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What is a forest? A forest is an area with a high density of trees. There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. Although a forest is classified primarily by trees, a forest ecosystem is defined intrinsically with additional species such as fungi. Distribution of forests Forests can be found in all regions capable of sustaining tree growth, at altitudes up to the tree line, except where natural fire frequency or other disturbance is too high, or where the environment has been altered by human activity. The latitudes 10° north and south of the Equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest, and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N have boreal forest. As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by gymnosperms (conifer, montane, or needleleaf forests), although exceptions exist. Forests sometimes contain many tree species only within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or relatively few species over large areas (e.g., taiga and arid montane coniferous forests). Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities. Much of this biomass occurs below ground in the root systems and as partially decomposed plant detritus. The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate. Forests are differentiated from woodlands by the extent of canopy coverage: in a forest, the branches and the foliage of separate trees often meet or interlock, although there can be gaps of varying sizes within an area referred to as forest. A woodland has a more continuously open canopy, with trees spaced further apart, which allows more sunlight to penetrate to the ground between them. Among the major forested biomes are: Rain Forest (tropical and temperate)
the removal of all trees in an area—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest. natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance. mainly in tropical areas. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. biodiversity loss and aridity. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat. desertification. In temperate climates. is an ongoing issue. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. for fuel or as lumber. including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. Deforestation causes extinction. and settlements. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to agriculture or urban use. Taiga Temperate Hardwood Forest Tropical Dry Forest What is Deforestation It is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Environmental problems caused by deforestation Deforestation is a contributor to global warming. deforestation. could account for up to one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record. Furthermore. However in temperate climates. lack of ascribed value. or sold. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change deforestation. both naturally occurring and human induced. changes to climatic conditions. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. plantations of commodities. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value. The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. whether natural or anthropogenic. But recent calculations suggest . In many countries. while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock. and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect. biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as.
the trees no longer evaporate away this water. Shrinking forest cover lessens the landscape's capacity to intercept. so that erosion. When part of a forest is removed. Mature forests alternate between being net sinks and net sources of carbon dioxide. Trees and other plants remove carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide) from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the atmosphere during normal respiration. the average annual precipitation declined by 1/3rd between the 1950s and the 1980s. According to a study. The idea consists in providing financial compensations for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". which then percolates to groundwater systems. which moves much faster than subsurface flows. In order for forests to take up carbon. deforested areas become sources of surface water runoff. resulting in a much drier climate. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion. Instead of trapping precipitation.that carbon dioxide emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (excluding peatland emissions) contribute about 12% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions with a range from 6 to 17%. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. as water is not recycled to downwind forests. retain and transpire precipitation. but is lost in runoff and returns directly to the oceans. Forests enhance the recharge of aquifers also. Hydrological Impact The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Only when actively growing can a tree or forest remove carbon over an annual or longer timeframe. the wood must be harvested and turned into long-lived products and trees must be re-planted. Forests are stores of carbon and can be either sinks or sources depending upon environmental circumstances. . flooding and landslides ensue. Both the decay and burning of wood release much of this stored carbon back to the atmosphere. Deforestation also contributes to decreased evapo-transpiration. Reducing emissions from the tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries has emerged as new potential to complement ongoing climate policies. which lessens atmospheric moisture which in some cases affects precipitation levels downwind from the deforested area. in deforested north and northwestern China. That quicker transport of surface water can translate into flash flooding and more localized floods than would occur with the forest cover. Deforestation may cause carbon stores held in soil to be released.
