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monitor record adjust

bringing precision to the grow room

indoor GardeninG expo

Quebec, canada


June 5-6

CONTENTS february 2010
44 60 66 74 82 90 94 102
Moisture Matters
by Dr. Lynette Morgan

Monitor, Record, Adjust: Conductivity in Hydroponics (Part I)
by Andrew Taylor

Successful Cymbidium Growing for the Amateur Enthusiast
by Scott Barrie


Next Generation of LEDs Part I: The Diodes Strike Back
by Erik Biksa

10 Steps to Gardening with Nature Part II
by Dr. Carole Ann Rollins and Dr. Elaine Ingham

Worm Power! From Waste to Worthwhile
by Emma Cooper

Precise and Stable: CO2 Concentration in the Garden
by Isabelle Lemay, agr. and Mélissa Léveillé

Plants Have No Teeth...or Do They? A Few Points about Carbon Fertilization
by Peter Vakomies

10 From the Editor 12 Letters to the Editor 14 MaximumYield.com 18 Ask Erik 22 MAX Facts 34 Product Spotlight 70 Beginner’s Corner 80 Tips and Tricks


Grow Your Own Wheat Grass Indoors
by Matt LeBannister

108 90

100 You Tell Us 110 Green Thumb Gardening 117 Do You Know? 118 Talking Shop 120 Avant-Gardening 124 Max Mart 127 Coming up in March 128 Distributors
MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010 9


jessica raymond

From the newest technologies in LEDs to the basics of “worm power, this ” issue has it all to boost your indoor garden power. Some of our favorite writing experts delve into the importance of moisture control and the need to monitor, record and adjust conductivity in the grow room. Add this to the 25+ new products, and you have the tools to make it grow. Upon reading this information-packed issue, be sure to visit facebook.com/MaximumYield and follow along with the discussions about growing, share your thoughts or just say hi. As your plants thrive and bloom, take the time to snap a few photos and send them to Maximum Yield to be entered in our photo cover contest, “Behind the Lens,” (details on pg. 111). Five images will be chosen for publication on the covers of Maximum Yield USA, Canada, French Canada, UK and Australia, and one of them could be yours. Only two weeks remain in the current Win Big, Grow Big contest. Enter as often as you wish for your chance to win one of four amazing prizes. See page 121 for prizes and contest details. You could be one of our next happy winners. Jessica Raymond, Editor

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.
Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/ consultants.htm and www.suntec. co.nz/books.htm for more information. Flairform (www.flairform.com) – an Australian-based manufacturing company. As an analytical chemist with qualifications in plant function and nutrition, he has over 13 years experience in product research and development, and also writes extensively on hydroponic growing techniques.

Dr. Carole Ann Rollins co-owns Nature Technologies International LLC, producers of organic alternatives. She co-authored Adding Biology for Soil and Hydroponic Systems and has compiled and edited The Field Guide I and II for Actively Aerated Compost Tea. Contact 1-415-898-5895, naturetech@earthlink. net, www.nature-technologies.com Dr. Elaine Ingham is president of
Soil Foodweb Inc., an international laboratory system that assesses beneficial balance in materials. The major emphasis of her work is to return health to soil, so that natural nutrient cycling and disease suppression mechanisms are present. Contact 1-541-752-5066, info@soilfoodweb. com, www.soilfoodweb.com

Peter Vakomies, BSc, has 17 years experience as a professional silviculture grower, vegetable grower and horticulturist. He graduated from Simon Fraser University where he studied photosynthesis in nursery and field settings. Living and working in British Columbia, Canada, Peter participated in growing over 550 million tree seedlings for reforestation programs.
Matt LeBannister developed a green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world. Glory Lennon’s four acre lot
includes an arboretum, a thriving koy pond with water lilies, two greenhouses and an orchard. She writes a garden column for a local paper and contributes to several on-line gardening websites and now Maximum Yield. Visit www.helium. com, www.greenthumbarticles.com and www.myspace.com/glorygarden

Andrew Taylor is the manager of

Scott Barrie co-owns Barrita

Orchids, a specialist orchid nursery located in New South Wales, Australia. As well as producing thousands of plant and flowers each year, Scott is a highly successful show producer, orchid lecturer and author of articles designed to introduce the public to the world of orchids. agriculture with majors in fertilizer sciences and crop production. Erik has amassed over 18 years of indoor gardening experience and intensive research. Since first appearing in Maximum Yield in 1999, the “Ask Erik” column and numerous articles have reached growers throughout the world.

Isabelle Lemay is in charge of the technical support, customer service and research and development at Nova Biomatique Inc. (www.igrowing. com), makers of the PLUG’N’GROW climate controllers. She is an agronomist and holds a master’s degree in soil and environment studies, with a specialization in greenhouse production. Mélissa Léveillé holds a license in communication, writing and multimedia. She is the newest member of the Nova Biomatique Inc. Team (www.igrowing.com), makers of the PLUG’N’GROW climate controllers. She is responsible for Nova Biomatique Inc.’s communications.

Erik Biksa holds a diploma in

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK and Australia. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on maximumyield.com, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

the editor
Review and Praise
My name is JC Gray and I live in St. Augustine, Florida. I recently picked up an issue of MY at a local shop. At first glance I assumed it was a catalogue or just a magazine filled with products for sale. I soon discovered that everything in your publication is very educational and informative. I found Bob Taylor’s “Ventilation Basics” very helpful. The tips he provides are an excellent blueprint for anybody working with any system to start from. I just wanted to say thanks for providing a resource filled with good nuggets! Thank you for your time, and again, excellent mag. Hope all is well at the MY headquarters. Much respect JC Gray

"Everything in your publication is very educational and informative."

Giant Ambitions
Phil Hunt here, past president of the Giant Vegetable Growers of Ontario (GVGO). I’m a fan of MY and use it to find information that other growers don’t know about. I really enjoyed reading Brian Mack’s article, Beneficial Soil Microbes (USA December ‘09). I feel it could help us reach our goal of growing a new WR giant pumpkin. What I would like to do is reprint this for our club’s newsletter in February? Would this be possible? My wife Jane and I are the Canadian record holders of giant pumpkins, just missing the WR by less than 50. We hope to see that happen next year. We also grow giant cabbages and held the Canadian record for watermelons a couple years back. We look forward to hearing from you. We wish you all the best in 2010. Take care and thanks again. Philip and Jane Hunt

Click and Share It
I noticed with the past several issues of Maximum Yield a funky new look to your covers and the graphics used inside the magazine. I have some great shots from my indoor gardens that would work well on the cover or in your magazine and would be interested in submitting them for publication. Fred Dunn

Simply Glowing

We encourage you to submit your high quality photographs for our first ever, reader-submitted cover contest – Behind the Lens. This contest is open to everyone until June 1, 2010. Five winning photos will be chosen and published on the covers of Maximum Yield USA, Canada, French Canada, UK and Australia. Please see our ad on page 111 for more information or visit maximumyield.com for full contest rules regulations.

I just wanted to start off students will be too." by saying how much I appreciate Maximum Yield’s generosity. I’m totally excited to check out the Ushio bulbs I won in the Win Big…Grow Big contest, and my students will be too. I am an agriculture instructor at Blaker Kinser Junior High in Ceres, California, and twice a month we hold free hydroponic classes, open to the public, on everything from nutrients to building complete hydro set-ups. This week the students are attempting to build a DIY ebb-n-grow set-up for our indoor grow room. The room so far only has one 1000 watt HPS light and a simple flood and drain table due to budget cuts within our district. If I don’t pay for it then no one gets to have hands on experience. Again thank you from the bottom of our hearts. The students and I are deeply appreciative. David Tigner Ceres Ca

"I’m totally excited and my

Lighting The Future
I just wanted to get some feedback on LED grow lights. Please e-mail me back any links or information. I want to know if what believers’ claim is true. Josh Adams



You’ve come to the right place for answers. As LEDs are constantly evolving, we asked our resident expert Erik Biksa to detail this hyped up technology in his latest article, Next Generation LEDs: The Diodes Strike Back, on page 74. His three-part series examines first-generation LEDs and upgrades in technology available in this lighting option today.You may also wish to stop by Facebook.com/ MaximumYield and join in on the LED Debate with hundreds of other MY fans.
12 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: editor@maximumyield.com

Coming up on the Web



Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092

VOLUME 10 – NUMBER 11 February 2010

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson SALES DIRECTOR - Lisa Lambersek EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Julie Madden - julie@maximumyield.com Gaby Morin - gaby@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Pentti Tikkanen - pentti@maximumyield.com Alice Joe - alice@maximumyield.com Wes Cargill - wes@maximumyield.com ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres leeanne@maximumyield.com USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS, BWGS West and BWGS East General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

Maximum Yield magazine is available for free online at maximumyield.com. February featured topics include conductivity, organic gardening, LEDs, CO2 and more. Check it out!

hot neW produCts
Every week maximumyield.com updates the Featured Products section to reflect our ever-expanding industry. Discover the products that will help your indoor garden grow, and visit often for new products all month long.

online extras
In addition to the helpful articles from our worldrenowned contributors, Maximum Yield provides even more tips and advice on maximumyield.com. Click Inside MY.com for online extras, exclusive to MY readers.

Prizes and prestige could be yours with Maximum Yield contests. Enter our Win Big…Grow Big online reader contest for your chance to win four new prizes every second month. Plus, get your photograph displayed on the cover of Maximum Yield by entering “Behind the Lens. No purchase ” necessary. The next winner could be you, so enter online today.

Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you.
14 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



Do you have a question for Erik? Forward it to editor@maximumyield.com with the words “Ask Erik” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an upcoming edition.

Good Day Erik, I just read your article about pythium, a problem I have been struggling with. My tomato crop for the last three years was wiped out and I have not had enough tomatoes to make sauce. This year, I threw out all my perlite troughs and switched to NFT. In desperation I am trying a bio-filter. I have been using the NFT for a few weeks now on a timer system of 15 minutes (on) and 45 minutes (off). Also, last summer we had 15 days of over 100°F in a row, (I reside in Adelaide, South Australia), which did not help, and the temperature of the nutrient was over 90°F far from ideal. , Regards Laurie

In Australian winter, you stand a much better chance of harvesting some nice fruits, provided the roots of the crop don’t get too cold. It’s usually much easier and less expensive to heat nutrient solutions versus cooling them. When temperatures in the reservoir get over 90°F, cropping trouble usually isn’t too far behind. Although tomatoes can be grown successfully in NFT (Nutrient Film Technique), the shallow troughs are better suited for crops with smaller root systems and fast cropping times, like lettuce for example. If you are a die-hard fan of NFT, you might continue using the system with a few modifications, including the bio-filter, provided the system and bio-filter are inoculated with beneficial microbes such as trichoderma and bacillus species. The goal here is to colonize the system with beneficial microbes, leaving no room for pythium to thrive. During the summer months, a reservoir chiller or titanium/ stainless steel cooling coils in the nutrient solution are recommended to help moderate reservoir temperatures. However, because there is not a lot of solution typically around the roots in NFT, the high temperatures will still have negative effects because the thin film of chilled solution will not be able to buffer temperatures sufficiently. Insulating the troughs and chilling the solution would help keep root temperatures more reasonable. I don’t recommend cycling the nutrient. The nutrient solution in most NFT systems is relatively static. It should be kept moving constantly to keep it aerated and to keep the roots protected, as the film of solution is the only thing standing between naked plant roots and environmental extremes. In very large commercial NFT systems, when the pump stops, the reservoir can overfill because so much

solution is being circulated and contained in so many lengths of NFT troughs relative to the holding capacity of the reservoir. If you are willing to try something new, I would recommend growing in a “DFT” system. This Deep Flow Technique works similarly to NFT, except there is a much larger chamber for roots and the depth of the solution is much greater, effectively buffering bare rooted hydroponic plants for extremes in nutrients or the environment. Essentially, for each large plant, there is about two gallons of nutrient solution. A popular brand of hydroponics system uses this principle with NFT type tubes; however, there is an adjustable overflow in each of the tubes, allowing for larger amounts of nutrient solution to surround the plant roots. For your applications, something along these lines may work out better than the thin film of nutrients that NFT systems provide. DFT systems use much higher flow and circulation rates than NFT systems, helping to saturate DO (dissolved oxygen) levels in the nutrient solution, reducing the incidence of pythium.You can construct your own DFT system out of any large sized troughs that are opaque and chemically inert, so long as you can include an adjustable overflow (to control the depth of the solution) and have a nutrient injection manifold running the length of the troughs to keep the roots and solution will aerated. If you build your own, you can insulate the troughs to keep the roots warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. Another suggestion is to only select tomato cultivars that are documented to have a natural resistance to root pathogens such as pythium. Note that some varieties of tomato seeds will be much better suited to hydroponic cultivation versus others. Check with reputable commercial seed suppliers. Inoculating young plants with beneficial microbial solutions will also help to prevent the incidence of root diseases, and should be reapplied several times throughout the life of the crop to ensure optimal populations of beneficial root life and maintain a healthy life balance in your bio-filter. I hope this helps you out, and send us some pictures of your winter tomatoes. Cheers, Erik Biksa


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Machines May Replace Humans to Inspect and Sort Strawberry Plants

Dr. Jay Charitable Foundation
On behalf of our valued wholesalers for 2009, Technaflora Plant Products Ltd. was proud to make a charitable donation to the Dr. Jay Charitable Foundation. The Dr. Jay Charitable Foundation's mission is to respond to the needs of children living with cancer and to help families fight cancer with dignity and determination. The Foundation provides ongoing funding for pediatric palliative care. You can learn about the Foundation by visiting their website at www.drjayfoundation.com We would like to thank the following wholesalers for their dedication and continued support: Canadian Distributors: Eddi’s Wholesale Garden Supplies, Megawatt HydroCulture and Stellar Wholesale Inc. American Distributors: BGWS, Hydrofarm Inc., Micro Hydroponics, Sunlight Supply, Inc. and R & M Supply International Distributors: Pachamama Indoor Farming Culture and Planeta Organico

A plant-sorting machine that uses computer vision and machine learning has been developed to inspect and grade harvested strawberry plants and then mechanically sort them by quality. Until now, these tasks could only be done manually. In field tests, the machine classified and sorted harvested plants more consistently and faster than workers could, with a comparable error rate. During the fall harvest season, strawberry plant nursery farms use manual labor to sort several hundred million strawberry plants into good and bad categories, a tedious and costly process. The machine will help farms improve quality, streamline production and deliver better plants to berry growers. The machine was tested under realistic conditions, where rain and frost change plants’ appearance, and roots may contain mud and debris. On average it sorted 5,000 plants per hour, several times faster than human sorting. The final system could be able to achieve sorting rates of 20,00030,000 plants per hour.
(Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

Green Roofs Suck CO2

2010 North American Indoor Gardening expo Tour
The 2010 Montreal Indoor Gardening is set for June 5-6 at the funky and fabulous Palais des congrès de Montréal. With the industry still talking about the 2008 event in Montreal, we know you will enjoy all we have to offer. Ongoing updates will be made to indoorgardenexpo.com so stay tuned for exhibitor listings, venue directions and more. And don’t forget about the 7th Annual San Francisco Indoor Gardening Expo set for July 24-25, 2010. Mark your calendars now for the biggest and best industry event, seven years running. As always, we look forward to seeing you there.

Researchers at Michigan State University studied green roofs and found that one plot had the capacity to store 375 grams of CO2 per three square feet. Although this number is not particularly high, green roofs transform traditional roofs, essentially wastelands with no carbon storage, into carbon-sequestration sites. Through the University's Green Roof Research Program, 10 existing green roofs plus 20 three-foot square plots planted by the team were studied over a two year period. On average the plants’ leafy parts stored 168 grams of carbon per three foot squared; the roots and the soil respectively stored 160 and 300 grams. They calculated that if all of the roofs in Detroit were green instead of black, it would offset the carbon dioxide emitted by 10,000 SUVs.
(Source: www.miller-mccune.com) Firehall in Whistler, BC Canada


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


2009 ACReS Conference Highlights
Progress Earth, wholesalers/distributors of biodynamic and cutting edge products, recently attended the ACRES Conference in St. Paul, Minnesota. Here are some of the highlights, according to them, from that conference: • There are 8.6 million cases of food poisoning in the US every year. • $800 billion of the $2.5 trillion that the US spends on health care each year is attributable to junk food and chemical farming. • 80 per cent of cancers are attributable to diet and environmental toxins. • $90-100 billion each year is given by our government as subsidies to Big Ag and chemical farming. • 85 per cent of available fresh water is used by industrial agriculture. Progress Earth (www.progressearth.com) works with selected retailers and farmers in gardening and wellness divisions that seek to deliver a message of balance in human endeavors. Visit www.acresusa.com for more information about the ACRES organization.


hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Vermicomposting with Pig Manure?
Researchers recently experimenting with pine bark amended with vermicompost derived from pig manure found that this organic alternative could produce healthy hibiscus. Reported benefits include greater plant growth and flower production, improved water use efficiency and sufficient levels of some plant-available nutrients. The purpose of the study was to determine if conventional nursery crop inputs could be replaced by commercially available vermicompost for hibiscus production. The research established that the vermicompost treatment did not supply potassium equivalent to conventional controlled release fertilizers. All treatments used equivalent volumes of water. The study suggests that dolomitic lime, sulfated micronutrients and phosphorous can be eliminated as substrate additives for hibiscus production.
(Source: www.sciencedaily.com)


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Living Art


hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Monique Capanelli, an artist from Austin, Texas, has found a way to combine her love of plants and the arts into a sustainable landscape outfit, Articulture Designs. Monique started Articulture one year ago and she is constantly surprised by the inspiration plants provide. Monique houses different plants in unique frames, ‘painting’ patterns and scenes by using different plant sizes, colors and textures. She generally chooses hardy succulents in her work, which do well in the extreme weather found in Austin. Her pieces are built to live and grow, so long as the light and water requirements are met. Having been raised growing an organic garden, Monique has been a lover of plants since she was a child. The vegetables her family grew supplied food for their Sonoma Valley restaurant. Her living works of art are easily cared for and can be placed inside or out.
(Source: http://planetgreen.discovery.com)

