This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
September 2, 2003
Satellite Communications
Satellite Communications
Chen,
Chen,
Zhi Ning
Zhi Ning
email: chenzn@i2r.astar.edu.sg
URL: http://www1.i2r.astar.edu.sg/~chenzn
EE5404 Antenna Basics 2
3 Antenna Basics
3 Antenna Basics
3.1 Introduction
3.2 System Parameters
•Field and power radiated by an antenna
•Farfield distance
•Radiation intensity
•Radiation patterns
•Directivity
•Radiation efficiency
•Gain
•Aperture efficiency
•Effective area
•Antenna polarization
EE5404 Antenna Basics 3
Radio Channel
receive &
transmit
antennas
The propagation of electromagnetic energy is the key
physical phenomenon in any wireless communications. It
links transmitters to receivers in a wireless communication
system.
The antennas are the key devices in the energy transfer.
Therefore, the antennas are playing a vital role in any
satellite communication systems. With the antennas, it is
possible to build up the communications between the
satellites in space and the users on ground.
In this chapter we will characterise the antennas in a
systems point of view. Our goal is to calculate the
received signal and noise power in terms of transmit
power, range, antenna gain, and efficiency.
receive & transmit
antennas
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction
EE5404 Antenna Basics 4
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


antenna and EM theory
antenna and EM theory
However, antenna theory and design are complex
topic.
The electromagnetic theory is found on the
mathematics and physics. The antenna theory and
design are one of electromagnetic applications.
The antenna engineering involves not only
electromagnetics, applied mathematics but also
material, mechanics, manufacturing and so on.
Usually, we must take some particular courses to study
the antennas.
Here, we are not interest in the detailed EM theory of
the antenna operation. We are just interested in the
system aspect of the antennas such as radiation
patterns, directivity, gain, efficiency, and polarization.
antenna theory & design
••••••
electromagnetics
mathematics physics
EE5404 Antenna Basics 5
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


what is an antenna
what is an antenna
In an EM point of view, an antenna is
a radiator or an inductor of EM fields.
When the antenna radiates EM fields,
the electric currents on the antenna are
excited by its feed and then excite the
electromagnetic fields in space.
When the antenna receives the EM
fields, the impressed electromagnetic
fields on the surface of the antenna
excite the electric currents on the
antenna surface, that is, the electric
currents are induced on the antenna
surface. Then the induced currents are
received by load of antennas, usually,
RF circuits.
plane wave
P
t
Spherical wave
Z
s
P
r
Z
l
V
s
Transmit antenna receive antenna
currents EM fields currents
EE5404 Antenna Basics 6
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


what is an antenna
what is an antenna
In a radio systems point of view, an
antenna is a device to convert a
guided EM wave on a transmission
system to a plane wave propagation
in free space.
One side of an antenna acts as an
electric circuit element. Meanwhile,
the other side of the antenna
provides an interface with a
propagating plane wave.
So, the EM waves with RF signals
are transmitted and received by the
antennas.
Due to the gain of antennas, the RF
signals may be amplified when the
antennas transmit or receive the
signals.
P
t
Spherical wave
plane wave
Z
s
P
r
Z
l
V
s
Transmit antenna receive antenna
Guided
EM wave
EM fields
In freespace
Guided
EM wave
P
t
Z
s
Z
ant
P
t
V
s
EE5404 Antenna Basics 7
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


what is an antenna
what is an antenna
Wire: monopole, dipole, loop, helix, ...
Aperture: horn, waveguide, ...
Microstrip: dipole, patch, ...
Array: wire, aperture, microstrip, waveguide, ...
Reflector: parabolic, corner, ...
Lens: convex, concave, …
……
antennas
For satellite communications, we need lightweight highgain antennas satellites and mobile
users, and highgain antennas for earth stations. The wire structures and microstrip antennas are
often used for satellites and mobile users. And the reflector, aperture and array antenna with very
high gain are commonly used for earth stations.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 8
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


