I I I I I I I I I --~. ... 5.) 60 70 80 90 Figure 5..4. Figure 5. 1996) among other issues. a model-based strategy. the applicability of fuzzy control for the regulation of superheater temperatures was investigated• The simulations were based on a fuzzy PI controller complemented by a set of 'breaking rules' to handle the high-order dynamics. A performance comparison between a conventional PI-based strategy... the PTx-based strategy was preferred due to its simplicity as regards implementation and commissioning. Unit 3 during which the boiler was exposed to a coal mill stop In this case..--~-.19. I ~lO f "~12 ~ 8 0 PTx based control GPC based control ~ 6 ~4 2 0 I I * I 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (min.... and a fuzzy-based strategy. Figure 5.3 Fuzzy control In a simulation study on the utilisation of fuzzy control within the Danish power industry (Moelbak and Hammer..20 where the boiler was exposed to disturbance from the flue gas..) 60 70 80 90 14 ....16..5.18 Field tests on Esbjergvaerket. In this case the controllers were tuned to maximise the disturbance rejection capability without exhibiting oscillatory behaviour.. is illustrated in Figure 5. triangles were used as membership functions on the inputs and singletons were used as membership functions on the output.. The rule set is shown in Figure 5.

4 Dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures As already mentioned.e) NL NL NM NL NL NM NM ZE NM NL NM NM ZE PM ZE NM NM ZE PM PM (Au . The coal flow would be a good measure for the disturbances.L) = PL) THEN IF (u(t) u(t-L)=PM) THEN (Au=PM) IF (u(t)-u(t L)=ZE) THEN (Au=ZE) IF IF (u(t). 5. the predominant disturbances to the superheater process come from the flue gas.PL) PM NM ZE PM PM PL PL ZE PM PM PL PL Ae(O ZE PM PL IF (u(t)-u(t. These considerations have resulted . This conclusion is related to the indirect type of process modelling in a fuzzy controller which implies a very time-consuming trial and error type of commissioning.19 Fuzzy rule set for superheater PI control: e. but it cannot be measured on a continuous basis. the temperature of the flue gas in the vicinity of the heating surface could be suitable. Faster and larger control actions can be allowed in the case of the model-based controller as it uses an explicit and accurate process model while the fuzzy controller uses a less accurate and implicit process model (rules). Such measurements will of course be suitable for feedforward control. As regards commissioning and tuning the fuzzy controller is significantly more resource demanding compared with the P! controller and the model-based controller. Most of these disturbances are initiated by the processing and combustion of fuel (coal).4. Alternatively.Steam temperature control 153 e(t) AU=f(Ae. L: load-dependent deadtime As regards performance (overshoot) the model-based controller is the best. One possibility for improving steam temperature control further could be to measure the disturbances even before they are reflected in the outlet steam temperature. Au: change of control signal. while the P! controller is the worst.u(t (u(t)-u(t L) = NM) THEN (Au = NM) L)=NL) THEN (Au=NL) Figure 5. &e: control error and change of error.

. P I and model based controllers. it was the general understanding that reliable dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures was not possible.2.. ~-. Until recently.) 20 25 30 Figure 5... such as thermocouples.. i i [ - ! . Fuzzycontrol [ 1 2 g 0 o O-2 '5 i .) 2'o 2... Two types of equipment have been investigated with respect to utilisation in boiler control: acoustic pyrometry.f'X". . This decision was based partly on correlation analysis between flue gas temperatures and ... At time = 5 min. From field tests of both types it has been found that the equipment based on radiation pyrometry was preferable for feedforward control of superheater temperatures. Conventional methods. exploiting that fact that gases emit electromagnetic radiation in a narrow band of wavelengths .. exploiting the fact that sound velocity varies as a function of the media temperature . i . radiation pyrometry (new type).154 Thermal power plant simulation and control ~'10 8 6 E ~ f t i i ... the superheater was exposed to a disturbance from the flue gas in a project mainly dedicated to developing an efficient feedforward function based on dynamic measurement of the flue gas temperatures. all involve significant disadvantages/limitations concerning the practical handling and the information quality. Time (rain. PI control Fuzzy control Model based control ~ -5 o-10 r.o i I I l.20 Simulation results comparing a fuzzy...in this case radiation emitted by the CO2 in the flue gas.) -15 0 5 10 15 Time (rain. suction pyrometry and radiation pyrometry.in this case the temperature of the flue gas. 3o i t ~ 0 .

Steam temperature control

155

ToZ ,2 ro,~f

~."

::i'::! adiati!n
pyrometer
r~
+ l

Adaptive

mst~ rhsteam'10~B A/B I

F"

LL __Min value Max value

Figure 5.21

The control strategy used infield tests in Esbjergvaerket, Unit 3.

steam temperatures and partly on a cost/benefit evaluation. Further details can be found in Moelbak and Jensen (1994).

5.4.5

Feedforward control using radiation pyrometry

The implemented control strategy comprises a feedforward function based on radiation pyrometry and a feedback function based on a model-based controller - see Figure 5.21. The feedforward function consists of two main features: (i) An adaptive filter, which has to filter out the noisy part of the signal. The adaptive feature is necessary because the noise band is dependent on the state of operation, e.g. burner setting - see Figure 5.22. A derivative function with a conventional low-pass filter for which the gain and the time constants have to be tuned.

(ii)

The idea is that the feedforward action should be inactive most of the time and only intervene when significant disturbances occur. The most frequent and significant disturbance at Esbjergvaerket Unit 3 is the start and stop of coal mills. Figure 5.23 shows a sequence caused by the start of a coal mill. Using the previous approach, feedforward action is only applied to one of the superheater parallel lines. The field test sequence in Figure 5.23 illustrates very well that introducing the feedforward

156 Thermal power plant simulation and control ~1100 L)

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100

200

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400 500 Time(min.)

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Figure 5.22

Measurement of theflue gas temperature using radiation pyrometry

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Figure5.23

Field test results comparing control strategies with and without feedforward. The disturbance is initiated by the start of a coal mill

function halves the temperature overshoot. The significant improvements are due to earlier detection of the disturbance and an accordingly earlier control action, which is clearly indicated by the development of the water flows, shown in Figure 5.23.

Steam temperature control
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Field results comparing control strategies with and without feedforward. The disturbance is initiated by a fault situation (fire in separator)

In Figure 5.24 a fault situation occurred - a fire was detected in the separator of one of the coal mills and as a result the coal was forced out. Again significant improvements were obtained for the superheater line on which the feedforward was implemented. The flue gas temperature and the resulting feedforward signal are also shown in the figure.

5.4.6

Cost~benefit assessment

The experiences with different types of feedback controllers are summarised in Table 5.1.

158 Thermalpower plant simulation and control
Controllertype PI Fuzzy Adaptivemodelbased 'Simple' modelbased Control performance Low Medium High High Resource demand Low High High Medium

Table5.1 Comparisonof different types offeedback control methodsfor superheater control
The experience acquired indicates that a model-based controller should be used for feedback control of the superheater temperatures, and that the load-dependent dynamics should be handled directly by a scheduling function. When choosing a type of model-based controller the implementation and commissioning effort should be considered. The field test results shown and experience from other plants indicate that an efficiency limit has been reached as regards pure feedback control relying on modelbased methods. This limit is actually set by the superheater itself and is determined by the metal mass of the superheater pipes. As a consequence, it is suggested that future work put less emphasis on the development of feedback control strategies for this process. More likely, improvements in steam temperature control should be sought in other areas: • Steam temperature control makes up only a small part of the boiler process and the control system. The boiler process, on the whole, is a highly multivariable system and further improvements in overall performance, including steam temperature regulation, should be sought using multivariable methods. This issue will not be discussed further here - work on this issue can be found in Nakamura et al. (1989) and in Mortensen et al. (1997). New measurement techniques are continually being developed and becoming commercially available. These new techniques pave the way for the development of control schemes offering performance improvements.

Assuming an effective feedback controller is already present, e.g. a model-based controller, the introduction of a feedforward function based on radiation pyrometry will only have little influence on the lifetime and efficiency of the plant, as previously discussed. However, as the feedforward function is only active when major disturbances occur, the improvements regarding the load-following capability and availability will justify the investment. A future perspective is to introduce a similar strategy to the feedwater control loop, which is even more significant to the stability and availability of the plant.

Steam temperature control

159

5.5

Conclusions

In this chapter conventional and advanced steam temperature controls have been discussed. It is obviously very important to keep objectives and perspectives in mind when improved solutions are targeted and conclusions are drawn. The choice of advanced methods in the discussed applications have, to some extent, been determined by historical issues like the theoretical developments at the time and personal preferences. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that it is important to choose some kind of model-based method. As the thermal processes are quite well known in mathematical terms, modelling of the processes should be direct this conclusion favours methods like LQG, GPC and PTx, as opposed to fuzzy-based methods, which are based on indirect modelling. Furthermore, it was decided to use a complementary strategy for evaporator control while it was decided to substitute the existing strategy in the case of superheater control. This difference in strategy should be seen as a consequence of the difference in process and control complexity. Evaporator control is more complex than superheater control in terms of the number of required inputs and outputs and control structure, interlocks, etc. The state-of-the-art is that advanced control methods have been widely applied in the power industry to steam temperature control. In general, much effort has been put into the theoretical development of improved feedback control methods, only some of which have been applied and of which most are based on linear methods. The practical experience presented indicates that model-based methods are capable of coming close to the upper performance limit for feedback control for the processes in mind. Experiments with new measurement techniques and advanced filtering methods for disturbance detection have shown significant improvements in critical situations. The deregulation of the power industry and the increased utilisation of renewable energy sources are some of the reasons why further improvements are still in demand, particularly in relation to disturbance rejection and improved dynamic stability during abnormal situations. Future developments and applications should focus on new ways of acquiring information regarding disturbances and abnormalities. One way could be to develop new measurement techniques and new methods for signal utilisation, e.g. combining several measurements into high-level information (sensor fusion methods). Another way could be to focus on the development and application of more accurate (nonlinear) models and hence adapt or develop control methods based on the new model structures.

5.6

References

CLARKE, D. W., MOHTADI, C. and TUFFS, E S.: 'Generalized predictive control Part I. The basic algorithm. Part II. Extensions and interpretations', Automatica, 23, (2), pp. 137-160, 1987

160 Thermalpower plant simulation and control ISERMANN, R.: 'Digital control systems, volumes 1 and 2' (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989) KLEFENZ, G.: 'Automatic control of steam power plants' (Wissenschaftsverlag, 1986) The MathWorks Inc.: 'System identification toolbox user's guide' (1995) MOELBAK, T.: 'Robust adaptive control of superheater temperature in a power station', VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 6, 1991, 71, (6), pp. 558-561 MOELBAK, T. and HAMMER, L.: 'Utilization of fuzzy control in power plants Part 2: simulation study'. ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, report EP96/694, 1996 (in Danish) MOELBAK, T. and JENSEN, S. B.: 'Model-based steam temperature control in PFUSC plants - Part 1: analysis of methods for dynamic measurement of flue gas temperatures. ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, report EP94/582, 1994 (in Danish) MORTENSEN, J. H., MOELBAK, T. and PEDERSEN, T. S.: 'Optimization of boiler control for improvement of load following capabilities using neural networks'. Proceedings of IFAC/CIGRE Symposium on Control of Power Systems and Power Plants, Beijing, China, 1997 pp. 169-174 NAKAMURA, H., TOYOTA, Y., KUSHIHASHI, M. I. and UCHIDA, M.: 'Optimal control of thermal power plants', Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 1989, 111, (3), pp. 511-520 SIEMENS: Lettechnische Konzepte: Regelung der Hochdruck-Dampftemperatur, E66 ProzeBtechnik Energieerzeugung SODERSTROM, T.: 'Discrete-time stochastic systems, estimation and control' (Prentice Hall, New York, 1994) OVERSCHEE, E V. and MOOR, B. D.: 'Subspace identification for linear systems' (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996)

Chapter 6

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant
D. S6ez and A. Cipriano

6.1

Introduction

During the last few years the ever-growing demand for electric power has given rise to increasing interest in combined cycle thermal power generation plants because of their high efficiencies and relatively low investment costs. Though well-known regulatory control strategies, usually PI and PID controllers (Ordys et al., 1994), have been developed for these plants, it is extremely important to determine the improvement that more advanced control strategies, like fuzzy, neural or predictive optimal control, can provide in order to reduce the operational costs further. In many industrial processes cost optimisation and the inclusion of operational constraints are necessary. Many approaches examine the steady-state costs to provide optimal static set-points. However, this methodology does not recognize transient behaviour (Becerra et al., 1999). There are some papers that deal with dynamic models. For example, de Prada and Valentin (1996) propose a predictive control strategy based on the optimisation of an economic index, applied to a chemical reactor. Katebi and Johnson (1997) describe a decentralised control strategy, based on the optimisation of a particular objective function, such as a generalised predictive control (GPC) cost index. In this work, a state space representation was used. The control strategy, possessing only a regulatory objective, is applied to a thermal power plant simulator. Bemporad et al. (1997) and Angeli and Mosca (1999) propose a reference governor at the supervisory level. Adopting a state space representation, the objective function was formed by the minimisation of the reference trajectory error. The main goal was to satisfy certain constraints. The algorithms were developed using a state space representation. A different approach for a reference governor with the same

162

Thermal power plant simulation and control

objective was proposed by Gilbert and Kolmanovsky (1999). In this case, the reference governor was defined by a non-linear pre-filter. In this work, a supervisory objective function is considered in order to minimise both the economic index and a regulatory criterion for a combined cycle thermal power plant. This problem can be solved using two alternatives. First, a centralised control strategy directly gives the control actions, without using the regulatory level. The second one, the decentralised control strategy, provides the set-points for the PI controllers using on the same objective function. A combined cycle thermal power plant is first described, covering the simulator and the regulatory level controls. Then, the design of both the centralised and decentralised supervisory control strategies are introduced. Next, the proposed supervisory controllers are assessed using a thermal power plant simulator and are compared with a more traditional control strategy where the set-points remain constant, obtained from a static optimisation. Finally, the conclusions are summarised.

6.2
6.2.1

A combined cycle thermal power plant
Process description

Combined cycle power plants have high efficiencies and they require comparatively low investment costs relative to other technologies. These plants use a gas turbine and a steam turbine to generate electricity (Ordys et al., 1994). As shown in Figure 6.1,

Boiler

fQ) Steam turbine

Air

Fuel Fuel

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Figure 6.1 A combined cycle power plant

On the other hand. Those models have different complexity levels. 6. 1991). equations that can be applied individually to each stage of the impulse and reaction of the turbine are developed.2.~str6m and Bell. like those presented by Cori and Busi (1977) and McDonald and Kwatny (1970). In this case.2. . Therefore. depending on the application. This model has been utilised in the design of multivariable controllers. the combination of the gas and steam turbines are joined by the steam boiler. Recently. 6. The exhaust gases from the gas turbine and additional firing are used to provide the necessary heat for the steam production in the boiler.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 163 both turbines are combined into one single cycle in which energy is transferred from the gas turbine to the steam turbine.2. and the steam turbine cycle has good performance in the low-temperature region. there are specific models to measure the thermal plant efficiency or to control one variable in particular. This steam is fed to the steam turbine. Ordys et al. The gas turbine cycle has good performance in the high-temperature region. there are very simple models for the steam turbine. .2. 1964.. On the other hand. the waste heat boiler and the high-pressure steam generator within one facility (Kehlhofer. there are very complex physical models.~strtJm and Bell (2000) presented a non-linear boiler model that balances accuracy against simplicity of its modelling. 6. Combined cycle (CC) operation offers practical advantages for both the hightemperature and the low-temperature part of the combustion process. 1991.2 Steam turbine Ray (1980) describes a model of the steam turbine that is based on the fundamental thermal balances. In this case. like the behaviour of equivalent nozzles for the high-pressure. intermediate-pressure and low-pressure stages. 1997). that have been introduced for transient stability studies of the electric network (IEEE Committee. 1995) that characterise with enough detail the dynamics of the most relevant variables of the boiler. mainly linear models. there are intermediate models (Nicholson. consisting of more than 10 differential equations and over 100 non-linear algebraic equations. Rhine and Tucker.1 Boiler For the boiler. De Jager et al.2 Thermal power plant models There are many proposals in the literature concerning modelling of the main components of a combined cycle power plant (boiler. steam turbine and gas turbine). (1994) present a model that includes the more important nonlinearities associated with the turbine. many of the dynamic equations and variables are not included in the modelling process (. 1991). De Mello. The model describes the complicated dynamics of the boiler over a wide operating range.2. Also. 1988.

104 ~ 0.4 Superheated steam pressure 4. (1987) and Shobeiri (1987) present very detailed distributed parameter models of the gas turbine. 350 i 400 Superheated steam temperature I i i i I i 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6. using steadystate equations derived experimentally. (1994) present much simpler models. 6. 4. (1994) are used.6 ~ 4. consisting of a boiler.2.102 0. a steam turbine (Ps = 1 1 MW) and a gas turbine (Pg = 34 MW). The gas flow dynamics are described for each section of the turbine. Rowen (1983) describes an intermediate model for the gas turbine that permits design of a supervisory control strategy.2 Step change in drum water level set-point (controlled variables) . because they are a modelling solution that incorporates the main process variables and the nonlinear behaviour.6 0 50 i i i i I I i i I I i i i i I 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Drum water level ] I I I I I I 5J0 100 i 150 i 200 i 250 i 300 ~ 350 i 400 | Furnace gas pressure 50 100 150 200 250 r 300 .2. including only 34 differential equations and about 100 algebraic equations.5 40 0.2 0 5 .3 A Simulink-based simulator A computer-based physical simulator was developed for a 45 MW combined cycle thermal power plant. Hung (1991) and Biss et al.3 Cohen et al.~E 4.164 Thermal power plant simulation and control Gas turbine 6.2.100 0 718 717. In this work the models proposed by Ordys et al.8 717. This model includes the main dynamic of the gas turbine for a wide range of operating conditions.

150 i i J i J 165 5~0 L 100 . respectively.05 Furnace air flow 64 0 0. . Next. First.5 5~0 J 100 . .Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 14. (1994). which are solved numerically using a non-linear equation at each step of the simulation. The tuning of PI controllers was obtained from the work of Ordys et al.4 Regulatory control strategies The regulatory controllers for the combined cycle power plant are established for each subsystem. . feedwater flow (We) or valve position (Xl). air flow to the furnace (WA) and attemperator water flow (Watt) or valve position (x2). the boiler response with the control strategy based on PI controllers is tested. The simulator was programmed in the Matlab®/Simulink ® environment under the Windows 2000 system.3 Step change in drum water level set-point (manipulated variables) The models and their parameters were adapted from Ordys et al. 200 ~ 250 ~ 300 . There are algebraic loops in the gas turbine and steam turbine models.1 s. the controlled variables are the superheated steam pressure (Ps). the furnace gas pressure (PG) and the superheated steam temperature (Ts).5 . (1994) propose.e. a qualitative analysis of the models is presented considering different tests and analysing the similarities between the simulation responses and real plant behaviour. As Ordys et al. applying the fifth-order Runge-Kutta integration method. 350 400 ~ o Attemperator water flow -0. In this case. the gas turbine and the steam turbine. . (1994). i. the integration step for the simulations is 0.2. the drum water level (L). Gas turbine fuel flow z~ 14 0 100 50 I 0 64.5 0 i i i i i i i 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 350 400 Figure 6. The manipulated variables are fuel flow (wf). 6. 150 200 250 300 350 400 ~ 5'0 ~ 100 L 150 L 200 ~ 250 ~ 300 Feedwater flow k 350 400 0 . the boiler.1 64. .

9 I 5 100 150 200 250 300 9o8l_ 90.5 Stepchange in gas turbine exhaust gas temperature reference (controlled variables) .5 Steam turbine power 5'o I I I I 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 11 10 9 8 i i i i i HP turbine steam flow 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 Figure 6.6 t 0 5 0 91 /" NOx conc.0 Step change in steam turbine power reference / Io i i GT exhaust gas temperature i i 5 100 150 200 250 300 / GT mechanical power 0 i i i i 33.0 10.166 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 11. in exhaust gases 100 i 150 Time (s) i 200 i 250 i 300 Figure 6.0 9.5 10.5 ll.4 1150 ~ 1100 1050 1000 34.

the responses for superheater steam pressure (Ps). 5 i i L 100 150 200 250 300 ' ~ ' 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 2 0 250 300 Figure6. The simulation shows that the PI controllers respond appropriately.6 Step change in gas turbine exhaust gas temperature reference (manipulated variables) As an example.2 and 6. The settling time is . for the gas turbine. The results show acceptable behaviour of the controlled variable. Also. as would be anticipated for real plant.188 Combustion chamber steam injection ~ 0. Figures 6. as described in Ordys et al.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 50 Compressor air flow 45 40 0. Finally.6 show the responses of the closed-loop gas turbine system to a 10 per cent step change in the exhaust gas temperature reference. (1994).615 0. For the control strategy for the steam turbine. and with a settling time less than 50s and a maximum overshoot is about 2. Figures 6. and steam temperature (Ts) and furnace gas pressure (Pc) are non-minimum phase. the controlled variables are exhaust gas temperature (TTout).3 present the boiler responses to a 10 per cent step in the drum water level set-point. the power output of the gas turbine (Pg) and the NOx concentration in the exhaust gases (gcNox).186 i i 167 I / I I I 0 50 100 150 i 200 250 300 GT fuel flow . the manipulated variable is the flow of steam to the high-pressure turbine (Win) that controls the steam turbine power output (Ps). providing good performance with a settling time less than 100 s.5 and 5. the fuel flow (Fa) and the flow of the steam injected into the combustion chamber (Wis). In Figure 6.61 0 0. comparable with real plant.5 per cent.4 the step response of a closed-loop steam turbine system subject to a 10 per cent decrease in the power reference is presented. The manipulated variables are the air flow to the compressor (Wa).62 r~ 0.

the superheated steam pressure. CrPg. ~. 6. Table 6. Ce the feedwater supply unit cost and CF fixed costs given by the cost of operational technical personnel. The gas turbine power exhibits slightly non-minimum phase behaviour due to an existing controller saturator.3 Design of supervisory control strategies for a combined cycle thermal power plant In this work.1) i=1 (/3s(t + j ) . the minimisation of the operational costs (Jcf) and the minimisation of both the set-point trajectory error together with the control action effort (Jcr). and the drum level.1) j=l i=1 + CrL j=l (/. Crps and CrL are the cost factors of the regulatory levels and ZFd. the proposed objective function considers both an economic and a regulatory level objective.2) where CF and Cf are the fuel unit costs.(t + j) -. L*. As the currency unit. The external set-point trajectories for the gas turbine power. considering the fuel flow to the gas turbine Fd./3s(t + j ) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the superheated steam pressure and L(t + j) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the drum level. (6. are constant and previously fixed.i -. Hence. The cost values CF.1 shows the parameters of the objective function for the CC power plant.wf and Zwe are the control weightings.1) Also. etc.168 Thermal power plant simulation and control less than 30 s. the total objective function to be optimised at the supervisory level is: J = Jcf + JCr.P2) 2 + )-wfZ ) (6.3) AW2(t q'. p*. the economic objective function (Jcf) is given by: N Jcf = Z C F F d ( t W i i=1 N 1 ) + E Cfwf(tWi i=1 - N 1)+ Z C e w e ( t W i i=1 - 1)+CF (6. N is the prediction horizon. Cf and Ce were chosen to represent economic criteria for real ..)2 + ZFd E AFg(t + i .L*) 2 + Zwe Z i=1 Aw2e(t + i -- 1) where/. the fuel flow to the boiler wf and the feedwater flow We as the main process costs. respectively.g(t + j) is the j-step-ahead prediction for the gas turbine power. P~. The regulatory level objective (JCr) is given by: JCr = CrPg j=l + Crps (/3g(t + j ) _ p. Also. a fictional $$ was chosen to evaluate costs. that is.

We. the superheated steam temperature (Tsr ) and the steam turbine power (Pr). .Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant Table 6.1 Objective function parameters Value 100$$/kg 100$$/kg 1$$/kg 34MW 169 Parameter CF Cf Ce P~ p* L* CrPg Crps CrL 4. the exhaust gas pressure (p~). As Figure 6. are maintained constant.1). in this case. with the weightings for the fuel costs significantly higher than the feedwater cost. ~-Fd.3. for superheated steam pressure and for the drum level are eliminated. p* and L* were selected using operational criteria. ~-wf and )~we were selected by regulatory criteria that encourage stable behaviour at the regulatory level. the fuel flow to the boiler. the NOx concentration in the exhaust gases (grNox). with the corresponding PI controllers replaced by a supervisory level. and N was chosen near the maximum settling time. Fd. The optimisation variables proposed here are the fuel flow to the gas turbine. The set-points for the exhaust gas temperature (T~out).5251MPa 4. while the cost factor values of the regulatory level CrPg. the PI controllers for the power output of the gas turbine. wf.1425m I$$/MW2s 10-9$$/MPa2s 106 $$/M 2 s ~-Fd )~wf )~we N 1022MW2s2/kg2 1011MPa2 s2/kg2 I m2s2/kg 2 100 plant. as the corresponding manipulated variables do not affect the economic optimiser.7 shows. The external set-point trajectories Pg.1 Centralised control strategy The centralised control strategy introduces a supervisory level which directly determines the optimal control actions of the process. and the feedwater flow. Crps and CrL were chosen by trade-off criteria. the economic optimiser provides the optimum control actions for the gas turbine and the boiler. 6. Hence. respectively. Next. two solution algorithms are proposed in order to solve the optimisation problem of equation (6.

170 Thermal power plant simulation and control Pg* Ps* L* Supervisorylevel: Economicoptimiser ~T~out~gcrNox PI Controllers PG rI 1 PI Controllers Pl ~_ Controllers FZd.2 Decentralised control strategy In the proposed decentralised control strategy based on the supervisory level. Thus.3.welwA~Wa.Wa ~ ~ *~i Gas Turbine ~wf~We~WA~ Boiler ~ Win Steam turbine L Figure 6. 2002). all the PI controllers remain untouched.~----------m TT°ut Pg gcNox PI ! Controllers ~esr PI ~ Controllers Controllers .. The economic optimiser shown in Figure 6.8 will provide the optimum set-points for the regulatory level. Boiler Wi n Steam turbine I Figure 6. ~Wa ~Wis Gas turbine ~__ We .t.8 I Decentralised control strategy for the combined cycle thermal power plant 6. . 7 Centralised control strategy for the combined cycle thermal power plant Pg* Ps* L* Supervisorylevel: Economicoptimiser 4 . the supervisory optimiser gives the optimal set-points at the regulatory level (S~ez et al.

pr. as they directly depend on the main process inputs: the fuel flow to the gas turbine. Fd.4..4 6. 1987).1. wf.4. Identification of the superheated steam pressure.4) A(z . P~. so that: e(t) A(z-1)L(t) -----B(z-1)We(t) q. the superheated steam pressure. Ps.l ) w f ( t ) + . .014z -3 + 0.0.A where (6.570z -2 + 0.1 + 3 5 3 6 z -5 and while A --:--1 . linear models of the boiler process and gas turbine process are necessary. and the drum water level. and the feedwater flow. B(z -1) = (0. Similarly. Pg' Tr and Psr will be constant as they do not impact on the economic optimiser.0 .772z -2. was obtained using feedwater flow as an excitation signal. L r. As for the centralised control strategy.1 Application to the thermal power plant simulator Centralised control strategy In order to design the centralised control strategy. B(z . which are included in the proposed objective function.002z -5) × 10 -3. These models are appropriate for many industrial process in which disturbances are non-stationary (Clarke et al. gr r cNOx. wf. the fuel flow to the boiler.B ( z . loop dynamics was achieved by superimposing an excitation signal on the fuel flow.754z -1 + 0.5) A(z -1) = 1 .Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 171 The optimisation variables proposed here are the set-points of the power of the gas turbine. We.007z -4 + 0. The parameters of the CARIMA models were obtained using a least squares approach from the Matlab Identification toolbox. e(t) is zero-mean white noise and z -1 is the backward shift operator. 6.1 Boiler process models The dynamics of the main variables of the boiler process are identified around their operating points using controlled auto-regressive integrating moving-average (CARIMA) models.z -1 . The resulting C A R I M A model using a one second sampling time is formed as the following expression: e(t) A(z-1)ps(t) :.228z -1 . 9 7 4 z -1. 6.0.1 ) = 1 ..A where (6. the set-points T~out. a C A R I M A model for the drum level. L.1 ) = 2 7 1 3 z .

2 Decentralised control strategy In the decentralised control strategy. models of the PI for the fuel flow and the feedwater flow are necessary. The resulting CARIMA model for the gas turbine power.9) . Bcr(Z . 6.5 × 10 -5 . a model for the gas turbine fuel flow control loop follows as: Ac(z-l)Fd(t) = Bcr(z-l)pg(t) + Bcy(z-l)pg(t) (6.4. K i ---- --181 + 164Z-1.l . Pg.4.2.z . (1994).55 × 10 -5 . with respect to the fuel flow.7) Bcy(Z-1) = -1.717z . The process models (6. is obtained as: e(t) A(z-1)pg(t) = B(z-1)Fd(t) + --£with A(z -1) = 1 .l .Bcy(Z-1)ps(t) where Ac(z -1) = 1 .4. 1. Kp = 10.45 × 10-5Z -1. Thus.172 Thermal power plant simulation and control Gas turbine process model 6.4.1. the optimiser provides the optimum set-points for the PI controllers. Ki = 10 -6. Bcr(Z -1) = 1.1. by numerically solving the defined quadratic objective function.1.1).1. Finally. Kp ---. 6.1 ) = l .55 × 10 -5 + 1.45 × 10-5z .244 x 107z -7. (6.z Bcy(Z-1) = (6. Similarly. the parameters of the PI controller were obtained from the work of Ordys et al. The optimum control actions are calculated.1 PI controller models A discrete model for the boiler fuel flow control loop is: ac(z-1)wf(t) = Bcr(z-l)p~(t) -~.j .4)-(6.0. As previously outlined. Fd. using the Matlab Optimisation toolbox. The centralised control strategy minimises the economic objective function defined in equation (6.1 ) = 1 8 1 . giving the optimal control actions.3 Supervisory controller (6.1 6 4 z -1.6) are considered as constraints.6) B(z -1) = 1.8) -1. 6.2 The dynamics of the gas turbine process are similarly identified around its nominal operating points using CARIMA models. a model for the feedwater flow control loop is obtained as: Ac(z-l)we(t) = Bcr(Z-1)Lr(t) + Bcy(Z-1)L(t) where Ac(z .

Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant where Ac(z -1) = 1 . the optimum control actions are calculated by numerically solving the quadratic programming optimisation problem.5) and the static minimisation of the objective function. given by equation (6.l ) ----2. the optimum set-point for the superheated steam pressure is: p~(t) = p~ Cf 2CrpsKps t > 0 (6.95 × 10 -9.322 Mpa s/kg is the static gain between the superheated steampressure and the fuel flow. The proposed supervisory centralised and decentralised control strategies are compared with a control strategy in which the set-points remain constant. 6. The process models (6.4)-(6.4.2. As shown in Figure 6. calculated by optimisation of the proposed objective function considering a static model of the boiler process. and.6) and the PI controller models (6.95 × 10 -9. for the purpose of this simulation.4. the optimum 13 / ~. giving the optimum set-points for the PI controllers.l . Similarly. [ ~o 12 ~11 10 Superheatedsteamflow I 0 100 ' 200 300 ~ 400 Time (s) 500 • | 600 700 800 Figure 6. using the static model for the drum level.8 kg/s over a period of 800 s. As previously.95 x 10 -9.2 Supervisory controller Bcr(Z = 2.1). Bcy(Z.9) are introduced as constraints. given by equation (6.z . using the Optimisation toolbox of Matlab.10) where Kps = 0. 173 Kp = 1.1).48 × 10 -9.1). using the static model for the superheated steam pressure given by equation (6.7)-(6. this is treated as a disturbance. The decentralised control strategy minimises the objective function defined in equation (6. corresponding to changes in power output produced by the steam turbine. 6.4) and the static minimisation of the objective function given by equation (6. -1) Ki = 2.6 and 10.9.9 Disturbance sequence for superheated steam flow .3 Comparative analysis We assume that the superheated steam flow (Ws) changes. Then. the steam flow varies between 12.

Figure 6.11 presents the drum level response applying the same control strategies._ Superheated steam pressure i i i - ) " i 100 200 30 400 500 600 700 800 ~ ~4.10 Closed-loop response for superheated steam pressure with constant setpoint (thick line). while the feedwater flow remains similar to the original control strategy.. 4. This follows from the much higher value for the fuel cost coefficient (Cf).25 4. Also. the centralised control strategy directly provides the control action based on the same regulatory objective function.0. Figure 6.4o ~ 4. with the centralised decentralised control strategy.3) (S~iez et al. This is because the decentralised control strategy is intended to eliminate the action of the low-level PI controller and the algorithm implicitly replaces the PI controller with the predictive control action given by the regulatory objective function (equation 6..40 0 4. The fuel flow to the boiler decreases when using the proposed optimal control strategies.30 Superheated steam pressure (reference) 4.. relative to the feedwater supply cost coefficient (Ce) in equation (6..5 .10 shows the closed-loop response for superheated steam pressure (Ps) with constant set-point. centralised control (dotted line) and decentralised control (solid line) static set-point for the drum water level is: Lr(t) = L* Ce t _> 0 (6. .11) 2CrLKL ' where KL ---. 2002).35 0 100 ~ 200 L_ ~ i ~ 300 ~ 400 L___ 500 600 700 800 ¢~ 4.30 4.345 m s/kg is the static gain between the drum water level and represents feedwater flow.174 Thermal power plant simulation and control 14 Boiler fuel flow J 13 12.2).25 0 i i i i ~ 1 i 100 200 300 400 Time (s) 500 600 700 800 Figure 6. The centralised and decentralised controllers give similar improvements in performance.35 i i.

2) and (6.700 146._ 4"16 t ~'~4.11 Closed-loop response for drum level with constant set-point (thick line).12) .12 100 .799 13. 700 800 /"-'""-~ I I /----'"~ I I /~'~ Drum level (reference) I I 0 100 200 300 400 Time (s) 500 600 700 800 Figure 6.77 In Table 6.2.16~4. . 30 400 . . 500 .Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 14 175 10 8 I I I I Feedwater flow I L 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 4.603 13.280 J Control strategy Savings % [$$] 169. . centralised control (dotted line) and decentralised control (solid line) Table6.14 4.310 146.100 133.520 133.14 ~ 4. 60 . Also.120 1. Drum level 200 .2 Comparison of the economic and regulatory objective functions Supervisory level Jce [$$] Jcr [$$] 33.79 1.100 Jcf with constant set-points/ per cent.12 0 . the mean values of the objective functions (6. Savings = (6. the savings for the fuel costs regarding the control strategy with constant set-point are defined by: ffCf with supervisory level "] 100 .3) are evaluated according to the results presented in Figures 6.10 and 6.400 Constant set-points Centralised Decentralised 135. ! 1.

The supervisory controllers also reduce considerably the second component of the objective function that minimises the differences between the controlled variables and their set-points. In this study. the implementation of those control strategies is recommended. because it represents quite accurately the nonlinearities of the process. is reduced by 1. that is to say. the fuel flow to the boiler and the feedwater flow. Therefore. and the drum water level for the regulatory level. compared with a regulatory control strategy with constants set-points. Then. The minimum difference between both strategies can be explained because the decentralised controller is intended to eliminate the PI control action. that is the plant operational costs. the fuel flow to the gas turbine. The results show that both strategies present very similar behaviour to changes in superheated steam flow. Alternatively in the decentralised control strategy. obtained from static optimisation of the same objective function.77 per cent.79 per cent when using the centralised controller. that is to say. the superheated steam pressure. Therefore. using these optimum set-points. For the implementation of the optimal control strategy. in the case of the decentralised control strategy. In the first strategy. generating the manipulated variable based on the defined objective function. 6. also compared with the same regulatory control strategy.176 Thermal power plant simulation and control The savings obtained with the centralised and decentralised control strategies are approximately 1. the PI controller gives the control actions. The same component. a non-linear dynamic simulator has been developed for the evaluation of supervisory and regulatory control strategies. The results of this exploratory study show that supervisory control offers interesting perspectives in order to reduce the operational costs of a combined cycle thermal . called a centralised controller. the Ordys et al.78 per cent. (1994) model has been selected for this study. Based on this model. an objective function has been defined. are reduced by 1. and minimises the control energy.5 Discussion and conclusions Of all the physical models available in the technical literature. The supervisory control strategy has also to maintain the superheated steam pressure. as the operational costs of a thermal power plant are very high and each percentile point in savings represents a significant amount of money. The first component of the objective function. the fuel flow to the gas turbine. boiler and the feedwater flow. The simulation tests using the regulatory control strategy show similar behaviour to real power plant. the optimisation algorithm directly gives the final manipulated variables. the optimisation algorithm calculates the optimum set-points for the gas turbine power output. the objective of the supervisory optimal control is to minimise the operational costs. also improving the regulatory level with PI controllers. which combines an economic (operational cost) and a regulatory component. which mainly depend on the fuel flow and feedwater flow. two alternatives are considered. drum level and gas turbine power variables close to their set-point values.

in some cases. and BELL. Control and Testing Symposium.: 'Command governors for constrained non-linear systems'..: 'Parameter identification of a drum boiler power plant'.. 'Failure diagnosis and detection for non-linear and time-variant dynamic systems'. R. and ROBERTS. 44. pp.Supervisory predictive control of a combined cycle thermal power plant 177 power plant. Tennessee. 6. (4). D. 340-349 BISS. pp. D. (3). September 7-9. Universidad de Chile. M.7 References ANGELI. A. pp. R. 6. (5). Proceedings of the IFAC Power Systems Modeling and Control Applications. 'Design of predictive control strategies based on non-linear models and its application to the control of thermal power plants'. 1994. 10. and WALZ. MOHTADI. pp. which implies low implementation cost in comparison with the centralised control strategy. 2000.~STROM. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control.: 'Robust control of a 1... for their support. (b) it reduces the natural opposition of the operators to the incorporation of more sophisticated advanced automatic controllers which.5 MW free turbine with complex load: non-linear closed loop simulations'. 363-378 BECERRA.. 1176-1181 CLARKE..: 'Generalised predictive control. pp. 123-127 . Brussels. V. Harlow. and BUSI. may limit manual intervertion. Belgium. which is better known by plant operators. 42. (2). A.: 'Gas turbine theory'. T. and MOSCA. and BELL. E.) CORI. E.. M. 1990101 'Non-linear predictive control with fuzzy constraints and fuzzy objective functions' and 1020741. CASAVOLA. Computing and Control Engineering Journal.: 'Drum-boiler dynamics'. pp. and (c) it improves the supervisory controller without modifying the regulatory level. and SARAVANAMUTI'OO.. Automatica. SCHAUTT. and TUFFS. 26-1:26-19 . R. 36. Doris S~iez also wishes to thank the Facultad de Ciencias ffsicas y Matem~iticas.: 'Simple drum boiler models'. 137-160 COHEN. 1999... P. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. D. 816-820 /kSTROM. 1997.. 21-24 March. 1999. 3rd edn. (Longman. 1987.: 'Non-linear control of constrained linear systems via predictive reference management'. Knoxville. This also offers a number of advantages: (a) it allows safer operation in the case of a failure. 1988. IEE Control'94. The decentralised strategy maintains the existing regulatory level.. H. pp. 198-208 BEMPORAD.6 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank FONDECYT for the support given to project 4000026 'Stability for optimal supervisory control systems with a fixed regulatory level'.' Automatica. Proceedings of the 3rd Power Plants Dynamics. 2980029. H. 23. K. 1977. 1989. ROGERS. G. pp. C. K. and MOSCA.. Z.: 'Integrating predictive control and economic optimisation'. ABU-EL-ZEET. P..

1997) MCDONALD. and GRIMBLE.: 'Predictive control design for large-scale systems'. M. pp. 421-425 KEHLHOFER. pp. 1964. MOxico. Automatica. Proceedings of the lEE. 1996. 1980. 111. W. Canctin. New York. pp. R.. Proceedings of the IEEPart C.: 'Modeling of gas-fired furnaces and boilers' (McGraw-Hill. (4). 865-871 SAEZ. and DE BLOK. J. Robust Non-linear Control. KATEBI. simulation and control of multi-fuel once-through boilers'. pp.. pp.: 'Modeling and simulation of power generation plants' (Springer-Verlag.: 'Fast reference governors for systems with state and control constraints and disturbance inputs'. June 30-July 5. A. W. pp.. 351-356 GILBERT. Proceedings of the 13th World Congress of IFAC International Federation of Automatic Control. H. 'A mathematical model for reheat boilerturbine-generator systems'. Int. PIKE. and VALENTIN.. E: 'Boiler models for system dynamic performance studies'. J. D. 74.: 'Dynamic simulation of a gas-turbine generating unit'. 1983. A. and JOHNSON. 1999... M. 1117-1141 HUNG.(1 ). IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. London. E: 'Modeling. C. January 25-30. 9. (2). 342-350 IEEE COMMITTEE: 'Dynamic models for fossil fueled steam units in power system studies'. pp.: 'Combined cycle gas and steam turbine power plants' (PennWell Publishing Company. pp. A. R. 4. M.W. Proceedings of the IEEE PES Winter Power Meeting. 33. 1970.: 'Dynamic optimisation of a boiler'.: 'Digital computer simulation of the dynamic operating behaviour of gas turbines'. pp. Brown Boveri Review. 6. 77-82 DE MELLO. ANNEVELD.. 1991. 1991. A. J.. (2). JOHNSON. (4).: 'Simplified mathematical representations of heavy-duty gas turbines'. Oklahoma. A. December 6-8. and KOLMANOVSKY. CIPRIANO. Applied Mathematical Modeling. San Francisco. (15). 161-173 .: 'Optimisation of industrial processes at supervisory level: application to control of thermal power plant' (Springer-Verlag. and ORDYS. 109-112 RHINE. 1-19 NICHOLSON. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. (3). London 1991) ROWEN. Proceedings of the IFAC Conference on Control of Power Plants and Power Systems.. 1479-1499 ORDYS.. 1987. and TUCKER.: 'Setpoint optimization in multivariable constrained predictive control'. pp. (3). E. 138.. 1997.I. (8). T.:'Dynamic modelling of power plant turbines for controller design'.. 1995. 1991.178 Thermal power plant simulation and control DE JAGER. pp. B. H. 1994) RAY. A. R.. 66-74 DE PRADA. 2002) SCHOBEIRI. 105. 753-761 KATEBI. 6. pp. H. M. London. and KWATNY. ASME Journal of Engineering for Power.

Its success is motivated by the fact that it is highly reliable and allows the operator to intervene manually on single components in emergency situations. The mutual influence of the regulation loops is often minimised by enabling frequency decoupling strategies (DoleZal and Varcop. 1970. Usually. In this case. Sharp changes of the power demand are more likely to occur in plants operating in a deregulated market.Chapter 7 Multivariable power plant control G. With a few variations. The push for innovation must overthrow several cultural obstacles and well-assessed procedures that designers and operators are not keen to modify. is that they do not account for the interactions of the different thermal properties in the plant. Klefenz. 1971) that are penalising in terms of performance. Moreover. producing thermal stresses of the plant components and affecting their lifetime. More precisely. A typical case where the dynamic evolution of the thermal variables is unsatisfactory takes place when a portion of the grid. based on separate single-input. a given control variable used to regulate the respective controlled property in a loop influences the dynamic behaviour of all the others.1 Introduction The introduction of new control concepts and technologies in thermal power plant is very difficult. where a significant number of units are not available for the central . Poncia 7. the thermodynamical variables could oscillate significantly. including the plant. singleoutput (SISO) loops. in emergency situations. the control system dynamic performance is in general satisfactory under normal plant operation. this structure has been adopted in all Rankine cycle-based plants. the power request to the plant suddenly drops and the thermal variables start to oscillate. the control system of a thermal power plant is based on a number of regulation loops and feedforward compensators that contribute to maintain the main thermodynamical variables within reasonable values. The main drawback of these systems. Performance degradation can be so significant that. remains isolated due to failures of the distribution system.

The design process would include a thorough testing programme on the plant. which may require the temporary shutdown of the commercial operation. these techniques consider the system as a whole. The transition to a new system would lead to various problems: • Controls centralisation. • • Therefore. In the occurrence of sudden load changes. 2001). An appealing solution would therefore be a multivariable control structure that corrects the existing classical regulation system.2). The latest developments in the field of power plant multivariable design try to follow this principle. used to traditional systems. Training. the conventional multi-SISO solution cannot be completely abandoned. When such procedures are activated. A multivariable controller may also induce dynamic phenomena that the supervisory personnel. the migration from a multi-SISO control system to a new concept based on multivariable techniques in a thermal power plant appears to be a good solution to improve plant operation. both performance improvements and plant operability would be guaranteed. multiple-input. In the following sections. because of the reluctance of the power plant industry to accept changes that would revolutionise well-assessed procedures. A multivariable. multivariable techniques are known to improve the dynamic performance significantly. multivariable controllers are far from being widely employed. emergency procedures or safety features are introduced in the control system. whose reliability is not in question. may not expect. The presence of a new control structure would make necessary the training of plant personnel. Still.180 Thermal power plant simulation and control dispatch centre. a description of a typical fossil fuel power plant and its main control requirements will . the fulfillment of the load requirements and the minimisation of the operational costs are no longer the primary control objectives. Its presence in the control structure keeps alive a well-assessed technology. First (section 7. without compromising the plant safety. the most recent approaches to the design of multivariable controllers for thermal power plant will be presented and discussed. A failure of the control algorithm would induce a failure of the entire plant. The power reliability as well as the plant efficiency would therefore be increased. SISO controllers are preferred because a regulation loop can be disconnected in case of emergency. and generate a single controller that allows optimal response. avoiding potentially dangerous behaviour. Therefore. In this way. Moreover. based on different structures and control techniques. Indeed. that consider SISO loops as part of the whole control structure. In processes where the dynamics of the state variables are strongly interacting. multiple-output (MIMO) control system would reduce the occurrence of potentially dangerous events and the intervention of the emergency procedures. Design. Industry and academic institutions have proposed a variety of solutions. any new multivariable system could be disconnected anytime. with the remainder still operating. In this way. the introduction of distributed generation and microgrid systems requires plants with enhanced load-following capability (Oluwande. A multivariable controller would work on a centralised control unit.

and to the latest developments in the industrial realm (section 7. based on frequency decoupling. 7. referring to the most recent research studies in the field.3). A state space model predictive control technique has been adopted. dealing effectively with the presence of measurable disturbances such as the power request.1. A variety of multivariable control configurations and techniques will be discussed. The temperatures at the outlet of SH2 (TsH2) and RH (TRH).4. and the choice of the control framework. SH1 and SH2 are the superheaters and RH is the reheater between the high and low pressure sections. modelling and identification of the plant. namely: • • • The electric load. such requirements are fulfilled by controlling relevant thermal variables in the plant. including the choice of architecture. the control system is required to guarantee the correct operation of the whole process. They are characterised by a multitude of possible configurations.2 Classical control of thermal power plants Thermal power plants represent the majority of electricity generation units worldwide. Attemperators are used for the control of the steam temperature. 2003). Finally. the hottest zones of the plant. In this class of power plant. Plants with a water-steam Rankine cycle. Here. operating on gas. The suggested system significantly improves plant performance in extreme situations. The evaporation pressure. Their typical structure is sketched in Figure 7. The MIMO system acts in parallel with the traditional one. Plant durability and safety must also be guaranteed (Moelbak and Mortensen. with the highest possible thermodynamic efficiency. The emphasis will be put on multivariable techniques based on predictive control theory. The design process must be based on a rigorous approach. Notwithstanding that the newest generation units are built on the basis of modern designs such as the combined cycle. The success of predictive approaches is mostly related to the fact that they can include constraints and measurable disturbances in their formulation. will also be introduced. to keep the thermal energy stored in the evaporator within acceptable margins. where sudden changes of the power load occur. the vast majority of plant in operation worldwide are still based on the water-steam cycle. Pe.Multivariable power plant control 181 be provided. The relevance of methodological aspects will be emphasised. oil or pulverised coal. . In general. The structure of the classical control. the fuel and the fluid that undergoes the thermodynamic transformations. correcting its actions. Pt. the economiser is denoted by ECO. have been traditionally preferred for their simple and reliable operation. The power load must be adjusted to the instantaneous requests of the grid. according to the adopted thermodynamic cycle. the design of a multivariable controller for a once-through boiler will be described in section 7.

it is preferred to keep the pressure proportional to the load. When critical conditions occur.. In a large class of plant. Moreover. using a sliding pressure mode. For this reason. Turbine following mode is an alternative method that secures plant safety. the control of some related variable is carried out.. In order to preserve the amount of thermal energy stored in the plant.182 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Intercept valve . the turbine power output must be promptly controlled... In some cases. it is preferred to restore the pressure level to a defined value in the fastest possible way. Here. the resulting pressure changes are minimised by the modulation of the fuel-air system in the combustion chamber. This task is achieved by acting on the governor valve at the turbine inlet. the pressure is restored with an action on the governor valve.. A control concept that fulfils this requirement is known as boiler following mode (Hagedorn and Klefenz). To meet the energy demand of the grid. the load is controlled with a fast loop acting on the turbine governor valve. both in steady-state and transient conditions. the feedforward action of the power load on the fuel system anticipates any load variation and reduces pressure fluctuations. through a fast-acting loop. While in drum boilers the water level (yw) can be regulated.. the coordination between boiler and turbine following modes is implemented...1 Schemeof the plant The mass of water in the evaporator. Moreover.. Here the pressure set-point is allowed to slide within a range of admissible values. Combustion gases path Figure 7. in once-through boilers a direct measure of the water content is not possible. resulting in smoother turbine operation and simpler plant startup. such changes affect the pressure at the turbine inlet and in the boiler.. This configuration allows the fast tracking of the power requests and the prevention of potentially dangerous situations. 9 Furnice q ~ Feeding valv Turbines Combustion chamber ~ Feed pump Hopper.. To chimney . the control system is in boiler-following mode. the turbine-following mode . The load demand is met by acting on the fuel-air system. or modifying the heat released to the generator.Water/steam main path Feed pump . Here. In both cases. During normal operation..

This control is characterised by significant delays because of the propagation time of steam in the exchanger. Steam temperatures are controlled to avoid excessive heating of the metal pipes. the water contained in the steam generator can be represented by the water level. The control scheme is represented in Figure 7. SH2 and RH are strongly interacting. g. Briefly. and the inertia of the metal masses. and eliminate poor performance when temperatures are too low. Its control is provided by acting on the mass flow of feeding water Ww. limits the steam mass flow when the pressure exceeds a security threshold. The regulation of the temperature at the RH downstream is performed by the attemperator only in emergency situations.Pt Pt° Setpoint ~ ~ ~ Pressure controller Evaporation Pt pressure Figure 7. A non-linear deadband element.2 The coordinated control boiler/turbine is selected. In power plants with a drum boiler. the temperature at the SH2 outlet is often controlled by acting on the attemperator placed downstream of SHI. the distribution of the hot exhaust gases or their recirculation.Multivariable power plant control 183 Setpoint Powerload controller I Power Pe load -~ g wt ° \ Steammass flow required g / Fuel/air required /. Consequently. because of the way hot gases are distributed in the combustion chamber. A solution by means of SISO techniques is carried out by introducing decoupling methods based on feedback loops with different bandwidths and feedforward compensation (Moelbak and Mortensen. the problem of controlling their temperatures is intrinsically multivariable. The . The narrow bandwidth control of TRH is based on the modification of the heat distribution in the furnace by means of burner position. at constant pressure. The water content of once-through boilers is instead determined by the nature of the evaporation process and is strongly coupled with the pressure dynamics. The dynamics of the boiler and SH1.2. Pt° . 2003).

The control signal is provided by the control system C ~ which provides the regulation of power load and boiler pressure.184 Thermal power plant simulation and control pe° Set-point ~'-P~ower Pe load Pt° Set-point EvaporationPt pressure Wt ° CVp Steammass flow required ~_(~ Ww ° itWatermassflow required ~o ~ Set-point Evaporation temperatureor enthalpy Figure 7. In order to avoid the overshoot of temperatures and pressures. This condition is satisfied in normal operation. multi-SISO control systems based on frequency decoupling are characterised by satisfactory performance when load variations are smooth and small. In most systems.3 Multivariable control strategies Generally. Significant oscillation of the thermal variables occur. 7. while in others it is simply the temperature at the superheater output. ~) in the proximity of the evaporator outlet. say. slow loop that comprises the regulator C~ introduces a correction of the fuel-air mass flow to adjust ~. the pressure is controlled by acting simultaneously on the fuel-air and the water feed systems. variations in the schemes . with an impact on the thermal stress of metal parts. A second._# Wc Wa o. plant interactions are no longer compensated by the control system when sudden and significant changes of the power demand are observed. In any case. and when startup and shutdown are safety-compliant procedures. To minimise interactions.3) is then based on frequency decoupling. where the load demand profile does not change suddenly. As highlighted in section 7. and to improve the load-following characteristics of the control system.1. o Fuel and air mass flow required Decoupling of the pressure and load controls with the regulation of water content control of the water content is achieved by indirectly regulating the enthalpy or the temperature (denoted by.3 C¢ ~ ~. ~ is the temperature difference across the attemperator. the process interactions limit the speed of the control action. The adopted control solution (Figure 7.

Information on the introduction of multivariable solutions dealing with coupling is scarce due to intellectual property issues.2 have been suggested and adopted on existing plant.. 1996. A description of these solutions is also provided by Moelbak and Mortensen (2003). coupling sets a trade-off between load-tracking needs and the reduction of thermal stresses. 1994) and CAD/CAE environments (Bolis et al.Multivariable power plant control 185 presented in section 7.). 1999) predictive control and dynamic advanced parallel systems are applied to improve operability. ABB Simcon is among the companies that expressly cite the advantages of MIMO controls applied to thermal plant. The efforts of the industrial community have been directed in part to the development of intelligent load-tracking systems that limit the effect of coupling. 7. hybrid supervision systems (Garcia et al. the adopted solution is based on the STAR® multivariable predictive control system by . have also been suggested by researchers in academic institutions. which modifies the control system set-points in order to achieve smoother evolution of the thermal variables. The control structure adopted in these works is of extreme interest. the area of model predictive control has been enriched by many valuable techniques (see Qin and Badgwell. Modem configurations like those developed by Toshiba or Siemens have improved supervisory systems based on the most recent advances in the field of distributed control systems and communication protocols. based on modem techniques. 1998. 1995). (1998).3. Optimal and robust control techniques (LQG. • .. Klefenz and Krieger (1992) suggested a control system that introduces a delay change to the load set-point. Other studies have been devoted to the adoption of solutions based on fuzzy logic (Ben Abdennour and Lee. since it addresses the presence of a built-in classical regulation system.9. ~ / / z ) have been adopted by Hangstrup (1998) and Mortensen et al. Since the appearance of the first contribution on MBPC in 1976 (Richalet et al. (1999) in a coal-fired power plant.. 7-{oo techniques are used by Zhao et al.1 M o d e l b a s e d predictive control Particular attention has been devoted to the study of designs that include model based predictive control (MBPC) algorithms. At Hitachi (see Takita et al. allowing optimised use of the energy stored in the boiler. genetic algorithms (Dimeo and Lee. 1996). Clearly. In particular. 1995). The design of innovative control solutions has recently been promoted by several industries that build thermal power plants. With the same intent. Lausterer and Kallina (1994) introduced a model-based estimator of the load margin. admissible ranges on the thermodynamic variables imposed to guarantee safe operation. the possibility of dealing easily with the compensation of measurable disturbances such as the power needs of the grid. for an updated outline of MBPC approaches). For instance. Many alternative control configurations and methods. There are a number of reasons to adopt MBPC in the power plant context: • the inclusion of several constraints such as limits on the operability of actuators.

the synthesis and identification of a model of the plant and existing control system. while Um is the control variable of the multivariable controller. All other outputs that are regulated by a classical controller but not by multivariable controllers (e. Different techniques have been adopted in recent years. whereas an alternative is to inject a correction signal. The first possibility is to act on the set-points of the classical control. 7. In this way. Prasad et al. the power load and the temperature at RH) are not outputs of the enlarged plant. as part of the optimising control algorithm.2. For instance. (1999) base their multivariable model predictive controller on estimation of states and plant parameters on-line with an extended Kalman filter. The control variables are denoted as u. Here. added to the control input variables of the plant. the boiler pressure and the turbine inlet temperature can be considered as controlled variables of the enlarged plant.e.g. are sketched in Figure 7.186 • Thermal power plant simulation and control the fact that MBPC has a tradition of success in the realm of thermochemical processes.2 The design process The introduction of a multivariable control system for a power plant requires a MIMO structure added to the existing multi-SISO regulations. i. three activities can be identified: • • • the definition of the control architecture.3.1 The implementation of a MIMO control over an existing multi-SISO control configuration can be carried out by considering that the new. depending on which control variables are chosen. leading to improved control trends. The schemes of the two architectures. named from now on controlled reference value (CRV) and control action correction (CAC).4. To achieve this objective. In the figure. The controlled variables of the enlarged plant are a subset of the outputs of the power generation unit. Two different possible configurations can be defined. the algorithm adapts to the nonlinear behaviour of the plant. A different proposed solution (Prasad et al.3. the selection of the control framework and its application. the interactions of the MIMO controller with the conventional system.. 1998) exploited an artificial neural network. . the existing PID-based regulation system is upgraded with a multivariable algorithm that modifies the PID's set-points. Both configurations have been successfully implemented in the past. Oluwande and Boucher (1999) illustrate the implementation of MBPC for pressure and temperature control on a coal-fired power plant. multivariable system is required to modify the dynamic behaviour of an enlarged plant that unites the plant components and the various feedback loops of the classic regulation system. The control architecture 7. y is the controlled output vector and y° the corresponding reference value.