Third “International Conference & exhibition on Soilless Culture” (Singapore)


The Third “International Conference & Exhibition on Soilless Culture – 2010” (ICESC-2010), will take place in Singapore March 8-13, 2010, with plans to host 500-800 researchers, growers and crop advisors from more than 60 countries. Also invited are serious health-conscious consumers, educators, suppliers, food processors, environmentalists, policy makers, property developers of eco-homes, potential investors and all environment-conscious people involved in “sustainable” food networks in one way or another. The theme of this event is “Futuristic Environment-Friendly & Sustainable Farming Technologies for Growing Any Plants Anywhere” through hydroponics, organics and aquaponics. The aim of this event is to create awareness, exchange information and foster collaboration amongst the participants on the importance of soilless culture (hydroponics and organic farming techniques) in growing plants for food, ornamental, medicinal and industrial purposes. Please visit www.icesc-2010.com to learn more. This event is sponsored by the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS).
26 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

GM Protection for Soybeans
Due to what has become an annual outbreak of soybean aphids in Iowa, researchers are examining a new insecticide-free method of control. An in-plant protection courtesy of genetic modification will prevent aphids from damaging the soybeans. Estimated losses of soybeans due to aphid outbreaks could exceed $250 million in Iowa, according to previous research. The annual cost to prevent the yield loss with insecticides can reach $64 million for Iowa soybean growers. The gene researchers are planning on introducing into soybeans is harmless to mammals, but creates toxin that is lethal to aphids that feed on soybean plants.
(Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

Vertical Growing for the Future
Time Magazine has named Valcent one of the top 50 Best Innovators of 2009 for their vertical farming technology, VertiCrop. Vertical farming is part of a new era of urban agriculture that involves upward growing instead of outward, allowing for the expansion of food supplies without using more land. Developed in Valcent’s El Paso, Texas research facility, the VertiCrop system has plants on a rotational device, which gives them the precise amount of light and nutrients they need, while using less water than conventional farming systems. VertiCrop can support vegetable, herb, fruit and flower producers. VertiCrop is being employed in controlled glasshouses, polytunnels and warehouses, increasing production volume for field crops up to 20 times over. VertiCrop provides nutritionally superior products grown locally that are healthier for people and animals.
(Source: www.cityfarmer.info)

Vertical Growing for the Future


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Replicating Climate Change to Forecast its effects
Researchers are exposing wheat and soybeans to the levels of carbon dioxide and ozone that may be reached by 2050. By that time, carbon dioxide levels may be about 1.5 times greater than the current 380 parts per million, and daytime ozone levels in the summer, now at about 50 to 55 parts per billion, may rise 20 per cent. The goal of the study is to assess the effects of climate change on growth rates, crop yields and soil chemistry. Preliminary results show just slightly higher levels of soil carbon. Elevating carbon dioxide also reduced flour protein levels in wheat by seven to 11 per cent, but soybean protein concentrations were maintained because of soybeans' ability to acquire nitrogen from the air. (Source: www.ars.usda.gov) MY

Soybean farm

By replicating the effects of climate change, scientists are hoping they can discover what the future holds for soybeans, wheat and the soils where they grow. Studies show that increased levels of carbon dioxide

assist with plant growth by giving plants more food. However, those same plants are damaged and stunted by elevated levels of ozone. Levels of both gases are expected to rise as the climate warms.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


See it. Want it. Find it.
House & Garden MultiZyme
House & Garden MultiZyme is an extremely useful growth stimulator that accelerates and simplifies the growth process and strengthens the plant’s immunity. The enzymes convert the nutrient into ready-to-use bits making it easy to assimilate by the plant. MultiZyme is a collective term for a wide range of useful enzymes, which are very important for plant processes and processes in the environment. They are small catalysts that trigger these processes and keep them running. There are enzymes that help to convert the plant’s nutrients, strengthen plants’ immune systems and help to dispose of residuals in the substrate. Use MultiZyme during the first three weeks of flowering. MultiZyme is available now at your local hydro shop.


at your local indoor gardening store.

Vital earth’s® Glacial Rock Dust
Glacial Rock Dust is a natural mineral product produced over thousands of years. The rocks are pulverized by the expansion/contraction action of the glacier leaving behind deposits of “glacial moraine. These deposits are mined, dried ” and screened for re-mineralization. Vital Earth’s® Glacial Rock Dust can replace key elements in the soil, increasing soil vitality and helping to produce healthier plants. Our Glacial Dust lets the soil recreate the colloids (minerals and humus), which are needed to improve soil structure, moisture holding properties, nutrient availability and bacterial action. Advantages: • increases phosphorus availability • provides an excellent source of calcium, iron, magnesium and potassium, plus trace elements and micronutrients • increases moisture holding properties in the soil • improves the cation exchange capacity • improves soil structure and drainage For more information on Glacial Rock Dust visit an indoor grow shop near you.

BioLogic Systems Presents the Bioextractor Bag™
The BioExtractor Bag™ is a simple, effective and economical tool for growers of all levels of experience that produces Instant Compost Tea and liquid fertilizer using any clean container. When using high quality compost to make Instant Compost Tea, a brewer is not required. Simply fill the bag with your favorite dry soil ingredients, extract them through the bag, apply and produce! Features: • mesh size optimized for microbial extraction • durable nylon construction and stitching • easy-to-use roll top enclosure design • clip-in loop and buckle for easy handling • laminated instruction and recipe card Benefits of Instant Compost Tea: • increases yield, fruit and flower quality • fixes and prevents nutrient salt build-up • protects from foliar and root diseases • reduces water and fertilizer consumption • Never any risk of making a “bad tea” Grow more, pay less – naturally. Learn more at your local hydroponic retail store.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


See it. Want it. Find it. at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Vital earth’s® All Purpose Organic Potting Soil
For use in containers, raised beds, landscaping and gardens. Vital Earth’s Organic Potting Soil is alive with microbial organisms crucial for optimum nutrient uptake. Vital Earth’s Potting Soil is comprised of sphagnum peat moss, earthworm bedding (vertimulch), Vital Earth’s Compost (OMRI), which is 39 per cent humus, 1.4-.08-1.2 NPK, Mega Worm 100 per cent worm castings (NOP), Vital Earth’s High Phos Bat Guano, Glacial Rock powder (NOP) and endo/ectomycorrhical (OMRI). Ideal for planting of fruit and flowering trees, shrubs and vegetables. Available in one cubic foot bag and two yard totes. For more information on Organic Potting Soil visit your nearest indoor gardening shop.

Straightforward and Simple Sunleaves Ballasts
If you’re looking for reliable results from your HID lighting, look no further than the new Sunleaves Ballasts! The straightforward name highlights their easy operation, with headache-eliminating features like the common outlet and 120/240 dual-voltage capabilities. Choose from 400 and 1000 watt two-way (high pressure sodium and metal halide functionality in one ballast) and 600 and 1000 watt HPS options, all of which include a 120 volt power cord and a five-year manufacturer’s warranty. Ask for Sunleaves Ballasts today at your local indoor gardening retail store.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


See it. Want it. Find it. at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Non-Dangerous pH up and Down by Flairform - Now Available
pH Up and Down have traditionally been the most dangerous chemicals in the hydroponic industry. Flairform’s non-corrosive pH Up and Down provide the first and most effective alternative to this problem. • Equivalent working strength to most corrosive formulations. • Safer to use. • Easier to use: overdosing won’t drive pH to extremes; great for novice growers! • More environmentally friendly. • Simplifies freight and storage - transport by air, road or sea is unregulated. Why trust a backyard chemist? Flairform: Analytical Chemists and Horticultural Consultants Since 1966. Contact your local hydro store to learn more about this revolutionary product.

Introducing the CSA Certified THP207
When your greenhouse has a power outage, hours can mean the difference between a healthy crop and one that does not make it to harvest. To be alerted to a power outage, the THP207 is your answer. When the power fails, the THP207 will emit a pulsating 86dB alarm and illuminate three LEDs to provide safety lighting. The THP207 can be removed from the 120 volt electrical outlet and used as a flashlight. A three position switch turns off the alarm and turns on the LEDs. The internal NiMh battery will maintain the LEDs for up to eight hours. To alert you, just plug the THP207 into a nearby receptacle while you are sleeping. Anywhere you have an electrical outlet and power failure is a concern, you should consider having a THP207 plugged in. It is CSA certified and economically priced. Ask your local indoor gardening store to carry the THP207.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


See it. Want it. Find it.

Two Foot Grow Light Fixture
This two foot grow light fixture from Hydrofarm features light and durable all steel housing with an instant start and energy savings. Mounting chain and “S” hook is included. Features: • thermally protected and corrosion resistant • compatible with all Jump Start systems • fully assembled • accepts two T12 or T8, 24 inch 34 to 40 watt bulbs • two bulb fixture Ask for it now at an authorized retailer near you.

Sunburst Digital Ballast
Hydrofarm’s new Sunburst Digital Ballast delivers 10 per cent more lumens than magnetic ballasts in a compact, light-weight unit. The Sunburst E, available in both 250 and 400 watt models, is 30 per cent lighter than magnetic ballasts, meaning hanging is a breeze. Sunburst provides: • high intensity grow light with built-in digital ballast • virtually silent operation • automatically converts from sodium to halide • energy efficient • air-cooling options available • low profile, lightweight • completely pre-wired • includes instructions, hangers and lighting recommendations Ask for the Sunburst Digital Ballast at an authorized retailer near you.

Continued on page 112


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Moisture Matters
by Dr. Lynette Morgan
The frequency, amount, timing and duration of nutrient application to a hydroponic substrate are some of the most commonly discussed concerns by new growers. Even those with some experience can be caught out when switching from one substrate to another without realizing that the physical properties can vary considerably between growing media. More hydroponic plants are lost through over saturation in the root zone and the risks that occur with root suffocation and opportunist pathogen attack, then end up suffering through a drought. And while commercial growers can make use of computerized moisture sensors and complex formulas to determine the rate of irrigation, smaller growers need to be in tune with the growing environment, crop water uptake and media moisture levels.
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WHY MEDIA MOISTURE MATTERS Hydroponics is often seen as a foolproof way of growing plants under automatic control, so every aspect of plant growth is optimized. However, the majority of hydroponic systems still use some form of substrate or growing media to support the plant and retain a reserve of moisture and nutrients around the root zone between nutrient applications. Even many solution culture systems rely on a small amount of some substrate or material to hold the plant in position, while seeds and cuttings also need support during the propagation stages. Plants require water, nutrients and oxygen in the root zone to both survive and obtain maximum growth and yields. In a hydroponic substrate these requirements are determined by the physical and chemical properties of the media, such as the water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, pore size distribution and porosity. The substrate has to retain water and nutrients and at the same time must have enough oxygen and remove sufficient carbon dioxide for the plant to thrive. This water retention versus aeration within a growing media is a delicate balance as over watering reduces the amount of oxygen in the media for root respiration, leading to anaerobic conditions.

Cuttings require both moisture and high levels of aeration for callus formation; too much moisture will cause rotting of the cut stem.

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Moisture Matters

Over watering can cause problems such as fungus gnats and rapid growth of thick algae on the media surface.

the growing container, or bed, creates a barrier to downward drainage. Once Some plant species prefer a heavier and damper the medium’s pores at the container media with little tolerance for drying out. base become saturated with water, the Drainage can be a problem in some moisture moves out of the container’s hydroponic systems – the water held drainage holes.The rate at which nutrient in the growing container is effectively moves through a hydroponic substrate a balance between the gravitational and the amount which is left behind after pull on the water, the tendency for irrigation are vital properties of a substrate, water to adhere to particles by surface which are dependant on a number of tension and also the tendency for water physical properties of the media. to be retained in the fine pores of the Over watering is a more common substrate by capillary action. ‘Container problem in hydroponic substrates that capacity’ refers to the amount of water have a high moisture holding capacity. held in a container of These include the finer “Cool growing a given depth grades of coconut conditions, high humidity after drainage fiber, peat, and low rates of growth is complete some grades of predispose heavier media and most rockwool slabs, to over irrigation.” cropping plants decomposed will perform best in a sawdust and vermiculite. substrate with a high percentage of air Cool growing conditions, high humidity filled pores when at container capacity. and low rates of growth also predispose To achieve this high rate of both air heavier media to over irrigation as filled porosity and water holding moisture is not taken up as rapidly by capacity a particular type of structure is the plants. Under slow growth and required and this is seen in many good cooler conditions, a lighter growing hydroponic substrates. media with a higher degree of aeration Although it may appear that a and more rapid drainage is often a better hydroponic substrate has better aeration choice, with more moisture retentive and drainage than field soil, this may media of greater use under warm, faster not always be the case; the bottom of growing conditions.
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OVER SATURATION – SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Early signs of over saturation of a growing media may be as simple as the presence of shore flies and fungus gnats, which are attracted to the overly damp surface of a substrate. Fungus gnats are a particular problem as they can persist in hydroponic systems, which are continually over wet and where there is also organic matter such as compost.

Some crops are very intolerant of high levels of moisture and prefer a coarse and very free draining medium.

Moisture Matters
damage and creating wounds for root rot pathogens to enter. The best form of prevention of gnat problems is to keep the surface of all growing media slightly dry to prevent the gnats from laying eggs. Large amounts of algae may also grow on the surface of the media if over watering has been occurring. In seedling trays, high levels of moisture often lead to problems with damping off caused by opportunist pathogens such as pythium and rhizoctonia who prey on young plants stressed by over saturation and lack of oxygen. Cuttings and clones may suffer from stem rot and die back as over saturation cuts out much of the oxygen required for callus and root formation. While most plants can handle a short stint of over watering, if the saturated conditions continue, further damage is inflicted and root respiration rates begin to decline through a lack of oxygen. Reduced root respiration often displays itself in a few different ways, some of

Cacti and succulents such as these hydroponic dragon fruit, prefer course, free draining media with infrequent irrigation.

The adult gnat fly lays eggs in the wet substrate, which hatch into small larvae and can chew into the root system causing

Rockwool is a substrate manufactured to have both high aeration and a moisture retentive gradient from the base to the surface of the material.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Moisture Matters
term nutrient deficiencies may show on the waterlogged plant, including chlorosis (yellowing) or paleness in the new foliage. In more mature plants, flower and fruitlet drop is common in waterlogged crops and older leaves may also yellow and abscise. One of the more extreme symptoms of waterlogged roots is ‘epinasty’ where ethylene gas builds up within the plant causing the upper side of the leaf petiole cells to elongate whereas those on the lower side do not. The result is a severe bending downwards of the leaves in response to long term water logged conditions that cut out sufficient oxygenation in the root zone. Epinasty in response to saturated root zone conditions are often mistaken for wilting caused by a lack of “Strawberries have no tolerance for a saturated substrate and many crop losses have resulted from over watering.”

Perlite is a good choice for beginners as it is difficult to overwater, while holding some moisture between irrigations.

Warm season crops with large leaf areas are well suited to highly moisture retentive substrates.

which are species dependant. Some plants may, despite the high amount of moisture in the root zone, wilt during the warmest part of the day. This is a response to suffocation and hypoxic conditions in the root zone, as without a high degree of respiration the plant can’t take up sufficient water and nutrients. Longer

moisture, so growers need to carefully check whether wilted plants are actually suffering from a lack of irrigation or not. Some plants such as tomatoes may also respond to over saturation of the root zone with the production of adventitious roots up on the stems. These root initials can be numerous and can even erupt


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Moisture Matters

Rapid seed germination needs careful control of moisture as seeds will rot in over saturated conditions.

as large bumps and slits which may be mistaken for a pest or disease attack. Some plant species are highly prone to problems with over watering, while others are quite tolerant. Strawberries, for instance, have no tolerance for a saturated substrate and many strawberry crop losses have resulted from over watering the crown leading to root. Many cacti and succulents will also rot when over irrigated and prefer a coarse and very free draining substrate such as perlite or coarse sand. Other plants – more notably those that are grown under warm conditions - have large leaves and a rapid rate of growth are better suited to highly moisture retentive media that will hold sufficient water between irrigations. Cucumbers, tomatoes, squash and similar crops perform well in a media that has a high water holding capacity and also a good rate of air filled porosity. NUTRIENT APPLICATION PROGRAMS Nutrient application rate, frequency and timing needs to be carefully matched to the crop, stage of growth, type of hydroponic system and the water holding capacity and drainage

Even NFT systems can become over saturated if the flow of nutrient deepens and slows.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Moisture Matters

Different hydroponic substrates vary in both their air filled porosity and water holding capacity.

ability of the substrate. A crop growing in coarse perlite or expanded clay would be expected to have a different irrigation program to the same crop growing in fine coconut fiber or rockwool slabs. The coarser media would be expected to have a higher frequency of smaller volumes of irrigation, while the more moisture retentive media would have less frequent irrigation of a greater volume. Determining how often to irrigate a particular substrate to avoid over saturation in the root zone can be difficult for newer growers. With experience growers soon develop an instinct of knowing how often to water certain media and how to adjust this for growing conditions and plant size. To start out inexperienced growers may want to chose one of the more free draining substrates such as coarse grade perlite and monitor how much drainage solution occurs after each nutrient application as a guide to irrigation amounts. However, more moisture retentive substrates such as coconut fiber are more forgiving of a lack of watering and probably a better choice in systems that can’t be monitored through the day. The moisture status of coconut fiber and similar substrates can be determined by poking a finger into the top of the substrate – this should be almost dry on top, but moist underneath the surface, with some nutrient run off at each irrigation.

Wilted plants should be checked to see if a lack of irrigation is actually the problem as over watering can cause similar symptoms.

