This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO MATTER
1.1 Atoms & Molecules 1.1.1 Classification of Matter 1.1.2 Introduction to Atoms 1.1.3 Mass Spectrometer 1.2 The Mole Concept 1.3 Matter & Measurements 1.3.1 Basics 1.3.2 Concentration Units 1.4 Chemical Formulae 1.4.1 Chemical Nomenclature 1.4.2 Empirical & Molecular Formula 1.5 Stoichiometry 1.5.1 Limiting Reagents 1.5.2 Reaction Yield 1.5.3 Solution Stoichiometry
1.1 Atoms & Molecules 1.1.1 Classification of Matter
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes 1. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. 2. A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties. e.g. water, ammonia, sucrose, gold, oxygen
© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006
© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006
A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. Homogenous mixture – composition of the mixture is the same throughout. e.g. soft drink, milk, solder
Heterogeneous mixture – composition is not uniform throughout. E.g. cement, iron filings in sand Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components. An element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means. A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means. Zn(s) + 2 HCl (aq) ZnCl2(aq) + 2 H2(g) 2 H2O(l) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) Three states of matter: SOLID, LIQUID, GAS A physical change does not alter the composition or identity of a substance… 2 H2O(l) H2O(g) A chemical change alters the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved… 2 H2O(g) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) MATTER – anything that occupies space and has mass. MASS – measure of the quantity of matter. SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg)
WEIGHT – force that gravity exerts on an object
2 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006
of protons + No. of neutrons Nucleon Number Proton Number A Z X 3 Element Symbol © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .6 x 10-19 1.67 x 10-24 0 Proton number (Z) = No.1.67 x 10-24 +1.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1. of protons in nucleus Nucleon number (A) = No.1 x 10-28 Proton (p+) Neutron (n) 1. of neutrons = Proton number (Z) + No.2 Introduction to Atoms Rutherford’s Model of Atom nucleus electron cloud Bohr’s Model of Atom Modern Model of the Atom: Quantum Mechanics Charge (Coulombs) -1.6 x 10-19 Charge (units) -1 +1 0 Particle Mass (g) Electron (e-) 9.
The proton number of Co3+ = _____ 7. 4. 84 36 Kr 59 3+ Co 27 216 O 8 5. 3. The nucleon number of Kr = _____ 6. 9. ____ contains 10 electrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei Hydrogen atom isotopes: Proton Number: Nucleon Number: Number of Neutrons: 1 1 protium H 1 1 0 4 2 1 deuterium H 3 1 tritium H 1 3 2 1 2 1 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . It is the total number of _________ in an atomic nucleus. The number of neutrons in Kr = _____ 8. ______ is the proton number. Co3+ consists of ____ protons. 2. Nucleon number is defined as the total number of _________ and _________ in an atomic nucleus.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Exercise 1: A Z X c 1. A is the _________________ of the nuclide X. ____ electrons and _____ neutrons.
to determine the types of isotopes.to recognize the structure of an unknown compound B A A C A D B E D 5 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .to determine the relative atomic mass of an element . This process involves emmission of radioactive rays.3 Mass Spectrometer The mass spectrometer is machine used: . For example… α-decay of uranium-235 235 92 U C 4 2 He e + + 231 90 Th N β-decay of carbon-14 14 6 0 -1 14 7 1.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Some isotopes are unstable.to determine the relative molecular mass of a compound . These unstable isotopes may “break-up” to form smaller atoms and subatomic particles.1. This process is known as radioactive decay. and the abundance of the isotopes of an element . their relative isotopic masses.
When the electrons collide with the gaseous sample (atom or molecule). The emerging ions are of high and constant velocity. Example: Mass Spectrum Of Rubidium Relative Abundance 18 7 85 87 m/e The mass spectrum of rubidium shows that naturally occurring rubidium consists of two isotopes (two peaks): 85Rb and 87Rb. The electric field is produced by a high voltage between the two plates. B) Ionisation Chamber A hot filament emits high-energy electrons. A pump maintains a vacuum inside the mass spectrometer as any air molecules inside would block the movement of the ions and to avoid the contamination of the sample. In this example. positive ions are produced by dislodging an electron from each atom or molecule C) Acceleration Chamber The positive ions are accelerated by an electric field towards the two oppositely charged plates. 6 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . Rb-85 is more abundant than Rb-87. The height of each line is proportional to the abundance of each isotope. D) Magnetic Field The positive ions are separated and deflected into a circular path by a magnet according to its m/e ratio. E) Ion Detector The numbers of ions and types of isotopes are recorded as a mass spectrum.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 A) Vaporisation Chamber Sample of the element is vaporised into gaseous atom.