. .... . .... . . .. After more than ten years of operation (Nakamura and Uchida. . 1989).. . . .. .. .. .. .. Also.. . .Multivariable power plant control 187 r En-large-d-plant .. .. plant _ [ Classical I . Structures based on the CAC architecture have also been adopted. (1998) have designed a CAC-based multivariable control system for the control of steam pressure and temperature of a 85 MW . . . Multivariable control yO Ig m En]arge-d.. The approach was later implemented at several other Japanese power plants owned by the Kyushu Electric Power Company. .. . .. .. .. Nakamura and Akaike (1981) introduced a variant of CAC. . .. ... L1 I i .. ~ Multivariable control Classical I u I nrowerptant [ t• control I 1 _ _ IIiI I ' . . [ rowerplant ' ! i y. . . . . . . .. . .. . . A non-linear simulation model was used for the design and test of the final control scheme. .... . Y i... . . .. . recognising the benefits of combining a conventional control system with an optimising multivariable strategy..4 MIMO control architectures a b controlled reference value... based on a multivariable state space linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) predictive controller. Oluwande and Boucher (1999) use a CRV structure to synthesise a MPC controller for a coal power plant.. . This was possible despite the modifications of the power plant dynamics due to ageing and subsequent maintenance operations. . Hangstrup (1998) and Mortensen et al... .. .. .. . the optimising controller was still in operation without any readjustment of its control parameters. control action correction A configuration similar to CRV has been adopted by Ordys and Grimble (1996) to optimise the control of a combined cycle turbine power plant. . and a remarkable reduction of thermal stresses was experienced. . . . . . b Figure 7... . t .I _ 1 ~ ~ I ~ . . ... Their approach was put into operation on a Japanese power plant in 1978.

188 Thermal power plant simulation and control coal-fired power plant boiler (see also Moelbak and Mortensen.2. The details will be discussed in section 7. This process can be carried out automatically by resorting to specific modelling tools. based on MBPC. 2003). e. linearisation is more difficult. once the data set has been extracted from the simulator.g. When the control architecture includes SISO feedback control loops. Also. The black-box identification procedure has several advantages. designed by Poncia and Bittanti (2001). by Prasad et al. via a set of experiments that can be carried out without shutting down the plant. the training data set can be obtained directly from the enlarged plant. 7. In the multivariable case. CAC is also the structure of the control system. This procedure is indeed complicated for a multivariable system with a high number of state variables. (1999) for the implementation of a multivariable control system that replaces the pre-existing controllers. their structure and parameterisation can be related to the geometric and physical characteristics of the plant. The choice of a specific control algorithm imposes the model structure that needs to be implemented. The results obtained show a significant improvement of the control system performance. Usually. providing accurate simulation of the plant behaviour over a wide range of operating conditions. since alternative configurations can be tested rapidly and with no impact on the plant.3. the simulator can be used to extract the reduced order model needed for the implementation of the control algorithm. especially when the system is characterised by implicit relations.2 Identification of a model for control A reduced order model of the plant is usually included in optimal control algorithms. to apply methods based on the blackbox identification of a multivariable model from available data sets generated from the simulator. Physical-based models describe the process non-linearities. the availability of several well-assessed identification tools. Dymola and gPROMS. It is preferable. Physical-based models derived from thermodynamic governing equations allow the designer to better understand the plant dynamics. such . Such models are linear for most implementations.4. The linearisation of model equations has been adopted. when the CRV or CAC architectures are adopted: • • • the speed of execution. Indeed. Moving Average with eXogenous input (ARMAX). The design cycle time is reduced significantly. around a specified equilibrium point. Symbolic manipulation or numerical methods are usually applied. for instance. since expensive and time-consuming testing in the field can be avoided. this can be achieved by linearising the non-linear equations to obtain a set of state space linear relations. The availability of a plant simulator extremely simplifies the work of the control designer. in these cases. Models identified by prediction error methods (PEM) are based on external representations such as Auto Regressive with eXogenous input (ARX) or Auto Regressive.

In order to deal with high-order MIMO systems.Multivariable power plant control 189 models contain a very large number of parameters. 1995. Choice of complexity: The model complexity is chosen based on defined criteria. The appropriate order of the system can be visually or automatically extracted from data. this class of plant shows strong coupling between the pressure dynamics. and choose algorithms that include the compensation for measurable disturbances and the presence of constraints. since the information on the dynamics is contained in a limited number of parameters. The possibility of comparing several different techniques by means of simulation greatly simplifies the decision process. since actuators can saturate.2. a representation based on a state space model is often preferable.3. 1998). As observed in section 7.3. and precise requirements in terms of the allowable range of the thermodynamic variables is also imposed. SMI methods lead to reliable models with reduced computational effort when the number of states. In SMI methods this step is part of the identification algorithm. the need for real-time operation and smooth transition from MIMO to multi-SISO control cannot be neglected. its objectives and constraints. . Identification: The parameters are estimated from data. Finally. in order to assure the effectiveness of the identification.2. The input must excite the plant in order to reveal the plant dynamics. their estimation and the selection of the model complexity are affected by an excessive computational load and numerical errors. inputs and outputs is high. 7. The designer might look for a solution that is more focused on optimal performance rather than robustness. 2001). An effective way of estimating state space models from data is provided by subspace model identification (SMI) methods (Viberg.2 was used for the development of the multivariable control system of a conventional power plant with a once-through boiler (Poncia and Bittanti. Data preprocessing: All data need to be depolarised and normalised.4 An application: MBPC control of a 320 M W oil-fired plant The design methodology discussed in section 7. Validation: The model performance is confirmed by carrying out a comparison with unseen sets of data. • • • • 7. This is particularly important in power plants. Consequently. the water content in the boiler and the temperature at the turbine inlet. Lovera. Generally.3 Control framework The choice of an appropriate control technique is necessarily influenced by the nature of the problem. The identification procedure must consider the following steps: • Experiment design: The system (the simulator or the enlarged plant) is excited around a steady operating condition for a given interval of time.

the unconstrained case was chosen since. Giovanni plant. namely the requests for fuel and water flow rates. The MPC algorithm described by Ricker (1990) was adopted here. . control of the temperature at SH1 by means of an attemperator plus a slow control via modulation of the fuel feeding system. in the considered plant. the safety boundaries imposed on the thermal variables were never reached. Giovanni and Rossano Calabro. and takes advantage of SMI identification techniques. The proposed multivariable structure (Figure 7. The main control variables of the plant. One is the control signal decided by the classical control law. and generates 320 MW at maximum load. The Italian plants of Castel S. owned by ENEL S. 1996).p. Its state space formulation needs only a small number of parameters of the associated linear plant model.5) is based on the CAC architecture.. the electric power demand. It includes a coordinated control structure. feedforward actions that anticipate load changes. The temperature of RH is regulated by changing the mass flow of the recirculating gases in the furnace. belong to this category. Also. is measured and used for compensation purposes. imposed by the multivariable controller (wf and W#w)are added. the classical regulation was good enough to avoid the saturation of the control variables. The simulator was validated with data from the Castel S. are the result of two contributions. A classical control system was added to build a model of the enlarged plant. Pe. Moreover. which is obtained by comparing the actual pressure with their reference values p~ and temperature T'°SH2"Additional contributions. Also.A. derived from first principles equations (Bottinelli and Facchetti.190 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power Pe loadset-point AWl ~ P~ Set-po~ Set'p°intl [ ~ ~ Multivariable controller AWw# Fuel feed adjustment 1 # Plant with classical regulation adjustment I Water feed l at SH 2 outlet Temperature T~H2 {EvaporPttion pressure Figure 7. All other variables are regulated # by means of the pre-existing SISO loops. A complete simulator of the plant dynamics was built on the basis of a nonlinear model.5 The multivariable control system structure The type of plant considered is oil-fuelled.

Specifically. and C of A.1 Model identification via subspace methods 191 A linear low-complexity model of the plant was designed by adopting a SMI method. 1994). consisting of the system step response. 1998) was used. B* and C*: A= [a* C* 001 B: [B*] C=[C* -I]. the identification of the reduced order model was performed by resorting to SMI techniques.1 per cent of the nominal value. In the identification procedure. Z--1 where z is the time shift operator. °. the regulated variables are equal to their respective set-point at steady-state (in the absence of unsteady disturbances). All inputs are pseudo random binary sequences (PRBSs) with range of variability q. In this way. y(k) ~- [~Pt STsH2]t. The matrices A. The input/output vectors. B and C of the original model can be reconstructed from A*. Finally.4. In this specific case. the original identification problem is reformulated by defining a new output vector. in the neighbourhood of a preset operating condition. The system with input u(k) and the new output y* (k). denoted by y* (k). All data were depolarised and normalised. 1994. due to the presence of the integral action of classical controllers. Therefore. the pressure Pt to 170MPa. one could identify the convergence of the controlled variables to their reference values at steady-state. B. and the temperatures TSH2 and TRH both to 813 K. and the load w request Pe are input variables. the value n = 10 was found. the innovation model identification problem (Verhaegen. namely: A u(k) = [gw#w gw~ 3Pc]'. is identified instead of the enlarged plant. An additional data series (step identification data). by performing a singular value analysis (Verhaegen. the pressure Pt and the temperature TSH2 constitute the output vector. Specifically. such that y*(k) = z y(k). whereas the corrections of water w # and fuel w~ mass flows.4. was also used for identification. Since all the SISO classical controls have integral action. The identification algorithm also provides an estimation of the optimal system order. represented by the matrices A*. the algorithm provides the estimated matrices . the power load Pe was set to 290MW. The data set to be used for identification purposes. Lovera. A distinctive feature of this system is that all gains are zero.Multivariable power plant control 7. . On the basis of the simulated sequences. B* and C*. and C. where 8 ( ) are the normalised fluctuations of the variables. The identification was carried out by setting: • • steady-state condition of interest.

On the other hand.000 Figure 7. performance can be further improved by adopting gain-scheduling solutions that incorporate models linearised at different operating conditions. Consequently. a linear model cannot correctly represent the plant within a wide range of admissible loads.8). The choice of the operating condition influences the identification of the linear model. not used for identification. variation i i i i i ~ p i i 0.01 o -0. In the present case. variation i i r i i i i 0. since the power plant dynamics are intrinsically non-linear. the control set-points of temperatures and pressures are seldom changed during plant operation.01 I I I t I I I I I 2000 - 4000 Time (s) Simulator 6000 8000 Identified linear model 10. the plant was linearised assuming that the plant operates at full load (320 MW) most of the time. Remark.Ol I I I I I I I I I SH2outlet temperature. with an impact on the control system performance. Linearisation errors are therefore introduced when the load differs significantly from the chosen reference value.192 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Evaporatorpressure.01 . and that the controller can compensate for a . Such errors can be reduced with a sound choice of the reference set used for identification.y o ~).6-7. When needed.6 Performance of the identified reduced order model: PRBS identification data The model was finally validated on the basis of a third sequence (PRBS validation data). Usually. for the identification of a linear model around different set-point configurations is not required for control purposes. generated by exciting the process with a new PRBS sequence. Simulations carried out with the identified system show very good performance for the identification and validation data sets (see Figures 7.

005 I I I I I SH2 outlet temperature.000 12.000 Identified linear model Figure 7.01 0 200 - 4000 Simulator 6000 Time (s) 8000 10. variation 0.8 Performance of the identified reduced order model: PRBS validation data . variation 0.000 20.000 Time(s) 16." step identification data Evaporator pressure.000 24.Multivariable power plant control Evaporator pressure.01 ~ o ~0.005 193 o -0. varialion 0.004 L t I t I 0 4000 -- 8000 Simulator 12.01 I t I I t SH2 outlet temperature.000 Identified linear model Figure 7. variation 0.01 o ~). 7 Performance of the identified reduced order model.004 o ~).

all contained in the state xc(k) and input uc(k) vectors (Ricker. since a greater prediction of the future error is possible. Its state space formulation allowed the use of the model identified in section 7. r(k) is the reference value and ~(k + i Ik) is the predictor based on the observations y(k) and v(k).1). In (7. where the cost function n J = Z [ r ( k ÷ i) . Bc.5 0. a state space model for the controller can be found.4. expressed in terms of the control increment Aum. The tuning of the controller can be completed by choosing the prediction horizons n and c and the weights #y and/L u in (7.2 Implementation and evaluation of the controller As discussed. the measured signals y(k) and v(k). The control algorithm is based on a state space model of the enlarged plant with structure x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bmum(k) + Bvv(k) + Bww(k) + Bzz(k) y(~) = Cx(k) where urn is the vector of control variables. v represents the set of measured disturbances. i time steps ahead. Cc and Dc depend on the model matrices A. The following parameterisation.5 1. Its output Yc(k) = um(k) is a function of the state prediction.194 Thermal power plant simulation and control sudden drop of 20 per cent. 1990).5]. control horizon c ----2.~(k + ilk)]'#y(k)[r(k + i) .3].y and #u. the unconstrained case of the algorithm presented by Ricker (1990) was chosen.1).1) is minimised. B and C. output weight # y : diag[0. the identification has been carried out at the intermediate condition of 90 per cent load (about 290 MW). This choice was made on the basis of the following observations: • The increment of the prediction horizon n usually allows better performance. input weight /t u = diag[0. and on the horizons n and c and the w e i g h t s l/. and w and z the unmeasured disturbances. . In the absence of constraints. and the reference value r(k). The optimal controller is the solution of an optimisation problem.1.~(k ÷ ilk)] i=1 c +Z i=1 Aum(k + ilk)'lx.4. For this reason.(k)Aum(k + ilk) (7. based on a rough evaluation of the closed-loop performance. This cost function is a weighted sum of the error between the reference and predicted value of the output upton steps ahead starting from k + 1 (the so-called prediction horizon) and the control effort upto c steps ahead (the control horizon). was adopted: prediction horizon n = 15. 7. The matrices of the controller. Ac.

000 classical . When the control problem is formulated without constraints on the control variables. Conversely. it has been seen that high values of c induce undesired oscillations of the control variables. On the other hand. to avoid the excessive penalisation of the control action. The main drawback of this option is that the resulting control algorithm is much slower.Multivariable power plant control 195 • The weight on the temperature control error must be high. by choosing values high enough to avoid the saturation of the actuators.000 Figure 7. In order to achieve good performance. in the unconstrained case the controller solution is computed off-line. since an optimisation problem needs to be solved at every control step. leading to faster on-line operation. c and #u influence the strength of the control action. 320 electric load 178 evaporatorpressure 300 2 280 174 ~ 170 260 820 SH2 outlet temperature 166 830 RH outlet temperature 810 a: 810 790 802 0 4000 8000 Time (s) -12. • R e m a r k . saturation does not occur when control constraints are included. Moreover. This is due to the fact that the classical regulation of temperature is slow and largely responsible for the overall performance.9 Comparisonbetween MBPC and classical control responding to sudden changes of the power load: simulation of the controlled variables . #u should not be too high.0 MBPC 4000 8000 Time (s) 12. so t h a t / t u can have a lower magnitude. the selection of #u must be carried out conservatively.

000 Time (s) Pump (rpm) 3400 18 Time (s) Fuel flow rate (kg/s) 3200 16 3000 0 4000 8000 12.000 Time (s) Air flow rate (kg/s) 280: 14 0 4000 8000 12.6 4000 8000 12.000 Classical .000 Time (s) Recirculation gas flow rate (kg/s) 80 250 40 60 220 4000 8000 -12.MBPC 4000 8000 12. A set of three large step changes were imposed on Pe. This test replicates the critical situation that occurs when an unexpected change of Pe takes place (e.000 Time (s) Time (s) Figure 7. a positive step of 25 MW is imposed.5 0.8 0.g.000 4000 8000 12. . in the isolated grid case).10 Comparison between MBPC and classical control responding to sudden changes of the power load: simulation of the variables used to control the plant performance The control system was evaluated by simulating a sudden step change of the load request.196 Thermal power plant simulation and control Attemperator valve at SH] Turbine valve 0. starting from the reference condition: • starting from Pe = 290 MW.

after settling to the steady-state condition. the correction signals introduced by the optimising algorithm are indeed small. Indeed. the steady-state condition is reached in a shorter interval of time for Pe and TSH2. The convergence of the pressure and the two temperatures TSH2 and TRH to their respective references is faster.8000 Classical 168. and the overshoot observed for the classical controller is significantly reduced.9) show that the multivariable controller performs much better than the classical one.11 Classical and MBPC control performance: a ramp change of Pe • • then.5 0 MW is simulated. In this case. The evaluation of the control signals indicates a negligible change in the magnitude of the input signals.4 RH outlet temperature 817 815 814 815 813 813 4000 Time (s) ~ MBPC 8000 Figure 7. . In other words. a +25 MW step is generated.8 168. passing from the classical to the multivariable solution (Figure 7. such as the initial overshoot of the pressure and the occurrence of sizeable oscillation of the temperatures (particularly Tsnt ). finally. The MIMO controller eliminates the first case and greatly reduces the second. One significant accomplishment achieved with the new controller is the possible use of theattemperator at the SHI downstream only to manage emergencies. Step changes occur at every 4000 s. a change o f .10).6 168. The simulation results (Figure 7. The sudden and ample change of Pt introduces unwanted behaviourin the enlarged plant. in rejecting the disturbance Pe.Multivariable power plant control Electric load 320 Evaporator pressure 170 197 ~" 310 300 290 / SH 2 outlet temperature 0 4000 Time (s) .

. . simulating a slow transition from one regime to a new one. Trends have been observed for changes in the prediction horizon n. . Again. This analysis confirms the assumptions originally made. a further set of simulations is shown in Figure 7. Finally. a ramp change of the load request (from 290 to 300 MW at a velocity of 10 kW/s) was imposed. Short prediction horizons n cause significant oscillation of the responses to step variations of Pe. This particular aspect could be beneficial. it can be observed that a stronger weighting of the error on TSH2 leads to significantly improved behaviour.7 2000 Time (s) ". To further evaluate the behaviour of the new control system. 15 in Figure 7.04 Increasing N 0 0 ".198 Thermal power plant simulation and control PressurePt IncreasingN -0.2 Temperature TSH 2 0.7 ~ 4000 Figure 7. . To conclude. . with negligible changes in the controlled pressure dynamics. The simulations refer to the normalised values of the controlled variables when a step change of the disturbance Pe is imposed on the identified model.11.12-7.10 it is shown that this attemperator can be kept closed when the MIMO controller is active. since efficiency losses and the risk of having water droplets in the turbine are avoided.14). and high/*u leads to a degradation of performance due to the penalisation of the control action. Here. the multivariable control provides a performance improvement. the evaluation of the sensitivity of the control performance to changes in the MBPC's parameterisation provides guidelines for controller tuning.12 Controller tuning: change of the prediction horizon N = 2 . the control weight /*u and the component of the error weight /£y related to TSH2. denoted as #yT (Figures 7.

.2 I h i Temperature 0. 5. . .2 I I i Temperature TSH2 0.14 Controllertuning: change of the error weight/Zy r = 0.1 ." change of the control weight/Zu = 0. . .0 .yonTs~2 -0. .1 TSFI2 I i 0 2000 Time (s) 4000 Figure 7.13 Controller tuning. .Multivariable power plant control Pressure Pt 199 -0. . 1.0 Pressure Pt asilg.1 .1 Increasing/~y o n TSH2 i I 0 2000 Time (s) 4000 Figure 7.

The design process is achieved in a sequence of steps. Solutions that replace the classical multi-SISO configuration have not found application in the industrial realm. It can be observed that: • • • The application of the multivariable solution allows a reduction of thermal stresses and pressure oscillations when extreme conditions are encountered. Moreover. For this reason. thus diminishing the stress and effort of the actuators. which involve: • The choice of the control architecture.5 Conclusions The application of multivariable techniques to the control of fossil fuel power plants has been discussed in this chapter. a solution that generates efficiency losses and increases the possibility of damage in the turbine. • • • • The benefits of the introduction of a control action correction multivariable controller based on state space MBPC have been illustrated by presenting an application to a simulated 320 MW oil-fired plant. many thanks to Professor Sergio Bittanti for his constant support and advice. mainly because of the diffidence towards systems that revolutionise well-assessed technologies and design procedures. The controller synthesis and verification over the operating range of the plant. Amplitudes of the control variables are also reduced. attention is mainly devoted to structures where the classical regulation is kept in operation. the results suggest the possibility of eliminating the temperature control by attemperation. • 7. The improved control system is conceived in such a way that when the multivariable controller is disconnected. Also. The synthesis of the reduced order models that will be incorporated in the control algorithm. used for simulation and verification purposes. The development of a non-linear model of the power plant. and a multivariable solution corrects it. in order to improve the trajectories of the thermodynamic variables. Both architectures consist of a multivariable controller that corrects the action of a traditional regulation system. the traditional regulation devices guarantee safe operation of the plant. alternatively controlled reference value or control action correction. according to the design specifications. Model based predictive control strategies have been demonstrated to be effective and reliable for the control of many chemical and thermal processes.200 Thermal power plant simulation and control 7. .6 Acknowledgements The author is gratefully indebted to Professor Antonio de Marco for being a guide and mentor during his time at the Politecnico di Milano. The model is validated against experimental data from the real plant. The models can be identified from simulation or experimental data in a fast and reliable way by applying state space identification techniques.

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: 'An overview of industrial model predictive control technology'. 1119-67 RICKER. M. H. 1996. M. T. pp.. and UCHIDA. pp.: 'Identifcation of the deterministic part of MIMO state space models given in innovations form from input-output data'. 63-7 OLUWANDE. Switzerland. A.. J. S. (2). and BITTANTI. B. S.. 374-82 TAKITA. TESTUD.: 'A multivariable dynamic performance predictive control with application to power generation plants'.. SWIDENBANK. W. 1981. AIChE Symposium Series 316. A. pp.. Tahoe.. 74. 9. 13. and HOGG. 2001. 1989. 1999. and BENTSMAN. (1).. 1835-51 ZHAO. 1998. Proceedings of the Nonlinear MPC Workshop. 17. and GRIMBLE. 1994.. LI. and TAKEI. 267-72 VERHAEGEN. G. (12).. 1996 PONCIA.. (7). M. N.. pp. (1). and PAPON. FUKAI. pp. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. TAFT. 1976. J. T. 1998 RICHALET. M. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control. Germany. pp. G.: 'Exploitation of advanced control techniques in power generation'. 2001. 12. Computing and Control Engineering Journal. USA. pp. 1995. (1). L. CACHE and AIChE Chemical Process Control-V.. 5. and HOGG. B. 1118-30 PRASAD. Automatica. 48.. G.: 'Model predictive control with state estimation'. S. A. E. Hitachi Review. 61-74 VIBERG. E.: 'Optimal regulation for thermal power plants'. Karlsruhe. Proceedings of the 4th IFAC Symposium on Identification and System Parameter Estimation. H. (5).. RAULT. pp. 143-55 NAKAMURA. H..: 'A neural net model-based multivariable long-range predictive control strategy applied in thermal power plant control'. pp. M. 9. International Journal of Control. 1999. number 93. and BADGWELL. J. 1990. and AKAIKE. L. W. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Automatica. G. Proceedings of the European Control Conference ECC'99. CA. SWIDENBANK. Automatica. IRWIN. pp.: 'Implementation of a mutivariable model-based predictive controller for superheater steam temeprature and pressure control on a large coal-fired power plant'.: 'Plant-wide physical model-based control for a thermal power plant'.202 Thermalpower plant simulation and control NAKAMURA. 425-46 . 33-8 OLUWANDE. T.: 'Algorithmic control of industrial processes'. 232-56 QIN. C. 'Ascona. Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control... 4631-6 PRASAD. Proceedings of the IFAC World Congress. and BOUCHER.. 176-82 QIN. (11). S. 1999 ORDYS. San Francisco.: 'An overview of nonlinear model predictive control applications.: 'Robust controller design for simultaneous control of throttle pressure and megawatt output in a power plant unit. G. 29. TAKAHASHI. and BADGWELL. 30. pp.: 'Statistical identification for optimal control of supercritical thermal power plants'. R. pp. Industrial Engineering Chemical Results. H. G.: 'Recent technical developments in thermal power station supervisory and control systems'.: 'Subspace-based methods for the identification of linear time-invariant systems'.. J.: 'Multivariable model predictive control of a thermal power plant with built-in classical regulation'. 31. A. 1999. pp.. (2).

Part 3 Monitoring. optimisation and supervision .

which inherently lead to conflicting operational and control situations. 2001a). 1989). 1991). as well as random fluctuations about those patterns. 1985). and seasonal cycles. Since wide-range operation imposes strong physical demands on the unit equipment. most FFPU control systems consist of multiloop configurations based on conventional PID controllers. have to be fulfilled (Divakaruni and Touchton. Currently. at constant voltage and at constant frequency (Elgerd. minimisation of fuel consumption and heat rate. etc. Such an approach has proved its value during normal operation maintained at base load. Nevertheless. Garduno-Ramirez and K.Y Lee 8. where plant characteristics become almost constant. Effective participation of a FFPU in load-following duties requires the ability to undertake large variations in the power being generated in the form of daily. This context may be synthesised as an essential requirement for a FFPU to achieve optimal and robust wide-range load-following operation under multiple operation objectives. First. (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee. and regulations on reduced environmental impact. a FFPU must support the main objective of the power system. In addition. the load-following capability of a FFPU may also be improved by enhancing the control system strategy. 1971).Chapter 8 Extending plant load-following capabilities R. weekly. The major courses of action that have been undertaken to facilitate wide-range load-following operation with improved performance include upgrading the physical components of the power unit and the control system (Miller and Sterud. Moreover. stringent requirements on conservation and life extension of major equipment.1 Introduction The current operating environment of a fossil fuel power unit (FFPU) is characterised by many needs and requirements. which is to meet the load demand for electric power at all times. under load-following conditions the traditional control . minimisation of pollutant emissions. nearly linear and weakly coupled. maximisation of duty life. such as minimisation of load tracking error. competition among utilities and other market driven forces has increased the usage of FFPUs in load-following duties (Armor.

so that better response to load and set-point changes can be achieved. and long time constants and time delays. Weng and Ray (1997) report a wide-range robust controller for a steam power plant. or for changes in steam pressure resulting from the boiler transient conditions. designed and tuned for regulation and disturbance rejection. which are tuned optimally by a genetic algorithm technique. In this chapter. The required process knowledge is extracted from a set of input--output data patterns directly measured at the power unit during normal operation. with the feedback control action providing the necessary adjustments for the control valve non-linearities. This situation makes the traditional control structures less acceptable for wide-range load-following operation.3 shows through simulation experiments how typical control systems based on conventional PI controllers fall short in providing satisfactory wide-range load-following operation. Section 8. the load-following capability of a fossil fuel power unit is enhanced by augmenting the existing control system with a multivariable feedforward control strategy. while the existing closed-loop feedback control is now only used to compensate for uncertainties and unknown disturbances around the commanded unit load demand trajectory. A control approach that has found its way into practical application to achieve wide-range operation at power plants is a combination of feedforward and feedback (FF/FB) controls. several simulationbased studies have explored FF/FB schemes using different approaches. Zhao et al. The feedforward controller is designed as a process knowledge-based controller that approximates the static behaviour of the power unit through its whole operation range. In addition. With the aim of having a better distribution of the control tasks. The FB control path shows a PI-based multiloop configuration with cross-coupling gains.2 provides descriptions of the overall operation and the qualitative dynamics of a FFPU as a way to establish the most general operational requirements to be satisfied by the control system. The FF control provides a predictive command input. Section 8. feedforward control actions are issued before the deviations occur in the measured variables. The FF control is generated via non-linear programming to provide optimised performance. may decrease the global performance of the power unit because its non-linear process dynamics vary with the point of operation. The feedforward controller is implemented as a set of multiple-input-single-output fuzzy systems whose inference rules are determined through a supervised neural learning procedure (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee. The combined action of both controllers yields fast response and steady-state accuracy. That is.206 Thermal power plant simulation and control schemes. but not setpoint tracking. The FB law is synthesised by the H~-based structured singular value approach to achieve the desired stability and performance robustness. based on the required performance and a simplified steam generator model. Section 8. 2000).4 justifies the need for a hybrid feedforward and feedback control scheme and introduces the corresponding . In general. the proposed open-loop reference feedforward control is used to improve the manoeuvrability of the power unit. In Uram (1977) the feedforward power reference is modified by the output of a PI controller that is driven by the difference between the power reference and the power feedback. (1997) present a FF/FB scheme for a nuclear steam generator. the main idea of a FF/FB scheme is to complement the feedback controllers with feedforward control actions to compensate in a predictive way for known large and frequent disturbances.

superheater outlet temperature. Thus. However. 1997). The total system load is not under direct control and follows daily. the power system never really operates in steady-state. long-term frequency stability analysis. Similarly. it is always trying to match power generation with the load in what is known as the load-frequency problem. and seasonal cylical patterns. steam throttle pressure. could be in a time frame of several to tens of minutes.8 summarises this work and concludes that the results demonstrate the practical feasibility of the proposed feedforward control approach to achieve effective wide-range load-following operation. it should be produced as needed by the consumers. the main boiler dynamics are relatively slow: steam pressure and temperature oscillations. On the other hand. Consequently. and the effect of fuel flow variations on the generated power are in the order of minutes. Feedwater flow slightly affects power and pressure. Electric power and steam pressure are tightly coupled and are affected heavily by the fuel/air flow and the steam flow. perhaps different from the nominal value. 1975). FFPUs participating in load-frequency control are always subject to changing load demands and load disturbances as part of their normal operation regime (Dunlop and Ewart. Accordingly. Section 8.6 describes the design of the proposed fuzzy systems using a neurofuzzy paradigm.Extending plant load-followingcapabilities 207 control system configuration for the FFPU. connection and disconnection of individual loads cause random fluctuations about these patterns. which allows automating the design process for the multivariable knowledge-based feedforward control. Finally. 1994). which in turn is considerably affected by the fuel and steam flows.5 presents a detailed specification of the feedforward controller as a knowledge-based system to be implemented as a set of fuzzy systems. steam flow into the turbine. which assumes that all electromechanical oscillations have died out and that the system is operating at constant frequency. Section 8. From the power system perspective the overall input-output behaviour of a FFPU has noteworthy relevance. Then. The electric power in a drum-type FFPU is the resultant of a series of energy conversion processes within the unit. feedwater flow. and spray flows into the superheater and reheater) and outputs (electric power. drum water level. the dynamics of FFPUs are considered a major factor in frequency stability analysis (Kundur. section 8. All those energy conversion processes are rather complex and show very complex relationships among them. Therefore. section 8. Since there are no practical means to store large quantities of electric energy.7 presents a specific realisation of the neurofuzzy systems and their application for wide-range load-following operation. and reheater outlet temperature) (Maffezzoni. 8. in addition. the essential overall dynamics may be described in terms of the major inputs (fuel flow. On one hand. weekly. air flow. the spray flows have a minor effect on power and .2 Power unit requirements for wide-range operation A power system is intended to supply the electric power demanded by the consumers in a reliable form with high quality characteristics. any FFPU participating in load-frequency control duties should be equipped with control systems that take into account the long-term overall input-output dynamic behaviour of the unit. but greatly impacts on the drum level.

1 shows the simulation response to a step change in the steam valve with the fuel and feedwater valves kept constant. Figure 8. pressure and water level as outputs. Spray flows and temperatures can be used for further improvement.1 Open-loop response to a step in steam valve position . steam. it can be seen that for short-term purposes. From these tests. a fast response to load variations may be attained using the throttle valve to control power output and the fuel valve to regulate the steam pressure. The interaction between fuel. which are heavily influenced by the fuel flow. Both throttle pressure and power increase to a new fixed higher value. while the drum level continually decreases. Power increases and then decays back close to its original value. Furthermore. Similarly. and the throttle valve to maintain the steam pressure. with the steam and feedwater valves at a fixed position. for long-term purposes.2 shows the response to a step in the fuel valve. and power. the drum level has to be regulated to balance plant operation. while pressure decreases to a new value and the level keeps decreasing. fuel and steam flow may be used to drive the unit to the desired values of power and pressure. Consequently. suggests these as the primary variables to consider to achieve wide-range operation. but greatly affect the heat exchanger outlet temperatures. Conversely.208 Thermal power plant simulation and control pressure. the open-loop behaviour determines the input-output pairing to form the feedback control loops. and feedwater flows as inputs. which may then be manipulated with the feedwater and spray flows. This will disturb the drum water level and heat exchanger outlet temperatures. In both cases. Figure 8. In summary. this chapter concentrates on the former situation. fuel flow should be used to control power output. Power output i 80 Throttle pressure 102~ ~ 98 ~ I Drum level ~ 1 0 0 0 ~ ~-100 I 0 500 1000 Time (s) 1500 2000 Figure 8.

Typically. Euld. from the measured .3 8. Drum level -20 I o 500 1000 Time (s) 1500 2000 Figure 8. 1988).3. Euld.3). is obtained from the unit load demand through a non-linear power-pressure mapping. the CC governs the dominant behaviour of the power unit through the power and steam pressure control loops.1 Conventional power unit control Conventional coordinated control In fossil fuel power units. is equal to the unit load demand. u2. To attain a fast response. The CC is responsible for driving the boiler-turbine-generator set as a single entity. u 1. the boiler control adjusts the fuel firing rate according to the required load. to achieve fast and stable unit response during load tracking manoeuvres and load disturbances. the coordinated control (CC) scheme constitutes the uppermost layer of the control system. the set-point for the power control loop. Ed. Pd. which is said to implement the operating policy of the unit. while the pressure controller generates the demand to the fuel/air valves. while keeping the turbine from exceeding the energy provided by the boiler. To achieve stability. and the measured generated power.Extending plant load-following capabilities 209 Power output i g 80 Throttle pressure . Given a unit load demand. there are two possible CC modes: coordinated boiler-following mode and coordinated turbinefollowing mode (Landis and Wulfsohn. the load controller generates the demand to the steam throttle valve. the CC provides set-points to both control loops. and the set-point for the pressure control loop.2 Open-loopresponse to a step in fuel valve position 8. Depending on how the controlled and manipulated variables are paired. In coordinated boiler-following mode (Figure 8. 1 0 2 ~ 100 a~ 98 200. E. Ordinarily. the turbo-generator is allowed to draw upon the energy stored in the boiler. from the unit load demand. hannonising the slow response of the boiler with the faster response of the turbine-generator.

is calculated from the measured throttle steam pressure. Despite its simple structure. which could make it relatively easy to manually stabilise a system when only one loop is directly affected. and the measured generated power. In addition. and the pressure set-point. the load controller generates the demand for the fuel/air valves. the boiler-following CC should be preferred for fast transient response. the CC scheme in a FFPU consists of a decentralised multiloop configuration of single-input-singleoutput feedback control loops evaluating conventional PI or PID algorithms. u l. and the pressure set-point.In coordinated turbine-following mode (Figure 8. and its reliability in the case of actuator or sensor failure. Based on the unit step responses shown in the previous section. and increases only linearly with the number of control variables (i.3 Coordinated boiler-following control scheme throttle pressure. Pd. As for most control systems in the process industries. from the unit load demand. while the demand to the throttle valve. . E. decentralised PID control has a long record of satisfactory performance. P. Pd. the number of tuning parameters is relatively small. The main reason for this is the relatively simple structure of the control system. which is easy to understand and to implement.4). Euld. P.210 Thermal power plant simulation and control Pressure "]_ mapping ) Pd Pressure controller Combustion controller ) Steam r ' ~ I /1 1 u 2 ~ Load controller Euld %+ --1 / E © Figure 8. u2. its effectiveness to regulate a process under random load disturbances around a fixed operating point is proven daily all over the world.e. 3n tuning parameters for a control system with n control loops). while the turbine-following CC should be chosen to achieve long-term process optimisation objectives.

4 Coordinatedturbine-following control scheme Normally.Extending plant load-following capabilities 211 Pressure mapping 1 q I Pressure controller Combustion controller P Steam B Fuel Air u2 E Euld Pd Load controller L (3 i Figure 8. as illustrated in section 8. i. The results obtained are later used as reference for comparison and to evaluate the performance of the CC augmented with the knowledge-based feedforward control. 8. base load) assuming nearly constant load conditions. and are left fixed thereafter.e. current requirements demanding wide-range operation of FFPUs challenge this approach. Consequently. power.2 Control loop interaction and tuning The main difficulty for decentralised control of multivariable processes is that of control loop interaction due to the coupling dynamics between the process inputs and outputs. This approach works well for process regulation about the operating point used for tuning.2. In the subsections that follow the drawbacks of a typical CC. strong physical demands that are detrimental to the unit duty life may be imposed on the plant equipment. However. the controller parameters are tuned at some predefined operating point (i. The performance of the power unit may decrease due to the non-linear and interactive dynamics of the process that change with operating conditions.3. considered as a PID-based multiloop control system. through the open-loop control valve step responses. which thus provides a feasible solution to the optimal wide-range requirements of FFPUs (Garduno-Ramirez and Lee.e. are shown through simulation experiments. 2001 b). The effects of control loop interaction for the same FFPU were observed through the closed-loop response to step changes in the set-points. steam .

All tests were carried out starting from an operating point at half-load.5 per cent per minute. Step responses will. The controllers were tuned to achieve an almost critically damped response in all loops. The oscillations in the water level are fine and the control activity is again acceptable. the ramp response of the FFPU is investigated for a low ramp-up loading manoeuvre using the same controller parameters as in the step-response test.1) which implements a typical sliding-pressure operating policy. Strictly speaking. The inverse situation is also interesting. satisfactory step responses are an indicator of good control performance.65 Pd -. the interactions between the level control loop to the power and pressure outputs are both relatively small and are usually a minor concern. with an excellent low control activity. the power set-point tracking is adequate. that is a 6. ramp responses are preferred. and L = 0mm. which is a major concern for wide-range operation. for which tight regulation is not usually required provided that the magnitude of the oscillations about the zero level is kept within safe limits. which would normally be considered a straight forward test. These results demonstrate that controller tuning based on step responses does not imply good load-tracking performance. Most control systems of all kinds are usually assessed using this approach.6. or level set-point. subject to wide-range reference-tracking operation requirements the above is not sufficient to guarantee good performance. Unfortunately. the pressure set-point is obtained from the unit load demand through the mapping: 150 . which previously provided excellent step responses. for the case of non-linear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. As can be seen from the graphs in Figure 8. defined by E = 80 MW.7-8.. do not necessarily provide a good step response. Certainly. Results show that the strongest and most significant interaction is from the pressure control loop to the power output.E u l d 1 8 0 . however. Pressure set-point tracking is poor. under the understanding that these tests are not recommended to be carried out in practice. particularly at the end of the ramp with a large overshoot and settling time.25 per cent power set-point change at a rate of 2. In the case of FFPUs there are several practical considerations that prevent the utilisation of step responses.. which normally requires the tightest control for either tracking or regulation. which may adversely affect the physical condition of the plant equipment.10 + 65MW (8. but its control activity is excellent. be used in the rest of this chapter to exhibit the behaviour of the system solely in simulation experiments. Finally. ramp responses provide the same amount of information about the system.9 for the previously described . 1996). Figure 8. which is a fairly common practice in CC schemes (Ben-Abdennour and Lee.5. or even a stable response. The power output is required to increase from 80MW (half load) to 90MW in 150 s. Controllers tuned to achieve excellent ramp response. Accordingly. P = 100kg/cm 2.212 Thermal power plant simulation and control pressure. Second in importance is the interaction between the power loop and the pressure output. Now. This fact is shown by Figures 8. Next are the interactions between the power and pressure control loops to the level output.

6 ~' 0. but with the controller parameters retuned to improve the ramp response.4 0.8~ 0.2 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 d 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 Level response 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 E 0.5 Ramp load tracking with step-tuned controller parameters step response tests.2 0 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 Time (s) 200 250 300 o -10 -20 Figure 8.4 0.-/ 0.6~ 0. 8.2~ 0[ 50 100 150 Time (s) Pressure response 200 250 300 b 0 50 100 150 Time(s) Steam valve demand 1 86 84 82 80 200 250 300 107 106 ~-.8 0.4 Feedforward/feedback control strategy As will be shown shortly..4~ 0.6 . the load-following capabilities of a FFPU may be enhanced by augmenting the existing control system with a multivariable feedforward control .8 0.__.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 92 90 88 213 Fuel valve demand 0.. 105 104 ~ 103 ~" 102 ~-~ 101 100 99 0.

In this way. a feedforward control action takes advantage of the available information about external events affecting the FFPU operation before the action of the feedback control takes place.8 0.8 0. both changes in the reference signals and measurable .6 0. 250 300 0 50 160 150 260 Time (s) Steam valve demand 1 107 106 105 104 ~ 103 102 ~7 101 100 ! 99 0.4 -10 -20 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 Figure 8.214 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 Power response Fuel valvedemand j 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 b Pressure response 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 d Level response 0. while the existing closed-loop feedback control is now mainly used to compensate for uncertainties and unknown disturbances. the feedforward control is mainly used to improve the manoeuvrability of the power unit along any arbitrary load demand profile.6 O.6 0. With the aim of obtaining a better distribution of the control tasks. In general.8 0.6 Ramp load tracking with ramp-tuned controller parameters strategy.4 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Feedwater valvedemand 1 20 10 0.

8 0. since the major interest of this chapter is on load-following e n h a n c e m e n t through wide-range unit load d e m a n d tracking. only open-loop reference feedforward control actions will be considered.0 Time (s) Steam valve demand 300 101 1 100.0. 100 1~0 200 250 300 Time (s) Pressure response b 0 50 1.0 2.5 80 79. 0.2 0 i 0 d 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) Level response 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 E E 0 -10 -20 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) 0. Nevertheless.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 81.5 lO0 @ 99. but can be found in Garduno-Ramirez and Lee (2002).2 o! 50 f 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) Figure 8.4 0.5 50 0.5 99 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time (s) 0.5 1 215 Fuel valve demand 81 80.4 0.4 o.81 k ~.6 0.0 2.8 ~. The compensation of control loop interaction as measurable disturbances is out of the scope of the work reported here.6 0. 7 Response to step in power set-point with ramp-tuned parameters disturbances can be effectively compensated by feedforward actions. .0 1.

Y(s) = Yd(s).8.20.j 50 100 50 100 0.2) Perfect reference tracking.216 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power response Fuel valve demand 300 200 ~" 100 ~ o -200 -300 .0.O l.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8. that is.10.8 8. ~-100 0 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 b 0 50 l.8 ~. . (8.6 "-~ 0.4 0.6 0.8 ~.4.0 250 300 Time (s) Feedwater valve demand 1 Level response 1000 500 o 0. ~ ~ 0. may be achieved if Gff(s) = [Gp(s)] -1. where the output to set-point transfer function is given by: Y (s) = [I + Gp(s)Gfb(S)] -1 [Vp(s)Gff(s) + Gp(s)Gfb(S)] Yd(s). 0.0 2. Hence.O 2.0 300 Time (s) Steam valve demand Pressure response ll0 1 i 105 0.4 lOO ~ 95 90 0 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.1 Response to step in pressure set-point with ramp-tuned parameters Motivation for feedforward/feedback control The initial idea for the proposed FF/FB scheme comes from the two degrees of freedom single-input-single-output linear control system shown in Figure 8. in the absence of uncertainty and disturbances. 0.O 1.6 e~ -500 -1000 -1500 0 e 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0.2 5'0 l.0 2. if the transfer function in the feedforward control path is equal to the inverse process transfer function.4.

8 ~& 0.5 ~.Extending plant load-following capabilities 217 Power response 81 1 Fuel valve demand 80.~ Gfo(s) Figure8.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Level response 8 1 Feedwater valve demand 6 E 0.4 ! 0.9 Response to step in level set-point with ramp-tuned parameters t Gff(s) rd(s) [ Ue(s) Urd~) + Gp(s) --~ +.6 0.4 ~2 79.6 i 4 2 0 -2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.5 79 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 0.8 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Pressure response 101 l Steam valve demand 100.8 0.6 ~. e~ 0. 80 0.2 50 f 100 e 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8.4 0. 0.5 100 ~ 99.5 99 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~.10 Reference feedforward/feedbackcontrolconfiguration .

. However. Advantages of feedback include: • Regardless of the source and type of disturbance. the design of the FF control may be automated using machine-learning techniques. in any application the drawbacks and advantages of both feedforward and feedback must be taken into account. Perhaps the greatest disadvantage of this approach for real implementation is its dependence on the accuracy of the process model. while feedback provides corrective actions on a slower time-scale to compensate for inaccuracies in the process model. there is still a need for a plant model valid throughout the plant operation space. which is a particularly difficult issue for FFPUs (Ghezelayagh and Lee. since it is based on inputoutput measurements. A model of the process is required and the quality of the feedforward action depends on the accuracy obtained. Feedback may not be satisfactory in systems with long time constants or long time delays. Nevertheless. Hence. The measured data represents the actual plant characteristics. nor to be causal should it exist. which are not always feasible.218 Thermal power plant simulation and control perfect tracking may be attained without the feedback control path. A FFPU is a large complex system for which Gp(s). measurement errors. Difficulties with feedforward include: • • • Compensation of load disturbances requires on-line measurements. In addition. feedforward and feedback control complement each other. The key advantage of this approach is that the inverse steady-state model always exists. The inverse model often contains pure derivatives that cannot be realised in practice in a feedforward controller. the requirements on the FF control Gff(s) can be lessened to only approximate the plant inverse dynamics. and statistical data may be used to increase the accuracy of the approximation. and let the FB control path compensate for uncertainty when tracking any unit load demand profile. and its inverse cannot be guaranteed to exist. To overcome this problem FF control is introduced as a knowledge-based system that solves the inverse kinematics model of the FFPU as determined by steady-state input-output data. corrective action occurs as soon as the plant output deviates from the set-point. Feedforward actions are meant to perform fast corrections due to changes in the reference value and known disturbances. Limitations of feedback include: • • • Corrective actions are not issued until after a deviation in the measured variable is detected. Gfb(S). 1999). and unmeasured disturbances. is only valid around a single operating point. Nevertheless. Feedback cannot compensate for known disturbances in a predictive way. In general. the ideal FF/FB strategy with Gff(s) = [Gp(s)] -1 is inadequate to attain wide-range operation. if known.

control valves. one for each feedforward control signal being generated. u2ff. that is to improve manoeuvrability for load-following tasks. uff. ulff. Avoid plant trips and shutdowns due to faulty measurements that will disable a feedback control loop. as inputs. and feedwater. To achieve an open design. setpoints (Figure 8. pressure. a multivariable feedforward controller is proposed which consists of several independent multiple-input single-output (MISO) mapping subsystems. feedforward may help to: • • • • • Deal with time delays mainly encountered in temperature control loops. supplied with the set-point signals of all the control loops considered for coordination to provide a single feedforward control signal. the feedforward controller consists of three MISO subsystems. with set-points.2 Feedforward/feedback control scheme As mentioned before. and drum level. To do so. For the case study in this chapter. the feedforward controller is proposed as an open-loop non-linear MIMO compensator in the form of a nonlinear multivariable mapping that implements the inverse static model of the FFPU. Note that compared to a typical coordinated control system.12). steam. Ld. the purpose of the feedforward controller is to facilitate widerange set-point driven operation. 8. For the reasons stated in the previous section. since the process can be sustained by the feedforward control action. Applied in a control system for a power plant.Extending plant load-following capabilities 219 • A model of the process does not need to be perfectly known. as outputs (Figure 8. in terms of the power. Thus. and the feedforward control signals. Ed. each subsystem implements a non-linear MISO mapping. valid across the whole operating range of the FFPU. which provide the feedforward control signals for the fuel. The design of the feedforward controller is obtained off-line by fitting a set of input-output data patterns measured directly at the plant. Achieve wide-range process optimisation along optimal static operating points. Approximations to ideal pure derivatives often provide effective control. Advantages of feedforward include: • • A fast corrective action can be made in a predictive way if the disturbance can be measured. compensation can be made for model inaccuracies and dynamics not modelled.4. Pd. In this way. a structure is proposed for the feedforward controller which can be easily and systematically expanded or contracted. the feedforward controller is built on knowledge about the actual operation of the FFPU. as required by the scope of the control actions that need to be coordinated to achieve wide-range operation. Facilitate manual to automatic mode transfers since the feedback controllers should be initialised while the feedforward action controls the process. u3ff. Replace faulty sensors on-line without stopping the plant or switching to manual operation.11). the inclusion of the drum water level control loop enables unit internal balance required . Yd.

......2. but its use is preferred for overall process optimisation purposes rather than for extending the load-following capabilities of a FFPU... . in accordance with the process behaviour explained in section 8.. Feedforward ......12 (Ld) \................................ ........~........... controller i designer ~--................. The main steam temperature control loop could also be embraced....... ........ ...: YO I Multivariable inversestatic v l FFPUmodel +u U _I rl Fossil-fuel powerunit Y fb I Feedback control Figure 8.......... / i / ....220 Thermalpower plant simulation and control _ ..... mapping ) (u3ff) Feedwater valve Feedforward controller MISO submodules for wide-range operation.... ..................11 Feedforwardcontroller design Poweroutput (Ed) Wide-range MISO \ mapping J (uiff) Fuelvalve Pressure Wide-range MISO mapping (u2ff) Steamvalve # Wide-range ~] MISO Drum level Figure 8.........

is the rule number index. are the system inputs. In addition. . In Mamdani fuzzy systems. and Xn is X~. 1985).5. 1997). constraining the possible modifications to the system parameters. a fuzzy system establishes an input-output non-linear mapping. . the components of the fuzzy system are determined using a neural-network learning algorithm. In this work. the knowledge rules are of the form: IF xl is X~ and . 8. in a systematic and automated way.. The learning procedure is a data-driven process that operates on local information.5. ANFIS (Jang.2 TSK-type f u z z y systems In essence. First. 1993). There are currently several methods available to synthesise a neurofuzzy system. and r = 1. the neurofuzzy MISO subsystems for the feedforward controller are fuzzy systems of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type (Takagi and Sugeno. . U r is an output fuzzy set. The neurofuzzy paradigm is intended to synthesise the advantages of both fuzzy systems and neural networks in a complementary way that overcomes their disadvantages. Since the neurofuzzy structure is always a fuzzy system at each stage of the learning process. and X r are fuzzy sets. Regarding the format of the procedural knowledge rules. NEFCON (Nauck and Kruse. 1999). 2 . Then. . In Mamdani type systems both the antecedent and the consequent of the knowledge rules are fuzzy propositions. . R.Extending plant load-following capabilities 221 8. a neural network is used to represent the parallel-processing nature of a fuzzy system. The knowledge rules of the neurofuzzy system represent the relationships within the given data in a high-level abstract way. . . FuNe (Halgamuge and Glesner. 2 . 1992). facilitating subsequent application. determined by a series of procedural statements and an inference mechanism that mimics the human knowledge processing capabilities during reasoning. through the general-purpose adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique (Jang. 1993) using steady-state input-output process data..5 8.3) where the xi. n. . which are individually synthesised. the learning procedure takes into account the properties of the associated fuzzy system. the fuzzy systems may be classified into two types: Mamdani fuzzy systems and Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy systems (Wang. u r is the rule output. . 1994). THEN u r is U r (8.1 Knowledge-based feedforward control Neurofuzzy paradigm Each MISO subsystem of the feedforward controller is a knowledge-based fuzzy system that is designed as an artificial neural network through a neural learning procedure. 1994). including GARIC (Berenji and Khedkar. thus being equivalently called a neurofuzzy system to reflect its dual nature. and Neurofuzzy (Ghezelayagh and Lee. for i = 1. causing only local modifications in the underlying fuzzy system. The resulting neurofuzzy system may approximate a usually unknown function that is partially defined by a set of input-output data. the learning procedure can be initialised by specifying the components of a fuzzy system that are to be enhanced based on the provided data.

u2ff. • • •. and the coefficients. Given input values xl. and implement a switching function that selects.6) In general. ulff.3 Fuzzy feedforward controller So far. is calculated as the product of the input membership values: n 11)r = H # x r (Xi). c~. The knowledge rules establish an approximation of a non-linear input-output mapping. The feedforward controller design problem may be stated as: given a set of steady-state input-output patterns. the rule output is calculated as a linear function of the inputs: IF Xl is X~ and . Then. To do so.4) where crare constants. FISU2. Ed. X 1 X X 2 x • "" × X n ~ R. as defined by the inference mechanism of the TSK system. the TSK fuzzy systems are a combination of fuzzy and non-fuzzy models that integrate qualitative knowledge representations with precise quantitative data expressions. the feedforward controller consists of three MISO neurofuzzy systems: FISU I. the ANFIS method adjusts the membership functions. THEN u ~ = c~ + crlxl + ' " + crxn (8. Given arbitrary initial knowledge rules. Pd. steam. They allow the representation of complex non-linear mappings through simple linear relations. by a piecewise linear function. The ANFIS method allows the design of TSK-type fuzzy systems. The rule antecedents define a decomposition of the input space into a set of overlapping partitions. and FISU3. of the TSK fuzzy system is a weighted average of the individual rule outputs: U _ Zr wrur (8. .. control valves. which provide respectively the feedforward control signals for the fuel. the appropriate linear functions needed for the approximation. u. the total output. i=1 (8. FISU2. in the consequents of all the rules. Ld. determine the MISO neurofuzzy systems FISU1. set-points. given the actual input values.12. 8. the approximated output value is obtained by interpolating the combination of two or more relations in the rule consequents. [Ul u2 u3. u3ff. and level. with its components refined through a neural learning procedure to fit the input-output behaviour of the fuzzy system. E P L]. The major advantage of TSK fuzzy systems is their ability to act as universal approximators. pressure.5. and the consequent is a crisp relation. in terms of the power. as shown in Figure 8. Xn. and x. For first-order systems. called the degree of fulfilment of the r-th rule. and feedwater. the antecedent of the knowledge rules is a fuzzy proposition. LX{.. the TSK fuzzy system must be represented as a feedforward neural network.5) Zr 1Or where each weight w r.222 Thermal power plant simulation and control In TSK fuzzy systems. is Xr.

LP~. are the rule fulfilment degrees or weights. and c6. For each rule. . U 2 f f ] .10) where tbr. . once embedded in the feedforward control path.6) as the product of the input membership values as: w r = IZLE~(Ed) × lZLPS(Pd) × lZLLrd(Ld) (8. respectively.7) where r = 1. The knowledge rules of the fuzzy system have the form: IF: Ed is LErd and Pd is LP[j and Ld is LLrd THEN: u~ff = c6 + CrEEd+ Crppd + C[Ld (8. and [Ed Pd La. . Pd. [E P L. in the r-th rule.8) can be written as: Ulff = r=l ~ r=l wr U r lff = r----I //) Ulff = r=l -r r Ulff -r (8. for r = 1.2 . the output of the fuzzy system is given by (8. for r = 1. and LLrd.Extending plant load-following capabilities 223 and FISU3.5) as: R Z r = l //3r Ulff r Ulff -R E r = l tOr (8. its fulfilment degree is calculated from (8. and Ld. c~. the problem consists of finding out the values of the parameters of the membership functions in the rule antecedents and the coefficients in the rule consequents of the three TSK-type fuzzy systems. . so without loss of generality and to simplify the presentation. Note that FISU1. 2 . . and FISU3 should reproduce the sets of patterns: [E P L. 2 . and LL~ are the linguistic r r terms of the input signals Ed. note that (8. R. u3] as [Ea PaLd.11) Z r = l //)r . LE o. R. . E P L]. All three fuzzy systems in the feedforward controller are of the TSK-type and have similar structures. The feedforward controller design problem is solved independently for each fuzzy system using the necessary data from the complete set of steady-state input--output patterns. . . u~ff is the contribution of the r-th rule to the total output of the fuzzy system. . . . u3ff]. and [E P L./*LPS ('). [ul u2 u3. u2]. in the r-th rule. and c~ are the consequent coefficients. and IZLL~(') are the membership functions corresponding to the linguistic terms LE~.. Ulff]. hereafter all explanations refer to FISU1. . More specifically.('). are the so-called (normalised) relative rule fulfilment weights: ( wr ) /~r ~_ ~ (8. the fuzzy system that generates u lff. In addition. c~. R is the rule number.8) where 1/dr. For a given input pattern [Ed Pd Ld]. FISU2. ul]. respectively. LPS.9) where #LE~. [Ed Pd Ld. respectively.

each input signal spans its whole operating range with three overlapping fuzzy regions. nine neurons in L1.224 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1. 2 . . the number of EaPd La !ifl Lo Figure 8. and L4. . as shown in Figure 8. (8. one-output. To this aim. can be equivalently called the normalised rule -r -r r Ulff ~//3 Ulff.13 LI L2 L3 L4 Ls[ Neural network structure of feedforward fuzzy controller . the fuzzy system is represented as a three-input. Also. Therefore. i. without lose of generality. With these dimensions. five-layer feedforward neural network. medium. for r = consequents: 8. 27 neurons in L2.6.1 Design of neurofuzzy controllers Neural representation of fuzzy controller Each fuzzy system in the feedforward controller is designed using the ANFIS technique. fuzzy sets with bell-shaped membership functions and linguistic terms: low.6 8.13 where. and high. .12) and fi~ff.7). the neural network will have three distribution units in layer L0.e. R. L3. and one neuron in Ls. for this case a complete knowledge base will have 3 × 3 × 3 = 27 rules of the form given in (8. .