some products for satellite comm.
some products for satellite comm.
D=2.4m
Antenna Size 2.4 M (96 in.)
Operating Frequency 3.625  4.2
GHz
Midband Gain (± .2dB) 37.5 dBi
3 dB Beamwidth 2.1°
Antenna Noise Temperature
(linear)
20° elevation
30° elevation
33K
31K
First Sidelobe (typical) 20 dB
CrossPol Isolation (linear) >30 dB (on
axis)
VSWR 1.3:1 Max.
Feed Interface CPR 229 F
Insertion Loss 0.2 dB Max.
CBand Dual Pol Rx Only Antenna
receive VSAT antennas
D=1.2m
EE5404 Antenna Basics 9
Model 9322800/16inch Disk Array
for Vehicles
Frequency: Lband
Gain:9 dBi
Steered in: Azimuth
Features: 20°  65° elevation coverage
CP "disk" array.
16 inch diameter, 1 inch high.
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


some products for satellite comm.
some products for satellite comm.
GPS antennas
EE5404 Antenna Basics 10
3.1 Introduction
3.1 Introduction


some products for satellite comm.
some products for satellite comm.
Low loss "suspended
technology" dual polarized
radiating elements.
(Courtesy Saab Ericsson
Space, Sweden).
EE5404 Antenna Basics 11
3.2 System Parameters
3.2 System Parameters
Antenna
System
Parameters
To describe the characteristics and performance
of an antenna, we have defined many
parameters.
Here we mainly introduce some antenna
parameters, which are related to systems. Using
them, we shall discuss antenna effects on system
performance.
For example, compared with the nearfield
parameters such as impedance matching, we are
more interested in far field characteristics of an
antennas, such as radiation pattern, gain,
polarization and so on.
9Reciprocity theorem
9Impedance matching
9Radiation by an antenna
9Farfield distance
9Radiation intensity
9Radiation patterns
9Directivity
9Radiation efficiency
9Gain
9Aperture efficiency
9Effective area
9Antenna polarization
EE5404 Antenna Basics 12
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Reciprocity Theorem
Reciprocity Theorem
I
Antenna B
R R
EMF
Antenna B
T
I T EMF
Antenna A Antenna A
Basically passive antennas are reciprocal devices.
The reciprocity theorem for the antennas states that if a current I is induced in output of the
antenna B (operating in receiving mode) by applied electromagnetic fields at input of the antenna
A (operating in transmitting mode), then the same electromagnetic fields at the input of the
antenna B will induce the same current I at the output of the antenna A.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 13
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Reciprocity Theorem
Reciprocity Theorem
Important consequences
•In a linear antenna system, the power delivered in either
direction (ant. 1 to ant. 2 or ant. 2 to ant.1) is the same.
•The radiation pattern for an antenna operating in the
transmitting mode is the same as the that in the receiving
mode.