Moisture Matters
Systems such as ebb and flow, NFT and anywhere that a small volume of media is being used to support a plant in a larger system are also prone to over watering problems. While the nutrient solution may carry some dissolved oxygen, this is only a very small amount (six to 13 ppm on average) compared to that contained in moist air surrounding roots, so aeration is still a priority. NFT relies on a thin film (two to three millimeters deep) of nutrient solution flowing over the base of a growing channel; if the flow becomes slower and deeper, especially under warm growing conditions, problems can arise with insufficient oxygenation and root death. The requirement for both oxygen and moisture in the root zone is a trade off that needs to be considered in any type of hydroponic system as both are essential for optimal plant functioning. MOISTURE METERS Moisture meters are not a substitute for experience when it comes to plant irrigation and management; however, they are a useful tool for some hydroponic substrates. Most moisture meters have been developed for use in field soils; however, there are some models which can be used for soilless substrates. These should always be selected as they give a more accurate result with hydroponic mediums. Moisture meters range from the relatively inexpensive type sold for home gardeners to professional sensors for larger scale greenhouse growers. The inexpensive type only gives a rough approximation of moisture levels but is useful for houseplants and small container systems. MY

Substrates may be combined to create a mix which has more suitable water holding qualities for the crop being grown.

Dr. Lynette Morgan shares her wisdom on water quality, tip top roots, dwarf flowers, hydroponic transplants and more on maximumyield.com


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Monitor, Record, Adjust:
Conductivity in Hydroponics (Part I)
by Andrew Taylor: Chemist for Flairform
Because hydroponic nutrient mixtures are usually composed completely of salts, their approximate concentrations can be determined via conductivity values. However, because each individual nutrient has its own specific conductivity value, and the concentration ratios between nutrients are continuously changing, conductivity readings need careful interpretation. Only significant differences in day-to-day conductivity values may be important. Nevertheless, when intelligently used, conductivity values are a valuable monitoring aid. Further, it is far preferable to quote conductivity values rather than TDS to monitor changes in hydroponic nutrient concentrations. Converting conductivity values to TDS is unnecessary and prone to large interpretation errors. What is Conductivity (EC)? Conductivity represents the ease with which a solution conducts electricity. Numerically it is measured in units called siemens. Solid substances known as salts (e.g. sodium chloride, potassium nitrate), yield ions when dissolved in water. Ions permit the flow of electricity through the solution. Increasing the concentration of ions improves the ease with which the solution carries a current and, therefore, causes a higher conductivity.
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Liquids such as petrol and pure water are essentially nonconductors of electricity. Further, many water-soluble substances do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water. This occurs because these liquids/solutions contain very few ions. How EC is measured? A conductivity meter or EC meter (also known as mS, cF or TDS meter) is a device used to help monitor the concentration of nutrient solutions.

Figure 1: Popular styles of conductivity meters: Availability ranges from the more expensive laboratory grade (left), to the cheaper, pocket-sized (right).

www.flairform.com ©2009

“Because liquids contain very few ions, many water-soluble substances will not conduct electricity when dissolved in water.” A conductivity meter is essentially an “amp meter.” Two plates made of inert metal (palladium-coated platinum) are placed in the sample; an alternating current voltage of around 1,000 cycles per second is applied across them and the current is measured (Figure two ‘a’).

Figure 2a: Basic illustration of conductivity meter. Figure 2b: Laboratory electrode - arrows highlight the palladium coated platinum electrodes.

Conductivity (G) is the inverse of resistivity (R) and is determined from the voltage (E) and current (I) values according to Ohm's law: G = 1/R = I/E. Since the charge on the ions in a solution permits the conductance of electrical current, for most solution types the conductivity will increase with concentration. Thus, an EC meter can be used to detect the presence of salts and their approximate concentration in a solution. Units of measure for EC EC meters, nutrient labels and general literature represent conductivity values in several ways. The more common units are: • mS/cm (often abbreviated as “mS”). Pronounced “millisiemens per centimeter.” • µS/cm (often abbreviated as “µS”). Pronounced “microsiemens per centimeter.” • cF (conductivity factor). • ppm* (parts per million) or mg/L (milligrams per liter). These both have the same numeric value. These are the units for “total dissolved salts” (TDS). Meters that provide these units have internal software that mathematically converts conductivity readings into a TDS estimate. However, this estimate is prone to many errors and therefore its use should be avoided. To utilize conductivity recommendations you must first know what units your meter operates in. This will be displayed on either the digital display or stamped on the body of the meter. Some brands offer multiple options (e.g. cF, mS and uS). If this is the case, choose the option that matches that used on the nutrient label – or the recommendation you were given. For example, if a nutrient label specifies “mS” then switch the meter to read “mS.”
MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010 61

www.flairform.com ©2009

Monitor, Record, Adjust: Conductivity in Hydroponics (Part I)
If your meter is incapable of producing units that match the conductivity recommendation, then manually convert the values to match (see Table one). For example, if the label gives a recommendation of 2.0 mS but your meter only works in cF, then convert the recommendation to cF by multiplying it by 10 (2.0 mS x 10 = cF 20). liter. A consequence of this linearity feature is that simple arithmetic can be used to calculate the approximate conductivities, which would result from mixing different solutions of known conductivities. For example, if a 2.0 mS/cm water is diluted with an equal amount of distilled water (zero mS/cm), the result would be approximately 1.0 mS/cm. Similarly, if 100 milliliters of a 4.8 mS/cm nutrient solution is diluted with 900 milliliters of 0.40 mS/cm water (i.e. one plus nine), the expected result would be about 0.84 mS/cm (i.e. 100/1,000 x 4.8 + 900/1,000 x 0.40). ii. Temperature effect The effect of solution temperature on conductivity is such that its value rises by about two per cent (compounded) for each one degree increase. However, most meters automatically apply a correction factor to the determined value such that the displayed value is as if the solution temperature was at 77oF. iii. Effect of salt type The conductivity of different salts varies widely and is determined by such factors as the size of the ions, and the charge density on these particles whilst in solution. For example, the conductivities at 77oF of 500 ppm aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium chloride and potassium phosphate are 1.02 mS/cm, 0.95 mS/cm and 0.40 mS/cm respectively (Chart one).

Factors affecting the EC value The actual conductivity value of an aqueous solution containing a single salt is determined by the concentration of that salt, the solution temperature and the nature of the particular salt. “If the concentration of dilute i. Concentration effect With relatively dilute solutions of soluble salts up to 100 ppm or so, if the concentration is doubled, its conductivity usually also doubles. At higher concentrations, however, this strict proportionality deteriorates (see Table two). Note there is a better linear relationship between concentration and conductivity from one to two grams per liter compared to 10 and 20 grams per
solutions of soluble salts is doubled, its conductivity usually also doubles.”

Notably, the potassium phosphate solution has less than half the conductivity of a sodium chloride solution of equal concentration. Further, notice how potassium when combined with chloride (as potassium chloride) has a lower conductivity than what sodium does when combined with chloride (as sodium chloride). This is mainly because a 500 ppm solution of potassium chloride has about 30 per cent fewer ions to carry the current than a 500 ppm solution of sodium chloride – due to the fact that the combined mass of potassium and chloride is 30 per cent heavier than sodium chloride. Similarly, a 500 ppm solution of potassium phosphate has only 40 per cent of the number of ions than in the sodium chloride solution. “500 ppm solution of potassium chloride has about 30 per cent fewer ions to carry the current than a 500 ppm solution of sodium chloride.”


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Monitor, Record, Adjust: Conductivity in Hydroponics (Part I)
low conductivity. Consequently you need to be aware that their addition will produce less increase in conductivity than a normal inorganic nutrient mixture. Also, note that additives that claim to be 100 per cent organic should contain no salts and their addition would produce no increase in conductivity. It should be emphasized that conductivity measurements determine total dissolved salts only - not total dissolved solids. This is because the presence of solids and substances such as organics, clay, tannins, algae particles, precipitates, color etc., will not affect the measured conductivity. Total dissolved solids can only be determined by evaporation methods. MY
Read more of Andrew Taylor’s insights on nutrients, pH, ventilation and lighting by searching the author archive on maximumyield.com

“Additives that claim to be 100 per cent organic should contain no salts and their addition would produce no increase in conductivity.”
The impact of salt type upon the EC value is further emphasized when the EC of typical uncontaminated waters is compared with that of an inorganic nutrient solution of equal concentration. For example, an uncontaminated bore water containing 1,000 ppm of salt will typically yield an EC of 1.8mS/cm. However, an inorganic nutrient solution of the same EC will in fact contain 1,600 ppm of salt. The reason for this is inorganic nutrient mixtures have much higher concentrations of the heavier substances like potassium and phosphate. Bore waters, however, typically contain numerically more ions of lighter salts like sodium and chloride. The important point here is that the electrical mobility of these ions in water is not that different; it is the total number present that determines the conductivity. Hence, when following EC recommendations in hydroponics, consider the composition of all additives. Flowering additives that contain a large proportion of phosphate yield a relatively


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

by Scott Barrie

Successful Cymbidium Growing
for the Amateur Enthusiast
The genus Cymbidium mainly comes from the mid-range altitude of central Asia. Over the years, cymbidiums have been propagated and developed by dedicated growers to achieve the spectacular range of size and color that can be seen today and they are the genera that gardeners traditionally think of when orchids are mentioned. While cultivation in the home garden is generally easy, there are a few key considerations that can greatly improve the amateur grower’s success. This article is intended to provide an outline of some of the topics that should be considered. Growing Cymbidiums Most cymbidiums are purchased as flowering plants which have already formed a clump of what are called pseudo bulbs. These pseudo bulbs are dependent on each other for the sharing of nutrients and moisture. The older pseudo bulbs, which are generally leafless, are referred to as ‘back bulbs’ and are the plant’s reserve stores of moisture. It is worth remembering that if these are removed for either propagation or division, extra care must be paid to maintain the plants moisture levels. Cymbidiums are stage developmental growers. This means the plant has different requirements as it moves through a seasonal growing cycle. The new growth or lead has a high water requirement, and usually emerges as the flowers are finishing. By this stage, the plant is already developing the next season’s flowers so a low nitrogen fertilizer should be used to promote flower initiation. As the lead starts to become a bulb, usually five or six months later, high nitrogen fertilizer is used to produce a large bulb and boost the plant pre-flowering.
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The Growing Environment Cymbidiums will grow very well for the average enthusiast on a patio or in the garden, although care should be taken to give plants protection from extremes such as frost or temperatures over 104°F. They are very keen on ventilation, so choose an open, airy position. Many gardeners have had success growing cymbidiums in the ground by placing them in a very free draining garden bed. The position of your cymbidium is also crucial if the plant is to be grown in the ground, as high light is required to give the best flowering results. Foliage color is a good indicator of light intensity, with dark green often meaning too little light, and pale green to white meaning the foliage is about to burn. From the point of view that we grow cymbidium for flowers, I would rather see burnt leaves and lots of spikes than broad dark green leaves and no flowers. Feeding and Watering Although Cymbidiums have evolved to overcome prolonged dry spells, they are more than happy to avoid them. Access to frequent watering without water-logging will allow plants to take as required.

A stem of cymbidium “Forest Green” . Green is traditionally one of the most popular colors.

Successful Cymbidium Growing for the Amateur Enthusiast
A stem of cymbidium Khan Flame ‘Barrita’. Bright colors are in high demand as cut flowers.

It is unnecessary to dry plants between watering and plants in pots will have higher water requirements, particularly in the warmer months. Fertilizing plants is the icing on the cake, the final part of the process. Management of watering is much more important, though it is fertilizing that is at the forefront of most people’s minds. Cymbidiums are capable of growing in the garden with little attention in this area, though a regular application of a balanced fertilizer will give an increase in growth. Experienced growers will reduce the ratio of nitrogen to other elements in the fertilizer as the plant is initiating flower spikes.This is often done by using flower booster varieties of fertilizer. Media Selection for Potting As cymbidium growing is a long term project, the growing media selected must have long lasting properties. When growing in pots, having to re-pot your plant repeatedly due to water logging caused by degrading mixes can have a significant negative impact on your plants. Because of this, inert, long lasting materials are the best choice. A horticultural rockwool and perlite mix is one excellent media choice and because inert media does not contain any nutrients, a soluble fertilizer is recommended. Re-potting Developing a healthy clump of pseudo bulbs is crucial in getting the best from your cymbidium, and re-potting is a major part of this. Using methods that reduce the incidence of division are the key, as once a plant is divided it will set back the growth of the plant and severely impact the potential of the plant to produce flowers in the following season.

When plants are young, use slip potting. Simply remove the outgrown pot and select a pot approximately two inches larger and the fill the gap with new media. Not disturbing the roots will keep the plant growing. This should be done as soon after flowering as practical. As plants mature and develop a clump it may be necessary to remove some of the leaves from the older bulbs. This process is known as ‘stripping’ and allows the new growths access to the light, encouraging them to grow back into the centre of the plant and creating ‘stacking’ of the bulbs. Using stacking greatly reduces the need for division. Pest and Disease Management Cymbidiums are subject to a number of pests and diseases. It is important to be able to identify these problems to protect flowers and foliage. Swift treatment with an appropriate, commercially available product is advisable. Pests of the Plant Foliage Cymbidium Scale is often seen in older plants. It shows as a yellow discoloration on the leaf. As the pest increases in numbers they may be seen around the back bulbs. Two spotted mite is a very small pest often known as red spider. These pests are active usually during the warmer months. They cause a silvering of the underside of the leaf. Severe attacks will also show up on the flowers and this will cause a distortion of the bloom. Pests of the Flowers Thrips are prevalent on the warm spring winds and will be attracted to pale bright colored flowers. This pest will leave small clear spots on the flower. Snails and slugs are lurking at the base of the plant until the flower you have been waiting on for a year is about to open. They will devour a flower over night. Signs are the slimy silvery trail left by the pest. Aphids will appear in large numbers on the underside of the flower bud just prior to opening. Their attack will leave the flower distorted. Diseases Fungal diseases often occur during the autumn and spring, and may affect the foliage. This will be seen first as small black areas on the leaf. In the worst case, plants will blacken and die. Botrytis may affect the flowers if they are wet for prolonged periods. This will show up as fine black spots which will cover the flower. Usually this will be a problem in pale colors, although all colors may be affected. By following a few easy steps and being vigilant of your plant’s health, you should experience great satisfaction with growing your cymbidium and enjoy many years of beautiful flowers. MY Good luck and happy growing! Visit www.maximumyield.com and allow the images of all the beautiful varieties of orchids to add some color to your day.

A large seven year old cymbidium plant in a 10 inch pot. Back bulbs in the foreground. This plant is developing a stack as the new or leads grow back into the center of the plant. Stacking helps to limit the requirement for division.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



Your How-To Guide to Growing Irish Shamrocks
For many gardeners, especially those who live in coldweather climates, the looming weather can make gardening a bit of a challenge. The cold temperatures, short supply of sunlight and hard, frozen soil add up to a difficult hobby—unless, of course, you do it indoors and your crop of choice is shamrocks. The name shamrock is derived from the Irish “seamrog” meaning “summer plant.” It is Ireland’s most famous symbol and represents the Cross and the Blessed Trinity. Its trefoilshaped leaves meant it was a sacred plant of the ancient Druids of Ireland and of other ancient civilizations around the world. The shamrock is forever connected to the teachings of the Three in One Trinity by St. Patrick in the fifth century and his banishment of serpents from Ireland. But not only Ireland stakes a claim; Montreal, Canada’s flag has a shamrock located in the lower right quadrant, proudly representing its Irish heritage. In addition, not many people realize that the shamrock is also a revered plant in the Muslim world.

The Auld Sod Company is offering the perfect gift for indoor gardeners. The Auld Sod Box Set is an all-in-one pack that lets the recipient grow authentic Irish Shamrocks in a beautifully crafted Belleek bowl with Official Irish Shamrock seeds. The box set includes: an exclusive handmade Belleek fine china bowl, official Irish shamrock seeds approved by the Irish Government and a one pound pouch of official Irish soil. Visit www.auldsodgifts.com


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

So how do you get started? •    irst, purchase some Irish shamrock seeds and place them in  F the refrigerator (not the freezer) for at least 24 hours. This tricks the seeds into thinking they have gone through a winter so they will germinate more quickly. •    elect a pot or bowl to grow your shamrocks in and add your  S medium of choice - for real Irish shamrocks use authentic Irish soil - into the pot to about an inch below the rim. •    ampen the soil with water but do not overdo it (the extent  D of watering will depend on whether the pot or bowl has a drainage hole or not. For pots with no drainage hole you should water more sparingly; frequent misting is often best. •    fter 24 hours remove the seeds from the refrigerator, tear  A open and sprinkle evenly on the top of the damp soil. Real Irish shamrock seeds are actually coated in lime to add weight and to make them easier to see (without the lime coating they are virtually weightless and will be blown away by your breath). •    se as many of the seeds as you see fit. When you have done  U this, cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and gently press down with the base of a glass or with your fingers. Moisten again and place in a bright location within the house but not in direct sunlight. •   he seeds will germinate in a few days and seedlings will  T appear. They will grow quite quickly provided the soil is kept moist. We recommend frequent misting with occasional watering as the best method of maintaining the damp soil. This simulates rain, which shamrocks are well accustomed to in Ireland! •    s the seedlings grow, you will notice that two leaves will  A appear. Have patience and faith, the third leaf of the trefoil will appear a few days after. The shamrock plants will turn toward the light source so try turning the pot the other way and watch the shamrocks twist. They actually move quite quickly. •   he shamrocks will also fold their leaves up and go to sleep at  T night. The plants will continue growing for many weeks and will produce a yellow flower after about six to eight weeks. •    hen the plants become overgrown, cut them back with  W scissors, and if you keep the soil moist they will continue to grow. Call it the luck of the Irish, but the winter months represent the ideal time for the indoor growing of shamrocks. With St. Patrick’s Day in March, a shamrock seed planted now will be at its peak just in time for picking and wearing with MYMY pride for the celebration.