Their litter and other organic residue change soil properties that affect the capacity of soil to store water. which can threaten people living nearby. Tropical rainforests produce about 30% of our planet's fresh water. by increasing the amount of runoff and reducing the protection of the soil from tree litter. which overwhelm the storage capacity of forest soil if the soils are at or close to saturation.in the soil that increase infiltration of water. and if the soil is sufficiently shallow they act to keep the soil in place by also binding with underlying bedrock. . stems and trunks slow down surface runoff. Their roots create macro. This in turn changes erosion rates and the availability of water for either ecosystem functions or human services. China's Loess Plateau was cleared of forest millennia ago.Forests affect the water cycle significantly: Their canopies intercept a proportion of precipitation. or in the atmosphere. and providing the sediment that gives the Yellow River its yellow colour and that causes the flooding of the river in the lower reaches (hence the river's nickname 'China's sorrow'). Impact on Soil Undisturbed forests have a very low rate of soil loss. The forest may have little impact on flooding in the case of large rainfall events. allowing for the roots to stay rooted.pores . Their leaves control the humidity of the atmosphere by transpiring. Forestry operations themselves also increase erosion through the development of roads and the use of mechanized equipment. the presence or absence of trees can change the quantity of water on the surface. However most deforestation only affects the trunks of trees. Since then it has been eroding. creating dramatic incised valleys. negating the landslide. Tree roots bind soil together. They contribute to terrestrial evaporation and reduce soil moisture via transpiration. Deforestation generally increases rates of soil erosion.large conduits . 99% of the water absorbed by the roots moves up to the leaves and is transpired. This can be an advantage in excessively leached tropical rain forest soils. approximately 2 metric tons per square kilometres (6 short tons per square mile). As a result. which is then evaporated back to the atmosphere (canopy interception). in the soil or groundwater. Tree removal on steep slopes with shallow soil thus increases the risk of landslides. Their litter.
Today.Ecological Impact Deforestation results in declines in biodiversity. removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. moreover. The known extinction rates from deforestation rates are very low. Scientific understanding of the process of extinction is insufficient to accurately make predictions about the impact of deforestation on biodiversity. including timber and fuel wood. comparable to the roles of water and cultivable land.000 species a year. The removal or destruction of areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity. Economic impact Damage to forests and other aspects of nature could halve living standards for the world's poor and reduce global GDP by about 7% by 2050. approximately 1 species per year from mammals and birds which extrapolates to approximately 23. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. a major report concluded at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Bonn. many such models have been proven to be wrong and loss of habitat does not necessarily lead to large scale loss of species. Such predictions were called into question by 1995 data that show that within regions of Southeast Asia much of the original forest has been converted to monospecific plantations. animal and insect species every single day due to rainforest deforestation. providing habitat for wildlife. Historically utilization of forest products. It has been estimated that we are losing 137 plant. Forests support biodiversity. Since the tropical rainforests are the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and about 80% of the world's known biodiversity could be found in tropical rainforests. Most predictions of forestry related biodiversity loss are based on species-area models. developed countries continue . forests foster medicinal conservation. with an underlying assumption that as the forest declines species diversity will decline similarly. However. which equates to 50. Other studies state that tropical rainforest deforestation is contributing to the ongoing Holocene mass extinction.000 species per year for all species. but that potentially endangered species are few and tree flora remains widespread and stable. have played a key role in human societies.
or over-exploitation of wood products. The forest products industry is a large part of the economy in both developed and developing countries. typically leads to loss of long-term income and long term biological productivity (hence reduction in nature's services). DPS Patna. The objectives of this project are: 1. To initiate a foresight and innovative acumen amongst all of you towards a better understanding of forest and the evolving societal needs. Southeast Asia and many other regions have experienced lower revenue because of declining timber harvests. 6. Short-term economic gains made by conversion of forest to agriculture. It’s time now to have a dialogue with forests With this background information for starters. The experiences from the research oriented activities will provide you with a useful starting point for future orientation towards policy making. You will be able to develop monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to analyse and assess the progress and effectiveness of implemented policies and the gaps there in. Pune and Ludhiana want their green ambassadors to embark on a life-long love for forests and pledge that they would do their utmost to preserve and protect them. You will be able to initiate a consultative process with the administrators and stakeholders at the district level on the issue of local needs in order to enhance effective national forest policies. Illegal logging causes billions of dollars of losses to national economies annually. In developing countries almost three billion people rely on wood for heating and cooking. 4. You will learn to use your designing ability to create things which will be environment friendly and would reduce the pressure on the forest cover. 3. Madagascar.to utilize timber for building houses. It would boost cooperation and networking with the community and the environment around you and you will learn to collaborate with all the stakeholders in the big issue of depleting forest cover. 5. You will make a lot of people to initiate ‘bottom up’ processes to learn from past experiences in the implementation of national forest policies and commitments at municipal and district level. . 2. and wood pulp for paper. Orbit project is based on this theme and you would get some ideas to choose from to participate in this project. West Africa.