It suggests that we can determine the property of an antenna operating in either transmitting or
receiving mode because the receiving and transmitting characteristics of the antenna are identical
at any specific frequency.
This simplifies antenna analysis and measurements greatly.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 14
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Impedance matching
Impedance matching
In the analysis and design of an antenna, the impedance
matching is a key parameter to measure the capability to
delivery energy between the antenna and the feed or load.
Using an equivalent circuit of an antenna in a transmitting
mode, the antenna system can be divided into source,
transmission line and radiator. If the impedance is matched
between the source or antenna and transmission line, there
will not be the reflection at the interface of source
transmission line or antennatransmission line. As a result,
maximum energy will be transmitted from the source to the
antenna.
Usually we can define some parameters to assess the
matching condition, such as VSWR or return loss based on
the reflecting coefficient.
Besides the ohmic loss in the source, transmission line and
antenna, the impedance mismatching also result in the loss.
S
standing
wave
Z
a
=R
a
+jX
a
Z
s
=R
s
+jX
s
source
antenna
transmission line
Z
o
Z
s
= Z
o
*
Z
o
= Z
a
*
Impedance
match
VSWR or
return loss
EE5404 Antenna Basics 15
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation by an antenna
Radiation by an antenna
At large distance, the radiated electric field by an antenna can be expressed as
( ) ( )   V/m ,
ˆ
,
ˆ
) , , (
r
e
F F r E
jkr −
+ = φ θ φ φ θ θ φ θ
φ θ
r
the electric field vector;
unit vectors in the spherical coordinate system;
the radial distance from the origin
the freespace propagation constant with wavelength λ
pattern functions, independent of distance r ( ) ( ) φ θ φ θ
φ θ
φ θ
φ θ
, , ,
ˆ
,
ˆ
) , , (
F F
k
r
r
r
where
E
The electric field propagates in the radial direction, with a phase delay of (jkr) and amplitude
attenuation of 1/r. The electric field may be polarized in either θ or φ directions, but not in the
radial direction.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 16
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation by an antenna
Radiation by an antenna
o
E
H
η
φ
θ
− =
o
E
H
η
θ
φ
=
The associated magnetic field is and
Ω = 377
o
η
: the wave impedance of free space
The magnetic field vector is also polarized in either θ or φ directions only.
The Poynting vector for EM waves can be given by the cross product of E and H fields:
2 *
W/m H E S
r r r
× =
: the radiated power density
( ) ( )
2 *
W/m Re
2
1
Re
2
1
H E S S
avg
r r r r
× = = : timeaverage Ponyting vector
EE5404 Antenna Basics 17
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Far
Far