Ar.. The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12. This is because most elements contain isotopes.56 b) What is the percentage abundance of each of the isotopes? 18 x 100 = 72 % % 85Rb = 25 % 87Rb = 100 – 72 = 28 % 1. But sometimes.2 The Mole Concept 1. is written in atomic mass units (amu).© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Calculation a) What is the relative atomic mass of Rb? (mi x Qi) Ar Rb = Qi = = (85 x 18) + (87 x 7) (18 + 7) 85.0221367 X 1023 Avogadro’s number (NA) 7 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .000 grams of 12C 1 mol = NA = 6. Relative atomic mass of elements (that contain isotopes) are determined by calculating the average mass of all its naturally existing isotopes. no units are used.2. Relative Atomic Mass. Notice that relative atomic mass of elements are usually not in round numbers.1 Basics RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS is the mass of an atom measured in relative to the mass of 1/12 the mass of a 12C atom.
022 X 1023 atoms = 12.T. Relative Atomic Mass (amu) = Molar Mass (grams) For all substances.022 x 1023 particles (Avogadro’s constant = 6.022 x 1023 mol1 ) 1 12C atom = 12.0 L mol-1 22.551 g of potassium (K)? 1 mol K = 39.P. Molar Mass = Ar or Mr (in g mol1) Example: How many atoms are in 0.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Mole (symbol = mol): The amount of substance that contains as many elementary particles as there are atoms in exactly 12.P.022 x 1023 atoms K 6.10 g K = 6.) Standard Room Temp.000 g of 12C.T. & Pressure (R.00 g For any element.49 x 1021 atoms Relative Molecular Mass (or molecular weight) is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in a molecule. 1 mol = 6. the molar mass in grams per mole is numerically equal to the formula weight in atomic mass units. temperature and/or volume. & Pressure (S.00 amu but… 1 mole 12C atoms = 6.10 g = 8.022 x 1023 atom Number of K atoms = 0. Due to the fact that the quantity of gaseous materials depends on its pressure.) T = 25oC (298 K) P = 1 atm (101 325 Pa) T = 25oC (298 K) P = 1 atm (101 325 Pa) 8 24.551 g X 39. 1 mol of any substance in this state would occupy different volumes. Room Temp.4 L mol-1 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .
3.I.000 cm3 = 1 dm3 1 mL = 1 cm3 DENSITY – S.1 Basics S.000 mL = 1.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1. Base Units Base Quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Name of Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela Symbol m kg s A K mol cd VOLUME – S. derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3).I.234 kg…… 4 significant figures Zeros between nonzero digits are significant 606 m …… 3 significant figures Zeros to the left of the first non-zero digit are not significant 0. SI derived unit for density is kg/m3 mass density = volume Significant Figures Any digit that is not zero is significant 1.3 Matter & Measurements 1. 1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3 = 1 x 10-6 m3 1 dm3 = (1 x 10-1 m)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3 1L = 1.I. but in chemistry. dm3 (or litres) are usually used.08 L …… 1 significant figure 9 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .
then only the zeros that are at the end and in the middle of the number are significant 0.0 mg …… 2 significant figures If a number is less than 1.00420 g …… 3 significant figures ACCURACY – how close a measurement is to the true value PRECISION – how close a set of measurements are to each other 1. then all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant 2. Concentration is measured in various ways: • Molarity • weight/volume per cent • Molal concentration (or Molality) • weight per cent • mole fraction • parts per million 10 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Significant Figures If a number is greater than 1.3.2 Concentration Units The concentration of solutions is the quantity of dissolved substance per unit quantity of solvent in a solution.
