SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 1 of 25
LINEARIZATION ARRANGEMENTS FOR RTDs
FOURWIRE OHMMETER METHOD
[ ]
0
2
2 1 0
,
.... 1 ) (
t t t
where
t t t R I R I t v
n
n to ref t ref
− = ∆
∆ + + ∆ + ∆ + = = α α α
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 2 of 25
Thus, while the relation between v
o
and R
t
is
linear, that between v
0
and t is nonlinear.
r is of manganin or constantan low tempco.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 3 of 25
0
With r connected,
( ) ( )
t
ref eq ref
t
rR
v t I R t I
r R
= =
+
V
o
vs. t is linear → R
eq
vs. t is linear.
Aim: To linearize v
o
vs. t characteristic over t
l
to
t
u
° °° °C. → linearize R
eq
vs. t.
Condition to be fulfilled : ∆ ∆∆ ∆R
1
= ∆ ∆∆ ∆R
2
.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 4 of 25
That is,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
2 ( ) ( ) ( ) (1)
eq m eq l eq u eq m
eq m eq u eq l
R t R t R t R t
or
R t R t R t
− = −
= +
( ) ( )
2
(2)
2
2 1 1
,
2 2
2 1
,
(
1
=
2
m l u l m m l u
m l u
m l u
m l u
m l u
m l u
l m
l u m u
t t t
t t t
t t t
t t t t t t t t t t
t
t t t
t t t
t t t
R R R
rR rR rR
r R r R r R
rR rR rR
r R r R r R
or
r R r R r R
Finally
R R R R R R R
r
R R R R R
= +
+ + +
− = − + −
+ + +
= +
+ + +
+ − + −
=
+ − −
(3)
) ( )
m m l
t t t
R R − −
If R
t
vs. t characteristic is linear,
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 5 of 25
as expecte
( ) ( )
d , .
u m m l
t t t t
R R R R
r
− = −
∴ = ∞
LINEARIZING ARRANGEMENT FOR RTDs LINEARIZING ARRANGEMENT FOR RTDs LINEARIZING ARRANGEMENT FOR RTDs LINEARIZING ARRANGEMENT FOR RTDs
HAVING RESISTANCE HAVING RESISTANCE HAVING RESISTANCE HAVING RESISTANCE  TEMPERATURE CURVE TEMPERATURE CURVE TEMPERATURE CURVE TEMPERATURE CURVE
THAT IS CONVEX UPWARD: THAT IS CONVEX UPWARD: THAT IS CONVEX UPWARD: THAT IS CONVEX UPWARD:
If R
t
vs. t characteristic has progressively
decreasing slope ( α αα α
2
is ve)
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 6 of 25
( ) ( )
, since numerator of the
expression for
Value of r obtai
r is +ve
ned is v
.
e
u m m l
t t t t
R R R R − < −
∴
Example: Platinum RTD .
The problem is solved by using an opamp based
const. current source with –ve internal resistance.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 7 of 25
( )
0 1 0
0
0
3 1
1 3 1 3
1
1
3 3
0
Applying KCL at o/p terminal,
(1)
or,
(2
)
,
)
(3
t t
t
r
t
V R R R
V V V V V
R R R
V
R R R
V
o
V R
V
R R R
V V
r
+
+ −
+
+ +
=
− −
+ =
−
−
=
( )
1 3
1 2
1 2 3 2 3
( ) (4)
ef
ref
V R
R R V
R R R R R
+ + =
+ + +
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 8 of 25
3
1 3
3 2
0
1
0
1
1
3
3 2
2
3
3
1
2
; where,
Effective linearizing resistan
, r has a negative valu
,
( )
ce
(
e
)
=
.
ref
t
ref r
t
r
ef
ef
t
t
V
R r
V I I
R r R
and
R R
r
R R
Finally
R R
R
V
R R
If R
V
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
(
(