which requires action at local. irrigation. are the timber suppliers licensed to cut trees. who are the buyers of timber etc. what is the cost of its procurement and selling price. you can also choose some other local issue related to your city’s green cover. effective forest law enforcement. What’s more. Natural Forests continue to disappear and be degraded at alarming rates. Visit some timber factories or saw mills and prepare a profile of the same by finding out what are the sources of timber procurement. However. You may need to create a public awareness for this and also meet with the forest department officials. Given below are some optional leads to your project. You will enter the field of actual hands on research which would be interdisciplinary and policy relevant. Meet with some old residents and observe the extent of change that has occurred over the life style of rural areas in and around your city. micro climate and the livelihood of people. Visit the remote sensing institute in your city and collect data for forest cover for the last three decades. Analyse the changes that have occurred and what has been the impact of change in forest cover on the state of hydrology. and markets for legal and sustainable forest products. forest conservation must go hand in hand with livelihood security and a fair negotiation of ownership and use rights. Also conduct some surveys of areas which were earlier under forest cover and now have become residential and industrial areas. The goal of this project through strategic policy research is to contribute to the development and dissemination of policy instruments that promote the appropriate inclusion of conservation. national and international levels. To be effective in promoting sustainable forest management. Group B (VIII and IX) 1.7. The reform of forest regulatory regimes in this direction must also be accompanied by the strengthening of frameworks for their effective implementation. where is the timber headed towards. would you not grow more mature and wiser after this project? 8. Group A (Classes X to XII) 1. where does it originate from. 2. livelihood and rights in forest management regimes. On the basis of this study. develop robust public timber procurement policies that . what kind of forests have been felled for making this timber.
Present your report with the help of results and illustrate these two areas with the help of separate models. survey sheets. However. Also find out with them the repercussions of this phenomenon.effectively distinguish between legal/ illegal and sustainable/ unsustainable products.one with a good forest cover and the other which is densely populated or heavily industrialized with no/ poor tree cover. Prepare a questionnaire before meeting them so that you know exactly what you have to ask them. soil type. Do you think it can be produced on a large scale and can you encourage people to buy that? Prepare a marketing brochure also before entering the competition. 2. Have they taken some steps to increase the forest cover around their village? Are they practicing any social forestry? Are the farmers aware that government gives grants to plant trees under the scheme of social forestry? Speak with some old farmers and ask them how much area around their village was covered under forests and how much decline in the cover has occurred. keep in mind that the furniture also needs to be practical and durable. interviews and pictures. Notice the difference between the two regions in terms of temperature. its a challenging process! But it would also be very rewarding! 2. Also check with them as to for how long they have been practicing farming there. Speak with the residents of these two areas – at least 10 households in each. Group C (VI and VII) 1. The alternative material should be locally produced and available at low cost. if this land was under forest cover once. Find out from the villagers. Visit two different areas in and around the city. . Note down what they say in terms of the value they attach to the forest cover and also check with them if it has created any change in their day to day lives. Of course. and quality of air. Create some models of furniture which will not be made of wood but some alternative material. Has it had any impact on their day to day life? What about the level of ground water in the village? Prepare a report on this research and illustrate it with land records. Visit some farm lands around your city and do a research.