Next Generation LEDs Part I:
by Erik Biksa


The last time we discussed LED (light emitting diode) technology for plant growth together, we looked at dual band (red/blue) light spectrum outputs in the 0.5 to one watt diode range. The overall output of the panels ranged from 45 to 90 watts. LED technology for plant growth is being developed at an accelerated rate, with much change in the technology occurring within a relatively short time frame. In a previous article, I concluded that LEDs were a viable technology for providing artificial light energy to fuel the photosynthetic response (plant growth). However, there were some limitations. The dual band spectrum provided only red and blue light wavelengths. While these bands are where most of the photosynthetic response occurs, making LEDs very efficient, there is some other activity that occurs in other spectrums of the visible light bandwidth. Imagine this: blue and red wavelengths of light are like the macronutrients, in terms of fertilizers, while other bandwidths are more like micronutrients. Micronutrients are just as important as macronutrients; the big difference is that they are used in much smaller quantities than macronutrients. So, it’s about supplying the correct and exact ratios of each. HPS and MH lighting produce huge quantities of their output in spectra that the plant uses very little of, making them much less efficient although effective because they are full spectrum.
74 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Furthermore, the exact spectral output of the diodes, measured in nanometers (nm), has been fine tuned in next generation LED lighting so that the output occurs where the most light energy intensive reactions occur. In order to provide a complete, although not very intense, full spectrum light source with first generation LED grow lighting, the LEDs were supplemented with full spectrum CFL or T5 fluorescent lighting to meet the needs of the photosynthetic response on all the necessary wavelengths. The result using the first generation LED lighting was a source of light for plant growth that used a minimal amount of electricity and delivered the required wavelengths of light to sustain healthy plant growth. It was also noted that different types of plants seemed to require different wavelengths of light at different times. The earlier LEDs were capable of producing healthy growth for rooting cuttings, young plants, seedlings and vegetative growth. The growth was exceptionally healthy and “hard” and supported relatively rapid development.

The first generation LED units provided an exceptionally cool running growing environment, which allowed for the use of supplemental CO2 enrichment to be applied very easily and cost effectively; further accelerating growth rates, plant health and yield potential. In our early test model, we were able to maintain CO2 levels of between 1200-2800 ppm in the growing environment by the use of fermentation in a sealed hydrohut (grow tent). Noticeably faster growth rates occurred, and the byproduct of the fermentation, beer, was an added bonus. Not only was this set-up low in energy requirements, it was very economical and very quiet, an important consideration for those urban growers who live within close proximity to their gardens.
MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010 75

Next Generation LEDs Part I
The earlier LED set-ups delivered good results relative to the amount of electricity they consumed, although HPS and MH High Intensity Discharge lamps seemed to win in terms of yield in the bloom phase. They also produced a lot more noise, heat and at least triple the electrical consumption when factoring all of the peripheral equipment required to manage the heat levels the HID lamps produced. To be fair though, if the earlier dual band lower wattage systems went watt to watt with the HIDS, they were capable of surpassing yields and crop quality in many types of plants. One drawback was that certain types of plants that had a definite “finish” in their life cycle sometimes took prolonged periods of time to ripen; this was attributed to limitations created by the dual band spectrum, although supplemental full spectrum fluorescent light alongside of the LED panels helped to improve upon this issue. Due to their relatively lower intensity, and therefore limited ability to deliver high levels of light energy over distance travelled from the source of the light (diodes), it was recommended that those interested in gardening with such LEDs select auto-flowering plant varieties that mature under longer photoperiods and finish relatively shorter in stature, for example, less than 18 inches tall. This way, the plants were able to receive significant light levels from top to

Quad Band LED Spectral Output (327 Watts) When compared against the known photosynthetic response curve, quad band LEDs maximize the areas of highest photosynthetic activity in their output.


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High Output LEDs Not only are there more individual chips in this generation of LEDs, they are of higher wattages for incredible output.

bottom, providing more consistent quality in all fruits and flowers harvested from the crop. So, here we are today, with the next generation of LED units for plant growth in hand. It truly is amazing to see how much the technology has improved and evolved in such a short time span. I was amazed at how bright the first generation units were relative to the amount of power they consumed. I was nearly blinded by the intensity that the next generation LED panels produced; and this is coming from someone who has spent far too much time around bright HID lighting! In fact, the model tested for this article draws approximately 586 watts of power, yet produces 30 per cent more initial light intensity than the sun, and has double the output of a 1000 watt HPS lamp at equal distances from the light source. These intensities have been carefully measured in the 610-680 nm range using a highly specialized light meter; this is where most of the photosynthetic response for reproductive (bloom phase) in a variety of crops occurs. Consult Chart 1-A in this article to compare the relative spectral output of this new quad-band LED growth technology to a horticultural HPS lamp, while also comparing to the known photosynthetic response curve.

1A-HPS VS Quad Band for Photosynthesis Looking at this chart, we can see that quad band LEDs appear to be better tailored to the known photosynthetic response curve VS HPS lighting.

Next Generation LEDs Part I

Looks can be deceiving... When not powered, the individual diodes appear rather tame; however, when powered on, they are blinding.

All lit up Here we can see that different diodes are giving off different light wavelengths; they are installed in exacting patterns and ratios for optimal plant lighting.

in cooling equipment required and the relatively high level of Not only is this lighting technology incredibly bright, it has electricity required operating energy intensive appliances such been engineered as a quad-band spectral output to ensure as ACs, chillers and industrial fans. that all of the necessary wavelengths for all types of plants are Not only are there more diodes in this unit versus the first being delivered, allowing plants to complete their natural life generation of LEDs discussed, they are of higher wattages. The cycle similar to HPS and MH illuminated gardens. This is an diodes themselves are approximately two watts each, although especially important consideration for the ripening phase for the power they are driven to is crops in the bloom cycle. The unit featured here produces light in the following ranges: “EvEN AT MoRE THAN 10X THE LIGHT dependent on the individual spectral ENERGy ouTPuT vERsus THE EARLIER outputs engineered into each of the 455-475 nm (blue), 620-630 nm (red), different LED chips on the lighting 660 nm (far red) and bright white (full 45 wATT DuAL BAND, sMALLER board. spectrum, 2700K). wATTAGE DIoDE PANELs, THEsE There was never any question as to HIGHER wATTAGE LED sysTEMs RuN These cutting edge LED chips are driven at much higher frequencies whether LEDs were effective for vegetative INCREDIBLy CooL.” than previously with earlier growth. It now appears that LEDs are diode technologies used for plant growth. The difference ready to give the crop everything it needs for high yields and is significant. Now the chips can be driven at hundreds of vigorous production in bloom: intense light levels in balanced milliamps instead of tens of milliamps; this fuels the process at spectral ratios while eliminating what the crop does not which electrical current is passed through the chip and energy, need - excessive heat. All of this with about half the power called electro luminescence, is released. In laymen’s terms: consumption in lighting alone, and significantly reduced costs bigger LED chip + more milliamps = very bright light versus first generation LED crop lighting. While more milliamps are being passed through the individual LED chips, the overall amount of power consumed is still relatively very low to the intensity of the light produced, making the next generation of LED crop lighting technologies very efficient. Now with all of this output, surely there must be a lot more heat? The answer is no, not really. Even at more than 10X the light energy output versus the earlier 45 watt dual band, smaller wattage diode panels, these higher wattage LED systems run incredibly cool relative to their light output, retaining all of the benefits from the first generation of LEDs while delivering a broader and more intense source of light for bigger yields and faster finishes. As with the smaller wattage first generation LED units, the very small amount of heat that is produced by LED lighting originates mostly from the electronic driver that regulates the amperage (milliamps) being directed to the individual diodes in the arrangement on the light board. One difference, however, is that HPS Lamp Spectral Output (1000 watts) the high output second generation light system is heavier. The HPS lamps produce a lot of yellow and orange in their spectrum, falling internal circuitry is cooled with several small computer-type fans. short in the red and far red wavelengths relative to the overall output.
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They run so quiet that they are barely audible, making second generation LED lighting systems much quieter than conventional core and coil ballasted HID lighting systems, as well as quieter than some models of electronically ballasted HID lighting systems. High power LED systems run cool for the amount of light they produce, so it is possible to construct a garden in a wider range of locations, because noisy fans and extensive duct work for cooling purposes are minimized or eliminated. The space for growing crops does not require as much vertical clearance, or conversely, taller plants can be grown in rooms with height limitations. The high powered LED fixtures can be placed very close to the ceiling and the LEDs run cool enough that, if necessary, plants can grow very close the LED light source. Conventional HID lamps require significant clearances from the top of the plants to prevent overheating, and require significant clearance distances from ceilings for safety reasons. The additional clearance requirements for HID lamps can limit the vertical space for crop growth in tighter spaces as a result. It would seem things are looking very promising for this latest generation of high-powered, quad-band LED crop lighting systems. In the next couple of installments, we will put the technology through its paces, and take some comparative measurements versus traditional indoor crop lighting systems such as HPS, MH and high output fluorescent lighting. LED lighting for crop growth may very well revolutionize the way we grow plants indoors, and allow for just about anybody, in any type of space to be able to set-up a highly efficient and productive indoor garden so that anybody with an affinity for all things leafy and green may enjoy fresh healthy harvests of their favorite plants any time of year. Stay tuned for part two in the series to learn more about this rapidly evolving technology.
Years of experience and research have made Erik an expert on growing indoors and hydroponically. Read his work on CO2, LEDs and Controlled Environment Agriculture by visiting maximumyield.com

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



Grow Room
Safety is a very important aspect of our lives. From hard hats on job sites to seat belts in cars, safety is always a priority. The grow room is no different. It is filled with hidden dangers and hazards. With proper advice and know-how one can easily avoid these dangers and enjoy the wonderful experience that is indoor gardening. Let us discuss bulb safety first. Bulbs can be dangerous if not handled carefully. One must remember that H.I.D. (High Intensity Discharge) bulbs get extremely hot when turned on. In fact you can see them actually glow with heat when turned off in the dark. This requires that bulbs be left for about half an hour to cool when turned off before handling. H.I.D. bulbs can also be dangerous if they get a crack in the outer arc tube. The outer arc tube is designed to virtually contain all of the ultraviolet light produced by the bulbs. Ultraviolet light is a form of radiation and can burn skin and eyes. This is produced by the sun and is why we get sunburns and why we cannot stare into the sun. If you detect a crack in any of your H.I.D. bulbs, immediately unplug the ballast so that the light turns off. The light is now ruined, totally unsafe and must
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in the

by Matt LeBannister

be replaced. Most quality bulb manufacturers have a one year warranty on their bulbs. If it was more than a year old, the bulb needs to be replaced anyway because they will have dropped significantly in lumen production. Ballasts are also a source of danger if not used properly. There are high levels of current going through H.I.D. ballasts. Keep all ballasts off the grow room floor. This ensures that the risk of electric shock is minimized. It also keeps ballasts from becoming damaged. Metal core ballasts can get quite hot. They should never be close to anything that might catch fire. Ballasts should always have their covers on and should never be hung in strands. If one wire touches a hot part of the ballast the wire insulation will burn off leaving the wire exposed. This is a serious fire hazard and should never be allowed to happen. Remember that all electronic equipment, such as H.I.D. ballasts, should only be modified and/or repaired by qualified professionals.

“While there are several potentially dangerous elements to indoor gardening, taking proper precautions can mean a safer, more productive experience.”

Another hidden danger in the grow room is the chemical nutrients and pesticides used. Precautions must be taken when applying these potentially dangerous substances. Acids and bases that are used to adjust pH can be very corrosive to the human skin and eyes. Powdered nutrients can easily be inhaled. If chemicals are mixed together outside of water, reactions can occur with deadly gases being released. Pesticides are poisonous not only to the insects but to the gardener applying it. One should always have on eye protection, rubber protective gloves and a mask when using one or more of the aforementioned products. Do not let this article scare you from enjoying your garden. It can be as risk-free as reading a book if the right precautions are taken. Simply let it to be a guide for a safer, more productive MY gardening experience.
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GardeninG PART II
with nature
by Dr. Carole Ann Rollins and Dr. Elaine Ingham

Steps to


How healthy are the flowers, shrubs and trees in your yard? Answer: a) During the growing season, healthy plants are green and growing, not yellow or brown. They have the desired shape and are not leggy or spindly. Healthy plants set fruit or seed and develop according to the expected timeline. Healthy plants are free of virus or disease symptoms, do not attract pests and are not attacked by root-feeding insects or nematodes. Healthy plants contain properly balanced nutrient levels. Disease, pests and weeds occur in growing systems that lack nutritional balance. Plants must contain all the nutrients for balanced growth, which encourage active, healthy, beneficial organisms on and around the plant and its connecting parts. A healthy habitat, maintained by beneficial organisms, ensures disease and pests have no way to gain a foothold in the system. If plants are deteriorating, make five or six holes in a circle around the plant, usually about halfway between the drip line and the stem of the plant. Angle each hole slightly toward the plant, if possible, in the ground about eight to 10 inches deep and one to two inches in diameter. Fill the holes with a mix of compost and sand (pea gravel works too). Use a mix of compost tea and the right kind of mycorrhizal fungal spores to coat the sides and bottom of the holes before filling them with the compost-sand mix.
Healthy habitats burst with color while beneficial organisms ensure a thriving root system underground.


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Kessner Photography

Prematurely yellowed, veined, spotted or wilted plants indicate a lack of activity by certain sets of organisms in the plant’s root system, specifically protozoa, beneficial nematodes and microarthropods. Make certain the full diversity of plant-surface protective organisms is present and functioning. Initially, organisms will need to be added to get them established, but after mixing the organisms A green plant is a healthy plant. Wilted, yellowing or brown plants require plenty of nutrient rich compost throughout the soil, water or hydroponics so they may function properly again. medium, thermal or worm compost can be placed on the surface or in the liquid used for watering. Just remember that a thick layer of compost should not be placed on the stem of a plant as this will restrict air flow. When potting plants, the initial compost application is medium, or add liquid compost (compost tea) to the watering dependent on the potting material being used. Generally, mix reservoir to maintain the needed diversity of organisms. compost into the sterile potting material at rates between one An initial assessment of the system must be made to determine and 10 per cent by weight of the final material. If excellent whether organisms need to be mixed into the soil, or whether compost is used, it can stand alone. Once the plants are potted, the biology in the soil is good enough that surface applications place 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 inch of compost on the surface of the solid will be adequate to re-establish health.

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Steps to Gardening with Nature Part II
Beware of compost made with feedlot manure. When animals are fed materials containing a great deal of salt, antibiotics or preservatives, these substances can come through in the manure and cause problems. Some feedlot manures have documented levels of 1,000 ppm or more of salt, which will prevent most good sets of organisms from growing. When in doubt about compost quality, call the manufacturer and ask for test results on salt levels (EC), or ask for documentation on the sets of microorganisms most sensitive to high salt levels. Protozoa, beneficial fungi and earthworms can serve as your canary in the coal mine; if the material lacks these organisms, be suspicious.

Be cautious of feedlot manures; some have documented levels of 1,000 ppm or more of salt, which will prevent most good sets of organisms from growing.

Even if chemical fertilizers are being used, the growing conditions for plants, and therefore their health, can be improved. Organic matter, specifically humic acids, can tie-up salt from chemical fertilizers. The addition of organic matter, or humic acid, must occur before adding any microbes. If soil contains organic matter at levels above three per cent, then medium to low salt concentration impacts will be reduced. In general, for every three per cent of organic matter in the soil, another two pound bag of inorganic chemical fertilizer could be used with little initial detectable impact on the organisms. Remember, however, that for organic matter to be useful, it must be aerobic. Thus high organic matter in swamps where the soil is water-logged and anaerobic may not prove beneficial to microbial life. If soil is compacted, and water and oxygen cannot move into the medium, the organic matter will not have the ability to hold salt the way it can in aerobic conditions.
When adding organic matter, remember it must be aerobic to be useful. Water-logged or oxygen-starved soil will not support important, microbial life.


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a a

Answer: b) If trees are not doing well, perform the same tasks directed in 4a, drilling the holes as deep as possible, preferably below any compaction layer you might encounter. More than one ring of holes should be made; put one ring of five to six holes halfway between the drip line and the trunk, and another set of six to 10 holes at the drip line, if the tree is big enough to have that extensive a root system. Answer: c) Start using gardening products that work with nature to feed beneficial organisms, which will release the nutrients your plants’ need, when and where they need them. By creating an environment that sustains aerobic microbial life, those microbes will, in turn, provide food and nutrients for your plants. Bacteria and fungi hold minerals in the medium, while protozoa, beneficial nematodes and microarthropods change nutrients from unavailable forms into plant-available forms. Without the full set of microbes in your growing system, you could use the best organic products available on the market but not achieve all the benefits you want. This is the reason many people switching to organic are not successful. The addition of the full set of beneficial microbes to the system is critical.