= =
+

−
( =

(
=
−
\ ¹
+
(
−
¸
<
¸
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 9 of 25
LINEARIZATION ARRANGEMENTS FOR NTC
THERMISTORS:
PRINCIPLE PRINCIPLE PRINCIPLE PRINCIPLE : :: :
⌦ Desired: Linear relation between S &
T over certain temp. range.
According to Taylor’s theorem, S(T) can
be expanded into an infinite series about a
reference temperature T
r
as,
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 10 of 25
2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) .......
2! 3!
,
( )
r
r r r r
r
n
n
r
n
T T
h h
S T S T hS T S T S T
where h T T
d S
S T
dT
=
′ ′′ ′′′
= + + + +
=
=
∼
⌦ For above series to converge, magnitude of terms in
increasing powers of h should decrease rapidly with ascent
of power of h.
⌦ Practical systems sufficient to consider up to term in
h
3
.
⌦ Major contribution to nonlinearity comes from term in
h
2
.
⌦ If S'' (T
r
) is set to zero, then, if contribution from h
3
term is negligibly small,
( ) ( ) ( )
r r
S T S T hS T
′
+
⌦ Reasonable linearity of S(T) vs. T curve. Usually T
r
=
T
m
midpoint of temp. range of interest.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 11 of 25
⌦ S'' (T
m
) is set to zero by selecting linearizing ckt.
parameter(s).Then S(T) has an inflection at T=T
m
. Thus
quasilinearization is achieved.
SHUNT LINEARIZATION SCHEME: SHUNT LINEARIZATION SCHEME: SHUNT LINEARIZATION SCHEME: SHUNT LINEARIZATION SCHEME:
Here,
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 12 of 25
0
0 eq
0 m eq m
V (T) vs. T linear
( ) ( ) ( )
R (T) vs. T is linear
i.e.
V (
(1)
T )=0 R (T )=0
T
ref eq ref
T
rR
S T V T I R T I
r R
∴ →
′′ →
=
′′
= =
+
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
4
3 2 2 2
3
( )
( ) (2)
" 2
( )
r 2
=
T T T T T
eq
T T
T T T T
eq
T
T T T T
T
rR r R rR R r R
R T
r R r R
r R r R r R r R
R T
r R
R r R R r R
r R
′ ′ ′
+ −
′ = =
+ +
′′ ′
+ − +
′′
=
+
′′ ′′ ′
+ −
+
( )
2 2
3
r 2
= (3)
T T T T
T
rR R R R
r R
(
′′ ′′ ′
+ −
¸ ¸
+
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 13 of 25
0
0
2
1 1
2
Hence to have ( ) = 0, we should make
2
(4)
Considering
2
,
,
m
m
m
m
m m m m
T
eq m
T T T T
T T
T T
T
T
T T
R T
rR R R R
R R e
R
r R
R
R R
β
 
−

\ ¹
′′
′′ ′ ′′
= −
∴
=
′
= −
′′
=
0
0
1 1
, (5)
m
T T
e
β
 
−

\ ¹
2
2
4 3 3
2
3
.
(6)
2
2
,
2
m m
m m
T T
T T
m
T T
m
T T T T
m
R R
T
or
R R R R
T T T T
or
R R
T
R R
T T
β
β β
β
β
β β
β
(
′
= −
(
¸ ¸
 
    
′′
= + = +
   
(
′
= −
(
¸ ¸
  
′′ = +
 
\ ¹\
\ ¹ \ ¹\ ¹
\
¹
¹
(
7)
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 14 of 25
m
m
m
m
2
2
4
T
m
T
T
3
T
m
m
From equations (4), (5), (6) and (7),
β
2R
T
r = R
β
β
R 2
T
T
2
r =
Finally,
R (8)
2
m
m
T
T
β
β
 

\ ¹
−
 
 
+
 
\ ¹
\ ¹
−
+
∴
SERIES SERIES SERIES SERIES LINEARIZATION SCHEME: LINEARIZATION SCHEME: LINEARIZATION SCHEME: LINEARIZATION SCHEME:
r = Linearizing resistance
As T increases→ V
0
increases.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 15 of 25
0
0
2
( ) ( ) (1)
V (T) = (2)
( )
T
T
T
r
S T V T E
r R
R
Er
r R
= =
+
′
′
−
+
2 2
0
4
0 m
2 2
2
( ) 2 ( )
V (T) = (3)
( )
To have V (T )=0, we should have,
( ) 2 ( )
,
2
=
2
r =
2
m m m m
m
m
m
m
T T T T
T
T T T T
T
T
m
T
T
m
R r R R r R
Er
r R
R r R R r R
or
R
r R
R
T
R
T
β
β
′′ ′ (
+ − +
¸ ¸
′′
−
+
′′
′′ ′ + = +
′
+
−
′′
∴
−
(4)
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 16 of 25
LINEARIZATION USING LOGNETWORK
0 0
0
,
Output of network is,
( ) ( ) (1)
.
i Teq
T
Teq
T
i
ref
V IR
where
rR
R
r R
V
S T V T K n
V
K Scale factor
=
=
+
 
