CANADA November - December 2009

I N D O O R

G A R D E N I N G

FREE
PROJECTS & TIPS

SECRETS TO

SPICY
SAFFRON
Your plants will love you for it

CONTROL YOUR pH

WE DIG UP THE DIRT

on humic substances

EX

CLU

SIV

E

WHAT’S IN YOUR WATER

Take a vacation and let your greenhouse run itself!

You may be surprised!

WEI TER N

BLIN N N
O

G!! I E

contents
Automated Hydroponics System, p46

November / December 2009

Features
24 32 34
by Erik Biksa

Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron
by Dr. Lynette Morgan

CO2 Stability and Longevity Getting Ready to Garden Indoors
by Matt LeBannister

34

40 46 50 52 57 64

The Real Dirt on Humic Substances
by Ryan Zadow

Automated Hydroponics System for a Worry-Free Vacation
by Peter Jordan

Using Perlite in Hydroponic Culture
by Paul Lavakis

pH Control
by Bob Taylor

What’s in your Water?
by Charlotte Bradley

50 Departments
6 8 10 12 14 18
From the Editor MaximumYield.com Letters to the Editor Ask Erik MAX Facts Product Spotlight

Keep it Clean: Maintaining your Hydroponic System
by Grodan

58 67 68 70 74 74

Talking Shop Check Your Growing IQ Max Mart Distributors Do You Know? Coming up Next Issue

24

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

5

FROM the editor
With the holidays nearing, it’s time to stock up on nutrients and equipment to keep you growing indoors throughout the chilly winter. No doubt your local hydro shop will have some great deals in store. Bone up on what’s new by checking out this issue’s New Product Spotlight section and be sure to let the stores know you saw it first in Maximum Yield. We have put together a great line up of articles this issue with features on automation, humic substances, pH, CO2 and more to help you maximize your garden. Want to keep your system running clean? Curious about what’s in your water? Find out about these and enhance your gardening knowledge with our regular quick tips and max facts. Starting with this November/December issue we are proud to present a new feature on Canadian retailers called “Talking Shop”. Flip to page 58 where we showcase S & L Worx Hydroponics in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. East-coasters Loretta Josey and Scott Reteff, fond believers in hydroponics as an alternative to soil, share with us their passion for gardening. Watch for retail spotlights in every issue, and let us know of a retail shop that you would like to see featured by emailing editor@maximumyield.com Maximum Yield is excited to announce the E-News – one more way to keep you connected and in the know with the industry’s latest news, current events, tips, tricks, sneak peaks, exclusive contests and our special reader-submitted “Listen In” where your questions are answered by the most knowledgeable individuals in the field. Delivered to thousands of inboxes monthly the E-News is directed to modern growers like you. Be the first to get the news by subscribing to E-News today at www.maximumyield. com/newsletter.php Congratulations to all our Win Big! Grow Big! winners and a huge thank you to all of you that have entered so far. We welcome you to enter each draw for chances to win some of the best equipment and products in the industry. Who knows? You could be our next big winner. Enter online at maximumyield.com/winbig With the end of the year and the holiday season approaching, we would like to extend the warmest holiday wishes to you all, along with best wishes for a prosperous 2010. Jessica Raymond, Editor
editor@maximumyield.com

contributors
Peter Jordan graduated from the University of Waterloo in 1968
with a degree in Chemical Engineering. He began his career at Dupont Canada as a Management Scientist. Later, at Statistics Canada he designed the systems for processing Canada’s largest annual census. In 1983, he founded Microstar Software Ltd., a company that was listed on the TSE in 1993. After selling the company in 1999, he became involved with preserving groundwater resources and is now studying local aquifers using 3-D groundwater modeling software. He also develops automated hydroponics and weather-driven smart irrigation software.

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort. Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. A partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants, Lynette is involved in remote and on-site consultancy services for new and existing commercial greenhouse growers worldwide as well as research trials and product development for manufacturers of hydroponic products. Lynette authors five hydroponic technical books. Visit www.suntec.co.nz/consultants.htm and www.suntec.co.nz/books.htm for more information. Matt LeBannister works at Homegrown Hydroponics, the

Erik Biksa, leading expert in hydroponic technologies, holds a diploma in Agriculture with majors in fertilizer sciences and crop production. Erik’s earliest gardening experiences began when he started to walk, learning the secrets of time honored, old-world gardening practices from his grandfather. Erik has amassed over 18 years of indoor gardening experience and intensive research while pushing the boundaries of crop growth technologies. Since first appearing in Maximum Yield in 1999, the “Ask Erik” column and numerous articles have reached growers throughout the world. Ryan Zadow spent eight years as R&D/ Plant Scientist at Green Air Products before becoming the R&D manager for BioAg three years ago. He specializes in fertilizer and supplement formulation for hydroponic and soil applications and has served as a freelance consultant for small growers, including hydro organics, and developed organic products for large soil and soil-less farming systems throughout the Northwest. Ryan's specific interest is in the world of humic substances where he sees great potential for improved yield and product quality, healthier soils and sustainable systems.

manufacturer of the DNF line of premium nutrients and enhancement products. Matt manages the retail store at Homegrown’s head office in Toronto and as of late has been traveling the trade show circuit as their resident expert. Matt hopes to make a big splash in the indoor gardening industry through Homegrown and Maximum Yield.

Bob Taylor is the chief chemist of Flairform - an Australian based manufacturing company. Up until 1992, Bob was the principal chemist of the water resources section at Western Australia’s State Government Chemistry Centre, a government run consultancy service for all water related problems. Bob was an approved NATA signatory for a wide range of water analyses as well as an official registered analyst for the government’s chemical analysis monitoring program of all fertilizers registered in Western Australia.

6

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

on the web
Speed Read
1. Maximum Yield’s all-new E-News is available monthly. Featuring the industry’s latest news, tips and tricks for indoor growing and even a reader-inspired section “Listen In,” you don’t want to miss out on what E-News has to offer. Sign up at maximumyield.com/ newsletter.php 2. In his latest video, Sure To Grow’s chief grower Matt Geschke demonstrates how to assemble a mini DWC cloner. He is joined by Jeremy Borger. 3. As if you weren’t cold enough, Stephen Keen discusses the reasons you should add a water chiller to your grow room basics.

I N D O O R

G A R D E N I N G

VOLUME 12 – NUMBER 4 November/December 2009
Maximum Yield is published bi-monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above. The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor. Publication Agreement Number 40739092 PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson SALES DIRECTOR - Lisa Lambersek EDITOR - Jessica Raymond jessica@maximumyield.com ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - linda@maximumyield.com Lisa Lambersek - lisa@maximumyield.com Ilona Hawser - ilona@maximumyield.com Julie Madden - julie@maximumyield.com PRODUCTION & DESIGN ads@ads.maximumyield.com Pentti Tikkanen - pentti@maximumyield.com Alice Joe - alice@maximumyield.com Wes Cargill - wes@maximumyield.com

Sure To Grow’s Matt Geschke

“Experienced growers know that they achieve their best results when the crop starts strong with no interruptions or “hiccups” through the development of the plants, starting early in the propagation/rooting phase.” -Erik Biksa

ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres leeanne@maximumyield.com

CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS BWGS East BWGS West General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

STaY CONNeCTed
Join Maximum Yield on Facebook (facebook.com/MaximumYield) and participate in discussions with other readers on the topics that matter the most to you. Stay updated on upcoming Indoor Gardening Expos, post photos and be the first to hear about exclusive online reader contests.

LaTeST NeWS
•    hrough a non-profit organization known as  T AmpleHarvest.com, growers can locate food pantries in their community and share their excess bounty of produce with neighbours in need. •    he Maldive Islands recently vowed to become the first  T carbon-neutral nation by 2020 by using coconuts as fertilizer to capture carbon. •    he Quite Contrary Urban After School Farm educates  T children on growing and selling produce, recycling and other eco-friendly topics.
Tell us what you think at editor@maximumyield.com. We’d love to hear from you.

8

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

LETTERS to the editor
Fish Food
Hello and thank you for the great magazine! We live in the south of Quebec, and we have an organic farm. We are very interested in learning more about aquaponics. Please direct me to any helpful information. Hope to hear from you soon. Thank you Wes Chowaniec
Maximumyield.com is the resource you need, with 11+ years of articles on hydroponics, indoor gardening, aquaponics and more archived for you to reference. For a more in-depth look at aquaponics, check out Mike Nichol’s Aquaponics: Clean, Green and Organic by searching our author archive on maximumyield.com or flipping to page 50 in your September/October issue of Maximum Yield Canada.

Smiles all ‘round from Win Big! Grow Big! Winners
Thanks so much. I am really excited to win the ballast in your contest. I will continue to be a loyal reader of your magazine (the best in the business). Joe O’Neal Leesburg,VI. Not only am I one of the contest winners of a magazine I truly enjoy, but I’m on my way to the hospital – going to be a grandpa. My wife and I grew up in Nanaimo; it’s nice to know Nanaimo is also home to a quality magazine like Maximum Yield. Thank you once again. Len Harrison Penticton, B.C. I just wanted to say thank you for the Botanicare nutrients and coco blocks. It is nice to win something I will use. Steve Ball Klamath Falls, OR.

Maximum Yield’s E-News Keeps You Knowing and Growing all Month Long
Do you have a newsletter I can sign up for? Please advise. Thanks Bev Nguyen
Maximum Yield’s monthly e-News is now available, bringing you exclusive access to the latest information on the indoor gardening industry, new and original products and sneak peaks at what’s coming up on www.maximumyield.com and in Maximum Yield magazines. plus, timely event listings from your corner of the globe, article teasers, fun photos, tips and ideas to keep you knowing and growing all month long. Sign up to receive a copy of Maximum Yield’s e-News in your inbox monthly by following this link: http://maximumyield.com/newsletter.php

The Right to Search
I really wanted to search on your website, but found there was no such feature. Any chance you are planning on adding a search bar to your website? I love your work. Great job! Thanks Rod Maley
We are, in fact, developing an article-based search for the site to be released once a thorough testing process is completed. Our goal with maximumyield.com is to provide as much quality content and features to our online readers as we can but not at the expense of site usability or ease of navigation. Having said that, you may have noticed we recently introduced several new article navigation tools such as author lookup, additional articles by author and a library of complete back issues of all editions of Maximum Yield. Wes Cargill Web production Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity. We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: editor@maximumyield.com

Fresh Water
Do you have any articles or data on reverse osmosis for hydroponic growing? Thank you Donette Lamson
Richard Gellert has a great article: RO Logic – A Thinking Man’s Guide to Reverse Osmosis. This excellent feature is sure to provide you with the background and education that you are seeking on this topic. You can find RO Logic, published in the Nov/dec ’08 Canadian edition of MY, by visiting maximumyield.com and searching our author or article archive.
10 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

ASK erik

Do you have a question for Erik? Forward it to editor@maximumyield.com with the words “Ask Erik” in the subject line, and your answer will be printed in an upcoming edition.

Hey guys, I’ve got a quick technical question. I have a 250 MH bulb in a 60 by 90 centimetre grow space for romaine lettuce. If I got my math right, that’s about 42 watts per 30 centimetres. I know that lettuce needs less light than some crops, so is that amount of light too much, not enough or just right? I’ve got it about 60 centimetres above the lettuce. I was also wondering if you could recommend a good online indoor gardening forum for questions like these. There are a lot of them out there, and I would imagine that you know the good ones. Thanks a lot in advance. eric

Hello Eric, Thanks for the question.You might get some different answers depending on whom you ask. I’m not sure which gardening forum might be best but I would suggest hanging out at your local hydroponic shop. Growers may be able to achieve faster growth rates in traditionally lower light requirement crops such as lettuce by increasing the light intensity, particularly when supplementing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. However, the additional heat associated with higher light intensities must be managed, as lettuce is sensitive to excessive temperatures and “bolting” may occur. In popular literature, many light recommendations have been made assuming warmer temperatures come with higher light. Today’s grower may not have that same limitation. A light meter would be the best way to determine ideal lighting levels. Different light meters give readings in different units: from micromoles to micro-Einsteins, to lumens. There is much literature available to recommend ideal light levels as per light meter units specified. As mentioned, you may not encounter the same limitations, and choose to push the envelope a bit. If you see the edges of the leaves looking scorched, back off on the light and or temperature. As long as you can maintain growing temperatures of less than 21°C, the plants should be able to

make good use of higher light levels. At a guess, it sounds like you have it right.You might be able to put the lamp closer to the plants, just make sure it doesn’t get past 21°C at the canopy. Remember that watts per centimetre is only an accurate reference when everyone assumes the same distance from the lamp. For a 250 watt lamp, growers requiring high light intensities may have plants as close as eight to 30 centimetres away from the HID source. The MH lamps is an excellent choice, as the spectrum (blue light) may help keep the plants from bolting, even under higher light intensities. Cheers, Erik
MY

“Growers may be able to achieve faster growth rates in traditionally lower light requirement crops such as lettuce by increasing the light intensity.”

12

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

MAX facts

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

Green Engineering Utilizes Wind Power
Manufactured by Canadian innovators Evergreen Technologies, a new solar-wind energy pilot project will be launched at the Vancouver International Airport. The project involves the installation of a new hybrid lighting system that uses a wind turbine and a solar photovoltaic panel to power the lights for a pump station at YVR. It will be the first installation of its kind at an airport in Canada. The wind-solar generator will produce roughly 2,000 kilowatt hours of electricity annually, resulting in the reduction of 1.8 tons of greenhouse gases annually. The recently completed project took 18 months to plan and approve. YVR will reap the benefits of the light for many years as solar wind turbines last longer than conventional ones; approximately 15 years versus about three years for conventional lights.
(www.evergreentechnologies.com)

Backyard Fishing at VIU
A research team led by technician Anne McCarthy at the Vancouver Island University in Nanaimo, B.C. is  working on an innovative project that involves backyard fish farming. Anne, who has become a pioneer in the field of aquaponics, will be working with a team to create self-contained sustainable ecosystems capable of food production. The prototype at the school’s fisheries and aquaculture department uses tilapia and produces no waste, only fresh vegetables, fish that’s fit for human consumption and filtered water. Tilapa is used because it grows quickly, is a voracious eater and is extremely hardy. Researchers have also had success experimenting with rainbow trout, a species native to Canada that thrives in cold climates. The school’s system is the size of a small room, but it could be scaled up or down to work in various  settings, from suburban backyards to industrial fish farms. The system avoids the use of dangerous chemicals, something that can’t be said of conventional vegetable gardens.
(Source: www.cbc.ca)

Green Force Takes on Indoor Garden Challenge
The HGTV Green Force team, led by host Carson Arthur plans to convert Toronto’s “dead zone” into a place of green beauty. The space exists underneath one of Toronto’s  most prestigious hotels at the beginning of the Toronto PATH, and is utilized by  hundreds of commuters and local business employees daily. It’s an area that is screaming out for some usable indoor green space like an indoor garden. Carson will be joined by a team of designers to build the perfect outdoor garden, indoors. Carson will be showing viewers how to use indoor grow lights. Plans for the space include two indoor water features, tons of tropical plants and a series of fantastic seating areas for the public to use for eating lunch or to just sit back and enjoy the reclaimed space.
(Source: www.hgtv.ca)