We expect you to ‘scaffold’ their learning in this endeavour by encouraging and valuing them for what they are striving. It also incorporates interdisciplinary themes and field trips. Yet. You will be surprised yourself to see a connection between activities and the underlying conceptual knowledge that one might like to foster. They will find the problems and their solutions themselves. It would be rewarding to see them involved in fieldwork. problem solving. The central objectives of this project involve the transformation and construction of knowledge and understanding to be able to apply it to the real world situation. The process of change would not materialize by itself. It will involve students in designing. There are always no clear solutions to challenging issues in real life which are scripted and neatly packaged. You will have to work with ministers.Working together towards a better future! The ideas and suggestions presented here are for all to fulfil. service. for better policies. reflection and building a connection to the world outside of the classroom. However. The project poses real issues and challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated) problems and where the solutions have the potential to be implemented. It will involve inquiry. here is yet another project which will involve the students in a constructive investigation. it would also not be surprising if they were not able to find solutions which they had envisaged. even the best of intentions could be lost. administrative bodies. build knowledge and a firm resolution in the children for creating and appreciating a better natural environment. civil society and the science community to get a sense of shared responsibility. without a common understanding of the challenges and the opportunities. teamwork. You are all invited for critical deliberations so that we are able to propose changes to policy approaches. You can then be assured that this learning will be retained and applied. private sector enterprises and organizations. decision making and investigative activities by providing opportunities to work autonomously in groups and will culminate in realistic products or presentations. It would be far more enduring than the learning that is inert and acquired as a result of classroom teaching. character building. Get on board for the people and the nature! Are you game? Procedural facilitation for the parents regarding ‘Orbit’ project As you are aware of the longstanding tradition of Takshila schools to create a community of enquiry with the use of cognitive tools. Students will assign specific tasks to themselves to: Determine if a problem exists Create an exact statement of problem Identify and access information needed to understand the problem Identify resources to be used for gathering information Generate possible solutions Assess the limitations of the study and possible impediments .
11.11 10. such as internet.12. Criteria for short listing Context Formulation of initial question/s Designing of investigation Presentation of the knowledge Weighting 10 10 10 Description What essential questions have been generated to lead them to the research in question What is the design of the inquiry which can answer the formulated questions appropriately Articulation of the project effectively.track was the group in presenting before the panel? Did the group reach the end goal/s? How would this project change the society in general and your own perspective in particular? Have you added value to your own learning? If so.11 24.09. what is the concrete learning that you have had? What skills and dispositions have you learnt as a result of this project? 10 10 10 10 10 10 Time line for the project Preliminary Round Announcement of the project Submission of theme of the project Submission of the synopsis Announcement of short listed projects 27. what was the methodology used for collecting data? How was it presented (graphs.12.11 Group A 24. questionnaires. mathematical models etc) Was the group able to use everyone’s expertise for designing and carrying out the investigation? What was everyone’s role? What were the issues/ dilemmas/ challenges fraught with? How did you work around these challenges? Were you ethical? How practical are your recommendations? Are there any limitations that you can encounter while implementing the solution? How confident. Analyze these solutions using cost/ benefit analysis Write a policy statement supporting a preferred solution.10.12.11 31.11 08. visits to relevant places Based on the knowledge search. articulate and on.11 Group B 24.11 08. interviews.10. diagrams.11 Submission of presentations to ICT department Group A Group B Group C 08.11.11 Final Presentations .12.12. through concrete models/ solutions or abstract knowledge Final judgement through presentation and viva Context Conducting knowledge searches Scientific construction of collected data Equitable distribution of work Challenges encountered Feasibility of solutions/ outcomes Final presentation Contribution to the society Weighting 10 Description What were the sources used for gathering information.11 Group C 17.