13) where i = 1. and 3 inputs x 3 membership functions per input x 3 parameters per membership function = 27 membership function parameters. with two phases per iteration. . This number clearly illustrates the difficulty of tuning a fuzzy system following a trial and error approach. 9 is the neuron number. . the neuron's input and output processing functions are of the form: 1Yi =lgi (x) = 1 + ((x . respectively. this process can be fully automated using the neurofuzzy paradigm and a low-dimensional fuzzy system will do the job perfectly. bi.12) and (8. ai. . [EM PM LM. . Secondly.2 . . . which simply gets worse as the number of input linguistic terms increases. Fortunately.9).1/31. the total number of parameters to be determined is 108 + 27 = 135 per fuzzy system. The learning process is achieved iteratively. . The unique neuron in layer L5 calculates the total system output in (8. . the design process adjusts the parameters of FISU1 so that it reproduces the set of patterns {[El Pl L1. Neurons in layer L4 calculate the normalised output for each rule from (8. E1 P1 L l ] . Ull] . .7)-(8. Neurons in layer L2 calculate the rule fulfilment weight for each rule (8. First. the input patterns are propagated keeping the antecedent parameters constant.ci)/ai) 2bi 1 (8. . . the input patterns are propagated again with the antecedent parameters modified by back-propagation. Then. .11). . [ulg u2M UaM.Extending plant load-following capabilities 225 parameters to determine is calculated as follows: 27 rules × 4 consequent parameters per rule ---. 8.108 consequent parameters. ul~t]} corresponding to the inverse static model generating u lff. In this layer. . . and an initial MISO TSK fuzzy system defined as in (8. EM PM LM]}.12) and specified by arbitrary sets of parameters {[al bl Cl] . and then the optimal consequent parameters are estimated using a least squares (LS) estimation procedure.2 Neurofuzzy controller design Given a set of M steady-state input-output patterns {[u I 1 u21. . and ci are the parameters of the bell-shaped output function that define the membership function of a fuzzy set or linguistic term and lyi is the output that corresponds to the degree of membership of the input to the fuzzy set defined in the i-th neuron in L 1. [a9 b9 c9]} and [ [c~ c 1 c 1 c 1 ] . [c27 c 27 c 27 c 27] ] corresponding to the membership functions and the consequent coefficients. Neurons in layer L3 calculate the relative rule fulfilment weight for each rule (8. .6. The distribution units in layer L0 route the crisp input signals of the fuzzy system to the neurons in layer L1. . as will be shown shortly. .10). . .7). Each neuron in layer L1 fuzzifies the incoming input signal using a bell-shaped membership function.

17) (8. and • is called the covariance matrix.2 .. . The initial conditions are Co = 0 and ~0 = Y I. . and Eio be the usual error measure given by the sum of the squared difference . . M is the input--output pattern index. Let z be any of the a. . 1. /b27 tb27E1 tb27p1 tb27L1 tb27 Co27EM Co27pM Co27LM 4 c~z _ c 2~ L (8. and C is 108 x 1.18) d2i+1 = tl/i -- tllixi+lXl+ 1tll i 1 + xiT+lOttiXi+l where xi is the i-th row vector of matrix X and u i is the i-th element of vector U. M . Using a vector representation and considering all M input-output training patterns: -4 4 Ulffl] i_UlffM. . the consequent parameters are to be estimated using a least squares procedure• Each input-output pattern is related by: 27 Ulffm = Z ~ r(C~ -}-CrEEm -}-crppm +CrLLm) O r=l (8.226 Thermal power plant simulation and control As briefly outlined.15) which adopting appropriate definitions can be written as: u = xc (8.1 . In general the problem of calculating the coefficients in C is overdetermined.. that is M > 108. At the end of iterations.14) where m = 1.Xl+lCi) (8. b or c parameters of any membership function #. .. where y is a large positive number. A least squares solution for C can be computed recursively using: T Ci+l = Ci -~ tlli+lXi+l(Ui+l -. for i = 0.16) where U is M x 1. 2 .. . . X is M x (4)(27) = M x 108. C = CM may have been calculated using all available information in the M input-output patterns. The adjustments in the membership function parameters are determined by backpropagation. ..l F /~1 tblE1 /hip1 ~ILI ~1 ColEM ffjlpM (olLM .

and the actual output.23) Olz ac - - 2blz(X)2 ( ( X .26) .22) b-1 0a 0# a 2 a ( ( X a c)2 ) -~-~---b.Extending plant load-following capabilities 227 between the target output...25) Ab = .c ) 2 ) ~77 a b (8.U l f f ) 2 (8. the change in parameter z..U l f f [Ulff . uTff. can be calculated as: O" z * AO = . depends on the specific parameter of the membership function being considered: OIZ - Iz(X)2 ( ( X . the parameter changes for a single rule. Az.t~ ~) 2 b # z ( x ) /z X-~c (X .~ (8. (8.t ° r ) tOr 0 # f ulujulf = ~r(uTf f - wr _ ~r).to r ) b u Z ( x ) /z Ac = . P or L depends on the membership function being considered. after a pattern has been propagated.tO r ) /_t _a_ #2 ( ( X .21) o r = --Ulff(Ulff _ Ulff)tbr(1 Iz where the final term.20) through the layers of the neural network yields: AZ : -or OEio OUlff Ow r 0113 O~ r OUlff O~ r qoVd qo~ qoz r . for a single rule after a pattern has been propagated is given by: 0Eio Az = .24) where X = E.ulff) t? r (1 .u l f f tUlff -. Thus.19) Then.¢ ) 2 ) a b (8.c ) 2 ) = _ b (8.(X) (8..20) Oz where tr is an arbitrary learning rate factor.~ Iz OZ OZ (8.U l f f ) to r (1 -. Successive application of the chain rule to (8. u lff: Eio = 1 (U~ff -. r l b r ( 1 -.Ulff ) tO r (1 -. Olz/Oz.c) 2 a o r i .U lrf f ~Ulf f -.

The information corresponds to a typical sliding-pressure operating policy. 8. the learning process is incorporated in a three-stage design process. If the direction of error change is unpredictable. the input-output process information to be used to design the knowledgebased feedforward controllers is presented. During this step. Recalling that since the control objective is to approximate the inverse static behaviour of the FFPU. subject to a given power-pressure operating policy. Figure 8. First. the control signals will be considered as outputs and the power. During this step. If the error is reduced in four consecutive steps then increase the learning rate by 10 per cent. initial structures for the fuzzy system need to be created. otherwise repeat from step 1.228 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Learning procedure 8.7 Wide-range load-following In this section.7. First. and to determine the consequent parameters. Stop if the error is small enough. must be defined. (2) (3) (4) For practical application. the range of operation. pressure and drum water level deviation will provide the inputs. and the control . P. Next. with the resultant fuzzy system verified using the test data set. to be used as training data. the antecedent parameters remain fixed. needs to be generated or obtained from the process. as well as their shape.18). the resultant MISO neurofuzzy controllers are presented.17) and (8.14 shows the data for the pressure.6.25)-(8. For each input. Another optional data set can be used as test data after training to evaluate the performance of the learning process.27). then decrease the learning rate by 10 per cent. Propagate all patterns again and update the antecedent parameters by backpropagation using (8. Finally. the learning process is carried out using the training data set to adjust the membership functions.1 Realisation of wide-range neurofuzzy controllers The present application requires the realisation of a neurofnzzy feedforward controller under a sliding-pressure operating policy. the consequent parameters remain fixed. Second. Finally. a set of input-output data. 8. number of membership functions. consisting of the following steps: (1) Propagate all patterns from the training set and determine the consequent parameters using the least squares method in (8.3 As previously mentioned the learning process is carried out iteratively. the effect of the number of membership functions and the number of training epochs on the approximation accuracy of the feedforward controller to the inverse static model of the FFPU is illustrated. neurofuzzy controllers are implemented and applied to enhance the load-following capabilities of the FFPU.

the number of knowledge rules. the number of membership functions) to be used to fuzzify the input signals has to be decided. 8.2 I I I I I I I /d 1 o o U2 U3 I I 20 40 60 80 1O0 120 Power (MW) 140 160 180 200 Figure 8.14 Input-output steady-state datafor the sliding-pressure operatingpolicy signals ut. and u3. two major decisions have to be made in order to obtain controllers with satisfactory performance. Whatever is decided. The number of linguistic terms per input not only determines the size of the knowledge base.2 Effect of number of membership functions and training epochs Once the data required to design the neurofuzzy controllers are available.Extending plant load-following capabilities 229 250 ~E 200 150 100 E 50 210 ! i 4'0 i 60 i 8'0 i 100 120 Power (MW) i i 1'~0 i 140 i 180 i 200 ~' 0. First. . and the number of input-output data patterns required for the learning process. The stopping condition may be set in terms of reaching a predefined approximation accuracy.4 0. the issue of major interest is the impact on the accuracy of the resulting fuzzy system and its ability to provide an inverse steady-state model of the power unit. In what follows the effect of both the number of linguistic terms and the number of learning iterations on the approximation accuracy is shown. E. it must be decided how to stop the learning process.8 & 0. 7. u2. that is. or in terms of the execution of a predefined number of training iterations (epochs). as an independent variable. Note that the drum water level deviation L is not shown since. only the results for FISU 1 are provided. at steady-state. Second. the number of linguistic terms (or equivalently.6 .~ 0. but will also affect the number of parameters to be calculated. Note that since all three neurofuzzy controllers exhibit similar characteristics. for the sliding-pressure operating policy with power. it is always zero.

it will always be preferred to use a low-dimensional system requiring a small number of training iterations if the obtained approximation accuracy is acceptable.1 summarises the approximation performance .230 Thermalpower plant simulation and control .15 FISU1membershipfunctions. typical membership functions for the sliding-pressure operating policy using three membership functions are plotted in Figure 8. Note that the same number of linguistic terms is used for all inputs of the neurofuzzy controller. For each case.j.. Ideally. In each case three membership functions and I0 training epochs were considered appropriate. and seven input membership functions. sliding-pressure operation First. By inspection of these results.3 Neurofuzzy feedforward controllers Following the same procedure for FISU 1. 8. This is because the non-linear steady-state behaviour of the plant is benign..15. the root squared mean error (RSME) of the output approximation is plotted for training during 20 epochs in Figure 8. fuzzy representations were also created for FISU2 and FISU3.7. the non-linearities are quite smooth and continuous... that is.... it can be seen that very good approximations of the inverse steady-state model of the plant can be obtained with a low-dimensional system (three membership functions) and a small number of training epochs (10 epochs)..16.. Also.''/s'/ 20 40 60 80 100 Power (MW) 120 140 160 180 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Pressure (kg/cm 2) Figure 8. The importance of the number of training epochs is illustrated for three. Table 8. only the membership functions for the power and pressure inputs are provided since the membership functions of the drum water level deviation are singletons at L = 0. five..

6003 of each fuzzy system in generating the corresponding steady-state feedforward control signals throughout the FFPU operating range.5579 265.2692 24.1 Approximation accuracy of neurofuzzy controllers (RSME × 106) Output ulff u2ff u3ff RSME ×106 8.15. . A graphical representation has the advantage that the contours change very little with an increasing number of membership functions. respectively. which is a more intuitive representation than the corresponding knowledge base.5 i I J I h I ~ I C2 l~ 13 O I I 2 4 6 8 10 Epochs 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 8.5 2 X 1. while the membership functions for the drum water level deviation input are singletons at L = 0. where Ed and Pd are the power output and pressure demand set-points.19 show the fuzzy inference surfaces over the power-pressure plane for FISU1. The resultant power and pressure membership functions for FISU2 and FISU3 are very similar to the membership functions for FISU1 presented in Figure 8.Extending plant load-following capabilities 231 o 3rnf o o 5mf ~ . Then. FISU2 and FISU3.~ 7rnf 2. Figures 8.5 1 0. Note that each fuzzy system is graphically represented by a fuzzy inference surface.17-8.16 RSME for sliding-pressure operation Table 8.

7. It was suggested that the feedforward control components provide the main contribution to the control signals and thus support the wide-range set-point tracking duties of the FFPU.8 ~ 0. As presented in section 8.8 0.4.6 0. the main purpose of the resultant hybrid feedforward-feedback control scheme is to provide a better distribution of the control actions to enhance the load-following capabilities of a FFPU.4. 0. the feedback control .18 FISU2 fuzzy inference surface.232 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0. steam valve control 8. Meanwhile.17 FISU1 fuzzy inference surface. fuel valve control 0.2 14q Pressure demand (Pd) (Ed) Power demand Figure 8.6 0.20).4 14~ Pressure demand (Pd) (Ed) Power demand Figure 8.4 Wide-range load-following simulation results Incorporation of the three MISO neurofuzzy controllers described in the previous section within the existing decentralised feedback control system of a FFPU creates a multivariable two-degrees-of-freedom control scheme (Figure 8.

which is necessary to compensate for uncertainties and disturbances in the vicinity of the commanded set-point trajectories. Figure 8. feedwater control value Ed Pa Ld ~' ~ U2 ¢ ff U3ff +~( £ u3 )~- Figure 8.6 0. keeping the feedback settings. Performance is . which used to carry all the control weight. Demonstration of the benefits of the proposed feedforward-feedback control scheme is carried out through simulation experiments.21 shows the ramp response of the FFPU with the addition of the feedforward control. will now provide a smaller contribution to the control signals.20 Hybrid feedforward/feedback control scheme components.8 0.19 FISU3 fuzzy inference surface.4 0.Extending plant load-following capabilities 233 0. First. it is shown that solely with the introduction of the feedforward control.2 14~ Pressure demand(Pd) (Ed) Powerdemand Figure 8. the response of the FFPU may improve significantly.

. The improved performance of the above extends through the entire FFPU operating region.6 f ff 0. Tracking performance of the power and pressure set-points is as good as previously obtained with the ramp-tuned parameters in Figure 8....6..4 0.8 0... Figure 8...21 Ramp response with feedforward/feedback control better than that shown in Figure 8. even under more demanding operating requirements...4 -10 -2O 0 e 020 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Figure 8..6 ~' 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~ Pressure response 106 ~ 104 1 Steam valve demand 0...22 ...... 0...234 Thermal power plant simulation and control 92 9O 86 84 82 8O 50 100 150 200 Time(s) 250 300 b Power response 1 Fuel valve demand 0..8 0..2 100 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 d 0 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~ 102 Level deviationresponse 20 1 Feedwater valve demand 10 0 -b .4 0. where power is required to ramp from 80 to 90 M W at 4 MW/min under a sliding-pressure operating policy.8)....6 0....2..8 0... but without the disadvantage of possibly becoming unstable for steps in the pressure set-point (Figure 8..~ 7 ....5 in section 8.3.......

.8 0....2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) 500 d 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Level deviationresponse Feedwater valve demand " 0 ..4 0... then from base load to 20 M W at the same rate.........6 0.~ -10 -20 313 0 e 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) 0 f 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Figure 8. and finally back to half-load. the maximum allowed by American standards).6 0. while the oscillations in the drum water level deviation are within very small bounds...8 -ff 0... Again.Extending plant load-following capabilities Power response 1 150 100 50 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) e~ 235 Fuel valve demand 0.2 0 .. The control activity of all control signals is excellent..4 0.6 0. for wide-range cyclic operation under a sliding-pressure operating policy....2i 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Pressure response 140 120 100 80 60 0 c 20 1 Steam valve demand 0.. .....4 0..8 0...... using the hybrid feedforward-feedback control scheme.. • 0. the tracking performance of the power and pressure set-points is very good throughout..... The power output is required to ramp from half-load (80 MW) to base load (160 MW) at 8 M W / m i n (5 per cent base load/min.22 Wide-rangecyclic response with feedforward/feedback control shows the response of the FFPU.

6 5" 0.4 0. Figure 8.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Figure 8. the improved manoeuvrability of the FFPU is mainly due to the feedforward control action.6 0.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of steam valve demand 1 0.8 & 0.23 shows the contributions of both the feedforward (u lff.-ff 0.2 o -0.23 Feedforward andfeedback contributions to control signalsfor set-point tracking . Certainly.2 0 -0.4 0. with a collaboration of the feedback control to compensate for the inaccuracies in the inverse static model implemented by the feedforward control.4 0.2 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of feedwater valvedemand 1 .8 0. u2ff and u3ff) and Feedforward and feedback components of fuel valve demand 1 0.2 0 -0.236 Thermalpower plant simulation and control These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control scheme to enhance the load-following capability of a FFPU in a practical and cost-effective way.6 0.8 & 0.

2 the feedback (u lfb. where the ratio of the feedback to the feedforward control effort is also provided. as well as for the effects of external disturbances. the control effort of both feedforward and feedback controls is quantified by an approximate measure of the control signal power during the cyclic test of the previous paragraph: Puiff -~ Z (uiff(k))2 k Puifb = Z (Uifb(k))2 k (8. 3. Clearly.5 kg/cm 2 magnitude and 5 s duration is imposed on the pressure measurement. The power and level responses are affected due to the process interactive dynamics.2. Figure 8. Results are given in Table 8.662 1.2 Control effort of feedforward and feedback controls Puff Pulb Pufb/ Puff 237 Control signal Fuel valve 779.50 x 10-2 Steam valve 1263.9 11. steam and feedwater valves (u l. and k is the sampling number during all the simulation tests.2.307 2. . U2fb and U3fb) controls to form the final control signals to the fuel.2 0.29) where i = 1.1 16. with the pressure feedback control being the most aggressive. Regarding the control system.24 shows the response of the hybrid feedforward/feedback control scheme when an external disturbance affects the pressure control loop. u2 and u3). These and the previous results demonstrate that the proposed feedforward/feedback control scheme provides a very convenient distribution of the control tasks for setpoint tracking and disturbance rejection.28) (8. only the feedback controls try to compensate for the disturbance. To have a better appreciation of this situation. which in turn enhances the load-following capabilities of the FFPU. that is. the feedforward control actions carry out the set-point tracking duties across the FFPU operating range. The new role played by the feedback controls is to compensate for the inaccuracies in the inverse model implemented by the MIMO feedforward controller. in all cases the feedforward contribution is larger than the feedback contribution.Extending plant load-following capabilities Table 8. A variation in pressure with the form of a pulse of 0.0416 3.29 x 10-5 Feedwater valve 695.35 x 10 .

..4-0............ Figure 8....8 0....2 b f 50 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 Pressure response 106 1 Feedforward and feedback components of steam valve demand 0..... T h e resulting f e e d f o r w a r d / f e e d b a c k control .. t ... ...238 Thermal power plant simulation and control Power response 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 1 Feedforward and feedback components of fuel valve demand 0..3 /" .....8 Summary and conclusions This c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d the d e s i g n o f a k n o w l e d g e .b a s e d f e e d f o r w a r d controller that e x t e n d s the existing f e e d b a c k control s y s t e m o f a fossil fuel p o w e r unit to e n h a n c e its l o a d ..........2 0 __... \ 0 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 ~)....2 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 .6 0.......6 o...8 E 104 102 100 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 .f o l l o w i n g capabilities.'..... • . ....6 0.. .....2 o ~0..4 0.8 0.24 Feedforwardand feedback contributions to control signals for disturbance rejection 8..................2 0 ~).................4 0..~ 0.2 | I i i 0 5'0 100 Time (s) Feedforward and feedback components of feedwater valve demand 200 300 Level deviation response 20 1 I0 0 -10 -20 0 e 50 100 150 200 Time (s) 250 300 f 0._......

1992. the proposed design procedure can be fully automated for on-site design. 1985 BEN-ABDENNOUR. Y.: 'A decentralized controller design for a power plant using robust local controllers and functional mapping'. and any of the TSK fuzzy systems can be easily programmed into the FFPU control system software as a function that evaluates the fuzzy system output formula (8. H. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. USA.: 'Modernizing fossil power plant controls'. 459-466 ARMOR. These features make the proposed feedforward/feedback control approach an economically competitive option to enhance the load-following capabilities of any computer-controlled power plant. M. F. S. which may be represented by a feedforward neural network. and TOUCHTON G. USA. pp. Thanks to Mr Rafael Chfivez and Dr Salvador Gonz~ilez for promoting innovative research and development at liE. 394-400 BERENJI. 1-28 . 8. and the National Council for Science and Technology (Conacyt Mexico).: 'Fossil power plant automation: issues and future trends'. 3. The fuzzy inference systems are implemented as TSK fuzzy systems. A.: 'Learning and tuning fuzzy logic controllers through reinforcements'. and LEE. The MIMO feedforward controller was designed as a set of MISO fuzzy inference systems that approximate the inverse steady-state behaviour of the power unit across the entire operating range. The feasibility of the proposed knowledge-based feedforward controller to effectively enhance the loadfollowing capabilities of a fossil fuel power unit was demonstrated through simulation experiments. Tuning of the fuzzy systems is carried out through a supervised neural learning procedure based on a set of input-output data patterns that can be directly measured at the power plant. Proceedings of the 1985 Fossil Plant Cycling Conference. This approach makes it feasible to apply the feedforward controller in an actual plant. pp.10 References AHMED.. pp. while the existing feedback control compensates for uncertainties and unknown disturbances around the commanded trajectories..: Cycling of fossil plants: the key issue for the next 10 years. R. 11.. P. M. 8.9 Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by NSF under grants INT-9605028 and ECS9705105. The reference feedforward control improves the manoeuvrability of the power unit throughout the range of operation. Proceedings of the ISA/EPRI Joint Controls and Automation Conference. 1996. A. 724-740 DIVAKARUNI. the Electrical Research Institute (liE-Mexico). pp. 1992.8). (2).Extending plant load-following capabilities 239 scheme allows a better distribution of the control tasks. 1991. and KHEDKAR. The Pennsylvania State University. EPRI CS-4723. K. Furthermore. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks. Proceedings of the 1992 ISA Conference.

R. paper A77-079-7.. 2000. and WULFSOHN. Y. C. Control Engineering Practice. pp. R. L. 1993. Elektron. Proceedings of the American Power Conference.: 'Neuro-fuzzy identifier of a boiler system'.. pp.: 'Replacement pressure control and superheater bypass valves permit 93% cyclic load cutback at PG&E's 750-MW units at Moss Landing'. USA.: 'Multiobjective optimal power plant operation through coordinate control with pressure set-point scheduling'. (3). Y. (4). 838-849 ELGERD. 1988. 217-221 NAUCK. K. (3). S. M. 301-312 MILLER. Man. GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. Barcelona. pp. pp. Englewood Cliffs. 1999. 1-11 WANG. Y. New York. and LEE. H.: 'Boiler-turbine dynamics in power plant control'. and LEE. 16. June 2001b. 19-23 KUNDUR.. I. S.240 Thermal power plant simulation and control DUNLOP. 115-122 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. R. pp. 15. pp. 177-182 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ. K.. 1997) . (2). 2002 GHEZELAYAGH. and KRUSE. (February). and STERUD. 7. 1985. D. 1971.: 'Computer control in a combined cycle power plant. New York. L. 1638-1643 TAKAGI. K. E. 1994. pp.. G. (1). Proceedings IEEE PES Winter Meeting. 23. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.: 'A course in fuzzy systems and control' (Prentice Hall. 1977..: 'Fuzzy identification of systems and its applications to modeling and control'. Chicago. pp. 1975. 15.: 'Power plant coordinated-control with wide-range control-loop interaction compensation'. pp. R. and LEE. (4). Y. N. J. July 21-26.).. 1997.: 'Intelligent hybrid coordinated-control of fossil fuel power units'. and Cybernetics. K.: 'Power system stability and control' (Mc-Graw-Hill. Spain.. T.: 'Neural networks in designing fuzzy systems for real world applications'. Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems. and Cybernetics. P. C.. and SUGENO. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. K. 5. and EWART. 227-231 HALGAMUGE. Orlando. M. edn. 94. (3). Y. 116-132 URAM... and LEE. and LEE. 1994) MAFFEZZONI. IEEE Transactions on Systems.: 'ANFIS: adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system'.: 'Wide-range operation of a power unit via feedforward fuzzy control'. 665-685 LANDIS. K. 1994. D. pp. O. IEEE Transactions on Systems.: 'System requirements for dynamic performance and response of generating units'. 1-12 JANG. 65. 421-426 GARDUNO-RAMIREZ.: 'Electric energy systems theory: an introduction' (Mc-Graw-Hill. Man. R. and GLESNER. Part III: The digital steam turbine system'.: 'NEFCON-1: an X-window based simulator for neural fuzzy controllers'. pp. D. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks. pp.2nd.: 'The control philosophy for a unit control system for co-ordinated operation of a boiler and turbine'. Budapest. R. R. 1989. 2001a. R. X. New York. pp. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. H. Engineering Intelligent Systems.. Proceedings of the 15th IFAC World Congress. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. R.

1997. (1). K. 5.. K. M.. EDWARDS.. Y. 12. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. 1997. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion.: 'Robust wide-range control of steam-electric power plants'.Extending plant load-following capabilities 241 WENG. pp. (1). A. and RAY. 74-88 ZHAO. C. Y. R. pp.: 'Hybrid feedforward and feedback controller design for nuclear steam generators over wide range operation using a genetic algorithm'. 100-105 . and LEE.

Thompson and K. This makes power stations one of the main contributors to global emissions.1 Emissions from coal-fired power stations Around 55 billion tons of coal are produced annually throughout the world. oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates.Chapter 9 Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant S. the driver who 'thinks ahead' and uses the accelerator (gas) and brake pedals sparingly. will achieve lower emissions. However. various pollutants are produced. . better fuel economy and extends the car's useful life. S02 and NOx can cause acid rain and C02 is the most important greenhouse gas held responsible for climate changes. the technology holding the most promise for future reductions in power plant NOx emissions is the introduction of more sophisticated operation and control systems. 9. requires that power plants make significant reductions in pollutant emissions. The purpose of this chapter is to examine and compare various methods of modelling NOx emissions in order to develop operational and control aids. especially in NOx emissions. such as the UK Environment Protection Act (1992) and the US Clean Air Act Amendment (1990). 1997). with one driver who 'thinks ahead' and the other who 'just wants to get there as quickly as possible'. The analogy is that between two drivers driving the same car. oxides of sulphur (SOx). Li 9. For existing plant. and combustion of pulverised coal in large power station boilers accounts for over 50 per cent of total world coal consumption (ETSU. These restrictions will undoubtedly become more stringent.1 Emission reduction methods in pulverised fuel plant During the coal combustion process. Over the same route and similar road conditions both drivers are likely to take about the same length of time to complete the journey. Current legislation. such as oxides of carbon (COx).1. From an emission and economic viewpoint to provide power station operators with models that allow them to 'look ahead' and adjust the various controls accordingly produces a win-win situation.

In general. it is often at the expense of other important operational parameters such as incomplete combustion. Irregular mill firing patterns can cause instability in the flame ignition plane and affect the process combustion efficiency. 9. This is one of the reasons why advanced operational and control systems in coal-fired boilers (usually pulverised fuel or pf boilers) is so important. loss of an individual flame can lead to unburned fuel in the boiler and cause accumulation of a potentially explosive fuel/air mixture. Of particular importance is safety and efficient operation of the various burners. Holmes and Mayes. 1994). 2001. new pf power generation plants are installed with low-NOx burners. For example. ETSU. Installation of low-NOx burners and implementation of advanced boiler operation and control systems for NOx emission reduction would normally be classified as combustion modification technologies. Although low-NOx burners are usually sufficient to achieve the required target under current legislation. the introduction of sophisticated operation and control systems would first need a compressible set of system models to capture the boiler dynamics under varying operation conditions (Copado et al. ETSU.244 Thermal power plant simulation and control Approximately 99 per cent of fly-ash (particulates entering the flue) can be removed by fitting electrostatic precipitators and over 90 per cent of SO2 with the installation of a flue gas desulphurisation plant.. the parameters that determine the combustion operations include the following: • • • • primary air to coal ratio secondary air distribution for tangentially fired boilers. no practical methods exist for reducing NOx to such a degree. 1997. 1997. 2001. 2001. Holmes and Mayes. rather than employing secondary techniques which are relatively expensive. steam temperature and boiler performance. NOx reduction by adding a reagent such as ammonia or urea into the flue gas is classified as a secondary technique. However. leading to increased research into this area (Copado et al. Therefore. However any change in boiler parameters cannot be made freely. Such systems are extensively used throughout the world. together these oxides of nitrogen are commonly referred to as NOx. During the combustion process in a coal-fired power plant. 1994). 1997. nitrogen from the coal and air is converted into nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). which achieve reduction of NOx formation by limiting the flame temperature or the availability of oxygen in the flame.2 Operational parameters in p f boilers In pulverised fuel boilers. ETSU.. The methods for reducing NOx emissions in coal-fired power plants can be classified as either primary (or combustion modification) based technologies (Copado et al. burner tilt position mill firing patterns. Holmes and Mayes. The best way to reduce CO2 emissions is to improve power generation efficiency. .1.. or secondary (or flue gas treatment) technologies. 1994).

Lockwood and Romo-Millares. 1995. 2001. Process conditions such as flame ignition characteristics. • Unfortunately.1 Classification of NOx emission models . 1996) look in detail at the process behaviour (thermodynamics. The resulting threedimensional finite element type models can produce accurate models of the overall White-boxmethods • CFD model Figure 9. Such models attempt to capture the relationship between the plant's operational inputs and the NOx output.. which may be broadly classified as shown in Figure 9. fluid dynamics and NOx generation chemistry). etc. NOx emission reduction using operation and control methods consists of two stages. The requirements for system models in plant operation and control are that they should be simple enough to compute the optimal solutions (subject to given requirements and constraints). changes in heat transfer rates. Nimmo et al. residence time and temperature-time history of furnace gas.3 Emission reduction using operation and control methods Generally speaking. air to fuel ratios in the devolatilisation and combustion zones. 9. coal blending.1. 1996). This is reflected in the types of model available for predicting NOx emission. 2001. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (Lockwood and Romo-Millares.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 245 9.4 NOx emission models for operation and control NOx formation in coal-fired power plants is a complex process involving various thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic processes within the combustion chamber and complex NOx formation chemistry (De Soete. For an existing plant. yet complex enough to accurately capture (under varying operation conditions) the relationship between operational inputs and NOx output. Changes in operational inputs. 1992. 1975.1. coal particle size. Visona and Stanmore. available on-line information for NOx emission modelling is limited. These values are then presented to the operator (open-loop mode) as the operational references or used to automatically adjust the system inputs (closed-loop mode). etc. These include: • • Fuel-related factors such as coal type.1. many factors influence the overall NOx emission level. etc. In the second stage constrained optimisation is performed in order to deduce the optimal operation inputs for minimising the NOx output without decreasing the combustion efficiency. 1992. Gormley. Visona and Stanmore. Since the theoretical basis for CFD models is transparent (based on physical and chemical properties) such modelling methods may be classified as white-box methods. in most coal-fired power plants. The first stage is some form of plant modelling in order to capture the plant dynamics. Ferretti and Piroddi.

there is the inevitable loss of detail (both internal detail and input/output relationships) and a requirement for experimental data in order to identify unknown parameters. and select fuels. as well as FLUENT of Fluent Inc. thermal dynamics or chemical reactions) of the NOx formation and destruction process. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are also called artificial neural systems. Irwin et al. Also. . In CFD modelling the correlations between NOx level with operating conditions are often acquired using a finite element approach that looks in detail at the process behaviour (thermodynamics. Sabharwal et al.. Results of CFD modelling are often given the general form: [NOx] = f ( P . Black-box models are built based on experimental data sets or field operation data sets. which are interconnected . Tmight be the 'stoichiometric' temperature. 1999). 1996. . and require no a priori knowledge (such as the fluid dynamics. ) (9. y may become the fraction of primary air in the combustion zone. For these reasons it is arguable that these one. fluid dynamics and NOx generation chemistry). and y is the fuel-air ratio. They are widely used in industry (Henson and Seborg. at least partially. such models are not easily developed and there is an insatiable demand for more computing power and finer meshes. There are some one. Black-box models may include static. CFD modelling is now well established as a design tool for burner and furnace design. . Commercial software packages. CFD methods have been successfully applied to various types of boilers. 1995. 2001a). are available. Ikonen et al. Li and Thompson. 2001. called artificial neurons or nodes. or the 'reaction' or flame temperature. neurocomputers. 1997. for another boiler. The other variables are undefined but might include the effects of evaporation and mixing. 2001) that are claimed to produce real-time models suitable for use in operation training and for control testing/design. T.1) where P is the pressure. (Fluent. Different boiler types might however use different variables. r. 2000) and identification models such as ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenenous input) and NARX (non-linear ARX) (Li and Thompson.and two-dimensional models should be categorised as grey-box methods. increase efficiency. However..and two-dimensional approaches available (Ferretti and Piroddi. CFD models are able to predict NO emissions within 10 per cent.. So. The documentation claims that given well-characterised operating conditions. In general. r is the residence time. ETSU. for NOx control purposes the loss of input/output information can be critical. T is the temperature. dynamic and recurrent artificial neural network models (Copado et al. etc.. such as CFX-4. 1996. parallel-distributed processors or connectionist models. y . The motivation behind their development is originally to mimic. 1994).246 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control combustion process and are widely accepted. 1996). Stopford and Benim.. 2002. white-box CFD models are not suitable for real-time operation. etc. However. 5 and 6 of AEAT technology (Stopford. etc. It has been widely applied in the power generation industry to help combustion engineers reduce emissions. the cognitive information processing of human brains using the structure and functions of the human central nervous system. A neural network is composed of a large number of simple processing units.

Kohonen networks. and have been widely used for process control. and are widely implemented in industry. dynamic neural network models consider past changes in the input data. A model with good generalisation performance requires less retraining. safety and quality considerations often indicate that the duration of field experiments and the intensity of test-signal perturbation must be kept to a minimum. thus forming a multilayered network. Identification models are widely used in process control. Alternatively. static neural networks map the relations between current NOx output with current inputs. therefore their prediction capacity cannot be guaranteed. • . Static neural networks are used to optimise the plant operational conditions.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 247 by links called connections. neural networks have been widely used in engineering system modelling to map the relations between system variables. there exist a variety of neural networks. such models have to be regularly updated as operation conditions change. and such models are said to have poor generalisation performance. etc. Depending on the type of nodes (activation functions) and the type of links. black-box models cannot in general be used to predict outside the range of the training data. These nodes are linked together to perform parallel distributed processing in order to solve a desired computational task. such as Hopfield networks. such methods may fail to produce physically consistent models from data that is finite and noise corrupted. Identification models such as ARX and NARX are time-domain regression models with linear or non-linear terms. On the down side. It is argued that for complex engineering systems all available information should be used rather than solely relying on physical modelling or some data-dependent identification approach. Data-dependent identification models may not be able to nest the 'true' system structure. however they cannot capture the dynamics of the system embedded in the data samples. and various neural network models have been developed to model the NOx emissions. B-spline networks. In general black-box models are simple enough for real-time operation and control.e. Also. for operational plants. A typical artificial neural network consists of a set of input nodes that are connected to a set of output nodes through a set of hidden nodes. radial basis function networks. Among various neural network models. etc. That is. the system under study may exhibit properties that change in an unpredictable manner. In addition. Consequently. or the underlying mechanism of the system is unknown or such knowledge is incomplete. neural network models are trained to capture the relation between current NOx output with past operation input samples. the underlying physical and chemical laws of an engineering system (which are generally formulated as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and ordinary differential equations (ODEs)) can sometimes be too complex to build a simplified system model. multilayer neural networks. i. The linear and non-linear terms in identification models are functions of past system input variables and output variables. Finally recurrent neural networks use both past inputs and outputs to predict current NOx outputs. The reasons for such a 'pragmatic' approach are that: • For physical modelling. As a universal approximator.

Therefore.248 Thermal power plant simulation and control The pragmatic approach to system modelling uses both a priori and a posteriori information and is referred to as grey-box modelling. (1999) and their indexed references. as indicated. a priori information is used.2. the generalisation performance of the resultant models over unseen data is examined. physical modelling and system identification form two interacting paths. various grey-box modelling methods can be categorised. 1993). . the volatile components of the coal will evaporate and diffuse into the gas stream. As the particle heats up.1 Coal combustion process In the coal combustion process. In general. 1991. Li et al. Depending on bow much and.2 An overview of NOx formation mechanisms The formation and destruction of NOx is inherently linked with the reactions of the other products of coal combustion. in this chapter. models for the combustion of volatiles and char are required to predict the oxygen available for the NOx reaction. Tulleken. 9. Pearson and Pottman. a three-dimensional CFD model is not suitable for plant operation and control purposes. This section attempts an overview of this process based on the work of Gormley (2001 ) and Zhu et al. These will include five black-box models (static neural network model. unlike white. For these reasons any NOx model should not be developed in isolation. Li and Thompson.or black-box methods. and one grey-box model. in what form. can provide a balanced framework that utilises both a priori knowledge regarding the NOx formation and destruction mechanism as well as a posteriori knowledge derived from the analysis of experimental/field operation data. However. Ideally. six NOx models will be produced for the same thermal coal-fired power generation plant. 2000. both volatiles and char will undergo combustion. The complex hydrocarbon volatiles will experience thermal cracking into simpler compounds or soot before oxidation. dynamic neural network model. Grey-box models are essentially a trade-off between model complexity and model prediction performance (Bohlin.. 2002. any comparison of modelling methods for emission control should include representative models from each category. many important reactions occur between the initial heating of the coal particle and the formation of fly-ash. In grey-box approaches. leaving a carbon-rich char particle. recurrent neural network model. In the current study the main NOx reactions are included (where appropriate) but the other gaseous products of combustion are not. In particular. grey-box methods. 2001 b. ARX model and NARX model). This does not invalidate the work but will introduce the same unmodelled dynamics into all the models. Once ignition temperature is reached. while the heterogeneous oxidation of char will eventually result in an ash residue. 9. For model comparison purposes.

and for the generalised single step hydrocarbon CnHm the reaction can be expressed as: C "m m with the generic single reaction rate expressed in (9. provided that sufficient oxygen is available. despite forming less that half of the total coal mass. The volatile hydrocarbon combustion process is complex. and it is mainly composed of carbon and mineral matter with traces of hydrogen. A wide variety of hydrocarbons may be considered as fuel. it will release a gaseous volatile compound. a single fuel type is required. the heavier products (tars) may react to form soot. and global reaction kinetics can be used to simplify the modelling.1 Devolatilisation When a raw coal particle is subjected to high temperature. The simplest and most commonly used devolatilisation models are empirical and use global reactions.3) where R is the gas constant. ot and ~ are coefficients. and A is some constant. and is know as devolatilisation. To achieve this.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 249 9. Tis the temperature.2. Most of the compounds will continue to react in the vicinity of the char particles to produce successively lighter gases as the more complex molecules decompose.1.2). The . T is the temperature. where the rate equations are of the Arrhenius type: Reaction rate coefficient = A e x p ( . This is a multistage process. hydrocarbon gases. 9. if volatile combustion occurs at substoichiometric conditions. sulphur and oxygen. and A is a constant. 9. The combustion of volatiles is highly exothermic.E / R T ) (9.1. Such a global reaction rate kv is expressed as: kv= A exp(~T)[Fuelff[Oxidant] ~ (9. E is the activation energy.2 Volatile combustion The coal devolatilisation process can produce several hundred gaseous compounds. eventually forming CO2 and H20.1. Volatiles generally are composed of tars. hydrocarbon liquids.3 Char combustion Char is the residual mass after full devolatilisation of coal. However.2.2) where R is the gas constant. H20. H2. accounting for up to 50 per cent of the total energy released during combustion. CO and CO2. Hence the simplest overall reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel is formulated as: (R1) Fuel + O2 ~ CO2 d.2. the carbon to hydrogen ratio of the volatiles is determined and the overall hydrocarbon volatiles can be considered to be composed of 'pseudo-molecules' of CnHm.H20. E is the activation energy.3). but according to (9.

prompt NO and fuel NO. 9. Ap is the particle surface area. According to De Soete (! 975). Visona and Stanmore (1996) and Williams et al. the major part of NOx emission has been found to be NO. prompt and fuel NOx are formed during different combustion processes and in different combustion zones. However. whilst fuel NO results when nitrogen compounds present in the fuel are released and react with oxygen. and depends on various factors. 9. The rate coefficient takes the form of a first-order Arrhenius equation. Oxidation produces both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction of oxygen with the char surface ks is related to both external char surface area and the partial pressure of oxygen. during fossil fuel combustion.2 Overview of NOx formation process Although NOx refers to all oxides of nitrogen. The variations in coals and their chars make the accurate modelling of all the combustion reactions of any individual coal extremely difficult. CO may also be formed by the reduction of CO2 by the surface carbon of the char.250 Thermal power plant simulation and control physical structure.2. where the gaseous oxygen diffuses into the particle. High-temperature combustion causes atmospheric oxygen and . these three NOx mechanisms may be summarised as follows. and the overall char combustion can be formulated as: ( 1 ) Rchar = q)s~pApPo2 1/ks + 1/kdiff (9. ash content and structure of the raw coal. Lockwood and Romo-Millares (1992).2. given sufficiently fuel-lean combustion conditions. In coal-fired power plant. prompt NO is formed by the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen-derived radicals in the fuel-rich zone of combustion. or morphology.4) where ~0s is the stoichiometric factor with 1 for CO2 and 2 for CO. (1994) and their indexed references. and is absorbed and reacts on the char surface. with some of the fuel NO being released from the devolitisation of the fuel and some from the oxidation of the char. Based on the work of De Soete (1975). fuel NO is the major contribution to NOx emission. there are three main sources of NO in combustion. The simplified NOx formation process associated with the combustion process of coal is briefly described in Figure 9. of char particles will vary depending on the speed of devolatilisation. namely thermal NO. The reaction is much slower than the volatile combustion. as formulated in (9.2. thermal. Oxygen may react at the char surface or diffuse through the pores before reacting with the particles.2. (1995). a global modelling approach is widely used. Po2 is the oxygen partial pressure at the char surface. Therefore. Thermal NO results from the reaction of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature. 1975). ~p is the particle area factor to account for irregularity and internal surface burning. As indicated in Figure 9. all carbon and CO will be oxidised to CO2. and kdiff is the reaction rate of char particles with oxygen diffusing through the pores.1).1 Thermal NO formation Thermal NO formation can be modelled by the 'extended Zeldovich' mechanism (De Soete. Char oxidation is a heterogeneous (solid/gas phase) reaction.2. Nimmo et al.

the rate of thermal NO formation can be expressed as: d[NO]T . .. the . 3.2 Simplified NOx formation processes nitrogen to react forming nitrogen oxide... Hence.Volatilecombustion ~ Char combustion Figure 9. k . k3./~ are constants......k~ ~. E is the activation energy...l .02 ~ k_ 2 k3 NO + O (R5) N + OH ¢ = ~ NO + H k_ 3 (for a fuel-rich mixture). 2.6) where k = (kl/k-1)(kz/k-2) is the equilibrium constant for the reaction between N2 and Oz.[NO]2/k[O2][N2] . The value for [O] and [OH] may be obtained from the predicted concentration of major species using the partial equilibrium assumption..NO + N k_ I (R4) N -4..... R is the gas constant. Char N2 Prompt Ash NOx Thermal NOx Devolatilisation ~..k3[OH]) (9..i [NO]/(k2[O] q. The reaction rate coefficients (kl... The principal reactions are: (R3) N2 + O .Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 251 Fuel NO x .-.....5) where i = 1. and ct.- 1 .2k~ [ N 2 ] [ O 2 ] dt 1 + k ... k-2. k2. T is the temperature. For example.. k-3) for the forward reactions and the corresponding backward reactions are generally expressed in the Arrhenius form: kior-i =otexp(E/RT) or kior_i =otT~ exp(E/RT) (9....~ N? Fuel NO x / .

Nimmo et al. c~ and 13 are reaction order constants for oxygen and fuel. For an air to fuel ratio of 0.2. linearly dependent on oxygen atom availability and is associated with a long residence time.4. The above analysis shows that the thermal NOx formation rate is highly dependent on the temperature. respectively. 1995.2.2. Fuel NO is formed from the homogeneous oxidisation of nitrogen constitutes released during devolitisation or from the heterogeneous oxidisation of nitrogen compounds in the char after devolitisation. and tO is the equivalence ratio. It is believed that the main gas species containing nitrogen produced during coal evolution are HCN and NH3.56.0819. Apt is the pre-exponential factor having the value of 6. 1996): d[NO]p _ f T ×A p r [ O 2 ] ~ [N2][Fuel]¢~ exp(Ea/RT) dt (9. 1996). the concentration of prompt NO in fuel-rich zones can be significant.C4 O3. and vary between 0 and 1. 23. n is the number of carbon atoms per molecule for the different hydrocarbon fuel types. Additionally. depending on the rate of consumption of fuel and oxidiser. 32 and 12.2 Prompt NO formation Prompt NO is formed by the reactions of N2 with fuel-derived radicals such as CH and CH2 in regions near the flame zone of a hydrocarbon fuel. and constitutes 70-90 per cent of the total NO (Lockwood and Romo-Millares.7) where f is a correction factor applicable for all aliphatic alkane hydrocarbon fuels. Once the fuel nitrogen is converted to HCN it rapidly decays to form various NH compounds (NHi). Although its overall contribution can be small relative to the formation of total NO (less than 5 per cent). the proportion of prompt NO in the total NO formation may be greater. Recognising the importance of HCN as a precursor to the subsequent nitrogen compound intermediates. 1992.252 Thermal power plant simulation and control concentration of the oxygen atom is obtained from the partial equilibrium of oxygen dissociation: (R6) ½Oz ¢~ O.2. 9. De Soete (1975) correlated the rate of NO formation and decay with a pair of .75-1.. 9. A global kinetic mechanism can be used to predict the prompt NO emission (Visona and Stanmore.57 + C1 n -. T Y represents the non-Arrhenius behaviour of the equation at conditions where the maximum flame temperature is exceptionally high or low.4 × 106(RT/P) c~+l where P represents the pressure. f -.2. in fuel-rich conditions of some low NOx burners. which react to form NO and N2.C269 + C3 (92 . respectively. where Cl-C4 are constants with values of 0.3 Fuel NO formation Fuel NO is the main source of NOx emissions in fossil fuel combustion. and the activation energy Ea = 303 kJ/mol. Visona and Stanmore.

which allows the calculation of NO formation for a pulverised coal flame. OH and HO2 in the flame. The coal delivery system for each unit comprises four subsystems: coal feeder.3 0 . For this unit the following variables are identified to be related with NOx formation and emission. v3(t). O. Each mill feeds eight burners on a level (four on the A side and four on the B side). significant NO2 concentrations have been measured in turbulent-diffusion flames near the combustion zone. However. The furnace of this boiler is separated into two sides. The two reaction rates are included in the transport equations for HCN and NO and form the basis for the fuel NO post-processor. 0 0 0 / T ) kg/m 3 s (9. and are used as model inputs: 1.3 NOx emission models for a 500 MW power generation unit Various models have been developed to model NOx emissions in a 500 MW power generation unit. There are no valid formulae for the production of NO2 from NO. However. and a proportion of the air in the combustion chamber is offset from the walls. The fuel flow (feeder speed) to each of the mills can be measured. coal mill. separator and pf pipework to supply fuel to the burners. Each side has four burners per level and there are five levels of burners with each level linked to one of the five mills. Chemical equilibrium considerations indicate that for temperatures greater than 1500 K the ratio of NO2 : NO is close to zero in the flame. v4(t). by a wall. vz(t). 7 0 0 / T ) kg/m 3 s e dt HCN---~NO d[N2]dt NO~N2 =3 × IOI2pXcNX~o e x p ( . which represent the pool of nitrogen-containing species: d[NO]f ----101°pXcNX~2x p ( .2.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 253 competitive parallel reactions. These models are grouped together for comparison purposes.4 NO2 formation Formation and destruction of NO2 is believed to occur via the reaction of NO with 02. 9. The burners are provided with over-fire air. There are five coal mills in the coal delivery system. 9.1 Plant description The 500 MWe power generation unit studied is installed with a low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). v5(t). Speed of the conveyor belt feeding the coal for each of the five mills (rpm): vl (t). each first order in HCN. and b is the order of reaction for molecular oxygen which is a function of oxygen concentration. namely the A and B sides. Damper settings on each side of the boiler tend to be ganged together.8) where X is the mole fraction of the chemical species.2). 9. .2. the reaction rate will generally resemble that of (9.3 3 .3.

possibly leading to unexpected excursions of overall NOx levels.9) In addition to the above nine inputs. the difference between the ranges of NOx values in the training period and test period 3 is more significant and therefore test period 3 data has been used later in the article to compare graphically the errors produced by each of the modelling techniques. since the samples used for training are limited. uz(t) = vz(t). 2 and 3) are used for validation.3. Therefore.1 and 9. uv(t) = O22(t). Table 9. u4(t) = v4(t).2 show the variation in the data over the four time periods. Also the number of burners in use depends on the electrical load. Tables 9. with NOx emission and the various inputs sampled every minute. For example. Data covering three weeks' field operation is available. another two dependent input variables uj(t).1 shows variations in the validation data relative to the training data. a neural network with a fixed number of hidden nodes does not necessarily nest the true structure of the real system and. in addition. us(t) = vs(t). That is in each period the range of data used is calculated (maximum value minus minimum value) and divided by the range calculated for the training period. the coal type did not change and is therefore not reflected in the models. and are introduced: U l 0 ( t ) = ~J~--~5-1 ull (t) = Y~=6 uj (t) which indicates the overall oxygen level. 3.2 Neural network models Although it has been proved that neural networks may approximate a wide range of non-linear systems to arbitrary closeness given a sufficient number of nodes and a single hidden layer. The sample data is segmented into four data sets. This gives nine independent input variables: Ul(t) = Vl(t). which preheats the pf coal. it is possible that an ANN model will produce biased solutions for .254 2. u9(t) = 02(t) (9. In particular. u6(t) = O21 (t). in test period 3 the range of measured NOx values is approximately one and a half times greater than that used in training. and therefore not used for training in any form. u3(t) = v3(t). relative to horizontal): 01 (t). and power plants normally use different coal sources. However during the period of study. 022 (t). Thermal power plant simulation and control 02 in A and B sides of the furnace that are measured at the economiser (percentage in wet): O~j (t). u8(t) = 01(t). which indicates the overall coal feed. For example. will also have an impact on overall NOx emission levels. all the other data sets (termed test period 1. 02(t). the training data is unlikely to cover all operational conditions. 9. among which one set (training period with 7000 samples) is used for training. Finally the temperature of the air. Other factors affect NOx emission. the coal type strongly affects the overall NOx emission. different operators may use different burner combinations. A and B side of the furnace (degree. Burner tilt position. Obviously the training period does not cover all the operating conditions found in the validation data. All these factors will be treated as model noise/disturbances.

3095 Training period NOx Vl(t) vz(t) v3(t) v4(t) v5(t) O21 (t) O22 (t) 01(t) 02(t) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 unseen data.9727 0.0096 0. This method also provides good generalisation performance. a feedforward dynamic neural network model which introduces dynamics by considering the past changes in the input data.9516 0.3848 0. there are three types of multilayer perceptron (MLP) models that can be constructed. and the other focuses on the training process.0000 022 (t) 01 (t) 02(t) Table 9.1 Variations in data ranges Test period 1 Test period 2 1.2167 0.e.0000 1.0175 0.0248 0.1457 1.0395 0. operation input samples.0000 255 Training period NOx v 1(t) v2(t) v3(t) v4(t) v5(t) 02] (t) 1.4816 0.9955 1.0018 0.1691 -0.5756 0.0000 1.1357 0.0727 -0. .1701 Test period 3 0. neural network models are trained to capture the relation between current NOx output with two. i.1069 0. and. In this chapter we choose the methods used by Li and Thompson (2000) to generate the model structure.9826 0.0310 -0.7667 0.0430 -0.0372 -0.2578 0.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Table 9.0000 1.2076 0.2 Variation in data averages Test period 1 Test period 2 -0.0000 1.0000 1.1745 1.0749 -0.0639 0.9175 1.1092 -0.1989 -0.0595 0. i.e.0000 0.7020 0.9576 0.0000 1. One is to achieve better generalisation performance through network configuration.0000 1.9329 Test period 3 1.4410 0. a static neural network. As indicated earlier.9213 0.0000 1.0058 -0.9093 0.2304 -0.9527 1. a recurrent neural network that uses both past inputs and outputs to predict current NOx outputs.0099 -0.5140 0.0682 -0.7419 1.2000 0.9282 0.2513 0. finally.0249 -0.0063 0.0000 1.5463 0. or more.0000 1.0810 -0.2552 0.8218 0.0169 -0. To combat this problem two general approaches are available.9887 1. which maps the relation between current NOx output with current inputs.

Table 9.3. Note.. those models requiring past output data only use predicted data after the first few samples. . 9. . N ) is the NOx emission. 1987. Soderstrom and Stoica.10) where N is the number of samples. . k=l. . .7% 14.3 Linear ARX model Development of a linear ARX (AutoRegressive model with eXogenous input) model is a two-stage process: namely.2 .j=l..3 and 9.3 Model type Static ANN Dynamic forward ANN Recurrent ANN Prediction performance of three A N N models Number of hidden nodes Performance (MP) 30 30 20 23.000 samples taken from the plant operation data file. ny . The number of hidden nodes in the static and dynamic neural network model is 30. In order to ensure that the various comparisons are fair. In this table..8% 12. Model structure selection decides which terms are to be included in the model. .. . 1989). 2 .2 k = 1. .256 Thermal power plant simulation and control Table 9. . . 2 . . model structure selection and parameter identification (Ljung. .k). y(t . the performance averaged over all the unseen data is defined as n P = / y~N1e2 (9.3 lists the prediction performance of various ANN models.11) . . nj. . That is Tables 9.4 (page 263) indicate the long-term prediction performance of the models on unseen data. 2 . . which uses no past output values as inputs. if the measured output data had been used the performance measures for all models except the static neural network model. ei (i = l.4% Models based on the above three networks have been developed for the 500 MWe power generation unit. would be much improved. All these network models were trained using the same technique by Li and Thompson (2000) and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method found in the Matlab ® Neural Network Toolbox is used as a basic training algorithm. 11. N) is the modelling prediction (MP) error. and yi (i = 1. whereas the recurrent neural network model uses 20 hidden nodes. or Oi~oi(t) + 8 ( t ) (9. The training data set consists of 7. . Consider an ARX model that includes all possible terms: P y(t) = Z i=1 ~pi(t) = uj(t-k).

E o = I . . i. uj (j = 1. . . . 2 .13) Suppose that all regressors in (9. . . e(N)].~T~(q+l) . . equation (9. Furthermore.14) (9. . . . . i = (q + 1).11) becomes: Y =q~O+S where yT = [y(1). . . . ny = 4. ~I~T = [~01. its contribution to the loss function will depend solely on the value . y(N)].11) are required since linear dependency among the terms exists.9). Also some terms will have little to contribute to model accuracy.. T qWq+l~q+l K T q T ~O KqCPq+l q+l EO = 1 where ~ q is the estimated parameter vector with q terms in the model. . ¢pTcpi=I (i = 1. . 11) are defined in (9. ¢P2. S T = [e(1). . p). the minimal loss function can be computed recursively (Li and Thompson. by minimising (9. .2 . let ~ i ) = Kq~oi. j = 1.2 .15) i = (q + 2) . . if a new term. . and e(t) is a white noise series. Then. y(t) is the NOx emission. . 2001a): Eq+l(Oq+l) -. wT (9. . The loss function is defined: . i=1. and also y T y = 1. p. p. K g q + l = Kq -KO = I N x N .Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 257 where p is the total number of possible terms. If N samples are used for identification. Obviously not all of the 48 terms in (9.13). ~0i(N)] T. . .2 .. ~Op]T. .14) may be rewritten as: Eq+l(~q+l) = Eq(~q) (yT~(qq+l))2 (~(q+l).g. E(2) .E q ( ~ q ) = (yTKqcPq+I)2 T ~O KqCPq+l q+l (9.12) are normalised. is added into the regression model.q (9. ¢pi (2) . . . . nj = 4. 2 .e. ¢Pq+l.(i) = ~ i ) _ "ri q 1 ~(q+l).-E ( O ) = . . .q ~(oi)=¢pi.. . . (q + 2) . 11..15). . . . y(2) . Since K q K q = Kq then (9. ~*q+l ( ~ . ~ + 1) q ~o~q j o. p (qaT~(q+l) ~ ~. . . According to (9.12) i=1. . p. .~. . .q j ~. . . ~0i : [¢Pi(l). . e. .