field zone
field zone
At large distances the near fields of an antenna can be negligible. So, the fields can be
expressed simply as TEM waves. Moreover, the fields can be considered as a plane
wave with ideal planar phase. This distance is called farfield distance and can be
determined by maximum dimension of an antenna, D.
m
2
2
λ
D
r
field far
=
−
This relationship is derived from the condition that the actual spherical wave front
radiated by the antenna departs less than π/8=22.5
o
from a true plane wave front over
the maximum extent. Or the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the
distance r.
However, for small antennas, farfield distance r
farfield
is at least 2λ.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 18
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Far
Far


field zone
field zone


Example
Example
A dish for DBS reception is 1.2m in diameter and operates at 12.4GHz.
1) Find its farfield distance.
2) Evaluate the critical diameter of the dish which makes the DBS satellite
not locate within its farfield zone.
Solution:
1) The wave length is λ=c/f=2.42 cm.
So, the distance r
farfield
=2 (D)
2
/ λ=119 m<<36,000,000 m
(The distance from a DBS satellite to the dish is 36,000km.)
2) The farfield distance is 36,000km.
So, the diameter D =[r
farfield
λ/2]
1/2
= 660 m
That means that the DBS satellite will not locate in the farfield region of the
dish of a diameter of <660 meter.
1.2m
EE5404 Antenna Basics 19
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation Intensity
Radiation Intensity
The radiation intensity can be defined as
( ) ( ) ( ) W Re
2
1
Re
2
Re
2
) , (
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
φ θ φ θ
η η
φ θ F F E E
r
S
r
S r U
o o
avg
+ = + = = =
r r
The radiation intensity is the radiation power per unit solid angle since the radial
dependence has been removed. It gives the variation in radiated power versus position
around antenna. So, we can find the total power radiated by the antenna by integrating
the Ponyting vector over surface of a sphere of radius r. The sphere encloses the antenna.
W sin ) , ( sin ˆ
2
0 0
2
0 0
2
rad
φ θ θ φ θ φ θ θ
π
φ
π
θ
π
φ
π
θ
d d U d d r r S P
avg
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
= = = =
= • =
r
EE5404 Antenna Basics 20
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
An important fact is that an antenna is a directional device and characterised in
terms of a radiation pattern.
Radiation pattern: a plot of the relative farfield strength or power transmitted or received
by the antenna versus position around antenna at a fixed distance from antenna. Thus the
pattern can be plotted from the pattern functions F
θ
and F
φ
versus θ (in an elevation plane)
and φ (in an azimuthal plane) of a spherical coordinate system at one frequency one
polarization and one plane cut. The polarization of the antenna determines the plotting F
θ
and
F
φ
. The radiation patterns can be measured at a constant radius r. And the plots also can be 2
or 3dimensional.
Radiation Pattern for fields:
Radiation Pattern for power:
f (θ , φ)= F
θ or φ
(θ , φ)/F
max
p (θ , φ)= F
2
θ or φ
(θ , φ)/P
max
EE5404 Antenna Basics 21
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
main
lobe
elevation
plane
azimuth
plane
minor
lobes
x
z
y
3dimensional radiation patterns
Usually, we normalize the power at a certain
point by the maximum power at the fixed
radius.
This trace is the received power or field at a
constant radius, called the power or field
pattern.
There are main lobe or beam and some side
lobes or minor lobes.
With the help of the radiation pattern, we can
know maximum radiation direction easily.
This is helpful for us to design the RF link.
As said, the purpose of communications is
delivery the information to the desired
destination (in the certain direction) by the RF
energy.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 22
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
main
lobe
sidelobe
back lobe
minor
lobes
x
First null beamwidth
FNBW
Halfpower
beamwidth
HPBW
minor
lobes
z
y
3dimensional pattern
FNBW
HPBW
Side lobes
main
lobe
Side lobe
back
lobe
π π/2 0 π/2 π θ
Radiation
intensity
back
lobe
2dimensional pattern
This is a two dimensional radiation pattern in a specific cut. It displays radiated field distribution
in a specific plane. Using the 2D pattern, we can easily define the main lobe, side lobes, back
lobe, first null beamwidth and also halfpower beamwidth.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 23
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
Absolute
gain, dB
elevation
angle
azimuth
angle
Relative
gain
dB
0
For satellite communications, we can
plot the radiation patterns in this way.
This figure shows the field or power
distribution of the coverage region
illuminated by a satellite antenna.