Both growing conditions and additives play important roles in determining the success of your plantings

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Steps to Gardening with Nature Part II


a a

5. How do I prepare my soil for new plantings? Answer: The goal is to achieve a soil composition with a minimum of three to five per cent organic matter, with a good set of organisms, and to allow those organisms to build excellent structure. With this amount of organic matter, adequate water will be held through most seasons, and the diversity of nutrients will be adequate to maintain a healthy set of highly diverse micro-organisms. As these organisms grow, they build airways and passageways to allow good root growth. Correctly made, aerobic compost with the full diversity of organisms will provide the source of foods, nutrients and organisms. Testing using direct microscope methods is recommended to check microbial diversity periodically to ensure that nothing has been lost through seasonal changes or outside influences on your system. 6. How do I plant new flowers, shrubs and trees? Answer: a) When planting in a hole or a pot, gradually mix about a 50/50 ratio of the soil that was taken out with highquality compost.Vary the compost concentration so that nearly straight soil is near the edges of the hole and increase the amount of compost until the root ball or roots sit in a 50/50 mix, or maybe a little higher in compost. This way, the roots will be encouraged to grow deeper into the soil and not be root bound where the sides are like a clay pot. Roots don’t want to grow into hard, compacted, low-oxygen soil. A gradual adjustment to the site soil, which may not have good organic matter, will be made easier if the change is not abrupt. While the plant is recovering from transplanting, it would be a good idea to add a handful of food to the mix, helping beneficial fungi grow and establish around the root system of the plant. The amount isn’t absolute, although if you know what is lacking, you can be more precise. In general, add about


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a a

a handful of organic microbe food, such as dried fish, kelp, fish flakes, ground oatmeal, bran, barley or other grain material, to every five gallons of potting mix. Make certain that you disturb the planting medium as little as possible, as mixing and tilling will slice and crush many of the best organisms. Tillage certainly disrupts the ability of oxygen and water to move through the soil normally. Since the organisms build the hallways and passageways that allow air and water to move normally, any disruption that destroys the organisms will cause problems down the line with plant health. Answer: b) Roll seeds in a mixture of mycorrhizal fungal spores and compost tea before planting. Dip bare roots in a mixture of mycorrhizal fungal spores and compost tea just before planting.You can also put the mycorrhizal fungal spores out in your planting rows and drench the soil with compost tea and other organic nutrients. 7. How often should I spray nutrients and microbes on plants? Answer: a) If microbial life has been established in the soil, and the plants are not free of disease, the transition has not occurred. Until the balance of micro-organisms is established, compost - in solid or liquid form - should be applied once a week. Once the balance of micro-organisms has been established, and the plants are showing a return to health, the soil becomes open and soft again. Then applications can be reduced to twice a month for a few months, and then to once a month. Eventually, applications should decrease to three or four times per season. Possibly, in situations where little disturbance occurs, applications can decrease to once or twice a year. But watch your plants. If the beginnings of any problems are seen, then apply microbes every few days, until the problem goes away; afterward, resume the regular schedule.
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Steps to Gardening with Nature Part II
If 70 to 100 per cent of your plant surface is covered with beneficial microbes, then nonbeneficial microbes (disease organisms) will be outcompeted for food and space. Don’t forget to spray microbes on your plant stems too! Answer: b) If you have established microbial life in your soil; you have improved organic matter concentrations to five per cent; and no environmental disturbance has occurred (pesticide drift, high salts or heavy metals in water), then your plants will obtain all the nutrients they need from the soil, resulting in healthy plant growth. In our modern world, however, there are many insults and injuries to the environment that are out of our control. Most people need to jump-start Mother Nature with the addition of microbes to get natural nutrient cycling processes going again. Re-establishment of the normal populations of organisms to plant surfaces is necessary, as well. Given ongoing air pollution, it may be necessary to plan on a compost application to the soil surface once or twice a year, depending on disturbances and air pollution contamination. Once again, depending on pesticide drift, air pollution and other factors, it may be necessary to apply compost tea three to four times in the growing season to maintain the beneficial organisms on the leaves, stems and fruit of the plants.




8. How often should I put nutrients in the planting medium? Answer: Whenever the biology in the soil has been harmed and is not functioning correctly, inorganic fertilizers may be required. Plants may need to be fed directly if the organisms are not present or working properly. However, if the diversity of organisms has not been harmed, if organic matter is present and if sand, silt, clay or other mineral nutrients are present in non-toxic forms, there is little reason to add inorganic nutrients. People will often become convinced that their planting materials have no nutrients at all, based on the soil test they have done. Be aware that you are only getting a miniscule amount of information about your soil from that test. So-called soil tests, or chemical analyses of the soluble pool of nutrients, give information usually less than 0.1 to one per cent of the total nutrients in soil. Soil tests only tell you about the tiny amount of any nutrient that is in the soluble pool of nutrients, that is, only the nutrients that are dissolved in water. Most of the nutrients present in any planting mix are not dissolved in the water, but rather, are present in solid forms - in the rocks, sand, silt and clay, in organic matter and in micro-organisms. Micro-organisms transform nutrients from unavailable forms into plant-available forms. Different nutrients are transformed by different species of microbes. Different conditions will select for the growth of different organisms. We don’t need to know the specific name of each organism present; we just need to know that there are adequate amounts of each type of organism so that the jobs get done, no matter what the environmental conditions. So how much inorganic nutrient should you add to your soil? If the correct set of organisms are present, three per cent organic matter or more will allow the organisms to have the food they need to function. More is better. When nothing is protecting the roots, that’s when disease, pests and lack of fertility will occur. When these problems are evident, it’s time to add compost or liquid compost tea.


Answer: c) When you use organic nutrients in conjunction with compost teas, you can usually reduce the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizers by at least 1⁄3 to 1⁄2 in the first year, and then by another 1⁄3 to 1⁄2 in the second year. As the microbes become established, inorganic nutrient additions are no longer needed because, as in any natural system, those nutrients are cycling from the soil and from the sand, silt, clay, rocks, pebbles and organic matter. Answer: d) Use five gallons of topnotch, properly made, aerobic, highly microbial compost tea per acre for every five feet of tree height of the canopy.
Increase the amount of compost around the roots so they sit in a 50/50 mix. This encourages the roots to grow deeper and not be root bound.



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Enough compost or liquid compost should be used to reestablish the organisms that are needed and to get them active and functioning. Some testing using direct microscopy is recommended to determine what is lacking and when the problem is fixed. Another approach is to add nutrients and microbes into mulch, compost or worm castings that have dried out or have been sitting for a long time without adequate moisture. This will allow nutrient availability to increase through microbial action. Test using direct microscope methods to ascertain when the dormant bacteria have become active again. For example, if the plan was to apply 100 pounds of humic acid directly to your soil, you could reduce that amount to 10 pounds if a good diversity of micro-organisms was previously applied to a humic acid–compost mix. Once the organisms have woken up and are functioning, apply humic acid to the soil surface or lightly mix it into the soil that needs resuscitation.

a a

9. What should I do in the fall to prepare for winter? Answer: Use 20 gallons of good-quality compost tea per acre as a soil drench each fall. If there were disease problems in the plants during the summer, the organisms growing on that diseased plant material have to be outcompeted, consumed or otherwise prevented from having a place to live. Decomposition of the dead plant material will destroy the habitat that would otherwise let those disease organisms multiply through the winter. 10. What should I do in the spring to prepare for summer? Answer: Use 20 gallons of good-quality compost tea per acre as a soil drench in the spring. Monitoring of the organisms should be done to make certain the needed set of organisms is present. If any group is low or missing, then additional applications are needed. If the amounts and balances of organisms are adequate, then no further additions are required. Enjoy Your Garden!
A printable list of the Top 10 Steps to Gardening with Nature is available on www.maximumyield.com


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by Emma Cooper

rm o W r! e ow P
From Waste to Worthwhile
Vermicomposting - composting with worms - is an ideal way to turn kitchen waste into nutritious compost for the garden. And you can vermicompost even if you don't have a garden! A worm bin can be kept indoors, or on the patio, and the compost and liquid produced are ideal for feeding houseplants.

step 1:
Firstly you need a container to keep your composting worms in.You can buy ready-made wormeries, and many of these are very good. Or you can find instructions on the Internet to make your own. The things you need to remember when choosing or building a wormery are that worms are living creatures and have certain requirements.Your worm bin will need drainage and air holes, but you also need to ensure that the worms can't escape and that they're kept in the dark.


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step 2:
Source your worms.You need proper composting worms also called red wigglers or brandlings.You can buy them mail order, or get them from fishing tackle stores as they are also used as bait. Composting worms are used to living in a composting environment, and eat their way through their own bodyweight in waste every day. Regular earthworms don't like being kept in composters - they like to build burrows underground and remain undisturbed.

step 3:
When you've got a suitable wormery, and your worms, you can set up the bin. Add the worms into the bin, with some suitable bedding. If you bought your worms mail order then they may have come with a coir block that you can soak in water and break up. Otherwise you can use shredded paper or something similar, but make sure that it's damp. Use something organic, so the worms feel at home. It will compost down with the rest of the waste, but that doesn't matter. Once you've settled the worms, close the lid on the wormery and leave them to get used to their new home for a few days. Resist the temptation to keep lifting the lid - they don't like the light and you will disturb them. Once they feel at home they are less likely to try and escape from the bin.
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Worm Power: From Waste to Worthwhile step 4:
You can start to add your kitchen waste a little bit at a time. The worm population will gradually increase to match the available food supply, but at the beginning it's important not to add more food than they can handle. Too much food will start to rot and smell bad - if that happens, stop adding new waste and let them catch up. Worms love vegetable foods - peelings, tea bags, coffee grounds, even kitchen paper and coffee filters. They don't like meat, dairy products and fish. They're also not fond of spicy foods and too many acidic foods, so don't add too many onion skins or citrus peels.

Kitchen waste should be added slowly to allow the worms sufficient time to eat through it.

step 5:
Once your wormery is up and running and you're adding your kitchen waste, you need to make sure to drain the resulting liquid off on a regular basis so that the worms don't drown! The liquid run-off is very nutritious, and when diluted (to the color of weak tea) with water, it makes a great liquid feed for houseplants or garden plants.You'll get much more liquid feed from your wormery than compost.


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step 6:
It will be months before you need to worry about removing finished compost from your wormery. The worms will tend to move out of the finished compost and into the newer waste, and you can separate them out when you remove the compost, and then re-start the bin.You don't have to remove all of the worms from the finished compost - they're native species and will help improve the soil if they get loose in the garden. The population in the wormery will soon recover.

Crushed eggshells added to your wormery will balance the pH and keep the worms happy.

Vermicomposting is a very easy and efficient process. Once you've set up the bin and settled the worms, very little maintenance is required.You should check on the worms at least every couple of weeks to make sure they're happy in their environment.You may find that the pH sinks too low (the bin becomes too acidic) and the worms try to escape. A handful or two of garden lime, or some crushed eggshells, will help to keep them happy. If you get little flies in your wormery, try wrapping your kitchen waste in newspaper before you add it, or place a layer of newspaper over the surface of the waste in the wormery. Make sure there's enough moisture in the waste, and that the drainage is working properly and the water level in the bin is not rising. And keep your worms at a comfortable temperature; they can overheat in summer and freeze in winter, just like us!
About the author: Emma Cooper is the voice of the Alternative Kitchen Garden podcast and writes about kitchen gardening and environmental issues. An edible plant geek, she tries to grow her own food sustainably with the help of a reluctant husband and two pet chickens. Visit http://coopette.com for more information.

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Precise and Stable: CO2 Concentration in the Garden

by Isabelle Lemay, agr. and Mélissa Léveillé
Some believe that talking to plants helps them grow better. This theory is based on the power of waves and positive thoughts, but there is certainly an explanation that is more mundane to this phenomenon. When one knows that a human exhales at a CO2 concentration between 30,000 and 40,000 ppm, it is easy to assume that gossiping with the plants provides them with a high quantity of CO2 essential to photosynthesis.
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Of course, this is only a theory, but it clearly exposes the importance of CO2 for the optimal growth of the plants. Fortunately, there are ways to provide the needed CO2 to plants that are more precise and practical! The following article will allow you to better understand the causes of the variable CO2 concentration in the garden as well as the different ways to control it.

“A human exhales at a Co2 concentration between 30,000 and 40,000 ppm.”

The influence of human activity As the exterior air generally influences the garden’s atmosphere, it is important to understand the exterior CO2 concentration variations. Many factors affect the composition of the air, but one in particular has a noticeable impact: human activity. According to the measurements of an air sampling global network (NOAA/ESRL's Global Monitoring Division), the average international CO2 concentration in November 2009 was near 390 parts per million (ppm). Such a low level is often observed in limited human activity zones, but rarely in the city where industries, vehicles and numerous other CO2 sources (often combined to the effects of smog) will increase the concentration to variable levels. The diagram below shows the CO2 concentration variation in an urban region over a 48 hour period. We observe that the concentration varies on a range of approximately 150 ppm in the same day, so about 400 ppm to 550 ppm. The maximal concentration is reached between 8:00 and 10:00 in the morning, probably due to rush hour. Then, it tumbles down in the afternoon, perhaps caused by the surrounding vegetation. It is difficult to identify the exact causes of CO2 level variations but certainly, it is real and it has to be taken in consideration in the garden! Co2 measurements in salt lake City (murray) over 48 hours

reference: http://co2.utah.edu/ (2009-11-17 09:00)

CO2 concentration variations in the garden In the microclimate created within the sheltered garden, numerous causes explain the variation of CO2 concentration, such as the plant’s photosynthesis and respiration processes, but also the exchange with exterior air. Each of these causes must be taken into consideration and be well understood to conserve an ideal CO2 concentration.

Precise and Stable CO2 Concentration in the Garden
Photosynthesis and Respiration The vegetal growth depends on photosynthesis, a process that happens in the presence of light and during which the plant absorbs CO2 to transform it in cells and tissues. To reach the maximal photosynthesis level, most of the plants need a CO2 concentration between 700 and 1000 ppm. It is important to know that in the absence of CO2 enrichment or ventilation, fast grown plants may easily consume all the available CO2 in the garden, and this, within a few hours only (depending on the plant’s density). For example, a CO2 concentration between 400 and 1000 ppm can easily go down to 340 ppm within an hour or two in the presence of light, and even down to 150 ppm if the luminosity is important. With such results, it is obvious that the garden needs CO2 enrichment, for example, with combustion CO2 generators or again, with regulated CO2 bottles. For lack of CO2 enrichment, the air in the garden should minimally be exchanged with exterior air, although this method does not generally allow an optimal concentration for growth. In dark periods, the CO2 concentration naturally increases in the garden. Why? Because in the absence of light, photosynthesis stops; the plant does not consume CO2 anymore, but continues with the respiration process, meaning the plant consumes the oxygen and rejects the CO2. It is then unnecessary to enrich the air with CO2 during the dark period. At the end of a period without light, the CO2 concentration may reach between 400 to 1000 ppm, depending on a plant’s density, environmental conditions and how airtight the garden is.

“To reach the maximal photosynthesis level, most plants need a Co2 concentration between 700 and 1,000 ppm.”


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“In the case of too high concentrations, the excess of Co2 is wasted and can even be harmful to the plants and persons working in the garden.”
Exchange with exterior air It is important to consider the exchanges with exterior air. If one chooses not to enrich the garden with CO2, the ventilation has to be sufficient to provide the plant with a maximum of CO2. If one chooses to enrich the garden with CO2, it is important to minimize the exchanges with outside air; in this particular case, leaks of air and ventilation will contribute to the drop of CO2 concentration in the garden. Minimal ventilation is still recommended. Even if it makes the CO2 level slightly drop in the garden, it allows the plants to benefit from oxygen and also ensures the gardener’s safety. CO2 concentration over 1200 ppm can degrade lucidity and lead to various discomforts; exceeding 6000 ppm, the gardener may even pass out.

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Precise and Stable CO2 Concentration in the Garden
CO2 management In a garden enriched with CO2, a controller is an essential tool to maintain an optimal CO2 concentration for the plants. Unfortunately, some choose to use a timer to periodically activate the enrichment equipment. Although it is less expensive than a controller, a timer is an inaccurate method that does not allow the desired CO2 concentration in the garden to be reached and maintained. The adjustment of the timer is usually an estimate calculated according to the volume size of the garden and type of enrichment equipment. But this estimate cannot include all other factors that influence the CO2 concentration, such as the plant’s consumption, air leaks or the ventilation. This way, unknown and approximated CO2 concentrations are obtained, which are rarely the ones plants’ need. In the case of too high concentrations, the excess of CO2 is wasted and can even be harmful to the plants and persons working in the garden. Sad conclusion: the sums invested to enrich will probably not bring the expected results in return. The controller is much better than the timer. With a built-in infrared sensor, which permanently measures the CO2 with high precision, the controller activates and stops the enrichment equipment to maintain the concentration as close as possible to the value selected by the user. CO2 is added only when the concentration goes below the set point and the controller stops the equipment when the concentration exceeds the set point. This way, we obtain an ideal concentration, stable, without waste or worries for the plants! To be really effective, the controller must be installed to a location that represents the cultural environment. For example, it is recommended to avoid placing the controller too close to the ventilation system or the CO2 source. The superior part of the plants is usually the best location to measure the CO2 level since it is at this location that the photosynthetic activity is maximal.


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Interesting features to consider when purchasing a CO2 controller Light Sensor
Since adding CO2 is useless in dark periods, even harmful, it might be interesting to opt for a controller equipped with a light sensor that can be set to enrich in the presence of light only. No more need to synchronize the enrichment with the lamps or with the sunrise and sunset.

"Enriching the garden with Co2 during dark periods should be avoided."
To summarize, the best way to maintain the ideal CO2 concentration in the garden is to use a controller, combined with CO2 enrichment equipment such as a combustion CO2 generator or a regulated CO2 bottle. It is also important to maintain good management of the ventilation, meaning sufficiently venting the garden to provide the plants with the needed oxygen, while minimizing CO2 waste. In addition, enriching the garden with CO2 during dark periods should be avoided since plants only absorb it in the presence of light. For the ones that choose not to enrich with CO2, it is essential to provide frequent ventilation with exterior air to maintain an acceptable CO2 level to the plants. In this case, having frequent chats with the plants will certainly help! MY
For additional articles on climate controllers, visit maximumyield.com and search Isabelle Lemay, agr. and Mélissa Léveillé in our author archive.

Automatic Differential
The differential represents the CO2 concentration variation around the set point. We can also say that it is the different range between the value at which the controller deactivates the enrichment equipment and the one where the controller activates the equipment. In the case of an automatic differential (optimized), the controller automatically modifies the differential’s value in order to narrow the range around the desired set point. This feature allows the grower to obtain a more stable and precise concentration.

Combined Controller
It is common to want to enrich a cultural environment with CO2 that is partially vented. In order to avoid waisting CO2, it is better to avoid enriching while the venting equipment is running. Some controllers, called combined controllers, allow you to intelligently manage more than one piece of equipment at once, for example by avoiding opposite actions, such as the enrichment and ventilation, to be simutaneously activated.

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Jordan Scott (right) of Stealth Grow demystifies LED technology in this exclusive interview with Maximum Yield.