18) [y(t . and the final prediction error (FPE) criterion (Ljung. and N is the number of samples.4 NARX model NARX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive model with eXogeneous input) / NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogeneous input) models have been widely used in non-linear dynamic system modelling (Chen and Billings.4) and bi (i = 0. . .~.2 . . k=l. 11) are model parameters. or . 1989. 9. nj. . The final linear ARX model for NOx emission takes the following form: y ( t ) ( l + alz -1 q. . Akaike's information criterion (AIC). . 1996). ~Oi(t) = I ( u j ( t -.k ) . where ~ q + l ) is the previously reformulated regressor as indicated in (9. or (9. 11.2 k=l. Harber and Unbehauen. . i. . 1990.3. . . 1987. .k)) 2. . .(b7z -1 + b8z-4)u9(t) + (b9z -2 + bloz-4)UlO(t) + e(t) (9. . .a2z -2 q. ai (i = 1. Henson and Seborg. the following simple criterion is used: FPEq = Eq((gq) [I + ~ ] (9. . ~ is some positive integer normally chosen to be 2. .(i) ~T~. 1. only first and second-order terms are considered and the non-linear ARX model takes the form: P y(t) = Z Oi~oi(t) + E(t) i=l uj(t . . j = l . at each step only the term satisfying Max (yT~(qi))2 i c {unselected terms} ~Pi (~.a3z -3 -q. This process continues until FPEq starts to increase (instead of decreasing).k).e. . 1989). 2 . There are various criteria to compare and select appropriate model structure. ll.a4z -4) = bo q. 2.blz-lu3(t) + (b2z -1 -k. . j = l . 2 . In NOx emission NARX models. In this chapter.2 k: . ny . .15). .b3z -2 + b4z-4)u5(t) + b5z-4u6(t) + b6z-3u8(t) q.258 Thermal power plant simulation and control of (Y T ~q(q+l) ) 2 / ( ~ q(q+l) ) T ~q(q-I-l) . .16) where Eq (~q) is the minimal loss function with q terms. such as the F-test. . nj.(i) ' ~ q j ~q will be selected. Soderstrom and Stoica. The model selection process in this chapter will be performed in a stepwise forward way.17) where z -1 is the time lag. 3. 1.

ky).kuj)).9).20) where ¢o(t) = 1 ~oi(t) = ~oi(y(t -. . For example. Fundamental grey-box modelling (Li and Thompson. uj(t . . Again. not all of the 92 terms will be included in the NARX model and a model selection procedure is required. . j = 1.5 Grey-box modelling In the grey-box approach. reaction rates will be of the form exp(x.3. Using the same data set for identification the final NARX model takes the form y(t)(1 + alz -1 + a2z -2 + a3z -3 -k. p and y and uj (j = 1. 11) are defined in (9. and ky and kuj are input and output time delays. and ai (i = 1. . q)i (t) denotes fundamental elements (FEs) and their derived terms. c) or oscillatory behaviour might . .bl4z-l(u2(t)) 2 q.19) where z -1 is the time lag. . . physical modelling and system identification form two interacting paths. 11. . 0 is the parameter. y is the NOx emission. . 2 . For this reason the model structure of the fundamental grey-box model considered here is that of a Hammerstein model having the following form: P y(t) = y ~ Oiq)i (t) + ~(t) i=0 (9. i = 1. 18) are model parameters. 3. . 2001 a. using the previous argument. . The model structure selection procedure is identical to that used with the linear ARX model. 9.2 . . . . There are many shades of grey depending on the mix. . 4) and bi (i = 0. .bl6z-l(u5(t)) 2 + bl7z-n(u6(t)) 2 + bl8z -1 (UlO(t)) 2 + E(t) (9.(b7z -1 + b8z-2)u5(t) + b9z-4u6(t) + bloz-3u8(t) -k-bllz-lu9(t) -t-bl2z-4ulo(t) + bl3z-4(Ul(t)) 2 q.18) is 92.a4z -4) = bo + (blz -1 + b2z-3)Ul (t) + (b3z -2 + b4z-4)u2(t) nc b5z-lu3(t) + b6z-3u4(t) -q. 2 . 1. . 2.bl5z-3(u3(t)) 2 q. E(t) is a white noise series. and therefore the total number of candidate terms p in (9. For engineering systems where a priori fundamental knowledge exists it is possible to extract basic information in the form of simple expressions.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 259 where uj (j = 1. One of the essential concepts in fundamental grey-box modelling is that of the fundamental element. ny = 4 . .d . nj = 4. . m) are the output and inputs. b) assumes that the underlying mechanisms of the system to be modelled are either too complex or only partially known. .

... . . and ci (i = 1. . . . . x)) (9.. i ] analysis ] I 'L. . ... and then constructing the system model using appropriate combinations of these FEs. . . . and ~01(Cl... . . . . and can also undergo change (mutation).. .. . .. c) may also undergo mutation and become cos(x. That is f ( x ) may be approximated by functions that are related to f ( x ) .. Therefore. The underlying motivation can also be formulated as follows....- PDEs+ODEs ~_~ Fundamental elements . the value of the parameters in vector c can be different in different situations. . . . while sin(x. c).3 Fundamental grey-box modelling framework . the proposed modelling technique involves a search for the fundamental elements of the system.. m) are parameters in those FEs. etc. ~-] Data i Experiment ~ collection ~ !'1 design ] i'1 and ] i" . . .. . . a system model which reflects the dynamics of the system may be produced by appropriately combining these FEs.. r --i . . i t i . These simple functions acquired from the fundamental a priori system knowledge are associated with system behaviour. J ' If possible n Structure i Ill. qgm(Cm.. .. . . . . . . . . .h---z T II iYi ! i . . . : : iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii St r ~" ]I' • * estimationParameter. . .. Identifyingfundamental elements module .. .. for which x is a vector of variables and c is a vector of parameters.. . . . . e --~ Validation or I falsification I I I Competition modelling module Figure 9. . . Suppose a non-linear unknown function f ( x ) has the following form: f ( x ) -~ f(g01(Cl. . X) .. x) . . l" . At this model construction stage experimental or on-line operational data are required. . Once the FEs are collected.. .21) where x is the variable vector. .. . Physical modelling (a priori) . Such FEs may appear in the system model in a variety of forms.3. 2 . . c). . ~Om(Cm.. ~_. . . . . determination ct ~ " ' I : u '.260 Thermal power plant simulation and control take the form sin(x. .x) are fundamental elements that are mutually linearly independent. ro ess l| . For example in the function sin(x.. ... The framework of such a grey-box modelling method is illustrated in Figure 9. c). hence the name fundamental grey-box modelling... . . . . .] (a posterior) -System identification . ... . . .. . . .

22) bi (qgi (ci. Step 2. Construct a set of derived terms that are the production of two or more FEs. x) . .22) is how to identify the fundamental elements and their particular form. Step 5.3. X)) (9.~oi (ci. Those FEs and their derived terms constitute a term pool. if unknown a priori.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 261 as follows: f(x) = f(g01(Cl. Use plant data together with the term pool to establish a suitable linear-in-parameter model (generalised polynomial model) through model structure selection and parameter identification. and only the parameters in the functions differ.f i x ) .1 Fundamental grey-box modelling procedures Step 1. Establish the fundamental mechanisms of the system. 9. . . the derived model partially resembles a neural network where the activation functions in the hidden layers are all of the same type and only the weights and bias are different. 3. From these equations select a set of fundamental elements in which each element describes a basic relationship between system variables. FEs are the simplest form of expressions. it should be pointed out that the FEs are derived from a priori information regarding the system mechanism. However. these can be used to produce FEs. . Parameters in the FEs. f (x) IX=X0+ ~ i=1 qgm(Cm. One issue in (9. and ~r indicates a small number. . Typically these will consist of a set of PDEs and ODEs. Therefore to determine which FEs should be used to construct the model requires a posteriori information (typically obtained through an identification method which includes model structure selection and parameter identification).X)lx=xo.5. x o -1. Step 4. may have to be determined from experimental data. It is possible that some of these FEs will be strongly correlated with each other. Some of the FE functions may be of the same type. Remarks: 1. 2. Validate the model. Step 3 (optional). Derived terms are used to reflect couplings among system variables and should be based on the mechanism governing the system behaviour. x o ) ) where b i = f'(x)/qg~(ci. If a priori information regarding an engineering system exists (based for example on first principle laws and chemical reactions). In this case. The following remarks on selecting FEs are made.

(9. Therefore there is a combination problem. 2. various analytical methods might be applied. . . 10) are coefficients. . FEs are selected based on the NOx formation mechanism as described in equations (9. Perform two distinct but sequential processes. and then the model structure selection procedure (identical to that used with the linear ARX and NARX models) is used to construct the model. . 2.8). .24) . only the term in the term pool that contributes most to decreasing the cost function is selected. j 6 { 1 . and are therefore associated with the temporal and thermal NOx formation.2.6)-(9. . . The second approach lends itself to the use of genetic algorithms (Peng et al. 2. 2 . 5. . . 2 .) Two general approaches can be used to resolve the above problems: 1. 17) and bj (j = 1. . The oxygen concentrations are associated with the thermal and temporal NOx formation. First identify the parameters in the FEs and the derived terms and then select the model structure. (9. . Therefore. .. Perform an integrated process in order to identify the model structure and the parameters in the FEs and derived terms. 2 . . Besides the 17 fundamental elements. 4. the parameters in the FEs and their derived terms are first identified. the first approach is used to construct the fundamental grey-box model. 4. . . 11 i = 12. . k 6 { 1 . the following 121 derived terms can be constructed: Di =(Fj)Cp(Fk) cq. With respect to the first approach. 14 . In deriving the grey-box model for the NOx emissions. where c i (i = 1. How to select the model structure. 11}. 5. Coal feeds are also associated with the concentration of fuel nitrogen in fuel NOx formation. the following FEs are formulated: Fi = ( u i ( t ) ) ci. 2 . and hence the average temperature in the furnace. j ( = k . In this chapter. 2001). 17. . How to identify the unknown parameters in the FEs and their derived terms. . and the correlation between terms can be strong. 10. i = 1. . . 17}. (The term pool can be very large. For each iteration in the step-wise forward model construction process. 3. 3.23) Fi = e (ci/(uj(t)+bj)). j = 1. The burner tilt positions affect the shape of the fireball in the furnace. In general the coal feeds are associated with the total energy released in the furnace.262 Thermal power plant simulation and control Two technical problems stand out: 1. That is.

Note that in these figures 1440 samples is equivalent to one day of operational data. after the first few sample points only input information (and predicted NOx values if required) is used.5-9.4 Conclusions In this chapter.4 shows the prediction performance of the grey-box model for the training period. As with all the models.b7z-l F3(t)F14(t) + bsz-a F4(t)Flo(t) + b9z-3Fg(t)Flv(t) + bloz-3F7(t) + e(t). Also. Figure 9. NOx emission modelling for plant operation and control has been studied.3) + a4y(t .8 shows the prediction errors for all six models when applied to the unseen data of test period 3. Tables 9.1) + a 2 y ( t .2 * The numberof termsexcludesthe DC term and noise term.1 11. Because the data points are close together the prediction values appear as a thick smooth line whereas the actual values appear more erratic. say.3 and 9. if the ARX approach used measured output data (rather than past predictions) to produce the prediction at the next sample then even over this time period the ARX model would appear better than the static ANN. the ARX model this would only be true for this time period.3 10. Using the same 7. Figure 9.4) = bo + blz -1F2(t)Flo(t) + bzz -1F2(t)Fl3(t) + b3z -1Fll (t)Flv(t) + b4z-4F2(t)Fl7(t) + bsz-3F4(t)Flo(t)e(t) + b6z-lF3(t)F9(t) q.4 Model type Linear ARX model NARX model Grey-box model 263 Prediction performance of three analytical models Number of terms* 15 22 14 Performance (MP) 17. The NOx formation mechanism has been identified.000 samples in the training period for model identification. and various model types have been introduced.2) + a3y(t . (9. In particular six types of model have been produced to estimate the NOx emission of a 500MWe power generation unit.Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Table 9.25) Table 9. 9.4 shows the prediction performance of various linear and non-linear NOx emission models. the grey-box model takes the following form: y(t) + aly(t . while Figures 9.7 cover three distinct periods of unseen data.4 show the . Although this figure suggests that the static ANN is better than.

I.-q d Z -100 -150 I I 5 O0 1000 1500 Sample 2000 2500 3000 Figure 9.4 Grey-boxmodel performance (training period) Model prediction and NO x emission 200 150 100 50 0 -50 I i i Thick line-model prediction Dotted line-NO x emission I !l'i.~ • ! . " 0 'ill i ii ~~l"li. . -' ..5 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 1) . ~ .~. .' 'I' . [ 100 [- Thick line-modelprediction Dotted line NO x emission 5o.264 Thermal power plant simulation and control Model prediction and NO x emission 15o i'i'l 'til 1 ~~ I t ' . .. i~" [ 1~ .i' ~'.H ' I z°-50k ''' "I!' [11~ --150 I I I 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Sample 5000 6000 7000 Figure 9.r.

Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant Model prediction and NO~ emission 265 I I 10o ]Thick line-model prediction Dotted line.7 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 3) .6 Grey-boxmodel performance (test period 2) Model prediction and NO x emission 150 100 50 0 -50 "~ -100 ~-150 -200 -250 -300 -350 0 I I Thick line.NO x emission I I I I i~ 50 d z o e~ o -50 " "" t I 'rf' .model prediction Dotted line.NO x emission I I I 1000 2000 Sample 3000 4000 5000 Figure 9. -100 -150 I I 1000 2000 Sample 3000 4000 Figure 9.

Introducing input dynamics (dynamic feedforward ANN model) gives improved overall prediction performance. but they do have some physical meaning that can be interpreted by the operators.8 Prediction errors for different model structures (test period 3) overall performance of the six models when predicting NOx emissions over different periods of time and different operation conditions. the best recurrent neural network does not necessarily produce a better overall performance than a dynamic feedforward ANN model. and each type of model has its particular advantages and disadvantages. A non-linear ARX model is better than a dynamic ANN model in general. grey-box models take a little longer to build. • • • It is unlikely that in plant operation and control only one type of model will be required. However.266 Thermal power plant simulation and control Static ANN Dynamic forward ANN Recurrent ANN ARX NARX Figure 9. Neural network and identification models are easier and quicker to build. A fundamental grey-box model has the best overall prediction performance. they will then be used either in an advisory system to support the human operator on such aspects as task analysis. condition monitoring. Once these models have been obtained on-line or off-line. A linear ARX model is better than a static neural network model in general. though widely used in industry. and in general have better generalisation performance. . In comparison. but lack physical meaning. From these results it can be seen that: • • A static neural network gives the worst overall performance. Therefore the frequency of retraining is reduced. and more frequent retraining is required. their generalisation performances are not as good as grey-box models.

G. IFAC 13th World Congress. et al. PhD thesis. 9. 1989. 465-471 FLUENT INC. and BILLINGS.: 'Fluent user's manual. pp. D. pp. 2001 HARBER. 1990. R. Automatica.. 1996) GORMLEY.. and MAYES. Coal R & D Program. E. S.: 'Structure identification of nonlinear dynamic systems . L. and KORTELA. 123. K.a survey on input-output approaches'. and operation optimisation. 49. 903-908 DE SOETE. 1093-1102 ETSU COAL R&D PROGRAMME: 'Technology status report: NOx control for pulverised coal-fired power plant'.: 'Progress report on the development of a generic NOx control intelligent system (GNOCIS)'. 2001. vols.: 'Modelling coal fired power station NOx emissions'..Modelling of NOx emissions in coal-fired plant 267 fault detection and isolation. Sixth International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. but the views expressed are those of the authors.: 'Boiler efficiency and NOx optimisation through advanced monitoring and control of local combustion conditions'... 1996. 1975. 9-12 July.. 61-66 . NH. A. H. The Queen's University of Belfast. 1997 FERRETTI. W.: 'Interactive system identification: prospects and pitfalls' (Springer: Berlin. ASME Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. 10131032 COPADO.4.6 References BOHLIN. Harwell. pp. The Combustion Institute. 1991) CHEN. Portugal. pp.. M. 1996) HOLMES.: 'Estimation of NOx emissions in thermal power plants using neural networks'. Fluent Inc. 1. S.: 'Nonlinear process control' (Prentice-Hall. ETSU.. 2001. NAJIM.. San Francisco. 9.: 'Overall reaction rates of NO and N2 formation from fuel nitrogen'.5 Acknowledgements Acknowledgement is made to the British Coal Utilisation Research Association (BCURA) and the UK Department of Trade and Industry for a grant in aid of this research. 1994 IKONEN. and PIRODDI. Project Profile 103. or in boiler advanced control systems. T. 1-4' (Lebanon. Tokyo. G. 26. A. and SEBORG. L.: 'Modelling of NOx emissions based on a fuzzy logic neural network'.: 'Representations of nonlinear systems: the NARMAX model'. K. (3). ETSU. and not necessarily those of BCURA or the Department of Trade and Industry. A. Porto. 651-667 HENSON. and UNBEHAUEN. 15th Symposium (International) on Combustion. International Journal of Control. Japan. Upper Saddle River. release 4. E. pp. U. G. pp. C.

pp.. Short Run Press. J. G. H. Proceedings of the European Control Conference. Englewood Cliffs. flames'. 1999. and THOMPSON. 68. 2. Q. 3-7 Sept. 6th International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for A Clean Environment..268 Thermal power plant simulation and control IRWIN. P. pp. 2001..: 'Mathematical modelling of fuel-NO emissions from PF burners'. S. Preprints of 14th IFAC World congress. 69. 1996. pp. pp.. 1999. Portugal.. Journal of the Institute of Energy. London. 29. Oporto.. P.. Automatica. pp. 1995. 889-895 LI. and NORMAN. (10).: 'Recent applications of CFD modelling in the power generation and combustion industries'. and THOMPSON. WARWICK. K. J. M.. Barcelona. Fuel. Oporto. 144-152 NIMMO.: 'Hybrid neural net. pp. Journal of the Institute of Energy. R. 3648-3653 LI. L. T. S. and THOMPSON. Cambridge.. 2000 LI. N: 517-523.. M... E C. HCN and NH3 in practical liquid-fuel flames'.: AEA Technology Report AEAIntec-1788..: 'Developing a NOx emission model for a coal-fired power generation plant using artificial neural networks'.. J.: 'System identification: theory for the user' (Prentice Hall. D. DUAN. LI. 15th IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control. J. 301-315 PENG. and SEBORG. 170-177 PEARSON R. J. 1992. and THOMAS. POURKASHANIAN. C.: 'The effect of fuel-nitrogen functionality on the formation of NO. and HAMPARTSOUMIAN. C. Y. and PENG. 1995) LI. RICHARDSON. and STANMORE. 1755-1762 . 881-887 SABHARWAL. pp. E: 'Grey-box modelling and identification using physical knowledge and Bayesian techniques'. S. M.: 'The predictions of coal/char combustion rate using an artificial neural network approach'. 2001 b. Fuel. 1987) LOCKWOOD.: 'Fundamental grey-box modelling'. 1989) STOPFORD. 2002. 65. and THOMPSON. J. BYSH.: 'System identification' (Prentice Hall. Applied Mathematical Modelling. S. W. W.: 'Neural network applications in control' (The Institution of Electrical Engineers. K. Portugal. 1006-1018 ZHU. JONES. and ROMO-MILLARES. SVRCEK.. J. and HUNT K. and BENIM. 73. 285-308 VISONA. P. 1993. pp.: '3-D modelling of NOx formation in a 275 MW utility boiler'. E. physical modeling applied to a xylene splitter'.f. A. 6th International Conference on Technologies and Combustion for A Clean Environment. July 2002 LJUNG. Portugal. P. K. M.. 68-79 WILLIAMS..: 'Gray-box identification of block-oriented nonlinear models'.. UKACC International Conference on Control.. K. Oporto. 2000.. P. E. and THOMPSON.. A. 78. and POTTMANN. 'Modelling of coal combustion in low-NOx p. 351-374 STOPFORD. K. W. G. and STOICA. 4-7 Sept. S.: 'A case study of fundamental grey-box modelling'. A.. pp. J. 4. R.: 'GA based software for power generation plant NOx emission modelling'. K... Journal of Process Control. A. WILLIAMS. 26. J. (7). K. Beijing SODERSTROM. S..: 'NOx emission models for operation and control of power generation boilers'.. 1994.2. K. 2001a.. 9-12 July. pp. A. A. Journal of Institute of Energy. pp. 1994 TULLEKEN. Exeter. B.

In the first phase. identification. our approach is substantially different from the aforementioned and may be split into two phases. the model is tuned so as to compensate for the unavoidable inaccuracies that depend on the hypotheses and assumptions introduced in the first phase. This chapter focuses on analytical redundancy techniques that can be conveniently employed to detect failures in the heater line of a 320 MW power plant. 1993. 1994 a. Parisini I0. Alessanclri. Modelling errors are due to both uncertain parameters and unknown subsystems of the plant.I Introduction Increasing attention to safety and the need for reduction of energy production costs motivate the research into methodologies that enable one to provide long-term monitoring and early detection of faults and abnormal process behaviour in power plants.Chapter 10 Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line A. 1995). regarded as a testbed. Grey-box modelling allows one to account for different levels of knowledge regarding a plant. this allows one to take into account different levels of component knowledge. In the second phase. 1993) and hence are unsuitable for modelling real complex physical processes. P Coletta and T. Neural networks may be used . A few investigations have focused on non-linear systems and proposed multiple-hypotheses statistical identification techniques (Bohlin. The main topics are modelling. As will be explained later on. and design of estimators that may be used to diagnose faults in the plant. Gawthrop et al. Such methods evaluate models of differing structure and complexity from a statistical point of view so as to select one that is acceptable in terms of a given criterion. In the literature. b. the on-line adaptation of the model remains in general rather difficult.. many works on grey-box identification techniques are available that deal with linear models (Tulleken. In any case. Bohlin and Graebe. a model is built that is as consistent as possible with the physical reality of the various components of the process under examination.

for an introduction. 1974. 1979). strong non-linearities. Gelb. Thus. a method based on stochastic approximation has been chosen (Spall. Further complications arise when the underlying physical process is described by numerous state variables. In this context. a non-linear state estimation scheme could be more appropriate. Gelb. 1970. for which the statistics of the random disturbances are often unknown. it could be possible to monitor internal state variables that are important for the purpose of fault diagnosis. Anderson and Moore. it is possible to predict on-line the system behaviour by feeding such a model with the current input signals. (1997). However. 1992. In this way. Therefore. 1997. The problem is solved by constraining the estimation functions to take on given structures in which a certain number of parameters have to be optimised. In addition. a method is required which introduces low on-line computation effort but. multilayer feedforward neural networks have been chosen for their approximating properties.270 Thermal power plant simulation and control to model those parts of the system that are completely unknown. This procedure has been followed. Among various possible solutions. This identification turns out to be quite difficult for systems with a large number of state variables. 1997). is quite demanding in terms of computation requirements with many state variables and performs poorly in the considered case. Spall and Criston. which is well known and the most widely employed in industrial applications for state estimation. Jazwinski. Parisini. 1994). The contents include the results of previous work (Alessandri and Parisini. identification. Finally. by Parisini (1997). it is preferable to apply an identification procedure that does not rely on computation of gradients and higher-order derivatives. standard stochastic models do not usually match real world settings. 1979). as will be clarified later by means of simulation results. 1974. 1970. . to estimate the above state variables. This estimator. A possible solution is the neural approach presented by Alessandri et al. Process and measurement noise statistics are not required for this method as estimation is obtained by minimising a cost function (in general. non-quadratic) defined on a sliding window composed of a finite number of time stages. it is preferable for the method to be easily tunable. Among the possible alternatives. the on-line simulation and tuning of such a complex dynamic model may not be feasible in some power plant automation systems. and estimation for power plant fault diagnostics. the problem is reduced to the identification of both uncertain parameters and the weights of the neural networks (Alessandri and Parisini. It is worth mentioning the popular extended Kalman filter (EKF) (see. as appears in many fields of engineering and applied sciences. Anderson and Moore. according to a generalised least squares approach. due to the presence of numerous. Jazwinski. however. Estimation for non-linear systems is difficult and most commonly used techniques are difficult to apply (see. among others. at the same time. 1997. Once a dynamic model of the plant has been designed and tuned. This chapter provides a summary of the experiences gained in modelling. Thus. for instance. does not rely on disturbance statistics.

Concluding remarks are included in section 10.3. (7) bypass feedwater valve.3 illustrates the control components in each heater. 2002). (10) drain valve. In section 10. This occurs not only because of the intrinsic losses in the turbine. and design. In the standard thermodynamic cycle the heat exchanged with the cold source. The power plant is located at Piombino. (3) heater steam valve.4. in the boiler is reduced. . A complete overview of the power plant is given in section 10. (9) safety valve. Finally.1 the high-pressure heater line is described. the required heat input. but mainly because it is necessary to condense the steam coming from the turbine at the same temperature and at the same pressure values as those at the beginning of the process. Thus. Section 10. (4) drain valve.5. QH. (2) no-return valve.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 271 Alessandri et al. in particular.2 presents some components of the control system which are used to regulate the condensate levels inside the heaters. grey-box modelling and identification are considered and an optimisation method based on stochastic approximation is described. (5) condenser high-drain valve. followed by a description of a single heater. More specifically.2. to condense the steam is lost. In addition to the heater line. (6) feedwater inlet-outlet valve. Finally. one of the two electronically controlled feedwater high-pressure heater lines is considered (see Figure 10. a technique that improves the plant efficiency. and section 10. (8) incondensable component valve.2 (see Parisini.2. the superheated steam exchanges heat with the feedwater and then condenses. Figure 10.3.2.3 is devoted to the modelling of the main faults and malfunctions. the simulation results are reported in section 10. in the boiler. the considered 320 MW power plant is described.1 Description of the high-pressure heater line The high-pressure heater line is depicted in Figure 10. The feedwater provided by the feed pump flows through the four heaters. the available sensors are shown in Figure 10. 10. Qc.2.4 then provides a general description of the above-mentioned neural estimation method outlining successive steps regarding the structure of the optimal estimator. After leaving the turbine.1). These lines are devoted to the regeneration process. i.. Italy and. 1997 for details). Figure 10. and in the pump. the regeneration process consists in using a part of the heat to increase the temperature of the water that flows into the boiler. numbered as follows: (1) steam tap valve.2 Description of power plant application In this section. its approximation.2: in section 10. and goes into the boiler. the thermodynamic cycle implies that the energy produced by the boiler to transform the water from the liquid phase into the aeriform phase is not completely used in the turbine.e. 10.

2). which relate the pressures. the state of each heater is influenced by the upstream heater via the variables defining the pressure in the cavity. and subcooling states. . . . the pressure. . it makes use of steam tables. Clearly. For instance. we shall describe the model of a single heater in more detail. . . enthalpies and specific volumes in the superheating. a set of state equations can be derived for each heater. of the . saturation.272 Thermal power plant simulation and control Hot / source To c nu e the o s m r O H • f . Each heater in turn influences the state of the previous upstream heater via the flow rate of the output drain. . the specific enthalpies of the output drain flow. In the next section. . Other variables assumed to be proportional to the unit load include the steam pressure and enthalpy in the various turbine stages and the pressure in the drain expansion tank. the specific enthalpies. The final model can then be built on the basis of the four single heaters that make up the high-pressure line (see Figure 10. Obviously. actuators and sensors. the model is very complex and strongly non-linear. . and the flow of the feedwater going into the first heater. and the positions of the feedforward draining valve. Some variables of the global model are assumed to be proportional to the unit load of the power plant. . the pressures.1 Scheme of the regeneration process Assuming a model of the heater and associated controllers. and the flow rate of the feedwater. temperatures. . The most important are the enthalpy. "l Condenser I ~ 8--J~t Qc Figure 10.

...3 Control components of a single heater . ~ 1 To the degasifier D ~ _ -7(-' I I I ~?q~ ~ .. .To the bypass line Feedwater flow Drain flow (!~ Level sensors O Duplicate level sensors (~ Pressure sensors .. . .- (~) Flow sensors Modulating actuator On/Off actuator .or To the condenser ~ 4~_ I "1 ..~ Tothebni.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 2 7 3 Turbine /x "x D2. .- .ii:i:iiii Figure 10. I ") I 0 k. Turbine spillover flow (~) Temperature sensors Figure 10..To the other high pressure heat exchange line . v Drain expansion tank ..2 The high-pressure heater line Bleeding 1 I)4 :Y"'"" 8 i i Feedwater Zl i !4 9 3 6 -: . . .

divided into halves by a vertical septum. where the condensed steam and the drain coming from the downstream heaters undergo a process of heat exchange with the feedwater.274 Thermal power plant simulation and control sensors. including a N-shaped tube-bundle where the feedwater flows. However. a drain valve conveys the resulting liquid to the upstream heater.2 The model o f a single heater Each heater (see Figure 10.2. Clearly. 10.2. B: condensing area. of the actuators and of the controller elements. the condensed steam can bypass the heaters. I --1 I Drain output bled input A I --[2:>mEz>- Feedwaterinput "-'1- ~ Feedwateroutput A Desuperheatingarea B Condensingarea C Subcoolingarea (~) Temperaturesensor Q LevelSensor Figure 10. C: subcooling area. where the superheated steam cools down until it reaches the saturated steam condition through heat exchange with the feedwater flowing in the tube-bundle.4) consists of a vertical-axis cylindrical cavity. Three different areas are considered in the cavity: A: desuperheating area. Under normal conditions. where the saturated steam condenses (vapour-liquid transition).4 A heater with sensors and output drain regulator . whereas. the main modelling effort concerns the heaters. as the other parts are very simple to represent. as can be seen in the alternative paths shown in Figure 10. under special operating conditions.

-uniform pressure distribution inside the cavity. the following assumptions about the feedwater have been made: -feedwater is in the liquid state and in a subcooling condition. 1993). the condensed steam flows to the condenser. x3: specific enthalpy of the output drain (kJ/kg). From the above assumptions. with the heat exchange magnitude dependent on the condensing and subcooling areas. drainage and condensation areas. xs: specific enthalpy of feedwater in the condensing area (kJ/kg). and C). Sp: percentage of steam spillover from the turbine. due to surface phenomena at the interface between the condensing and subcooling areas. -uniform physical properties of the tube-bundle metal. -the heat-exchange surface between the cavity fluid and the tube-bundle is fixed in the desuperheating area. . The input variables are: Pprev" pressure in the previous heater (atm). and loss of pressure in the tube-bundles due to metal friction. x2: pressure in the cavity of the heater (atm). In the following. x4: specific enthalpy of the output feedwater (kJ/kg). we have analysed: (i) the behaviour of the fluid inside the cavity by using the equations for the conservation of the mass of drain water. we have made the following assumptions: -negligible heat exchange between the cavity and the external environment. L: load required by the electric network (MW). -negligible longitudinal heat conduction in both the pipe metal and the fluid. -negligible density variations inside the subcooling area. The equations describing each heater have been derived from the mass. B. In particular. a set of non-linear equations can be derived to define the thermodynamic behaviour in each heater (Barabino et al. so it is possible to complete the thermal cycle. x6: specific enthalpy of feedwater in the subcooling area (kJ/kg). energy and momentum conservation laws. and for the conservation of the energy of subcooled water. we will refer to the state variables xl : liquid level in the heater (mm). Pdet: pressure in the drain expansion tank (atm). and (ii) the behaviour of the fluid in the tube-bundle by heat exchange in the desuperheating. . the pressure is equal to the input pressure in the heater. -constant fluid pressure in the tube-bundle.uniform enthalpy distribution inside each area (A. for the conservation of the mass of water and steam. Moreover.. Regarding the fluid inside the cavity.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 275 in the first heater. -negligible exchanges of energy and mass.

x2.1) where mw = PodrAhXl. The models of the heaters have an identical structure and differ only in constants such as geometric coefficients (tank height. Q A (Wtur. and the gains of the regulators can be found in (Gugliemi et al. Ol (off-set). the mass in the draining area is The equation for the conservation of dmw = Widr -[. Wfw): heat exchange in the condensing area. Moreover. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x l.Wev dt (10. A more detailed description of the functions of the state variables as well as the values of the constants Ah (cavity area not including the pipes). x2. x3): mass of liquid in the heater. Wfw): condensate steam flow. are briefly introduced as follows: Wcon(X1. time constants of the actuators and sensors. 69l (x3): temperature of the output drain. Parisini. hsw (x2): specific enthalpy of the saturated water. x11. Widr: drain water flow (m3/s). QB(xl. 1995. 1997). thermal coefficients (pipe-metal specific heat.. 692(x4): temperature of the output feedwater. x4. edet): output drain flow.Wcon -. In the following. number of tubes in the tube-bundle. m me(X5): mass of water and equivalent metal per unit. the remaining quantities. including constant parameters and functions of the state variables. xs.Wodr -. Psst(X2): density of the saturated steam. hidr: specific enthalpy of the drain water flow (kJ/kg). x3): evaporated water flow. pipe-metal thermal conductivity. water thermal exchange coefficient). This equation follows from the assumption of uniform density of the water (equal to the output drain) and neglecting variation over time. Podr(X3): density of the output drain. Pprev. Wodr(X2. LB (xl): height of the condensing area. Wfw): heat exchange in the subcooling area. x3. h sst): heat exchange in the desuperheating area. hsst (x2): specific enthalpy of the saturated steam. inside tank diameter. pipe length. Xll. etc. Wfw: feedwater flow (m3/s). . L. h tur. x5. Qf(xl. Wev(Xl. hfw: specific enthalpy of the input feedwater (kJ/kg). x4. inside and outside pipe diameters. Sp): steam flow from the turbine.276 Thermal power plant simulation and control htur: specific enthalpy of the steam from the turbine (kJ/kg). steam thermal exchange coefficient. x4. Vh (cavity volume not including the pipes). mw(xl. we outline the model derivation highlighting the physical principles and the main assumptions that have been introduced. x2. desuperheating area). Wtur(X2. LA (height of the desuperheating area). x2.

+ VmePmeCme d~T- . dt Again. and specific heat of the metal. ms.Vh --1AhXl [ Wtur -'F Widr -.x3) . Derivation of the dynamic equation for X3. neglecting the output-drain density variation over time. we have alms dt dxl Wtur + Widr -. and after algebraic manipulation. The cavity volume Vw = AhXl. in the cavity: d(mw + ms) -. Since mass conservation applies to the mass of water.Q~ (10. Differentiating with respect to the time. density.hodr) + Wcon(hsw . Conservation of energy is applied to heat exchange in the desuperheating area: dmf = Wfw(X5 . dx2 Qc (10.2) - As the steam volume can be obtained from the total volume by subtracting the volume of the drain water. we obtain dpSStdt -. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x4.x4) q. we have QtA = QA + VmePmeCmedome d~-and dmf dx4 dome dt = m m e Z A .Widr -.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 277 Derivation of the dynamic equation for X2. respectively.Wodr.Wodr -. mw and steam. This equation models the heat exchange in the desuperheating area. and assuming that the steam density equals the saturated steam density.~ . following standard thermodynamic arguments for the heat exchange in the metal of the tube-bundle and denoting Ome. respectively. we have ms = (Vh -. Vme. when the input drain is saturated.4) dt where mf and Q~ denote the mass of feedwater and the heat exchange of feedwater in the desuperheating area.AhXl )Psst.Psst)-'~'-J dxl ] Using the fact that dpsst dpsst dx2 dt dx2 dt the dynamic equation for x2 may be obtained. Then. Cme as temperature.Wtur -1.Ah(Podr -. volume.x3) + Vw--~d--T . so obtaining mw dx3 = Widr(hidr -.P o d r A h dt (10. Pme.3) from which the dynamics of x3 follow by setting hidr equal to the specific enthalpy of the saturated water at the pressure x2. Now conservation of energy is applied to the subcooled fluid.Wev(hsst .Wodr -.

Analogous to the derivation for x4. from (10. although that for QB is somewhat more complex. heat exchange in the condensing area is modelled. and so on. leading to the derivation of a similar relation to QB for Qc.x 6 ) + Qc Xlmme dx2 ] (lO.5) we can write the equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of a single heater: dxl dt dx2 dt dx3 dt Widr + Wcon .9) (10. like thermal resistance and conductance.OodrA h (10. specific heat.6) Wtur q.x3) + AhXl--~. More specifically. where hsst is the bleeding enthalpy.5) where Pe is the external circumference of the tubes. Note that.-. the dynamic equation for x4 can be obtained.Psst)Ah(dxl/dt) (Vh -.QB LBmme Wfw(hfw . the temperature of the feedwater coincides with that of the metal.(Podr -.hsst).10) (10. in the desuperheating area.Widr -. As for xs. Derivation of the dynamic equationfor xs. we can write QB ---. Summing up.11) .od)(eedx' -.x3) (10. [~)d and 6) d are the temperatures in the drainage area and the metal in this area. Derivation of the dynamic equation for x 6. assuming that. respectively. heat exchange in the draining area can be modelled.278 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Now. by definition.AhXl)(dPsst/dx2) 1 mw Widr(hidr -.X3) + Wcon(hsw . and ~9d is a suitable constant dependent on geometrical and thermal quantities related to the tubes.QA LAmme Wfw(X6 .8) (10.Qc dx4 dt dx5 dt dx6 dt Wfw(X5 .1) (lO.1)-(10.Wev .Wodr -.Wodr .x5) -~.~ ' G d ( 6 9d -. so we can write QA = Wtur(htur . we can assume the pressure of the desuperheated steam and the transformation from superheated into saturated steam to be punctiform.7) -Wev(hsst .x4) -~.

the main malfunctions that may occur in a line of high-pressure heaters are described and examples of the related dynamics are given. the considered faults are the most frequent ones. at present. if the level moves too far from the set-point value. in order to ascertain a leak in the tube-bundle (see the discussion below). for example. we assume that the feedwater reaches the draining area. it is necessary to remove the line from the thermal cycle.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 279 10.3 Fault and malfunction modelling In the following. the opposite occurs for pressure. (2) a regulator loop will close the drainage valves in heater 3 (these valves keep the level at the set-point value). whereas in the downstream heaters. an immediate increase in the level in this component follows. as they involve significant operational effects. thus reducing the steam bled from the turbine (the pressure and the amount of steam are regulated through the fall in pressure between the turbine stage and the heater). For example. This increase will soon be compensated for by the regulation system through a positive variation in the opening of the drainage valve in heater 2 and a possible opening of the valve in the drainage expansion tank. As long as the control system does not succeed in compensating for the variation in the rate of flow. the water coming from the feed pump is made to circulate in the tube-bundle. the system will decrease the rate of flow of the water in heater 4 before the water reaches the boiler. we also describe in some detail the 'physical' modelling of the fault (in the other cases. a smaller amount of steam will condense. in the context of the general model previously developed. The most visible effects of this fault concerns the levels and pressures inside the feed heaters.3. 10. Therefore. if the burst of a tube occurs in heater 3. in the case of a plant malfunction. while the plant follows the cycle of electric-power generation. the malfunction has no consequences that can be interpreted immediately: in the feed heater where the burst tube occurred and in the upstream ones.1 Tube bursting inside a high-pressure feed heater This malfunction causes the feedwater to flow into the external jacket. For such a check. moreover. the three kinds of faults under concern are discussed from a physical viewpoint and. Moreover. with two main consequences: (1) it will cause the internal pressure to rise. by . the condensates are completely drained and the pressure in the line is raised. such a modelling phase is straightforward). This complex procedure points out the importance of diagnostics that allow the on-line detection of such malfunctions. that is. Moreover. This allows us to stress once again the importance of developing an accurate model of the complex system and minimising simplifying hypotheses. they are of notable interest.2. In the following. The decrease will activate the system that controls the level of the drum: this system will request a higher rate of flow from the feed pumps located at the rear of the line of high-pressure heaters. In the following paragraphs. such behaviour may involve measure variations that are comparable with those recorded during normal functioning. and that may be caused. According to technicians expert in power plants. the levels tend to fall. For example.2. after checking that no water is contained in any part of the feed-heater cavity. the levels tend to rise. the reduction in flow through feed heater 4 will decrease the capability of the feedwater to cool the steam bled from the turbine. Therefore.

the flow WleWakcan be calculated as follows: Wl~ak ~---(1 .hsw where hleak coincides with x6. If we assume that the fluid.hsw hsst . as follows: Wleak m_ Y V ~ f w -.Wev PodrAh WlWak PodrAh where WleWak the flow of the water from the tube-bundle. This makes the task of a diagnostic instrument particularly difficult.Xleak)Wleak and hence Xleak -hleak -. it is necessary to act directly on the equations that describe the dynamics of the system.12) where Pfw is the pressure of the feedwater at the input of the tube-bundle (this pressure is assumed to be approximately equal to the pressure at the fault point) and x2 is the pressure inside the heater.Wodr -.e. the flow Wleak can be calculated by considering the fall in water pressure while passing from the bundle into the cavity. i. is once it has left the tube-bundle. the enthalpy of the feedwater in the subcooled area. If we denote Wfw~nand Wfwout as the input and output flows of the heater where the leaking tube occurred. In particular. For a given fall in pressure. As the tube bursts inside the heater. Taking into account the term describing the fluid coming out of the tube-bundle. Under the assumption that the burst of the tube occurred in the condensation area so that all the fluid coming out of the tube bundle flows in the drainage area. we can describe the liquid level dynamics inside the heater as dxl dt Widr + Wcon -. we can write Wfwin m_ Wfwout + Wleak where Wleak denotes the flow of the fluid coming out of the tube-bundle. It is worth noting that the detection of a malfunction is not associated with a decrease in the rate of flow of the feedwater.280 Thermal power plant simulation and control a variation in the load on the turbine. as such a decrease is rapidly compensated for by the control system of the drum. we can immediately notice that the flow of the feedwater is not constant along the tube-bundle. the multiplicative factor g defines the ratio of fluid coming out of the tube bundle versus the percentage of fluid flowing in the tube-bundle before reaching the fault point. In order to model the system behaviour when the burst of a tube occurs inside a feed beater. becomes saturated. from the mass conservation equation we can describe the dynamics of the pressure inside .x2 (10.

Wleak)(X5 -. three different leak speeds were simulated: y = 0. under the same operating conditions.Wleak. consistent with the above discussion.03. Thus the cooling capabilities of heater 4 are reduced.5.Wleak)(X6 -. with an increase in the condensate level of heater 2 and.05. in heater 1. To sum up. SO that dx4 dt dx5 dt (Wfw . the pressure in heater 4 rises and the steam spillover falls. but is Wfw . in turn.x3) .AhXl)(dpsst/dx2) The enthalpy of the water coming out of the heater includes the contribution from the water exiting the tube bundle and flowing into the drainage area dx3 dt 1 F /Widr(hidr -. In particular. we can derive the equations for the enthalpies of the feedwater in the drainage area and in the condensation area.05 results in a quite different behaviour in heaters 1 and 3. means an increase in the leakage flow. For example in Figure 10.x5) + QB LBmme The above modifications were inserted in the plant model and some simulations of the considered plant malfunction have been performed. This difference arises from the position of the two heaters in the high-pressure line. Finally. y = 0.X4) + QA LAmme (Wfw . note that a feedwater leak in the tube-bundle of heater 3 causes a fast increase in condensate level. after an initial transient due to the initialisation of the simulation.AhXl)(dpsst/dx2) (Vh -.x3) mw - - I dx2 +AhXl ~ where w w 7 Q c + Wleak • (hleak -.Psst)Ah(dXl/dt) + (Vh -.Wodr -. More specifically.x3) + Wcon(hsw . respectively. It is worth noting that a similar malfunction due to a leakage with Y = 0. as indicated in Figure 10. taking into account that the flow in the tube-bundle is no longer Wfw.5c.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 281 the heater as dx2 dt Wleak = Wtur + Widr -. consider again equation (10. 2 / = 0. the feedwater flow toward heater 4 decreases due to the leak.(Podr -.01. as the effect of a fault in heater 1 propagates much less than the corresponding leak in heater 3.Wev(hsst . a feedwater leak in the tube-bundle of a heater causes a decrease in the levels of the downstream heaters and an increase in the faulty heater and those upstream. until the pump system is able to restore the feedwater flow. .12): y = 0 implies the absence of leaks. as does the condensate level. At the same time.X3) J /hleak hlea = {[hsw kw if Xleak ~ 0 if Xleak > O. The draining valve linking heater 2 then opens. so an increase in y.

03 .5 -71 0 20 40 60 8L0 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 O -69 ~9 - Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 --~59. g -68 2 -68..4 I I -69. . E E -69.- ~9....2 ..05..5 "~ c.01. .5 -67 -67...5 -- Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 --. (b) heater 2 with y = 0.2 b I i i i i i i i 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10..282 Thermal power plant simulation and control -66 .04 and (d) heater 4 with y = 0....66. (c) heater 3 with y = 0..) -69.. 3 and 4 due to a plant malfunction is (a) heater 1 with y = 0.5 Condensate levels o f heaters 1.. 2.8 -70 -70.6 t.5 -70 -70.

05..5 -71 0 20 40 i i~ -- ~ ' . I'/L/-'-~: ..03 (continued) .5 "/! -69 • i. .'~ = -69.. i -69. g ~ -68...'~ ~67...Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line -66 -66. \ Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 I' r \" \. (b) heater 2 with y = 0.5 .~ -68 -68...5 -71 0 20 40 IJ ~ ""-.~ . 3 and 4 due to a plant malfunction in (a) heater 1 with )/ = 0. 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 -67 Heater 1 -67.01.5 -69 o 283 I1.. 1 ---.. (c) heater 3 with y = 0.5 -67 .5 Condensate levels of heaters 1...5 o -70 -70..5 -68 E --- Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 . .5 -70 -70. .05. _--_ V i I 60 80 Time (s) 100' 120 140 160 Figure I0. 2. .... and (d) heater 4 with y = 0...

2 This type of malfunction may affect one of the valves that regulates the drainage flow between two heaters. as. in the drainage expansion tank and in heater 2 being the same).6b shows the effect of a position block on the drainage valve of heater 2 (i. In particular. In practice. if the actuator is blocked after the transients have occurred. D2 in Figure 10. As a consequence.6. the role of the drainage outflow will remain constant and equal to the rate just before the position block (the pressure in the cavity.e. specified for each heater on the basis of optimal performance .2). Figure 10.2. Let us now describe the simulations of such faults in heaters 3 and 4. the level was below the set-point value. which stabilises around the desired value. Figure 10. The controller will utilise a relative level measure. Figure 10. observe that when the draining fault from heater 4 towards heater 3 occurs. too. the level of heater 3 decreases until it becomes lower than its set-point value.6c shows what happens when the valve D3 breaks in open position. under such conditions.6d shows how the condensate levels of the heaters vary when a locked position of D4 is simulated. Note that. the actuator position will be very close to the steady-state one. due to the feedforward action of the regulator. 10. from the instant at which the fault occurred. In this case. Like the previous malfunction. giving rise to the action of the regulator.6a and b. The regulator feedforward action will open the drainage valve in heater 3.284 Thermal power plant simulation and control Fault or m a l f u n c t i o n o f a valve 10. If. which occurs when the actuator no longer responds to the control signals sent by the regulator. the malfunction of a level sensor is very significant. Then. and involves other quantities. the actuator position will be such as to make the level rise.6b). the drainage expansion tank. completely open. this means that. as soon as the level falls below the set-point value. simulated system behaviour will not differ from before. the level of heater 4 increases after temporarily falling beneath the set-point value. and completely closed. thus decreasing the level inside this heater.e. the condenser. or between a heater and the recovery cavity. as in Figure 10. i. Consistent with the above general discussion. the malfunction of a valve affects the levels and pressures inside the heaters.3. The position of the actuator may be locked in three different ways: in the same position as when the fault happens.095 m for the subcooling area. As a consequence. a loss of liquid occurs and the condensate level of heater 3 falls instead of rising like in the other simulation runs of Figure 10. In order to better understand the problem above.3 Malfunction of a sensor A sensor malfunction may affect the level sensors as well as the temperature. Moreover.3. at that instant.e. i. or the degasser. the actuators oscillate with little overshoot as compared with the largest variations. A typical valve malfunction is a position block or jamming. over a non-negligible time interval.2. But this rise will continue even after the level has risen above the set-point value. let us assume that the level in heater 3 is . the level measured with the reference to the nominal value. pressure or flow sensors. the feedback regulator will control the valve in such a way as to bring the level back to the value desired. in that the control of each heater is based just on the level measure. the effects of the block will show themselves slowly and.7 0 mm versus the nominal height of 4. one will notice a ramp with a positive slope in the measure of the level in heater 2 (see Figure 10.

6 Condensate levels of heaters 1. and e the input error to the PI block. thus decreasing the level in the heater.. (c) D3 and (d) D4 considerations. if the relative error was .5 a 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 -64 - Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 Heater 4 -65 --. However. 5 O 69 -69./ 68 ~ -69 -70 I I l I I 0 b 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10. 3 and 4 due to a locked position of actuators: (a) El. and will tend to open the valve.5 -70 -70. -66 pSSSJsjs -67 . This measurement is subtracted from the value .5 • - - -68 •~ .. (b) D2.. the PI regulator will see a positive input error equal to + 5 mm. If y is the relative level measure of the sensor.7 0 mm and given as reference error to the PI controller. we can write e = y _ y d .6 8 . yd the level desired. if the sensor had introduced (due to a malfunction) a measure affected by an . • - . Therefore. 2.6 5 mm.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 285 -67 -- Heater 1 Heater2 Heater 3 -67.

. .... . (b) D2. . ~" ...\ \ ~ ].286 Thermal power plant simulation and control .6 Condensate levels of heaters 1. • o 0 . .. Heater 1 Heater 2 Heater 3 Heater 4 -20 E E -40 -60 -80 . (c) D3 and (d) D4 (continued) . 2..-/ f- _ -100 \ / -120 / 0 d 20 ' 4 'o 6b 80 ' Time (s) 100 ' 1~ 0 140 ' 160 ' Figure 10. 3 and 4 due to a locked position of actuators: (a) El.1 0 0 I -- - \ -150 I • -. Heater Heater Heater Heater 1 2 3 4 -200 0 C i 20 10 i0 i i i t 40 8 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 20 °o...

As to the simulation of sensor faults. . 10. The simulation results suggest that it is possible to detect the occurrence of plant faults by properly processing the measured signals. for example. for the sake of clarity.yd = --75 -. In practice. can then be generated after comparison with threshold levels. the PI regulator would have received the input difference e = ~ . we will consider the problem of refining the non-linear model of a plant like that presented in section 10.10 mm versus the actual relative level.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 287 offset.6 0 mm. This task will be accomplished by means of an identification method based on stochastic approximation. the system evolves as if the relative value desired were not equal to yd but to (yd _ e).7 0 mm and e = 0. 90 mm.9 0 mm. The behaviour of the condensate levels and other measurable state variables. the presentation of the identification method will be initially non-specific and only later on will it be specialised to the considered power plant. Moreover. . as depicted in Figure 10. it is important to construct the model as accurately as possible. . which can be easily obtained by applying standard techniques for numerical discretisation of continuous-time systems. additive errors on the measures provided by the level sensors were simulated: the errors were set at 30 mm. until steady-state conditions are reached. where is the relative measure affected by the offset.7. Of course. We will refer to a discretetime representation of the above-described model. such as the pressure of each heater. The complexity of the decision logic depends on the number of faults to be detected and on the experience in plant operation. and . what happened is equivalent to the operation of changing the set-point by + 1 0 mm.2. It is worth noting again that this type of fault is entirely equivalent to a variation (of equal magnitude but opposite in sign) in the level set-point. ~ = . Warning signals. Clearly. Moreover. the regulator would have closed the valve.3 0 mm. Thus a sensor malfunction stresses the action of the regulators.) Therefore. appear strongly correlated with the kind of fault acting on the system. Remark 1. which will be the subject of the next section. the plant technicians can predict typical system behaviour for the various kinds of faults. If e is the offset introduced by the malfunction we have e = (y + e) yd = y _ (yd _ ~. both threshold signals and the decision logic need proper adjustments to reduce false alarms. The model described in this section can be used to generate the outputs of the measurable variables and to compare them with the outputs of the plant affected by the fault.3 Grey-box modelling and identification of a power plant In this section. Then it is easy enough to fix thresholds and design a decision logic for fault recognition. in this situation.7 0 mm. Accordingly. 60 mm. of . thus increasing the level in the heater up to a relative position of .(--70) = --5 mm.

Heater 3 Heater 4 ~" / ~ " o 4o -80 i).. (b) an additive fault of +60 mm on the level sensor of heater 3 . . " ~ .2 0 mm on the level sensor of heater 2..288 Thermal power plant simulation and control -60 -65 -70 E t I .... 7 Condensate levels of heaters 1. .Heater 2 - . 2..- ."'"---Z \ -120 / I / -140 0 - ~ . 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 Figure 10. t. 3 and 4 due to (a) an additive fault of . Heater 3 Heater 4 -90 -95 -100 0 I i i L i J 20 40 60 80 Time (s) 100 120 140 160 0 I -20 • \ -Heater 1 .. ..t I I ~ t~ g -75 ~ -- Heater 1 H e a t e r 2 -80 -85 o .

O) where f and/~ implicitly depend on yJ(YcJ). . In many cases. we consider two main types of uncertainty affecting the model: (i) uncertainties in the mathematical structure and (ii) uncertainties in parameter values.Yi II2 (10. j = 1. and $:J is the part of the state vector corresponding to the j-th section.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 10. in order to identify the model (10. ..~M).3. the large variations in the plant over time may give rise to non-negligible errors in some model subsystems. Thus. Ut) E : I yt = h ( x t ) (10.~]. . . the vector # contains all the unknown mathematical and physical parameters. O) (10. .14). consistent with the grey-box approach. we define the following cost function t j t ( y l . . it would be useful to employ techniques that make it possible to reduce modelling errors. . we obtain the following approximate model to be identified: : /~t+l = f(Yct.13) where xt represents the state vector. . . the above model generally includes a significant number of simplifying hypotheses regarding the mathematical structures of individual blocks and the values of particular parameters. = h(~. . Unfortunately. ut. . NOW. j = 1. and Yt represents the vector of measurable variables. . yM. #) : y~ i=t-N IlYi -. The uncertainties in the mathematical structure can be represented by using a set of unknown functions y J ( f c J ) . . As far as (ii) is concerned. despite the intrinsic complexity of the plant. when large complex plants are considered. . The identification problem can be stated as the following parametric-functional optimisation problem. . . More specifically.15) where N is the size of the time window and P is a given positive definite matrix. where M represents the number of subsystems characterised by a partially/totally unknown structure.14) [ ~. M. Xt A_~COI(. Therefore. for a given initial state and a given time instant t. M. . .1 A general approach to grey-box identification o f a plant 289 Consider a discrete global model of a plant whose dynamics can be described by the following equations: Xt+l : f ( x t . with obvious advantages for supervision tasks. Such techniques would allow the development of a more accurate model that might be simulated in parallel with the plant. ut represents the input vector.

. and. Yt. as these approximators are computationally easy to handle. for the aforesaid reasons. Accordingly. As a result. . 1993).2 A solution method via the simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation algorithm The data samples provided by the available sensors and of the other accessible signals of the plant may be used for the on-line estimation of the vector/3. wj). . we have chosen non-linear approximators based on feedforward neural networks.15) is minimised for every possible set of measures Yt-N. 0) is the total parameter vector. At time t. Actually. j = 1. j (~J) are approximated by parametrised functions of the form ~J (. This can be done by applying a descent algorithm. . . if 13 ~ col(w. . the cost function takes on the form (10. y M° and the optimal parameter set 0 °. such that the cost (10. .3. 10. . .290 Thermal power plant simulation and control Problem 1. . Problem 1 entails the solution of non-linear functional optimisation problems. . in the next section. we require the following approximate parametric model to be identified: [-~t+l 7 f ( x t . find the optimal value of the parameter/3°. the vector w = col(w j. exhibit powerful approximating capabilities (Barron. .17) is minimised for every possible set of measures Y t . above all. j = 1. .~J. .u . . = h(~. such that the cost function (10. M) represents the weight vectors of all the neural networks approximating the unknown functional parts of the model. At time t./3~. . we present an algorithm to solve it in an approximate way. However. the general assumptions under which Problem 1 has been stated prevent us from solving it in an analytical way. . where ~J is the input/output mapping of a multilayer feedforward neural network and w j is a vector of parameters to be selected. find the optimal functions y 1°.. M. we have the following Z i=t-N IlYi--YiII2P (lO. In particular. . Yt" Problem 1 has been reduced to the parametric optimisation Problem 2./3) f~ : 1~. Clearly. . Our approach consists of assigning the unknown functions defined in Problem 1 for which a certain number of parameters have to be determined in order to minimise cost. the functions ). and. the exact . ut.17) Problem 2.16) Jt(~): Hence. A Now. Among various possible approaches. .