Agrogreen Canada to Sponsor Winter Festival of Lights
This winter, Niagara Falls, Ontario will be host to the Winter Festival of Lights, a four-year strong enchanted, LED-lit forest sponsored by Agrogreen Canada, developers of environmentally-friendly growing products. The transformation involves a stunning palette of colours with three million sparkling tree lights and over 120 animated displays including the world famous Enchantment of Disney displays. The five kilometre route along the Niagara Park way is known as the Niagara Parks Winter Wonderland and will utilize mostly LED technology. The display  will run from November 7, 2009 to January 4, 2010.
(Source: www.agrogreencanada.com)

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

MAX facts

Hydroponic news, tips and trivia from around the world

Hormone Clue to Root Growth
An international group of biological scientists has uncovered new research on how the plant hormone, gibberellin, is crucial in controlling the growth of plant roots. Gibberellin controls how root cells elongate as roots grow; and for the first time scientists can describe how this hormone also regulates the number of cells in the root in order to control growth. The research shows that mutant plants that do not produce the hormone are unable to increase their cell production rate and the size of the root meristem, the zone of cell  proliferation. The research was an international initiative headed by Dr. Susan Ubeda-Tomás and  Professor Malcolm Bennett of the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, in collaboration with scientists in Nottingham, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Spain, Belgium and Sweden. This information will be necessary to address food security and produce better biofuels.
(www.sciencedaily.com)

Organic Plant Waste Effective Weed Control for Citrus Trees
With the recent interest in organic crop production, growers are facing new challenges, especially in the management and removal of invasive weeds. Synthetic mulches, manufactured from petroleum-based materials, have been used extensively for weed control, although they cause increased runoff. Natural and sustainable weed control alternatives that have shown to be of great help to Egyptian organic citrus fruit trees are sweeping the market. These natural options have been proven effective in weed suppression moisture conservation and improved water infiltration. A recent study found that the greatest control of weeds occurred with plastic mulch and three mulch layers of rice, straw or cattail. Their effectiveness in controlling weeds may increase their use in agriculture systems with a concomitant decrease in the need for synthetic herbicides. Further studies are being done to evaluate their side effects on beneficial organisms, diseases and insects.
(Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

Sun Pulse Lamps “Plant a Tree” Program
Sun Pulse Lamps, makers of the only digital HID ntAtree lamps for certified electronic ballasts, arranges pla to plant a tree for every lamp sold. The “Plant a Tree” program involves the planting of special carbon sequestering trees to help in the fight for me against global warming. To make light is to make heat and CO2; one kilowatt per hour = 1.5 times the CO2. By planting a tree, Sun Pulse helps offset the carbon footprint produced by the lamp.
(Source: www.sunpulselamps.com)

PEACE - Available in Garden Centres across Canada
Technaflora Plant Products Ltd. has just released it’s newly designed PEACE poster. The PEACE poster showcases our products in a retro, groovy way. With the combination of bright colours and a funky design, the PEACE poster looks great and is being given away at your local grow shop. Peace Man!
(Source: www.technaflora.com)

Evolution not a One-Way Street Research Proves
Scientists have identified a key gene that was transferred from a Sicilian plant into a close relative. The researchers unravelled the history of an Italian interloper, a close relative of the common weed Groundsel that was first discovered 300 years ago. This region of DNA modifies the flowers, making the weed more attractive to pollinators. The results demonstrate how natural genetic exchanges can allow important traits to be transferred between species. This goes against the typical view of evolution as a one-way street in which each species evolves as a separate, independent genetic lineage. Hybridization between closely related forms may allow evolutionary cross-talk in which  valuable genes can be exchanged and preserved. The result is greater flexibility and potential for diversity during evolution.
(Source: www.sciencedaily.com)

MY

16

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

PRODUCT spotlight

ask for these exciting new products at your favourite indoor gardening store.

Atmosphere Launches the New mid-sized V-Series
The new V-14XL, part of the Vortex Powerfans V-Series line is a 35 centimetre inline fan equipped with a mixed flow impeller allowing more air volume than any other comparable impeller design. The V-14XL delivers 2905 CFM at 1500 RPM. Similar to the 30 and 40 centimetre V-Series, this new size will  deliver high performance and quiet operations. Furthermore, the heavy gauge steel casing with the hammertone powder coat finish makes it more sound absorbing and rust-proof. As with all of the Vortex Powerfans, the V-14XL allows easy duct hook-up with the extended collar and lip. Visit your local indoor gardening retail store.

Brite-Lite launches MO’KOKO Premium Select Coco Substrate
Brite-Lite Group is pleased to introduce our new line of premium, RHP certified coco substrates. MO’KOKO carries the RHP stamp, the Dutch Standard of Quality for horticulture. RHP certification  guarantees that quality has been stringently monitored from raw materials to production and storage, satisfying that the highest chemical and physical requirements have been met. Available in pre-washed and buffered 4.5 kilogram compressed blocks or loose and ready-touse 50 litre bags, homogeneous, stable, pest-free and easily recyclable. MO’KOKO is an excellent alternative for the environmentally conscious grower. For more information contact your local hydroponics retailer.

Oakton TDS Testr Low
The new economical Oakton conductivity and TDS pocket meters feature a large, ergonomically designed display so that you can easily view measurements at a glance. Waterproof and dustproof housing is designed for use in dirty and damp field conditions. Convenient, built-in belt/pocket clip keeps the tester accessible when not in use. Stainless steel electrodes are both rugged and chemical resistant, for use in a wide variety of applications. Single-point electronic calibration means you are ready to measure quickly and easily. Additional features include auto shut-off to prolong battery life, hold function to lock in a measured value and self-diagnostic error messages. The TDS models also have a self-adjusting TDS factor from 0.40 to 1.0. Four 1.5 volt button cell batteries included. •  The non-replaceable sensor keeps the price down. •  It is great for educational or field-use purposes. •  It has an easy-to-read display. •  Four models to choose from depending on your parameter and range requirements. Contact your hydroponics sales representative for more information.

Plug’N’Grow’s New iGS-221
Only one controller manages all of your indoor garden’s climate parameters! The improved iGS-220* combines precision and simplicity: •    imultaneously controls temperature, relative humidity and CO2 S concentration. •    ntelligently manage up to six actions: generating CO2, venting, I humidifying, dehumidifying, heating and cooling. •    eady to use; no programming required, just adjust your set points! R •    rioritize actions according to a logical sequence. P •    void contradictory actions (e.g. cooling and heating). A •    assle-free three year warranty H •    even days a week of free technical support. S * iGS-220 easy update also offered. Visit a hydroponics retailer to learn more.
18 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Grodan Introduces Big Mama™
You asked and we listened; the big mama of all blocks is now here! Big Mama™ is the largest block ever produced by Grodan. It is 20 cubic centimetres and contains well over twice the amount of wool as the popular Hugo block. This block is big enough to grow a large plant for its entire life - even a mother plant! When your plant outgrows its current block, just place it on top of Big Mama. Due to the height of this block we recommend top watering methods. Big Mama is solid wool and does not have a pre-cut hole thus making it suitable to hold any size smaller block  on top (even a Hugo). At Grodan we take your suggestions seriously. Visit your local grow shop to learn more.

Bare Bones Baby Bloomer is Just Right
Comfortably situated between full-scale hydroponic systems and entry-level soilless gardening kits, the Bare Bones Baby Bloomer is a surprisingly effective option that will satisfy the needs of serious indoor gardeners without intimidating those who are just getting their feet wet. It's comprised of basic, well-made hydroponics system components: a tray, a reservoir and the appropriate fittings. This simplicity allows gardeners to make their setup as basic or complex as they're comfortable with, and its compact 78 by 35 by 30 centimetres total size allows  them to grow with a bona fide hydroponic system that doesn't take up a large amount of space. Available now at indoor gardening retail stores.

C.A.P. proudly introduces their New Everlastics Flood Tables
Everlastics Flood Tables feature a superior plastic design at a much lower price. Everlastics Flood Tables will work perfectly with your existing HydroHut and GrandStand. Available in 10 by 20 centimetres and 10 by 10 centimetres, black or white, these flood tables are made of environmentally friendly recycled plastic. Everlastics Flood Tables have no grooves on top of the media holding ribs, which allows for much easier cleaning! Contact your retail distributor for more information.

Power Pack
Power Pack is a powerful additive to boost your flower and plant’s feeding program. Power Pack will generate greener leaves and healthier plants and is nutrient-rich in micro-elements. Power Pack can be used frequently as a foliar spray or in the tank, during both growth and flowering stages. Power Pack reduces yellowing when cuttings are rooting. It can also be used on mature plants to reduce yellowing on lower leaves during flowering stages. •    nique liquid micro nutrient formulation (EDTA) u •    uper concentrated s •    tronger stems, roots and greener leaves s To learn more visit your nearest indoor gardening or hydroponics retail store.

The Hammer
Future Harvest’s PlantLife Products division introduces The Hammer. The Hammer stops vertical growth and makes your plants sturdy, lush and compact with strong stems and short intervals between nodes. This product is food grade approved and is safe for human consumption. Made in Canada by growers for growers. Ask for The Hammer at your nearest indoor gardening retail store.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

19

PRODUCT spotlight

ask for these exciting new products at your favourite indoor gardening store.

The Missing Link – Oxy-Gen Generator Now Available from Greenstar
The Oxy-Gen generator outperforms previous methods of aeration, due to increased levels of saturation. Oxy-Gen offers: •    ore sunlight – supplement with HID lighting m •    ood – formulated high-quality nutrients f •    O2 – injection of CO2 gas, CO2 generators C •    limate control – ventilation fans, air conditioners, humidifiers, de-humidifiers, heaters c •    ater – filters, RO units w Plants breathe oxygen through their roots. As the water warms, oxygen levels decrease, making oxygen supplementation necessary. The Oxy-Gen alleviates this problem by raising oxygen levels. The results – healthier water, increased oxygen levels, increased fertilizer uptake,  faster growing and larger producing plants. This is all accomplished with one or less amps of electricity, in nutrient tanks up to 1818 litres. For more complete information about this innovative new technology, please contact your local indoor gardening store.

Titan Beefs up your Blooms
Optimum Hydroponix® is happy to report the arrival of Titan 0-10-7. Titan is a natural power pack loaded with botanical hormones, extracts and minerals to boost and steer the maturation process. Titan targets plant energy directly to buds cultivating fruit that thrives and phenomenal flowers. Indulge plants with Titan’s divine energy that empowers flowers to their absolute potential. Use Titan with your favourite  fertilizer or plant nutrition program  during the final three weeks of flowering prior to harvest. Titan is a product of Holland, bottled in Canada by Optimum Hydroponix®. Available from retail distributors of Optimum Hydroponix® in the following formats: 500 millilitres, one litre and four litres. For more information call your nearest hydroponics retail store.

Zyme Now Available from Green Planet Wholesale
Zyme is a comprehensive enzyme formulation  specifically designed to break down and redistribute organic components such as dead and diseased roots. Zyme assists the roots through its unique enzyme profile by uptaking  and assimilating necessary minerals, vitamins and other bio-stimulants. Because Zyme is designed to break down specific organic particles, it is an essential component for customers interested in reusing their growing medium. Customer feedback suggests increased yields from reused mediums treated with Zyme. Zyme helps achieve a root zone that is healthy and active; therefore, no garden should  be without it. •    ry formulation for maximum performance and potency d •    ry formulation so you don’t have to waste money on water d •    roven to be the most effective enzyme on the market today p •    xtremely concentrated e •   ndefinite shelf life i Available in 25 caps, 100 caps and 250 caps. For more information on Zyme visit your local hydroponics retailer.

SteadyGRO Introduces New Sheet Media
SteadyGRO has introduced a new line of sheet media for the indoor grower market. SteadyGRO soilless media was developed specifically for the grower industry. The media is sterile and inert, and its composition allows for more oxygen to seedlings and roots for faster starts and ultimately healthier plants. SteadyGRO’s unique structure eliminates algae growth along the surface of the media. SteadyGRO sheet media comes in two types; SteadyGRO which is a low water retention media, and SteadyGRO H+, a high water retention media. SteadyGRO sheet media comes in packs of two and 20, and also is available in 276, 162, 104 and 50 cell formats. SteadyGRO sheet media packaging has been engineered for easy and damage-free removal of the individual sheets. For more information on SteadyGRO sheets and the entire SteadyGro line, visit your local indoor gardening retailer.

20

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

PRODUCT spotlight

ask for these exciting new products at your favourite indoor gardening store.

Eco-Root New from Green Planet Wholesale
Eco-Root Dip Gel contains 16 mycorrhizal fungi to build a natural microbial system in and around  plant roots to enhance growth and vigour. Specially formulated amendments and a starch based gel for improved water store and uptake. Store in a cool, dry area. Not to be used with chlorinated water or hydrogen peroxide. •   ncreases water and nutrient storage and uptake i •    romotes extensive root system and soil structure p •    ill outperform any other rooting compound on the market w •    afe for food crops s •    o harmful chemicals (OMRI listed) n •    ve year shelf life fi Available in five grams, 12.5 grams, and 25 grams. For more information on Eco-Root visit a hydroponics retailer near you.

Nature’s Solution Compost Tea
Nature’s Solution Compost Tea is filled with beneficial aerobic microbes and is now available after four years of extensive research. Our organically approved compost tea comes in a "breathable" patent-pending package that keeps these organisms alive and active in an oxygen-rich environment with a one year shelf life. There is a wide range of species and diversity of micro-organisms in our compost tea - beneficial bacteria, fungi, protozoa  and beneficial nematodes. These organisms are necessary to transform all organic nutrients into a plant available form and provide plant protection on leaf surfaces and out compete pathogens in the soil. Other manufacturers have isolated only a few species which are cultured and put in a spore form and are not active, but asleep. No chemicals are added. The pH is not lowered. The tea needs no refrigeration. It is not a put-to-sleep tea. Available now from your local grow shop.

Merlin-Garden Pro goes Green
Hydro-Logic is pleased to offer the new Eco Green Drain Elbow for the Merlin-Garden Pro. This green elbow replaces the existing black drain elbow and saves 25 per cent of the drain water. By forcing more untreated water through the RO membranes, less water goes to waste out the drain line. Recommended only for those with less than 250 PPM in their untreated tap water. Any PPM reading above 250 may result in having to change the membranes more often as they are working harder removing contaminants. Others that may consider using these green elbows are those on metered wells or those wanting to conserve their water usage. This is a custom manufactured product offered exclusively by Hydro-Logic Purification Systems. Continue producing the purest water for your plants and family and help the environment by saving precious water. Ask you local retailer for more information. Pure water’s not magic. It’s logic.

iGS-016 - Plug’N’Grow’s New Multi-Timer
The iGS-016 is perfect for all types of indoor gardens, providing better control for lighting and irrigation and greater protection for plants and equipment. •    ight and dark cycle from 0 to 72 hours. L •    o timing calculation required from the user. N •    rogrammable repetitive cycles up to 72 hours. P •    djustable activation delay. A •    utomatic cooling fan activation at lamps’ ignition. A •    djustable ventilation shut off delay after lamps turn off. A •    djustable lights recovery delay when a power failure occurs (five to 30 minutes). A •    utomatic lamp shut-off when garden is overheated. A •    ighting system failure alarm. L •    ual pump strategy to activate an emergency pump in case the main one is damaged. D •    umps and lights deactivation when nutrient solution is too low. P Also benefit from our hassle free three year warranty and our free technical support seven days a week. Visit a hydroponics retailer to learn more.
22 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Grodan Introduces the Uni-Slab
The Uni-Slab combines all of the benefits of our traditional slabs with the versatility of a block. With a size  of 24 centimetres long by 20 centimetres wide by 10 centimetres high, the Uni-Slab has great stability for  any size plant. The Uni-Slab is completely wrapped thus keeping all the roots of your plant safely contained  within the slab, protected from light and outside contaminants. Yet it’s small enough to be manoeuvrable, allowing your plants to be spaced as the plant canopy requires. Due to its height, the Uni-Slab is suitable  for both top drip and flood systems. Visit your local grow shop to learn more.