40 g of ethylene glycol in 200 g of water.586 g of sodium carbonate. B) Molal Concentration (Molality) The number of mole of dissolved solute divided by the mass (in kg) of the solvent. Symbol: M (sometimes the symbol “c” is used) Unit: mol L1 or mol dm3 or M M = n (mol) Vsolution (L or dm-3) Example: A student prepared a solution by dissolving 0. 11 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . The molar mass of ethylene glycol is 62 g/mol. Na2CO3 in 250.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 A) Molarity The number of mole of dissolved solute divided by the volume of the mixture. Symbol: m or M Unit: mol Kg1 or molal or m M = n (mol) msolvent (Kg) Example: Calculate the molal concentration of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) solution containing 8.0 cm3 of water. Calculate its concentration.
% w/w = msolute msolution Note: msolution = msolute + msolvent Example: A sample of 0. KCl is dissolved in 54. % w/v = msolute Vsolution Example: What mass of NaCl is needed to prepare 250 mL of 0.9% w/v solution 12 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .892 g of potassium chloride.3 g of water. Symbol: % w/w Unit: % 10% w/w of NaOH means 10 g NaOH dissolved in 90 g of water (solvent). Symbol: % w/v Unit: % g/mL 5% w/v of KCl means that 5 g of KCl is dissolved in 100 mL of KCl (aq) solution.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 C) Weight per Cent (Per Cent By Mass) Mass ratio between solute and solution. What is the per cent by mass of KCl in this solution? D) Weight/Volume per Cent The ratio between the mass of the solute and the volume of the solution.
Calculate the mass of calcium ions in 500. Parts per million (ppm) is quantity of component (in grams) in 106 g of the mixture. F) Parts per Million Percentages (%) are parts per hundred. Symbol: xA = xA (mole fraction for A) Unit: none nA = number of mol of component A in a mixture of two or more component nT = total number of moles of all the components (including A) in a mixture nA nT Example: What is the mole fraction of CuCl2 in a solution prepared by dissolving 0.30 mol of CuCl2 in 40.0 mol of H2O.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 E) Mole Fraction The ratio between the numbers of mole of a component compared to the total number of moles of every component found in the solution.0 ppm. Symbol: Unit: Cppm = Cppm ppm @ mg/L @ g/g @ g/mL @ mg/kg mass of solute (g) Volume of solution (g) X 106 Example: The concentration of calcium ions in blood is 100. 13 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .0 g of blood.
O2A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom: OH-. CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms: O3. If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. H2O. Br2. or group of atoms. CN-. add suffix “ide” to element name Mg(OH)2 – magnesium hydroxide BaCl – barium chloride K2O – potassium oxide 14 Pb(CN)2 – lead cyanide © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1. Cl-. NH4+. • the formula is always the same as the empirical formula • the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero 2 x +3 = +6 3 x -2 = -6 Al 3+ Al2O3 O2- 1. NO3Ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and anions. that has a net positive or negative charge CATION – ion with a positive charge. HCl. If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation ANION – ion with a negative charge.4.4 Chemical Formulae A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms: O2. NH3 An ion is an atom. How many protons and electrons are in 13 27 Al 3+ ? protons = 13 electrons = 13 – 3 = 10 A monatomic ion contains only one atom: Na+. Ca2+.1 Chemical Nomenclature Ionic Compounds • often a metal + nonmetal • anion (nonmetal).
“di”. H2O – water NH3 – ammonia CH4 – methane C2H4 – ethene 15 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . so Fe is +3 Cr2S3 6 Iron(II) chloride Iron(III) chloride 3 S2. Molecular Compounds • nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids • The name of the first element in the formula is the same as in the periodic table.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Transition metal ionic compounds • indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals FeCl2 2 Cl─ -2. But the last element ends in the suffix “ide”. -6. they have their own systematic nomenclature. so Fe is +2 FeCl3 3 Cl─ -3. “tri” etc to denote number of atoms in the molecule. or for organic compounds. so Cr is — = +3 Chromium(III) sulfide 2 Note that the Roman numeral is written in parenthesis and is joined to the name of the metal. the prefix “mono”. HCl – hydrogen chloride HBr – hydrogen bromide SiC – silicon carbide • If there are more than one combination of compounds from the same elements. NO – nitrogen monoxide NO2 – nitrogen dioxide N2O4 – dinitrogen tetroxide • Some compounds are more commonly known by their traditional names (which may be non-systematic).
© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Acids Acids is usually named according to its physical state Acid HCl HBr HI HCN H2S Molecular Form hydrogen chloride hydrogen bromide hydrogen iodide hydrogen cyanide hydrogen sulphide Aqueous Form hydrochloric acid hydrobromic acid hydroiodic acid hydrocyanic acid hydrosulphuric acid Oxoacids: are acids that contain H. O & another element. HClO3 “less 1 oxygen” perchloric acid Name of element + “ic” chloric acid Name of element + “ous” HClO2 “least oxygen” chlorous acid “hypo” + Name of element + “ous” HClO 16 hypochlorous acid © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . Acid HNO3 H2CO3 H2SO4 HClO3 Name Nitric acid Carbonic acid Sulphuric acid Chloric acid • Some oxoacids have the same central element but contain different number H & O. • Naming oxoacids… “more oxygen” “per” + Name of element + “ic” HClO4 “normal oxoacid” e. and the O last. • The formulas are normally written with the H first.g.
this system applies similarly to oxoanions… “more oxygen” “per” + Name of anion + “ate” NaClO4 “normal oxoacid” e.4.. KOH NaOH Ba(OH)2 – potassium hydroxide – sodium hydroxide – barium hydroxide 1.g. NaClO3 “less 1 oxygen” sodium perchlorate Name of anion + “ate” sodium chlorate Name of anion + “ite” NaClO2 “least oxygen” sodium chlorite “hypo” + Name of anion + “ite” NaClO Therefore.2 Empirical & Molecular Formula Percent Composition PERCENT n X molar mass of element COMPOSITION X 100% = of an element in a molar mass of compound compound 17 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Likewise. H2SO4 – hydrogen sulphate H2SO3 – hydrohen sulphite (less one O) sodium hypochlorite KNO3 KNO2 – potassium nitrate – potassium nitrite (less one O) Bases Bases contain hydroxide ion or yields hydroxide ions when dissolved in water..
5 g H2O. An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance Compounds with different molecular formulae can have the same empirical formula. If the combustion of 11.0 g CO2 and 13.5 g ethanol is found to produce 22. and such substances will have the same percentage composition We can use percent composition to determine the empirical formula of a compound Example Determine the empirical formula for ethanol.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Molecular Formula & Empirical Formula A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance. 18 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .
5 Stoichiometry Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction. thus we are able to determine the quantity of any one of these if the required amount of information is available. Example Methanol burns in air according to the equation 2 CH3OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 4 H2O If 209 g of methanol are used up in the combustion. what mass of water is produced? 19 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . we know the mol ratio of reactants and products. A + 2B C + 3D Based upon a balanced chemical equation.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1.
© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1.1 Limiting Reagents Normally the amount of reactants that are put together for a reaction is not in the exact proportion as stated in the equation. 20 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .5. 124 g of Al are reacted with 601 g of Fe2O3 2 Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2 Fe Calculate the mass of Al2O3 formed. All 6 used 6 balance (leftover) Example In one process. The limiting reagent is ENTIRELY CONSUMED and limits the amount of products that can be formed because of its INSUFFICIENT QUANTITY The excess reagent does not take part in reaction because it is the balance of what is left AFTER the reaction has consumed the other (limited) reactant(s).
a) What is the maximum number of grams of Ag that could have been obtained? b) What was the actual yield of Ag in grams? c) Calculate the percentage yield for this reaction. we find ourselves in a situation whereby we DON’T GET what we are SUPPOSED TO GET… Theoretical Yield – is the amount of product that would result if all the limiting reagent reacted.0 g of silver was obtained. 21 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .2 Reaction Yield But sometimes in a chemical reaction. % Yield = Example Actual Yield x 100 Theoretical Yield Cu + 2 AgNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag When 10.0 g of copper was reacted with excess silver nitrate solution. 30.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1.5. Actual Yield – is the amount of product actually obtained from a reaction.
5. What volume of 0.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 1.0500 M K2CrO4.3 Solution Stoichiometry Example 1 What mass of KI is required to make 500 mL of a 2.0500 M K2CrO4? 22 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .80 M KI solution? Example 2 A particular analytical chemistry procedure requires 0.250 M K2CrO4 must be diluted with water to prepare 100 mL of 0.