Analogous stochastic convergence properties are however maintained.Jk+N 2ck Akl ^(-) ^(+) (10. More specifically. Akt are suitable random variables k and {Ck} is a sequence of positive scalars that satisfy some regularity conditions (Spall. Spall and Cristion. 1992.18) where Gk is a smoothed approximation to gk (ilk) ix V# k E (Jk+N) of the form Gg = pkGk-I + (1 - Pk)gk(flk-1). The use of the smoothed SPSA algorithm.20) where Jk+N and Jk+N are two observations corresponding to the parameter perturbations [Jk -.. (10. We chose the smoothed simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (Spall and Cristion.19) where gk is the so-called simultaneous perturbation approximation to gk (see Spall. GO = 0 (10.1 . The algorithm can be written as flk=flk-l--akGk. is motivated by the fact that only two perturbations are needed.. In the following. which represents a common characteristic of neural network training.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 291 Figure 10. instead of standard finite difference stochastic approximation (FDSA) techniques. given the large number of parameters to be estimated. instead of the 2p perturbations necessary for the computation of the approximation to g~ (p = dim(fl)).CkAkotk and ~1 + ck AkOtk. . 1994). k=0. 1994). the l-th component of gk(/~k-1) is given by ?(+) gkl(flk-1) -~k+N ^(-) -. the most significant features of this algorithm will be summarised for the reader's convenience (see Figure 10. respectively.. and hence a stochastic approximation approach has to be followed.8). 1992. The fundamental computational advantage is of basic importance.8 Scheme of the tuning algorithm gradient of the expected cost cannot be computed. for the original definition of the unsmoothed simultaneous perturbation technique).

but that do not affect the generality of the proposed methodology. the large variations plant behaviour over time may give rise to non-negligible errors in some model subsystems that cannot be accessed by the available sensors. l xl yr I Matrix • ym I XS xS X1 Block with known structure and known parameters I ~ ~.2 in order to reduce the aforesaid uncertainty during the plant operation. d* . Uncertainties in parameter values. while the latter are made of known and unknown subblocks.3 The complex model described in section 10. it would be very useful to employ the technique presented in section 10. we refer to completely unknown and approximately known structures. consider the global scheme in Figure 10.3. Therefore. we have used thermodynamic constants and geometrical parameters that are not known with precision and that 2. Hence two main types of uncertainty affecting the developed model are considered: 1.3.~1 Block with approximately known structure Block with uncertain paramete~ Unknown block Figure 10. This classification framework is very useful in the application considered here and may also have general applicability. For example. For example.292 Thermal power plant simulation and control Grey-box modelling and identification of the high-pressure heater line 10.2 includes a large number of simplifying hypotheses about both the mathematical structures of some blocks and the values of different parameters. In Figure 10.9. Other approximations about the mathematical structure are inherent in the use of steam tables and in the various transformation functions.9 Scheme of the global grey-box model . Such a scheme includes sections that are specific for the plant model considered. the quantities related to the other parts of the power plant have been assumed to be proportional to unit load. In many cases. Uncertainties in the mathematical structure. The former are effectively black-box models. as previously stressed. In this respect. This assumption may turn out to be very simplistic.9.

we have developed an emulator of the physical model validated against the real plant. In parallel. However. two distinct types of quantities have been identified. the heights in the desuperheating areas have been estimated as unknown parameters. the steam tables and enthalpy-temperature conversion have been modelled by means of neural networks. We aimed to ascertain if the proposed methodology makes it possible to tune the model parameters and if the internal parts are estimated correctly. Sensors block: water level saturation. x A.16). The simulator on which the global model (including the neural networks) has been implemented can be connected to the FIP (Fieldbus Internet Protocol) automation system of the power plant (Alessandri and Parisini. Regulator block: anti-wind-up action and control saturation. A one obtains a model like (10. the components of the vector 0).e. yr) represents the vector of the measurable variables (dim(y) = 34). More specifically. four hidden units and one . x s) represents the state A vector (dim(x) = 71). In addition. inaccessible model parts can be estimated to a reasonable accuracy by the proposed tuning method only via simulation. thermal capacities of the various metals used. By replacing all the parts affected by uncertain functioning with neural networks. This allows the on-line tuning of the model parameters. As clearly stated in section 10. together with their approximate values based on the expertise of plant technicians.9. The list of the above non-linearities for each block include as follows: Input block: load saturation.1 and 10.g. where x = col(x/. Therefore. y = col(y m. and 0 is the vector of the unknown mathematical and physical parameters. the model includes several non-linearities placed in the different blocks depicted in Figure 10. Transformation block: steam tables and square-root functions in the output feedwater sections. thus allowing one to measure even the inaccessible internal model pans. 1997).).2. and (ii) synaptic weights of the neural networks that describe the model parts whose mathematical structures are very approximate. etc. For the actuators. we used neural networks with two input units. Such a simulated model has then been regarded as a real system.3. which have to be estimated on the basis of the measures provided by the available sensors of the plant: (i) parameters of the model parts whose mathematical structures are assumed to be accurate enough. Furthermore. we have developed an analogous model whose parameters had yet to be tuned.3. pipe diameters. (1995) list the parameters (i.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 293 may vary during the plant operation (e. which make it necessary to use the tuning algorithm presented in sections 10.1. Elaboration block: square-root functions in the output feedwater sections. w is the total vector of the synaptic weights of all the neural networks. the actuators.3. Actuators block: rate limiters and saturation. Gugliemi et al.

17). and Pk = 0. 20 hidden units and 10 output units.10 and 10.10 Estimation of the heights of the desuperheating areas . so guaranteeing the fulfilment of the main regularity assumptions made by Spall and Cristion (1994). for all four heaters. As to the cost function (10.11 shows the norm of the error in the state variables between the 'real' simulated plant and the model approximation. the height in the desuperheating areas for the four heaters. The effectiveness of the method can be seen in Figures 10.5 distributed. For the parameters of the smoothed SPSA algorithm.1 and P = 0. Moreover.8 2.O04/k 0"602.12 shows a comparison between the actual behaviour of the 2.5 2 1.5 2 0 50 3 2. Figure 10. As can be seen. where I is the identity matrix.5/k°'6°3.5 3 2. Figure 10. . for the table of the enthalpy-temperature conversion. we used neural networks with 10 input units. We assumed the perturbations Aki to be Bernoulli -4-0. satisfactory convergence of the parameters to their true constant values were obtained after only 250 iteration steps.294 Thermal power plant simulation and control output unit. we chose experimentally N ----. I .7 . ck = 0 .e. 15 hidden units and four output units.11.9 2. for the steam table. the scalars Otk were suitably chosen according to the magnitude of the a priori estimated values of the corresponding parameters. we used neural networks with eight input units.10 gives the behaviour of four estimated parameters.5 2 ~'~ 1. i 200 100 150 Iterationstep 200 0 50 100 150 Iterationstep Figure 10.5 1 f 50 100 150 Iterationstep Heater 3 200 # 50 100 150 Iterationstep Heater 4 200 3. we chose ak = 0. i. 6 / k 0"101. .5 1 Heater 1 j f Heater 2 2.1 x I . Figure 10.

10.4 A general approach to receding-horizon estimation for non-linear systems This section presents an approach to estimation that is well suited to the plant described in section 10.5 e@ 4. . In this respect. 2002). . (10. Ut.11 Behaviour of the estimation error during the learning procedure water level in the condensing area and the estimated value in heater 1. . a technique which can provide such estimates would be very useful.. Therefore. after 1. Specifically. However. in the next section.21) . t = 0.1 Problem statement We refer to the state estimation methodology presented by Alessandri et al.000 iteration steps.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Iteration step 700 x__ 80 9 0 1000 Figure 10. As a concluding remark. Let us consider the discrete-time system Xt+l : f ( x t . (1997).2. a moving-horizon estimation algorithm will be presented. 10. it is important to emphasise that an accurate non-linear model like the one developed so far could be very helpful to monitor on-line state variables that are significant in terms of fault diagnosis.4. ~t).Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line f i i i i 295 5. here we focus on the problem of estimating the state variables for a single heater (Alessandri et al. 1 . the on-line simulation and tuning of such a complex dynamic model may not be feasible in some power plant automation systems.

specific enthalpy of output feedwater in heater 1 (b).12 Comparison between the predicted (dashed line) and true (continuous line) behaviour of the condensate level in heater 1 (a). and spillover temperature in heater 4 (d) . temperature of output feedwater in heater 2 (c).296 Thermal power plant simulation and control -lO -20 E E -30 -40 e~ -50 -60 -70 -80 o \ i i i i 0 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 786 785 784 783 ~ 782 ~ 781 780 779 778 0 ' 5 i i i i 10 b 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 Figure 10.

temperature of output feedwater in heater 2 (c). and spillover temperature in heater 4 (d) (continued) .12 5 10 15 Time (s) 20 25 30 Comparison between the predicted (dashed line) and true (continuous line) behaviour of the condensate level in heater 1 (a). specific enthalpy of output feedwater in heater 1 (b).Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 297 200 180 160 140 o~120 i 100 I I I/11//////"/ I J /! / / I 5 ~ 8o 60 40 20 0 0 1'0 15 ' Time (s) 2~0 25 ' 30 450 400 350 3OO o // 77 / 250 ~200 150 100 50 I I I I L i o d Figure 10.

N+I ... Moreover. on the basis of the measures Y t . our approach has to be statistical. with X(0) = ~p(0) = ~0i(0) = ~(0) = ~Pl (0) = 0. Ut-1). (10. which can be regarded as a non-quadratic generalisation of the classical least squares loss function t s. . and ~Pl(z) are increasing functions for z _> 0. . Ut-1. ~O(Z).t)} i=t-N+l + E i=t-N ~ r l ( ~it ) . ~01.N + I .t-1. (10. When the measures Yt+l and ut become available. X(Z). The random vectors x0. All these functions are assumed to be sufficiently smooth (class C 3) enabling application of the proposed method (Alessandri et al. . ._N+l. or. and of the 'prediction' i ' t . we can refer to the new information vector I N 1 = col (. :78 = X0.23) where N > 1 is the number of measurements made within a 'sliding window' [t . and ~t 6 ~ C ~q the random noise vector. . 1997).24) where 2~_ N = X t _ N . but only YCt_N+I. . N + 1 . The functions X. Ut) and generate the new estimates 3gi°. A ^o Yt. and in the magnitudes of the measurement and process noise. and ~i determined at the instant t. and this leads us to take the classical least squares approach. . . .. N + 1 state estimates have been computed. .i'.N. " " .22) where Yt E Y C II~p is the observation vector and 1/t 6 H C ~[~r is the random measurement noise vector.ffit.[Xit--f(Jgi-l. respectively. .298 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control where xt E X C 1~ n is the state vector (the initial state x0 6 X0 C 1R is unknown). Ut-N . .t. ~t.N . t is retained for the next estimates. .. Y t . Yt. . . ~ . Y t + I ' U t . it)H] +Z i=t-N t-I E v.lli-l. t]. . 1 . / / t ) .. and :tit. in the observation model.N-i : -~0 denotes an a priori prediction. equivalently. At the time instant t.i. and 11it are the estimates of xi.~i--l. respectively.t+l .~t_U. To this end.. Consequently.. qgl(Z). .. The m state vector is observed through the noisy measurement equation Yt = h ( x t . . in the state equation model.. the model estimates are based on recent data. t=N. . Of course. t _ 1 denotes the prediction o f x t _ N.= x i=t-N t t ¢P[IIYi-h(. Let us define the information vector I N A col(. We assume the statistics of these random noises to be unknown. ~o. . up to this time instant. (10. the state esti^o N mates Xit are computed on the basis of I t . . t = 0.N . we introduce the following general estimation cost. n t/t E U C ]1~ is the control vector. Note that. . Y t . ~P(Z). ~it. The same mechanism is used at the successive stages. and I/t are defined on suitable probability spaces. o t = N. of the controls Ut-N . The estimation procedure performs as follows.U = Xt-N. the estimator has a finite memory. and ~1 have to be regarded as penalty functions by which we express our beliefs in the prediction -~t-N.u + ' . $. .

. + l i Xt_ N = f(Xt_N_l. and cit (. we have to solve the following. ~it.I. . . t . ~t-N-l. . simplified structures of these estimation functions.). Y i. which may turn out to be unacceptable. P r o b l e m 3. t. More specifically. an almost impossible task.N+2 . a non-linear programming problem of which (for the specific information vector I N acquired at time t) -tit. . as pointed out by Alessandri et al. Alessandri et al.t At any stage t = N.toi t .N is depicted in Figure 10. (2002).t-1). and ~it constitute the optimal solution. t=N+I. respectively. the other optimal state estimation functions within the window [t . The resulting estimation scheme for the neural estimator at t ---. . and qit.23) under constraints (10.21). we have not addressed these functions in Problem 3. . . ~ i°t. lgi. The minimisations are linked sequentially by the optimal predictions -o ^o ^o t ~ t = a to.13 Structure of the neural estimator A possible way to determine the optimal estimates consists in solving on-line. J' ~ °it = b Ott~: '. x oo = f ¢ O C XO. (2002). andllit = c°t(x°t. Instead we shall resort to an approximation technique that consists in assigning . For this reason. ~it. . ~ i t ) . and ~it.N .N .t_ 1.4. "''' ^o t . N + 1 .N. Clearly. bit (. Instead of the optimal vectors J i t . . i = t -.N . u i ).2 A m e t h o d to f i n d approximate solutions ^o ^o ^o Deriving analytically the solution for Problem 3 is. i ---. t] are simply given by X i + l . 10. in general. .N . we want to determine the optimal functions ait (. t ~i Nt.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 299 X0 [--'7"1 Xl Yl A XO~~/A ' ~ tll x~(~ T XN ~N-l ?IN ~ YN | I "~ICN~_~ ~N Figure 10. Such functions have to be derived off-line and stored in the estimator's memory so as to generate the optimal estimates almost instantly. which determine the values ° f xit. . The estimators characterised by this computation property will be called 'estimation functions' throughout the chapter. . where the vectors ui are omitted for the sake of simplicity. . at any temporal stage.I . . Yi). Of course.). that minimise cost (10. . where a different approach is proposed.13.).t .i =t-N. U t . this approach entails a heavy on-line computational load.l. find the optimal estimation functions t-1 . t = f ( x i t . ^o Xt-N.

hence the estimation process may begin. . i t .27) ~iit : c ( i i t . Then we can go on and consider stages t = N + 1. Yi)" In such structures. i = t . ""' t- 1 (10. it may be reasonable to regard them as random variables uniformly distributed on the compact sets from which they take their values. . t : ~ l ( l N . ~ t-1 = Y t . UOV-1). bit(xit. and the (provisional) estimators of the form (10. . (10. if the statistics are known. at stage N.N ..N . (10.I ' w/bt). In the same way.l as random variables uniformly distributed on U N and compute the average of JN with respect to them.. a parameter vector WN has been computed (somewhat arbitrarily). . N ÷ 2 . to an unconstrained non-linear programming problem that can be solved by some descent algorithm.. Find the vector W°N that minimises the expected cost E N x o .27) into (10. Then it is possible to compute the expected value of the cost JN(WN. in such functions the predictions 2 t .. tt Off-line initialisation (OFI) procedure. t c t lIJ c ).25). lOta N . and wCt. it_N. We . uN-1) and to minimise this expected cost with respect to YON (of course..l.N ..N . since we have to eliminate the dependence of the optimal value of WN on the control vector u N .N ' Ut-N)" If we now substitute (10. t. i = t-. OFI and ONT procedures can be defined (Figure 10. since we have assumed the statistics of the primitive random variables to be unknown. measures and controls) that become available. Clearly. the cost _ t. .26) and (10..l . we may distinguish between two situations: (1) optimisation at stage N. . y o . More specifically.u o N-1 Ju(Wu..24)).300 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control o o ^o t and given structures to the estimation functions at_N. ' "''' .X.21). . llOb. t. . a certain number of parameters must be determined in order to minimise the estimation cost. Yi. and (2) optimisation at stages t = N + 1. Problem 3 has been approximated. at stage N.N . Y it l ' + Uit .l .N ' Ut-IN ).26) and (10.25) ~it = [~(iit.N . one can take a correct average).. ci°t ('¢ci°t. Y t . In the approximate estimation functions. Consequently.27).23).25). are the a vectors of the parameters to be optimised.' A function takes on the form Jt(wt. . t ) (10._N. wCt). To sum up. t where Wt_u.26) and (10. y~V. the information vector I ~ replaces I ~ (see (10. t ' llOt . i = t . As to the optimisation of the approximate estimation functions.e. . we constrain the estimation functions to take on fixed structures of the form u~-l). . (10. where wt = col(lOt_N.26) (10..U in general differ from the optimal ones i t _ N . Wbit.. i = t . :20. we may also interpret u~v . .. In the former situation.t.25). t .14).27) have turned out to be available. io. due to the introduction of the fixed-structure estimation functions (10. (10.t(It N ). then we have iN A col(i. Yi+I. t t 10b. . . y~. N ÷ 2 . Actually. where the estimation functions can be improved on the basis of the data (i. .

. this will enable us to introduce the concept of 'stochastic approximation' in a straightforward way).U o JN[ION(k). cl. . which satisfies such conditions). yU(k).29) belongs to the class of 'stochastic approximation' algorithms. yU(k). Some of these conditions are related to the decreasing behaviour required for the step-size or(k) (in the example given in section 10.14 The OFI and ONT procedures focus our attention here on gradient algorithms mainly for their simplicity (as we shall see.xo. for example. (1990). 1. 1 .4. (10. u N. Ut N 0 N t OFI procedure 01 N N+ 1 t-N ONT procedure t~ Figure 10. . u N-' ] in explicit form. The other conditions ION(k+1) ~. k = 0. we are unable to express E xo. Then. y ~ (k). . c2 > 0. u~v .~(0) o 0 ~ N t y~(|). ff NO-I(1) N t Pattern Y t . yI~.Yo .28). However. R e m a r k 2.l ( k ) ] .N .ION(k)--ot(k)VwuJN[iON(k).u o N N-I JN[ION(k). in Polyak and Tsypkin (1973) and Benveniste et al. y N . For our problem. k : 0 . 1.28) where ot is a positive constant step-size and k denotes the iteration step of the descent procedure. } is generated randomly on the basis of the above-mentioned uniform probability density functions.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 301 Patterns y N(0). . (10. . y o .29) where the sequence {xo(k). due to the general statement of the problem. u~v (k)] instead of the gradient expression appearing in (10. u U . in lieu of (10. . This leads us to compute the 'realisation' VwN JN[WN(k).28). Sufficient conditions for the convergence of these algorithms can be found. we take (k) = Cl/(C2 + k).3. we consider the updating algorithm k = 0. .uN-1]. The probabilistic algorithm (10. J:0(k).xo. .I (k). x0(k). . the gradient algorithm can be written as follows l O N ( k + l ) : iON(k)--OtVWN E N N-I X o .

. . we have chosen multilayer feedforward neural networks thanks to their very interesting approximation properties. The tuning procedure differs from the initialisation t tone in the fact that the training vectors Y t . to find the values for initialisations of the gradients of the cost function in the OFI and ONT procedures (Alessandri et al. It is worth noting that the approximate method proposed for the solution of Problem 4 is aligned with the requirement (stated in Remark 2) of performing off-line as many computations as possible so as to minimise the on-line computational load.N . There is also an interesting theoretical result reported by Finnof (1994). N ÷ 2 . U t . Ut--N)' ^ t = N.29). (1997) and to the bibliography therein. .l ) . that is.29) gives rise to a tuning procedure when the on-line estimation process begins. (see Figure 10. the reader is referred to Alessandri et al. a large amount of experimental results shows that they are seldom encountered. which have been established for the updating algorithms presented by Srinivasan et al. The updating algorithm (10.14). t = Yco ~ Xo. ~ t . .e. N + 2 .I . It is well known that on-line gradient-based techniques are extensively used for parameter identification. when the sliding window is moved to stages N ÷ 1.l . since we shall choose feedforward neural networks for the structures of the estimation functions (10.N and Ut_1N a r e not generated randomly.N . i. t-1 Y t . The OFI procedure is implemented before the estimation process begins. where it is claimed that algorithm (10. Due to the very general framework within which Problem 3 has been stated.30) where £Ct-u = f ( ~ C t . such conditions are 'local' and may be unneccessary in the present situation. . N + 1. . . 1997 for details). N + 1. For any t > N. .27). t . update the weight vector by one step o f the algorithm lot+l = 10t -.N .25).1 t . For neural network weights to be tuned. they are generated by the stochastic and control environment at each stage. A discussion on this issue is beyond the scope of the present chapter. this is not too severe a drawback for algorithm (10. (10. as it is easy to show that the use of multilayer networks leads to a multimodality of the cost surface that consists of the presence of a large number of global minima.1 .. we are not able to give convergence results for the ONT procedure. f C t . instead.N .29) is persistently perturbed by a Gaussian diffusion that makes it unlikely that the algorithm will get stuck in local minima having small and shallow basins of attraction.302 Thermal power plant simulation and control are related to the shape of the cost surface. (10. In general.N . as our cost surfaces will always be multimodal.26) and (10. However. . . As to local minima (Finnof. (1994). R e m a r k 3. convergence results are available. Among various possible non-linear approximators. On-line tuning (ONT) procedure. Back-propagation may be used to train the neural networks.o l t V w t J t ( l o t . . 1994).

The process and measurement noise were mutually independent Gaussian white sequences with/it ~ A/'(0. 1. 1.0. t = 0. Z~).0. 1386.0. 1. 1293.0. 79.0. 249.0 × 10 -8.026 mm. 291. 10. where/Sprev. 0.f2t.5. 1087.0. 1242. 10. _Pprev. Yst. 4. 20.e. 8.0m3/s. as we shall see.e.0. 1. and P~ were selected as distinct from X~-! and Z~-1.01 s. fttur = 3367. .t = f/fw-'l-f7t. .e.97 atm. 0. Training of the neural networks will then be inadequate if the dynamic characteristics of the system 'slow' compared with the width of the window.0. 5.1.0. Indeed.0. 20. 20. 0. The process noise fit (i denotes the component and t is the temporal stage) were given by zero-mean random variables that were added to the steady-state input variables. However. 2.0 x 10 -9. The stochastic variables were chosen Gaussian for a fair comparison with the EKF (Gelb.0. 10. and 9 are the state vector elements corresponding to the sensors. Yit = Xit + T]it. for practical reasons.0).0). ff'fw = 146. Pdet.0. The initial state vector x0 was randomly generated according to a Gaussian distribution with mean value co1(4026. . Yt = col(Y7t.0.0. as compared with the . The desired level in the simulation was set at 4.t = 0 (since we deal with one of the last heaters.0 × 10 -8. where Z~ = diag(0./3de t = 8. 1084. i. Py ----diag(1.0.9kJ/kg.0.3) corresponding to the steady-state value of the state xt and covariance Y~x = diag (1.0). the width of the sliding window has to remain rather small.0. i = 7. was developed by a first-order Euler approximation with a sampling time At = 0. 1. described in section 10.6 kJ/kg. 1. t i=t-N t i=t-N t-1 ^ i2 i=t--N where N = 18.7. Anderson and Moore.0.0. 69.0.0). this does not degrade the behaviour of the neural estimator. 10.f5t. 0. Sp. 10./3det q. 9. and P~ = diag(0.t = 38. L t = L -~. We had to respect the fact that the statistics of the noise were unknown.fat.3. and hfw. 1. i.30).0. Sp = 100 per cent. 3.0. The cost function (10. Px = diag(l. P0. 1. i. It is worth noting that the weight matrices Py. htur.t = Sp -}. 1.2. 0.0. 10. 1. and hfw = 1074. heaters 4 or 8 in Figure 10. P~ ----diag(10. Note also that a neural estimator optimised by the OFI procedure does not seem advisable.0) and Eo = diag(1.e.0).Af(0. 1. Wfw. 8.9. The three measurement devices assumed linear.0). Z~) and I/t ~ . 1979): the structure of Z~ and Eo ensure that/~t and 1/t effectively belong to suitable compact sets.t ~.. where 7.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 303 whereas the ONT procedure requires an on-line computation that consists only in the execution of a single step of the algorithm (10. . 20. 1.0 a t m .t = /3prey + f i t .0. 1.0.9. 1. 1974.1). L = 320MW. 5. Y9t).6.t = ~/fw -+-f6t. 10. 0.0. 4.0. 6.3 Simulation results on state estimation in the power plant fourth heater A discrete state equation of the fourth heater.23) was taken to be quadratic.0.0.f3t.0.7 0 . Widr. 1.t = htur q.2.4.0. 1. i.0.0.0.

x4. . x 11). .15. . . . such poor performance is likely to be ascribed to the large number of strong non-linearities present in the model. . For the OFI procedure. However.304 Thermal power plant simulation and control EKF. . each containing one hidden layer of five units. In Figure 10. for the ONT procedure. . o 0 10 20 30 10 Time (s) 20 Time (s) 30 0 0 10 20 30 0 0 --10 Time (s) 20 Time (s) 30 Figure 10.29) was run for approximately one million steps). . . RMS estimation errors (averaged over 1000 trials) were considered. . . Such non-linearities affect some state equation relationships and in functions like Wcon(x l. Wodr (x2. . .--~'~_--__7. . .15 RMS estimation errors for selected state variables (continuous line for the EKE dashed line for the neural estimator) . 0 10 20 Time (s) 0 10 20 Time (s) . Due to the complexity of the system under consideration. . . . x2. from a heuristic point of view. . . . it is important to note the divergent behaviour of the EKF. etc. . . . . 30 100 ~ 50 ~7 5o 005 j:0 0 . From the diagrams of the RMS errors. instead. . it is not easy to provide a theoretical explanation for this divergent behaviour. . . . . . we assumed ot = 10 -9. xs).. . we took cl = 10 -7 and c2 = 100 (algorithm (10. the RMS estimation errors for the first six state variables generated by the neural estimator and by the EKF are plotted. this does not happen for the neural estimator. . . To evaluate the performances of the neural estimator and to make comparisons with the EKF. All the approximate estimation functions were implemented by feedforward neural networks. . The fact that the proposed neural estimation 15 :~ 50t / 30 5 0 0 _~.

.16 Behaviour of (a ) liquid level. X l ... of heater 4 method does not involve any linearisation procedure seems to be the main reason for the better performance of the neural estimator as compared with the EKE Finally.. True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 5 10 15 T i m e (s) 20 25 30 85 84 .. True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 80 79 78 77 -z 76 75 b ~... .Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 4100 4090 4080 4070 4060 ~" 4050 ~. under ... x 2.16 and 10...... the estimates of most important state variables provided by the neural estimator and by the EKF are compared with the actual values. 1 15 T i m e (s) 20 25 30 Figure 10.4040 4030 4020 4010 4000 0 a i i t i i i _ 305 . during the transient from a given initial state vector x0 to the steady-state.. in Figures 10...17.. and ( b ) cavity pressure... 83 82 -" 2 ...

. x3.. .17 Behaviour of(a) output drain specific enthalphy.. w h e r e a s the neural e s t i m a t e s are v e r y c l o s e to their true values.... x6... A s can be seen. 1075 True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 1070 0 5 10 ~ 15 Time (s) . 20 .. the d i v e r g e n t b e h a v i o u r o f the E K F is c o n f i r m e d .. ... and (b)feedwater in subcooling area specific enthalpy.... . 25 30 Figure 10... of heater 4 the action o f r a n d o m l y c h o s e n stochastic processes..~ 1085 1080 .... True value Neural estimate EKF estimate 1075 1070 0 5 1() 1'5 Time (s) 20 2'5 30 1100 1095 1090 1085 4t 1080 ..306 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1100 1095 1090~~ ~..

and Cybernetics Part A: Systems and Humans. T. 1994b 59. as is well known. IEEE Trans. and ZOPPOLI. B. on Systems. Int.Model-based fault detection in a high-pressure heater line 307 10. 39.. T.. 1994a. 307-318 BOHLIN. The low computational demand and good performance obtained with respect to the EKF suggest that the proposed estimator is well suited to being used in real power plant applications concerning process monitoring and fault detection over the long term. Both grey-box identification and estimation were based on the combined use of neural network and stochastic approximation. 15. Control. pp. J. T. This reduction was made possible by the use of feedforward neural networks. powerful. Modelling provides the basis for designing estimators that give estimates of the state variables of the system for the purpose of fault diagnostics. It is worth recalling that a lot of work has to be devoted to the construction of a model.: 'A case study of grey box identification'. which. R. A. J. and PARISINI.. and to the learning required for the design of the neural estimator. pp. (2). 1997. 1505-1524 . A. R. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. pp. 750-757 ALESSANDRI. exhibit excellent approximation properties. and ZOPPOLI.: 'Sliding-window neural state estimation in a power plant heater line'. Int. of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing 2002. 1979) BARRON. Int. 930-945 BOHLIN. PARISINI.. D. PARISINI. 67. we have presented a complete overview of various methodologies.5 Conclusions In this chapter. 275-302 ANDERSON.. and accurate tool to supervise and predict how the plant performs on-line and to prevent dangerous and undesirable situations. pp. Automatica. 27. 1997. and MOORE.. The solutions of the problems have been obtained by reducing the original functional optimisation problem to a non-linear programming one. Man.: 'Derivation of a 'designer's guide' for interactive 'grey box' identification of nonlinear stochastic objects'.: 'Nonlinear modelling of complex large plants using neural networks and stochastic approximation'. 815-836 ALESSANDRI. A.6 References ALESSANDRI. O. R. This effort provides a flexible. J. B. pp. 1993. A. 30. T.: 'Neural approximations for nonlinear finite-memory state estimation'.: 'Optimal Filtering' (Prentice Hall. starting with the construction of models of a power plant in normal and faulty conditions and continuing with its tuning by means of on-line grey-box identification.: 'Universal approximation bounds for superpositions of a sigmoidal function'. T. of Control. New York. its identification. 10. J.

1993. W. 97-109. S. J. 85-91 FINNOF. MI~TIVIER. and ROSSI. 1995. PRASAD. 3. and TSYPKIN. 9. Control Engineering Practice.: 'Simulatore integrato: controllo su bus di campo'.: 'Fault diagnosis and neural networks: a power plant application'.. 1995. D. A.. Z. pp.308 Thermal power plant simulation and control BOHLIN. 1993. 97-109 GAWTHROP. G. B. G.. and PRIOURET.: 'Adaptive algorithms and stochastic approximation' (Springer-Verlag. P. pp. LAUDATO. JEZEK. Neural Computation. pp. and GRAEBE..: 'Pseudogradient adaptation and training algorithms'. PARISINI. B. Automatica. G. IFAC Journal of Process Control. pp. IEEE Trans. J. J. 6. Adaptive Control and Signal Processing. 285-308 . 1974) GUGLIEMI. 1992. 41. and RAO. 465-490 BENVENISTE. 1970) PARISINI. 1997 POLYAK. pp. T. Cambridge. 1990) BARABINO. 1994. R. Mass. Automation and Remote Control. New York. 213-228 TULLEKEN. J. I. M.. 1997. 7. and MAINI. U. 1994. Neural Networks. (5). Heidelberg. pp.. and CRISTION. Ya. H. E: 'Grey-box modelling and identification using physical knowledge and Bayesian techniques'.. pp. Int. C... T. J.. 1994.: 'Backpropagation through adjoints for the identification of nonlinear dynamic systems using recurrent neural models'. 9. A. M. Control Theory and Advanced Technology.: 'Nonlinear adaptive control using neural networks: estimation with a smoothed form of simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation'. (10). JONES. A. Statistica Sinica. 29. T. 37. E: 'Issues in nonlinear stochastic grey box identification'. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control.. 1973. 1993..: 'Grey-box model identification'. P. A. N..: 'Diffusion approximations for the constant learning rate backpropagation algorithm and resistance to local minima'. H. C. M. Automazione e Strumentazione (in Italian)... pp. W.: 'Applied optimal estimation' (MIT Press. A. 139-157 JAZWINSKI.: 'Multivariate stochastic approximation using a simultaneous perturbation gradient approximation'.: 'Physically accurate nonlinear models for model-based fault detection: the case of a power plant'. 4. 5. DE MURO. 285-295 GELB. 1-27 SRINIVASAN. R. 377-397 SPALL. pp. 12. 332-341 SPALL. pp.. J. T. and SROKA. J. J.: 'Stochastic processes and filtering theory' (Academic Press.

despite being a widely applied technique. potentially useful.. in the form of fault detection and diagnosis. the aims of the data mining . where data mining has been used. for fault analysis in transmission networks (Wehenkel. 1996. 2001 ).. to the telecommunications industry (Hatonen et at. such as retail product targeting or the rise and fall of share prices. with regard to the available data. novel. 1994. with varying degrees of success. 2002). finance and industrial processes have been considered. However.. 2000) and to a lesser degree power engineering. 1997).. Sebzalli et al. Here. Applications within diverse areas such as marketing. and high-level analysis of system operation and performance for engineers.A. it is said that three-quarters of all companies who attempt data mining projects fail to produce worthwhile results (Matthews. Rayudu et al. chemometrics and chemical engineering (MacGregor et al..g. this data is largely archived. The most successful applications are probably in the fields of scientific research and industrial processes..1 Introduction It is estimated that across the world data storage doubles every 18 months (Milne et al. 1997). Chen and Liao. this only proves that the potential of data mining. is often greater than the reality. 1996). where 'rules of thumb' are typically applied. Data mining is the non-trivial process of identifying valid. For less scientific environments.. Although conceivably containing valuable information. industrial process control (Milne et at. 1991). 1997). the users tend to have well-defined goals and a well-developed knowledge of both the application and the nature of the stored data. Dunia et al. 1996. 1997.Chapter 11 Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J. Unfortunately. Flynn 11. e.. with its full potential never realised. and ultimately understandable patterns in data. Ritchie and D. for example. Sources range from retail (Song et al. The emphasis in these applications has been the provision of on-line support systems for operators.. to industrial processes (Kresta et al.

The collation of resources is perhaps the greatest barrier to successful knowledge discovery. The monitoring of unit efficiency and emissions levels. The PLS approach is then extended in section 11. Data mining is a generic term for a wide range of techniques which include intuitive. Large stores of data have a number of inherent problems such as missing and corrupted values. a subsidiary of British Gas plc. and related information being stored in a number of different locations. Projection to latent structures (PLS) is demonstrated as a viable solution. leading to a lot of company databases being regarded as data rich.2 presents background information concerning the power station to be analysed. 3 x 120 MW and 3 x 200 MW. Section 11.2 Outline of data mining applications Ballylumford power station is the largest of four power stations in Northern Ireland and is located on the Antrim coast. or the application of process knowledge. 1999). However. Olaru and Wehenkel. which encompasses the gathering. The power station houses six generating units. time spent in this phase will be reflected in the subsequent results. Section 11. 1999. easily understood methods such as data visualisation to complex mathematical techniques based around neural networks and fuzzy logic (Wang. To obtain the best results from any data mining project it is clearly important to investigate data that provides an accurate representation of the problem. it is now operated by Premier Power plc. is then discussed along with possible analytical approaches in section 11. These difficulties can be resolved using feature selection methods such as clustering and principal component analysis. as a result of privatisation of the local industry in 1992. but information poor. near Lame. However. some of which have been successfully applied to fault monitoring in chemometrics and chemical process control. Originally owned by Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE). Within this chapter. which were originally .4.310 Thermal power plant simulation and control exercise are often not clearly defined while expectations are overstated (Weiss and Indurkhya. as measures of plant performance. 11. due to the large amount of historical records potentially required. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then applied.5 by incorporating a neural network for the inner mapping to enable modelling of plant behaviour over non-linear conditions. 1996). and using different media ranging from paper to magnetic tape to CD-ROM. selection and preparation of data for subsequent mining applications. it is proposed to outline a range of techniques. isolation and reconstruction of faulty sensors within a power station environment.3 then discusses the difficulties posed by faulty sensors and identifies possible solutions. and to the detection. Data mining is itself part of an even larger domain known as knowledge discovery in data (KDD). acquiring 'good' data for mining is one of the most timeconsuming parts of the process. It is estimated that up to 80 per cent of the duration of a data mining project may be occupied by data preparation (Mannila. 1998). It should be noted that a large amount of data does not always equate to a large amount of information.

however. These include a wide range of variables recorded from the distributed control system (DCS) for both oil and gas operation on all units. capable of providing detailed and interpretable solutions. a loss of sensor precision. after a conversion programme between July 1994 and July 1996 they now fire on either gas or oil. unless specifically requested for test purposes. Maintenance records and operator logs are also available for consultation. etc. Fortunately. condenser. product quality.3 Identification of process and sensor faults A relatively common experience with any monitoring system is that of faulty sensors. combined with the aims for process monitoring and analysis. data are regularly stored at five minute intervals. excepting the investigation of occasional faults. the enormity of the data generated means that it is not realistic to store these data on such a regular basis. which still generates a significant amount of data which is largely not examined. It is suggested that within these records there is potential information regarding factors affecting plant operation. The advent of distributed control systems also . electrical equipment.500 sensors record information such as temperatures. The DCS is restricted to recording values for the boiler.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 311 designed to operate using heavy residual fuel oil (HFO). In total. Data concerning operation of Ballylumford power station are available from a number of sources. it is often obscured by the sheer volume of data presented on a day to day basis. etc. It may also be possible to identify warning signals leading to component/system failures. biases or offsets. 11. lend themselves to the application of data mining techniques. Problems include 'stuck at' signals. which would help minimise unit down-time. This information may help to improve the operation of the plant by identifying variables influencing efficiency and plant performance. Hence. Within a power station environment the above difficulties are clearly evident. Despite continuously growing computer storage capabilities. Further parameters are recorded manually and irregularly by plant operators. while enabling a comparison of different operator shifts and/or comparative performance across the station's three 120MW units and three 200MW units. This can be exploited for sensor fault detection and signal replacement among other problems. However. many of the sensor measurements are highly correlated due to a number of parallel paths for the 'steam' and 'gas' circuits. although variables concerning the turbines. where the unusual measurements actually reflect plant behaviour. However. approximately 2. and/or variations in plant performance arising from changes in operating conditions. making it difficult to analyse using manual methods. etc. drifting. the process operators and engineers must also distinguish between genuine faults. pressures and flow rates throughout the plant on a second by second basis. a closed loop for the steam/water circuit. short-term disturbances affecting the process. etc. The data stored from the process. Against this background. The frequency of measurement and the distribution of sensors throughout the plant provide a great deal of redundancy within the data. may be accessed using equipment such as programmable logic controllers scattered around the plant.

So. 1998).23 pm. In the case of a process or actuator fault a slightly different strategy is required. and to clarify if data measurements are intemally consistent. may be required to be taken off-line for further investigation and servicing. e. entire subsystems. Should the signal be used for feedback/feedforward control applications. 1979). but also to ensure that these actions have the anticipated effect. however. The task remains to identify normal operating regions and relationships within the historical data. have the opportunity of accessing and analysing vast. reference cases. Computer-based solutions do. Perhaps the simplest method of detecting faults and other anomalous behaviour is univariate statistical monitoring. and to subsequently apply the collated rules. and other automatic features forming part of the DCS itself. Similarly. resulted in plant damage which cost £48 million to repair. The benefits of distributed control systems are clear in terms of improvements in productivity. a significant side-effect has been increased accessibility to a range of plant-wide signals. Once the fault has been recognised. if possible.g. to detect problems with new. the explosion did not take place until 1. potentially full of correlated and collinear data. However. whereby the user defines upper and lower bounds for each signal. arising not only from physical measurements but also from control loops. Milford Haven. and the associated control and supervisory layers. Both of these incidents highlight that it is important not merely to indicate on operator displays any demanded actions. this requirement becomes especially important. . in addition to a severe loss of production and injury to 26 people (Bransby. Although the triggering event was an electrical storm which took place between 7. open valve. Any variable that crosses either threshold is deemed to be faulty. The degradation in performance or drop in product quality should be considered. and perhaps identified and diagnosed by the operators. however.30am. It was later discovered that if the operators had known that the debutaniser outlet valve.49am and 8.1 Process analysis techniques With industrial processes. a decision is then required. becoming ever more sophisticated the possibility of a human operator detecting and coping with operational problems in real-time becomes ever more difficult. then identify the failing signal. on-line data and suggest appropriate courses of action. 11. thus permitting process operation to continue. when a particular sensor becomes faulty it is desirable to first detect that there is a problem. when in fact it never did so (Rubinstein and Mason. The plant control systems may well be able to ameliorate the effects of the fault. and finally to either disable the sensor or reconstruct/substitute the readings. continuous streams of data. providing a large historical database for the plant. or the process itself. In 1994 an explosion at the Texaco refinery.3.312 Thermalpower plant simulation and control implies that signals are recorded on a regular basis. during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979 an indication was given that the reactor coolant system electromatic relief valve had closed. along with longer term implications for plant life and/or required maintenance. and plant manoeuvrability. Alternatively. which was indicated as being open. then the incident could have been averted. etc. close switch. was actually stuck closed.

(2003) apply a model-based approach to fault detection of power plant HP feed heaters. normal operation. Given a number of data patterns. difficulties can be encountered due to a lack of deep knowledge of the domain. clustering aims to discover structure hidden within data. physical or empirical. a large number of historical data patterns is typically not required. Expressed succinctly. In contrast to other data mining techniques. Potential solutions. 2000). Alternatively. e. and can also enable an expert system to learn from its experience. These tend to be 'data driven' rather than 'knowledge driven' and therefore require much less refinement for particular processes. the most important attributes for the application can be identified and outlying values removed. A mathematical model. based on the assumption that the faults are known and have been incorporated into the model. lifting load. As an illustration of the difficulties that can arise. steady-state. out of service. This inevitably leads to the introduction of multivariate techniques. startup transients. Once a structure has been formed. objects are grouped which share a number of similar properties (Olaru and Wehenkel. The focus is on the indexing and retrieval of relevant precedents. cluster analysis or principal component analysis (PCA). Alessandri et al.g. startup. falling into this broad category. As a consequence. Storage and computation facilities may also be demanding for large case bases. e. an operator of a nuclear reactor would wish to be informed if. the technique is generally more suited to fault diagnosis rather than plant monitoring. and the solutions identified by the user from historical data and past experience (Luger and Stubblefield. 1998). 1999). It is also possible to identify the status of individual plant items. thus restricting diagnostic and explanation facilities. each of which is described by a set of attributes.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 313 and an alarm is triggered. . However. before fuzzy c-means clustering was applied to distinguish distinct operating regions within the process. a sensor may present a faulty value which is actually within the specified range for the sensor. However. amongst others. Data mining techniques offer a convenient alternative. The problems with this approach are many. e. no recognition is taken of the plant's operating status. This may be achieved by calculating a similarity or distance measure. the above problems arise because all variables are treated independently of each other and the validity of one sensor in relation to all other variables is not considered. CBR is particularly useful when the data has complex internal structures. Principal components were initially determined to analyse the process. Case-based reasoning involves the collation of exemplars of past problems. following a plant trip be would instead prefer to be warned if any control rod was not fully inserted. However. during normal operating conditions. a control rod became fully inserted into the reactor. shut-down. Furthermore. under test.g. inclusion of each fault can be time-consuming and require the designer to have a comprehensive knowledge of the application (Yoon and MacGregor. a 'stuck at' fault.g. Should the process to be monitored be well defined and comprise a limited number of variables then model-based approaches may be successfully applied. It is fairly straightforward to list different plant operating modes. Sebzalli and Wang (2001) applied this approach to identification of operational strategies for minimising the impact of product changeover in a chemical refinery process. enables faults to be identified. include case-based reasoning (CBR). For example.

QA -. consisting of m samples of n variables. known as principal components. PCA models may be formed by retaining only those components. therefore. Modelling of individual faults is not required. and.314 Thermal power plant simulation and control The approach adopted here is that of principal component analysis (PCA) which aims to reduce the dimensionality of a set of interrelated variables. 1996). and describes the relative importance of individual variables for principal component i. For example. while ti (m x I) is known as the score vector for that particular principal component and determined as ti = X p i • Since typically only the first A principal components are required to explain the majority of the variance in the data. data should generally be normalised prior to processing. Alternatively. Johnston (1998) suggests that the principal components selected should explain at least 93 per cent of the variance.t n p T where Pi (n x 1) is the loading. although detected deviations in plant behaviour can be investigated in depth if required.Y~i=I . . PCA has been used in a wide range of applications including chemical process control for the monitoring of batches from an industrial polymerisation reactor (MacGregor and Kourti. For a linear system E accounts mainly for process noise. 1995) can also be conveniently calculated as Y~A_ 1Li ~'i Quality. which are linearly independent. An ordered.. The degree of reduction achieved depends on the correlation of the original data set . 11. 1995) and sensor fault detection in a boiler process (Dunia et al. such that X = t i p T + t2p T + t3p T + .the greater the correlation the fewer principal components required. PCA readily lends itself to process monitoring as the developed models are intended to characterise normal operation. . the quality of the model (Lewin. to generate the most parsimonious model. latent variables. a set of n principal components can be obtained. q . Principal component analysis is scale dependent.3. while retaining as much of their variance as possible. thereby creating a reduced order model A T+E=ZtipT+E i=1 X=TP where T and P represent the score and loading matrices for the retained principal components and E represents the unexplained variance in the model.2 Principal c o m p o n e n t analysis Given a data matrix X (m × n). A. A number of methods are available for selecting the required number of principal components. This is achieved by identifying new. reduced set of principal components may then be selected which capture the essential correlations and the majority of the observed variability.

then only . of process sensors. 11. 1998). It is. with the accuracy dependent on the number of principal components employed. the prediction residual sum of squares. and the above process repeated until all groups have been removed once. The advantages of multiblock methods become abundantly apparent when fault identification is considered. suggested that individual PCA models are developed reflecting these natural boundaries. The first group is removed. The performance of the model is determined. and a PCA model is then trained using the remaining data. by repeating this process for an increasing number of components. of the data covariance matrix.it can be informative and constructive to include some linking 'flow' variables from the inputs and outputs of neighbouring sections. Alternatively.3. etc. however.2. The reconstructed signal is.3. So. Applying the cross-validation method of Wold (1978) requires the training data to be split into a user defined number of groups. Within many processes. Should a sensor fail. as demonstrated here. divided by the size of the removed groups or the number of degrees of freedom. 1994). ~-i. the second group deleted.. for one component. Clearly. If a degree of correlation is assumed. There are a number of guidelines available regarding the division of a process for multiblock methods (MacGregor et al. linking subsystems can be defined. a number of small models could be developed to model related sensors (Lewin. For applications.1 Multiblock PCA It is not uncommon for a system to have several hundred. The first group is then restored. by calculating the sum of squared prediction errors. The summation of the above errors. involving monitoring and reconstruction it is advisable to develop more sophisticated selection methods using techniques based on cross-validation or the unreconstructed variance of the data. 1994). but no solid rules are available as process and engineering knowledge are a significant factor. a sensor can be estimated using the remaining sensor measurements.3. for one component. multiblock methods can be introduced (Nomikos and MacGregor.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 315 for the first A components based upon the eigenvalues. therefore. For reasons of convenience and practicality. Examination of the model's unreconstructed variance can also assist in determining the required number of principal components (Dunia and Qin. a number of distinct. rather than developing a single model. In a thermal power station.2. unlikely to be a perfect match due to variations arising from unmodelled non-linearities. sensor reconstruction and substitution will be ineffective. boiler and turbine stages can be readily identified . noise. an insufficient number of principal components may lead to an inability to distinguish normal residuals from sensor failure. and as outlined later in section 11. or a plant fault develop. Should the number of components be too high then PRESS will increase due to modelling of noise. 1995). if not thousands. perhaps requiring a significant number of components to sufficiently model plant behaviour. on the removed first group. subsections such as the condenser. This leads to a reconstruction error. subsequently. a minimum value can be observed in the calculated statistic. gives rise to PRESS. perhaps physically distinct.

is available (Jackson and Mudholkar.2. by reconstruction from the selected number of principal components. i=1 The SPE should remain low for normal operating conditions. )~j. is obtained by calculating an estimate of each variable. also known as the distance to the model.ot percentile of a Gaussian distribution. making fault diagnosis that much more straightforward. 1979) which can be determined as (co o ~ = O1 ~ ~1 \ +1+ l/ho 02ho (ho . methods that can quickly help to identify differences between the actual and reconstructed value of a variable are the squared prediction error (SPE) and Hotelling's T 2 test.316 Thermal power plant simulation and control the model associated with that particular section of the plant will be affected. A comparison can then be made between the reconstructed value for each variable and the actual measurement. as outlined below: t/ h0= I 20103 302 and Oi = y~ j=A+I i. i = 1. . attributable to measurement noise and the degree of variation not accounted for by the principal components retained in the model. at least at first. a high value of SPE will indicate that the model is not valid for the current observation and that a new event may be occurring.. more efficient. Two. x. However.3. it may be used to determine whether recorded plant measurements are consistent with historical values and neighbouring sensors. known as the Q statistic 32. and ca the confidence limit for the 1 . Performed manually this can be a time-consuming task. xi. The squared sum of errors for all variables for each data sample.3. To distinguish between normal and high values of SPE.2 Quality control methods Once a model for normal operating conditions has been developed. . this new event is not necessarily a fault and may merely be something not accounted for in the training data.~i)2.2. Conversely. is calculated as SPEx = ~ (xi . h0 is a combination of these terms.1 ) | ) 0 i is the sum of the unused eigenvalues to the i-th power. 11. from the model and then comparing it with the actual value. The SPE value. a confidence limit.~i.

but rather both values should be monitored. if a new event occurs. the next step is to identify which sensor is failing. The main problem with this approach is that the faulty variable is itself included in the data used for reconstruction. 1997). designed as a multivariate counterpart to the Student's t statistic.n) - n) where a is the selected confidence level. and adjustment of the associated threshold (Qin et al. So when a process fault occurs. until the SPE and/or T 2 figures are satisfactory. it may be highlighting that the process is moving to a different. be taken with both SPE and T 2. while the iterative nature of the technique is inherently inefficient. is a measure of the variation within normal operating conditions. However. and not a process condition. 1947).x ) . it is insufficient to rely on either SPE or T 2 in isolation. Since determination of SPE involves comparing the predicted value with the available measurement for each sensor. Scores for normal operating conditions should fall within a limited. If £ is the vector of mean values of x. known range. 1995). T 2 is a measure of how far the predicted value is from the multivariate mean and is thus only capable of detecting if the variation in the new data can be explained by the variation in the training data. 11. and. Instead. Consequently. This can result in nuisance values for both T 2 and SPE.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 317 The T 2 statistic (Hotelling et al.2. false alarms can be largely eliminated by simple filtering. then T 2 -----(x . # -- n(m2-1) F~ ( n . as they are unlikely to differentiate between a failing sensor and a fault on the plant. which relates the degrees of freedom in the model to the F distribution. T2. It should be noted that a rise in the T 2 value does not always indicate a fault.~)T S-1 (x . whereby the faulty signal is replaced by the predicted value. operating point not included in the training data. if possible.3 Fault identification and reconstruction Having confirmed that there is a sensor fault. The relative position of these 'fault' clusters can assist in latter diagnosis (Kourti and MacGregor. both indicators are affected by noise on the system and deviation of the measurements from a normal distribution. and S is the covariance matrix of the model. the individual points on the t score plots may be observed drifting away from the normal grouping into a separate cluster. The plotting of t scores can be combined with the previous methods to distinguish between the two conditions.. an upper control limit. . can be calculated. Care must.. the T 2 value will move away from the multivariate mean of the data.3. Additionally. which has not been included in the training of the normal operating conditions model. to substitute a replacement value. m m (m . Hence. fault reconstruction could be conveniently achieved by an iterative technique. in control. however. This information can be useful as SPE may well not highlight what is essentially extrapolation of the training model. As with SPE. and SPE recalculated. with the replacement value converged.

by applying the laws of conservation of mass. gas/oil-fired unit (Lu and Hogg. Two PCA models were developed for normal operating conditions around generation outputs of 100 and 150 MW. similar to those obtained for the 100 MW model. superheaters. A failing sensor can be identified when the index falls beneath a threshold. etc. If the signal is faulty. but with xi replaced by zi then r/i. For convenience. variables. The model consists of 14 non-linear differential equations and more than 100 algebraic equations. in certain situations the reduction in SPE can affect all inputs. and Zi is the predicted value of xi. or degrees of freedom. i. identification and reconstruction can be achieved by assuming each sensor has failed and estimating a value for that signal from the remaining values. the adjusted value. and the remaining signals are used for reconstruction. a significant reduction in SPE before and after reconstruction would be expected. the sensor validity index for variable i. a number of tests are now applied to a simulation of a 200 MW.. 11. The non-linear boiler-turbine model has been developed using object-oriented principles. The reconstructed.- i)2 2 ZT=. A large number of wide-ranging tests were subsequently performed on the actual plant to validate the model's performance. while a value approaching zero signifies a fault. alternatively. making the faulty sensor unidentifiable.3 P C A tests a n d results The above methods are now applied to Unit 6 at Ballylumford power station. and corrective maintenance or other actions should then be scheduled. energy and momentum. However. The principal components derived for the 150 MW model.318 Thermal power plant simulation and control Alternatively. Consequently. 1995). It is assumed that a single sensor has failed. can be seen in Table 11. represents the predicted value of xi. in-control signal. that the fault is actually with the plant. As described earlier. among the measurements. (xj The sensor validity index is determined for each variable. with individual models formed for subsystems consisting of the combustion chamber. with a value between 0 and 1 regardless of the number of samples. economiser. etc. can be expressed as 172 = (Zi . or adjusted.1 . and further clarified using the sensor validity index. it is assumed that xi has a missing value. each signal is filtered and compared with a user-defined threshold. The above difficulties can be overcome by calculating a sensor validity index (SVI) (Dunia et al. without incorporating xi itself. although the model is equally capable of identifying faults occurring sequentially. If zi. This situation arises due to a lack of redundancy. 1996). The t scores are also examined to confirm. A sensor validity index close to unity is indicative of a normal. and the possibility of false triggering. value then substitutes for the failing sensor. system transients and measurement noise can lead to oscillations in 17i. Individual faults will be detected using the SPE and T 2 indicators.3.e.

6. and thus invalid measurements may unduly influence operator actions.2a and 2b respectively.65 99.3. the biased sensor is replaced by the adjusted measurement. which is regulated within the plant by a PI controller operating on the fuel flow.96 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 0.05 0.17 3.84 99. as shown in Figure 11. Subsequently.0069 0.3-0. This identifies it as being inconsistent with the rest of the signals and therefore most likely to contain a fault.2c shows the variation in the sensor validity index for each variable over the period in question.0938 0. As the fault is with the sensor. paradoxically.0211 0. The reheater outlet pressure signal can now be readily identified as being in error.0051 along with their percentage contribution to the variance and cumulative variance explained. Given that the model was to be applied to on-line sensor reconstruction it was essential that the predictive performance was examined and that the model was not overfitted to the training data. the PRESS statistic was determined for each model order.0049 0. the associated indices for the remaining sensors rise towards unity. minimal impact on the measured value.08 0. not the process. as can be viewed in Figure 11.91 99. a bias of 0.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 319 Table 11.19 0. with a defined threshold of 0. It is also of note that when the reheater pressure signal fails.5460 0. A positive drift is now introduced into the main steam pressure signal. Although this signal is not directly utilised for control purposes. it forms an input to an on-line.0619 0.48 96. advisory efficiency monitoring system on the plant. First.0005 0. resulting in two principal components being considered sufficient for both operating points.1 Principal components for 150 MW model Principal component Eigenvalue Percentage variance explained Cumulative percentage variance explained 82. The simulation was then used to create three types of fault to enable an assessment of the models' monitoring and predictive capabilities.0061 0. accentuating identification of the biased sensor.1. as can be seen in Figure 11.0003 82. the controller.1 per cent was introduced into the reheater outlet pressure signal after approximately 5 hours of operation while generating at approximately 150 MW. Having detected that there is a problem. Instead. observing that the pressure signal is . The corresponding SPE and T 2 plots for the same time period are shown in Figures I 1.1.48 14. Figure 11. with the associated index for this signal falling to a value in the range 0. Based on a 95 per cent confidence limit for both tests it can be seen that both tests promptly detect the fault after 30 and l0 minutes. Since the faulty signal is being fed back for control there is.75. The plant is operated at an approximate load of 100 MW.