There is maximum power near the
origin.
radiation pattern for satellite antenna
EE5404 Antenna Basics 24
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
Distribution of Efield
feed
reflector
(aperture)
D
a
practical
ideal
reflector antenna
Here we consider the antennas most commonly used in satellite
communication systems, namely, reflector antenna.This is a typical
reflector antenna sometimes used in earth station. The reflector
antennas can focus transmissions within desired areas with very high
gains. The radiation patterns of aperture antennas depend on the field
distribution patterns across the antenna aperture.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 25
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
a
D
Nλ
= Θ
N: a constant dependent on aperture distribution
N=58 uniform distribution
N=70 tapered distribution
D
a
: antenna diameter
λ: operating wavelength
So, the halfpower beamwidth depends on the aperture field
distribution, antenna diameter, and operating frequency.
To minimized spillover of energy, the field distribution is
usually tapered across the aperture with the maximum at the
center of the aperture. Usually, we describe the ability to focus
the energy on a certain area in terms of halfpower beamwidth.
We can evaluate it from this approximate relationship.
HPBW:halfpower beamwidth
(radian)
D
a
EE5404 Antenna Basics 26
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Directivity
Directivity
Directivity
Directivity is one measure of focusing property of an antenna. It is defined as the ratio of
maximum radiation intensity in the main beam to average radiation intensity over all space
.
avg avg avg
P
P
P
U
U
U
D
max max max
4
= = =
π
U
max
& U
avg
: maximum & average radiation intensity
P
max
& P
avg
: maximum & average radiated power
π 4
r
avg
P
P =
The average power radiated from an antenna is the power over unit solid angle.
P
r
: the total radiated power from an antenna.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 27
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Directivity
Directivity
( ) A d d F
F
D
Ω
= =
∫ ∫
π
φ θ θ φ θ
π
π π
φ θ
φ θ
4
sin ,
4
2
0 . 0
or
max or
Ω
A
: beam solid angle
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
Θ Θ
Θ Θ
≈
Ω
=
deg 2 deg 1
2
2 1
) / 180 ( 4
4
4
π π
π
π
rad rad
A
D
We also can calculate the directivity using pattern
functions. This is an exact expression to calculate
the maximum directivity. But, in practice, it seems
not easy to use it.
So, for the directional patterns, we can use the
simple expression, such as two halfpower beam
widths in radian or degree to approximate the beam
solid angle.
Θ
1rad
: HPBW in one plane in radian
Θ
2rad
: HPBW in a plane at a right angle to the
other plane in radian
Θ
1degree
: HPBW in one plane in degree
Θ
2degree
: HPBW in a plane at a right angle to
the other plane in degree
EE5404 Antenna Basics 28
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Efficiency
Efficiency
However, the definition of the directivity does not consider the efficiency of an antenna because
P
r
is only related to the actual power radiated into free space.
In fact, some power in an antenna is definitely lost as a result of spillover, blockage of RF
energy by subreflector and supporting structures, manufacturing defects, ohmic and
mismatching losses. Such losses reduce the power delivered from the the input of an antenna to
free space. The radiated power is lower than the input power of the antenna. We can measure
the difference by radiation efficiency.
in
loss
in
loss in
in
rad
1
P
P
P
P P
P
P
e
rad
− =
−
= =
P
rad
: the power radiated by the antennas
P
in
: the power applied to the input of the antenna
P
loss
: the power lost in the antenna
?Question:Do impedance mismatch at the input or output of antennas, polarization mismatch
with the receive antenna contribute to the loss of transmit power? How to eliminate them?
EE5404 Antenna Basics 29
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Gain
Gain
Another useful measure describing the performance of an antenna id the gain.
Although the gain of the antenna is closely related to the directivity, it is a measure to take
into account the efficiency as well as its directional capabilities. Remember that the directivity
is a measure only describing the directional properties of the antenna and so controlled only
by the pattern. Therefore, the gain function is related to directivity and efficiency as described
in its definition.
D e
P
P
G
rad
in
rad
power, input
power, radiation maximum
= =
Gain:
rad
P
e =
in
rad
P
EE5404 Antenna Basics 30
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Gain
Gain
Gain for an aperture antenna
2
e
4
λ
π
A
G = A
e
: the effective aperture (area) of the antenna
ape
em
ape
2
ape
ape rad
2
em
rad
4
A
A
e
D
e e
A
e G
=