Add the Divine Goodness of Grape to Your Garden
Boost fruit flavour and aroma while you increase yields with Botanicare Sweet, now available in a formulation that allows you to add the delicious taste of grapes to whatever you grow! When used during the vegetative stage, its combination of carbohydrates, organic acids and vitamins aid plants in making an easy transition to the flowering stage. Continue using it through the fruiting stage to see your plants keep the correct balance between photosynthesis and respiration, leading to sturdy stem growth to support a multitude of flowers and fruit! Ask for Botanicare Sweet Grape at your local grow shop.

FHD Bucket System
Its back and its better! Future Harvest is excited to bring to market our new and improved bucket system. Our new bucket system has a large 60 litre reservoir, and new shorter bucket stands that require less room for height. The new system allows for drainage to be hooked up below or to the side of the buckets. Comes complete with everything you need to get growing. Ask for the FHD Bucket System at your local hydro shop.

Continued on page 66

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

23

STRANDS OF GOLD
Growing Saffron
by Dr. Lynette Morgan
Saffron – a delicate, exotic and expensive spice from far away lands? Not necessarily so. Saffron spice consists of the dark red-gold, dried stigma of the saffron corm flower and has traditionally been grown outdoors on a commercial scale in countries such as Spain, India and Iran where the climate is warm and dry and labour cheap for the time consuming process of harvesting. However, saffron is not difficult to grow indoors and these days saffron bulbs are readily obtainable at the right time of year for those who want to grow some of their own exotic spice. While saffron bulbs may take up little space, their yield is somewhat low – it takes around two pounds of fresh flowers to give 2.5 ounces of red stigmas, which when dried results in a yield of 0.4 ounces of usable spice. Each saffron corm usually produces between one and three flowers in a season so yields per 0.3 metre squared are perhaps one of the lowest of any hydroponic plant. On the other hand, most recipes only require a few strands of dried saffron, so production from this size of growing space is usually sufficient for most gourmets.

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Flowers and foliage bursting forth from a recently planted saffron corm.

What is saffron? There are many imitations and cheap substitutes for saffron on the culinary market. Some of these consist of counterfeit strands while others are just colour substitutes of cheaper spices such as turmeric. Saffron, although having a long shelf life, is best used within a year of drying and it is difficult to tell if product many years old is being sold as top quality spice. Nothing equals the intense colour and subtle flavour of true saffron and some even claim that there are slight flavour variations between saffron grown in different regions of the world. Saffron is the world’s highest priced spice and is often sold by the gram or half gram of the best quality product. As with most crops, it is likely that the growing conditions, soil type, nutrition, temperatures, plant health and harvesting, handling and drying practices play a major role in the final quality and flavour of this spice. Hydroponic production where we have control over basic nutrition and supplements and indoors where temperature, light and the growing environment can be manipulated, give the potential for some extremely high quality saffron to be grown.

"Saffron is the world’s highest priced spice."

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

25

Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron

Each brilliant purple flower will produce two to three strands of saffron.

The saffron plant The saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L) grows from a small rounded corm (similar to a bulb). The corms are purchased while dormant, and planted out in late summer or early fall when they rapidly burst into life with the production of small crocus flowers. This exotic spice is made from the dried red-gold stigma which forms inside the blue/purple flower. Each flower produces on average three stigmas which give three strands of saffron. After flowering, the plant resumes vegetative growth of thin, dark green strap like leaves and then multiplies itself with the production of many small daughter corms. Nowadays saffron corms are sold by various seed suppliers and nurseries in small quantities for home gardeners to purchase. When buying corms for the first time, it is important to realize that like many flowering bulbs, the corms come in size grades from very small (0.6 grams) which would be a non flowering type requiring an additional season’s growth, to very large (24 grams). The smaller corms are usually less expensive, but they may not produce flowers in the first season or produce a much lower yield of saffron and a lower number of daughter corms after flowering. The best planting grade for hydroponics is around 15 grams which is usually over 2.5 centimetres in diameter. The corms arrive dry in a dormant state ready for planting out.
26 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron
Indoor Saffron Indoors, there are two ways of running a saffron system – the dormant corms can be purchased, planted, flowered, harvested and the corms discarded, all over a six week period. Or after the short flowering period, the bulbs can be grown on, producing vegetation and new daughter cormlets over a period of many months, until they become dormant in mid summer. The first system means the corms are planted at a high density since they won’t be grown on and multiplied. This sort of bulb ‘forcing’ could also be carried out in solution culture systems such as those used for tulips and other flowering bulbs where the corm is supported with its base in water. The second system needs more space for the plants to fully develop and many months of caring for the corms after they flower, although the reward is a supply of new corms which could be sold or given away to others and a higher yield of flowers in the next year. Tying up your hydroponic system with vegetative saffron for nine to 10 months, however, may not be attractive to those with limited space, although trays of saffron plants are cold hardly and can be put outside for winter and spring if necessary.
Saffron can be grown in the smallest of spaces and even just a pot of corms will give a good harvest.

Corms can be stored in a dry place and planted out when the hydroponic system is ready. The spacing should be approximately 10 to 12 centimetres apart and 10 to 12 centimetres deep, in a tray of free draining, sterile growing media such as coconut fibre with some perlite mixed in. The media needs to support the plants, but at the same time be friable enough for the young corms to form without deformities so any substrate used for baby root crops would be suitable. The flowers will have already been initiated in the corms and flowering will occur when moisture is provided and temperatures start to drop. Flowering is triggered by environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture which is easily manipulated in a hydroponic grow room. The ideal conditions during flowering are 16 hour day length with day temperatures of 16°C and night temperatures of 12°C. An indoor grow room or greenhouse situation means the flowers are protected from rain, moisture, wind and the lack of weeds makes harvesting of high quality flowers much easier. The Grow Room After flowering the foliage grows best at 15 to 18°C, with 12 to 14 hours of light to keep enough photosynthesis going to bulk up the developing cormlets. Saffron typically flowers in autumn over a short period, then produces a number of strap-like leaves which grow through winter, spring and into summer, providing food reserves for the corm and developing new cormlets. After flowering and harvest in autumn, foliage will develop quite rapidly and during this time, a standard vegetative nutrient should be given to the plants as required. Recommended EC
28 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

levels are 1.2 – 1.4 during this stage. Leaf growth will continue until summer when the young corms start to rapidly develop around the mother corm. In their natural environment, the saffron plants’ foliage dies back in mid to late summer, after the young corms have matured and as conditions become very warm and dry. The corms then go into a dormancy period which is essential for initiating the next season’s flowers which will bloom in the cooler, moist conditions of fall. In hydroponics we can easily replicate this by drying the media back after the cormlets have formed and the foliage has died down. Having a dig around one of the plants will soon reveal if the corms are ready for harvest and dormancy. The tray of saffron corms, once fully dried, can be harvested and stored away in a dry, dark place until they need to be planted out for flower production. This is a time consuming process as the saffron plant needs many months (nine to 10) after flowering, until harvest of the new corms with only one harvest of flowers per year obtained. However, each mother corm, after flowering will produce a number (four to 10 or more) young cormlets that can be used to produce more flowers and greater harvests of saffron spice in the following season.

"The tray of saffron corms, once fully dried, can be harvested and stored away in a dry, dark place until they need to be planted out for flower production."

Flowering and Harvesting Flowering of the corms will typically occur quite quickly after planting; within a few weeks the first emerging flower buds should be seen. The flowers will fully open within three to five days and be ready for harvest. As each flower blooms, it should be plucked or snipped from the plant and taken away for processing. Inside the flower there will be two or three thinner dark red coloured stigmas which form the saffron spice when dried; there will also be three, shorter, wider, golden coloured anthers which usually have pollen on their surface – these are not part of the spice and should be discarded. The easiest way of removing the saffron stigmas from the centre of the flower, is to pull back and remove all the petals and then snip the red strands at the base. These will then need to be dried before storage. Saffron is very delicate and the strands should be placed

Saffron flowers may develop before, after or at the same time as foliage develops from the corm.

Harvested strands of saffron, ready for drying.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

29

Strands of Gold: Growing Saffron
on white paper and allowed to air dry and fully desiccate. Any slight breeze will blow the strands away and home dehydrators are not well suited to this. Being small and very light, the saffron will dry within a week in most cases and can then be stored in air tight glass jars. A small package of silicon desiccant can be used to make sure any additional moisture on the strands or in the air does not cause any

Long, thin strap like leaves are formed after the saffron corm has finished flowering.

"Saffron is very delicate and the strands should be placed on white paper and allowed to air dry and fully desiccate."

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

storage problems. Insufficiently dried saffron can go mouldy, so additional air drying time is recommended if humidity levels are high. While it has become possible for home gardeners to grow a container or pot with a few saffron bulbs outdoors, often just for the novelty of seeing the flowers, there has not been a great deal of research into hydroponic or aeroponic production of this spice. It is likely that the best system will be similar to the hydroponic production of forced tulips and other bulbs with the actual flowering phase being carried out indoors or under protection to give the highest possible blooms, while the plants are propagated and bulbs grown outdoors through until dormancy. Outdoor producers are restricted to one crop of saffron per season, however, with an indoor grow room, the environment can easily be manipulated to give the dry warmth of summer to initiate flowering followed by cooler, damper conditions to induce flowering whenever it is required. MY

References The Growth of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Aeroponics and Hydroponics’ Fredric V Souret and P J Weathers. Published in: Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, Volume 7, Issue 3, 2000. ISBN 1049-6475 Supplies of saffron corms: http://www.nicholsgardennursery.com/ http://www.whiteflowerfarm.com/ http://www.richters.com/

A variety of spicy saffron recipes are available at maximumyield.com under “Online Extras” .

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

31

by erik Biksa

The question on the table today is, does CO2 go “stale”? Most substances, and molecules for that matter, are in a constant state of flux and are changing states, or the way they are formed on an atomic level. Arguably carbon may be one of the most stable molecules we have, and it’s a very important one. However, carbon dioxide is not just carbon; it is CO2 so there are two oxygen molecules attached, and oxygen can be relatively reactive. O2 as a compound offers a little more stability than something like O3, which is ozone. The extra oxygen molecule wants to leave the arrangement, as O2 is more stable. In most indoor growing situations, the CO2 in the growing atmosphere gets used up astonishingly quickly when plants are healthy and productive, and also depend on the stage the plants are at in the cropping cycle. This is why it makes good
32

sense to enrich the environment with a supplemental source of clean carbon dioxide if ventilation through outside air exchange is not constant during the lights on cycle. Ensuring that CO2 levels remain higher than ambient through various stages in the cropping cycle can increase yields by as much as 30 per cent and often reduce the overall amount of cropping time required, because plants produce at accelerated rates. In most situations, it seems that the most likely scenario is that the additional levels of CO2 will get used up faster than they may be able to degrade. However, it’s doubtful that any carbon dioxide enrichment system is 100 per cent efficient, meaning that other less desirable compounds may be introduced as gases BE cArEfuL wiTh cO2 BurNErS If used in an environment without a source of fresh air, harmful when delivering elevated gases, such as ethylene and carbon, may be introduced when carbon dioxide levels to using gas-fired CO2 generators. crops. For example trace

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

amounts of ethylene and carbon monoxide may be introduced using gas-fired CO2 generators. Since the plants do not want to use or absorb these gaseous compounds, they may build up to harmful levels in a tightly sealed growing environment; becoming toxic to plants. Also, for gas fired burners (CO2 generators) to work efficiently, they require a source of fresh air for the combustion process. Savvy operators of CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture) or sealed grow set-ups allow for a slight “bleed” of the air to occur. For example, to ensure a very healthy growing atmosphere, a proportionately small, passive fresh air access is created and is “capped” off with a HEPA intake filter, as featured in some of my articles. With a carbon scrubber (activated carbon filter with fan) cycling constantly within the area, it will pull a small amount of fresh air into the grow room through the small passive HEPA intake. Excess air will

A hEPA fiLTEr cAN cLEAN ThE Air Passive, fresh air can be introduced to the grow set-up by using a HEPA intake filter. When combined with a fan that cycles air through the environment, the filter will help to remove any contaminants and provide a healthy growing atmosphere.

the air to bleed out. The volume of fresh air being introduced is cleaned through the HEPA filter and does not introduce contaminants, just enough fresh air to help displace stale air or gases that can accumulate to toxic levels. Imagine a full glass of water that has a few drops added every minute; the volume of liquid will slowly be exchanged over time, keeping it MY fresh and palatable.

“leak” out of the growing environment through any tiny cracks, etc. Remember it’s almost impossible to 100 per cent seal a room, so there are some cracks for

for additional articles about cEA visit maximumyield.com

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

33

by Matt LeBannister

to Garden Indoors
As gardening is such a fun and rewarding experience, it is no wonder an increasing number of gardeners are making the move indoors. Who wouldn’t want to extend their growing season to last the entire year? Indoor gardening can be a very relaxing and gratifying experience if prepared for properly. In preparation for the indoor growing season, there is a simple checklist that one can follow. This straightforward advice can help every gardener avoid common problems and ensure success in their garden.

GettInG Ready

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

The first thing one must do when getting the grow room ready for the indoor season is to decide on a suitable grow space. Choose a place where it will be easy to maintain a constant temperature and humidity. In a home, the basement is usually the best place for a garden since it is consistent in temperature and humidity. In an apartment, a closet or spare bedroom will work but you may find it more difficult to keep the temperature and humidity within the ideal range of 18°C to 26°C. Once a suitable grow space has been chosen, every nook and cranny should be cleaned. Cleanliness is next to godliness, so if you want to be god of the grow room you must keep up maintenance. Using a viruscide/fungicide or a solution of nine parts water to one part bleach will ensure that your grow space starts off as healthy and clean as possible. This process should be repeated before every crop rotation. Once the grow space has been emptied and cleaned, it is a good idea to make use of reflective materials such as Mylar. Painting the walls a flat white will increase the amount of light that the plants receive anywhere from one per cent to 10 per cent. By using reflective materials, not only is light efficiency increased, the surface can be easily cleaned and/or replaced whenever necessary. Having these materials on the walls of the grow room can help prevent moulds and mildews from growing on their surface. This saves the average grower time, trouble and money as it is next to impossible to remove moulds and mildews once they have penetrated wood or drywall. Moulds and mildews can also be very hazardous to anyone who inhales

A growing chamber that utilizes reflective materials, as above, increases light efficiency and is easy to clean.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

35

Getting Ready to Garden Indoors
Once the proper light number and arrangement is determined for size of the grow area, it is time to check the dates on your bulbs. The purchase date of the bulbs should be etched on the base of the bulbs to protect manufacturer warranties. This will give you a good reference point as to how long the bulb has been in use. HID light bulbs should be replaced often. The general rule of thumb is to replace bulbs after six to 12 months of use. The best way to determine whether your bulbs need replacing is to use a light meter. Even though bulbs can burn much longer than the recommended usage, it is wise to replace them frequently for many reasons. Our eyes might not notice the gradual decline of lumen intensity but the plants surely will. The plants will also notice the gradual shift in spectrum. Plants grown under older bulbs that have been used longer than 12 months will Reflective material in the grow room can also help prevent insects from nesting into nooks and stretch in search of light and become spindly crannies. when they were once squat and bushy. Flowering plants without the light intensity they require will increasingly provide smaller theirs spores. Preventing such occurrences can be valuable to yields with poorer quality flowers and fruits. your health and the health of your plants. Once you have ensured that your bulbs are of the highest Reflective materials that are used on indoor garden walls quality, it is time to fire them up in your ballast and make sure are flat and smooth. If placed over walls properly with all they work. Even though the light and ballasts are being tested edges sealed, these materials can help prevent insects such as prior to the indoor growing season, it is highly recommended to spidermites from finding the nooks and crannies to hide in. have backup ballasts and bulbs just in case of failure. A burnt out Getting rid of spidermites can be quite difficult without these capacitor or a burnt out light can spell disaster for a crop if it reflective materials to keep them out. cannot be replaced quickly enough. The best test for the ballast If you choose to paint the walls white instead of using a is to screw in a bulb and turn it on for a couple hours. If the reflective material then another preventative treatment would be wise. The best preventative treatment is to purchase a residual ballast gets hot enough to burn or start a fire, chances are it is too old and dangerous and needs replacing. insecticide that can be sprayed in the room and along the edges Also check the bulbs for defects. If the bulb is flickering, dim of the room and windows. Such a product should last 180 days or so and will keep pests out by ridding your grow room of all the hiding places those destructive insects love. Now that our indoor grow space is clean and small cracks have been filled you can move on to checking your equipment. First, refer to the size of your grow space and consider which lights would be adequate for the area. A 1,000 watt light will cover a 1.5 by 1.5 metre space or a 1.5 by 3.5 metre space if light rails are being used.