: S.PROJECT p r e s e n t s NAME: GROUP LEADER REGISTRATION FORM CLASS & SEC: PROJECT NAME PROJECT TOPIC: BRIEF DESCRIPTION NAMES OF GROUP PARTICIPANTS WITH CLASS. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name Class/Sec.No. Roll No. SIGNATURE OF GROUP LEADER . SECTION & ROLL NO.
intellect & innovation of its creators. From classics. . to protect the depletion of forest cover. holt. and/or append the same with a parody on one/few chosen pieces from the compilation. Work on the Etymology [the study of origin of words] of the word „forest‟ & its English synonyms (woods. 1952 & 1988. reflecting the interest. Extend this study by exploring the cultural significance of these words and determine the correlation. To accomplish this. The following points are mere suggestions. firth) as well as its other vernacular counterparts. dark and deep. provided it is relevant to the objectives & theme of the project.Stopping by woods on a snowy evening. Compose a collection of prose and/or poetry on topics like „Forest: a dynamic entity of living cum non-living‟. in the years 1894. wold. India also has had specific laws in place since pre-independence. Revisit Robert Frost‟s poem. as the youth view forests. which have been inspired by woodlands. weald. Literature & Forests Compile the pieces of poetry & prose. find out the extent to which each could be implemented & propose reforms to make the policy more effective. you could refer to Thomas Hardy‟s works where in you would find a lot of description of nature and woods. awareness. Three National Forest Policies have been enunciated so far. Enlisting the options should not limit the options.„Woods are lovely. Forest Legislature Like most nations. you have a free rein on the subject matter. you have been given complete autonomy on the theme and the mode of presentation for the project. Take this forward by penning a critical review on the collection of poetry related to woods. woodland. not restricted prototypes of the Samvatsar Project. if any. but I have promises to keep‟. Thus. composed in literature through the ages. Examine the principal aims of each.Suggested Themes for the Project Samvatsar Introductory Note for Students: The key objective of this venture is to assess your perception of forests – how you. Each project has to have a unique sheen to it. between these diverse cultures based on forests.
the first formal forest policy in India. Take this point as a lead and track the state versus community interests. conservatories. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act. which was a major source of revenue. These motives were explicitly documented in the National Forest Policy of 1894. zoological parks. The major forest laws are – 1. national parks & game reserves. 1894). This law also entails the creation of botanical gardens. the land should ordinarily be relinquished without hesitation. 4. 1980 restricts and regulates the de-reservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes without the prior approval of Central Government. recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for according the same Forest & Movies . 2006. 2.. Research on any of the forest laws & determine the reasons for their ineffective implementation through case studies.” (Government of India. The British administration directed its forest policy towards commercial interests and the development of agriculture. wildlife sanctuaries. Indian Forest Act. the sole motivation by which forests were administered under British rule was the promotion of state interests. the transit of forest-produce and the duty levied on timber and other forestproduce. Also recommend related reforms. 3.. 1972 has the objective of providing effective protection to the listed endangered flora and fauna & ecologically important protected areas of this country and to control poaching. According to this policy. smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives. The Forest Conservation Act. Wild Life (Protection) Act. This policy stipulated that “forests which are the reservoirs of valuable timbers should be managed on commercial lines as a source of revenue to the States” and that “wherever an effective demand for culturable land exists that can only be supplied by a forest area. 1927 is the principal Act which consolidates the law relating to forests.
Try to figure out the advantages/disadvantages of handing over the maintenance & management of zoo to corporate sector. etc. e. Pick up any animated movie featuring wildlife & forest and attempt to determine the basis/inspiration of each animated character in relation to its habitat. based on the types of forest captured in the video clips. keeping alternative reality in mind & weave a story based on the same. Many Hindi movies have been shot in Kashmir.g. make an extensive study of the same from cinematographic point of view. felling of logs. Select a fiction flick that shows imagined tree-lands & establish the inspiration behind each character/screenplay. Append your work with a review. Discuss the role of forests in cinema & how it contributes economically to the movies industry. Make a video of the scenes from these movies and identify and describe the forest types and topography. Forest Ecotourism Take up a comprehensive study on the role of Zoo/Botanical Gardens in preserving forests. Thereafter. spurting of water. the variation in visual effects of zoo animals & the lemurs of Africa. Design a range of „hybrid‟ animals. Club up scenes/footage from movies that have been shot in forested areas & classify the latter. which have been inspired from forest & classify the same into different genres. Responsible ecotourism includes programs that minimize the negative aspects of conventional . You would already perhaps know that Harry Potter movies have been shot in Scotland‟s beautiful scenery. chirping of birds. Darjeeling. wild animal calls. whose work is predominately motivated from forest] Compose music pieces by incorporating forest sounds (like rustling of leaves. Explore the key idea behind Ecotourism [responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people]. Take note of the variations that have come in with development of technology & change in musical taste of listeners over the years. – in Madagascar. Khandala etc. [You may also make similar study by selecting a particular artist. Forest & Music Compile all musical tunes – instrumental or vocal.) and present the symphony through a concert.