.

\

= =
λ
π
λ
π
e
ape
: efficiency of aperture
A
ape
=π(D
ape
/2)
2
the physical area of aperture of the antenna
D
aee
: diameter of aperture
For circular aperture
As example, we calculate the gain for an aperture antenna using its aperture dimension, A
e
. The
A
e
is determined by the field distribution on the aperture and radiation efficiency of the
antenna. For a circular aperture, we can calculate its aperture area A
ape
with its diameter. e
ape
is
the efficiency of the aperture. The efficiency of a typical parabolic antenna is 5070%.
In addition, it is clear that the gain of an antenna increases with an increase in its aperture size.
So, the larger the diameter of an antenna is, the higher the gain of an antenna is.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 31
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Effective area
Effective area
The important parameters, such as antenna directivity, efficiency, and gain have been
discussed above in terms of transmit antennas. In fact, they all can apply to receive antennas as
mentioned in Reciprocity Theorem. However, for a receive antenna, we need a parameter to
measure its ability to receive power for a given incident plane wave.
From the calculation of the gain for an aperture antenna, we know that the received power is
proportional to the effective aperture (area), A
e
and incident power density.
e avg
A S P
r
=
S
avg
: incident power density received power:
π
λ
4
2
max rad emax
D e A =
Maximum effective aperture (area)
The maximum effective area of any antenna is proportional to the maximum directivity of
the antenna and the operating wavelength. (C. A. Balanis: Antenna Theoryanalysis and design,
2
nd
edition,Wiley, 1997)
EE5404 Antenna Basics 32
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Polarization
Polarization
Polarization of an EM wave describes the orientation of radiated electric field vector in
space and is usually a function of time. The polarization is determined by the antenna or the
feed of an antenna.
For example, when a plane wave is propagating along the zaxis, the electric field can be
expressed using its x and ycomponents.
( )
jkz
y x
e E y E x E
−
+ = ˆ ˆ
r
E
x
and E
y
are the amplitude of the x and ycomponents of the EM wave and inphase.
If E
x
=0, and E
y
=1, or E
x
=1, and E
y
=0, the EM wave is linearly polarized in the y or x
direction.
If E
x
=1, and E
y
=1 (in phase), the EM wave is linearly polarized in the 45
o
direction.
EE5404 Antenna Basics 33
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Polarization
Polarization
For the case of the x and ycomponents with arbitrary amplitude and phase, the EM wave
operates in an elliptical polarization. This can be considered the general case as illustrated in
this figure. The waves is propagating in –z direction. Usually, we use the axial ratio to
express the polarization. The linear and circular polarization are just the special cases of the
elliptical case.For elliptical or circular cases, there are righthand and lefthand polarized
polarization. The rotations are clockwise and counterclockwise for right and lefthand case
respectively.
E
x
E
y
axial ratio:
x
y
E
E
AR =
AR=1 & phase difference is 90
o
: circular AR=0 (E
y
=0): linear (horizontal)
AR=∞ (E
x
=0): linear (vertical)
Otherwise:
elliptical
Propagation
direction
righthand: clockwise
lefthand:counterclockwise
ω
E
righthand: clockwise
lefthand: counterclockwise
y
x
Elliptically polarized wave
EE5404 Antenna Basics 34
The polarization characteristics of an antenna (in transmitting mode) are defined by the
polarization of the wave it transmitted. (For example, a transmitting dipole horizontally
positioned would produce horizontally polarized waves.On the other hand, it properly receives
the maximum energy with the horizontal polarization.)
For the maximum received power, the receive antenna must be in the same polarization and
point to the transmit antenna. We can use polarization match factor to measure the former and
misalignment the latter.
R
E
α
In the different planes
In the same plane
T
R
E
α
linear case
? What will happen as α=90
o
?
TV antenna outdoor
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Polarization
Polarization
T
E
rec
=E cosα
E
rec
=E cosα
EE5404 Antenna Basics 35
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Polarization
Polarization
In satellite communications, the antennas of circular polarization are commonly used.
At a certain time, the Efield can be divided into two orthogonal components, which
can be received by a circularly polarized antenna or a twoorthogonaldipole antenna.
Propagation
direction
ω
E
E
v E
E
x
E
h
E
y
Elliptically polarized wave
EE5404 Antenna Basics 36
3.2 System Parameters:
3.2 System Parameters:
Polarization
Polarization
We can assess the isolation of the polarization I in dB.
pol X
pol co
dB
log 20
−
−
=
E
E
I
Isolation of polarization:
Also, we can use the crosspolarization discrimination XPD assess the loss caused by the
depolarization in signal propagation. We will discuss this loss in the next Chapter.
pol X pol co
pol X pol co
pol X
pol co
pol X
pol co
dB
log 20
1
1
log 20
− −
− −
−
−
−
−
−
+
=
−
+
=
E E
E E
E
E
E
E
XPD
Crosspolarization discrimination
EE5404 Antenna Basics 37
Conclusion
Conclusion
•The antenna is one of basic elements of a satellite communication link.
•Fundamental characteristics of the antenna affect the design of satellite
communication link.
impedance matching; radiation efficiency; directivity; gain;
aperture efficiency
•The characteristics of propagation are also important for the link design.
polarization
Important!!!
Effects on link design