“The general rule of thumb is to replace bulbs after six to 12 months of use.”

Proper air circulation is very important in indoor gardens, as it helps prevent moulds and mildews from penetrating wood or drywall.

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

or not staying in the proper spectrum, (i.e. changing from red to blue), then there is a good chance that either the bulbs or the ballast may need replacing. It is recommended that both the bulbs and the ballasts be brought into your local indoor gardening store to be looked over by an expert. This same process should be repeated with every piece of equipment in the grow room. Whether it is fans, pump or lights, it doesn’t hurt to test it too be sure of its performance before plants are introduced to the room. The same should be done for nutrient. Take a look at your current supply and take note of anything that you have run out of as well as anything that is running low. Also take a close look at the nutrient. Is there a lot of sediment at the bottom? Has the colour or consistency changed? If you purchase quality nutrients this should not be a problem but if you see these symptoms, your best bet is to replace the nutrient. If an organic nutrient is being used, keep in mind that they tend to smell. However, bad smell is not an indicator of an organic nutrient going bad. A good indicator that the organic nutrient needs replacing is mould growing on the surface. To prevent spoiling, place your favourite organic nutrient in the fridge after it has been opened. Once you have gone through this simple, easy to follow checklist, the guesswork will be taken out of garden. Following this advice will consistently lead to healthy, happier gardens that produce superior crops. All that is left to do is to decide on what plants you want to grow. MY
A flickering or dim bulb could be a sign of a faulty ballast and should be inspected at your local grow shop.

“Whether it is fans, pumps or lights, it doesn’t hurt to test all materials to be sure of their performance before plants are introduced to the room.”

Go to maximumyield.com where you will find a quick checklist for getting your spare grow room ready.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

37

by ryan Zadow

The Real DiRT On

Humic Substances
Humic substances (HS) are the least understood component of soil, yet one of the most important materials found in a healthy balanced soil system. While much has been discovered over the last 40 years, scientists who have experience working with HS realize that the more we know the more there is to learn about these versatile materials. Over the past 15 years hydroponic growers have also proven that soluble carbon, in particular humic substances, are a limiting factor in aqueous based cultures and soilless media. Today most gardeners are familiar with HS on some level and have seen the benefits, yet many are still scratching their heads when it comes to understanding the labelling. The focus of this article is not to readdress the qualities and benefits of HS. Instead it is to explore the confusion surrounding analysis, registration issues and misconceptions about humic and fulvic products in general. Currently, there is considerable buzz about humic and fulvic
40 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Humic Substan

acid, which is no surprise to people who have experience using a high quality product. But confusion due to product labelling has many people questioning the humic substance industry. The way a product is described, guaranteed and marketed is largely governed by state agricultural regulatory departments. Unfortunately, there is no “standardized” analytical method for quantification, and accepted labelling practices often vary greatly from state to state and province to province in Canada. For example, in California and Oregon the term fulvic acid is not allowed to be used on any product label. Instead these state agencies consider fulvic and humic acid the same substance and require that only humic acid be used on labels. This creates analytical challenges and mass confusion for those products that are fulvic isolates, having no measurable humic acid in them. This might help to explain why some products will guarantee a product as 0.01 per cent and others may be claiming eight

Photo courtesy of Mesa Verde Resources. Humic substances start out as raw ore; they are insoluble and hard to break down. The way a product is made soluble can indirectly influence the testing method used to guarantee it.

per cent. To help sort these issues out further we will review some of the commonly used, commercially available analytical methods as well as their advantages and disadvantages. First, to better understand the focus of this article we must define HS and the fractions thereof. For the sake of this article we will use definitions without too many details:
Organic matter - All the non-living material of biological origin in a soil system. These are found in various stages of decay. Humus - Stable portions of organic matter that are well “rotted” but not yet having gone through the humification process. Humic substances (HS) - This is a broad heading that encompasses all fractions of the total material and can be defined as organic matter that is very stable; has been through the humification process; and is more resistant to microbial degradation. They are the end result of microbial degradation of once living organic material. Also often referred to as humate even though this is a bit of a misnomer. Humic acids - The fraction of HS only made soluble under alkaline (high pH) conditions and which is insoluble in dilute acid environments. They have a high molecular weight and are brown to black in colour. Fulvic acids - The fraction of HS that is soluble in water under all pH conditions. They remain in solution after removal of humic acid by acidification. Fulvic acids are golden to yellow-orange in colour. Humin - The fraction of humic substances that is not soluble in water at any pH value. Humins are black in colour. Humate and fulvate - The salts of humic and fulvic acid respectively. When HS are extracted using chemical reagents this salt forms are created.

figure 1:

Humic Substances
(pigmented polymers)

Fulvic acid Light yellow Yellow brown

Humic acid Dark brown Grey black

Humin Black

nces

2 000 45% 48% 1400

increase in intensity of color increase in degree polymerization increase in molecular weight increase in carbon content decrease in oxygen content decrease in exchange acidity decrease in degree of solubility

300 000? 62% 30% 500

Chemical properties of Humic substances. (Stevenson 1982)

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

41

The Real Dirt on Humic Substances
figure 2:

OH HOOC

COOH

CH2OH CH2 CH CH3 CH C CH2 COOH O CHOH CH2 COOH CH2 C O

HOOC COOH OH

Model structure of fulvic acid. (by Buffle)

Now that we have established that size dictates certain desirable properties and that there is a direct correlation between colour and size, it would make sense to quantify both or either of these two fractions when labelling a commercially available product. In some instances a soil grower may want a higher humic content and be looking to improve soil characteristics or feed microbes; in other instances a hydroponic grower may prefer just the fulvic fraction for the biological benefits or as a foliar spray. Compounding these regulatory issues is the fact that there are several analytical methods being used and/or accepted by different states and in Canada. These can produce results that vary widely. To better understand how this occurs we must review the methods of commonly used analytical tests. The following are testing methods are universal. Colourimetric In this test the humic acid is exposed to light and the measurement comes from a reading of how much light is

A Closer Look We can gain more insight from the following diagrams. Figure one shows how molecular weight can be directly related to the colour of an extraction or product. Molecular weight is correlated to the size of a molecule. The higher the molecular weight the larger the molecule’s structure is. While some may find this a tedious detail, it is an important fact because humic acids are actually too large to be absorbed into a plant’s roots or leaves, while fulvic acid is small enough to be easily assimilated. This is why humic acids are more closely associated with soil conditioning properties and feeding soil microbes. This is in contrast to the smaller fulvic acid, which is better for increasing nutrient efficiency and uptake, lateral root growth, building plant immunity and also stimulating microbes. Figure two provides us a “flavour” of what a fulvic acid molecule is like. It is important to note that HS are analogous to snow flakes because they are mixtures of similar types of molecules but not all are alike. This is due to the fact that they were created from a variety of different plants and other once living things. Figure three is a proposed humic acid molecule. These diagrams make it easier to envision the idea of molecular size and how it influences humic and fulvic’s functions in plant and soil systems.

Humic sources vary widely. Here a layer of raw ore is protected by six metres of sandstone preventing the fulvic fraction from rinsing away. Photo courtesy of Mesa Verde Resources.

figure 3:

COOH

COOH O

HO = O HO COOH R CH N O O O O H O (HC-OH)4 HC = O O (sugar) O O H O OH COOH

HO

OH

OH

CH CH2 CH N

O O OH

COOH

NH O R CH C = O (peptide) NH

Model structure of humic acid. (Stevenson 1982)

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

“Knowing the percentages of the humic acid as well as fulvic acid is an advantage, considering that structure and physical characteristics determines their role.”

absorbed by the sample. This value is compared to the value of a sample that is purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Advantages: Quick and easy making it possible to run many samples through the machine. This makes it cost effective for commercial use, which has led it to be the most widely used test. A&L labs use a slight modification of this method, which is widely used by many manufacturers. Disadvantages: Gives total humic and fulvic but does not give individual values for each (aka the total alkali extractables). The Sigma-Aldrich sample (standard) used comes from a unique deposit in Germany that can be substantially different in composition as compared to some of the materials it is being used to test against. (This information was obtained through personal communication with Sigma-Aldrich). Currently there is work being done to improve this method.

Please note the following three methods measure the target materials by drying and weighing the material for the respective fraction.

CDFA Known as the California method as it was developed by their state department of agriculture. This method separates the humic and the fulvic. It then discards the fulvic solution and measure all the remaining material, which includes the inorganic ash in with the humic.

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43

The Real Dirt on Humic Substances

Humic substances can be formed from a variety of starting materials and environmental conditions, resulting in varying structures.

Advantages: This is the only method that the California and Oregon departments of agriculture will accept when registering a product. Disadvantages: Only the humic is measured while the fulvic is thrown away, and no purification steps are performed to remove the ash giving way to inaccuracies in the measurement. USGS/IHSS (aka the classical method) This method is used and endorsed by both the United States Geological Service and the International Humic Substance Society. This method separates and measures both the humic and fulvic fractions while also going through rigorous purification steps to remove all insolubles, salt reagents and other materials that are not humic or fulvic. Advantages: Quantifies both humic and fulvic with their individual values in their purified state. Highly accurate. Disadvantages: More time consuming and costly test. (This is the method that produces per cent for fulvic in the typical range of 0.01-0.02 per cent) Verploegh and Brandvold (aka V&B method) Named for the duo of scientists who introduced the test that is based on the classical method. This is the same as the classical test except that it goes through almost no purification steps. Advantages: Measures both humic and fulvic. Quick and easy test to perform. Removes insoluble matter. Disadvantages: Does not go through purification of the chemical reagents used to separate the humic and fulvic acids. This results in massive inaccuracies of the fulvic measurement because the majority of the reagents are present in solution with the fulvic fraction along with any amino acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. (This is the method that produces per cent for fulvic in the typical range of six to eight per cent). No matter what method is used the fact remains that until a single test is made standard and used by all registration agencies the confusion will continue through the marketplace. It is clear that knowing the percentages of the humic acid as well as fulvic acid is an advantage, considering that structure and physical characteristics determines their role. The most useful analytical method is one that allows people to see the unadulterated percentages of both the humic and fulvic acid contents of a
44 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

particular product. Please keep in mind that although having the concentration of these fractions is helpful, it is only one parameter that helps us understand/judge the quality of a raw material or product. Because these substances can be formed from many varying starting materials and environmental conditions the structures produced will also vary. This is not taken into account with just a number. Other factors such as how a deposit is formed over time and how the humic and fulvic are extracted will also have a large influence on material or product viability. MY
REFERENCES California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA). 1999. Humic acid method. Hayes, M. H. B. and C. L. Graham. 2000. Procedures for the isolation and fractionation ofhumic substances. In: E. A. Ghabbour and G. Davies (eds.), Humic Substances: VersatileComponents of Plants, Soils and Water. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. p106. Mehlich, A. 1984. Photometric determination of humic matter in soils, a proposed method.Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 15(12):1417-1422. Stevenson, F. J. 1982. Humus Chemistry. Genesis, Composition, Reactions. John Wiley andSons, New York. 443 p. Schnitzer, M. 1982. Organic matter characterization. pp. 581-594. In  (A. L. Page, R. H.Miller and D. R. Keeny, eds.) Methods of Soil analysis Part 2. Chemical and MicrobiologicalProperties. American Society of Agronomy No. 9 Part 2. Figures used are from: http://karnet.up.wroc.pl/~weber/kwasy2.htm Weber, Jerzy http://www.ihss.gatech.edu/isolation.html http://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/SWC_Comp_Organic/usgs2.html

for updated information on humic registration visit maximumyield.com

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

45

Automated
Hydroponics System
for a
by Peter Jordan

Worry-Free Vacation
Winter in Ottawa, Ontario can reach -30°C. For avid gardeners, hydroponics provides a welcome respite from the winter cold, as does a short vacation in a warm climate. To be able to do both would be utopia and I thought with today’s technology, there must be a way. An additional bonus would be to supply a second hobby, cooking, with fresh vegetables and herbs. To achieve the degree of independence I wanted from day-today maintenance of my hydroponics system, I needed to: •    ccommodate different nutrient mixes for different species  A at different stages of growth. •    ave flexible programmable timers for lights, pumps and  H fans. •  Have control over temperature and humidity. •  Use off-the-shelf hardware and plumbing components. •  Have comprehensive reports of system activities. •    ave e-mail notification of system activities, especially  H problem situations. I decided to develop software for a control program, as there was none available with sufficient bells and whistles. The program evolved over a year or so and has now reached a stable state. Of course, enhancements are always being added. It’s the nature of engineering. System Overview The system has four building blocks: •    ersonal computer, software and USB enabled digital/analog  p interface
46 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

The tray contains three – 25 centimetre pots with 50/50 vermiculite/perlite. A delay can be set to provide air in roots to be refreshed.

•  reservoir and nutrient pumping units •   ighting for seedlings and the main grow area l •  fans, a humidifier and a heater •  grow units I developed two programs. The first, a Nutrient Optimization Module (NOM), calculates an optimal nutrient mixing strategy for up to three stages of growth for a mix of species. Research suggested macro- and micro-nutrient strengths could vary considerably with species and growth stage. I gathered all the data I could on nutrient requirements for common species on the Internet. I then obtained nutrient constituent concentrations for various suppliers of one, two and three part

formulas. A mathematical model in the NOM determines the optimal mixing strategy for the System Control Program (SCP) to administer.

Main: The main system status screen shows two of four active timers, the first of which is the HID light controlled by the stage of growth.