Jordan Scott

MY: What proof do you have that LEDs can outcompete the myriad lighting options available to indoor gardeners? How do they compare? Maximum Yield (MY): It’s been noted that LEDs are great as supplemental lighting only. What is your response to this? Stealth Grow (SG) LEDs should be used as a primary lighting source. SG LED panels function great all on their own. The key is that Stealth Grow lights have the necessary power along with quad-band spectrum, meaning we build our lights using four different types of LED chips to achieve a broad and complete light spectrum. Many LED grow lights use only two LED chips, a red and a blue, and thus do not support the entirety of the light requirements of the plant. While red and blue spectrum light is most necessary for plant growth and flowering, they are not the only colors that a plant needs. Stealth Grow incorporates full spectrum light of the color temperature 2,700 degrees Kelvin, (the same as a T-5 fluorescent bloom light), and we also use high band red LEDs. This quad-band approach provides the plants exactly what they need to flourish without wasting energy as heat. We have a ton of science, theories, charts and graphs to back up our claims, but the real proof is in the plants. Ask any grower who has used Stealth Grow LEDs and they will tell you we are the real deal. Used in indoor gardening settings, our lights have consistently produced results equal to that of a 1000 watt HPS. Stealth Grow set out to create a replacement for the 1000 watt HPS bulb and that is exactly what we did. MY: What visible and measurable results have you found with the StealthGrow LEDs? The Stealth Grow product line has gone through significant testing and changes. We have carefully monitored the effects that various combinations of spectrums and intensities have on plant growth and those results are represented in our current lights. We have found that our newest model SG 602 consistently performs within five per cent of the yield of a 1000 watt HPS. Also, the quality and the density of the flowers have been as good if not better. These results have been seen through our own testing and the responses we have heard from the many growers who are using Stealth Grow products. We are working on putting together a grower’s journal for our website. We will provide case studies that we have done and


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are encouraging all our customers to send us their own results along with any pictures. We are also currently doing a timelapse growth comparison between an SG 602 and a 1000 watt HPS. All this is still in the works but look for it on the website in a month or two. MY: What are the environmental advantages to LEDs? The most obvious environmental advantage to LEDs is that they are extremely energy efficient, using only two to 10 watts of electricity. LEDs last for years, saving the user energy in maintenance and replacement costs. Not only that, but LEDs also reduce the need for cooling equipment in the grow room because they do not cause heat build-up, producing just 3.4 BTU’s per hour. Lastly, LEDs are mercury free, and recyclable!

MY: Tell me about the product options available from StealthGrow. How might a grower choose between them? Stealth Grow LED has three core products: the SG 602, SG 1202 and the SG 602 Veg. The SG 602 is our flagship product and the one best suited as a replacement for a 1000 watt HPS.

The SG 1202 is essentially two 602s on one, elongated panel. The most significant advantage of the SG 1202 is its penetrating power. The SG 1202 maintains its high intensity even at a distance of six feet away from foliage. This means that flowers on the bottoms of tall plants are receiving enough light to form density and mass. Both the SG 602 and 1202 perform excellently in the vegetative stage of growth. However, growers who run a continuous cycle and have a vegetative light on at all times should consider our SG 602 Veg. This light has done phenomenally well outperforming a 1000 watt MH in all instances. MY

If you would like to have your product featured in "You Tell Us," please contact editor@maximumyield.com or give us a call at 250 729 2677

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Plants Have No Teeth...or Do They?
A Few Points about Carbon Fertilization
by Peter Vakomies It seems obvious enough that plants don't have teeth; but plants must perform the same processes that animals do to grow – they must get carbon, and lots of it. Like all life on Earth, plants are carbon-based. In fact, carbon constitutes the majority of all dried plant biomass, about 45 per cent. We chew food to extract carbon from its source while plants assimilate carbon from the air.

Carbon is the number one element required to grow plant tissue, and it is ‘inhaled’ by plants from the air in the form of CO2 gas. The entire process of assimilating carbon from CO2 into plant tissue while plants are exposed to light is called photosynthesis. Think of plants as hungry for CO2; they are constantly hoarding carbon at a level that is over 10,000 times the amount found in the air (350 ppm or 0.0035 per cent). Plants grow by assimilating, reducing or fixing CO2 into carbohydrates, but in all that carbon-hoarding and photosynthetic-processing, where are the teeth located? RuBisCO The enzyme known as Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase, or RuBisCO, may be the closest thing plants have to teeth. This enzyme grabs CO2 gas molecules and attaches them to a five carbon sugar molecule, thereby, assimilating more carbon atoms into the Calvin Cycle (see figure one). It fixes a molecule of CO2 to another five carbon sugar (ribulose) making a new six

Figure 1. The Calvin Cycle - where the teeth of photosynthesis are. RuBisCO is the place where carbon enters the food chain. Note the wasteful process called photorespiration occurring when too much oxygen reaches RuBisCO.


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carbon sugar every time it cycles through its enzymatic function. Considering the super low CO2 concentration of 0.0035 per cent present on Earth today, RuBisCO has essentially chewed most of the carbon out of the atmosphere and fixed it into plants. By grabbing a single CO2 molecule out of the air every 0.3 seconds, every RuBisCO enzyme is at the heart of the photosynthesis machinery. This is a ‘chewing rate’ of around three molecules of CO2 per second, which is quite slow compared to most other enzymes. Because of its abundance and essential role in life, the RuBisCO enzyme also happens to be the most abundant protein on earth. If you could extract the whole biosphere's protein to make a giant Earth-smoothie-proteinshake, RuBisCO alone would make up over 50 per cent of the total protein.

Figure 2. A model for the structure of RuBisCO in chloroplasts from higher plants. RuBisCO consists of eight large (L) and eight small (S) subunits arranged as four dimers. Small subunits are shown in red (only four of the small subunits are seen); large subunits are shown in blue and green, in order to show the boundaries of the dimers.

RuBisCO is a large complex molecule (figure two), which in more advanced plants is built from 16 separate sub-units forming an amazingly complex protein structure. It is located in the chlorophyll-containing organelles (chloroplasts) found inside every green plant and algae cell. RuBisCO is a miracle of nature that has been evolving since life began - a true protein nanomachine that drives all life on Earth. The enzyme does not restrict its diet to CO2 alone; it will also 'chew' on oxygen molecules, which slows photosynthetic yields. There are eight locations for CO2 to bind to in each RuBisCO enzyme, and these are also able to bind oxygen molecules. For this reason, RuBisCO is located in an oxygen-reduced environment inside plant cells and tucked away inside chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain dense accumulations of the large enzyme in patches; in some algae there are super complexes of RuBisCO accumulated into structures called pyrenoids.
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Plants Have No Teeth - Or Do They?
Discoveries with unicellular algae have shown just how localized the teeth can be; in efforts to concentrate CO2 around RuBisCO when CO2 becomes depleted, some algal plants will make RuBisCO only on one side of the chloroplast meaning only one half has teeth and can actually grab CO2, while the other half actually has no teeth and acts as a reservoir of Calvin Cycle intermediates, shunting the required substrates to the side with teeth. This is a mechanism to compensate for depleted CO2 when O2 becomes a competing substrate, unique to some algae. But back in the greenhouse, imagine starving a crop of CO2. CO2 in a well sealed greenhouse or grow room will be assimilated starting the moment after dawn when light becomes bright enough. From a typical concentration of 350 ppm CO2 in the air, CO2 can drop to 160 ppm in under two hours. This will stop plant growth by starving their cells' RuBisCO enzymes of their favorite thing to chew on. At this point oxygen can even out-compete the reduced levels of CO2 and cause photorespiration (figure one) - a wasteful use of captured light energy, sending the plant's teeth to chatter and chew on junk food. The Mouth and Teeth Working Together RuBisCO runs on the energy captured from light in the growing environment. In a discussion about feeding plants CO2, we must remember how photochemistry first makes power for RuBisCO to operate. In addition to needing bright light, photosynthesis requires water, correct temperature, adequate mineral nutrition and proper humidity. If any of these environmental variables change, photochemistry and CO2 assimilation are affected, and likewise, growth rates.

Figure 4. Anatomy of Stomata - The brown colored parts are the guard cells. Notice the abundant and flaky wax deposits (grey-green).

Figure 3. Photosynthesis has two parts - the teeth are in the Calvin Cycle.

When light shines on green chlorophyll pigments, the energy of PAR photons is captured by plants in a way that is similar to charging a battery; after chlorophyll molecules trap photons of PAR, light energy is stored in high-energy molecules called ATP and NADPH. We need to mention phytochemistry since the teeth of photosynthesis cannot chew at all without being fuelled by ATP and NADPH. The part of photosynthesis involving chlorophyll is called photochemistry, the light-dependant reactions of photosynthesis. But our focus here is on the light-independent part of photosynthesis, also known as the Calvin Cycle, involving RuBisCO - the supposed plant teeth (figure three). The products of photochemistry are a charge of 'reducing power' used up by RuBisCO

Figure 4 at the microscopic level. Alternate/second picture of 'mouth-like' stomata.


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to drive CO2 fixation. So without a fully charged battery from being in bright light, a plant does not have enough ATP or NADPH to operate RuBisCO and CO2 uptake grinds to a tiny fraction of what is possible. Imagine clonal lines of plants growing with ample light in an ideal state of fertigation, temperature and humidity; let's say they have moist, fertigated soil, it is noon on a sunny day at 72°F soil and an air temperature with 67 per cent relative humidity. On this perfect day, what is going on that enables plants to uptake CO2 for growth? We've got the image of photosynthetic teeth chewing CO2

out of the air, but we must not forget how there is a 'mouth' that also affects photosynthetic rates in plants - this would be the stomata that are all over green tissues on plants (figure four). On this perfect, sunny day, at the anatomically minute scale of the plant-cell,

imagine wandering through a stomata and drifting deep inside the leaves, where we'd find it is sopping wet, and that plants are always trying to keep themselves inflated with water pressure (plant turgor). Leaves are organs that need to remain open to exchange gasses with the

Figure 5. Measuring Stomatal Conductance with an Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) and porometer. When combined into one machine, this kind of device can accurately measure the millimoles of water vapor and CO2 gas leaving and entering a leaf per second. The amount of water vapor detected leaving the leaf is divided by an estimate of stomatal aperture or by leaf area, to give the measurement called stomatal conductance.

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Plants Have No Teeth - Or Do They?
atmosphere, but they must also maintain a saturated, 100 per cent relative humidity inside themselves. This happens using tiny pores called stomata that open and close by action of guard cells (figure four). And, since most of the surface of mature leaves is coated with a wax that seals the leaf from outside air, the main way in and out of a leaf is through the stomata, and plants keep turgid by regulating the stomatal water loss. Water vapor leaving the plant can be conserved by closing the stomata, which happens under drought conditions to prevent wilting - the 'mouths' close and carbon feeding also ceases. the plant by transpiring, CO2 is entering through the same stomata. This process is also known as stomatal conductance, measuring how much water vapor, CO2 and O2 can pass through the pores on the leaf surface (figure five). Once CO2 gas has diffused into a leaf through stomata, and into a plant cell, the enzyme RuBisCO immediately fixes it into carbohydrates (CH2Os), and this clears the way for more CO2 to diffuse in. As nature would have it, light is critical for keeping stomata open, and plants close their stomata in darkness. Anthropomorphizing this image of 'chewing plants' just a little further, stomata in the grow room might be considered billions of tiny mouths that open up immediately, as soon as the lights turn on, allowing carbon to flow into the leaf. Under conditions of high temperature, drought or water stress, stomata will close more and more, gradually starving the plant of carbon. There are evolutionary reasons for these responses by stomata; however, any closure will limit the CO2 that plants can feed off of. Certain plant species have adapted methods of gulping big mouthfuls of CO2 before the heat of the day causes them to close their stomata.

“Stomata in the grow room might be considered billions of tiny mouths that open up immediately, as soon as the lights turn on, allowing carbon to flow into the leaf.”
In these ideal sunny conditions when the plants are not stressed, the stomata are wide open and CO2 can enter the leaf. This happens by diffusion through the air - while water vapor is pouring out of

Figure 6a (top). Diagram to show how C4 and CAM plants can 'gulp' CO2 and concentrate this for RuBisCO (RuBp Carboxylase' to chew with less interference from oxygen. Figure 6b (above). Scanning electron microscopy (left panel) and immunological localization of RuBisCO (right panel) in a photosynthetic cell of the single cell C4 species Suaeda aralocaspica (aka sweep weed and seablights) showing the RuBisCO-containing chloroplasts (orange) are restricted to the proximal end of cell (right panel). (Images by Elena Voznesenskaya and Vince Franceschi)

These are the C4 and CAM type plants with specialized leaf anatomies and they also have specialized cellular metabolism allowing them to stash CO2, and in some species their teeth are concentrated into specific inner areas of the leaf (see figures six and seven). After considering how the stomata and RuBisCO work to get CO2 into a plant to become CH2Os, we can find out what CO2 level is optimal to increase plant growth, but it takes some tweaking of all growing inputs. As mentioned, any condition that closes stomata inhibits growth; so in fact all our growth inputs of high temperatures, excessive CO2 levels, drought and light intensity will all inhibit plant growth just by closing stomata. Optimal CO2 fertilization requires that a warm meal be delivered with gravy an increase in mineral fertilization. Like too much food of any kind, excessive CO2 is also a problem to the mouth and teeth of photosynthesis. In plants, a large imbalance in growth occurs from feeding too much CO2 which happens since the molecular shape of the plant hormone called abscissic acid (ABA) and the CO2


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Figure 7. C4 and Cam plants pictures and diagrams

molecule's shape are similar. The plant hormone called abscissic acid is the one that controls stomatal closing under changing environmental conditions. Excessive CO2 fools the guard cell into sensing ABA is present and plants close their stomatal openings when CO2 exceeds tolerable amounts. Therefore, fertilizing with too much CO2 can reduce photosynthesis directly by closing the plants' mouths. But there is another response to over-feeding with CO2 that affects the teeth directly- plants make less RuBisCO enzymes as they adapt to long term, excessive CO2 in the grow room. So when growing under too much CO2, plants shut their mouths and actually make fewer photosynthetic teeth to chew and grow with.

Plants cool their tissues by opening their stomata wide, and by allowing more water to evaporate and transpire, which lowers the leaf's temperature. This happens until too much drought occurs, and it becomes a priority to conserve water. However, if raising the temperature to 77°F from 72°F is just enough to cause the plants to keep their stomata open and increase cooling, then this also allows for the most CO2 possible to enter inside the leaf cells where RuBisCO is already assimilating CO2 at its maximum rate. Under these ideal conditions, truly monstrous growth rates can occur - all mouths are agape, hanging wide and the teeth of photosynthesis are churning all available CO2 into carbohydrates MY at maximum speed, only the atmosphere is the limit! References

The Regulation of RuBisCO Activity in Response to Variation in Temperature and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure in Sweet Potato, Plant Physiology 139:979-990 (2005). The Intracellular Localization of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Plant Physiology 116: 1585-1591 (1998). Handbook of Photosynthesis, By Mohammad Pessarakli. Published by Marcel Dekker, 1996.

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Grow Your Own Wheat Grass Indoors
by Matt LeBannister
Healthy eating is a major concern for most people. Some people claim that wheat grass should be included in a healthy diet. Wheat grass refers to the young grass of the common wheat plant and can be pressed into juice for immediate consumption or dried into powder tablets that can last indefinitely if frozen. There are ongoing debates as to the nutritional properties of wheat grass. Neither Maximum Yield nor myself endorse the consumption of wheat grass in juice or tablet form for the treatment to any diseases or disorders. Ann Wigman, one of the early pioneers of wheat grass, made claims that drinking wheat grass could cure AIDS and was later sued as a result. Ann Wigman originally claimed in the 1940s that she had cured herself of cancer by drinking the juices of different weeds she found in vacant lots in Boston. used to make the antibodies, which fight She has founded the former Hippocrates Institute and the Ann Wigmore off disease and infection in our bodies. foundation and has also written books on Another essential amino acid found in wheat grass is Asparic acid. Asperic acid how to grow wheat grass and the health removes ammonia from the blood stream benefits of sprouts. and can increase endurance. Some of the more realistic health claims Wheat grass juice is known to contain a about wheat grass are as follows: •    ives you more energy g number of different vitamins.Vitamin C is found in wheat grass and is generally •   mproves sleep i believed to bolster the immune system •   mproves the digestive system i •    etoxifies heavy metals from the blood  and promote general well being. Pregnant d women are encouraged to increase their stream daily intake of vitamin C to increase •    romotes general well-being p •   trengthens immune system s the baby’s immune response. It is also a known antioxidant. For these results it “Claims suggest wheat grass is said that one must Vitamin E is will lose its potency if the harvest at the time also found in juices are not consumed within when the wheat grass wheat grass and is three hours of harvest.” another antioxidant. is at its nutritional peek. It is also claimed that the wheat Antioxidants protect our cells against grass will lose its potency if the juices are “free radicals,” which damage our DNA. not consumed within three These “free radicals” are believed to cause the aging process in humans. hours of its harvest. As far as nutrition is Vitamin B9 is found in wheat grass as concerned, wheat grass has well as folic acid, used for the production a multitude of different and maintenance of new cells. Folic acid components that are beneficial is also recommended for women during pregnancy to prevent birth defects. to humans. Wheat grass There are a variety of trace minerals contains many amino acids. Some are vital to muscle and present in wheat grass. Boron can be brain function such as Alanine. found which improves brain function. Your wheat grass planting kit can include grow mediums Calcium is available and is used in the Alanine also improves the such as rockwool, coir, potting soil or even a cotton making and maintaining of healthy, immune system, because it is seedling mat, shown here.
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Affordable and easily grown at home, the growth progression of wheat grass is quite quick. Expect to see seeds germinating in a couple of days (left). Within three days following germination, shoots are growing and the grass is craving sunlight (centre). Approximately seven to 10 days after planting, the wheat grass will reach its nutritional peak and is ready to harvest (right).

strong teeth and bones. Iron is present cotton, rockwool or coco coir, it is good and is a major component of oxygen to soak the medium for two to eight hours carrying red-blood cells. Zinc is another prior to planting. This allows the medium trace element found in wheat grass and to safely adjust its pH levels, because some supports a healthy immune system. mediums can be acidic or alkaline. Soil or One major reason people consume potting mix can be used and is actually wheat grass is for the high levels of more forgiving when it comes to pH chlorophyll found in it. There are many levels than other available mediums. claims about what chlorophyll can do for Now that the medium and seeds are the human body. Many people believe ready for planting, one can sow the seeds. that it has healing qualities and is high in The soaked seeds should be spread evenly antioxidants. However, others claim that over the surface of the medium so that chlorophyll cannot the seeds are touching “Trace amounts of boron, be properly absorbed each other, but not calcium, iron and zinc are all by our stomachs and found in wheat grass, which so much that they is therefore useless to are overlapping one improve overall health.” consume. another. If you choose Now that the nutrition behind wheat to use soil or a loose potting mix, some grass is better understood, one can make of the medium should be spread over the the decision as to whether wheat grass seeds to keep the light off of them. Seeds will be a good addition to their healthy germinate poorly when exposed to the diet. People wishing to add wheat grass light. If choosing to use a cotton seedling to their diet will be able to grow it easily pad or other hydroponic medium, the and affordably at home. To do this, all one tray containing the seeds could be lightly needs is a supply of wheat grass seeds, dusted with vermiculite or simply kept in a tray with holes and one without for the dark for the first couple days. drainage, some growing medium and some The first couple days after germination fluorescent lights or a sunny window sill. there won’t be much to do in terms of caring for your wheat grass. The gardener Growing Wheat Grass must watch the temperature if using a The first step is to soak the wheat grass heating mat to speed up germination. If seeds in water for two to eight hours temperature goes above 32°C the seeds prior to planting. This allows the seeds can become dormant. Misting the medium to take up some water and will speed once a day should provide enough up the germination process. The seeds moisture to promote healthy growth. should be placed in the dark while they Too much moisture combined with heat are being soaked. and darkness can be an instant recipe for During this time one should prepare mould. To combat this, any cover should the preferred medium for planting. If you be removed at least once a day to allow have chosen to use a seedling pad made of fresh air to reach the seedlings.