In actuality. to identify the failing sensor. However. with knock-on effects for many of the sensors around the plant. corresponds to the normal operating region. as time progresses with the increasing sensor drift not corrected. Figures 11. the main steam pressure is being progressively reduced. Figure 11.! :: " :. :': (~' ":'. region A. The associated confidence limits were recalculated for operation at the lower operating point. and a problem with the main steam pressure sensor is quickly confirmed.66 24. the variation in other sensors becomes more noteworthy. in the top left of the graph. the effects of this fault are more significant across the plant. For the final test. reveals that there are now two operating regions.7 . to the boiler.64 Reconstructed signal 24. so that the faulty sensor now indicates the correct value. decreases the fuel flow. 1 Biased and reconstructed signals .6b. and it is now more challenging. Unlike Figure 11.72 Sensor bias 24. " 24. Examination of the t scores for the first two principal components. Figure 11. although still straightforward. the efficiency of the HP turbine was reduced by 2 per cent after approximately 6 hours.320 Thermal power plant simulation and control 24. while generating 150 MW.62 0 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 ~ 10 12 14 Figure 1 I. respectively.4c illustrates the validity index for each sensor. . and associated air flow. Normalised values for all the process signals are plotted in Figure 11. The actual activity of the steam pressure can be reconstructed by the model and Figure 11.3 confirms that the pressure falls as a result of the fault. From comparison with the training data.68 ij::k ~ 24.i ~:[": i"'. with the fault being detected after 50 and 30 minutes. while the presence of region B.2c. The SPE plot of Figure 11. illustrating the relatively severe nature of the disturbance introduced.reheater outlet pressure drifting upwards.6a then shows that the control limit is exceeded 5 minutes after the fault is introduced.4a and 4b again depict the SPE and T 2 measures.5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .2 a b Squared prediction error. . . . . . 40 95% limit . .2 14 100 80 60 7. . .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation J i 321 X t~ _ ~ 9 5 % limit 1 a 0 '2 '4 '6 Time (hr) '8 1'0 . . . . . . . .sensor bias. . 20 0 2 4 Time (hr) 8 10 1 14 b Figure 11. . T 2 t e s t .sensor bias.

85 Sensor drift v 167.2 (c) sensor validity index . 14 .7 167.main steam pressure .6 0.65 0 .322 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1 _ _ 0.75 167.4 0. 12 . lO . 16 18 Time(hr) Figure 11. 4 . 2 .sensor bias 167.2 i i i i i J 0 c 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 10 12 14 Figure 11. 6 .3 Drifting and reconstructed signal .8 ~ 167.8 SVllimit 0. 8 .

. . . . . 20 i i i i i i i i 2 b 4 6 8 Time (hr) 10 12 14 16 18 Figure 11.4 a b Squared prediction error.5 reveals that the HP turbine outlet temperature and the reheater inlet and outlet temperatures are unusually high for the problem period indicating the most appropriate area for further investigation. . Reconstruction of the signal is therefore inappropriate.sensor drift. Further examination of Figure 11. . . . . . . . . . . . indicates that there is a physical problem with the plant. . . . in the bottom fight region of the graph. . .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 323 X 0 a 100 i i i i i i L i 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (hr) 12 14 16 18 80 60 40 95% limit . . .sensor drift. . T 2 t e s t . . .

. 2 0.6 0.4 (c ) sensor validity index .2 0 2 4 6 Time (hr) i i i 8 10 12 14 Figure 11.5 Normalised process signals .9 0.5 i i i i i i i i 0 c 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Time (hr) Figure 11.4 e.sensor drift 0.6 ..2 o Z 0 -0.7 0.8 SVI limit 0.reduction in H P turbine efficiency .324 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 0.~ 0.

. 0.6 0. . .reduction in HP turbine efficiency. .4 0 .2 . . Although initially designed for oil operation alone.8 Figure 11. .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 8 7 6 5 x. .1 ~+t+¥~ + -0. . . . . .4 tl . . .reduction in HP turbine efficiency 11. 3 2 1 0 a i i i i i i 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Time (hr) 0. . 0. .6 a b Squared prediction e r r o r . . . tl versus t2 scores plot . 0.2 + + + -0. . the plant is now predominantly operated with gas for economic and . . . .4 ..2 0. Ballylumford power station operates on two types of fuel. . .1 +~+ ~_ -0. . .2. . .4 Process monitoring and optimisation As outlined in section 11.3 -0. . 325 95% limit . . namely heavy residual fuel oil and gas. .

Not surprisingly. Qin et al. particularly following unit overhaul and cleaning operations. are common to both types of operation. the implications of soot are clearly much more significant for oil operation. etc.4. association . which are expensive. cleanliness of heat exchanger tubes. unit efficiency depends on the power output of a generating unit with increased efficiencies being achieved close to maximum continuous rating. contributing to the end result. Attemperator spraying is also operated differently for the two fuels: for gas operation. operators regularly practice switching between gas and oil supplies. though. A lack of good historical data. resulting in a differing heat distribution and more reheater spraying. it is a multidimensional problem with factors such as calorific value of the fuel. (1997) apply this method to an industrial boiler with the aim of modelling NOx emissions. as compared with gas operation. Considering that the experience and knowledge of senior operators. using two different fuels requires subtle changes in control strategies by the operators. 1996) it is often deemed desirable to develop on-line monitoring systems which project values for the emissions from other process variables. which may be slow and infrequent. plays a large part in the control of a power plant it would not be surprising that a lack of familiarity with operating the plant on oil can lead to optimal levels for unit efficiency and emissions levels not being as easily achieved. configuration of burners. However. It is further recognised that problems may occur at the gas pressure reducing station or further upstream. Load cycling operation of generation plant is increasingly common. Due to the associated expense and high level of maintenance associated with these methods (Mandel. etc. potentially makes this task more challenging. Environmental regulations require emissions levels to be monitored and maintained under acceptable limits. Superficially. In practice. this information can then be used to develop a 'best case' model for monitoring purposes. In a power plant the emissions from HFO operation are of particular interest. From available records it is possible to investigate periods of operation identified by the operators as being representative of plant performance. Both factors may require the plant to be operated using oil on occasion. in particular. Conventional methods for emissions monitoring employ analytical sensors. Potentially. 11.326 Thermal power plant simulation and control environmental reasons. and off-line analysis. twigs. the flame ball is higher up and further back in the furnace. Solutions using linear analytical techniques such as clustering (see discussion for PCA). subject to financial penalties if exceeded. Issues such as clogging of the condensers with shells. leading to a wide range of operating conditions and exposure to plant non-linearities and interactions between control loops. daily cyclic variations of the local sea (cooling water) temperature due to tide movements. due to infrequent sampling.1 Monitoring and analysis techniques With power generation becoming an increasingly competitive marketplace it is important that individual units endeavour to operate at their maximum possible efficiency while meeting contractual load obligations and monitoring emissions levels. Consequently. something which is not readily or easily passed on to others. the gas supply is under an interruptible contract. However.

dependency modelling or projection to latent structures (PLS) may be proposed. chemical engineering and process control applications such as calibration in chemical analysis (Geladi and Kowalski. decision rules. through linear regression. The application of association rules is also somewhat limited in that it assumes that all the data is categorical. can assist in determining model structure from available data. 11.. PLS makes use of techniques previously applied in PCA to reduce the dimensionality of data and create latent variables representing a system. Similarly. and then fuzzify these results to create a set of association rules describing different operating conditions for three products. 1986b). however. an X block (m × n) representing m samples of n independent process variables measured frequently. What should result is a concise. Model selection. while each individual rule may be evident in itself. user selected.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 327 rules. statistical regression methods enable a linear model. 1991). regression. also known as partial least squares (PLS). representing m samples of r dependent product quality measurements. requires the user to have a sufficient understanding of the underlying process. This procedure is then enhanced. However. A model is developed which attempts to explain the variation in the process that is most predictive of the product quality variables. etc. 1985). to be fitted to the data set. readily understood rule base. although correlation-based techniques. inputs. One common and limiting problem which arises with MLR is that of collinearity within the data. and a Y block (m × r). For example. Association rules is a summarisation technique describing the nature and frequency of relationships between data entities. Linear representations could be obtained for the X and Y blocks separately. If T .4. as demonstrated using principal component analysis. Sebzalli and Wang (2001) first use PCA to analyse a refinery fluid catalytic cracking process. and performance monitoring and fault detection of both a fluidised bed reactor and extractive distillation column (Kresta et al. is a robust. multiple linear regression (MLR) attempts to establish a linear relationship between a block of independent data and a block of dependent data. to provide a relationship between the process variables and the product quality variables. multivariate linear regression technique more suitable for the analysis and modelling of noisy and highly correlated data than MLR (Otto and Wegscheider. PLS has been successfully applied in a range of chemometrics. which may be measured irregularly or not as frequently as the X block. for example. it can be difficult to visualise the system as a whole. Alternatively. and hence numerical data needs to be grouped or fuzzified into categories before use. PLS then aims to provide an estimate of Y using the X data. all associations of the form if {set of values} then {set of values} are mined using methods such as decision trees.2 Projection to latent structures Projection to latent structures. Given a relational database. by forming a least squares solution (Draper and Smith. based on past process outputs and appropriate. 1998). PLS requires two blocks of data.

The resulting model. then.( b i t i ) q T where Ei and Fi are the residuals after the i-th iteration (component). is to develop distinct PLS models for each Y variable. in order to obtain orthogonal X block scores it is necessary to introduce a weighting matrix. However. . B. Consequently. although it is possible to consider multiple variables in the Y block the resulting PLS model achieved will be a compromise between the requirements of the different quality variables. Consequently. X=TpT +E Y =UQTq-F with the residual matrices E and F sufficiently small. is not optimal. Having obtained the PLS model it then remains to determine the required number of principal components. namely T and U: U:BT where B is a diagonal matrix. A simpler. since the principal components for each block are calculated separately. as outlined by Geladi and Kowalski (1986a). rather than the X variables. applying the non-linear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) algorithm. The NIPALS algorithm determines the principal components in sequence. however. for the required number of principal components. but may well be highly predictive of the output variables Y. W. The above outer relations can be linked by a linear relationship. variation of the X block may be discarded when it appears insignificant towards the reconstruction of X. the t and u vector scores for each component can be interchanged. More constructively. so that slightly rotated principal components are obtained. so after each iteration the data blocks are reduced as follows.328 Thermal power plant simulation and control and U represent the score matrices for the X and Y blocks. and indeed more informative approach. Ei+l : Ei - tip T : Eo = X " Fo= Y Fi+l = F i . in this instance the emphasis is on selecting sufficient principal components to explain the majority of variance that is most predictive of the Y variables. However. such that X= TpT+E Y:~IQT +F where t] is the estimate of the score U. between the score matrices of the X and Y block. respectively and P and Q are the associated loadings. based on T. Methods similar to those employed for PCA can also be applied here.

2548 0.89 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 0. two quality variables were selected.24 12.1323 0.65 Percentage Y variance unexplained 26.3 PLS SOx emissions model Number of components Percentage X variance unexplained 38.120 MW unit which was being operated for that period on oil. 1994). Distinct models were created for each Y variable.0882 0. multiblock PLS methods are also available.64 11.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 329 Again. operation was within this range.0973 Table 11.44 Percentage ¥ variance unexplained 32.3 PLS tests and results PLS models were created using plant data gathered over the period of two weeks for a phase 1.78 6.03 7. and their associated quality measures are summarised in Tables 11. in a similar manner to that discussed for PCA.2 and 11.0899 0.85 5.19 14. The same benefits carry forward in terms of simpler fault detection and more interpretable models for large systems (MacGregor et al.56 8.57 4. For the purposes of further analysis.0876 .24 10.0946 0. the model was specifically trained for operation in the range 100-120 MW as the majority of the unit's current.20 3. and expected future. 11.61 5. For the efficiency model Table 11.13 6..21 26.4.48 22. namely unit thermal efficiency and SOx emissions.0651 0.66 9.95 PRESS 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.0931 0.86 6.64 17.2 PLS efficiency model Number of components Percentage X variance unexplained 34.0832 0.33 14.1113 0.2196 0. Examination of the PRESS statistic for the normalised quality variables suggests that three principal components are required in both cases.57 8.12 17. Although the unit went through several load cycles during this period.3.

330 Thermal power plant simulation and control this is sufficient to explain 92 per cent of the variance in Y. Figure 11. HP turbine exhaust temperature (29). for example. for both efficiency and SOx models. along with the model's estimated efficiency.7a and 7b. the graph reveals that the tl score has significantly increased for the new period. It is of some interest to examine how each variable contributes to the percentage X unexplained variance for the first component of each model. but previously unseen by the model. It should be noted that the above models are intended for oil operation alone. If the scores of the efficiency model for the first two components are now examined.9 shows the actual efficiency deviation during a subsequent period when the plant was again running on oil. but this shall not be demonstrated here. etc. boiler flue gas oxygen (18) is significant for SOx.10b plots the deviation from normal operation of the contribution to the tl score for each PLS variable. during which maintenance of the condensers was carried out in the form of removing debris from the pipework. The unit was then switched on again towards the end of the same month. Having now successively trained a model. etc. Therefore. It is. three principal components were capable of explaining 91 per cent of the Y variance. significant deviation between the model and plant outputs would be considered indicative of a problem within the plant requiring further investigation.10a. The PLS target is seen to closely follow the actual emissions monitored on the plant. economiser feed inlet temperature (7). being significant for both models. can . therefore. Superimposed on the graph is the PLS estimate of the plant's efficiency. In passing it is noted that the models could be used for fault reconstruction as described for PCA. Having developed two PLS models it now remains to investigate their monitoring capabilities on the plant. Figures 11. There are many similarities between the bar charts with. for the SOx model. show the percentage explained variance of the X data block. if the same logic as above is followed. The contributions from condenser cooling water outlet temperatures A (22) and B (23). unit output (1). while variables such as final outlet steam temperature A (8) and B (9). From examination of the operator logs for this unit it is known that on the following day the unit was switched off for a number of days. then it would be clearly more informative to create distinct models for both gas and oil operation. Figure l l. Similarly. and it can be seen that there is a clear distinction between the two characteristics. of greater interest to highlight differences between the two charts. The thermal efficiency for this period. Figure 11. and condensate temperature (24) are unusually high for this period. however. This is a measure of how individual variables affect the quality variable Y. In particular. primary steam flow (2). are much more significant for the efficiency model. Examination of how the tl score is formed from the measured variables should reveal which section(s) of the plant is unduly impacting on overall operation. Although a hybrid model could be formed for both fuels. These results highlight the most important variables to be monitored/adjusted when attempting to achieve different goals of operation.8 illustrates the performance of the SOx model using data from the same two-week period. Figure 11. and 83 per cent of the X variance. region A represents the training data while region B represents this later period. while still explaining 87 per cent of the variance in the X block.

SOx emissions model be viewed in Figure 11. an operating point for which the model was not previously trained. 60 50 331 5 > 40 30 20 10 0 o 5 10 15 PLS variable 20 25 30 100 90 80 70 60 50 5 > 40 30 20 10 0 b 0 5 l0 15 PLS variable 20 25 30 Figure I1. bar chart .Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation lOO 90 80 70 . Experience shows that attempting to train the PLS model over a wider operating range would result in a generally poor . A higher efficiency is now being achieved which is comparable with the PLS model. During this time plant output was reduced to around 80 MW.7 a b Bar chart.11.=.efficiency model.6 hours. except for the time period of approximately 4 .

4 0.2 0 = o 7- -0. so that the full significance of cooling water (sea) temperature variability.8 1 i i i PLS target efficiency i I 2 4 6 Time (hr) 8 10 12 Figure 11.8 Predictive performance of PLS SOx model 0. amongst other . for an acceptable number of components.6 ~0. the model operates well over the intended range.332 Thermal power plant simulation and control 40 E o 20 J -~ o o d -20 0'3 Actual SOx PLS target SOx ] ~40 i i i i i i i 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (hr) 6 8 Figure 11.2 -0.4 -0. Instead.9 PLS target efficiency for oil operation fit being achieved over the entire regime. as can be seen. It should also be noted that the PLS model was trained using a two-week period of data alone.

. an array of linear models could be developed for the entire operating range. More wide-ranging training data would be required. contribution to tl score .Data mining f o r performance monitoring and optimisation 3 + 333 .nl-.) .nn.---n-..g .condenser fouling.10 a b PLS variable tl versus t2 scores p l o t ..i...condenser fouling factors.. -1 b Figure 11.~+* + + ~++ + ++ + -1 2 ++ + + i i i 32 0 2 tl 4 24 e~ •o 2 ~ 8 e~ o "r" r... will not have been experienced. . Ul-n.. To cope with the apparent non-linearities revealed above. or as outlined in the next section a neural PLS structure could be created.

since they may not only describe noise or negligible variance/covariance structures in the data. 1995). The resulting PLS model may then require too many components to be practicable for the purpose it was intended. for example.. that while linear models.5 . 8 . but may actually contain significant information about the nonlinearities.11 Predictive performance of PLS efficiency model 11. introducing modifications to the relationship between the X and Y blocks in PLS (Baffi et al.e. Recognition of the non-linearities can be achieved using intuitive methods.5 Non-linear PLS modelling Projection to latent structures (PLS) has already been shown to be a powerful regression technique for problems where the data is noisy and highly correlated.P L S target e f f i c i e n c y . with power generation being no exception..334 Thermal power plant simulation and control 0.. etc. both PCA and PLS. More advanced methods have also been proposed including non-linear extensions to PCA (Li et al. When applying linear PLS to a non-linear problem the minor latent variables cannot always be discarded. 6 . 10 Figure 11. fuzzy logic. operate well over a limited range. 2 . 1995). 2000. It has been shown in the previous sections. T i m e (hr) .. which apply non-linear transformations to the original variables or create an array of linear models spanning the whole operating range. A c t u a l e f f i c i e n c y -2 0 . and can also be of benefit where there are only a limited number of observations for the quality measurements.5 0 o i i ". i.. Holcomb and Morari.5 -1. . monitoring or analysing the system of interest. 1992) or applying neural network. . Ku et al.. all processes are inherently non-linear. .~ ~o. 1999a. . 4 . . methods to represent the non-linearities directly (Tan and Mavrovouniotis.. however.

with the neurons in the hidden layer generating a set of basis functions which are then combined by a linear output neuron. sin(x2 + x3). The remaining weights then appear as linear terms. The main problem with this approach is the assumption that the original set of variables are themselves independent (Wold et al. etc. however. and/or a priori experience. requiring conjugate gradient and Hessian-based methods to avoid difficulties arising from local minima. Process knowledge and experience is. but training is a non-linear optimisation problem. (1989) originally proposed replacing the diagonal B matrix to describe the inner relationship with a neural network their method did not update the weighting matrix W. 1989). This is a relatively simple approach that does not require the NIPALS algorithm in PLS to be modified. Each basis function is centred at some point in the input space and its output is a function of the distance of the inputs to the centre. For generality. the error-based updating approach of Baffi . Using techniques such as k means clustering. although neural network approaches are generally seen to be more capable of providing an accurate representation of the relationship for each component. Initial approaches used a second-order polynomial to 'curve fit' the relationship between the latent variables (Wold et al. etc. then a variety of neural structures can be arbitrarily applied. and can be conveniently determined using least squares techniques. or singular value decomposition (SVD) approaches if the data are ill-conditioned. which can make the resulting outputs from the data mining exercise difficult to interpret. etc. This is rarely true in practice. without modifying the input and output variables. Selecting a Gaussian function as the basis function means that each neuron can be viewed as approximating a small region of the model surface neighbouring its centre. x~... However. and may require a relatively high number of splines to model the relationship. Similarly. a standard RBF network consists of a single-layer feedforward architecture. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks are popular for many applications. the input matrix is extended by including non-linear combinations of the original variables e.g. spline networks can require arbitrary selection of spline parameters. In this case a radial basis function (RBF) network has been selected over other approaches. required to intelligently select suitable non-linear transformations that will sufficiently reflect the underlying non-linear relationships within the plant. 1989). Although Wold et al. Instead. 2001). the number and positioning of basis function centres and widths can be carefully chosen. while the dimensions of the model will be reduced (one or two components are normally sufficient). An alternative and more structured approach is to modify the NIPALS algorithm in PLS by introducing a non-linear function which relates the output scores u to the input scores t. Since the purpose of the neural network is merely to capture the non-linearity between t and u. the dependency between latent variables is not as transparent as in linear methods (Sebzalli and Wang. By contrast. Such an approach is acceptable if the inner mapping is only slightly non-linear.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 335 Transformation of the original variables using non-linear functions can be introduced prior to a linear regression technique such as PCA or PLS.

4 Number of components RBF-PLS efficiency model RBF Percentage X variance unexplained PercentageY variance unexplained 0. It is assumed that the model between the latent variables is continuous and differentiable with respect to W. for the first.71 1 2 3 4 5 55. This resulted in a model where the first component explained 45 per cent of the variance on the X data. Selection of centres and training of the RBF networks was performed using the Matlab neural network toolbox.P L S tests and results RBF-PLS models were subsequently trained using both efficiency and SOx emissions as quality Y variables. Figure 11. for a further time period.10 -- .336 Thermal power plant simulation and control et al. 11.40 36. the operating range was extended to encompass 30-120 MW. that even the system noise is incorporated.l 0 12. Particularly.48 -Linear PercentageX variance unexplained 45.84 45. even after four components. dominant component the RBF network provides a smooth and good approximation to the underlying non-linearities. is not of concern.1 R B F .43 53.50 19. This is a common problem using neural networks as they have the ability to provide such an accurate representation of the system.90 13..20 11. as the primary purpose of the PLS model is to explain the variability of the Y variables. however.62 0. (1999b) is applied.89 PercentageY variance unexplained 21.5. using one component. The efficiency model required seven neurons for the first component. Both RBF models were subsequently tested on previously unseen data to ensure that overparameterisation of the model had not occurred.13a illustrates the predictive performance of the RBF-PLS model.78 7.12a-d illustrates the scores scatter plots for the first four components. Figure l l. In this case. and 99 per cent of the variance in the Y data. whereupon the non-linear mapping can be approximated by a Taylor series expansion. The NIPALS algorithm is subsequently modified to perform updating of the weights at each iteration of the algorithm.64 0. leading to poor generalisation capabilities (Doherty et al. as shown in Table 11. 1997). For comparison a linear model was trained and tested using the same data as the neural PLS model. Figure 11.13b shows that the predictive Table 11. The relatively high unexplained X variance for the RBF model.96 51. Finally. and three neurons for subsequent components. using data from the same period of HFO operation.4.30 15.40 9.99 0.

2 x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx ~ × x x x x x x 0 x x x-~ ~' x x x xX x xx x x x x x x x~ x ~ x ~).4 J x × ~0.04 t2 0 0.4 indicates that five parameters explain 92 per cent of the variance in Y.2 0 02 t! 0. the system non-linearity has been captured in the lower components.08 Figure 11.second RBF-PLS component performance.Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 337 x x x x xXX× x x x x 0 x xX × x x x x x ~x x × x x x x x x × x x 1 -2 43.04 0.08 ~).2 x ~)'50. is significantly inferior to the RBF version.4 x x 0. leading to deficiencies in the capabilities of the linear model. scores scatter plot .12 b 4 I I i I ~). for a five component model.12 a b Scores scatter plot -first RBF-PLS component. . Even though Table 11.

scores scatter plot .0l Figure 11.4 0. ~ x × x x x x x.015 d -0.2 x x × ~ .6 Discussion and conclusions The availability of vast amounts of data from various application domains has been noted.third RBF-PLS component.0cx~ x x x x x x 0 x ~ x x xx x x x x x x~ xX x x x x×× x××X x x x × x x x x x 0.2 x x x x ~ x x x x xxX× × :.08 t3 0.Cx xx x xX x x x × x x x ~ x x x x × x ~x x x x x x x x x × x xx x ~x x ~x x x x x x xX x ~ x x -0.12 c d scores scatter plot . while the minimal use to which it is often put is also observed.04 0 0.08 -0. in many cases for commercial .4 0.005 t4 0 0. Instead.f o u r t h RBF-PLS component 11.2 x I I a -0. it is possible to exploit this historical information.2 I I I I -0.04 0..338 Thermal p o w e r plant simulation and control 0.005 0.01 -0.

13 a Predictive performance of RBF-PLS efficiency model.1 J 3 6 Time (hr) 9 12 15 x 1 1 1 e~ o ' -1 ii. and . leaving 'cleaned up' data which are representative of the process to be modelled. Difficulties often associated with historical data are the quality and ease of accessibility... A range of pre-processing techniques is available. Once data has been gathered it is essential to highlight incomplete and faulty records. Actual efficiency ] . exacerbated by the quantities stored over lengthy periods of time. using data mining techniques. b predictive performance of linear PLS efficiency model advantage. / 2 3 6 Time (hr) 9 12 15 Figure 11..Data mining for performance monitoring and optimisation 339 o ~9 -1 -2 ..RBF-PLS efficiencL_ms£_~J .

A model of the plant under normal operating conditions was created. Since the objective of mining techniques is to take advantage of existing data. as required in model-based approaches. Consideration must also be given as to whether the results are required to be qualitative/quantitative in nature and whether linguistic/numerical descriptions are appropriate. an informed selection of data mining techniques can then be performed. hardware and instrumentation costs incurred should be minimal. is thus removed. which focuses on identifying unusual deviations. and subsequently remove. Model performance was acceptable for the investigated scenarios. Nonlinear extensions to PCA making use of 'principal curves' and/or neural networks have been proposed. although it is recognised that PCA. and observing how individual plant signals contribute to the PLS scores it was demonstrated that the nature of any discrepancies in plant performance can be pinpointed to particular items of plant. and ultimately correct.340 Thermal power plant simulation and control includes feature selection methods to reduce the dimensions of the data and clustering to identify. Again. Establishing reference plant behaviour is not always straightforward and deviation from target can arise from a myriad of causes. and PLS was selected as being the most appropriate. With sufficient principal components it should be possible to model the non-linear plant behaviour. As well as influencing the nature of the data selected for the study. operators could monitor how close to optimum the plant was performing. A range of potential tasks was identified and the suitability of various data mining techniques was assessed. The application considered here was that of process monitoring at Ballylumford power station. can be greatly assisted through the availability of extensive historical records. a number of data mining techniques were considered. but care needs to he taken that the transparency offered by PCA is not lost. rather than focusing on particular quality/performance measures. Subsequently. Before initiating a data mining exercise a clear outline of project objectives should be drawn up. with a minimal number of principal components. There are many techniques available ranging from transparent methods such as association rules to more advanced. by running these models in parallel with the actual plant. 'black box' techniques based around neural networks. NOx and SOx emissions. were discussed. principal component analysis (PCA) was selected. by tracking t score plots. but the advantages of PCA are then largely lost. Likewise. a linear technique. Furthermore. was being applied to a nonlinear process. Faults arising both with the plant and with instrumentation were first investigated. Distinct models were developed to model both unit efficiency and SOx emissions. Through access . The need for representing specific faults. gathered from monitoring equipment already in use throughout the plant. PLS could be successfully employed for fault identification and sensor reconstruction. sensor problems. and in particular measures such as thermal efficiency. After consideration of a number of possible solutions. outliers. PCA models were created for limited operating ranges and their ability to detect. Similar techniques to that investigated above could have been applied but PCA attempts to explain all the observed variability in available data. Monitoring of plant operating performance. Each approach has different characteristics which must be considered in relation to the project aims.

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N. and MACGREGOR..: 'Nonlinear PLS modelling'. pp. B...344 Thermal power plant simulation and control WOLD. pp. IFAC Control of Chemical Processes. KETrANEH-WOLD. Italy. J. 1989. 81-86 . S. 2000. S. Pisa.: 'Relationships between statistical and causal model based approaches to fault detection and isolation'. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. 7. 53-65 YOON. and SKAGERBERG.F.

However. Local and global environmental concerns are resulting in increased regulation and the tightening of emission limits requires improved combustion control. the role of the operator has moved from an equipment controller to a plant manager who has to balance competing demands to achieve optimal performance. Oluwande 12.1 Plant management in a deregulated electricity market The privatisation and deregulation of the UK electricity industry has profoundly changed the way power plants need to be controlled and managed. it has become necessary for utilities to put in place advanced plant management systems. energy and other ancillary services is subject to complex contractual obligations and monitoring procedures. The effect of NETA on power generators is that there is now an even greater emphasis on plant availability and flexibility. improve the technical controllability and flexibility of the plant and meet the commercial requirements imposed. The applications described have been built on commercially available software packages unless otherwise stated. such as environmental constraints and contractual obligations. in addition to the continuing requirement to minimise costs. All these factors have resulted in a major shift in what is expected from power station operations staff. The rest of this chapter will describe the various measures that can be taken to improve power plant management in a competitive market. To be able to continue to achieve better performance. . Fricker and G. Under NETA the delivery of power.Chapter 12 Advanced plant management systems A. In particular. Initially after privatisation a Pool system was introduced in which generation companies competed on price and availability to supply the Pool. in 2001 New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) were introduced which rely on contracts being struck between generators and consumers and a complicated balancing market is used to ensure supply meets demand at all times. drawing on the authors' experience of how their company responded to these challenges.

Two example supervisory controllers that have been developed and are in use on power plants are: • • integrated load control (ILC) multivariable steam control (MVC). As an example. Usually there tends to be more than one commercial driver for the plant. and the cost of complying with emissions requirements. . what will be required in order to arrive at an optimised (compromise) solution will be to know the cost of the output. etc. 12. minimisation of plant damage. delivery of contracted output (be it electrical power or ancillary services) and keeping within environmental emission limits for NOx.1 Integrated load control Load control is a key component in a station's process control system. It provides automatic control of generator-set output and coordinates the required response of the boiler and turbine control loops. i. then the supervisory control layer determines the best operational means for the control system to achieve this through the manipulation of the set-points for the individual modulating controllers on the plant. a means of reducing NOx emissions is by increasing the air flow through the boiler. improving marginal plant generating opportunities by offering a high-quality frequency response capability. The main purpose of this supervisory layer is to provide optimisation of the operation of the plant via its control system. SOx.2 Supervisory control An important element in the architecture of an advanced plant management system is the requirement for a supervisory control layer above the primary control system of the plant. In this situation. with the solution based on the determination of set-points that minimise the cost of operation. which typically is a distributed control system (DCS). but this will probably be at the expense of efficiency and may restrict the plant output if the increased air flow were to lead to constraints on the boiler fans. cost of penalty for failing to meet output. It is an essential element if the plant is to achieve generation demands accurately and consistently. one of the requirements for the supervisory control layer would be the arbitration between the various drivers and the derivation of optimal set-points for the controllers which tend to be a compromise that tries to balance between these drivers. • • optimising ancillary services frequency response payments by ensuring a generator can match performance to contract requirements.e. Integrated load control (ILC) is a new load control system specifically developed to meet the requirements of UK generators. in addition to maximisation of production efficiency there might be the requirements for operational flexibility.346 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 12.2. Given the multiplicity of the business/commercial drivers for plant management. By this it is meant that if the main business driver is efficiency for example. and also to provide the bridge between the commercial or business drivers and the plant's operation. It provides a system that integrates and coordinates the plant controls with key business systems.

The plots below show typical results in terms of load changing and frequency regulation using ILC. requires the desired load to 'mirror' the measured frequency. C. The edge ILC provides is in its coordinated turbine and boiler control structures which enable load.4) to allow automatic transfer (with veto) of instructions and contract parameters. It has also been integrated with Integrated Load Management (ILM)/Electronic Despatch and Logging (EDL) (see section 12.2 Multivariable steam control Traditionally. the superheater (S/H) steam temperature control being regulated using attemperators or spray valves. To compensate for the error between the target value and the measured system frequency. and pressure control regulated by firing (a mode of operation commonly referred to as boilerfollowing-turbine). Given that most large coal-fired power generating units were .Advanced plant management systems 347 Load MV & DV 600 60{ 580 520 • 04-AG0046.1 Load change with ILC. showing measured and desired values • achieving a consistent high-quality service in meeting grid operator requirements that will help avoid disputes or penalties and will enhance company reputation. 12. The lower plot of Figure 12.3 04-AG0044. 400 4O Figure 12.AG MW 5O0 480 460 440 .1 shows a load change from 550 MW to 420 MW where the measured value (MV) follows the desired value (DV) almost exactly. energy and plant constraints to be controlled by both governor and fuel.AG MW '.. the superheater outlet steam temperature and the boiler master pressure have always had independent PID controllers on them. Figure 12. ILC provides a generator with a strategic load control system to consistently meet current requirements and also allowing it to adapt efficiently to new requirements as grid system rules and operating practice continue to mature.2 shows the measured system frequency and the target value of 50 Hz. The upper plot shows the effect of this frequency error on both the desired load and the measured load output (note these two values are indistinguishable in the plot).2.

AG 50. Large temperature excursions are known to be a major contributor to plant life reduction through increased stress and creep life damage on boilers. The introduction of competition at all levels in the UK electricity market has meant that most fossil-fired plants. there is a greater requirement for firing changes which perturb the whole plant. and can cause swings in both temperature and pressure. though used to control pressure. ~ .AG 595.99 MW o. also has considerable influence on temperature. Vasudeva.AG 50 © © I 49.8 o 4). At the supervisory level there is a cost function used to . The performance of conventional (PID) controllers in minimising the impact of these excursions is limited. Perez et al.18 MW 04-AG0044.- 6z 6z r-- t-- r-- Figure 12.013 Hz S"x~ '~-r" © 04-AG0039.. With flexible generation. this concept was very effective as the plant had stable firing and consequently stable operation.2 Frequency regulation with I L C originally run as base-load plants.) ~ . ~ ~. .. in order to remain competitive.o.2 • 04-AG0017.2 5(~. 1991. especially for plants that are required to operate flexibly over their full load range. r-- t-- r-- 6-: r-- r-- ~ /z ~ Frequency & target 50.348 Thermal p o w e r p l a n t simulation and control Load MV & DV 650 65) • 04-AG0046. This is because firing.. 1994. To minimise swings in temperature which can cause plant damage due to creep and thermal fatigue.8 o Hz r-- t:-: r. 1991.AG 595. In our organisation.o. have had to operate more flexibly over a range of load conditions. 1999). especially the larger coal-fired generating units. Oluwande and Boucher. a multivariable model-based predictive controller (MBPC) has been developed and implemented at key coal-fired stations. coordinated control of both steam temperature and pressure is required (Rossiter et al. © 580 550 o 55 .9 149.

3 shows the results for a generating unit where a multivariable steam temperature and pressure controller has been installed. with the effect of the large load changes on the parameters being significantly reduced under multivariable control. The plot shows the generating unit being put through a series of load changes and the performance of the four S/H steam temperature controllers and the master pressure are depicted under multivariable MBPC. The calculated required controller actions are then sent to the lower-level firing and attemperation control loops for implementation... . The performance of the controllers under MBPC was significantly better than under single-input.Unit load .. . .600 349 600 ~ . ... 1999).. Significant performance improvements have been achieved through the application of this multivariable model-based predictive control (MBPC) technology. A S/H O/L Tmp C S/H O/L Tmp D S/H O/L Tmp "~400 540 300 520 Pressure .3 MVC steam temperature and pressure control determine the controller actions required from both the firing and the attemperation. this is based on minimising the impact of firing changes on the steam temperatures whilst still achieving tight master pressure control... single-output (SISO) temperature and pressure controllers (Oluwande and Boucher. The introduction of multivariable control of steam temperature and pressure control was the consequence of the need to have improved coordinated control of these parameters as firing which is used to regulate steam pressure also has a strong influence on the steam temperature which is regulated by attemperators....Advanced plant management systems 700 -Unit load . Figure 12. .A vS/H O/L Pr 560 ~ . ~500 0 580 Temperature . J - ~[ 200 100 12:00 PM I I 1:00 PM I I 2:00 PM I I 3:00 PM I I 4:00 PM 500 Time Figure 12..

3 System integration and HMI issues To facilitate the development of the plant management system. the plant owner/developer needs to ensure as much as possible that there is only one plantwide integrated distributed control and data acquisition system (DCDAS).e. Though different suppliers might provide different plant components. since we wish to avoid many 'islands of automation' on the plant. system and plant developers need to follow these principles: • To eliminate. and to try to ensure that the central control room (CCR) is where most if not all of the plant control is operated. We recommend that to ensure the opportunity for plant management systems and the benefits that these will bring. as far as possible. it is essential that all of the different control and operating systems on the plant are integrated.1 Avoidance of islands of automation Although most power plant control engineers appreciate the need for an integrated operating and control system. heat recovery steam generators and steam turbines for a combined cycle plant). The different systems should be integrated with the DCDAS such that to the operator in the CCR they are indistinguishable from systems implemented within the DCDAS. This then results in the provision from different suppliers of plant subsystems with their individual control systems. they are more difficult to achieve on existing plants except through refurbishments. the long-term limitations and suboptimal operation of such control systems far outweigh the short-term cost gains in going for such islands of automation. the steam turbine will come with its own controllers and visual display units (VDUs).3. integrated control facility for all of the plant (note that plant here refers to a steam train unit consisting of boiler and steam turbine for PF-fired plants.350 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 12. i. Ideally the CCR should be equipped such that it provides a single. • Whilst these principles are easier to follow for new plants. One then ends up in the control room with various VDUs which are subsystem based. sometimes with different alarm systems and limited data flow between the various subsystems. In our own organisation the . In our experience the two ways of bringing about integration is through having an integrated human-machine interface (HMI) and the integration of the flow of data and information across the various plant systems through the establishment of a real-time database. In our view. The project developers and project managers are more concerned with building a station as economically as possible and this tends to encourage the selection of the least cost option in terms of equipment supplied. the water treatment plant the same. the need for multiple control rooms. they tend not to be involved in the design and development of the control systems for power stations. and the boiler or heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with its own control system. or gas turbines. for data and information flow around the plant. 12. The VDUs must have access to all plant areas and should not be segregated by plant areas.

The real-time database is interfaced to an operational information system (data archiving system). 12.000 data points and resides on dual-redundant servers. The purpose of the new soft desk (Lichnowski and Dicken. the units at one coal-fired station were converted so that they could burn gas in addition to coal. without APMS.4 shows a typical APMS control desk.Advanced plant management systems 351 route we took in refurbishing our existing coal-fired plants based on these principles resulted in the development of the Advanced Plant Management System (APMS). Typically. It is also desirable . the database comprises 20. all interfaced to a uniform operator soft desk. As an example. With APMS. the existing schematics and control panels were modified to include gas firing. It also included the integration of new and legacy control systems and implementation of added value applications (AVAs). At the heart of APMS lies a real-time database interfaced to all the plant data acquisition and control modules and relevant subsystems. enabling users to inspect and analyse real plant data.2 we stated that the supervisory controllers help provide the bridge between the commercial/business drivers and the primary controllers. The control room operator has plant-wide communication and control via the APMS soft desk facility. The development of APMS was based on a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) package RTAP with an open systems approach permitting integration of third-party packages. An additional advantage of separating the top-level database and HMI from the lower-level control systems is that it enables future changes to the plant and control systems to be carried out with the minimum of disruption. The strength of a plant-wide real-time database can be further exploited through the development of added value applications that implement new advanced technologies targeted at delivering commercial optimisation.4 Performance monitoring In section 12. allowing all the firing to be managed by the operator within one integrated user interface.2 Advanced Plant Management System APMS has enabled us to provide our plant operators with an integrated HMI from which they can control the plant and have access to all plant data through a real-time database. this would normally have required a separate HMI with its own set of VDUs. whilst this is true. the direction of information is 'downwards' into the plant. This is described in the following section. The gas burner management system required a completely new control system and. 2001) is to provide a single integrated user interface for all the plant and commercial data needed for operational decision-making as well as carrying out control actions. Figure 12.3. replacing the traditional hardwired control desk (which was sometimes supplemented with VDUs connected to specific software systems). 12.

At the core of OIS is the PI archive which stores the data fed from the control system. OIS pulls together data from many sources within the company and . These can be in the form of trends or graphics. and ILM Integrated Load Management systems alarm analysis tool. The applications use the PI functions to return data in a format that the user wants. 12. displays and reports for all the Innogy sites. reports or spreadsheets.1 Operational information system The long-term performance of the plant is monitored using the operational information system (OIS) which is based on the PI (Plant Information) commercial software package.352 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 12.operational information system commercial monitoring using E D L .4. OIS is a set of business and operational applications that have been built on the tools available within PI to create standard menu layouts. In our organisation this has led to the development of systems for monitoring: • • • plant monitoring using OIS .Electronic Despatch and Logging.4 APMS control desk to have information flowing 'upwards' from the plant to the rest of the organisation and for use in monitoring of the plant performance and the achievement of business goals for example.

problem alarms could be due to either a plant problem or an incorrect set-up of the alarm definition. The system acquires the current despatch instruction from the EDL and at any given moment calculates exactly what a generating unit should be producing and profiles the load into the future. 12.e. The information is logged for future comparison and analysis and sent to the Integrated Load Management system for input to the process control system. To assist the operator an Integrated Load Management (ILM) system has been developed to display the target and to monitor the performance of the plant in accordance with the rules. including those at remote locations such as the corporate head offices. . NETA requires accurate delivery of the contracted energy over each half-hour period.Advanced plant management systems 353 is able to distribute information through tools to the different end-users. boiler or turbine specialists. The arrival of new instructions generates an audible signal and the message is automatically checked for accuracy and consistency with the previously declared parameters.4. The integration of these activities ensures an unambiguous record of the despatch instruction and provides accuracy for the plant control strategy. The information derived is useful for the identification of maintenance issues.3 Integrated Load Management Compliance with despatch instructions through the timely and accurate delivery of energy and power is an essential task for both the control room operator and process control system. i. Instructions to despatch the plant are sent electronically via the company's IT infrastructure directly to a display on the control room desk.2 Electronic Despatch and Logging In the control room the Electronic Despatch and Logging (EDL) system provides the vital direct link between the grid operator and the production process. Achieving it requires a concise interpretation of the instruction and an understanding of the compliance monitoring criteria. and graphically displays any discrepancies. The aAt allows users to analyse the performance of their alarm system highlighting problem alarms or times of high alarm activity.4 Alarm Analysis Tool The Alarm Analysis Tool (aAt) has been designed to perform analysis on alarm logs produced by APMS and other process control systems. It also acquires real-time data from the plant itself (via the metering system). Part of what the tool does is to do a frequency analysis on alarms logged and results in the production of a table and graph displaying the total number of times each individual alarm occurs. etc.e. i.4. 12. 12. ILM monitors this situation and provides information for both the operator and the control system on the generation required to achieve the targets.4. whilst regular occurrence of high alarm activity could be identifying an opportunity for improved control or need for more automation. The operator accepts or rejects the instruction.

rule base. There are many examples of new applications being installed that are unsuccessful since. In general. under certain conditions at least. Another potential problem with several AVAs running concurrently is how to provide an integrated user interface.5. In the authors' experience the most common cause of unsuccessful applications is not technical inadequacies but 'soft' issues of human interaction. these requirements cannot be considered in isolation. there are many reports of ANNs being successfully used for combustion modelling. It was hoped to be able to use an ANN model to predict combustion efficiency and emission levels from a set of input plant measurements and control settings. real-time expert system technology and artificial neural networks (ANNs) were both demonstrated to provide potential opportunities. To be successful. so far no applications have been deployed using this technology. This problem is particularly difficult if the applications produce unsolicited information and advice to the operator.354 Thermal power plant simulation and control 12. meeting contracts and staying within environmental limits.g. SCADA and database products. In most control and SCADA systems (including APMS) the user interface provides no mechanism for displaying unsolicited information or requests apart from the alarm list (which would be inappropriate in many cases). avoiding plant damage. integrated graphical interface and interfaces to a wide range of control. Although artificial neural networks appeared to offer the opportunity for modelling complicated non-linear systems such as the combustion process. for various reasons. For instance. the modelling has been successful.g. 12.1 Added value applications AVA technologies Shortly after privatisation a research project was started to determine the type of assistance plant operators would need in a competitive market and whether there were opportunities for exploiting new software technologies. This product provides a complete real-time programming environment including object orientation.5 12. G2 has been used to develop most of the applications described in this section. . emission limits).2 Integrated application framework The objective for a suite of added value applications (AVAs) is to provide applications to assist the operator in the full range of his/her responsibilities. It is therefore essential to involve operational staff at all stages of application development. The real-time expert system product chosen to develop applications was Gensym's G2. To date we have not been able to produce a model of the combustion process that has been accurate over a long enough period. It would therefore appear that. efficiency losses) within a set of constraints (e. applications must supply appropriate information to operational staff at the right time and in the right format. a change in the control settings intended to improve efficiency might have a detrimental effect on plant damage and/or emissions. As a result of this work. However. operators do not use them. particularly in NOx reduction software systems. improving efficiency.5. These include providing flexible operation. Such a model could then be used to optimise the control settings to minimise some cost function (e.

). rather than just as a collection of individual modules. activate and deactivate it. schedule the execution and return the results of an application developed in C + ÷ .e.Advanced plant management systems 355 In Innogy. period to display. etc. at the other extreme. in the case of a valve. configures it (e. The IAF can run on the main APMS servers but it is preferable for it to run on a separate AVA server. in-service. At one extreme. an application has some advice to be brought to the operator's attention.5. subsystems and systems. templates and guidelines to enable a suite of applications to run in a coordinated manner. The results of these calculations should then be interpreted within G2 before being written back to the repository and/or presented to the operator (either through the IAF user interface or through the control system user interface). the whole application could be developed in G2 whilst. Thus if. The plant states can take symbolic values such as starting-up. rogue AVAs cannot cause APMS to crash). to produce a single integrated system where applications can co-exist and work together as a single entity. Instead. the application creates a suitable type of communication object. a coal mill. By using a separate server a large suite of applications can be run without overloading the APMS servers and the security of the APMS servers is improved (i.) and despatches it to the IAF communications handler. IAF 'schedulers' can be used to schedule calculations on real-time data obtained from the common repository. the text. The operational state of the plant object is then inferred from these data. closed. G2 could simply supply the data. These calculations can be implemented either as G2 procedures or as external C / C + + programs called via a bridge (or a combination of both). Each object has one or more attributes that obtain real-time data via an appropriate interface. etc. if required. in the case of. IAF consists of a set of standard objects. Actions such as activating and deactivating applications can be done either manually (through the user interface) or programmatically through the application program interface (API).g. 12. This means that one application can control another (e. The extent to which G2 is used as the application development environment will vary according to the requirements of the application. say. the application does not display this directly on the screen since it may obscure some other important information. .g. etc. priority. IAF will then control how the message is displayed and provide links back to the originating application. This module contains the interfaces to all external systems and also all the plant objects that use external data to derive information such as plant states and validated values. tools. partially open. for instance. etc.3 Plant object module Applications that operate within IAF normally obtain real-time data from a single G2 module. IAF uses G2 to provide the underlying programming environment for integrating AVAs. or values such as open. block its advice. A hierarchy of generic plant classes has been developed that determine the operational states of individual components. these problems have been overcome by the development of an integrated application framework (IAF).

12. delays or deviations from the plan to occur • automate specific sets of tasks to achieve greater consistency.5. control set-points). information and advice to reduce the likelihood of uneconomic plant damage.4 Startup Management System This G2 application assists the operator to bring the plant from a shut-down condition up to synchronising the electrical generator to the National Grid. This module also processes raw data to produce other types of validated data and derived values that are required for input to applications.g. SMS contains information about the activities within a particular type of startup (e. The system monitors real-time plant data from the process control system to determine the plant state and the time various activities will require. the plant state and the time required for each activity. a schedule of activities and the total time required to synchronise the unit is calculated for the prevailing plant conditions. it is these values that are subsequently used in other applications. The overall objectives of SMS are to: • • • • standardise on best operational procedures for startup provide a specific startup plan and schedule for the current plant conditions monitor the plant in real time to provide information on the progress compared with the plan and advise on the next activities to be carried out provide procedure-specific alarms. site-specific subclasses can be developed that contain extra attributes and formulas for determining the states of certain specific plant items at that site. However. analysis of the startup methodology revealed significant variances in the techniques employed and the times allowed. Traditionally. the startup times vary from under an hour to several hours. Starting up a power plant requires a sequence of operations to be performed to bring auxiliary plant into service and to warm the boiler along a profile that matches thermal constraints of construction materials. the unit should always synchronise within a 4-5 minute window of the instructed time.356 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Whenever possible more than one data value is used for inferring the plant state in order to improve reliability. By combining the information about the startup procedure.g. . This enables information to be exchanged between applications and also provides a standard method for writing data back into external systems (e. The Startup Management System (SMS) has therefore been developed to achieve reliable startups at minimum total costs. Having determined the plant states and other validated data. However. The plant object module also provides the repository for public data generated by other applications. Optimising the process requires a careful balance between minimising the startup energy costs and limiting plant damage. reduced operator workload and reduced plant damage. the startup of a coal-fired unit has been performed manually using the built-up expertise of well-skilled operators. This information is displayed graphically to the user via an 'activity network'. Depending on the temperature of the boiler. If necessary. hot-start) and their dependencies.

ideally. the relevant plant manager would need to determine which item to start. The rate of progress through the startup is compared to the plan and indicated to the operator. have a recovery strategy for if the plant were to fail. there are facilities in SMS for developing sophisticated 'plant managers' that replicate the type of decision-making and actions that would otherwise have to be made by operators. The final stage in developing SMS for a particular station is to start automating some of the tasks. At most sites a 'drainage manager' has been implemented to control the boiler drain valves to achieve 'progressive drainage' during startup.5. Thus if an activity involved starting one of several similar plant items. functions for estimating the time until completion. The plant manager would control the plant by initiating control sequences and/or providing set-points for lower-level controllers. However. and provides warnings if they are not.operator's screen During the startup. This automation can simply take the form of automatically starting control sequences at the correct time. Monitors can be incorporated into the system to check that key plant parameters stay within prescribed limits during specific periods of the startup.Advanced plant management systems 357 Figure 12. Each activity contains a set of rules for determining the state of the activity and. Figure 12. The system monitors activities to ensure that they are only carried out when the correct conditions are met. when to start it and. where appropriate.5 Startup Management System . SMS displays to the operator the relevant part of the startup plan and indicates the recommended next activity. The drainage manager .

in one power station.e.358 Thermalpower plant simulation and control waits until the steam temperature in a boiler section matches the temperatures of the outlet headers before admitting steam into the headers by opening drain valves. The drainage manager can also automatically adjust target conditions and ramp rates within certain limits to attempt to achieve synchronisation on time while limiting plant damage. One example of the type of problem that can arise is the situation where one boiler section still contains condensate and is therefore at saturation temperature while a down-stream section has boiled off its condensate and its tube temperatures are increasing rapidly because there is no steam flow. In the G2 version the information is displayed to the operator in tabular and graphical form and the areas where the largest losses are occurring is highlighted. However. It is important that all boiler losses are calculated and displayed. 12. A substantial amount of intelligence often needs to be built into the drainage manager to cope with the wide range of circumstances that may arise. .6a and b.5 Cost of Losses The Cost of Losses (COL) application calculates the efficiency of all the major systems within a power plant at regular intervals and compares them with target values. COL can initiate alarms in APMS. giving the operators greater predictability and consistency in achieving synchronisation times. However. the application of the Startup Management System has considerably reduced the variability of the startup process. The drainage manager could also advise the operator if a change in firing could improve the situation. The Cost of Losses application is a general-purpose application that needs to be configured for a particular plant. it can be used as the starting point for other more specific performance monitoring systems. since it is the total boiler losses that need to be minimised and not just one component at the expense of another. For example. It is also available as an OIS application that can be accessed by any authorised staff. COL is available as a G2 application within the integrated application framework for use by operators. he/she is now much better supported in terms of understanding the options and implications. it may be better to allow the drainage to move on to the next boiler section before the ideal temperature match is achieved in order to protect down-stream tubes from over heating. The operator still has important strategic decisions to make and has to manage unplanned incidents. However. the heat losses) are expressed as costs per hour. The timing of the valve opening and their subsequent closing and/or modulation is critical to achieving smooth increases in temperature and pressure and to minimise thermal stresses.5. Figure 12. Under these circumstances the rules for managing the drain valves need to ensure that no water is admitted into hot headers. the costs associated specifically with combustion losses due to non-optimal firing conditions are evaluated and displayed to the operator. If losses exceed certain thresholds. In practice. Differences between the actual and target values (i.

the Environmental Agency specifies the way in which the emission measurements must be processed to provide hourly. .5. In order to ensure compliance with particulate limits. The rules governing how the data is processed are quite complicated.Advanced plant management systems 359 Figure 12. In the UK.6 Particulate emission monitoring system The level of particulate emissions from power plant must be continuously monitored and controlled to stay within specified limits. daily and monthly averages and how the information must be reported. two emissions monitoring applications have been developed: (1) an on-line system for operational use and (2) an off-line system for retrospective data analysis and producing reports for the Environmental Agency.6 Costof losses 12. as are the rules regarding the allowable number of exceedances.

However.). The core of the system has been made as generic as possible. compared with the allowances. . These belief values are then used as evidence to indicate if specific problems are present or not. The system identifies actual or developing problems. 12. In addition. 12. The initial system is applicable to on-load operation but will be expanded later to cover all operational modes (e. it is treated as true and triggers an evaluation to determine the most likely underlying cause(s) and recommended actions and alerts the operator.g. Plant management systems provide a supervisory layer above the control system where all the relevant plant. etc. day and month.360 Thermalpower plant simulation and control The on-line system has been developed in G2 and provides real-time information on the particulate emissions processed in the form specified by the Environmental Agency. all relevant information is available in graphical form so that the operator can see how the problem has developed and can monitor the effects of any remedial actions carried out. feed system and steam turbine. This information is essential for operational decision-making and should mean there are no surprises at the end of the reporting periods. The system includes the water/steam circuit of drum-type boilers and generator stator water circuit. a site-specific module needs to be produced that contains configuration information needed to specify (1) the plant components present. The system is designed to avoid unnecessary corrosion damage on the internal surfaces of the boiler.6 Conclusions This chapter has described how the move into a competitive electricity generation market has changed the way power plant has to be operated and the need for operational support systems to assist the operator. 7 Chemical Diagnostic Expert System The Chemical Diagnostic Expert System (ChemEx) provides on-line monitoring of chemical conditions in water/steam circuits and presents operational advice. (3) the allowable plant limits and (4) plant-specific advice for dealing with detected problems. off-load. Input measurements are first converted into belief values for specific symptoms. diagnoses possible causes and provides recommended actions. The off-line system downloads data from the OIS data archive into a spreadsheet where it is processed by Visual Basic (VBA) macros and the resulting data is stored in a database. (2) the input measurements available. startup. together with the number of exceedances that have occurred over the previous 12 month period. If the belief value for a problem exceeds a certain threshold. The rules used for problem identification and diagnosis have been created in G2 using graphical function blocks that can deal with either discrete or 'fuzzy' logic. for each site.5. It provides information on the performance during the current hour. The information can be displayed graphically and reports can be generated suitable for submission to the Environmental Agency. contractual and commercial information resides in order to optimise plant operation.

. 12. J. M. 1999 PEREZ. contractual and commercial information integrated human-machine interface a framework for running a suite of applications in a coordinated manner. but with the help of suitable support systems. 138.. some of the underpinning requirements are: • • • • openness in the underlying process control system real-time database containing all relevant plant.. 1991 . A. 73-84.: 'Implementation of a multi-variable modelbased predictive controller for superheater steam temperature and pressure control on a large coal-fired power plant'.: 'Adaptive predictive control in a thermal power station'.M. UK. 2001) pp. K. 747-752. in NOYES. (Eds. and BRANSBY.A. 5. B. Power Engineering Journal. 59-67. and SANCHEZ..Advanced plant management systems 361 This optimisation often involves finding the best compromise between various (sometimes conflicting) requirements. Other applications go further by analysing this information using 'intelligent' technologies such as expert systems to provide recommended actions or even to directly provide set-points for the control system. In some cases the optimisation can be performed within a supervisory control system. CATEDIANO. E. J. J. KOUVARITAKIS. PEREZ.: 'Power generation: the advanced control desk'. and DICKEN. Germany. J. 1991 VASUDEVA. Glasgow. and DUNNETT. R.7 References LICHNOWSKI. These support systems may simply present the operator with all the relevant information from a variety of sources in a suitable (usually graphical) form.. pp. G. pp. pp.: 'Power plant operation and maintenance cost reduction through control system improvements'.): 'People in control: human factors in control room design' (lEE Control Engineering Series 60. C.S.: 'Application of generalised predictive control to a boiler turbine unit for electricity generation'. employing techniques such as model-based predictive control.. (2). Proceedings lEE Part D. 259-272 OLUWANDE. and BOUCHER. L. (1).M. In many other cases it is currently still the operator that has to make the final decisions. Karlsruhe. R. ECC '99. 3rd IEEE Conference on Control Applications. In order to achieve the full benefits of an advanced plant management system. J. CEREZO. 1994 ROSSITER..