The SCP is the workhorse. It manages the nutrient mixing for up to four separate species groups and controls the grow room environment. The initial set-up included: tomatoes and peppers, chives, nasturtium and dill; basil and parsley, and sage; thyme and savoury. This provided an opportunity to have the system take the tomatoes and peppers through growth, flower and final stages while maintaining the rest in growth only. The number of days for each growth stage was set and the nutrient mix calculated by the NOM was entered into the SCP. Timers are an integral part of a hydroponics system. Photoperiods for each stage of growth can be preset. HID lights are automatically synchronized to the preset period and can be turned on/off at specific times or be tied to sunrise/ sunset. Seedlings are started in a small customized ebb and flow unit. A timer controls the T5 light period and a second controls the intermittent flood cycles.

grodan half

Option Nutrients, top: On this dialog, the nutrient manufacturer is selected, pump quantity and assignments are made and tank capacities are set. Timer, above: The timer dialog is used to set up start, stop and intermittent cycles. Here, the ebb and flow pump for seedlings will have 21 hour period with four evenly spaced on/off cycles.

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47

Automated Hydroponics System for a Worry-Free Vacation
Elements, left: This dialog shows the mixes added to lettuce, the concentrate of which was calculated with an estimate of the pH and EC based on previous measurements in the options nutrient dialog. Graph, below: Graphs are available for a wide range of parameters. Temperature for a four day period is shown here. Schedule, bottom: Each channel can have up to three growth stages specified. For each stage, the nutrient strength is provided along with the associated photoperiod.

Choosing a growing medium and containers was a challenge. The first configuration consisted of four – 40 by nine by four inch trays. A cover for each tray was made with spaces for three – 10 inch pots. The pots were fitted with root guard in the bottom and filled with 50/50 perlite/vermiculite. In the bottom of the pot, a circle of porous tubing allows air to be pumped into the root zone. When full, the pots sit in nutrient about four centimetres above the bottom. Maintaining nutrient levels and concentration is the function of the nutrient mixing unit. The amount of nutrient required to maintain four centimetres above the bottom of the pots is approximately two litres. When the level drops below the pot bottom, a time can be preset to allow full drainage

and aeration of the roots in the pot before refilling the tray. When this time has passed, the reservoir pump fills a mixing chamber with two litres of basic nutrient. The basic nutrient formula is the minimum amount of each of the three parts required for all four channels. The flora micro component was a constant for all channels. Once the mixing vessel signals full to the SCP, two peristaltic pumps add any required makeup of grow and bloom. A solenoid opens and allows the mix to flow to the appropriate channel by gravity. Since the first run,

I have used other grow units and will, no doubt, try other types. Deep Water Culture for lettuce and other leafy veggies works very well. Future tests will be made with aeroponics and Ein-Gedi, a derivative of aeroponics that recirculates nutrient in a misty spray. No system is complete without reports and data gathering for later analysis. Graphs of temperature, humidity and nutrient usage are available. A log of all events associated with mixing, timers, and pumping can be viewed. The main screen provides a summary of current float, pump and solenoid states; grow room environment; and nutrient tank levels. For each refill, the concentration of macro and micro-nutrient constituents is calculated. Results The 10 days of warmth during my holiday away from the Canadian winter was very welcome and no e-mails were received. The holiday was most relaxing knowing my hydroponics system was self-maintaining. Mixing the nutrients in small batches representing about 50 per cent of the total volume in the trays virtually eliminated the need to constantly deal with pH and TDS issues. All plants grew admirably.

MY

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Using Perlite in Hydroponic Culture
by Paul Lavakis

“Perlite has produced cops that are seven per cent healthier and more abundant than crops grown in other hydroponic mediums.” There are many different growing and propagating mediums used in hydroponic culture, and everyone has their personal favourites for a myriad of reasons. Rockwool traditionally has been a popular choice for a growing medium, but recently, perlite has been receiving more and more attention. Perlite is very versatile and has been used successfully in nearly every horticultural application imaginable, from landscaping and stadium turf to greenhouses. In hydroponic gardening, perlite has shown great promise. It has produced crops that are seven per cent healthier and more abundant than hydroponic goods grown in other mediums. One reason perlite works so well in hydroponics is because it is an ideal medium for retaining moisture. Because hydroponic growers must supply their plants will all of the nutrients soil would normally provide via their water supply, maintaining the proper levels of moisture is the absolute key factor in the success of hydroponic plants. Perlite has a strong system of capillaries that attract water at the same rate that water is removed by plants. Because the water attraction and removal rate is the same, the guesswork is taken out of maintaining the correct moisture
50 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

level in plants. Under watering and over watering are both consistent problems that face hydroponic growers, and perlite effectively solves this problem. Any excess water added by the grower simply stays in the reservoir, and the grower can easily determine if they have under watered their plants if the reservoir begins to run dry. In this way, perlite helps cut down on wasted crops, as it minimizes the chance of growing sickly plants. Another attraction of perlite to the hydroponic culture is that it is extremely physically stable. While experimenting with growing hydroponic tomatoes, gardeners discovered that perlite growth mediums can be reused year after year. Because effective hydroponic growth medium can be expensive, and in some cases, even cost prohibitive, the ability to use perlite for more than one growth cycle is extremely significant. It can make hydroponic growing an option for people whom previously could not afford it. Perlite growth medium is an extremely forgiving substance with which to work and very easy to manage. One complication

that often faces hydroponic growers working in greenhouse environments is correctly grading the floor for optimum plant growth. With perlite, this floor grading becomes unnecessary. Perlite will take root and grow with any floor grading. One common criticism of hydroponic gardening is that the nutrient solutions and growth mediums are very expensive; making hydroponics an impossible solution for many of the people it is touted to help – people who live in impoverished areas without viable soil in which to grow food. The ability to use perlite for more than one growth seasons, coupled with perlite’s efficient delivery of water to plants goes a long way to solving this problem. Perlite’s effective use of water also helps end the waste associated with damaged crops and unused water. In this way, perlite makes the already environmentally friendly growth technique of hydroponic growing even more environmentally sound.

Perlite is easy to use for small scale or hobbyist hydroponic gardeners, and because it is so forgiving and easy to handle, it is a great growth medium for beginning hydroponic growers. It is also just as effective and useful growth medium for hydroponic growers who are producing plants for commercial sale. With its ease of use and wide array of applications, experts expect perlite to become the hydroponic medium of choice in the near future. MY

About the Author Paul Lavakis is an avid gardener and since discovering hydroponics has been a experimenting and evaluating the best ways to grow almost any fruit or vegetable without soil. For more information please visit www.AmazingHydroponicSecrets.com

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

51

pH Control
by Bob Taylor, Chief Chemist of Flairform

This article explains how to keep the pH of nutrient solutions between 5.0 and 6.5. This helps make sure all nutrients are available for root up-take, and minimizes the risk of plumbing blockages.

Optimum pH for nutrient solutions For nutrients to remain dissolved and, therefore, available for uptake by roots, it is critical to maintain the pH between 5.0 and 6.0 - with an absolute maximum of 6.5 (figure one). High pH values, or those above 6.0, are to be avoided more than low values of 4.5 – 5.0. The effect of low pH upon the stability of nutrients is relatively insignificant. The precise pH at which precipitation of macro-nutrients starts is determined by the combined concentrations of calcium and sulphate. Except for fertilizers low in calcium and sulphate this problem commonly occurs at pH 6.5 where the net* EC is 2.5 mS, or pH 7.0 for 1.5 mS solutions. Hence, to avoid precipitation, higher nutrient concentrations generally must be held at lower pH values. *Assume make-up water has nil EC. In spite of this precipitation problem, some references advocate pH values well above 6.5 for some plant varieties - conditions which risk depleted concentrations of the above mentioned elements. This is incorrectly justified by quoting the chart in figure two as proof.

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

When to adjust pH The working nutrient pH should be checked at the following times: 1. When working nutrient solutions are first made. 2. After the addition of top-up water or additives - especially if they are highly alkaline. 3. In re-circulating systems, pH should be checked on a daily basis because the uptake of water and nutrients causes pH to change (figure three). It is best to adopt a pH maintenance regime that prevents pH from getting too high. If pH is too high for a long enough period of time, the resultant precipitate usually cannot be redissolved (figure one). How to minimize pH fluctuation 1. Use a nutrient brand that is highly pH buffered, particularly when using highly alkaline water. 2. Supply at least 10 litres of nutrient for each large plant. Failure to do this will magnify pH (and EC) fluctuations, especially during hot and dry weather where water uptake and evaporation are excessive. Note, to avoid excess water uptake and evaporation; keep air temperature below 30°C and relative humidity above 50 per cent. How to adjust pH Step 1. Measure the pH: Use either a liquid pH indicator or an electronic pH meter (see sections below). Before measuring the pH, ensure that the nutrient is well stirred and that the sampling container is clean. Step 2. Choosing a target pH: Note that it is inconvenient and unnecessary to hold pH at a single point value. Therefore, choose a target pH that minimizes the amount of pH maintenance: •   f your pH tends to continuously rise (the most common  I trend), then at each adjustment reduce the pH to about 5.0 using a pH down product. This will give you a much larger pH "safety" margin than if adjusting to, for example, 5.8. •   f pH tends to continuously fall, at each adjustment increase  I the pH to about 6.0 using a pH up product. Step 3. Adjusting the pH: Add a small amount of pH down or up product*. Then stir well and check pH. Repeat this process until the target pH is achieved. *Important: Pre-dilute the dose into one litre (or at least 100 fold) of water before adding to nutrient, then rapidly stir the nutrient as you add this mixture. Failure to do this may cause

figure one: This is what can happen to a working nutrient solution when pH is above 7.0: Calcium, sulphate (and the trace elements copper, iron, manganese and zinc) can precepitate and become unavailable to the roots, and cause plumbing blockages. This freshly made ‘bloom’ nutrient solution (EC 2.5mS) was at pH 7.5 for less than one hour. To help prevent this, use a nturient that possesses a high ph buffering capacity.

permanent precipitation of essential nutrients. Also, if accidental overdosing to above 6.5 occurs, reduce the pH back to below 6.0 as quickly as possible using pH down. Handy hints for adjusting nutrient pH 1. Add “high pH” (alkaline) additives before adding nutrient: Most additives will affect nutrient pH at least slightly. The best technique to adopt with those that elevate pH significantly is to add them to the water and adjust the pH down to 6.0 prior to adding the nutrient. The less preferred but simplest alternative is to pre-dilute the additive in a separate volume of raw water. Then once this solution is added to the nutrient solution, quickly lower the

figure two: This chart is often used to justify pH’s above 6.5 as being suitable for hydroponics. However, note that this data is based on soil culture.

Copyright © 2006 www.flairform.com

pH recommendation of 6.2 - 6.3? Although this is a popular recommendation, it has no scientific basis. It appears to have gained mythological status from the early days of hydroponics when the only cheap means of measuring pH was the common ‘bromothymol blue’ pH indicator used for testing fish tank water. Interestingly, the lowest pH value able to be determined by that indicator is about 6.2. Hence, this value has unfortunately become an entrenched recommendation in some sections of the hydroponic industry.

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53

pH Control
pH to below 6.5. Note that a white cloudy precipitate (calcium sulphate) may form when the pre-diluted additive initially merges with the nutrient solution (figure four ‘a’). However, because the initial particle size of the precipitate is small, it will usually re-dissolve if the pH is immediately re-adjusted. 2. Do not pre-adjust pH of raw water: Note that the pH values being discussed here are the values of the working nutrient solution - not your make-up water. Unless your make-up water has a high alkalinity, do not bother attempting to adjust its pH prior to the nutrient being added. If you attempt this procedure you will typically get wild pH swings either side of the pH target without ever landing on the target value. 3. Estimating the volume of acid (especially for larger systems): Step 1. Take a one litre sub-sample (or known volume) of working nutrient. Step 2. Add a few drops of pH indicator (figure five ‘a’). Step 3. While stirring this solution, measure the volume of acid required to turn this solution yellow – figure five ‘b’ (Yellow indicates a pH of 6.0 with most broad range liquid indicators). Step 4. Multiply the volume of acid* by the volume of nutrient in your reservoir. That calculation will give you the volume of acid required to adjust the entire volume down to pH 6.0, for example.
Total volume of nutrient ÷ Volume of sub-sample x volume of acid

figure three: Simplified illustration of how nutrient uptake effects pH of the nutrient solution.

*If this volume is very small (most likely if a highly concentrated acid is used), to ensure accuracy you will require the use of a finely graded pipette. A better method is to allocate a portion of acid specifically for conducting this calculation and dilute it by a known amount - for example 10-fold. Ensure to compensate for this dilution when calculating how much of the concentrated acid to add to the reservoir. Measuring pH with 'indicators' pH indicators are undoubtedly the simplest and most reliable method of measuring nutrient pH. Although they will not distinguish between, for example, a pH of 5.2 and 5.3, wide range indicators with good colour resolution can be: • fast and user friendly • extremely accurate and reliable • economical In comparison, pH meters require constant up-keep (i.e. cleaning, calibrating and correct storage), but even then may not give reliable readings. pH indicators work on the principle that the colour produced by the particular dye used in the indicator formulation is dependant on the pH of the solution (figure six). Experience shows if you are aiming to adjust pH to 5.5 (orange) then an accuracy of +/- 0.2 is achievable. Because of their fundamental accuracy, reliability and easy of use, wide range pH indicators are the preferred method for measurement of pH in nutrient solutions. Note that pool and aquarium pH indicators are usually not suitable because unlike broad range indicators, they do not operate below pH 6.
Copyright © 2006 www.flairform.com

figure four: This is what can happen when an undiluted high pH additive is added to the working nutrient solution (left). Unless pH is quickly corrected to below 6.0-6.5 the precipitate will remain (right).

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

pH Control

figure five: pH indicator’s are useful for determining how much acid needs to be added to the nutrient reservoir.

Taking pH readings Step 1. Before measuring the pH ensure that the nutrient is well stirred, especially after pH up or down products are used. This is one of the most common mistakes made when testing pH (or conductivity). Also, ensure that the sampling container is clean. Step 2. Using the sampling vial, remove a small sample of nutrient from the nutrient reservoir, add a drop of the indicator, mix, and then compare the final solution colour with those on the coloured reference chart (figure six). Step 3. If the pH is not between 5.0 and 6.5, adjust it immediately. Measuring pH with pH meters pH meters employing a glass electrode are useful for precise pH measurement in nutrient solutions but require frequent

figure six: This is the colour range produced by a wide range pH indicator within the optimum pH range 5.0 to 6.5. Note the ease with which pH change can be detected.

calibration, proper storage and handling to ensure accuracy and reliability. The principle on which such meters operate is based on the fact that when glass of a certain composition separates two aqueous solutions having different hydrogen ion concentrations, a voltage is developed between the two faces of the glass. The electronic meter itself is simply a very sensitive voltmeter which measures that voltage but is calibrated in terms of pH units instead of volts. Obtaining pH readings Step 1. Make sure the meter is calibrated. Step 2. Remove a ‘representative’ sample from the nutrient reservoir (figure seven): • Stir the nutrient thoroughly prior to sampling. • Ensure the sampling container is clean. Step 3. Rinse electrode in distilled water before immersing in the sample. Wait a few minutes** before switching the meter on and recording the pH. ** Wait longer if the sample’s temperature is significantly different from 25oC. Step 4. If the pH is not between 5.0 and 6.5, adjust it immediately. Step 5. When complete, rinse the electrode with distilled water. Store the electrode in a proper storage solution when not in use.

figure seven: Thoroughly stir nutrient reservoir before sampling. Then leave the electrode in the sample for a few minutes before switching the metre on and taking the measurement. Do not immerse the electrode deeper than ~20mm.