A couple days after planting the wheat grass shoots will have appeared and will be craving sunlight. At this time, the seeds no longer need the darkness. Putting the tray under some fluorescent lights or on a sunny windowsill will work just fine. The wheat grass will increase production of chlorophyll and nutrients steadily over the next five to seven days of growth until reaching the nutritional peak. This important moment in the wheat grass’s life happens approximately seven to 10 days after planting or when the wheat grass is 17 to 27 centimetres tall. This is the ideal time to harvest. It is commonly believed that for wheat grass to be effective it must be consumed within three hours of harvest. To harvest the wheat grass simply trim the grass three to five centimetres above the medium. The wheat grass will grow back if done properly allowing for a second harvest in a week’s time. Growing wheat grass for the first time can be a little tricky for any gardener. All plants need love and care to survive. With experience, even the beginner gardener will find that keeping a continuous supply of wheat grass in their home can be easy and affordable. MY
References Koha, Loretta Harmony. Ann Wigmore Wheat Grass Pioneer, Living Food Educator.

Additional benefits and uses of wheat grass can be found at maximumyield.com

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010




Urban Renewal Through Agriculture
by Ed Harwood and Jessica Bloomgarden The term Urban Agriculture is largely associated with community farms and gardens that are operated for small-scale production, recreational and social purposes. While this type of urban agriculture is extremely beneficial to local communities through community building, food education and youth development, rising global trends require that we expand this momentum to include a commercial urban agricultural movement.

With over 75 per cent of the US population living in urban centers, and the rest of the world following a similar path of urbanization, our traditional food system of centralized, rural production with long transportation distances is no longer a sustainable model. Rising fuel costs and impending carbon legislation will result in increased transportation costs, which will be compounded by end-markets moving further away from the point of production. Centralized production represents a threat to food security, as a single disease or storm can destroy an entire crop or farm. This same concept applies to food safety, in which centralized production increases the risk of spreading disease. These are just a few of the problems the supply side of the food chain faces, and these problems will only worsen with time. On the demand side, consumers are getting smarter. They want to buy local, fresh and pesticide-free foods, and they want to buy it all year round. The number of consumers is rapidly rising,
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requiring world food production to double by 2050 according to the UN. Our current food system is already unsustainable with one in six people going hungry today, and will be even less capable of supporting the world’s demand in coming years. Urban agriculture has the potential to fundamentally change our food system from the large scale, centralized, rural production it is today, to a distributed network of local production using innovative technological solutions. Technologies such as hydroponics exist today and can be readily used in urban buildings, creating local jobs and often rehabilitating areas of urban blight. Some hydroponic methods require sunlight, and so necessitate greenhouse or rooftop locations. However, a growing number of products use even more controlled environments and artificial lighting, and can therefore fill the interiors of buildings, creating much more reliable and large scale production opportunities. Some of these

technologies boast yield efficiencies of up to 100 times that of conventional growing methods. Each technology fills a niche that could provide a broad array of produce year round in urban settings. With lower transportation costs, integrated pest management and increased yield from these technologies, urban farmers can operate much more profitable farms while more fully satisfying consumer preferences. Early adopters are starting to emerge with plans to transform cities from Detroit to Brockton, MA, into commercial urban farms. They believe in the possibility of urban renewal through agriculture by creating jobs for local residents, supplying fresh and safe produce for local families and transforming urban blight and decay into productive and clean environments. Other cities and entrepreneurs would do well to evaluate their own urban agriculture opportunities. This industry is ready for its future leaders to come forward and usher in this much MY needed movement. About the Authors
Dr. Ed Harwood is founder and chief executive officer of AeroFarms. Ed previously served as associate director of Cornell Cooperative Extension for Agriculture. Prior to that, Ed served as CEO of Topline Waikato, Inc. Jessica Bloomgarden is the chief marketing officer of AeroFarms. Jessica previously served as principal at 21Ventures, a clean technology venture capital fund, and prior to that worked at JPMorgan in the Technology Investment Banking Group, where she helped build the firm’s Cleantech practice.

Continued from page 40

See it. Want it. Find it. at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Introducing Cobra from Cash Crop
Cash Crop Cobra is a combination of many different beneficial bacteria and fungi species, which assist a plant’s growth by stimulating a massive root mass. Cobra also helps the plant tolerate temperature extremes, nutrient imbalances and drought. Cobra contains 60 different strains of micro-organisms, 29 carefully selected beneficial fungi, nine endomycorrhizal, 11 ectomycorrhizal fungi and 19 strains of trichoderma bacteria. These microorganisms colonize the plant’s roots and stimulate the roots to grow into the surrounding medium, greatly enhancing the absorptive surface area of the root system and forming an essential link between plant and medium. Also included is a specially formulated root bio-stimulant, vitamins C and B1, kelp and humates. The plant will enjoy improved nutrient and water uptake and enhanced disease resistance. Cobra is the most effective high quality product in the marketplace today, creating an optimum growing medium and plant growth conditions. Ask for Cobra at your local indoor gardening store.

House & Garden Drip Clean
House & Garden Drip Clean is an extremely useful agent for anyone working with a drip or aeroponic system. Drip Clean works like a magnet, removing dirt particles so that the piping remains clean. It gives plants a boost, improving their greenness and vitality. Drip Clean is a 100 per cent safe agent for your plants provided it is used in the correct proportion. It contains potassium and phosphorus compounds, two very powerful and useful elements in the nutritional plan of the plant. Drip Clean can be added to the nutrient container during the entire life of the garden, and should be added from the very first day of growth. Drip Clean will not work with a drip system that is already clogged. Drip Clean is available now from your local retail hydro dealer.

Flame Defender
There are many electrical devices in today’s indoor growing environments. Power strips, CO2 generators, heat mats, lights, light movers, reservoir heaters, fans, pumps, etc.; and all of these devices can malfunction and cause a fire. Protect yourself, your growing environment and your home. Install a Flame Defender™ today! • Self contained – no plumbing or wiring required. • Simply install by attaching vertically to the wall or ceiling. • Automatic – extinguishing agent is automatically dispensed if the temperature probe on the unit reaches 155°F . • Multi-purpose dry chemical extinguisher. • Rated for A, B and C. • Suitable for electrical fires. • Discharges a hemispherical spray pattern in area under sprinkler. • Available in three sizes to fit a variety of applications. For more information on the Flame Defender, visit your local indoor gardening retailer.
112 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Alaska Pure by Nutrifield®
Alaska Pure is a complete flowering enhancer containing rich sources of potassium, natural plant growth hormones and 17 amino acids. It’s your ultimate organic potash. Potassium directly affects the production of chlorophyll while regulating stomata opening. This improves the plant's ability to breath. Potassium is also an essential for the storage and movement of carbohydrates in plants. Carbohydrates are essential to produce higher brix (sugar) levels as to maximize the weight of your yield. Alaska Pure is an exceptional source of auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins. These all–natural hormones promote rapid cell division allowing the plant to uptake larger amounts of nutrient while improving its resistance to disease and pest infestation. Alaska Pure contains over 60 minerals with exceptionally high chelating ability. The unique formula also provides frost resistance and is able to deliver stress relief to unhealthy plants. Alaska Pure can be added to your reservoir with your nutrient solution or can be used as a foliar spray. For more information, please visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Fulife by Nutrifield®
Fulife maximizes yields by improving your plants’ metabolic processes. It is derived from organic carbon allowing for faster growth due to improved photosynthesis. Fulife conditions soils and will improve stomata openings allowing for better plant respiration and transpiration, while helping the growth of beneficial microorganisms. Fulife does not increase the salt index of your system. Therefore, there is little effect on osmotic potential (salt build-up) allowing the plant’s water uptake to remain unaffected. Fulife enables you to run significantly lower electrical conductivity (EC) without affecting nutrient absorption. Fulife is an organic electrolyte. Electrolytes are soluble particles that can effectively conduct an electrical current in liquid and plant substrates. The electrical activity serves to convert silica and metallic elements into easily absorbable plant food, while at the same time increasing the nutrient’s chelating speed. Plants respond by being able to take up previously unavailable elements leading to nutritionally satisfied healthy plants. For more information, please visit your local hydroponics retailer.

Plug’N’Grow Presents the Heavy Duty Liquid CO2 Regulator
The iGS-Regulator enriches your garden with CO2 without generating heat. • CO2 flows up to 50 SCFH; 2.5 to three times the maximum flow offered by competing products. • Ideal for grow rooms from 650 to 7500 cubic feet. • Features a heater to avoid regulator and valve freezing at high CO2 flow. • Includes an industrial solenoid valve from ASCOTM, North American-made continuous duty and a life expectancy of 20,000,000 cycles. • Works with any CO2 controller with a standard 110 to 120 volts, three-pronged outlet. • Standard connection for CO2 bottle and possibility to connect to multiple bottles. • Reliable and long lasting, covered by Plug’N’Grow’s three years warranty. For more details, please visit an indoor gardening store near you.

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


yield Master 8” and 10”

See it. Want it. Find it. at your favorite indoor gardening store.

The new Yield Master is airtight! With a heavy-duty gasket and tempered glass that is held firmly in place by retention bars, the Yield Master is completely sealed. This reflector is manufactured with a highly reflective European aluminum interior for excellent output and uniformity. Durable, white powdercoated finish provides maximum air-cooling with built-in eight inch and 10 inch fittings and has a built-in socket and 15 foot lamp cord. In addition the EZ-Breeze™ aerodynamic junction box improves airflow and cooling of this airtight reflector making Yield Master an excellent choice for the serious grower. Ask for it now at your local hydro shop.

House & Garden Algen extract
Algen Extract is a concentrated solution of Norwegian Sea Kelp (Ascophyllum nodosum). Plants in all phases love kelp for the many benefits it provides. Micro nutrients, micro-biology and macro-nutrients are all present in Algen Extract. Algen Extract growth stimulator is a product designed for use with sprouts that have rooted well. It ensures better leaf color and stimulates the formation of root hair, leading to increased uptake of various trace elements. Great as a foliar spray and for root applications. It can also be used as a leaf wash in case of chemical pest control and dusting. Algen Extract is available now at your local hydroponics shop.

The Rock That Doesn’t Roll - Sunleaves Rocks
Sunleaves Rocks are a reusable growing medium with serious H20 holding power for use in any kind of garden, and now you can choose from two different sizes of this versatile growing medium! Both the small (0.25 to 0.5 inch) and large (0.5 to 1.5 inch) varieties are made by superheating shale to temperatures up to 2,000°F rendering them pH-neutral and chemically inert. Make your life a , little easier while you take care of your plants and the planet. Grow with the rock that doesn’t roll! Mined and manufactured in the United States. Ask for Sunleaves Rocks today at your local indoor gardening store.

Introducing ORCA Grow Film
ORCA Grow Film brings the latest reflective microfiber technology to the hydroponic market. ORCA’s patent pending white plastic microfiber structure effectively scatters light from highly reflective crystalline structures within the substrate. The same principal is found in snowflakes, where the geometry of ice crystals reflects light. ORCA’s microfiber structure is naturally diffuse, a characteristic that is recognized by its highly reflective, ultra-matte surface. Diffuse reflection is important to hydroponic growers because it eliminates hot spots and creates an even, efficient distribution of light. In addition, ORCA’s reflective performance is consistent over the full spectrum of light.ORCA Film is color neutral and has no color shift or iridescence; this means the light reflected from its surface maintains the original color spectrum/wavelength. Hydroponic growers now can be assured the reflected light their plants are absorbing is the intended light spectrum being produced from their grow lamps. ORCA Grow film is light tight, 12 millimeters thick, waterproof, recyclable and eco friendly, containing no halogens, plasticizers or VOCs. To learn more visit a hydroponics retailer near you.
114 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Rope Rachet – Perfect for All your Hanging Needs
Rope Rachet is a unique, compact system that lets you quickly secure a variety of items, including reflectors, fans and other gardening accessories. Adjust as needed - no knots or chains to mess with plus 150 pounds of holding power. Perfect for hanging reflectors, fans and any other garden accessories that needs to be secure. • ¼ inch metal hooks • eight foot solid braided polypropylene rope (1⁄4 inch diameter) • packaged in a convenient ClamShell pack (one per pack) Visit an authorized retailer near you to learn more.

ecosystem 2 – Versatile Vertical Growing
Once you try vertical, you’ll find it hard to imagine growing any other way! The Ecosystem 2 is the longawaited sequel to the world’s most popular vertical growing system. Important improvements: • Fits 24 rockwool slabs instead of 20 in original Ecosystem. Compression fitting ensures leak-proof operation. • Improved dripper system. Separate reservoir for ease-of-use and cleaning. Multiple Ecosystem 2 can be fed from the same reservoir. Turn-key air cooling system. Can house pots too using any growth media. More accessible growing area makes unit easy to maintain. Unit opens up all the way or partially for easy plant maintenance. Vastly increased airflow through the grow space thanks to 16 inch gap between the bottom of the unit and the floor. No Velcro required to hold slabs in place. Simplified preparation. Hose attachment to pump for easy presoaking of rockwool slabs in the machine itself. Visit your local indoor gardening store to learn more.

Triple Action Technological Breakthrough Xtreme Nutrients Rhino Drive
Rhino Drive maximizes flower weight, oil and resin production like never before. The plant is provided with a unique combination of vitamins and organic compounds required for optimum flower development. Warning maximum potency! Rhino Drive uses anti-senescing agents that interrupt the normal hormonal signals, which tell the plant that it is nearing the end of its life. In addition to the blockers, Rhino Drive also has two more modes of action. The specialized organic action of Rhino Drive ensures that cell permeability of the roots is enhanced and maintained at an optimal level. Rhino Drive packs on weight. The inclusion of chelated potassium and silicate compounds and two unique plant amino acids adds weight and strength to the flowers and stems. When you use Rhino Drive, you are using the very latest technology in the area of plant maturity control. Visit your local indoor gardening store to learn more.

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010



See it. Want it. Find it. at your favorite indoor gardening store.

Sunleaves Lightwave Reflectors Galaxy Select-a-Watt
This state-of-the-art ballast provides today’s serious grower with maximum flexibility and performance. The Galaxy Select-a-Watt is different than any other “dimmable” electronic ballast on the market by providing three ways to use the select-a-watt feature: • It will properly drive a 400, 600 or 1000 watt lamp to ANSI specifications. For example - set the switch to 400 watts, insert a 400 watt lamp into your socket and the ballast will operate the 400 watt lamp. The ballast will similarly operate 600 or 1000 watt lamps. • The ballast is capable of dimming a 1000 watt lamp – adjust the switch to 400 or 600 watts and the ballast will dim the 1000 watt lamp by 40 or 60 per cent. • The turbo charge feature will increase the output of a 1000 watt lamp by approximately 10 per cent. The Galaxy brand name carries a strong reputation of reliability and performance. Visit an indoor gardening store near you to learn more. Building on the design of the original Lightwave, new Sunleaves Lightwave Reflectors are the perfect choice for anyone who’s looking to boost lighting efficiency. Their specular aluminum reflector bodies are ultra-lightweight and diffuse light evenly to eliminate hot spots. A great value for indoor gardening enthusiasts, the Lightwave Plug n’ Play is pre-wired with a fixed socket that’s compatible with the industry-standard Common Outlet, while the Lightwave CF Reflector is ideal for those who want to take advantage of the money-saving benefits of compact fluorescent technology. Just add a self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamp to create a complete, self-contained lighting system! Ask for the Sunleaves Lightwave Reflectors at your local grow shop today.

Xtreme Nutrients Root Tonic
Root Tonic doubles root mass, which doubles your yield. It also prevents and cures wilt and all root diseases, and increases plant immunity and vigor for the highest yield potential. Commercial grade Root Tonic incorporates the newest technology from the latest research. With Root Tonic you got bigger yields every time. When you use Root Tonic, you are using a product that is the result of years of global research. It is the only product of its kind at the cutting edge of root protection and formation technology. The results of this research are now available to you for the first time ever. Root Tonic should be used throughout the entire growing and flowering process. Suitable for all hydroponics and soil plants. Ask for Root Tonic at your local hydro shop today.

Vital earth’s® Mega Worm™
Conscious Earthworks is proud to present Vital Earth’s® Mega Worm made from superior quality, 100 per cent pure castings. Mega Worm earthworm castings promote enhanced germination, root growth, plant growth, crop yield and water holding capacity in soils. It may help improve the physical structure of soil. Excellent for use in compost tea. 100 per cent earthworm castings are black and roll when touched. Available in 1.1 cubic foot bags and two yard totes. For more information on Mega Worm visit an indoor gardening store near you.
116 MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

You can find all of our products online at www.maximumyield.com. Each month your favorite new product profiles will be featured on our website. Get the latest information on what will make your garden grow. Do you want to be included in the product spotlight? Contact the editor at 1-250-279-2677 or email editor@maximumyield.com



1 With relatively dilute solutions of soluble salts up

to 100 ppm or so, if the concentration is doubled, its conductivity usually also doubles. At higher concentrations, however, this strict proportionality deteriorates.