Example 3 A 25. a solution of accurately known concentration is gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete. Calculate the concentration of HCl solution.20 mL of Na2CO3 for complete neutralisation.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 In a titration. It requires 21. the point whereby the reaction is completed is called the equivalence point The INDICATOR is the substance that changes color at (or near) the equivalence point. 23 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .00 mL sample of HCl solution is titrated against Na2CO3 solution of 0.150 M. It functions as a marker to indicate when the reaction is completed. During titration.
92% carbon.58% 7Li (7. [C6H8O6] 24 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .0% (w/w) aqueous NaCl? [1. (nHe = 4. Calculate the mass of (NH4)2CO3 that contains a) 0. Calculate the relative atomic mass of lithium metal.00 kg.150 m solution of sodium chloride in water. [63.2 X 1023 atoms] 6. [1.0 g of water to prepare a solution of this molality? [4.003 g/mol.00 g/mol) 12.00 g/mL) 11.03 g/mL. When swallowed.015 amu) and 92. according to the reaction equation. Determine its empirical formula and molecular formula.54] 2.9 mol] 5.8] 8. weighs 1.9396 and 65Cu = 64.941] 3. What is the molality of 10.90 m] 15.5 L aquarium? 13. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cures scurvy and may help prevent the common cold. Copper exist naturally on Earth as 63Cu and 65Cu with an isotopic ratio of 2. How many grams of NaCl would have to be dissolved in 500. The molar mass of ascorbic acid is 176 g mol1.38 g] [2. An experiment calls for a 0.50% oxygen by mass. How many moles of water can fill a half litre bottle? (the density of water is 1.02 x 1023 H atoms 10.42% 6Li (6. the relative isotopic mass of 63Cu = 62.5% sea salt and has a density of about 1. nO = 16. What is the amount (mole) of Fe? [17. Natural lithium is: 7.300 mol NH4+ b) 6. Calculate the number of atoms in 0. Determine the relative atomic mass of copper.2 moles of methane gas at room temperature? [76. How many moles are there in 6.20 mol of magnesium. Determine the density of oxygen and helium gas at STP.58% hydrogen and 54. the Na2CO3 reacts with gastric secretion which contains hydrochloric acid (HCl).9278.82 x 1024 atoms H] 4. How many grams of sea salt would be needed to prepare enough seawater solution to completely fill a 62.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 EXERCISE 1.29 mol] 7. Based on the carbon-12 scale. Fe. 4.031g] 9. Na2CO3 + 2 HCl 2 NaCl + CO2 + H2O How many grams of HCl were neutralized by the tablet? [0.5 L oxygen at STP? [0.25 X 103 g] 14.016 amu).333 respectively. An antacid tablet contains 450 mg Na2CO3. It is composed of 40. How many H atoms are in 72. How much space is needed to fill 3. [6.5 g of C3H8O? [5. A sample of iron. Seawater is typically 3.
If 7. What mass of KI is required to make 500. [NH3 = limiting reagent.80 M KI solution? 20.00 mL of a FeSO4 solution in an acidic medium. 88.54 X 107 g of TiCl4 are reacted with 1.42 mL volume of 0. mL of a 2. Calculate the theoretical yield of Ti in grams. 3. A 16. 1124 g (NH2)2CO.2 g of ammonia are allowed to react with 1142 g of CO2.93 X 106 g Ti. aircraft.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 16. Urea. and even sports cars.42 mL volume of 0. What is the concentration of the FeSO4? [0. lightweight. 17. corrosion-resistant metal that is used in rockets.13 X 107 g of Mg. It is prepared by the reaction of titanium(IV) chloride with molten magnesium between 950o to 1150oC.1327 M KMnO4 solution is needed to oxidise 20.00 mL of a FeSO4 solution in an acidic medium. bicycle frames. is prepared by reacting ammonia with carbon dioxide.5450 M] 25 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .1327 M KMnO4 solution is needed to oxidise 20. TiCl4 (g) + 2 Mg (l) Ti (s) + 2 MgCl2(l) In a certain industrial operation. Calculate the percentage composition of carbon in the compound Y. 319 g CO2] 18. What is the concentration of the FeSO4 ? A 16. [8. determine the percent yield. 2 NH3(g) + CO2(g) (NH2)2CO(aq) + H2O(l) In one process. A compound Y with chemical formula as shown below: CH2=CHCOOCH3 Write the empirical formula and molecular formula of the compound. c) Determine the amount of excess reagent (in grams) that is left at the end of the reaction.91 X 106 g of Ti is actually obtained. 637. a) Which of the two reactants is the limiting reagent? b) Calculate the mass of (NH2)2CO formed and.6 %] 19. (NH2)2CO. Titanium is a strong.