Part 4 The future .

a thermal power plant capable of making faster adjustments in power output in response to the system demand has significant competitive advantages. It is normally controlled by multiloop PI/PID controllers. This control strategy should coordinate the activities of various subsystems of a thermal power plant to achieve optimal performance during large load changes and system disturbances by minimising the adverse effects of plant-wide interactions. Being a highly coupled system.Chapter 13 Physical model-based coordinated power plant control G. The control performance of these loops is adversely affected by inter-loop interactions. heat-exchanger tube fouling. In addition. 2002). Prasad 13. Such a control strategy can very effectively be implemented by making effective use of the tremendous potential for synergy of a physical model with model-based predictive control (MBPC) techniques (Maciejowski. Such a plant may often be required to operate in a load-cycling or two-shifting manner resulting in non-linear changes in plant variables.1 Introduction In today's privatised power industry. the disturbances in one part of the plant can have a significant effect on the rest of the plant as well. such . normal working of a power plant is severely affected by the occurrence of a range of system disturbances. and variations in condenser vacuum. a coordinated control strategy is required. A thermal power plant is a highly coupled large-scale multivariable dynamic system. In order to minimise the influence of both plant-wide interactions and disturbances so as to ensure a higher rate of load change without violating thermal constraints. This is because a global first-principles (or physical) model can provide an accurate prediction of system behaviour in non-linear operating regions and facilitate inferential estimation of important unmeasured plant variables. Some common disturbances are changes in active burner configuration.

3 gives brief details of this plant simulation. 13. Such critical variables. Using the example of the 200 MW oil-fired Ballylumford thermal power plant.5 discusses the effectiveness of the physical model-based predictive control approach in disturbance rejection. Model-based plant control was first proposed more than forty years ago in the paper by Chien et al. along with inputs and outputs. This is based on the simulation results obtained by running the plant simulation under severe but realistic operating conditions.3 also includes discussion of the main system disturbances and constraints that have a significant influence on the economics of power plant control.3. These are briefly discussed in the next section. accounting for plant-wide interactions. It is based on a detailed non-linear plant . it is possible to account for dynamic interactions more favourably using a predictive control strategy. Recognising the aforementioned potential for gaining substantial advantage by the use of physical models. McDonald and Kwanti (1973) later proposed applying an optimal controller combined with a complete state estimator (incorporating the estimation of exogenous disturbances to allow steady-state optimal regulation) to a drum boiler power plant. Section 13. Section 13. 1966.366 Thermal power plant simulation and control as metal temperature. This helps to reject the effect of disturbances extremely quickly (Prasad et al. As the plant models used in these early studies could not provide an adequate characterisation of a typical power boiler. 1967) and Anderson (1969). constraint handling and set-point following. A physical model also facilitates on-line estimation of the main plant parameters that are affected during system disturbances. Other notable early works are those of Nicholson (1964. A formulation of a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) approach for application to power plant simulation is described in section 13. can explicitly be constrained to vary in the most profitable range by on-line constrained optimisation under an MBPC strategy. 2000). an analysis of the dynamics of boiler-turbine operation is presented in section 13. several proposals for physical model-based coordinated control of thermal power plant have been made in the literature. there have been several attempts to apply physical model-based control to a power boiler. Building a physical plant representation is. however. Additionally with a global physical model. The concluding discussion is finally presented in section 13. A model simulating the dominant static and dynamic characteristics of the plant has been used for the purpose of analysis. Nevertheless commonly available industrial power plant simulators can be employed for relatively fast development of a reduced-order generic model.2 A review of physical model-based thermal power plant control approaches Using optimal control theory.4..6. which sufficiently describes the dominant dynamic and static characteristics of a power plant. a very time-consuming and expensive task. that are critical to the life of the plant components. Section 13. (1958). the results obtained with a coordinated control scheme using optimal control theory were not very encouraging.

mainly on the grounds that it optimally accounts for adverse effects of system-wide interactions. Based on a linear physical plant model. based on induced L2-norm techniques. including thermomechanical fatigue and plastic deformation.. When implemented in a plant simulation. this control policy is shown to be capable of ramping up the plant power at a rate of 10 per cent of the full load per minute. Its objective is to achieve a trade-off between structural durability and dynamic performance. 1999. with 2. A two-level optimisation strategy then decomposes the global GPC problem into manageable subproblems. and had a number of practical advantages and improved robustness against plant parameter variation. They report improved performance from this two-level optimising control strategy. 1993) in a combined-cycle power plant. before updating the high-level optimal coordinator. The GPC solution for each low-level subprocess is independently found. Model reduction was applied to get a simplified control structure. They used a physically based mathematical model. while maintaining the plant performance and satisfying the damage constraints. maintain their traditional decoupled structure. In recent years several researchers have proposed model predictive control strategies based on a physical plant model (Katebi and Johnson. Prasad et al. Ordys and Kock (1999) present a comparison of control performance obtained with a linear state space model-based GPC and dynamic . The feedforward sequence is based on a 1 s sampling time. The regulator included feedforward and integral control. A linear robust feedback control law that is superimposed on the feedforward sequence is synthesised. They make use of a two-level decentralised Kalman filter to locally estimate the states of each of the subprocesses of a power plant. (1997) have proposed a life-extending control strategy for fossil fuel power plants. Prasad et al.1 s sampling time. operational limitations. and allowable structural damage.4 s sampling period. Ordys and Kock. Kallappa et al.8 s sampling period. while the lower-level local feedback loops. 1997. 2000. The paper focuses on structural durability of the main steam header under load-following to illustrate how the life extending control of fossil fuel power plants can be achieved via feedforwardffeedback. The feedforward control policy is synthesised via non-linear off-line optimisation of a multi-objective cost function of dynamic performance and service life.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 367 model. Cori and Maffezzoni (1984) combined linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design with conventional control expedients to provide a practical optimal regulator and evaluated it on a real plant by a direct digital control system. some parameters of which had been estimated by field tests. Katebi and Johnson (1997) propose the application of a decentralised predictive control scheme based on a state space implementation of generalised predictive control (GPC) (Ordys and Clarke. This was an experimental application of optimal control to a drum boiler power plant. The feedback sequence is based on 0.. It makes use of optimal regulator theory recognising the limitation of an imperfect model and produces integral type action which guarantees zero steady-state errors. under the constraints of actuator saturation. 2002) for improved control of a thermal power plant. It assumes a hierarchical control structure in which the multivariable optimal regulator acts as a set-point controller at a higher level with 4. In another related notable work.

(2000. Adopting the approach taken by Prasad et al. Successive linearisation and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) are used to obtain a linear state space model as a basis for a constrained long-range predictive controller design.3. this chapter discusses the effectiveness of a physical model-based coordinated control strategy by evaluating its control performance under severe operating conditions involving large load changes and commonly occurring significantly large system disturbances. the NPMPC strategy models a selected set of plant parameters as stochastic variables. and a radiant-type platen superheater (PL) for superheating the saturated steam of the drum (DR) to 540 °C. 2002). The plant uses three-stage superheaters: a convection-type primary superheater (PH).1 Simplified schematic of Ballylumford power plant . Here. 2002) present a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) strategy for effective handling of plant-wide interactions and system disturbances. 13. They report relatively improved performance of their DPC algorithm in dealing with cross-couplings. (2000. Prasad et al. The PL TGv I FGR I ' Figure 13. a secondary superheater (SH).1. Adopting a different predictive control approach.368 Thermal power plant simulation and control performance predictive controller (DPC) applied in a gas turbine power plant simulation.3 13. To account for the effect of sustained system disturbances.1 Control problems of a thermal power plant Simulation of a 200 M W thermal power plant A simplified schematic diagram of the 200 MW Ballylumford power plant is shown in Figure 13. the main steam pressure is maintained at 164 bar by manipulating the fuel flow valve (FFV) and accordingly the air flow damper (AFD) to maintain an optimal air-fuel ratio. This stochastic disturbance model in combination with the physical plant model is used by the NPMPC algorithm for prediction purposes. The chapter also discusses how constraint handling of MPC helps in preventing thermal constraint violation while ensuring the highest possible rate of load change. specially in tightly constrained cases.

similar to those in the actual power plant. There is also an attemperator (ATr) for reheat steam temperature control. Multiloop PID controllers. Control of reheater temperature is normally achieved by manipulating the flue gas recirculation (FGR) damper. It has 14 states. There is also a reheater (RH) for reheating the exhaust steam from the HP turbine back to 540 °C.1 and 13. through which flue gases from the economiser exit are injected into the furnace hopper. nine inputs.. describing mainly the boilerturbine dynamics of the Ballylumford power plant for the top 60 per cent of the load range. Normalised random sequences are added to the outputs to simulate measurement Table 13. The main steam temperature is controlled by inter-stage attemperators: a first-stage attemperator (AT1) in the in-coming steam to the PL and a second-stage attemperator (AT2) in the in-coming steam to the SH. Prasad. A simulation of the above plant has been created in Matlab/Simulink ® using a physical model (Lu et al. The reheat steam enters the IP/LP turbine through an intercept valve (ICV). The model consists of 14 first-order non-linear differential equations and more than 100 algebraic equations. 1997).1 Input (u) Simulation inputs and outputs Output (y) Drum water level (mm) Drum steam pressure (MPa) Main steam flow (kg/s) Primary superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Platen superheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Platen superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Secondary superheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Secondary superheater outlet steam temperature (°C) Main steam valve pressure (MPa) Governing stage outlet steam temperature (°C) Total heat flow in steam cycle (MW) HP turbine power output (MW) Reheater inlet steam temperature (°C) Reheater outlet steam temperature (°C) IP turbine inlet steam pressure (MPa) IP/LP turbine output (MW) Feedwater flow (kg/s) First stage attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Second stage attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Reheater attemperator spray flow (kg/s) Fuel flow (kg/s) Air flow (kg/s) Flue gas recirculation flow (kg/s) Goveming valve area (unity) Intercepting valve area (unity) . 1995. but this is used sparingly.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 369 superheated main steam flow to the HP turbine is controlled by a turbine governor valve (TGV). and 16 outputs (Tables 13.2). are also implemented to control all the important plant outputs.

Evaporation in the water-wall tubes is mainly due to heat radiation from the translucent flame surface in the furnace. as it makes an insignificant contribution to overall system dynamics.2 Analysis of boiler-turbine operation The heat transfer in a power plant boiler takes place through radiation and convection modes.3. • • • 13. as the large volume of steam gives the low-pressure turbine a considerable lag. The compressibility of steam in the boiler subsystems is ignored because velocities in those subsystems are very small in comparison to sonic velocity. It is this process which has a major influence on the steam pressure and the water level in the drum. The effects of all of the working media (water and steam) and metal walls are separately considered. It is however considered for link pipes between the high-pressure turbine and intermediatepressure turbine. as it avoids using inaccurate effective metal coefficients and improves the model accuracy. The superheating of steam in the platen superheater. The effect of condenser dynamics is also excluded. or both.370 Thermalpower plant simulation and control Table 13. of the radiation and the convection heat transfer from the flue gases . The following general assumptions and considerations are made in the model formulation: • The effect of feedheater dynamics is omitted.2 Simulation state variables State variables (x p) Outlet enthalpy of economiser (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of economiser metal wall (°C) Outlet pressure of drum (MPa) Volume of saturated water in evaporation system (m3) Mean temperature of riser metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of primary superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of primary superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of platen superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of platen superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of secondary superheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of secondary superheater metal wall (°C) Outlet enthalpy of reheater (kJ/kg) Mean temperature of reheater metal wall (°C) Inlet pressure of high-pressure turbine (MPa) noise. The air and gas dynamics are neglected as the time constants involved are much smaller in comparison to other process lags. secondary superheater and reheater tubes takes place due to either.

the plant should operate with maximum possible main steam temperature. This depends upon the relative position and exposure of the particular heat exchanger tubes. i. pressure and temperature differences within particular components . it is clear that steam production in the boiler is a highly interactive and multivariable process. So. are normally used to control the final superheated steam temperature. However.e. governor valve opening. the rate of convection heat transfer to the superheater tubes and reheater tubes is altered. Based on this brief analysis. it is the combination of both the changes in steam pressure as well as governor valve opening. as steam pressure and steam flow change. In variable pressure operation.3 Economics of plant operation For higher thermodynamic steam cycle efficiency. 1992). Within the allowed metallurgical limits. for example.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 371 coming from the furnace. there is a strong interaction between the three variables. main steam pressure and steam flow. This causes the flue gases to maintain a greater quantity of combustion heat. As mentioned earlier. As a result. The FGR also influences the radiation process.3. The convection heat transfer to the superheater and reheater tubes from the flue gases is proportional to temperature and flow rate of flue gases coming out of the boiler fumace. The position and the area of the flame surface depends upon the active burner sequence. the governor valve opening responds to changes in power demand by varying steam flow to the turbine for the desired shaft power. This results in changes in the final superheat and reheat steam temperatures. Flue gas recirculation (FGR) is mainly used for controlling the temperature of steam coming out of the reheater. as excess air pushes the flame surface further upward in the furnace and it also reduces the average flame temperature. In any case. FGR is a process in which flue gases from a point after the economiser in the rear pass of the boiler are taken out and reinjected into the base of the furnace. This reduces the average temperature of the flame surface. the drum water level is affected leading to compensatory adjustments in feedwater flow. So the final steam temperature coming out of these heat exchanger tubes will depend on the temperature and flow rate of the flue gases and the incoming temperature and flow rate of steam passing through the tubes themselves. There are two main modes of plant operation: constant steam pressure and variable steam pressure. Attemperator sprays. 13. but although quite small it certainly has some effect on steam pressure and water level in the boiler drum. before it enters the HP turbine. It also depends on the air-fuel ratio. metallurgical constraints on the boiler and turbine components limit the maximum temperature and pressure of the steam. resulting in less heat transfer through radiation. stresses caused due to the rate of change in both temperature. In constant steam pressure operation. as well as main steam pressure and reheat steam temperature (Rogers and Mayhew. which influence the incoming steam temperature. steam flow also has a strong influence on steam temperature dynamics. Heat transfer through radiation is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature of the flame surface.

etc. the pressure upstream of the turbine valves is held constant over the entire load range. As in the above case. they impose very important constraints on plant control. Load control is achieved by modulating the turbine valves. In order to demonstrate the control complexity of the large load change in variable-pressure mode. It also causes loss of exergetic efficiency of the reheat steam. The use of spray water causes loss of steam cycle efficiency. During the time the boiler is being overtired. This is accomplished first by manipulating the FGR. The temperature of the steam delivered to the turbine is maintained within close limits of rated main steam temperature at the stop valve outlet. The fuel flow increases very rapidly at the beginning of the load change to supply the desired increase in steam flow and also to build up the boiler pressure. to achieve the highest rate of load change. the amount of overfiring is decreased. obtained as a steady-state result from the plant simulation run. since steam generated by evaporation of spray water does not pass through these tubes. but also that spray water should be minimised. The actuators driving important control variables such as recirculating gas dampers. the turbine valves return to their initial positions. Violation of these constraints severely impairs the life of the plant components and sometimes even leads to emergency situations. it is then controlled by spraying water through the attemperator. due to severe non-linearities and intrinsic rate limits. As the drum pressure starts to increase. Reduced thermal stress within the turbine results from a reduced temperature drop in the first stage wheel in this mode. This is shown in Figure 13. as part of the steam never passes through the HP turbine. Then as the drum pressure starts to reach its desired value. servomotors of turbine valves. there is a very fast rise in steam temperatures initially. The final temperature is controlled by spraying water into the steam by attemperators. Assume that the load demand ramps up. The governor valves open quickly to provide the initial load response by taking advantage of boiler-stored energy. however. In the variablepressure mode of operation. As a result. to achieve the optimum temperature conditions in the turbine. The main steam pressure was linearly varied from 87. Excessive attemperation.372 Thermal power plant simulation and control further constrain plant dynamics.5 per cent of full load per minute in the plant simulation while the plant was controlled using multiloop . the boiler pressure is allowed to vary as a linear function of load. in the variable-pressure mode of plant operation. causes overheating of the superheater tubes preceding the attemperators.2. Now.2 to 164 bar over the load range 80 to 200 MW. Thus for economical operation it is not only important to maintain the rated main steam temperature and reheat temperature within extremely close limits. Initially the boiler is overtired by a considerable amount in order to make up for the rather slow response of the drum pressure. The spray water also causes loss of exergetic efficiency of the superheated steam due to heat transfer through a very high temperature difference. the temperature of reheat steam supplied to the IP turbine is also maintained close to the rated value. the generated power was ramped up at 2. consider the boiler dynamics in the case of a sudden load change. strongly influence dynamic performance. and if the reheat temperature is still rising beyond the recommended limit. In the constant-pressure mode of operation.

.. . . When the load demand ramps up in a constant-pressure mode of plant operation. I. so as to avoid excessive overfiring. . . ~ . 460 r .. .. . . . :-180 190 . . . . utilising the boiler-stored energy and causing a small dip in the steam pressure. . . . . .. . . . . Figure 13. This causes the fuel flow to increase to meet the additional demand of steam flow. . . ... . . . . . . . . the governor valves open to allow additional steam flow. . . . . .. .5 0 I I I I 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 -~ "--.L . . .. . . 440 I 420 // " / 100 I 110 I " I I I I I I I ~ 90 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 I I I I I I I I I I . . . . I .~" ~ 300 200 ~ 90 I 100 400 I 110 I 120 I 130 I 140 I 150 I 160 I 170 J 180 I 190 i~ . . . . . . . . . . . However the variation in the first-stage steam temperature is relatively small.. . ~ ~-100 90 180 110 120 Variable . of full load). as it is necessary to change the saturation temperature of the boiler water circuitry (Lansing. . . 130 Power pressure -7 140 output i 150 (MW) Constant ~ 160 pressure ' 1 170 -- . .. . . . . •~ ~ -m = loo ~ i . . .2 Load variations in constant-pressure and variable-pressure modes PI controllers. .. . ~ 373 ~ ~' 480 ~ . . . The simulation results are shown in Figure 13. . . . .. . .J. This thus necessitates a controller which can optimally control the steam pressure following a ramp trajectory with a slope of not more than a certain fixed pressure rise rate. In this case there is much less . . . . 1975). . "'-. . . . . . . . o .. . . . . . .. Thus this mode of operation severely limits the unit's ability to change the load rapidly (ramp rate no larger than 3-5 per cent/min. .3 and clearly demonstrate how poorly PI controllers perform in regulating the main steam temperature and reheat steam temperature during the ramping up of the load. . . .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 1. . . . . .- 0. .- "4 ~ .. .. . . .

3. Figure 13.. here is to show the relative difference in control performances between the two operating modes using PI controllers with the same control parameters.374 Thermalpower plant simulation and control 490 ~ " ' ' ~ 160[/' I I ~ 4~o[ / W ~.~ 46o L. However. The main objective. 10 Variable pressure . . 50 60 ~" ~ ~ 11 10 9 ~ ~ 540 = ~ 535 ~ 8 7 0 10 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 0 V. . It should be noted that although attaining constrained optimal control performance is extremely difficult it may be possible. . t 0 545 ~ vV_ 10 .3. this mode of operation results in greater change in the first-stage steam temperature as well as a higher temperature difference between the reheat steam and main steam. Occurrence of these disturbances thus results in greater plant-model mismatch. 30 . 20 30 40 Time (min) 50 60 Figure 13. 0 10 . . 20 30 40 50 60 "~-!.~-L?¢ "v~ V 4 olJ 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 10 20 30 40 50 60 ~ ~501 / ~ 13o[/ '2ol/ . 20 . 40 . . . resulting in higher thermal stress in the turbine. . . 1987).'t ~ 48oL\ -.3 Controlperformance of multiloop PI controllers during "ramping up of load demand overfiring. in constant steam pressure mode. . k . As a result.40i/ 540 ~ --- . as the boiler drum pressure is not significantly affected. 13. to improve upon the control performance shown.Constant pressure . . however. by better tuning of the multiloop PI controllers.4 Plant disturbances Plant dynamics change significantly during major system disturbances. Speed of disturbance . . the rated main steam and reheat steam temperature cannot be maintained at loads below a typical value of 60 per cent MCR (Dieck Assad et al.3 shows that the same PI controller gives relatively good performance in regulating the main steam temperature and reheat steam temperature during the ramping up of load in constant-pressure mode. with much less attemperation spray water flow to control the steam temperatures.

Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 375 rejection is one of the most important properties determining the capability of a control technique. the main parameters affected due to the above disturbances are: • • • • • • radiation heat transfer coefficient between the evaporator (water-wall) tube metal and the flame surface convection heat transfer coefficients between heat exchanger tube metal and flue gases convection heat transfer coefficients between steam/water and heat exchanger tube metal efficiencies of the HP. 13. A velocity-type discrete PI implementation is adopted. In a lumped parameter model. similar to the lower-level controllers normally employed in a thermal power plant in a multiloop control structure. it is possible to identify the main plant model parameters affected by commonly occurring major system disturbances.4 Applying a physical model-based predictive control strategy A non-linear physical model-based predictive controller (NPMPC) applied in a hierarchical structure to a thermal power plant simulation and developed under the Matlab/Simulink ® environment is shown in Figure 13. The system disturbances can thus be very effectively modelled as stochastic variations in a subset of the model parameters mentioned above. Here the drum-level PI controller helps stabilise the unstable drum-level dynamics and the power output PI controller facilitates manipulation of the governor valve at a much higher speed independent of the higher-level NPMPC controller for faster rejection of high-frequency . The set-points for the drum level PI controller and the power output PI controller are manipulated by the higher-level NPMPC. air leakage and tube fouling problems in feedheaters due to tube blocking/fouling. The drum level and power output are controlled through a two-level control structure. taking full advantage of the knowledge within the complete physical plant model. The main steam temperature and pressure and the reheat steam temperature are controlled directly by NPMPC. The fundamental sources of major system disturbances (or changes in system response) in a thermal power plant are: • • • • • heat transfer disturbances in the furnace heat exchanger tube fouling/blockages deterioration in efficiencies of turbine cylinders changes in condenser characteristics due to cooling water temperature variation. IP and LP cylinders condenser vacuum quantity of bled steam and efficiency of heat transfer. These disturbances alter the system parameters used in plant modelling. However.4.

The best trade-off between steam-cycle efficiency and plant life (Prasad et al. The steam separator should work at a specified value of water level in the drum.. 1997) results in prescribing certain fixed values along with a recommended range of variation to the main steam pressure and temperature and to the reheat steam temperature. 13. Assuming a fixed air-fuel ratio.- Main steam temperature Fuel flow Power output FGR Power I setpoint Governor valve Reheat steam temperature Power output PI controller Main steam flow Figure 13. a thermal power plant is required to supply electric power with optimum efficiency. 2002). Prasad. 2000.376 Thermalpower plant simulation and control flow Feedwater Dmmlevel Drum level PI controller Level set-point Main steam pressure 1st stage spray Platen S/H temperature 2nd stage spray Reheat spray flow . An optimum air-fuel ratio is maintained to ensure better combustion quality and to minimise environmental impact.1 Main control objectives As discussed in the previous section.. the main objectives of the plant-wide coordinated control .4 Hierarchical control strategy disturbances due to imbalances in demand and supply of electric power (Prasad et al.4.

yl (t) ~ drum level y2(t) ~ main steam pressure y(t) = y3(t) ~ main steam temperature y4(t) ~ power output Y5(t ) ~ reheat steam temperature As shown in Figure 13.5 °C and the flue gas recirculation control alone is unable to regulate. Assume that a plant model is expressed by the following non-linear state space equations: JfP = f ( x p. x d. The non-linear physical model used in the NPMPC is obtained by combining a physical plant model with an appropriate disturbance model as discussed next.4.1) .e. i.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 377 problem are therefore to optimally control the following output variables. 540 + 5. Ud) (13. The controller would also be required to account for frequently occurring disturbances that may have a significant effect on the plant dynamics and the closed-loop plant response as discussed in the previous section. 13. and the unmeasured disturbance states. U. U f. It consists of a non-linear physical model-based extended Kalman filter (EKF) for reconstruction of the process states.5. A set of directly manipulated input variables is also computed by the NPMPC controller. required for estimating the unmeasured disturbance inputs. U f. U.2 Algorithmic details The algorithmic formulation of the control strategy can be summarised by the block diagram shown in Figure 13. u a.3) which are assumed to have stochastic variation to account for commonly occurring system disturbances. the above outputs will be controlled by the higher-level NPMPC controller by manipulating the following input variables: ul (t) ~ drum level set-point u2(t) ~ first stage spray flow u3(t) =A second stage spray flow u(t) = u4(t) = RH spray flow `5 us(t) = fuel flow `5 u6(t) ~ flue gas recirculation flow u7(t) ='5 power set-point For reasons of thermal efficiency. Ud) and y = g ( x p. These reconstructed or estimated states are then used by the higher-level NPMPC controller to compute set-points for lower-level controllers. The disturbance states x d are associated with a set of model parameters (Table 13.4. the reheat spray flow u4 (t) should not be used until the reheat steam temperature starts rising beyond the recommended maximum limit. x p.

k. u f u d denote vectors of process states. u.1) can hence be expressed as: X p = Fts (Xk_l. u.1a) . the known feedforward inputs. respectively. k) (13.Uk_l. and the unmeasured disturbance inputs. For discrete controller design. u f and u d can be assumed to be constants between sampling instants. A discrete version of the model equations (13. manipulated inputs.378 Thermal power plant simulation and control Set-points(Yr) Feedforward inp Disturbances Figure 13. ud_l) P f and Yk g(x p uk.Uk_l.3 Symbol kwww O/ww Otsh Otrh Otwpl t~wsh ~wrh Pcond Non-linear physical model-based control (NPMBC) algorithm Selected model parameters Model parameter (x d) Radiation heat transfer coefficient for water-wall Convection heat transfer coefficient between water-wall tubes and saturated water Convection heat transfer coefficient between secondary superheater tubes and steam Convection heat transfer coefficient between reheater tubes and steam Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and platen superheater tubes Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and secondary superheater tubes Convection heat transfer coefficient between flue gases and reheater tubes Condenser vacuum where xP. u f u d k.5 Table 13.

3) w _l+ w _l (13. a discrete version of the model equation (13. and linearisation and discretisation processes is given by Prasad et al.5) where x is a composite state vector and F0k and ~ k are linearisation constants or offsets for states and outputs respectively.tPOkI f f (13. u~_ l.1 f d Yk = g( xp.4) where vA and w p are vectors of zero-mean Gaussian white noise sequences with covariances of R v and QP. the following linear equations for the combined system are obtained: Xk+i+llk : Axk+ilk q.5).xd d Xk.3 was selected. ud_l) denotes the terminal state vector obtained by integrating the ordinary differential equation (ODE) in equation (13. m-step ahead prediction of outputs can be derived as: m m Yk+mlk : C(A)mXkIfk + ~ c(a)m-J BAuk+j-1 + Z c(a)m-J Bfu[+J -1 j=l m j=l + y ~ C(A)m-JFok + DAUk+m + Dfui+m + 990k. 2000). xP. (2000).2) where w d is a zero-mean Gaussian white noise sequence with a covariance of Qo.(XP_l .BAUk+i "q-Bfui+i d. j=l (13.. A detailed mathematical formulation of the EKF estimator. respectively.r0k/ Yk+ilk Cxk+ilk + DAUk+i + D Uk+i q. Using an EKF the optimal estimates of the process states. a state space representation of a pair of velocity-type discrete PI controllers is then added in series to account for the lower-level controllers.6) . From equation (13.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 379 where Ft.Uf-l. xk) + vk J= 1) ][I0] + P d (13. are obtained.1 a) for one sample interval ts with the initial condition of Xk_ 1 and constant inputs of u = uk-1.l~k-l.U k _ 1 . A set of linear discrete state space equations is then created using standard iinearisation (Taylor and Antoniotti. uA. u A. 1992) and discretisation techniques. and disturbance states.1 ) can then be expressed as follows: [Xp] Lx fts( k-l.. To the linear system equations. d Uk_ 1 -The unmeasured system disturbances can be taken into account by assuming an integrating zero-mean white noise type variation in a few selected model parameters affected by major system disturbances. Taking into account the possibility of additive process and measurement noise. After further algebraic manipulation (Prasad et al. The unmeasured disturbances u d can thus be represented by: xd d d Xk_ 1 ~ Wk_ l and u d ----xd (13. Based on these considerations. it is important to ensure that the selected model parameters provide additional degrees of freedom in estimating the controlled outputs in steady-state. However. uk-1. a set of eight model parameters listed in Table 13. x d. p Uf f and U d .

9) where Yr is a vector of set-point trajectories defined as Yr = [Yrk+l Yrk+2 "'" Yrk+N]" The constrained solution is obtained by solving on-line the constrained optimisation problem (13. for j = 1 to M Ymin < Yk+jlk < Ymax.Yf) (13.'. AUk+M_I] T.3 Relationship with original state space GPC Based on the original input-output or transfer function form.I G T AY(Yr -. G is the step response matrix and Yf+ilt~ is the/-step-ahead predicted output vector keeping u fixed at uk-1. f f T .7) Umin < Uk+j-I < Umax. After substituting (I 3. 1993) as Y = Yf + G A U (13. . the controller performance index is formed as MinJk = [ ~ (Yk+jlk -. for j = 1 to N (13. the unmeasured disturbances are assumed to act only at the outputs in the state space GPC derivation . Using equation (13.7).7a-13. [Yk+llk Yk+21k .7b) (13. for j = 1 to N Y u where N.6). .7a) (13. Yk+NIk]T' Yf [Yf+llg Yk+21k "'" Yk+NIk] . AU = [AUk AUk+I .8) into (13.7e) Xmin < Xk+jlk < Xmax. Aj and Aj are the finite output prediction horizon.4.Yrk+j) [j=l + E((AUk+j-I)TAjAUk+j-I) j=l subject to: } (13.380 Thermal power plant simulation and control Assuming unity dead-time and k as the present time interval.7d) (13.Yrk+j) TAY j(Yk+jtk -.8) whereY . p-predicted outputs can be written in standard GPC format (Ordys and Clarke. the weighting matrix for prioritising controller action among multiple outputs.7e) using a quadratic programming (qp) routine available in Matlab. and the weighting matrix to penalise incremental changes in controls. for j = 1 to M AXmin < AXk+jlk < AXmax. respectively.7c) (13. the unconstrained solution of the optimisation problem is A U = (GT AYG + A u ) . the number of projected control moves or control horizon. 13. for j = 1 to N AUmin ~< AUk+j-I ~ AUmax. Also. M.

the plant simulation was run under a set of severe but realistic operating conditions. The non-linear model representation in equations (13. M= 10. 2002). xP.. This form is described as state estimation-based GPC (SEGPC) in later simulation results. N=20.11) (13. The turbine side was disturbed by applying random step changes in the condenser vacuum. 13. uk. For comparison purposes. a 4-40 MW step change in the load-demand set-point was also applied.Uk-I. The 10 s sampling period for NPMPC was selected based on the fastest dominant dynamics of the plant (Prasad et al. The sampling periods were 10 s for NPMPC and 1 s for PI controllers.12) X k : X k _ 1 nt.3. Additionally they do not provide corrections to process states. u [) + x d + vk. Ay=I.4) will therefore change to: Xp : d Fts(XP_I.1 F u r n a c e disturbances u n d e r varying c o n d e n s e r v a c u u m In order to verify the low-frequency disturbance rejection capability of the hierarchical control structure. Along with disturbance injection. it is one of the most . 2000). 1993). In fact. do not correspond to plant parameter states having stochastic variation. Au=0. A detailed discussion about the selection of parameters for the predictive controller and EKF estimator can be found in Prasad et al. two commonly occurring system disturbances were applied simultaneously.3-13. (2000.U[_I d d P ) -b lOk_ 1 (13.12). as in the NPMPC above. as per worst-case performance testing practice in Ballylumford power plant.5 Simulation results In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the hierarchical NPMPC control strategy.1I. test results were also obtained with a conventional but comparable state estimation-based generalised predictive control (SEGPC) method designed under similar conditions.5. This means that the disturbance states.2) and (13.llOk_ 1 Yk = g( xp. State space GPC can also be implemented using the state estimates obtained from EKF and the model in equations (13. as control performance is far too poor under severe operating conditions.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 381 (Ordys and Clarke.10) (13. x d. The mechanical power obtained from the LP turbine is directly affected by changes in the turbine back-pressure or condenser vacuum. The heat transfer process in the furnace was disturbed on the boiler side. 13.10-13. Test results are discussed and analysed in the following subsections. The following parameters were used as a default set in all the tests. No comparison is made with multiloop PI controllers. as already demonstrated for the typical case of a large load transition in section 13.

such as a power plant boiler. Therefore.382 Thermal power plant simulation and control important plant parameters determining the efficiency of a thermal power unit. The condenser vacuum changes as a result of air leakage.0 0. the rest of the plant outputs also experience significant fluctuations. The first stage spray flow was intentionally blocked by setting its maximum amplitude to zero. A comparison between the estimated radiation heat transfer coefficient and its true value is shown in Figure 13. Such a provision facilitates control of the main steam temperature.6a. random step changes in the condenser vacuum were made in the range 25-70 mbar. Similarly. thus providing two extra degrees of freedom.5 3. This is because the value returned by the estimator has been adjusted to recognize other plant model mismatches. to avoid unnecessary use of reheat spray flow. both the NPMPC-based and SEGPC-based control strategies were applied with active amplitude and rate constraints on the manipulated variables. Higher deviations from the set-points are observed in all the controlled variables with the SEGPC-based strategy.0 10. is dependent on the configuration of the set of active burners.6c. Based on plant data. which are quite often adjusted by plant operators for various operational reasons. typical values of the input rate constraints were: Aumax = [9. the step changes have quite a significant impact on all the controlled variables. and thus the radiation heat transfer.0] T and AUmin : -AUmax. Being a highly coupled system. As seen in Figure 13. The estimation of the condenser vacuum is however not as good as that of the radiation heat transfer coefficient.5 °C. the NPMPC-based hierarchical controller rejects the disturbances very quickly.5 0. which facilitates their on-line estimation. . the position of the flame surface. variations in cooling water temperature.6a. In order to simulate furnace disturbances. even if the spray flow is partially or fully blocked in one of the stages due to some mechanical problems such as tube leakage or valve failure. Another important feature of this control problem is that there are seven manipulated variables and only five controlled variables. In order to simulate a situation of varying condenser vacuum. One obvious reason for the better performance of the NPMPC strategy is the deliberate consideration of the radiation heat transfer coefficient and condenser vacuum as stochastic disturbances. The main steam temperature is normally controlled by spray water flows in two stages. while ensuring that the reheat steam temperature is controlled optimally. which demonstrates excellent tracking performance. In order to verify these possibilities. there is an immediate change in the power output in response to a change in the condenser vacuum. As is evident from the results in Figures 13.6a-d.6c. and the formation of scale inside the heat exchanger tubes. 4-10 per cent random step changes in the radiation heat transfer coefficient were applied as shown in Figure 13. its maximum amplitude was forced to stay at zero until the flue gas recirculation was fully cut off and reheat steam temperature starts rising beyond 545.6a-f.0 0. the particular constraint placed on the reheat spray flow can easily be satisfied by on-line optimisation. very slow. The estimated condenser vacuum is compared with its true value in Figure 13.0 0. comparatively. In a multiple burner furnace. As seen in Figures 13. Disturbance rejection by SEGPC is.

..... .'~ 0.. . .. -. Constrained S E G P C Constrained N P M P C .9 ......... 220 .. power output tracking in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum...... . . I I I I I 45 50 15 20 25 T i m e (min) 30 35 40 . ' ' ' ' ' ' ~ "..... 5 10 ~.....5 ~ 0 i 5 i 10 J 15 i 20 I 25 Time (min) 31 0 l 35 L 40 I 45 50 ...... .. . .. o~' ' ".... . . I I ~___]~_..... Constrained SEGPC - - Constrained NPMPC Figure 13.--. . ~r L l l j I i i I 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~. i i I ~ 0 1i5 i 20 25 T i m e (min) 30 35 40 45 50 . . ..~ 0. ~ _~ ...Physical model-based coordinated power plant control i ] ... i I I i i i i 383 200 ~ 190 ~ - ~8o~ 170 160 150 ) _ I I ". i . . .. / ~° F 140 / I ~.... . ~ 200 ' . Estimated i - F True i r ..8o~ 140 [- ~ .. .. . i .6 a b Estimation of condenser vacuum during furnace disturbances.. I I I I ] I I I I 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~" 220 ~ " ..~ 80 70 60 50 ~ ~ 4o 3o 20 ~. t 5 '. ....

. .. ~ "'"~\ . .-. .. . ... _. .2 I Constrained SEGPC I i Constrained NPMPC I I i 8x ~ =4" ~ ~ 3 2.. 10 I 15 [ 20 i 25 i 35 I 40 I 45 i 50 12 ~.8 I I i J i I I I I I 0 ~0 15 20 25 Time (min) 30 35 40 45 50 . . ... .4 3. .. -:-'....s. . . . .6 c d main steam pressure variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum.._ .. . - i True .. ~ ~ . i i . . ... . . . Constrained SEGPC Constrained NPMPC 30 35 40 45 50 Figure 13. ~ . ~ t 30 i ..= a ~. . . ..k. . . . . I i = ~ 540 ...384 Thermal power plant simulation and control 166t 165 [164 [ u~ ' . main steam temperature variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum. ..~.6 3. . . ..d~k ~ . .. . .i . ~ 10 9 0 5 10 15 20 25 i 30 I 35 40 45 50 .. . .~._.. 544 ~ 542 Estimated i . ... "\ I : "5-~ ~ 162 [0 1. .. .. . ~ ~ ~ 3... .. . .... __ ~ .. . .. .. . .. .. 538 ~ 536 8 J ~'1 I I I I I I 0 5 i0 1~5 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ~ 6 ~ 2 0 8 6 4 0 r 5 1~0 1~5 J 20 i J 25 i J 30 i I 35 i ~ 40 i r 45 5O i i ! = 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (rain) . .. . . .

. .6 e f reheat steam temperature variation in the presence of furnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum...-.... ' ' 535 0 ~ 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 ... 50 ...._j ~"-- 21! 0 5 10 15 20 25 .i~ 10 i 15 i 20 I 25 I 3'0 i 35 I 40 i 45 I 50 i °oL 0 5 .......¢ O" 0 5 1'0 1'5 ~ 20 ' 25 ' 30 f 35 ' 40 ' 45 50 ~2 30 -" ": ' _. 45 . .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control ~g 385 55o / 540 " "..i I i Constrained NPMPC i i i ~ 50 I ... . ......--.. :--' ' ' "~:--"~----" ~ . Constrained SEGPC Constrained NPMPC Figure 13.. .. .. .. ~ ..... 40 ... ' ... ' " ... . .. ... . drum level variation in the presence offurnace disturbances under varying condenser vacuum ... Constrained SEGPC . 50 Time (rain) ... ' ' _ -50 0 100 t ~ ' ll0 ' ll5 ' I i I I I I 20 ' 25 ' 30 35 ' 40 ' 45 ' 50 ~ -50 I I I -I000 1~ n ~'--"*~-_ 5 i . ~S ~ "~ . .. .. 10 15 20 25 Time (rain) - 30 - 35 ..... ... 30 35 40 _ 45 . ....

defined as a state variable in Table 13.7a. the rate of change in main steam temperature is slowed down. reheat spray flow was completely avoided. As seen in Figure 13. This clearly shows the effectiveness and strong advantages of the rate constraints applied to the heat exchanger metal tube temperatures.6e. As discussed in subsection 13.5. as seen in Figure 13.7c.8 bar (i. the variable-pressure operation involves large changes in drum pressure or saturated steam pressure.5 per cent MCR/min). if possible. The first stage spray was not blocked in the current test.64 bar/min). The resulting large variation in the main steam and reheat steam temperatures and limits the maximum allowed rate of load change. It is also to be noted that with both constrained and unconstrained approaches. it has however reduced the rate of rise of metal temperatures of the superheater tubes. the on-line optimisation has obtained excellent main steam temperature control even when the first stage spray flow was completely blocked. The metal temperatures of the heat exchanger tubes depend upon the temperatures of the superheat or reheat steam inside the tubes. as shown in section 13. However. This is shown in Figure 13. set-point following is so sharp that it is difficult to differentiate between the actual main steam pressure and the set-point. during the constrained case. the input constraints were relaxed slightly in comparison to the test of the previous subsection. In order to observe the effect of state constraints exclusively. 5 per cent MCR/min) and proportionally the main steam pressure set-point was varied between 164 and 112. as seen in Figure 13. Two sets of results are shown in Figures 13.2 Variable-pressure operation Assuming a linear rise or fall in the main steam pressure with load.3. during both the constrained and unconstrained cases. However. Furthermore. The rate of rise in generated power output is also reduced. a trapezoidal load demand signal was applied to test the performance of the controller under variablepressure operation. increased thermal stresses are caused by a higher rate of change in the tube metal temperatures.3.e. It is therefore more appropriate to apply rate constraints directly to the metal temperature of a heat exchanger rather than to the steam temperature.3.6d.7a. . the load demand set-point was varied between 200 and 120MW at a rate of 10MW/min (i. Although this has resulted in larger set-point deviations. as shown in Figure 13.386 Thermal power plant simulation and control As seen in Figure 13. leading to significant overfiring or underfiring in the furnace.7a-e for the constrained and unconstrained cases. 0.e.7b. As shown in Figure 13. A typical value of 0. the control performance is far better than that obtained with a multiloop PI controller under variable-pressure operation mode at a much lower rate of rise in the load (2. 13.2. It thus becomes a challenging control problem to achieve a larger rate of load change while ensuring that the thermal stresses in the heat exchanger tubes are within allowed limits.6 °C/min was applied as a rate constraint on the secondary superheater tube metal temperature.7d. It is to be noted that the control performance is significantly different during the periods of negative and positive load transitions because of substantially different initial operating conditions.

J ~.. .. .I. ".. . .8 t . . .. ....... . . . .. .. ~ 0. .. .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 387 200/ ' ' ' :.~" I 0 200[~ 0 40 50 60 . .. ...._. I 20 30 J L . . Constrained NPMPC ........ main steam pressure control during variable-pressure operation. . .=-' 18or ~ 160~ ". .. . .. . .. . .- 10 20 40 50 60 Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13. Constrained NPMPC ..... .. .. \~N. .160 P E ~ 150 140 Unconstrained NPMPC \ \ \ ~ "~ 13o 120 110 0 11 10 9 \ \ \\ I 20 I 30 / / / I 40 / / 1 I 50 60 tL 8 7 I I I I 0 30 Time (min) . ... .. ....7 a b Power output control during variable-pressure operation. .. . .8o 16o V 0 10 ~ 12o ~-~ o. ..7 ~ 0"6 I 20 30 40 50 60 ~ ~ x ~'. .s- . ~ - 14o~ 120 p i i" .... . ~]~ O ~ o lo i 20 ~o ~o ~o 60 Time (min) . . . . . . . . ... . ...

.. ...7 c d variation in superheat and reheat metal temperature during variable-pressure operation.... Constrained NPMPC - Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13..~ -r- ~ 500 40 50 60 Unconstrained NPMPC 545 = ~ 540 535 I I [ I ~' I 10 8 20 30 40 50 60 0 L I 0 8 10 I 20 I 30 i 40 i 50 i 60 0 L 0 10 20 30 Time (min) - 40 50 60 ...//' / 3'o I 40 510 60 ~o~o~ 515 = 510 505 / l0 20 310 Time (rain) ..............388 Thermal power plant simulation and control 538 i i • ~ t~ - 536 534 532 530 520 ~ ll0 210 ///... main steam temperature control during variable-pressure operation.. Constrained NPMPC - t.......

. Since the lower-level controllers can act independently of the speed of response of higherlevel controllers.~ v-.. The lower-level PI loops have also been used to stabilise the unstable plant dynamics arising due to the presence of a natural integrator in the form of drum level.6 Discussion and conclusions In order to ensure competitiveness in the deregulated power market. plant operation is adversely affected by multiloop interactions and commonly occurring system disturbances.. The ability to make a faster rate of change in generated power is limited by thermal constraints on the boiler-turbine components. suggests a non-linear physical model-based predictive control (NPMPC) strategy can be designed that can optimally account for plant-wide interactions and system disturbances and facilitate the running of the plant at the best possible efficiency without violating thermal constraints. The combination of a stochastic disturbance model along with a .. Formulation of such an approach for application to a 200 MW oil-fired thermal power plant has been discussed.7 reheat steam temperature control during variable-pressure operation 13.. a thermal power unit should operate with maximum possible thermodynamic efficiency and have the ability to make changes in the generated power at the fastest possible rate. o 10 20 310 40 50 60 e Time (min) . Making full and effective use of the information about system dynamics present in a physical power plant model...0 40 I 50 I 60 i = 0• 0 20 30 40 50 60 ~ . It is however difficult to ensure this with multiloop PI/PID controllers.....¢' ~ 540 535 1~0 2'0 . Also. The NPMPC strategy is applied in a two-level hierarchical control structure.2 40 30 ~ 20 f i~''.. there are sufficient degrees of freedom for handling both fast and slow acting disturbances...- Unconstrained NPMPC Figure 13.Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 389 545 -. Constrained N P M P C ...

1999.. . Furthermore both the power output and main steam pressure followed the scheduled ramp changes in their set-points with very high precision. enables control performance to be significantly improved during such severe conditions. making effective use of the detailed information regarding the plant condition. Metal temperatures of heat exchanger tubes were modelled as state variables in the plant simulation. these units quite often undergo large set-point changes involving large load transitions. Also these tests clearly demonstrated the excellent performance of the control structure in eliminating the adverse effect of plant-wide interactions through set-point manoeuvring of the local controllers. This made it possible to demonstrate through simulation tests that constraints needed to be applied on the metal temperatures rather than the steam temperature. no significant overshoot or undershoot was observed in both the main and reheat steam temperatures even during variable-pressure operation mode. Successful steam temperature regulation during variable-pressure operation is a very difficult task for any control strategy due to the complex pressure and temperature dynamics in a natural circulation boiler. As shown in the simulation results. Some of the most common disturbances are changes in active burner configuration. This would provide an opportunity to push the set-points for steam temperatures and pressure much closer to their physical constraints (Prasad et al. random changes in radiation heat flow were introduced in the boiler.390 Thermal power plant simulation and control non-linear plant model and models of local controllers was used by the higher-level NPMPC controller for prediction purposes. As it is now very common for thermal power plants to operate as peak-load plants in a cycling or two-shifting manner. This was done when the load-demand set-point was going through step changes of -4-40MW (20 per cent MCR) following a square-wave pattern. The rate constraint on the superheater tube metal temperature clearly demonstrated the strong advantage of the control strategy in facilitating higher rates of load change in the variable-pressure mode of operation. With the unconstrained NPMPC strategy. Use of a physical state space plant model facilitated application of constraints on state variables in addition to input and output variables. taking in and out of service of cooling water pumps to maintain the condenser vacuum. much superior control performance was obtained with the proposed control strategy in comparison to the SEGPC-based hierarchical control strategy designed under similar conditions. and switching on/off coal mills in the case of coal-fired power plant. For verifying the effectiveness of disturbance rejection capabilities. Several types of disturbances invariably accompany such load transitions and degrade the plant performance quite considerably. readily available through the physical plant model. while the condenser vacuum fluctuated in a random fashion on the turbine side. In addition to evaluating the disturbance rejection properties. The NPMPC algorithm applies successive linearisation and an EKF for state reconstruction to obtain a linear state space model of the plant. The linear model and a quadratic programming routine were then used to design a long-range predictive controller. the simulation tests conducted under multiple disturbances demonstrated the feasibility of implementing such a control strategy on a real plant even when plant model parameters are not accurately known or are time varying. During such severe operating conditions.

7 Acknowledgements A substantial part of the work presented in this chapter was carried out while the author was working in the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at The Queen's University of Belfast under the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant No. For instance. Fortunately. Additionally. 13.. state reconstruction and on-line quadratic optimisation during each control sample. LING.W. the tremendous potential for synergy between a physical model and the predictive control approach holds great promise for further research to find new and more effective ways of making use of the wealth of information about plant conditions present in a physical model in the development of a coordinated control system for thermal power plant. G. C. The availability of a differential. Proceedings oflEE. it has been estimated that during the last ten years the increase in processing power. should such a model not be available an appropriate low-order model could be developed using parameters obtained from plant design data and a minimal set of experiments. together with the improvements in optimisation algorithms. the NPMPC strategy requires a significantly large computational effort.: 'Dynamic control of a power boiler'. In particular. He also acknowledges the help obtained from the grant holders Prof. A. while their prices have steadily dropped.H. there has been a spectacular rise in the operating speed of modern computers. Prof. discretisation. However. E.. It can therefore be concluded that the time is ripe for developing and implementing a physical model-based coordinated control strategy that makes a real difference to the operational performance of today's thermal power plants. 1257-1268 CHIEN. E.8 References ANDERSON. Roos et al.. 13. 80. 2002. K. Swidenbank while working at the University.W. as it involves successive linearisation. GR/L24021. 116.: 'Dynamic analysis of a boiler'. It is thus a very realistic proposition to implement such a computationally intensive predictive control strategy in a power plant.L. B. J. Irwin and Dr. could in principle allow the speed of solution of convex optimisation problems .. The author is grateful to EPSRC for supporting the research work. 1958. pp. 1809-1819 .Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 391 Moelbak and Mortensen. 1969. pp. 1997). It would therefore require an appropriately fast computing system for its field implementation in a thermal power plant. 2003) resulting in a significant gain in thermal efficiency without adversely affecting the life of the plant. The complete model could then be fine tuned during a suitably designed validation process.which are central to predictive control to have increased by a factor of 106 (Maciejowski. Hogg. ERGIN. Transactions ASME. algebraic physical model is essential for the implementation of the proposed NPMPC strategy. and LEE.I.

(9).S. (3).H. in Flynn. pp. G.A. A. T. H. pp.. Proceedings of lEE. 1966. and MAFFEZZONI. 107-128 . 1997. 388-395 KALLAPPA. and HOGG. Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control. J. 2003) NICHOLSON. C. 10. Harlow.W.: 'Dynamic optimisation of a boiler-turboalternator model'. 1997 PRASAD. B. pp. E. A.W. pp. (3). H. pp. E.H. 24. 600-605 MACIEJOWSKI. pp. 1964. and FLAKE. G. 114. pp. B.M. 20. testing and control'. P.G. and KOCK.: 'Steam temperature control'.: 'A hierarchical physical model-based approach to predictive control of a thermal power plant for efficient plant-wide disturbance rejection'. International Journal of Systems Science.. M. 1987. S. J. 1997. 1727-1744 ORDYS. 111.W. 9.: 'Predictive control with constraints' (Pearson Education.. SWIDENBANK. R. M.: 'Practical optimal control of a drum boiler power plant'.E. Automatica.: 'A state-space description for GPC controllers'. E.: 'Integrated control of a nonlinear boiler model'. EC-2. G. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. and CLARKE. G..392 Thermalpower plant simulation and control CORI. and RAY.W. H. Automatica. and JOHNSON. 33. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. B. 421-425 LANSING. 2002) MCDONALD. 33.W. J. 1993. 14. 1967.: 'Design and analysis of boiler-turbinegenerator control using optimal linear regulator theory'. July 1975. AC-18. SWIDENBANK. and KWANTI.. pp. (2).W. 385-399 NICHOLSON. 1569-1576 ORDYS. pp. 163-173 DIECK ASSAD. R. 1101-1118 KATEBI. 781-797 PRASAD.. and HOGG. pp.: 'Variable pressure peaking boiler. H... September.: 'Predictive control design for large-scale systems'. PhD thesis.. operation. 202-209 MOELBAK. The Queen's University of Belfast. (3). lEE Proceedings on Control Theory and Applications. 97.. IRWIN G. and MORTENSEN.W.: 'Performance monitoring and control for economical fossil power plant operation'... B.Y. (Ed. SWIDENBANK.. 1999. 435-440 LU.W. pp. pp. Journal of Engineering for Power.: 'A novel performance monitoring strategy for economical thermal power plant operation'. pp.): 'Thermal power plant simulation and control' (IEE.G. SWIDENBANK.: 'An object-oriented power plant adaptive control system design tool'. G. London. E: 'Constrained predictive control for multivariable systems with application to power systems'. 802-809 PRASAD. 113. 147.: 'Plant-wide predictive control for a thermal power plant based on a physical plant model'. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2002. 1973. M. (6). (5). 1995. 2000. IRWIN G. (3).: 'Life extending control of fossil fuel power plants'. (3).. Proceedings oflEE.W. Proceedings of lEE. D. (3). International Journal of Robust Nonlinear Control. 523-537 PRASAD. D.R. E...: 'Optimal set-point scheduling in a boiler turbine system'. E. and HOGG. 1478-1499 NICHOLSON. Automatica.. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 24 (7).. 1999. MASAD. and HOGG. A.: 'Dynamic optimisation of a boiler'. G. pp. HOLMES. 1984..

C.J. TERLAKY. Proceedings CACSD'92.an interior point approach' (Wiley. Harlow. March 17-19. California. Chichester.H. T. and MAYHEW..Physical model-based coordinated power plant control 393 ROGERS.. 1992) ROOS. 156-164 .E: 'Theory and algorithms for linear optimisation ..: 'Linearization algorithms and heuristics for CACE'. J. J.. Y. and ANTONIOTTI. M. 1992. 1997) TAYLOR. and VIAL. A. Napa. pp.: 'Engineering thermodynamics work and heat transfer' (Longman.

1 Introduction As we begin a new century. In contrast to a regulated monopoly situation in which another company-owned plant is most likely to pick up the load when a unit goes down in a competitive market. the electricity generating business is transitioning from a cost-plus. At such times the availability of fast-start peaking power is an opportunity to generate profits over a period of a few hours or a few days. to a competitive environment for the sale of its product. power brokers. direct wholesale customers. Focus has switched from achieving maximum performance of all generating plants to obtaining the maximum possible return on plant investments. These sales may be a result of a daily auction to obtain the lowest-priced electricity or the result of short-term or long-term contracts with an intermediate party or the ultimate end-user (Armor and Wolk. asset managers will be trying to identify the best markets to serve and the most profitable operating modes for each plant. In this new business environment.1 shows a typical summer spike for the month of August 1999. it is an inopportune time for units to be out of service.Chapter 14 Management and integration of power plant operations A. monopoly environment with an obligation to serve. that load could now be supplied by a competitor. Emphasis will be placed on minimising the number and duration of forced and planned outages. distribution companies. Generating companies seek to maximise on-line generation at such times. the electricity produced from any individual plant may be sold to Independent System Operators (ISOs). whether the outage is planned or unplanned. Conversely. retail companies and others. marketers.E Armor 14. Figure 14. Ownership of generation assets is being decoupled from the ownership of transmission and distribution assets. Spot prices can change daily as electricity demand and availability fluctuate. In order to maintain a competitive edge in such a market. The result is a . Plant operators need to meet the demands of its identified market and to improve the performance of the plant to allow it to compete for more profitable sales. 2000).

A severe reduction in new power plant construction below historic levels occurred.. solutions arise to fill needs. So it was with the power industry in the 1980s.~ loo ~ 5o Figure 14. 14. In a technologically advanced society. the resultant surge of interest in life assessment technologies and diagnostic monitoring of equipment was exactly fight for a rapidly changing industry. 14.1 Economic life is the issue The issue now is one of economic life optimisation and of prudent investment in fossil plant assets.2. for example.2 Age and reliability of plants During the late 1970s and early 1980s.. It may. Retirement of generating capacity at US stations is expected to be roughly 200 units or 12. Estimates suggested a high probability of power curtailments for the year 2000. 1997). August 1999. 150 . then niche opportunities for new generation were filled by the growing . The electric power industry in the US appeared unable to replace old fossil-fired units fast enough to avoid power shortages. a seeming inevitability surfaced. by fewer new fossil plants. approaching 100 per cent in parts of the southern United States.000 MW.396 Thermal power plant simulation and control Dow Jones Index: weighted average price for firm on-peak electricity. through 2010 according to the US Energy Information Administration.. Though the premise of looming power shortages was flawed. First demand-side management emerged.1 Electricity price spike loss of total rather than incremental revenue. largely for economic not technical reasons. caused by scaled-back nuclear plant programmes and as interest rates and environmental control costs soared. This concern led utilities to seek ways to extend the operating lifetimes of fossil units beyond the generally accepted 30-40 year design life and an early utility conference was held. The availability of peaking capacity at times of high spot market costs for electricity is of increasing importance in taking advantage of a volatile market and has led to a demand for units suitable for cycling and fast startups. PJM market 250 200 . be more important in the competitive environment to maximise availability only during peak demand periods (Metcalfe et al.