7 An enzyme known as Ribulose Bisphosphate

Carboxylase, or RuBisCO, may be the closest thing plants have to teeth. It is at the heart of photosynthesis machinery that we feed directly when fertilizing plants with CO2.

2 An excellent compost will stand alone as a growing

8 The internal circuitry cooled with several small

3 The adult fungus gnat fly lays eggs in wet substrate,
which hatch into small larvae and can chew into the root system causing damage and creating wounds for root rot pathogens to enter.

computer-type fans, is the component in secondgeneration LED lighting systems that make them slightly heavier than first-generation systems.

9 The majority of the surface of mature leaves is coated
with a wax that seals the leaf from outside air.

4 Composting worms are used to living in a

composting environment, and eat their way through their own bodyweight in waste every day.

10Potassium + chloride has a lower conductivity than

Luminescence for the 5 Electroelectrical currentisisthe term throughprocess at which passed LED chips and energy.

sodium + chloride because a 500 ppm solution of potassium chloride has about 30 per cent fewer ions to carry the current than a 500 ppm solution of sodium chloride.

6 To reach the maximal photosynthesis level, most

symptoms 11Epinasty is one of the more extremegas builds upof waterlogged roots, where ethylene within the plant.

plants need a CO2 concentration between 700 and 1000 ppm.
MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010 117


Company: Fifth Season Gardening Co. Owners: Richard Quinn and Ashley Mattison Location: 106 S. Greensboro St. (Carrboro) 1616 Battleground Ave. (Greensboro) 45 Banks Ave. (Asheville) 5619 Hillsborough St. (Raleigh) 900 Preston Ave. (Charlottesville) Email: richard@fifthseasongardening.com Web: fifthseasongardening.com

Raleigh crew: Jared Quinn (manager) Nick Stanley Adam Clements

Asheville - Charlottesville crew: Mike Weeks (Asheville store manager) Clay Hensley Joey Cagle (Charlottesville store manager) Bobby Gorter (Asheville store assistant manager)

Fifth Season Gardening Company can only be called an accidental business. In 2001, Fifth Season co-owners Richard Quinn and Ashley Mattison had been married for just over one year, and Richard was trying to put his PhD in literature to work teaching part-time classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Ashley, with an advanced degree in English herself, was also working at UNC at the School of Pharmacy as the communications director. Ashley’s brother, Drew, along with a partner, had started an indoor gardening business 200 miles from Chapel Hill in the western mountain town of Asheville, North Carolina the previous year. Though Drew lived in Denver, Colorado, he was convinced that Asheville was ripe for the concept and scraped together the initial money required to start Asheville Agricultural Systems, or Ashville Ag, as locals called it. As an avid snowboarder, Drew hoped to continue living in Colorado while his partner ran the North Carolina business. Meanwhile back in Chapel Hill, Richard became intrigued by the idea of opening an indoor gardening store. Although lacking business knowledge and hydroponic experience, he and Ashley joined with Drew to open Carolina Hydrogardens in March 2002. Richard and Ashley kept their jobs at the university, and since Ashley worked full-time, Richard became the sole employee,


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Richard founded the 4500 square foot location, perfect for handling a large selection of products.

learning quickly with Drew’s help, and by reading every set-ups and conditions. available book and listening to customers. His enthusiasm grew when he harvested his first batch of sweet basil grown after consulting with the employees, Fifth Season Gardening aeroponically in the store’s front window. Company was born. The addition of an outdoor plant area, The story may have ended there if not for a series of along with the purchase of 15 acres of land and the construction unfortunate events that resulted in Drew running Asheville of a distribution warehouse came in 2007. Ag alone. His initial plan was to close shop, but with such a In August 2007 Fifth Season bought GardenWorks, an indoor loyal customer base, it became clear to everyone involved that gardening business in Raleigh, North Carolina. GardenWorks shutting down would be a mistake. had long been Fifth Season’s largest and friendliest competitor Richard and Ashley bought Asheville Agricultural Systems run by committed, knowledgeable people with a loyal customer from Drew, forming Asheville base. The most recent piece Hydrogardens, Inc. in July of the puzzle came at the end 2002. Richard hired a of 2008 with the conversion manager to run Carolina "the greatest lesson in growing of Carrboro’s old in-store Hydrogardens in Durham Fifth Season Gardening Company stockroom into a homebrew and spent many weeks in shop. Locally grown hops sit into a successful business has Asheville, working with a alongside Dutch-made hand committed crew to grow the tools and the latest Humboldt been to never sit still." business. Despite the demands Nutrients products. Beer of running two businesses, and wine making customers Richard was still working mix easily with hydroponics at UNC. The business was still small and Richard kept his shoppers and seasoned organic farmers. own books in between grading student papers on poets Walt Perhaps the greatest lesson in growing Fifth Season Whitman and Emily Dickinson. Everything was manageable. Gardening Company into a successful business has been to Then, he and Ashley saw an opportunity to expand further and never sit still. Despite the fact that he is no longer an owner, opened a second Carolina Hydrogardens in Greensboro, North Drew Mattison, Ashley’s younger brother, gave the business Carolina in 2004. its energy and its passion. Some of the usual adages have held With eight employees and a stable business, Richard and Ashley true: hard work (really hard work) begets success; kindness began looking for a way to expand into new areas. The little town and honesty come back in kind; face your fears; demand of Carrboro adjacent to Chapel Hill had always been a hotbed excellence; never take yourself too seriously. Like many of the for organic growing, composting, vermiculture and many other products they sell, Fifth Season has grown organically. With sustainable practices. In mid-2005, Richard found a 4500 square no business plan and an improvisational spirit, a business came foot space in an old brick facility in downtown Carrboro. into being through a steady unfolding, a calling upon the With three stores under two separate corporations, it was time strengths of its employees and commitment to the needs of its MY to simplify and brand. The list of potential names was long and customers as they arise, as if by accident.
MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010 119

The active displays provide customers with a great view of live, growing


Minty, Fresh Catnip
by Glory Lennon These plants, while easy to grow, can be a challenge to maintain if you let your cat wander around the yard. Cats like rolling around in it, essentially snuffing it out prematurely. Supposedly only three quarters of felines respond to its intoxicating scent. My four cats are in the majority. I have a tiny catnip plant growing on the windowsill over the winter months for the occasional kitty treat but I had to resort to covering it with an inverted heavy glass jar to keep the cats from devouring it. Cats simply can’t get enough of the stuff. As a matter of fact, the catnip I planted in the cutting garden never grew to its potential because my cats kept knocking it down. I eventually had to place chicken wire around it to keep it safe. The cats stood vigil beside it all summer hoping it would grow beyond the protective boundary. To their chagrin I cut the whole thing down before it bloomed to provide them with a little thrill over the winter. I dried it and stored it in a jar. I let them nibble a bit every once in a while but I also use it to rub into their bedding. It can also be used as stuffing for cat toys. Just this past spring my son, a great cat lover, grew some catmint (Nepeta Mussinii) to see what the difference was between catnip and catmint. Not very much as it turns out. Catmint has larger leaves and a milder taste but the cats went nuts for it too. Catmint grows up to 18 inches tall with purpleMY blue flower spikes.

No gardener should be without an herb garden. No gardener should be without a cat. With these two provisos one can also state no garden is complete without a bit of catnip. Catnip (Nepeta Cataria) is a rather pretty plant growing in bushy mounds around two feet high with serrated, oblong, slightly fuzzy, heart-shaped leaves of a grayish-green hue. They produce long, spiky flowers in violet and white, which attract bees by the hive-full. Catnip grows well in any good garden soil, preferring it slightly dry and in full to partial sun. It is very easy to grow from seed and readily available at garden centers both as seeds and plants. The true gardening enthusiast won’t deem it only suitable for the herb garden. It makes a lovely addition to any perennial bed, wildflower patch or cutting garden. But there is no denying that catnip deserves a place of honor in the herb garden. It has a wonderful scent and makes a soothing tea good for digestive problems, relaxing muscles and nerves and promoting good sleep. I prefer to use spearmint, chamomile and lemon balm for my herbal teas and leave the catnip for my cats but when insomnia hits, as it often does, I say the heck with the cats and steep some catnip for myself.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010




MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246
13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577


Get your Max-Mart ad into the next issue! Call Maximum Yield at (250) 729-2677 for more information.


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010







MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

CO2 - Safe and Effective Choose the best enrichment method and maintain healthy plants and a safe grow space. Enhanced Growth Rates Beyond macro- and micronutrients. LED Benefits and Limitations High wattage, high output quad band crop lighting. Controlling Nutrient Concentrations Too high = burnt roots. Too low = deficiency. small spaces – big yields, exclusive prizes and contests and nutrients, nutrients, nutrients.


March will be available March 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across USA and on maximumyield.com Subscriptions are available by contacting editor@maximumyield.com or visiting maximumyield.com/subscriptions.php

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Valley Head, AL 35989 256-635-0802 A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, South Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351 661-299-1603 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Alameda County Hydroponics 20910 Redwood Road, Suite C, Castro Valley, CA 94546 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Always Sunny Hydroponics 708 W. Swain Road Stockton, CA 95207 209-473-9827 American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 B & S Gardening Supplies 590 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Bakersfield Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 Bare Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Beginning Hydroponics PO Box 1232, Corona, CA 92787 951-735-4446 Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918 Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 BWGS West 2247 North Plaza Drive Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Caliponics Inc. 2030 Viborg Road, Unit 110 Solvang, CA 93463 877-PONICS9 Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 2626 South Main Street, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 209-836-5550 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043

Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733

ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Homegrown Hydroponics 1702 East Prince Road, Tucson, AZ 85719 520-323-1212 Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 815 W. University Drive, Suite 110, Tempe, AZ 85281 800-266-4136 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344

Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261 Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955

3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 A Fertile World (Eureka) 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 14228 Alberts Way, Chino, CA 91710 909-606-5885 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 El Centro Hydro & Brew Supply Inc. 591 main Street, Suite N-2 El Centro, CA 92243 760-235-4985 Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 Everything Green Hydroponics 915 Texas Street, Fairfield, CA 94533 707-432-0774 Everything Green 448 Georgia Street, Vallejo, CA 94590 707-647-0774 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Four Seasons Garden Center 1737 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612 510-832-2545

Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600 Garden Spout, The 44800 Highway 101, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-7260 Garden Spout, The 630 S. Main Street, Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Garden Warehouse 6355 Scarlet Court, #2, Dublin, CA 94568 925-556-3319 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 Grass Roots Hydroponics 31877 Corydon, Suite 150 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201

Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551 GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 Grodan Inc. 5152 Commerce Avenue, Moorpark, CA 93021 541-646-8245 Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 92020 619-749-6777 Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Road, Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 Growers Choice Hydroponics 16754 East 14th Street, San Leandro, CA 94578 510-278-6200 Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW Grow King Hydroponics 932 South San Pedro Street, Los Angeles, CA 90015 213-689-8982 Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 Grunder Family Organics & Hydroponics 12321 Magnolia Avenue, Suite C, Riverside, CA 92503 877-468-7974 H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Humboldt Electronics 2547 California Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-9408 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Humboldt Nutrients 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 888-420-7770 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 2825 Mattison Lane, Suite 103, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 888 H2O LOGIC HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Hydroponics Unlimited.com 2728 E. Palmdale Boulevard #121 Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 886-72-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 7922-B Miramar Road, San Diego, CA 92126 858-578-IGS7 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Liquid Gardens 21752 Devonshire Street, Chatsworth, CA 91311 818-718-7624 Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 M&M Garden Supply 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, 2509 Westlane Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 900 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668 Merced Hydroponics 1809 East 21st Street, Merced, CA 95340 209-726-4769 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 224B Reindollar Avenue, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 122 West 4th Street, Suite B Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way, Suite Q McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 Orange County Hydroponics 12687 Beach Boulevard, Unit H, Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903 Palmdale Hydroponics 2728 East Palmdale Boulevard Suite 108, Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-9908 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176 Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 Pro Gardening Systems 4936 Highway 12, Santa Rosa, CA 95472 707-538-8402 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444

San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West 815 Almar Avenue, Suite K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East 4000 Cordelia Lane #4, Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9990 Santee Hydroponics 7973A Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 707-459-6791 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 850 Shasta Avenue, Suite B Morro Bay, CA 93442 805-772-5869 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237) Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171

The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Thunders Hydroponic Center 1729 Yosemite Boulevard, Medesco, CA 95354 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmerville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Urban Gardens Unlimited 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 Western Auto 1156 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-1189 Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Olympic Hydroponics Supply LLC. 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 Gardener’s Edge Jacksonville 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Grower's Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F , Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 Hydro For Less 9545 Southwest 72nd Street, Miami, FL 33173 305-598-4311 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Palm Beach Hydroponics Supply, Inc. 968 N. Congress Avenue, West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561-296-6161 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro's Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902

Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022 Big Tomato, The 14440 E. 6th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80011 303-364-4769 Big Tomato, The 3000 Main Avenue, Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Boulder County Caregivers PO Box 7406, Golden, CO 80403 303-495-2195 Boulder Hydroponics 1630 N. 63rd Street, #5, Boulder, CO 80301 303-415-0045 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, #A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-3139 Hydro-Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359

Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923

3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-8471-3491 Absolute Growing Solutions Inc. 7307 49th Street, Pinellas Park, FL 33781 727-541-3333 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Falero Hardware & Hydroponics 6758 W. Flager Street, Miami, FL 33144 305-266-8878 Florida Garden Supplies 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 Florida Garden Supplies 8020 Belvedere Road, Unit 4, West Palm Beach, FL 33411 561-333-1088


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 1420 East Altomonte Drive, Altamonte Spring, FL 32701 407-830-GROW Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 5561 S. Orange Blossom Trail, Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Sunshine Hydroponics Garden Center 6100 Hanging Moss Road, Suite 500, Orlando, FL 32807 888-833-GROW Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792

Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500 Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Hydrocork 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60435 815-838-0100 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929

Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088

Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709

Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Toposhan, ME 04086 207-373-0990

East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

BWGS 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306 Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232 Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 4200 S. East Street, Indianapolis, IN 46227 317-780-8070 Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158

Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 New England Hydroponics 15 D Coolege Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676

Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Alternative Garden Supply A-615 Industrial Drive, Gary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Brew and Grow 1824 North Besly Court, Chicago, IL 60622 773-395-1500 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 2379 Bode Road, Schaumburg, IL 60194 847-885-8282

Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888

Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St Claire’s Shores, MI 48080 586-775-9485

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543 Brew and Grow 8179 University Avenue, Fridley, MN 55432 612-780-8191 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896 Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 Midwest Hydroponics 3440 Belt Line Boulevard, Suite A, Minneapolis, MN 55416 888-449-2739 Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Hydroharrys.com 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819 Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 SH Hydroponics Inc. 115 Holmes Road, Building 3 Suite A, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 734-879-4014 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 The Grow Store 721 W. Blue Star Drive, Traverse City, MI 49684 231-421-5191 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949 Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218

AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852

Divine Hydroponics 301 North Bishop Avenue, Rolla, MO 65401 573-426-2348 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440 Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 Heartland Hydrogardens 5695 E. Clark Lane, Suite L, Columbia, MO 65202 HYDROGARDENS 573-474-GROW (4769) Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628 U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676

Hydro World 17 White Birch Lane, Lincoln, NH 03251 603-745-3030

77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550 East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Swewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 609-570-8829


AHL Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463

Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937

Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387

Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Grow Room, The 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204

Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156 Urban Organics and Hydroponics 4604 W. Market Street, Suite 106, Greensboro, NC 27407 336-316-0604 Water’s Edge Hydro-Gardens & Organics 107 South White Street, Wake Forest, NC 27587 919-562-5343

Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 Super Harvest 5956 A Colerain Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45239 513-385-5999 Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Trinity Hydro Organics 435 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 Worm’s Way Greater Cincinatti / N. Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Road (Route 236), Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088

Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065

AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822 Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11, Eugene, OR 97402 541-485-2171 Aqua Serene Hydro Gardens 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886

Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS East 4045 Perimeter West Drive, Suite 400 Charlotte, NC 28214 800 316 1306 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 Philomath Road, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483 Forever Green Organic Hydro Gardens 7530 Crater Lake Highway, White City, OR 97503 541-826-2946 Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Gorge Garden Center 1203 12th Street Suite H, Hood River, OR 97031 541-386-GROW Gorilla Garden Supply 1810 Virginia Avenue, North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 Liquid Sun 1845 Southwest Highway 101, Lincoln City, OR 97367 541-994-7070 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233 503-465-9909 Paradise Supply Inc. 1409 N. Highway 99, Ashland, OR 97520 541-552-1037 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 Wizard's Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118

Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724

247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO; Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830

Garden Supplies

Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW In and Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McLoughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219

Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307

Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 Worm’s Way Tennessee 707 Rivergate Parkway, Suite E Goodlettsville, TN 37072 800-397-4153

Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1239 South Airport Road, Allentown, PA 18103 610-432-4949 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030

Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Hydroponics & Organics 7730 Highway 6 South Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100


MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010

Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B, Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 GreenMaker Nursery 3030 Northwest Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 254-965-7273 GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Happy Harvest 1500 Crescent Drive, #202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-820-9376 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425

Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Co. 5524 Williamson Road, Suite 11 Roanoke VA 24012 540-265-2483 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259

M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 Northern Light and Garden Vancouver 6305 NE Highway 99, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585 Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000 River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055

Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202 Indoor Garden Depo 6305 NE Highway 99, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Indoor Garden & Lighting 23303 Highway 99, Suite A, Edmonds, WA 98026 425-673-2755 Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1950b Belmont Loop, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055 Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080

Aric's Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800

Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252


Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6, South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200

Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376 Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100

If so, pass along your contact information to us here at the magazine care of ilona@maximumyield.com and we will add your store’s name, address and telephone number to our distributor listing in an upcoming issue. Add your company logo to the distributor listings! Call 250-729-2677 or Email ilona@maximumyield.com

MAXIMUM YIELD USA - February 2010


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