carbon-12.96 Relative Abundance (%) 95. and 116. Relative Isotopic Mass 31. How many times is one atom of X heavier than one atom of carbon-12? (iii) Naturally occurring sulphur consists of four isotopes with relative abundance shown in the table below. Al2Si2O5(OH)4. give the formulae of the ions responsible for the peaks. chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.2-dichloropropane showing the peaks concerned.97. 26 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .21 0.2-dichloropropane consists of isotopes: hydrogen-1.02 Calculate the relative atomic mass of sulphur b) The mass spectrum of 1. (ii) If the ratio of chlorine-35 to chlorine-37 is 3:1. (i) If 1. (iii) Sketch and label the mass spectrum of 1.96 35.02 0. is a hydrated aluminosilicate mineral clay which is able to absorb cations in aqueous solutions on its surface according to the following equilibrium equation: M+ + Al2Si2O5(OH)3–OH Al2Si2O5(OH)3–O–M + H+ (i) state the oxidation number of silicon in kaolinite. 114.97 33.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 STPM Past Year Questions Q3-P2-2003 b) Kaolinite.97 32.2-dichloropropane shows peaks at mass/charge ratio of 112.75 4. Q9-P2-2000 a) (i) Define relative atomic mass. (ii) The relative atomic mass of X is 30. determine the relative abundance of the three peaks.
P.33% carbon. Determine the molecular formula of P. 66.1%.5. chlorine.© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Q10-P2-2002 a) An organic compound. Q5-P1-Nov 1973 Figure 2 shows the distances of ions in the mass spectrometer of bromine gas. A. and 6. B and C. has the following composition by mass: carbon. The three groups of lines. Underline the spectrum which has the highest abundance. is produced by ions Br+(g). Determine the molecular formula of this hydrocarbon.67% hydrogen by mass. with a relative molecular mass of 126. and a relative molecular mass of 180 contains 93. Q7-P2-1999 a) A hydrocarbon with an empirical formula C7H6. and hydrogen. 5. State which of the ions give the following lines. 28. The atomic mass of bromine is 79.9.5%. Br2+(g) and Br2+(g). The bromine used consists of its isotopes with a nucleon number of 79 and 81. 27 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 . (a) Group A (b) Group B (c) Group C 1 2 A 1 2 B 1 2 C Identify all the lines in groups B and C.4%.
28 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 Matriculation Past Year Questions Jan 1999 Two common isotopes of chlorine are 35Cl and 37Cl. 16O. Mar 2002 Analysis of mass spectrometer shows that copper consists of two naturally occurring isotopes: 63Cu and 65Cu. explain the meaning of isotope. Which ion would deflect least? Explain. b) With reference to 12C = 12.127 37 Cl a) Using chlorine as an example. June 1999 Air contains 21% oxygen gas. Natural oxygen consists of three isotopes. If the ratio of relative abundance of these two isotopes is 63 Cu = 2.9659 respectively.235 65 Cu Calculate the percentage of relative abundance of each copper isotope.9689 and 36. and 18O. b) A mixture of these isotopes was analysed in a mass spectrometer. c) Calculate the molar mass of the heaviest oxygen gas. 17O. the relative isotopic mass of 35Cl and 37Cl are 34. A stream of univalent positive ions produced is deflected by the magnetic field and is detected by the ion detector. The relative abundance of natural occurring isotopes is as follows: 35 Cl = 3.00 scale. Calculate the relative atomic mass of chlorine. a) Write all possible molecular formulae of oxygen that might exist in our air.
© Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 29 © Lau Kah Pew STPM 2006 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.