Forests & Industry 1. Elaborate the role of Social Forestry in general & that of Joint Forest Management in particular. 2. decreasing food security. manufacturing techniques & marketing . in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors. forests and wetlands. you could work solely on the recreational aspect of such a venture. 3. replete with all managerial & marketing strategies for establishing ecotourism in the region. You could delve deeper into this study by looking into the efforts of INFOM – International Society of Nature and Forest Medicine. water conservation. in promoting „Jungle Safari‟ in Wildlife Sanctuaries & National Parks.Indian Paper Manufacturers Association is the organization that represents the resurgent and organized face of paper sector in India. 4. Paper Industry: IPMA . by way of which agricultural land is being used for growing trees in various parts of Haryana & Uttar Pradesh. countries where eco-tourism is being practiced and what benefits it is creating. an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling. energy efficiency. Cosmetics Industry: Take up case studies of companies like Biotique and Himayala to determine the research & development. Adopt any forested area hypothetically and develop a road map. Food Industry: Global land available for crop production accounts some 1. and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. It is claimed that at least some 40 million hectares of closed forests in the tropics and an unknown area of wetlands is needed for conversion to cropland in order to meet food demands in the coming decade. Therefore.8 billion hectares including grassland. The main issue is whether conversion of forest land/wetlands will improve food security in the world? There is a possibility that conversion of tropical forests and wetland probably negatively affect incomes of poor people. Also study the role of Farm & Agro Forestry vis-à-vis Paper Industry. Pharmaceutical Industry: Investigate on the significance of forests as supply sources for our global medicine industry.5 billion hectares.tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Identify the regions. Poplar tree pulp) & the procedure of paper making. Study the process of procuring the raw materials (viz. Focus on the probable hurdles encountered & their plausible solutions. The potential reserve of land which is physical suitable for cropland is 1. Alternatively.
Forestry as a subject for discourse is not very well known. has been undertaking the holistic development of forestry research through need based planning. How are these industries dependent on forests? 5. lignum vitae for bails. Electronics Industry: Determine the cumulative impact of electronic gadgets on forest ecosystems – Is the use of gizmos saving paper or are their transmission waves killing trees? How „friendly‟ is the supposed eco-friendly technology.strategies undertaken to produce any/each of their products. conducting and coordinating research. Further develop the forum into a „Forestry Career Guidance Platform‟ for your school. particulars of the institutes offering the same & the related opportunities of recruitment. guards & balls. cedar or spruce wood for table tennis racket. the educational courses available in India. Make a forum that procures detailed information on the various branches of forestry. promoting. Make a detailed study of how this body operates & co-ordinates with the Ministry of Environment and Forests. etc. bungee jumping. Balsa. or is it just another marketing gimmick? 6. It has 8 Regional Research Institutes and 4 Research Centers. located in different bio-geographical regions of the country. an apex body in the national forestry research system. rubber tree used for gloves. Another option is to research on forests as the source of raw materials for sports equipment (willow wood for cricket bats. cypress. to cater to its objectives. water-rafting. etc. wherein students are motivated to take up this off-key stream for higher education. . education and extension covering all aspects of forestry. Also enlist its salient achievements and suggest policy measures to better forestry education in our country.) prevalent in India & work upon its merits in terms of an alternative source of employment in mountainous forest regions and/or its demerits in terms of deterioration of forest habitat due to increase in tourism. Sports Industry: Explore the adventure sports industry (that includes paragliding.) Education in Forestry ICFRE – Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education. English ash for stumps.