000 tons/day at a plant efficiency of 38 per cent. There seems little doubt that carbon-lean fuels such as natural gas will continue to substitute for those high in carbon. where most current control activities are focused. though less economic units will have lower capacity factors. Carbon intensity here is expressed in terms of carbon per ton of oil equivalent. owners seek to understand the consequences of operating aging turbine generators and boilers under new operating scenarios such as cycling duty.2. Concurrently. the vast majority of these units will continue to operate for many years. emits about half of this amount due to the higher plant efficiency and lower carbon content of natural gas. valuable additions that will permit plants to operate in compliance for many more years. and deeper understanding of the behaviour of power plant materials under operating pressures. And for NOx. As for carbon dioxide. the combustion turbine reemerged as a low-cost. The focus has now shifted to the selection of the correct plant investment strategy for these older plants. and the trend is likely to continue. 14. short-schedule supply option and the major turbine vendors rapidly shifted their development focus from the Rankine to the Brayton cycle. And as with all business decisions. relying on systematic approaches to component inspections and analyses. which translates to 2. Both SO2 and NOx have been decreasing overall nationally since the mid-1980s. a difference that can be measured in terms of the market for SO2 credits. temperatures and load cycles. fossil plants have become business assets to be carefully invested in for maximum return. questions of risk became important. currently over $100/ton. the above plant emits about 9. In fact SO2 emissions are down nearly 40 per cent and NOx has decreased 20 per cent since 1980. The maintenance and upgrade of these units remains the number one concern of the US generation business. In the US about 150 SO2 scrubbers have been installed on more than 70.2 The environmental challenge Of all the hurdles facing owners of generating plants. The good news is that the latest life estimation technology can ensure safe.450 tons of carbon. for comparison.Management and integration of power plant operations 397 independent power industry. while electricity use increased 35 per cent over the same period. as Figure 14. NOx control options range from burner optimisation to the use of selective catalytic reduction.000 MW. As for the 400-plus GW of installed fossil-steam generation in the US. despite increasing electricity production. but in the meantime the bulk of US generation will come from the installed fossil-steam capacity (largely coal-fired). leading to today's overwhelming reliance on gas for new generating units. reliable operation for older plants. perhaps none is greater than preparing units for meeting environmental limits at minimum cost.2 suggests. With unit profitability as the issue. Such emissions are certainly of concern when potential future carbon taxes are factored in. . More precisely. Typically a 450 MW coalfired plant will emit 75 tons of SO2 per day without a scrubber and perhaps 8 tons per day with a 90 per cent flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system in place. This strategy can range from increased maintenance to full repowering of the unit. A combined cycle gas plant. the same plant might emit 10-35 tons per day.

.. . Wood = 1. ..64 84... . . . .77 84.5 1900 I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 Figure 14.10 86. indicating the installation of very little new capacity.. per cent 2 85..3 ... per cent I 83.33 32. . .. .. ....... .64 87.56 3. ... 2000). .03 9.2 Reducing carbon intensity Table14... per cent 3 10.. . .3 The current reliability of fossil power plants The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) 1999 Generation Availability Data System (GADS) Report covers the period 1995-1999 (NERC. . .43 Availability factor. all unit sizes. a measure of how the plant is utilised over the year.79 9. ..... The equivalent availability factor (EAF).. .. 1534 units...20 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Key: 1 Equivalent availability factor = (available hours . all fuels.6 0.. . . ...87 3.. 1..92 3.41 10. The rate of increase averaged almost one year per year... ....24 84....derated available hours) x 100 %/period hours 2 Availability factor = available hours x 100 %/period hours 3 Scheduled outage factor = scheduled outage hours x 100 %/period hours 4 Forced outage factor = forced outage hours x 100 %/period hours 14. ... = 0.398 Thermal power plant simulation and control 1.. ..61 85.. ... o ~. years 30.08 ~ 0.14 9.. ...... ..1. ...18 84. .. .8 o 0.99 3.8_4___ _ 0... .9 . .. . ... . per cent 4 3. ......2. .2 ~" 1....... . .. ..37 Forced outage factor. .77 Scheduled outage factor.. ..27 33... ....~. As indicated in Table 14. averaged about 84 per cent with ..77 31. ..88 Year Average unit age... the age of the average fossil steam plant during this period was about 32 years.94 86.. .. ..26 34.... 9j _7 9_. .1 .1 NERC GADS 1995-1999fossil steam plant availability data. ... ..7 . . . .. . ~ . average size 300 MW Equivalent availability factor. . .0 C o a l : 1..25 1... . ..... ... ..

40 1. Lay-down space is useful but often limited in older stations. It is followed in importance by the steam turbine.01 38. It is interesting that the scheduled outage factor (SOF) of 9-10 per cent is about 2.90 Plant system and other causes of losses Boiler Steam turbine Balance of plant Generator Pollution control External impacts Regulatory.11 22.20 244. and environmental issues Personnel errors Performance shutdowns 158.89 7. average size ~300 MW Forced outages average hours/unit-year Forced deratings average equivalent hours/unit-year Forced and scheduled outages and deratings average equivalent hours/unit-year 633. Plant thermal efficiency however has suffered due to worsening coals.5 points higher.28 3.4 Subsystem outages The availability impacts of 25 plant subsystems and components are listed in Table 14.9 per cent. For example. . bearings and valves. balance of plant and generator.88 34. By far the most significant are the availability losses for boiler and turbine overhaul. NERC GADS 1995-1999 fossil steam plant data.37 39.11 4.80 0. including dimensional measurements and more detailed non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data.2 have a significantly smaller impact. The other systems and issues listed in Table 14.94 8. These typically require outages of about one month to complete. Over the last ten years availability has been generally increasing in spite of ageing units and more demanding duty.14 4. But this will change. all fuels.00 7.2 399 Plant system availability ranking. Figure 14.5 and 5 years respectively.79 83.20 27. which occur on average every 2. The availability statistics for specific plant major equipment and for nonequipment issues are listed in Table 14.37 the availability factor (AF) about 2.01 0. additional environmental control equipment and the natural effects of aging.2.23 0. will be seized by power producers seeking a competitive edge.5 times the forced outage factor (FOF) of about 3.95 34. casings.73 41. safety.23 1.04 153. blades.44 42. By far the largest contributor to loss in availability is the boiler. such as repowering. as opportunities to improve fuel utilisation.3 in rank order.28 5. turbine disassembly for maintenance requires a planned maintenance schedule that includes careful inspection of rotors.42 10.70 6.Management and integration of power plant operations Table 14.3.2 in rank order. all unit sizes. 14.

30 0.556 175.17 0.950 17.30 0. High-pressure heater tube leaks 21.079 2. Second superheater leaks 8.651 5. First reheater leaks 7.24 0. Air heater (regenerative) 16. Furnace wall leaks 5. Major turbine overhaul 3.108 3.2.456 10. Boiler. First superheater leaks 10.28 0.142 7.19 0. Feedwater pump 9. Boiler overhaul 2.502 14.414 2.577 2.977 206.02 0. Burners 20.294 2. miscellaneous 6. bushings and terminals 25.683 14.1.536 2.811 17.903 98.617 8. for a large unit could yield more than $1 million annual profit for the owner and many units have scope for much greater improvement than this.962 95.03 1.407 21. Pulveriser mills 24.23 1.913 10.02 1. Turbine control valves 18. Major generator overhaul 23.810 3.555 30.400 Thermal power plant simulation and control Table 14.24 0.719 18.628 5.3 Subsystem~component availability rankings .156 1.64 0. Turbine inspection 12. average size 300 MW Average unavailable MWh per unit-year 52.54 These three tables (14.961 13.99 0.101 63.34 0. Other boiler tube leaks 19.181 Average MWh per outage Number of outages per unit-year Subsystem/component 1. all fuels. Boiler inspections 4.599 11.844 2. Boiler water condition 155.19 0.49 0.877 6.717 1.415 0. 1534 units.35 2. .246 156.644 3.415 83.80 0. all unit sizes.951 2.329 11. NERC GADS 1995-1999fossil steam plant data.fossil steam units 14.024 3. Opacity .430 1.535 3.625 3.191 16.761 9.37 0.118 3. Even a one per cent improvement in availability. Electrostatic precipitator problems 17. Economiser leaks 13.407 2.34 0.64 0. Stator windings.177 4.3) suggest that major opportunities exist to improve the availabilities of many plants through reductions in the frequency and duration of scheduled downtime.33 0.323 2. Other miscellaneous steam turbine problems 22. 14. Additional opportunities exist in the area of extending the operational life of components and reducing the frequency of replacement.04 0. resulting in 3-4 days each year of additional power generation.055 4. and 14.948 2. Generator rotor windings 11. Main transformer 15.97 0.

These decisions should be guided by the goals of the business and of the key stakeholders.3 Improving asset management Asset management is essentially the practice of using resources to create maximum corporate value.45 c/kWh. competitive challenges and equipment life are not entirely predictable. requiring upgrade/repowering investment. It may though take significant efforts to make these plants competitive. renegotiated fuel contracts. Each business manager must make decisions on how to use company resources. Pervasive in this environment is the drive to improve plant asset value. so that the generating units provide a steady and reliable cash flow for the owner. and indeed could be changing on time scales ranging from hours to weeks or months. Reasoned judgments need to be made about the retention or purchase of power plants.Management and integration of power plant operations 401 Figure 14.4. and tactical deployment of capital and O&M resources. which is the essence of a business manager's job. In this burgeoning competitive market for electricity. compared with a production (O&M) expense of perhaps 2. An important plant for Northern California.40 c/kWh. Figure 14. . strategic realignment of the fleet. fuel costs. Such decisions must be made in a business climate where revenues. The gas-fired Moss Landing plant. The legacy of high fixed costs will almost certainly not be a stumbling block to plant profitability. environmental needs.3 Steam turbine disassembly 14. generating companies are reviewing the value of their fossil plants.1960s. is one of several power stations that have changed hands in the fast-moving California market. A typical fossil plant is now 30 years old and cost perhaps $400/kW to build in the mid. Fixed charges on this plant may be about 0. seeking opportunities and making decisions to improve corporate value. the new owners have made strategic decisions regarding capital and O&M investments to increase profitability. a streamlined operating staff and a guaranteed market for the electricity.

And since roughly 77 per cent .000 fossil-fired units in the United States are better equipped than others to make it in a deregulated free market. is often based on incremental price advantages in the spot market (Resource Data International Inc. the MWh production cost (includes fuel and O&M cost) of the plant is a key parameter in any assessment of 'worth' and one that is continually monitored by the generation operator. the I0 lowest-production-cost fossil plants in the United States are all coal-fired.1 Marks of excellence for fossil power plants In assessing what it takes to be successful in today's generation business. In a competitive group of plants in one region of the United States. The main reason for this is the base cost of generation. for example. This implies more usage of coal-fired units and thus more profits to the owner. Availability is certainly one of these. 14. these plants compete at the margin and the ability to realise a profit. as previously indicated in Table 14. Though this data is a snapshot of one month in 1999. the average equivalent availability factor of US fossil plants is at a 10-year high of over 84 per cent. Figure 14. (RDI) data from FERC submissions).3. have much higher capacity factors 65 per cent on average in 1998 .than the 140 GW of oil/gas-fired plants that operate on average at 30 per cent capacity factor. at a time when fossil plants now average 30 years in age. according to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) data. and to achieve a high capacity factor.5.402 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 14. Quite surprisingly. Currently. The 290 GW of coal-fired plants. it is useful to look at some marks of excellence for fossil power plants.4 Moss Landing power plant The fact of the matter is that some of the more than 2.1.

plant capacity factor is another indicator of success . monitor. less than 0.5 Competitiveplant data of the industry's entire fossil fleet was built before the year 1975. For example. the equivalent availability related to boiler tube failures has levelled out at about 2. Capacity factor is an important parameter to maximise if a generating company is to earn a return on its investment and stay profitable. There are more than 30 failure mechanisms. coal-fired plants are likely to match. hydrogen damage and overheating.8 per cent. in the southwestern US. leading to high wall temperatures and stresses. 1996). but the prime causes remain the same: corrosion fatigue. Even so. ways to detect. after significant reductions had been obtained in the previous five years. if any. and the resultant unit unavailability on average is 3 per cent. a figure that few.~ 60 ~ 50 ~.a measure of how valuable a plant is compared to other competing plants in the regional market. FERC data for the month of April.6. However. including capacityfactors and fuel costs.5 billion a year from boiler tube failures. 1999 100 9080o . The earlier improvements were the result of increased knowledge of tube failure mechanisms and increased management attention to tube failure reduction programmes. although. mine-mouth plants in the upper Midwest. Third. and ultimately avoid the problem are definitively known and could be followed by all generation companies (Dooley and McNaughton. it is hard to ignore the impact of the most pervasive of all fossil plant problems .boiler tube failures. Increased utilisation of plants minimises wear and tear due to cycling and improves heat rate. these older units are increasingly burdened with newly installed pollution control equipment and have baseload heat rates often 20-30 per cent higher than plants of more modem vintage. "~ 40 oo o = o o o. % ! Lowest productioncost coal plants | Figure 14.~ ~ 70 ¢7. gas-fired plants have the lowest non-fuel O&M costs.20 c/kWh. most are coal-fired.Management and integration of power plant operations 403 The lowest productioncost coal-firedplants in one US geographicalregion. Figure 14. the wellknown 'fishmouth' high-temperature creep blowout usually stems from progressively accumulating intemal deposits and loss of wall thickness. In the last five years. the industry as a whole still suffers losses of more than $1. In looking at availability. A second mark of excellence is plant operating cost. fly-ash erosion. Of the top 20 units in this category. . 3020100 • Fuel cost $/MWh o Capacityfactor. repair.

2 Typicalboiler tube failure The impact of fuel selection and fuel cost In the regulated environment. particularly heat rate/fuel cost effects (Corio et al.6 14. A mix of 10-20 per cent gas with coal in a boiler designed for coal firing. new methodologies permit generating companies to focus on the profitable operation of each plant. Power plants • • . In response to the current competitive environment. a bitumen-in-water emulsion produced only from the Orinoco Basin in Venezuela. 1996). accounting for 70-80 per cent of the operating costs of fossil-fired plants. Poorly sited plants or plants inadequately designed for low-cost fuels. 14. so that there was little incentive from a profit standpoint to reduce those costs. New fuels or fuel mixes in use are: • A mix of eastern high-sulphurcoal with low-sulphur. Compared with eastern bituminous coals. low-cost western coals. often from Powder River Basin (PRB) deposits in Montana and Wyoming. as well as a long-term strategy.3.3. Trade-offs will constantly take place between fuel costs and O&M costs. There should be a short-term tactical plan for fuels. PRB coals have lower heating value.404 Thermal power plant simulation and control Figure 14. The impact of the new competitive environment on fuel cost issues has resulted in the following conclusions: • • • • • Fuel cost recovery and customer retention are no longer guaranteed. This fuel is relatively high in sulphur and vanadium.3 The fuel options The US electric power industry burns about $30 billion worth of fossil fuels each year.having the lowest regional fuel cost may be the only winning strategy. cost of fuel was often a pass-through charge to the customer. will likely be non-competitive. As a result.. but higher moisture content and finer size. Orimulsion. Low fuel cost in itself may not be enough . sulphur and ash. opportunities are constantly being sought to modify or change fuels at marginally economic plants.

The fuel purchase contract guarantees that have been offered are aimed at making Orimulsion cost competitive with oil and coal. The cost of a single stop/start cycle could range between $15. and on/off (two-shift) operation. Such cycling operation is divided into three types . The short-term issues are higher heat rates and higher O&M expenses. It may become necessary for a plant to make fundamental fuel switches to remain competitive in the battle to keep costs down and retain customers. 1997). Petroleum coke. In the future. Cycling changes that may be needed are specific to the plant involved. equipment repair and replacement and decreased unit reliability/availability. fuel. Figure 14. Added attention must also be paid to corrosion issues. The negative impacts of cycling on the plant though must be measured against the potential increases in revenue that can result from cycling operation. For turbines..000 and is a function of unit type.load following. operating procedures. Figure 14.000 and $500.4 (EPRI. A survey of 48 utilities that converted 215 units to cycling duty indicated that a wide variety of changes was implemented or planned to avoid potential problems. water induction and the threat of increased solid particle Table 14. 14. Long-term cycling problems include excessive wear and tear. size. it is likely that there will be increasing volatility in spot prices and downward pressure on fuel prices as competition heats up. a byproduct of refining. For fossil-fired boilers. Table 14.7.8.Management and integration of power plant operations 405 that use this fuel will need to add scrubbers. 1993). and corrosion protection are also required to assure high availability and performance. Changes in instrumentation. dealing with the stresses imposed on the system from changes in temperature levels and the rate at which temperatures change was identified as the greatest challenge.4 Impact of unit cycling operation Increased revenue achieved from: Reduced startup time Rapid load change rate More starts and stops Increased costs may include: Increased maintenance Reduced plant life Reduced reliability .4 The impacts of cycling on power plant performance The increasingly competitive market for electricity means many units must now follow very short-term market variations in addition to local load variation. whose cost is currently low but whose sulphur content is high. the major issue for cycling service is increased stress on turbine components resulting from rapid changes in temperatures. pressure and design features (Lefton et al. • A key conclusion is that it is vital for a power plant to optimise fuel choices. low load operation down to 15 per cent of maximum continuous rating (MCR).

'~ Figure 14.~. Figure 14. ..:... 400 ~= 300 o 200 1oo o . .-. removal of copper dusting in rotors and perhaps upgrading of insulation. .:.v ~ ~ . Resolution might require modification of the rotor windings. . . *6 100 50 Z 0 ~ H K~..406 Thermal power plant simulation and control . Finally for generators.~ __. .~ 350 / / / -~ 300 2so 200 150 o }~'.i] H ~ . Figure 14. .o-#Y @ .8 The major problems in cycling turbines erosion (SPE) damage.N.B. cycling leads to mechanical issues resulting from centrifugal and thermal stresses developed during frequent starts and stops..4 4...I rq H t::.9. 7 The major problems in cycling fossil boilers Y 600 500 . .'. wedges and retaining rings.

clearly stress components more than baseload operation and modifications to equipment and operating procedures may be necessary. A useful model that describes the complete maintenance process is shown in Figure 14. and training and people skills. Such approaches as maintenance process management. maintenance indicators. The elements are: Maintenance management: business goals. best-in-class benchmarking. a predictive maintenance process. root-cause . ensuring that the selected approach is complete for the plant in question. or non-existent for a seldom used asset.Management and integration of power plant operations 407 100~ ~ 806040- ! I i~TiiiTili7 iiiii~iiiiii : i J !i~iTi~iiiii~!i ~ z 20o 1 I [ Figure 14. Maintenance bases: the rationale for why maintenance tasks are performed. a living program for updating the bases. approaches to predictive maintenance can be extensive (for a key plant). streamlined reliability-centred maintenance (SRCM) and root-cause failure analysis are often keys to invigorating a plant's maintenance staff.5 I m p r o v i n g m a i n t e n a n c e approaches Better maintenance practices have become an essential part of the strategy for competitiveness. It has five elements that have been found helpful as a 'check-off' list. 2000).9 The major problems in cycling generators More frequent startups and shut-downs and the temperature changes that result.10 (Armor and Wolk. For example. The degree to which each subelement is addressed greatly depends on how the plant is to be deployed. 14. organisation and work culture. This includes streamlined reliability-centred maintenance analysis. plant reliability and performance management.

equipment design changes that avoid maintenance work). post maintenance testing. • Work control: planning (estimating resource requirements). • . Work execution: the actualwork execution. and the computerised maintenance management system (CMMS). fixing failed equipment) work order generation. Work identification: preventive maintenance (PM. predictive maintenance (PDM. proactive maintenance (PAM. design changes). materials management. outage management and CMMS.10 Maintenance model analysis. and proactive maintenance (PAM. time-based tasks). close out. corrective maintenance (CM.408 Thermal power plant simulation and control E e. condition-based tasks). E Figure 14. scheduling (when to do maintenance).

11 provides some guidance as to where to put the effort. allowing judgements to be made as to how the current process stacks up. A useful first step in assessing plant maintenance is to judge how the current plant approach ranks with the best-in-class. boiler casing and ductwork leaks.11 Best-in-class maintenance . The radii of the 'web' Work identification (daily-running ~ 0 g / "4"l¢OO#erOeot & Best practices WOrkculture----------~/ Figure 14. and condenser fouling monitors. boiler tube and feedwater heater leak detectors. and steam trap anomalies. New enthusiasm is being kindled by the opportunity to detect damage using the latest sensor technology. For example.Management and integration of power plant operations 409 One element of SRCM is a reasoned procedure for scheduling predictive maintenance. infrared thermography offers rapid payback by uncovering electrical connection degradation. A 'spider-diagram' of the type shown in Figure 14. Work at EPRI's Monitoring and Diagnostic Center has shown that one utility achieved savings of more than $2 million a year through deployment of such on-line devices as turbine blade and bearing monitors.

1991a). diagnostic and performance monitoring technologies have been integrated into networks for improved operations in major plant demonstration projects. 14. and Analoguecontrol/ . Morgantown Unit 2. however. with distance measured against a 'best practices' scale.12. all successful programmes appear to have in common is a work culture where the plant staff are all pulling together to make process excellence an imperative. Monitoring and diagnostic network at Eddystone Demonstration and integration of diagnostic monitors and the development of predictive maintenance practices is the focus of this work at Exelon's Eddystone station (EPRI. display consoles. Twenty-four on-line and periodic diagnostic technologies comprising over 2. over gateways from the distributed control system. 1989). and examine operational changes on plant performance (EPRI.12 Morgantown performance monitoring system . 1997).300 monitoring points are integrated through a computer-data highway network at Eddystone. Performance monitoring workstation at Morgantown Nineteen advanced monitoring devices together with other process instruments on the 650MW Mirant. Data is drawn directly onto the highway. and a single large performance computer as shown in Figure 14. processdata :------. processing it into information. are analysed by the performance monitoring workstation (PWM) to determine plant heat rate on-line. determine component degradation. Dispatch J Performance data highway Plant Performance control maintenance computer workstationController Field process sensors Engineer display console Operator display console Figure 14. The workstation contains sophisticated software including thermalhydraulic models used to compare measured and optimal performance.410 Thermal power plant simulation and control relate to particular measures of performance. A data highway is used to interconnect sensor data. Recently. One element.6 Power plant networks: redefining information flow Networks are the key to managing the flood of data from monitoring and diagnostics applications. and presenting it in appropriate formats through all levels of the utility (Armor and Weiss.

Management and integration of power plant operations 411
Field data

(
. . . .

Monitoring data ~ highway ~

conso
[11 II Control /~

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o so es

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rv rr
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rr

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I I"l

I

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Figure 14.13 Eddystone diagnostic monitoring network
from networked monitoring computers with their own dedicated data acquisitions as shown in Figure 14.13.

A step toward integration: The E1 Segundo demonstration

Integrated diagnostic and performance monitoring, on-line advisory systems and advanced controls are combined at the NRG E1 Segundo Power Plant in California, Units 3 and 4, Figure 14.14. The control and diagnostic retrofit is a step towards fully integrating monitoring technologies with distributed digital control systems. The goal here is to create a single display window on all plant operations and on the current state of major equipment conditions. This project is unique in that it has required an industry control system supplier to integrate distinct diagnostic monitoring systems from various vendors and expert systems with the control system (EPRI, 1990). Total savings for this project have been estimated at $67 million (EPRI, 1991b). The savings relate to operational costs associated with reduced failures and improved plant productivity, over a 10 year period of operation.

The next step in integration: the Roxboro demonstration Recent work at Carolina Power and Light's Roxboro plant, consisting of four 500 MW units, has demonstrated the application of state-of-the-art automation technologies to improve heat rate and unit maneuverability throughout the load range, and to reduce forced outages and O&M costs. This was achieved through full utilisation of the power of a distributed control system, and integration of monitoring, diagnostics, on-line testing, expert systems, and information management functions into a plant-wide automation system

412 Thermal power plant simulation and control

m coHp sutter I ~ console f~~Monitoring and
1

Control console

~

_ ~ r olh i ~

N

d

TTT Fielddata
Figure 14.14 The El Segundo control and diagnostic retrofit

Hostcomputer

[

"

com

Figure 14.15

Roxboro plant-wide information system

based on EPRI's Utility Communications Architecture. The plant-wide information system, Figure 14.15, is linked remotely, such that the four units can be optimally dispatched based on heat rate, equipment condition, and emissions considerations.

14.6.1

A cultural change for operators

When fossil plants are equipped with a digital control system (DCS), the primary DCS operator interface then becomes the CRT and keyboard. These CRTs provide

Management and integration of power plant operations 413
the operator with an extensive amount of information. Display application tools and techniques are being developed that expand the view into the process and enable the operator to rapidly comprehend a large volume of data in order to make responsive decisions. However, with a large number of operating displays and an ever growing quantity of data, there is a strong need for enhanced plant information management technologies to avoid information overload. Concurrently there is a change in the role of the control room operator. As DCS advanced control strategies and automated expert systems are implemented in generating stations, the DCS is now performing many of the routine information logging, control actions, and startup activities that were traditionally performed by the operator. As a result, there is now an opportunity to place emphasis on process management and continuous training improvements, and tools are being developed to aid the operator with process management, problem resolution, performance evaluation, and emissions management.

14.7

Conclusions

Today's electric generating company business climate is unlike any previously seen by the long-term regulated industry. A plant manager must focus his/her efforts on two imperatives: (1) 'survival' and (2) 'profit'. It is probably fair to say that these terms have not been the dominant driving forces of electric utilities in the years preceding deregulation, competition and mergers. Businesses exist to create added value from all assets - tangible assets as well as information and personnel expertise. The electric power industry is no exception, and its tangible assets: power plants, land, transmission systems, etc., are capital investments to be utilised and managed to the maximum benefit to stockholders and consumers. Yet the traditional utility business strategy has focused largely on minimising costs and revenue requirements and on meeting the 'obligation to serve', so it has been easy to overlook the intrinsic value of such assets as generating plants and how investment in these assets might be optimised from an overall company viewpoint. Now generating companies are taking a fresh look at power plants, their value to the company, and ways to prudently invest in these capital assets so as to improve bottom-line profitability. The assets at risk are older generating units, increasingly burdened with emission control equipment. They have base-load heat rates typically 20-30 per cent higher than plants of more modern vintage and often far from being base loaded, imposing an additional heat rate penalty. Such old units, though, are unlikely to be faced with large stranded capital investments. The real issue is operating cost. A small improvement in O&M can make the difference between a stranded cost and a viable, money-making generating unit. In fact, generating companies carefully follow key parameters for a given generating unit, such as the precise cost of generating each kWh, the revenues to be made by the unit at current and projected capacity factors, the additional revenues to be gained by incremental investments of either capital or O&M, and the unit's contribution to corporate profits on the basis of energy, capacity, and other value measures.

414

Thermal power plant simulation and control

Finally, as power plant controls and information networks become more complex, additional training of operators and engineers will be necessary. One concern that has often been expressed is that automation is a bar to understanding, the implication being that as we move to more computer-controlled operation of power plants, the human in charge is less cognisant of the physical principles behind plant operation. This is an undesirable situation that could lead to poor decisions in emergency situations. So training, via simulators, expert systems or intelligent tutors, will be an essential growth activity for most forward-looking companies. The successful companies of the future will be those that embrace techniques at the cutting edge of the present 'information age'.

14.8
14.8.1

References
Asset management

ARMOR, A.E, and WEISS, J.M.: 'Advanced control for power plant profitability', Annual Reviews in Control, 1997, 21, pp. 171-182 ARMOR, A.E, and WOLK, R.H.: 'Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants: second edition'. EPRI TR-114910, June 2000 CORIO, M.R., BELLUCCI, J.W., and BOYD, G.A.: 'Applying the competitive market business equation to power generation economics and markets'. Proceedings: 1996 Heat Rate Improvement Conference, EPRI Report TR-106529, May 1996, pp. 5-13 DOOLEY, R.B., and McNAUGHTON, W.: 'Boiler tube failures: theory and practice'. EPRI Report TR-105261, 1996 EPRI: 'MARK I performance monitoring products, GS/EL-5658'. Palo Alto, California; Electric Power Research Institute, September 1989 EPRI: 'Preliminary guidelines for integrated controls and monitoring for fossil fuel plants, GS-6868'. Palo Alto, California, Electric Power Research Institute, June 1990 EPRI: 'Plant monitoring network brings savings through predictive maintenance'. EPRI Innovator IN- 100124, December 1991 a EPRI: 'SCE integrates controls and diagnostics to improve operation of E1 Segundo Units 3 and 4'. EPRI Innovator IN-100145, December 1991b EPRI: Cycling of fossil fueled power plants. EPRI Report CS-7219, September 1993. LEFTON, S.A., et al.: 'Using fossil power plants in cycling mode: real costs and management responses', in ARMOR, A.E, BLANCO, M.A., and BROSKE, D.R. (Eds.): 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace, 1996'. EPRI report TR-107844, March 1997 METCALFE, E., REES, C., McINTYRE, P., DELAIN, L., and LANDY, D.: 'Scheduling outages to maximize corporate and customer value', in ARMOR, A.F., BLANCO, M.A., and BROSKE, D.R. (Eds.): 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace: 1996'. EPRI report TR-1078444, March 1997

Management and integration of power plant operations

415

North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC): '1995-1999 generation availability data system (GADS)'. Report, July 2000

14.9 Bibliography
14.9.1 Asset management

ARMOR, A.E, BLANCO, M.A., and BROSKE, D.R.: 'Proceedings: managing fossil generating assets in the emerging competitive marketplace conference 1996'. EPRI report TR-107844, March 1997 BOND, T.H., and MITCHELL, J.S.: 'Beyond reliability to profitability'. Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference, EPRI report TR- 106753, July 1996, pp. 5-1-5-12 BOZGO, R.H., and MAGUIRE, B.A.: 'Fossil plant self assessment'. 'Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference, EPRI report TR-106753, July 1996, pp. 3-1-3-9 EPRI: 'Positioning for competition: the changing role of utility fuels'. EPRI report TR- 104550 FOGARTY, J., MILLER, R., and DONG, C.: 'Benchmarking: the foundation for performance improvement'. Proceedings of the 1996 EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference, EPRI report TR-106753, July 1996, pp. 2-I-2-13 14.9.2 Maintenance

ABBOT, ED., WOYSHNER, W.S., and COLSER, R.J.: 'Pilot application of streamlined reliability centered maintenance at TU Electric's fossil power plants'. EPRI report TR-106503, February 1997, pp. 18-1-18-18 ARMOR, A.E, and WOLK, R.H.: 'Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants'. EPRI report TR-114910, June 2000, 2nd edn. EPRI: 'Automated predictive maintenance implementation'. Proceedings of the EPRI Fossil plant maintenance conference. 1996, EPRI report TR- 106753, July 1996 EPRI: 'NDE guidelines for fossil power plants'. EPRI report TR- 108450, September 1997 EPRI: 'Streamlined reliability-centered maintenance at PG&E's Moss Landing plant'. EPRI report TR- 105582, September 1995 14.9.3 Productivity improvement tools

ARMOR, A.E, MUELLER, H.A., and TOUCHTON, G.L.: 'Managing plant assets for profitability'. American Power Conference, Chicago, IL, April 29-May 1, 1991 EPRI: 'Condition assessment guidelines for fossil fuel power plant components'. EPRI report GS-6727, March 1990 EPRI: 'Database integration services, volumes 1 and 2'. EPRI report TR-101706, December 1992

416 Thermal power plant simulation and control EPRI: 'Fossil plant instrumentation and monitoring'. EPRI Heat rate improvement conference 1991, EPRI report TR- 100901, July 1992 EPRI: 'HEATRT heat rate improvement advisor'. EPRI report RP2923-13, August 1995 EPRI: 'High reliability condenser application study'. EPRI report TR-102922, November 1993 EPRI: 'Life cycle cost management, workbooks and software'. EPRI report AP105443, January 1996 EPRI: 'Life optimization for fossil fuel power plants'. EPRI report GS-7064, November 1990 EPRI: 'Managing life cycle costs'. EPRI Report TR-102308, 1993 EPRI: 'MARK 1 performance monitoring products'. EPRI report GS/EL-5648, September 1989 EPRI: 'Plant monitoring workstation'. EPRI Report AP-101840, December 1992 EPRI: 'Power plant modification evaluations using the EPRI PMOS model'. EPRI report TR-101715, July 1993 EPRI: 'Reference manual for on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion'. EPRI report TR-104928, March 1995 EPRI: 'Roxboro automation project interim report'. EPRI report TR-102083, May 1994 EPRI: 'The DYNAMICS model for measuring dynamic operating benefits'. EPRI report GS-6401, June 1989 EPRI: 'Utility experience with the EPRI plant monitoring workstation'. Proceedings of the EPRI Heat rate Improvement conference, 1992, EPRI Report TR-102098, March 1993

Index

acid rain 11,243 actuator dynamic performance 372 saturation 293, 367 adaptive control 94, 101 alternator excitation control 110-11, 117-27 steam temperature control 147-9 supervision of 111-12, 148 s e e a l s o parameter estimation adaptive neurofuzzy inference system 221-2, 224 advisory system: s e e operator advisory system air preheater, modelling of 43 air-fuel ratio 244-6, 252, 371 excess air 7, 48 stoichiometric 7, 249 alarm system 92, 287, 353 integration of 350 alternator 2, 114 adaptive control 110-11, 117-27 automatic voltage regulator 112-13 availability of 399-400 excitation control 102 hybrid simulation 113-14 load cycling problems 406-7 local model network control 108-10, 117-27 modelling of 19 power system stabiliser 110 s e e a l s o life ancillary services 345,347 ARMAX model 103, 188 ARX model 188, 246-7 altemator excitation control 103-4, 110-11 NOx emissions modelling 256-8

asset management 401-5 association rules 326-7 attemperator 133, 181-3, 326, 347 deactivation of 195-6 thermal efficiency 195, 371-2 s e e a l s o flue gas recycling; steam temperature / pressure automatic voltage regulator 103, 105 operational protection 112 rotor angle stability 118 availability, power plant 345, 396, 402-3 factors affecting 399-400 steam temperature control 132 availability factor 399

back propagation, algorithm 226, 302 base-load plant 6, 348, 403,407 BETTA, UK electricity market 10 black-box modelling 188, 245-6, 292 adaptation, on-line 269 model scheduling 333 structure selection 189, 256-8, 289 validation of 189, 254 s e e a l s o grey-box modelling; neural network model; physical-based modelling; principal component analysis; projection to latent structures; state-space model boiler availability of 399--400 load cycling problems 397, 405-6 maintenance overhaul 399 stability of 132 tube failure, mechanisms 403 s e e also component model; drum boiler; life; once-through boiler

418

Index

boiler following control 6, 347-8 boiler stored energy 6, 182, 185 load-frequency control 207-9 Brayton cycle 5, 397 bumpless switching, controllers 142 burner management system 7 multiple fuels 351 burners CFD design 246 configuration of 254, 326 coruer-firing 244, 262 low-NOx burners 244, 252

capacity factor 397, 402 load cycling 403 carbon taxes 397 CARIMA model 171-2 Carnot cycle 3 cascade control 136, 149 case-based reasoning 313 cavitation, valve 35 chemical control, water 360 Clean Air Act (US) 243 climate change, intergovernmental panel (UN) 13 s e e a l s o renewable energy clustering analysis 310, 313 k means 335 CO, emissions 7, 11,243 modelling of 49-50, 249-50 C02, emissions 11,243 carbon tax 397 greenhouse gas 11 modelling of 49-50, 249-50 reduction of 244 co-ordinated plant control: s e e supervisory plant control coal calorific value 81, 92 carbon intensity 397-8 fuel combustion 248-50 hardness 71 world reserves of 11 coal mill boiler stability 132, 155-7 choking 63, 69, 74, 93 classifier zone 64, 68 coal hardness 71 control and advisory system 92-7 emissions, during transients 84 explosion of 82 mill table 64, 69

mill wear 70-1, 92-3 model validation 71-9 modelling of 43, 64-71 separator 64, 68 startup/shutdown 91,132, 155-6 vertical spindle mill 64-6 s e e a l s o pulverised fuel coal mill control 80-1 dynamic response 7, 63 Hardgrove grindability index 83-4, 86-90 load line 82 mass/mass 82-4, 86--90 multiple mills 81 multivariable, LQ / predictive 90-1 optimal grinding 94-7 pf flow measurement 64, 81, 84-90 runback 83, 94 combined cycle gas turbine Brayton cycle 5,397 configuration 5, 162 control hierarchy 164-7 emissions of 397 modelling of 163-4 popularity of 397 predictive control 187, 367 supervisory control 168-76 thermal efficiency 1, 161 s e e a l s o gas turbine; heat recovery steam generator combustion chamber, gas turbine modelling 48-9 combustion control 6-7 excess air 7, 48 fly ash 244, 248 modelling of 49-50, 354 multiple fuels 326, 351 operational parameters 244 s e e a l s o emissions competition, power system: s e e deregulation component model, power plant air preheater 43 coal mill 43, 64-71 combustion chamber 48-9 compressor 46-7 condenser 46 control valve / damper 35-6, 43 drum 33-5, 56 fan 43 feedwater heater 46, 274-8 furnace 39-42, 49-50 header 36-7 heat exchanger 20-2, 28-33

153.410-11 data management 9.Index 419 pump 37-9 subsystem model compressor. loop 5. modelling of 35q5. multi-loop 136. boiler 132. predictive control control action correction. 52. 346 s e e a l s o operator advisory system distributed generation 180 disturbances 134. PI(D) control. 365. 171 separation efficiency 34 stability 220. maintenance . modelling of 46-7 computational fluid dynamics 245 burner / furnace design 246 condenser 3 air leakage / tube fouling 375.243. 401-2 dynamic stability. power plant information overload 412-13 islands of automation 350 operator training 354. 80. 18-19 s e e a l s o once-through boiler Dymola. 370 modelling of 33-5. 353 s e e a l s o availability. 370-1 see also diagnostic system: s e e fault analysis. operator advisory system diffusion. 205 NETA 10. 382 modelling of 46 control hierarchy: s e e multi-loop plant control. 215. thermal: s e e thermal efficiency Electricity Act (UK) 10 electrostatic precipitator 244 emissions. 368 level control 7. NOx. 181 modelling of 2 5 ~ s e e a l s o heat exchanger efficiency. 11. 43 data mining 309-10 deaerator 24. 382. power system 10-11. 181-4 interaction. 21-3. heat transfer 6. 239 decoupling. 164-5 monitoring 326. load-following. power plant 389. 345. 397 s e e a l s o CO. 368-9 control hierarchy 209-13 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 open-loop behaviour 207-8 physical model-based predictive control 375-89 Rankine cycle 1. 365 saturation 292-3 s e e a l s o adaptive control. control of 189-99 control room. LQG control. 177. supervisory plant control 186-7 evaporator steam temperature control 142-7 once-through boiler. 207. 375 drum boiler configuration 3--4. 391. minimum variance control. 159 load-following requirement 179-80. feedforward control. 183. 382 drum 3. 194. 45 decision rules 327 decision trees 327 demand side management 396 deregulation. 145. stack 2.243 combined cycle gas turbine 397 electrostatic precipitator 244 modelling of coal-fired plant 253-63 gas turbine 48-50. 206. 345 acid rain 11. neurofuzzy control. heat transfer 21 distributed control and data acquisition system 350 distributed control system advantages of 13. 179. modelling package 19.395 competitiveness. supervisory plant control control strategy commissioning of 158. CO2. 409 cooling water temperature 326. 311 islands of automation 350 modelling of 50-1 supervisory plant control 63. 218-9 modelling 140. 414 s e e a l s o alarm system. 179. supervisory plant control 186-7 CCGT supervisory control 169-76 physical model-based predictive control 375-89 convection. 359-60 NOx advisory system 266-7 NOx formation 248-53 reduction of 244-5. 395. 42. 56.412-13 configuration 8. operator advisory system controlled reference value. SOx damper. 377-9 rejection 136. 188 economiser 3. 374-5 feedforward control 137. 237. 366.

modelling of 279-87 NOx emissions monitoring 267. control loop 179. heat exchanger 375. fossil fuels 11 see also combustion control furnace CFD design 246 modelling of 39-42. 274-8 sensor / valve. voltage measurement 114-16 frequency decoupling. malfunction 282-7 state estimation 295-307 steam bleeding 279 tube leaks 279-83. 195-7 physical model-based predictive control 377. 369. 326. 329 diagnosis of 270.359-60 excess air 7. 327. 48 excitation control. 218-19. 133. 243 see also emissions equivalence ration 252 equivalent availability factor 398 estimation function 299-300 European Commission 11-12 evaporator 3. 183-4 drum boiler 207-13. principal component analysis feedback control advantages of 216. PFBC 2. 216. operator advisory system FD fan 7 modelling of 43 feature selection 310 see also clustering analysis. 143-7 flue gas pyrometry 153-7 feedwater control 164. 153. 410 fault detection model-based 287. 182 control of 134-6 LQG feedforward control 137-47 event logging 353. 382 Fourier algorithm. 295. real-time 354-5 see also operator advisory system extended Kalman filter 379 state estimation 270. 92. 345 legislation 10. 381-9 see also steam temperature / pressure flue gas temperature. 12 forced outage factor 398-9 fouling. 409 fieldbus internet protocol 293 flame ignition 245 flue gas desulphurisation 11. measurement of 153-5 fluid properties air 28 flue gas 28 steam 27 fluidised bed combustion. 307. 218-19 see also control strategy feedforward control 213-15 advantages of 135. 382 load-following capability 182. 219-20 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 once-through boiler 134-6. 49-50 pressure control 39 . alternator 102 expert system 313. 329 see also availability. 397 flue gas recycling 183. 218-19 commissioning of 239 disturbance rejection 137.420 Index Energy Policy Act (US) l0 Environment Protection Act (UK) 243 environmental regulation 205. 172. 314 statistical-based 313-14 feedwater heater. 369.244.409 fouling 375 grey-box modelling 287-95 modelling of 46.206.184 fuel calorific value 81. 354 predictive maintenance 409-10 principal component analysis 313-25 projection to latent structures 327. 158 feedwater heater 8 configuration 271-4 control of 272-3 fault detection 270. 140-1. 396. 287. 307. 313. 272-3 drum / once-through boiler 4. 371-2 control action correction 190. 143. 239. 367 steam temperature control 135. 181. 41i coal mill advisory system 92-7 G2. 371-2 ID/FD 7 modelling of 43 fault analysis 269. 315-16. 326 carbon intensity 397-8 selection of 404-5 world reserves. 309 coal mill advisory system 92-7 detection of 311-13. 367 failure analysis 407 fan flue gas recycling 183.

371-2 s e e also thermal stress load cycling alternator problems 406-7 boiler dynamics 207-9. 397 grey-box modelling 245-6. IGCC 2. 229-30 non-linear modelling 334 steam temperature control 152-3 G2. 370-1 burner configuration 382 hierarchical supervisory control s e e supervisory plant control Hotelling's T 2 statistic 316-7 human machine interface 9.289. 350-1 s e e a l s o operator advisory system ID fan 7 modelling of 43 independent power producer 10. 274-8 soot blowing 132. algorithm: s e e parameter estimation Levenberg-Marquardt. 28-33 feedwater heater 46. 12 generalised minimum variance control: s e e minimum variance control generalised predictive control: s e e predictive control generation availability data system 398 generator: s e e alternator genetic algorithms 262 controller design 185. 188 greenhouse gases 11. 5. 348. 192 bumpless switching 142 gas turbine 163 combustion chamber 48-9 compressor 46-7 emissions 48-50. 21-3.326 tube failure. physical-based modelling H ~ control 185. 269 fundamental element 259 HP feedwater heater modelling 292-5 NOx emissions modelling 259-63 structure selection 256-8. 287-91 advantages of 248. 42.243. 163 heat transfer. 46-9 gasification. 151. 376. mechanisms 403 s e e a l s o attemperator. expert system 354-5 s e e a l s o expert system gain scheduling 137. 32. control loops: s e e multi-loop plant control intergovernmental panel on climate change (UN) 13 islands of automation 350 k means clustering 335 s e e a l s o clustering Kalman filter 139-40 pf flow estimation 84-5 state estimation 92 s e e a l s o extended Kalman filter knowledge-based plant control 218. 221-4 knowledge-based system coal mill advisory system 92-7 s e e a l s o expert system knowledge discovery in data 310 Kyoto protocol 11 least squares. steam temperature / pressure heat recovery steam generator 1. 365 boiler problems 405-6 capacity factor 403 . power plant 179. 382 metal temperature 369-71. 390 modelling of 20-2.386. 138. 397 input-output modelling: s e e black-box modelling integrated gasification combined cycle 2. modelling package 18. 292 s e e a l s o black-box modelling.Index 421 fuzzy logic 360 coal mill fault diagnosis 93-4 controller design 206 data mining 310 knowledge-based plant control 221-38 local model network 102 membership function 225. 403 load cycling 397 reduction of 132. 326. 206 header 358 modelling of 36-7 heat exchanger fouling 375. algorithm 256 life. local model network. 12 interaction.397 modelling of 25. 164-5. mechanisms 6. 206 gPROMS. 205 creep 348 estimation of 397 extension of 367. 400.

255 spline 247. coal mill 90-1 LQG control 138-41. 367. power plant 407-10 availability factor 398 corrosion 360 load cycling. 410 s e e also availability mass/mass control.246-7 data mining 310 dynamic network 247. network 255. 335 static network 247. impact of 405-7 non-destructive evaluation 399 predictive maintenance 407-8. 386 steam temperature control 132. generalised 109-10 alternator excitation control 117-27 model-based predictive control: s e e predictive control Modelica. 336 radial basis function 102. 117-27 controller design 108-10 model identification 102-3 low-NOx burner 244. operator advisory system multi-loop plant control boiler dynamics 207-9. 205 feedforward control 213-15. 365. 236. of submodels 25-7 distributed heat transfer terminal 21 heat transfer terminal 22 hybrid system 51 mechanical terminal 23 thermo-hydraulic and heat transfer terminal 22 thermo-hydraulic terminal 19 type definition 19 validation. 347-9. operation 365. load cycling load-frequency control 207-9. power system 179-80. UK electricity market 10.206. modelling language 18 aggregation. fuzzy logic 225. algorithm 356 multilayer perceptron 255. 367 knowledge-based plant control 228-38 limiting factors 142.390 s e e also maintenance. submodels 54 s e e also object-oriented modelling modelling: s e e black-box modelling. grey-box modelling. 247.353 neural network model 101. 347-8 load line. fault analysis. 370-4 physical model-based predictive control 386-9 ramping rate 235. 255 . coal mill 82 local model network alternator excitation control 103-10. plant performance 351-3. 345. 365 load-following capability 205-6. 86-90 membership function. 411 s e e also life. 334 NOx emissions modelling 253-6. 137-8 supervisory plant control 184-5. coal mill 82-4. 348-9 sliding pressure operation 212-17. 179. 313 NOx emissions 245. 266-7 operator interaction 354 principal component analysis 314-18 projection to latent structures 327-9 univariate / multivariate analysis 312-13 s e e also alarm system.213-17. physical-based modelling monitoring. 252 LQ control. 209 boiler stability 132 deregulation. 354 overfitting 294-5. 219. thermal stress load-following 205.422 Index load cycling ( c o n t i n u e d ) life. 410-12 association rules 326-7 clustering analysis 310.371-4. 229-30 minimum variance control. 181-4 loop interaction 5. plant 397 turbine problems 405-6 two-shifting. multi-loop plant control. 335 recurrent network 247. 335 multiple linear regression 327 NARMAX model 258 NARX model 246-7 NOx emissions modelling 258-9 non-destructive evaluation 399 NETA. 372-3 s e e also supervisory plant control multilayer perceptron.335 neurofuzzy control 221-38 non-linear modelling 269. 370-1 loop decoupling 136.367 evaporator steam temperature control 142-7 maintenance. 179. 210-11. 255 HP feedwater heater modelling 290-302 Levenberg-Marquardt.

plant information 352 PI(D) control load-following capability 205-6. 355 open problems 56-7 parameter estimation 55. subsystem model physical model-based predictive control 366-8. 256-8 subspace model identification 189 supervision. grey-box modelling. 372-3 s e e also multi-loop plant control plant-wide control: s e e supervisory plant control pool. component model. 354 s e e a l s o environmental regulation see also performance monitoring 358 unit startup 356-8 water chemical control 360 optimal control 366-7 orimulsion 404-5 over-fire air 253 ozone 11 parameter estimation 72. 66-7. 252-3 prompt 250. frequency decoupling 183-4 control action correction 184-5. 252. 18-19. 20-1 lumped parameter models 18. 259-63 neural network modelling 246-7. 11. 256-9 acid rain 11.225-6 PRBS.243-4 (N)ARX modelling 247. 397 destruction of 248. 183 Rankine cycle 1.359-60 . 252. algorithm 111. 147 thermal efficiency 4 s e e a l s o drum boiler operator. 367 CCGT supervisory control 168-76 O&M. power plant information overload 412-13 new technology 354 training of 414 operator advisory system 309. 133. state estimation partial least squares: s e e projection to latent structures petroleum coke 405 physical-based modelling aggregation of submodels 25-7. unit profitability 401. 365 parameter tuning 90. 397 formation of 244. Modelica.244 fuel 250. 254-6. 347.243 advisory system 245. 101 coal mill modelling 72 least squares.253-4. 143. 191 structure selection 189. 248-50 grey-box modelling 248. 190 evaporator control 134-8 feedwater control 134-5. 292-3 validation of 53-6 s e e also black-box modelling. 66-7. 355 distributed parameter models 18. 181 superheater control 4. 210-11 PTx steam temperature control 149-51 sliding pressure operation 21 0-17. 302 parameter estimation neurofuzzy control 221 controller design 224-8 feedforward control 222--4. 346 flue gas treatment 244. 262 NO2. 118. 189-90 control. 23 once-through boiler configuration 4. onqine 101. 76-7 object-oriented 18. 348 loop control 13. 72.244. 351-3. 230-8 membership function 229-30 NIPALS algorithm 328. 289. 53 dynamic decoupling 52-3 fault representation 279 model scheduling 26-7. 118. 143. 191 observability of 106-7 predictive control advantages of 185-6. 254-6.Index 423 training of 226. formation 11. 253 North American Electric Reliability Council 398 NOx. 250-3 fuel combustion 49-50. 164-5. 111-12 s e e a l s o Kalman filter. excitation 111-12. 262 thermal 250-2. 266-7 CFD modelling 245-6 combustion modification 244. 136-7. 345 power system stabiliser 110 PRBS. formation 11. 410-12 acceptance of 354 coal mill fault diagnosis 92-7 emissions monitoring 266-7. 210-17. emissions 7.413 object-oriented modelling 18. 335 NO. 253 factors affecting 244-5. excitation lll-12. UK electricity market 10. 375-7 formulation of 377-80 PI.

flue gas temperature 154 load-following capability 158 steam temperature control 155-7 quadratic programming 380 radial basis function. power plant database management 57 dynamic decoupling 52-3 hybrid emulation 113-14. heat transfer 6. network 102. 94. 246 coal mill performance 81-2 temperature / pressure of 70-1 principal component analysis fault detection 317-25 feature selection 310 model selection 314-15 multiblock 315-16 non-linear transformation 335 principal component 314 principal curve 340 t scores 314. physical-based modelling singular value decomposition 335 sliding pressure control 212. 320 see also projection to latent structures principal curve 340 procedural rule. 329-34. 168.424 Index predictive control (continued) coal mill control. 152-3. 18-19. 243 flow measurement 81 Kalman filter 84-90 pump. heat exchanger. 164 numerical integration 52 validation of 53-6. superheater temperature 149-52 Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (US) 10 pulverised fuel 7.367 SCADA 251. 311 see also distributed control system projection to latent structures model selection 327-8 monitoring and optimisation 310. statistic 315.244 self-tuning control: see adaptive control sensor fault detection 311-12 feedwater heater. 159 validity index 318 value reconstruction 316-18. 228-9 boiler stored energy 6 gain scheduling 151 . 5.397 receding horizon state estimation 295-303 recursive least squares 147 supervision of 11 l . Dymola. actuator 293. 190. 375-89 state estimation-based 380-1 superheater temperature control 147-9 PRESS.I 2. 336-9 multiblock 329 non-linear RBF 3 3 4 ~ non-linear transformation 335 see also principal component analysis PTx control. 372. 365 feedforward control 206 formulation of 147-8. 183. 12 primary air 64. 377-80 multivariable steam control 347-9 parameter sensitivity 194-9 physical model-based control 365. Modelica. power plant availability factor 398 subsystem outages 399-400 renewable energy 12. 71-9 see also gPROMS. mechanisms 403 see also flue gas recycling. malfunction 284-7 soft 92. 375-80. 369. 42. multivafiable 90-1 constraints. 330 sensor fusion 159 simulation. 371-2 metal temperature. state estimation 370. 21-2. 221-3 programmable logic controller 8. modelling of 37-9 pyrometry. 317. 335 radiation. 159 UN targets 13 saturation. object-oriented modelling. 386 steam temperature control 7. 118 regression analysis 327 reheater 3.329 pressurised fluidised bed combustion 2.354 scheduled outage factor 398-9 secondary air 81. steam temperature / pressure reliability. 370-1 burner configuration 382 Rankine cycle 1. 377 thermal efficiency 371-2 tube failure. 293 modelling environment 18. fuzzy logic 102. 207 control action correction 190. inclusion of 185. 195-7 flue gas recycling 183. 181.

312 knowledge-based plant control 216-20 load-following capability 205-6. 195-6 evaporator control 134-47 knowledge-based plant control 221-8 load-following 132.132. 133. 158.Index 425 thermal stress. UN world summit 13 s e e a l s o renewable energy synchronisation. 28-43. 386 unit startup 182 soft desk 351 soft sensor 92. 195-7 flue gas temperature 153-7 fuzzy temperature control 152-4 GPC temperature control 147-9 metal temperature. 335 spot price.326 SOx. 386 model-based predictive control 347-9 once-through boiler 4. 43-5. 158. 191 subsystem model. 114.272. 317. 7.346 CCGT predictive control 168-76 control action correction 186-8 control strategies 184-5. heat exchanger. parameter estimation t scores 314. multi-loop plant control. 381-9 state estimation based. 183. 159 soot blowing 132. 366 coal mill advisory system 92-7 HP feedwater heater modelling 295-307 physical model-based predictive control 379. 137 metal temperature control of 375. 348-9 multivariable steam control 347-9 physical model-based predictive control 375-81 plant management system 351 thermal efficiency 2. 301 stoichiometric air-fuel ratio 7. 183. 163 condensate cycle 23-4. 367 control action correction 190. models . 136-7. emissions 7. 320. power plant boiler 19. control of 3. 63. 292 steam temperature / pressure. electricity 395 startup / shutdown. 133 control action correction 190. 11. operator advisory system sustainable development.206 controlled reference value 186-7 disadvantages of 180. 209-10. 45-6 gas turbine 25. 391 tube failure. 375-80. 155-6 state estimation 270. 183 physical model-based predictive control 375-81 plant life 132 superheater control 136-7. 163 s e e also component model supercritical boiler: s e e once-through boiler superheater 3. power plant advisory system 356-8 coal mill 91. 386 multivariable temperature control 347-9 PTx temperature control 149-52 steam temperature control 7. 147-58 thermal efficiency 132. alternator 356 system identification: s e e black-box modelling. 94. 46-50. generalised predictive control 380-1 state-space model physical model-based predictive control 376-81 subspace model identification 189. 249 subcritical boiler: s e e drum boiler subspace model identification 189. 375-80. 346 s e e a l s o distributed control system. 13. mechanisms 403 s e e a l s o attemperator. network 247. 191 steam quality 33 steam tables 27.243.244. 367. 164 steam turbine 23. reduction of 372. 163 reaction stage 44 s e e a l s o life stochastic approximation 270 HP feedwater heater modelling 290-1. steam temperature / pressure supervisory plant control 2. 346 acid rain 11. 330 testing and validation. 151. 372.243 flue gas desulphurisation 11. 397 PLS modelling of 329-32 s e e a l s o environmental regulation spline. 372 thermal efficiency 132. 391 steam turbine 3 impulse stage 44-5 load cycling problems 405-6 maintenance overhaul 399 modelling of 23. 43-5.390 state estimation 370. state estimation 370.

209-11 base-load plant 6 two-shifting. mechanisms 403 turbine following control 182.405-7 thermography. models (continued) design data 54 open-loop / closed-loop tests 55-6 thermal efficiency combined cycle gas turbine 5 factors affecting 158.426 Index testing and validation. 386 unit startup / shutdown 358. incident 312 training simulator 414 tramp air 7 transputer 117 tube failure. operation: see load cycling unit dispatch 353.391 see also monitoring thermal stress 179. renewable energy targets 13 valve cavitation 35 modelling of 35-6 VME hardware 117 volatile organic compound 11 voltage measurement Fourier algorithm 114-16 harmonic interference 114 RMS technique 115 white-box modelling 245 see also physical-based modelling . 371 sliding pressure operation 372. 348 load following 132. 326. 399 modelling / monitoring 163. 185. infrared 409 Three Mile Island. 412 United Nations. 346 temperature control 132. 330. 382. 136. 371. 358-9 once-through boiler 4 sliding pressure operation 6 supervisory control 2.

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