MY
56 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Copyright © 2006 www.flairform.com

What’s in your water?
by Charlotte Bradley
Water is the fuel that makes the hydroponic garden’s engine run. However, just like gas, not all water is the same. In urban centers, the water is treated and you can usually find out its mineral composition by making a quick call to your local utility company. In rural areas, our water composition varies over short distances.You may have soft or hard water in your area, while just a few miles away, the water may have sulfur in it. In order to ensure a healthy garden, you need to know your water. If you are doing a small system, distilled water can make your life easy as it is labeled and chances are there are no changes required. If you use your own water, be careful of the composition. Many people use an all in one nutrient mix where all you do is add to water. If, however, you already have minerals in abundance, you may be overfeeding the plant one or more minerals which can be harmful. Some possible solutions: • Treat the water (not always easy or cost effective). •    ake your own nutrient mix by adding only the nutrients deficient in the water.  M (Recommended for larger gardens, commercial set-ups and advanced hobbyists). •  Use distilled water (simple and cheap in most places). •  Use city water (let it sit for a few days as chlorine can be a problem otherwise). MY

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57

TALKING SHOP

AT A GLANCE
Company: S&L Worx Hydroponics Owners: Loretta Josey & Scott Reteff Location: 135 Main Street, Dartmouth NS Toll Free: 877-220-GROW (4769) Email: slworx@eastlink.ca Motto: “A happy customer is a repeat customer.”

Owners of S&L Worx Hydroponics, Loretta Josey and Scott Reteff, decided on the store name because of the closeness they share and the constant committment to each other’s businesses.

It all started In a tIny communIty In nova scotIa called marInette, located on the coast of the North Atlantic. As a child, Loretta Josey always felt like she lived in the middle of nowhere; and truly she did as there was approximately nine miles between her house and the nearest store. Loretta was surrounded by 360 degrees of the great outdoors, day in and day out. Entertainment for her and her three brothers was limited merely by their imaginations with nature as the backdrop for all play time activities. Her main source of amusement consisted of the Josey family’s annual summer garden. The plot was huge and together with her mother Rose, an avid green thumb, the two worked side by side producing home grown fruits, vegetables, berries and herbs in every flavour that a tongue could taste. Loretta’s childhood home was forever filled with beautiful, colourful plants. “We’re keeping our air pure,” Loretta’s mom would continually remind her. Every summer, Loretta would watch as her parents transformed a large section of their yard into a sea of vegetables. Many hours were spent in the garden with them and that is where her passion for gardening blossomed. As she grew and eventually left home, her passion remained and she carried on the tradition of planting her own garden year after year.
58 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

“As a child, Loretta and her mother worked side by side producing homegrown fruits, vegetables, berries and herbs from the family’s summer garden.”

Brady and Rose Josey were the inspiration behind Loretta’s passion for all things gardening.

“It helped me feel closer to my home and parents when many miles separated us,” Loretta said. In 1997, Loretta returned to Nova Scotia where she worked in the tourism industry. Following a decade of service, she left to become a fleet manager in the automotive field. Nova Scotia weather doesn’t always favour the outdoor growing of vegetables. Loretta found it a constant challenge to

get the most out of the time Mother Nature provided; so, she turned to hydroponic growing. “After all,” she thought, “why struggle with the outdoor climates and only have the pleasure of growing for short periods throughout the year when one can grow indoors all year long.” Loretta’s partner Scott Reteff, owner of a local contracting business, always had an interest in hydroponic growing. When a prime business location in the heart of Dartmouth fell into Scott’s lap, he called Loretta immediately to come see it. At first Loretta was shocked to find only a concrete shell with no walls. However, Scott was able to see the potential, and soon so did she. The couple spent the next nine months renovating. Loretta’s fleet position ended in August 2008 due to a struggling local economy and it was at this point she decided to take a long, hard look at her life. “I decided I was going to do something that would make me happy where I felt that I was making a difference,” Loretta said. Scott and Loretta did lots of research, spoke with several hydroponic storeowners, assessed the local market and soon, the decision was made to open a hydroponics retail store. January

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59

S&L carries a wide range of products, the suppliers of which played an integral role in the success of the store.

17, 2009 the doors of S & L Worx Hydroponics Inc. were opened to the public for the first time. The earliest challenge Loretta faced with the store was placing that first order. With a small budget and an overwhelming amount of quality products available, choosing a well-rounded product selection for the store opener was tough. Loretta continued her research of the industry and even visited other local shops in the area to get answers to all of her questions. The suppliers she chose proved to be invaluable as they were extremely patient and helpful. “I owe them all many thanks,” Loretta said. “The suppliers I have used have always gone above and beyond.” Unlike Western Canada, there are only a handful of hydroponic stores in the Dartmouth area. With the increasing interest in hydroponics in the area, Loretta was confident with her decision to open the store. She took out a few advertisements in the local paper, erected a lit sign a month before opening and started telling everyone she knew. “I love the look of amazement on people’s faces when you lift up the plant and show them the mass amounts of roots extending from the pot.” Maximum Yield was a great place to get exposure as well. “Advertising with Maximum Yield means your store name is announced across the globe to the people who are interested in knowing you are open for business.” Loretta’s vision for the store was a place that everyone felt comfortable coming to. In an effort to make it more inviting, she set up several hydroponic systems that operate in-store. “I love the look of amazement on people’s faces when you lift up the plant and show them the mass amounts of roots extending from the pot.” Hydroponic growing is a difficult concept for people to grasp, and simply must be seen to be believed. Loretta has sold several systems by demonstrating the amazing growth that is possible with hydroponics.
60 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

“People think you need a green thumb to grow but you don’t. You just have to be willing to learn, and understand that you will make mistakes.”

Demonstrating working, hydroponic growing systems allows customers a glimpse at real-life applications.

Earlier this year, Loretta held a booth at the Ideal Home Show in Halifax. She set up several demonstrative systems on-site and the response was overwhelming.Visitors expressed concern about where their food comes from and several were interested in learning how to grow their own food at home. “I think this is what makes S & L unique from some of the other stores I have visited; we teach people about hydroponics as an alternative to soil and it’s never as complicated as they initially think.” Growing your own means knowing what is in your food and being able to experience the wonderful feeling of doing it yourself. “Imagine walking down the hall to that spare room you used as a storage space forever, and picking off some fresh tomatoes, a few herbs, maybe some peppers, and adding them to your special recipe. Wouldn’t that impress your dinner guests? The fact is, it can be done and it’s not that difficult.” S & L carries several lines of nutrients and with a grow room located right in-store, Loretta has had the opportunity to experiment with nutrients, lighting and CO2. She also keeps a log of the changes in the plants. “I have always been a hands-on type of person as I think things stick in your mind easier that way,” Loretta said. “It also helps you understand the physical changes when you can see them for yourself.” Loretta is continuing her education and will soon have her Master Gardener Certification. She avidly reads every issue of Maximum Yield and customers are invited to drop by and get the latest copies directly from S & L Worx Hydroponics. “There is so much information available in this publication and the best part is that it’s free.” Loretta has been in customer service positions for most of her life and has received several awards for her work along the way. Her motto is ‘A happy customer is a repeat customer.’ “One of the best parts of owning this type of business is the customers; I enjoy spending time with them, providing education and helping them get set-up for the first time,” Loretta said.
Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009 61

TALKING SHOP
The experienced growers that visit the store are a wealth of knowledge, constantly sharing their stories; and with each visit, through their experiences, Loretta’s knowledge grows. “Finally, I don’t feel like I’m going to a job; I feel like I’m going to my second home.” Loretta has found the challenge a continuous learning process, of which she has loved every minute. And, she owes that love to her parents who taught her about nature and gardening. Rose Josey was a natural green thumb; it took some convincing to get her husband Brady to join her in the garden, but once she did, he was hooked. When Loretta and Scott visit on sunny days, they are rarely surprised to find them working away in the garden. People think you need a green thumb to grow but you don’t.You just have to be willing to learn, and understand that you will make mistakes. From the gardens of Marinette to all of your gardens, we hope people will come grow with us! Loretta wishes to extend a special thank you to Bryan Whyte at Homegrown Hydroponics, Bill McGowan and Jennifer at Greenstar and Eric Coulombe at Biofloral. As well, a thank you goes out to her Mom and Dad for giving her the best start and to Scott for all his wonderful patience and support. MY “I have always been a hands-on type of person... you understand the physical changes when you see them for yourself.”

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

KeepitClean:
Always cut off dead leaves and remove them from the grow room. Decaying organic matter attracts fungus gnats.You should also remove diseased plants, so the infection does not spread. Clean the plant box well with a 10 per cent bleach solution before putting it back in the grow room. When you change water in your stock tank, wash the tank well with a 10 per cent bleach solution. If you use big trays for your blocks and slabs consider washing these too, especially if you have had a problem with root rot. Drippers If you use a drip system buy a few extra drippers, so you can change them if any are clogged up. Have a bucket with vinegar in your grow room and throw the clogged drippers in, so they will be clean and ready to use next time you need to change a dripper.

by Grodan

MaintainingyourHydroponicSystem

Ebb/flood systems We recommend that you spend an extra couple of dollars and get a timer that can be set at five minute intervals, so a full cycle will only soak the stonewool for 10 minutes. To avoid salt built up we suggest that you top water your plants once per week. Also be sure to have a tray with deep enough grooves so that water drains away from the cubes/slabs.

EC and pH The EC level (nutrient concentration) varies depending on the plant stage or how fast your plant is growing. Soil/peat has a buffer and not all you put in is available to the plant.

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

One to two hours before planting, don’t forget to saturate the stonewool with pH 5.5 water. Never go below pH 5.0 or the stonewool may be damaged! Below pH 5.0 and higher than pH 7.0 the plant cannot readily take up nutrient. Immediately before planting flush the stonewool with your nutrient solution. Drain to waste! And then put the stonewool product in your system. Once the plant starts growing the pH in the tank and in the medium will go up. It is a natural response - it means your plant is growing! Stock tank solution We recommend that you completely change the solution once a week.Yes, you can top up the tank and adjust EC/pH, but your solution may be out of vital micro-nutrients or be infected with pythium (root rot). If your stock tank contains ready to use (diluted) nutrient solution, please use phosphoric acid (or lemon juice) as pH down. If you have a fertilizer injector connected to a tank with concentrated solution, it is better to use sulphuric acid as pH down.

A common problem - calcium deficit If the youngest leaves are curled downward, more than likely it indicates a calcium deficiency. If old leaves are curled; something is probably wrong in the root zone (which also reduces the calcium uptake). Calcium deficiency is the result of insufficient water movement through the plant. Remember, calcium only travels in the water stream of the plant, not in the nutrient stream. Therefore, calcium Calcium deficiency in leaves. deficiency is usually (90 per cent of the time) related to the climate in the growing area. High humidity will prevent calcium uptake even if there is sufficient calcium in the feed solution. Also, large day/night fluctuations in humidity will disrupt the calcium flow within the plant and lead to blossom-end rot (BER). Another cause of BER or obvious calcium deficiency in the leaves is poor root development. This is a result of low substrate temperatures or the presence of a root pathogen such as pythium or phytophthora. Calcium is taken up by the area of the root immediately behind the root-tip. If the Calcium deficiency in fruit. roots are not actively growing, new root tips will not be formed and consequently, calcium uptake will be reduced. Check the plant! Make a habit of taking a close look at your plants every day. Do they look perky? Look for leaf colour, leaf shape and bugs and then update your journal. If you catch a problem early it MY can be fixed!

Learn from yourself Consider keeping a journal that lists the EC, pH, temperature, CO2 and light level each day. This way you can learn from your own mistakes and successes. Records like this also make it a lot easier for the shop to answer your questions when you have a problem. Check the basics Before you blame your plant food for unhappy plants, check your journal. Everything must be in balance. Change one parameter at a time and look for the effect. A common problem is stock water that is too cold. Consider putting a heating element in the tank (to 21ºC) or put heating mats under the stonewool. If you have trouble getting the plant to set flowers/ fruit try to make a greater difference between night and day temperatures. If that is not enough, increase CO2 injection during daytime.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

65

Continued from page 23

PRODUCT spotlight

ask for these exciting new products at your favourite indoor gardening store.

Nature's Solution Mycorrhizae
Nature's Solution Mycorrhizae is a very fine, water-soluble powder. There are five endomycorrhizae: Glomus  intraradices, G. mosseae, G. aggregatum, G. etunicatum and also four ectomycorrhizae: Rhizopogon  villosullus, R. luteolus, R. amylopogon, R. fulvigleba and Psolithus tinctorius. Mycorrhizae must come into  contact with a root surface within 48 hours of putting the powder into the soil, soilless media or water or you have wasted your money. If you have plants already in the ground or soilless media then you can dig holes at an angle through the roots, fill the holes with pea gravel and put the mycorrhizae in with Nature's Solution  Compost Tea and Ancient Humate. If you are transplanting, do not use with any other rooting mixtures or gels; simply mix the mycorrhizae with the compost tea and dip the roots just before transplanting or sprinkle  some into the planting hole. Mycorrhizae is available now from your local grow shop.

SteadyGRO Launches Eco-Friendly Slabs and Blocks
SteadyGRO has launched an eco-friendly line of soilless media slabs and blocks. SteadyGRO soilless media is available in eight by 15 centimetres by 36 slabs encased in a reusable and recyclable tray. The tray has three pre-punched 10 by 10 centimetre squares to accommodate SteadyGRO blocks. The trays are white on the outside and black inside to provide ideal growing conditions. The trays can be reused and refilled with SteadyGRO slab media. The tray is also marked appropriately information for ease of recycling. SteadyGRO blocks are wrapped with a bio wrap made from recycled material. The wraps may be composted, and they easily biodegrade. The SteadyGRO soilless media is also designed for easy disposal. It may be incinerated without releasing harmful toxins or it may be ground or crushed to less than 11 per cent of its original volume. To learn more about the entire line of SteadyGRO products visit an indoor gardening retailer near you.

Merlin-Garden Pro Pump Gets Upgraded
Hydro-Logic has improved the popular Merlin-Garden Pro pressure booster pump. The pump is needed when the pressure entering the Merlin-GP reverse osmosis filter is less than 40 PSI. By boosting the pressure to 65 PSI, the pump allows the Merlin-GP to flow faster and produce more water per day. We have upgraded the armature components to allow the pump to run for longer periods before it thermal cycles. The original pump had a thermal cycle switch, which protected the pump from overheating. The pump would shut down for a short period of time when it got too hot from continuously running. Now those run times have been extended due to the upgraded parts. We have also added an external heat sink to help pull heat away from the pump. The heat fins snap directly onto the pump and enable it to help you produce the purest water possible. Contact your local hydroponic retailer for more details. Pure water’s not magic. It’s logic.

Nature's Solution Sea Kelp
Nature’s Solution Sea Kelp is a powdered form of sea kelp that is truly water soluble. The Ascophyllum Nodosuum (sea kelp) has been extracted with a non-chemical based system with no toxic residue. This product was freshly harvested and processed from the cold coastal waters off Iceland in the North Atlantic Sea. Use with Nature's  Solution Compost Tea, Ancient Humate and Mycorrhizae for best results. Use on all indoor and  outdoor plants. Mix with water, spray on leaves and plant or put directly on soil. Use one tablespoon of water-soluble sea kelp  powder for every 22 litres of water and apply directly to soil, water or plant surfaces. Apply to gardens, vegetables, trees, vines and lawn. Kelp is a nutrient that feeds micro-organisms. Approved for organic production, verified to USDA-NOP organic standards.  Available now from hydroponic retailers. MY

do you want to be included in the product spotlight? Contact the editor at 1-250-279-2677 or email editor@maximumyield.com

66

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

CHECK YOUR growing I.Q.

by Erik Biksa

1. Which of the elements in the list below is commonly mistaken to be deficient in supply, when typically the causal agent of the symptoms is more often related to pH? a) b) c) d) calcium magnesium nitrogen potassium 4. Why do both coco coir and rockwool medias require special considerations with regards to pH, noting that the greatest consideration is with rockwool? 5. Scientists rate surfactants according to the HLB of their molecular structure. What does HLB stand for? a) b) c) d) hydrophillic lipophillic balance hot looking babe holding lipidic balance none of the above

Q

2. What is considered to be the optimal pH range for absorption of this element in hydroponic (water culture, excluding rockwool) systems (while considering the availability of all nutrients)? 3. What is considered to be the optimal pH range for absorption of this element in soilless (water culture, excluding pure coco coir) medias (while considering the availability of all nutrients)?