Which five countries have 53% of the world`s forests? a) Brazil.a project related to literature may be presented via fine arts or performing arts. Russia. USA 4. What does the acronym REDD stand for? a) Reduce exploitation. What percentage of forests that originally covered the Earth has been lost? a) 40% b) 60% c) 80% . insects. How many species of birds. fungi. and microorganisms can live in a single tree of the Amazon rain forest.Amongst the aforementioned ideas. Democratic Republic of Congo. Russia. interdisciplinary topics may also be integrated under single head e.g. Russia. USA b) Australia. What parts of the plant can you eat? a) Bark and stalks b) Leaves and flowers c) Roots and seeds d) All of the above 3. China. China. Canada. Kenya d) Australia. Brazil. USA c) Brazil. Which of the following species was not recently discovered in the Borneo rainforests? a) Lungless frog b) Long‐tailed ninja slug c) Flame‐coloured snake d) Psychedelic frogfish 6. China. . Canada. considered to have the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world? a) 100 species b) 1000 species c) 2000 species 2. desertification and deforestation b) Really exploited and degraded deciduous forests c) Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation 5. CHALLENGE YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF FORESTS 1. South Africa. Canada.
insects. REDD‐plus is special way that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) rewards people in developing countries for saving their forests instead of cutting them down. The "plus" is the short way of saying "the role of conservation. lettuce and spinach are leaves and fruits such as apples. isn„t it! 2. corn. and microorganisms in a single tree of the Amazon rain forest. leaves.7. How tall is the world`s tallest tree? a) 100m b) 115. bark and even roots. Incredible. celery is the stalk. seeds. 3.098 years old c) 4. USA 4. flowers. Carrots and potatoes. . Which animals are not found in tropical forests? a) Pink river dolphin b) Cross river gorilla c) Camel d) Blood python 8. Russia.850 years old ANSWERS 1. are roots. cauliflower and broccoli are actually the flowers of the plant. fungi. China. Brazil. You eat many different parts of plants: stalks.55m c) 203. What is a primary forest? a) A forest that hasn`t yet made it to secondary or high school b) Forests made up of native species c) Forests that haven`t been too disturbed by human activities d) b and c 9. REDD stands for "Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation". You can find up to 2000 species of birds. rice and peas are seeds.2m d) 213. pears or peaches grow on trees. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries". Canada. How old is the world`s oldest tree? a) 102 years old b) 2. for example.44m 10.
int/idb/2011 Convention on Biological Diversity.un.org/climatechange/youth Convention on Biological Diversity.55m tall in California. Convention on Biological Diversity.5. 7. United Nations Environment Programme www. not tropical forests. Blood pythons live in Southeast Asia. IDB 2011 www.unep. The tallest tree in the world is a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) that stands 115. If deforestation continues at its current rate many species will be extinct. Cross river gorillas live in the Congo basin. Kids http://kids. Pink river dolphins live in the Amazon rainforest.asp .fao. You can find camels in the desert.int/ Tunza for children. 80% of the forests that originally covered the Earth have been cleared. The psychedelic frogfish was discovered in Indonesia.asp?ct=env_issues Tunza for youth. they are at risk due to logging and agricultural expansion. Between 1980 and 1995 9.unep. The oldest tree in the world is a great bristlecone pine (Balfourianae) named `Methuselah` that is about 4. USEFUL RESOURCES FOR BRAINSTORMING FOR SAMVATSAR International Year of Forests www. While 36% of the total forest area if primary forest. A primary forest is composed of native species where ecological processes have not been much disturbed by human activities. United Nations Environment Programme www. 6.cbd.org/tunza/children/inner.cbd.org/en/events/iyof2011/ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) www.1% of forest cover was lost in developing countries.850 years old! Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization. 9.org/tunza/youth/What_you_always_wanted_to_know/State_of_%20Environme nt/biodiversity/index. TUNZA United Nations Environment Programme and World Wild Fund. USA! 10. 8.