= = −


\ ¹
=
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 17 of 25
0 0 0
0 0
,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
=
( )
,
is a constant.
T T
ref T T
T
T
ref
or
IrR GrR
S T V T K n K n
V r R r R
rR
K n K nG
r R
where
I
G
V
(
(
= = − = −
(
(
+ +
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
− −
(
+
¸ ¸
=
( )
( )
2
2
0
0 0
2
0
0
2
( )
...................... (2)
( ) ( ) ( 2 ) (3)
( )
T T T
T T T
T
T T T T T
T T
K rR r R r R
V T K
rR R r R
r R
K r
V T R R r R R r R
R r R
  ′ ′
− +
′
∴ = − =

+
\ ¹ +
−
′′ ′′ ′ ( = + − +
¸ ¸
′′
+
Thus for making
0
( ) 0
m
V T
′′
=
the following condition
has to be fulfilled.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 18 of 25
( )
2
2
2
( ) ( 2 )
,
2
(4)
m m m m m
m m m m
m m m
T T T T T
T T T T
T T T
R R r R R r R
or
R R R R
r
R R R
′′ ′
+ = +
′ ′′
−
=
′′ ′
−
0
0
1 1
2
3
Recalling that,
,
2
m
m
m m
m m
T T
T T
T T
m
T T
m m
R R e
R R
T
and
R R
T T
β
β
β β
 
−

\ ¹
=
(
′
= −
(
¸ ¸
  
′′
= +
 
\ ¹\ ¹
We get,
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 19 of 25
2
2 2
4 3
2
2 2
3 4
2 2
2
2
2
=
2
2
( 2 )
m m m
m m
m
m
T
T T T
M M M
T T
m m m
T
m m
m
m
m
m
R R R
T T T
r
R R
T T T
R
T T
T
R T
r
T
T
β β β
β β β
β β
β
β
β
(
    
− +
(   
\ ¹ \ ¹\ ¹
¸ ¸
=
    
+ −
  
\ ¹\ ¹ \ ¹
(
 
− +
( 
\ ¹
¸ ¸
=
+
−
−
∴
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 20 of 25
IMPLEMENTATION OF LOGAMPLIFIER
CIRCUIT :
When a transistor is placed in a circuit such that
the collector voltage V
C
= 0, the collector current
is given by the equation
19
exp 1
,
Current transfer ratio between emitter & collector 1
Reverse saturation current of baseemitter diode.
q= Magnitude of electronic charge=1.6 10 .
Boltzma
E
C ES
a
ES
qV
I I
KT
where
I
C
K
α
α
−
(
 
−
−
( 
(
\ ¹
¸ ¸
≈
=
×
=
23
nn's Constant =1.38 10 / .
Ambient temperature in Kelvin.
a
J Kelvin
T
−
×
=
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 21 of 25
13
ES
Typically I 10 & 1,
&
exp
C ES
E
C ES
a
A
I I
qV
I I
KT
α ≈ ≈
∴
 
−

\ ¹
∵
0 C
0 0
In the above ckt.
and I
a C
E
ES
i
E i
a i i
ES ref
KT I
V n
q I
e
e V I
R
KT e e
e n K n
q I R V
∴−
= = =
∴ = − = −
Note: Diode D protects T against excessive reverse
baseemitter voltage.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 22 of 25
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 23 of 25
2
2
0
3
2
=Constant ( if
( )
( )
R )
a
Z
T
i
ES
Z
T
KT V T
V
V V
I r
rR
R
R
R
T
q R
r
n
I
(
−
=
+
=
(
¸
+
¸
∴
For the log ckt. considered:
⌦
0
.
a
K T ∝
Changes by 0.3% /ºC in vicinity of
27ºC.
⌦ Main temp. error is due I
ES
which
approximately doubles for every 10ºC change
in temp.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 24 of 25
Temperatre Compensated LogAmplifier:
Q
1
and Q
2
are matched transistors.
SUGATA MUNSHI
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
Jadavpur University
Page 25 of 25
( )
1
0 0
2
1
1 1
1 0 0
1 1
2 2
2 0 0
2 1
1 1
0 0
1 2
0 0
2
V ( ) &
,
V ,
,
( )
C
a E
ES ES
C
b E
ES ES
ES
b a
ES
i r
i
ref
ef
I V
V V K n K n
I R I
I V
V V K n K n
I R I
R I V
V A V V AK n
R I V
V
V AK n
V
V T
V AK
If V T V
th
n
o
V
r
en
α α
α α
α
α
 
=

\ ¹
(
=
= = − = −
= = − = −
 
∴ = − = ×

\ ¹
(
¸
= =
(
¸