6. If the HLB scale is between one and 20, in most horticultural applications it is best for surfactants to be in the _______ portion of the HLB range. a) low b) mid c) high

ANSWERS:
September/October 2009 quiz

1) c 2) a 3) Because ppm is a conversion from EC. Difference manufacturers use different conversion rates, making it far less of a universal measurement. 4) a 5) d 6) a Answers to this quiz will be printed in the January/February 2010 issue of Maximum Yield
Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

A
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MAXIMUMdistributors YIELD
ALBERTA Double AA Garden Supplies Ltd. Bay 9 2820 Centre Avenue Calgary, AB T2A 7P5 403-273-9188 fusion 5 Organic Gardens inc. PO Box 5821, 120B 1 Street, SW High River, AB T1V 1P3 866-652-2594 hydro-Lite 12249 Fort Road Edmonton, AB T5B 4H7 780-477-7860 Niloc wholesale inc. Box 82008 Yellowbird RPO Edmonton, AB T6J 7E6 780-885-4769 Quick Grow 1-1204 Edmonton Trail Road NE Calgary, AB T2E 3K5 877-426-4769 Smart Grow 2456 - 23 Avenue, NE Calgary, AB T2E 8J4 403-236-9999 Twins Greenhouse 13 - 2235 30th Avenue, NE Calgary, AB T2C 7C7 403-273-2881 BRITISH COLUMBIA A+ Gardening Supplies 1450 Venables Street Vancouver, BC V5L 2G5 604-876-4769 Advanced Garden Supplies 7979 Aspen Road Vernon, BC V1B 3M9 250-545-9545 Advanced wholesale Superstore 406 - 1952 Kingsway Avenue Port Coquitlam, BC V3C 6C2 604-945-0174 AJs Pets & Things 3219 - 31st Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 2H2 250-549-3222 A.r.i. research 120 - 4111 Hastings Street Burnaby, BC V5C 6Y7 604 433 6067 Art Knapp 2855 Wentworth Road Courtenay, BC V9N 6B7 250-334-3024 Aurora Lighting 750 3rd Avenue Prince George, BC V2L 3C5 250-564-9888 Backwoods hydroponic & Garden 10590 Carlson Road Prince George, BC V2K 5E5 250-963-9541 Bc hydroponics 3 - 20092-93A Avenue Langley, BC V1M 3Y4 604-888-5716 Better Than Nature Kelowna 725B Evans Court Kelowna, BC V1X 6G4 250-868-8978 Better Than Nature Penticton 101 - 78 Industrial Avenue, West Penticton, BC V2A 6M2 250-770-8978 Better Than Nature Vernon 3506 25th Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 1P4 250-260-4466

Blue rose Garden centre 1300 Fisher Road, RR 2, Cobble Hill, BC VOR 1L2 250-743-7757 BN Garden Supply 4493 Boundary Road Vancouver, BC V5R 2N3 604-431-2977 Buckerfields 587 Alberni Highway Parksville, BC V9P 1J9 250-248-3243 california hydroponics 9509 120th Street Delta, BC V4C 6S3 604-930-0565 canadian Garden Supply 1730 Highway 3 Castlegar, BC V1N 4W1 250-304-2911 chilliwack indoor Garden centre Ltd. 311 - 44500 South Sumas Road Chilliwack, BC V9R 5M3 604-824-2944 coastal Growers Supply 103 - 12824 Anvil Way Surrey, BC V3W 8E7 604-599-1778

happy Acres Greens & Backroad hydroponics Equipment 2058 Cambie-Solsqua Road Sicamous, BC V0E 2V0 250-836-3878 hygro Gardening Supplies inc. 1791 Tamarac Street Campbell River, BC V9W 5Y7 250-286-0424 Indoor Jungle 2624 Quadra Street Victoria, BC V8T 4E4 250-388-5611 interior Gardener’s Supply 221 - 1 McDermid Road, Box 1257 100 Mile House, BC V0K 2E0 250-395-3399 Jon’s Plant factory 3925 East Hastings Burnaby, BC V5C 2H8 604-294-3000 Just-N-Tyme Greenhouse and hydroponics Supply 1094 McKenzie Avenue Courteney, BC V9N 3C5 250-703-0476 Kamloops Sunshine Gardens Greenhouse Superstore 5 - 1744 Kelly Douglas Road Kamloops, BC V2C 5S4 877-372-2270 Kootenay Bubble refinery PO Box 81 Slocan Park, BC V0G 2E0 250-226-7753 Kootenay Grower’s Supply creston 1134 Highway 21 Creston, BC V0B 1G6 866-468-4988 Kootenay Grower’s Supply Nelson 721-G Front Street Nelson, BC V1L 4B8 888-422-8333 Long Lake Nursery hydroponic Supply 4900 Island Highway, North Nanaimo, BC 250-758-5012 Mr. fertilizer 9 Burnside Road, West Victoria, BC V9A 1B2 250-381-4644 Mylo’s 3837 Squilax Anglemont Hwy Scotch Creek BC V0E 1M0 250-955-0525 Natural choice Garden centre, The 5500 48th Avenue, SE Salmon Arm, BC V1E 1X2 250-832-7151 Nico’s Nurseryland 830 - 28th Street, NE Salmon Arm, BC V1E 2S7 250-804-2004 Northern Lights Greenspace 3 - 2706 45th Avenue Vernon, BC V1T 3N4 250-558-4757 Nutty Zone 5 & 6 - 33201 London Avenue Mission, BC V2V 4P9 604-814-2223 Oasis 12 - 1771 Cooper Road Kelowna, BC V1Y 7T1 250-763-4769 Pacific Nw Garden Supply 109 - 20110 Lougheed Highway Maple Ridge, BC V2X 2P7

cowichan hydroponic Supplies 4 - 2955 Jacob Road Duncan, BC V9L 6W4 250-746-0244 Double AA Garden Supplies Ltd. 2908 Commercial Drive Vancouver, BC V5N 4C9 604-876-8837 Duncan Plants & Ponics 6512 Bell McKinnon Road Duncan, BC V9L 6C1 250-746-5591 Excel Air Systems 200 - 20170 Stewart Crescent Maple Ridge, BC V2X 0T4 604-728-0757 fat Eddie’s Systems 108 - 18760 96th Avenue Surrey, BC 604-888-2419 Garden Effects 200-2288 #5 Road Richmond BC V6X 2T1 604-214-6620 Garden King Supplies 7533 135 Street, Unit 109 Surrey, BC V3W OM8 604-598-1912 Garibaldi Nurseryland & florist 38917 Progress Way, Squamish Industrial Park Squamish, BC V0N 3G0 604-892-3892 Good Guys Gardening center 250 McKenzie Avenue, South Williams Lake, BC V2G 1C6 250-392-2069 Green & clean Energy co. Ltd. 2875 Cudlip Road Shawnigan Lake, BC V0R 2W0 250-732-7224 Green Earth Garden Supplies Unit 5, 19300, Langley Bypass Langley, BC V3S 6K2 604-532-7106 GreenStar Plant Products inc. 9430 198 Street Langley, BC V1M 3C8 604-882-7699 Growing Solutions Box 650, 1150 Bowlby Road Errington, BC V0R 1V0 250-248-1101

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

Pacific Nw Garden Supply 107 Nicol Street Nanaimo, BC V9R 4T1 250-754-5292 Pacific Nw Garden Supply 2137 East Hastings Street Vancouver, BC V5L 1V2 604-254-4765 Pacific Nw Garden Supply Unit 14- 104 Silica Street Nelson, BC V1L 4M1 250-354-4767 Pacific Nw Garden Supply Unit C1 - 1810 Kyle Court Kelowna, BC V1Z 3Z4 250-769-4791 Pacific Nw Garden Supply 15374-103A Avenue Surrey V3R 9V8 604-588-4769; 800-443-4769 Pacific Nw Garden Supply 1139B Industrial Road 3 Cranbrook, BC V1C 5E3 250-489-4761 Pacific rim indoor Garden & Lighting 170- 12111 Bridgeport Road Richmond, BC V6V 1J4 604-232-4468 PG2 1798 Nicholson Street Prince George, BC V2N 1V6 250-612-4769; 1-888-817-4769 Planting Plus Greenhouse Supplies and hardware 22394 Dewdney Truck Road Maple Ridge, BC V2X 3J2 604-466-5949 Progressive Growth 111 - 1790 Island Highway Victoria, BC V9B 1H5 250-391-9519 Progressive Growth 41 - 1925 Bowen Road Nanaimo, BC V9S 1H1 800-405-4769 Quick Grow Kelowna 1945 Kirshner Road Kelowna, BC V1Y 4N7 877-861-4343 raw world Organics 1 - 1455 West 14th Avenue Vancouver, BC V6H 1R4 604-902-2740 rocky Mountain Greenhouse Supply 1043 Industrial Road 2 Cranbrook, BC V1C 4C6 250-489-5770 room 2 Grow 901 Laval Crescent Kamloops, BC V2C 5P4 250-372-3663 Skytek indoor Solutions 833 4th Avenue Prince George, BC V2L 3H5 1-800-975-9835 Solar Greenhouse and hydroponic Supply 4752 Imperial Street Burnaby, BC V5J 1C2 604-438-7244 Spruce capital feeds 1694 Quinn Street Prince George, BC V2N 1X3 250-564-6010 Sun Beam central 3444 River Road Chemainus, BC V0R 1K4 250-246-1379 Sundogz Garden Supply & hydroponics 30 - 1365 Old Alberni Highway Parksville, BC V9P 2B8 250-954-2046

Sunwest Garden Supply 2035 Unit B Louie Drive Westbank, BC V4T 1Y2 250-768-1636 Trees company Nursery & Garden Supplies G9 C17 RR1, 7030 Powell Road Winlaw, BC V0G 2J0 250-226-7334 Tridon hydroponics 12 - 1708 Bowen Road Nanaimo, BC V9S 1G9 250-755-1900 Triple Tree Nursery 20503 Lougheed Highway Maple Ridge, BC V2X 2P9 604-465-9313 Valley indoor Geenhouse Supplies 103 - 44195 Yale Road West Chilliwack, BC V2R 4H2 877-702-1169 Van city Garden Supplies 6542 Victoria Drive Vancouver, BC V5P 3X9 604-322-8558 Vancouver Garden Supply 4894 Fraser Street Vancouver, BC V5V 4H5 604-879-8167 warehouse Garden Supplies & hydroponic 109 - 8173 128 Street Surrey, BC V3W 4G1 604-543-3177 west coast Gardens Equipment and Supplies 113 - 805 Notre Dame Kamloops, BC V2C 5N8 250-851-2992 MANITOBA All Grow Distributors 410 Madison Street Winnipeg, MB R3J 1J1 204-231-1694 Better Than Nature winnipeg 2B - 2 Donald Street Winnipeg, MB R3L 0K5 204-453-3032 Gro Pro international hydroponics 101-904 Porthee Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3G 0P4 204-956-1389 Kleen Gro hydroponics 224 Osborne Street South Winnipeg, MB R3L 1Z3 204-475-7096 My Two Sons 2 - 2055 McPhillips Street Winnipeg, MB R2Y 3C6 204-339-3489 Nature’s Nutrition 1819 Portage Avenue Winnipeg, MB R3J 0G4 204-889-2979 ready Set Grow! 375 Henderson Highway Winnipeg, MB R3C 2H2 204-668-GROW NEW BRUNSWICK Atlantic hydroponics & Greenhouses inc. 42 Brandon Street Moncton, NB E1C 7E8 506-858-0158 craft N’ Grow 60 Micmac Road Eel Ground, NB E1V 4B1 506-624-9317 Jardins Notik Gardens 798 Gray Road St-Charles NB E4W 4N9 506-876-9100

Scott’s Nursery Ltd. 2192 Route 102 Highway Lincoln, NB E3B 8N1 506-458-9208 21st century Gardening 20 Bayside Drive St. John, NB E2J 1A2 506-657-9982 ultimate hydroponics PO Box 1191 Hampton, NB E5N 8H2 506-639-5948 NOVA SCOTIA Den haan’s Garden world 12688 Highway 1, Brickton Annapolis County, NS B0S 1M0 902-825-4722 Greenfield Grow & Brew 69 Wilson Mountain Road Murray Siding, NS B6L 4N7 902-897-6568 Plant Manager Gardening 12 Industrial Drive, Richmond County Industrial Park Lennox Passage, Cape Breton, NS B0E 1V0 902-345-2112 S&L worx hydroponics 135 Main Street, Unit 14 Dartmouth, NS B2X 1R6 902-434-GROW (4769) Steve’s hydroponic headquarters 131 Sackville Drive Lower Sackville, NS B4C 2R3 902-865-7764 Sweetleaf Smoke Shop and hydroponics 3132 Isleville Street Halifax, NS B3K 3Y2 902-454-6646 woodland farm Nursery 3544 Highway 1, Annapolis Royal, NS B0S 1A0 902-532-7617 woodin Nickel hydroponics 3393 Central West, Highway 4 Pictou County, NS BOK 1H0 902-695-7640 ONTARIO Agrogreen canada inc. 1938 Hwy #20, RR#1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 866-650-1136 AKA The indoor Gardener 207 Exeter Road, Unit D London, ON N6L 1A4 519-652-4224 AKA The indoor Gardener 3014 Highway 29 Brockville, ON K6V 5T4 613-342-2700 All Grow hydroponic 391 Marwood Drive, Unit 14 Oshawa, ON 866-606-4723 All Seasons 1000 Dundas Street East Mississauga, ON L4Y 2B8 905-848-2619 Best of hydroponics 360 Richmond Street London, ON N6A 3C3 519-858-1533 Bluewater hydroponics 1173 Michener Road, Unit 12 Sarnia, ON N7S 5G5 519-337-7475 BMA hydroponics 404A Maitland Drive, Unit 2 Belleville, ON K8N 4Z5 613-967-9888

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

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MAXIMUMdistributors YIELD
Brite-Lite indoor Garden centre 4373 Steeles Avenue West North York, ON M3N 1V7 416-663-2999 Brite-Lite indoor Garden centre 1677 Cyrville Road, Meadowbrooke Plaza Gloucester, ON K1B 3L7 613-842-8999 Brite-Lite indoor Garden centre 1659 Victoria Street, North, Unit 6 Kitchener, ON N2B 3E6 888-670-0611 canadian hydrogardens Ltd. 1330 Sandhill Drive Ancaster, ON L9G 4V5 905 648 1801 cN Garden Equipment Supplies 207 Edgeley Boulevard, Unit 4 Vaughan, ON L4K 4B5 D&M Gardens 2961 Main Street Blezard Valley, ON P0M 1E0 705-897-3727 Diatomite canada 1938 Hwy #20, RR#1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 866-650-1136 Envirotex P.O. Box 21069 Paris, ON N3L 4A5 519-442-1237 friendly farmer, The 343 Richmond Lower Street London, ON N6A 3C2 519-438-4446 Garden Depot 605 Justus Drive Kingston,ON Canada K7M 4H5 613-384-8882 Green And clean 761 Barrydowne Road Sudbury, ON P3A 3T6 800-246-5503 Green Kingdom hemp 1103 Cassells Street North Bay, ON P1B 4B3 705-494-7169 Green Thumb hydroponics 3075 Ridgeway Drive, 25 Mississauga, ON L5L 5M6 Grow it All hydroponics inc. 165 Geary Avenue, Unit 3B Toronto, ON M6H 2B8 416-588-9595 Grower’s choice hydroponics 1621 McEwen Drive 14 Whitby, ON L1N 9A5 905-725-GROW happy hydroponics 68 Princess Street Hamilton, ON L8L 3K9 905-545-8434 home hydroponics 289 Rutherford Road, South 22 Brampton, ON L6W 3R9 905-874-GROW homegrown hydroponics inc. 26 Meteor Drive Toronto, ON M9W 1A4 416-242-4769 homegrown hydroponics inc. 521 Dunlop Street West Barrie, ON L4N 9W4 705-721-8715 homegrown hydroponics inc. 5386 Greenlane Road Beamsville, ON L0R 1B3 905-563-6121

homegrown hydroponics inc. 79 Woolwich Street South Breslau, ON N0B 1M0 519-648-2374 hydro culture Emporium inc. 150 Robertson Rd Unit 22 Nepean, ON K2H 9S1 613-715-9472 hydrogarden 1122 Paul Street Cornwall, ON K6H 6H5 613-360-6996 hydrotech 2436 Kingston Road Toronto, ON M1N 1V2 416-267-4769 in-home Gardens 279 Caborne St. Brantford, ON N3T 2H3 519-754-9090 indoor Gardens canada 2952 Thompson Road Smithville, ON L0R 2A0 905-957-6969 Indoor harvest 3040 New Street Burlington, ON L7R 1M5 289-337-9169 J & c hydroponics 343 Elgin Street, Unit A Cambridge, ON M1R 7H9 519-622-9969 Jungle hydroponics 2215 Gerrard Street East Toronto, ON M4E 2C8 416-699-0861 Markham hydroponics 95 Royal Crest Court 18 Markham, ON L3R 9X5 905-305-0698 Nature’s Elements Box 119 500 Mill Street Neustadt, ON N0G 2M0 519-799-5323 Northern hydroponics 236 Simpson Street Thunder Bay, ON P7C 3H4 807-623-3666 Northern Lights Green Supply 1938 Highway 20 (at 406), RR 1 Fonthill, ON L0S 1E6 905-892-3743 Northern Lights hydroponics 1185 Tecumsch Road Windsor, ON N8W 1B5 519-254-4015 Ontario Growers Supply 1540 Fanshawe Park Road West London, ON N6H 5L8 519-641-3992 Ontario hydroponics 103015 Grey Road 18 Owen Sound, ON N4K 5N6 519-372-1144

Planetary Pride 372 Queen Street East Sault Ste Marie, ON P6A 1Y7 1-888-215-8970 Second Nature hydroponics 4 - 2133 Royal Windsor Drive Mississauga, ON L5J 1K5 S e c o n d NATURE HYDROPONICS 905-403-4769 Supply for You 3615 Weston Road, Unit 6 North York, ON M9L 1V8 416-741-8062 Sweet hydroponic Gardens 776 Bruce Street Renfrew, ON K7V 3Z8 613-433-9600 Vantage hydroponics 1 Adelaide Street North London, ON N6B 3P8 519-451-4769 Yield of Dreams hydroponics 559 Steven Court 12 Newmarket, ON L3Y 6Z3 877-778-7960 QUEBEC Aeroplante 66 Rang Prenier Chaloupe Est Notre-Dame-Des-Praires Joliette QC J6E 7Y8 450-752-8883 Amazonia hydroponique 394 Boulvard Arthur-sauve St. Eustache, QC J7R 2J5 450-623-2790 B&S Electrique inc. 2240 Pitt Street Montreal, QC H4E 4H1 514-931-3817 Benoit Dupuis Extincteurs inc. 2503 Victoria Street Ste-Julienne, QC J0K 2T0 450-831-4240 Babylone hydroponics 100 Duluth Avenue Montreal, QC H2W 1H1 514-284-6382 Biofloral 675 Montee, St. Francois Laval, QC H7C 2S8 877-38-HYDRO Boutique L’Echologik 829, cote d’Abraham Quebec, QC G1R 1A4 418-648-8288 Boutique L’Echologik 790 St - Jean Quebec, QC G1R 1P9 418-648-2828 Brite Lite hydroponics 940 Bergar, Laval, QC H7L 4Z8 450-669-3803 california hydroponic 12300 Rue de la avenir St. Janvier, QC J7J 2K4 450-433-3336 concept hydroponique 1257 Boulevard St Antoine Rte., 158 Est St Jerome, QC J7Z 7M1 450-431-1488 Distribution De la Plante 5498 Hochelaga Suite 910 Montreal, QC H1N 3L7 514-255-1111 Espace culture Boutique 17 boul. Ste-Rose Est Laval, QC H7V 3K3 450-622-2710

Ozone Environmental Technologies 361 Rowntree Dairy Road Unit 4 Woodridge, ON L4L 8H1 905-264-6618 Paradise Gardens hydroponics 2158 Chiefswood Road Oshweken, ON N0A 1M0 519-445-2275 Peterborough hydroponic center 347 Pido Road, Unit 32 Peterborough, ON K9J 6X7 705-745-6868

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Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

ferme florale inc. (Botanix) 2190 Blvd. Laurier (route 116) St. Bruno de Montarville, QC J3V 4P6 450-653-6383 fernand corbeil Produits horticoles horticultural Products 17 boul. Ste-Rose Est Laval, QC H7L 3K3 450-622-2710 fleuriculture hydroponique 3570 Boulevard Thibeau Trois Riviers, QC G8W 2H5 819-374-3666 fleuriste Savard inc. 1833 boul. Louis-Frechette Nicolet, QC J3T 1M4 819-293-5933 G & L Electrique inc. 13760 2 ième Avenue Saint-Georges, Bce, QC G5Y 5N1 418-228-3665 Gardins california 1689 Chemin Gascon Terrebonne, QC J6X 3Z6 450-492-7373 Gerard Bourbeau & fils inc. 8285, 1 re Avenue Charlesbourg, QC G1G 5E6 418-623-5401 hydroculture Guy Dionne 8473 - 19th Avenue Montreal, QC H1Z 4J2 514-722-9496 hydroculture Guy Dionne 1990 Cyrill-Duquet Local 150 Québec, QC G1N 4K8 418-681-4643 hydro Expert 12752 Industriel Montreal, QC H1A 3V2 514-624-3091 hydro Plus 149 avenue Principale A Rouyn Noranda, QC J9X 4E3 819-762-4367 hydro rive-sud 4721 Boulvard de la rive sud Levis, QC G6W 1H5 418-835-0082 hydro Sciences 4800 de la Cote-Vertu Blvd. Saint-Laurent, QC H4S 1J9 514-331-9090 hydro Times 1533 Boulevard Cure Labelle Laval, QC H7V 2W4 450-688-4848 hydrobec 2145 Lavoisier Suite 4 Ste-Foy, QC G1N 4B2 418-687-1119 hydromax Gatineau 3-1695 Atmec (porte 6) Gatineau, QC J8P 7G7 819-663-7470 hydromax Laval 295 Boulevard Curé Labelle Laval, QC H7L 2Z9 450-628-8380 hydromax Mont-Laurier 388 Rue Hebert Mont-Laurier, QC J9L 2X2 888-609-4476 hydromax Montreal 9300 Lajeunesse Montreal, QC H2M 1S4 514-381-0111 hydromax Terrebonne 1674 Chemin Gascon Terrebonne, QC J6X 4H9 450-492-7447

hydromax Trois-rivières 6157 rue Corbeil Trois-Rivières Ouest, QC G8Z 4P8 819-372-0500 hydroponique de l’estrie 2980, ch. Miletta Magog, QC J1X 5R9 819-843-8680 hydroponique du Millenaire 5700, rue Martineau, Local 7 Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8B1 450-253-5260 hydroponique Plus inc. 405 - 18 Avenue Lachine, QC H8S 3R1 514-634-3677 hydrosphere 2400 rue Canadian, Suite 104 Drummondville, QC J2C 7W3 819-478-9791 hydrotek 12300 Rue de l’avenir St. Janvier, QC J7J 2K4 international hydroponique 5478 Hochelaga St Montreal, QC H1N 3L7 514-255-2525 La cuve A Vin 6384 Beaubien est Montreal, QC H1M 3G8 514-354-8020 Les Grands Jardins Lavel 2900, Boul. Cure-Lavelle Chomedey, Laval, QC H7P 5S8 250-729-2687 Les Serres Binette inc 2568 Boul. Mercurre Drummondville, QC J2A 1H2 1-800-231-7195 Magog hydro culture 25 Ste Rue Saint Catherine Magog, QC J1X 2K9 819-847-4141 Megawatt hydroculture 636 Route 364 Morin Heights, QC J0R 1H0 450-226-2515 Méristème hydroponique 871 Dufferin Granby, QC J2G 9H8 450-991-1514 Momentum 11289 London Avenue Montreal, QC H1H 4J3 888-327-4595 Plant-O-Maxx 3169 Blais, Boisbriand, QC, J7H 1H2 514-968-7799 Pablo Jardinage Drummondville 2080 Joseph St-Cyr Drummondville, QC J2C 8V6 819-475-2525 Pablo Jardinage intérieur 2 Des Ormeaux Suite 500 Trois-Rivières, QC G8W 1S6 819-693-6000 Plant-T-Plantes 3439 boulevard Fiset Sorel-Tracy, QC J3P 5J3 450-780-0008 Point De Vue 880 chemin St-Féréol Les Cèdres, QC J7T 1N3 450-452-2878 / 1-877-510-2991 Pousse Magique 515 rue Lanaudiere Repentigny, QC J6A 7N1 450-582-6662

P.P.M. hydroponique 504 Rue du Parc St. Eustache, QC J7R 5B2 450-491-2444 Qué-Pousse - Laval 940 Bergar Laval, QC H7L 4Z8 450-667-3809 Qué-Pousse - Montreal 2215 Walkley Montreal, QC H4B 2J9 514-489-3803 Qué-Pousse - Mont. Tremblant 462 Montée Kavanagh Mont-Tremblant, QC J8E 2P2 819-429-6145 Qué-Pousse - Point-claire 1860D Sources Blvd Pointe-Claire, QC H9R 5B1 514-426-5057 Qué-Pousse - Sherbrooke 4394 Bourque Rt. 112 Rock Forest, QC J1N 1S3 819-563-0353 Qué-Pousse - St-constant 6264 Route 132 Ste-Catherine, QC J0L 1E0 450-635-4881 Qué-Pousse - St-Jerome 709A 14e Avenue, Sud Saint-Antoine, QC J7Z 4B8 450-436-3803 Sherbrooke hydroponique 3545 King Est, Sherbrooke, QC J1G 5J4 819-829-9299 ultimate controllers inc. 76 rue d’Avila Laval, QC H7M 3Y6 un Monde Sans Terre 565 Beausejour Alma, QC G8B 5V3 418-480-3274 Val d’Or hydroculture 1261 3e Avenue Val d’Or, QC J9P 1V4 XXXtractor inc. 1228 St. Marc Montreal, QC H3H 2E5 514-931-4944 SASKATCHEWAN B&B hydroponics and indoor Gardening 1404 Cornwall Street Regina, SK S4R 2H7 306-522-4769 Busy Bee upholstery Box 811, 134 5th Avenue East Gravelbourg, SK S0H 1X0 306-648-3659 waterboy Supply 401 Dewdney Avenue East Regina, SK S4N 4G3 306-757-6242 YUKON, NUNAVUT and NORTHWEST TERRITORIES Porter creek indoor Garden centre 1307 Centennial Street Whitehorse, YT Y1A 3Z1 867-667-2123

MY

ArE YOu currENTLY DiSTriBuTiNG MAXiMuM YiELD frOM YOur rETAiL STOrE? Email your contact information to: ilona@maximumyield.com to have a distributor listing in an upcoming issue of Maximum Yield.

Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

73

Features

COMING UP2010 IN January - February
Hydroponics Fights Hunger
Charlotte Bradley details how hydroponic gardening and farming techniques are being used around the world to help fight hunger.

DO YOU know?

Keeping Roots in Tip Top Condition

Dr. Lynette Morgan provides proven tips and tricks that preserve the health of your plants’ roots.

do plants Need Climate Controllers?

This article by Isabelle Lemay and Mélissa Léveillé serves to expand your knowledge on plant’s needs and climate controllers that ease gardener’s tasks.

Caring for Holiday plants after the Festivities

Glory Lennon shows you how to care for your holiday plants in order to keep them vibrant and productive long after the Christmas tree is taken down.

Sustainability: Buzz Word or Legitimate agenda?

As one of the most impassioned topics currently discussed in the mainstream media, you might be surprised to learn sustainability is not a new concept. Matt Geschke delves into the history and reality of sustainable growing.

1 The effect of a low pH value upon the stability of nutrients is
relatively insignificant. spice is red-gold stigma which 2 Saffroninside themade from the driedof the saffron plant. forms blue/purple flower

preventing and Reacting to Green algae

For those of you that have dealt with the annoyance of algae growing in your reservoirs and rockwool cubes, Matt Lebannister provides guidelines for preventing and controlling this slimy situation.

3 Ensuring CO levels remain higher than ambient through as various stages in the cropping cycle can increase yields by
2

much as 30 per cent. in the grow room prevent calcium uptake 4 High humidity sufficient calcium willthe feed solution. Large even if there is in day/night fluctuations in humidity will also disrupt the calcium flow within the plant.

around the World in Hydroponics Talking Shop

Lee McCall takes us on a walk through 35 acres of lawns and gardens at the Parc de la Villette in Paris, featuring hydroponically-grown crops. Maximum Yield is now featuring your favourite retail stores. Get to know your local grow shop just a bit better by learning of their history, their struggles and their successes. Nominate your favourite store by emailing editor@maximumyield.com

5 A residual insecticide spray should last approximately 180
days. cover a 6 A 1,000 watt light willlight rails1.5 by 1.5 metre space or a 1.5 by 3.5 metre space if are being used. growth mediums can year after year. 7 Perlite to use perlite for morebe reused growth cycle is The ability than one extremely significant given the cost of other effective hydroponic growth mediums. is a aeroponics that recirculates 8 Ein-Gedimistyderivative oftechnique involves the plantsnutrient in a spray. This being plugged into holes at the top of an enclosed chamber while the roots dangle in a nutrient solution below. are actually a of humic 9 Fulvic acidsin water underfractionconditions.substances that are soluble all pH

Win Big! Grow Big!

In the event that you did not get what you wanted in your stocking, enter our fifth draw in the Win Big! Grow Big! online reader contest. Enter online at www.maximumyield. com/winbig by February 15.

maximumyield.com
Online extras for Maximum Yield Readers
In addition to our incredible selection of articles in January/February 2010, you gain access to online extras. Visit www.maximumyield.com for videos, articles, images and product comparisons that you won’t find anywhere else.
74 Maximum Yield Canada | November / December 2009

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