Draft

DRAFT

Lecture Notes in: STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS FOR ARCHITECTS

Victor E. Saouma
Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

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Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Science and Technology . . . . . . 1.2 Structural Engineering . . . . . . . 1.3 Structures and their Surroundings 1.4 Architecture & Engineering . . . . 1.5 Architectural Design Process . . . 1.6 Architectural Design . . . . . . . . 1.7 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Load Transfer Mechanisms . . . . 1.10 Structure Types . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Structural Engineering Courses . . 1.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 25 27 29 29 29 30 30 32 33 33 33 39 40 44 45 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 50

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2 LOADS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Dead Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-1 Live Load Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-2 Wind Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-3 Earthquake Load on a Frame . . . . . . . . . . E 2-4 Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 2.4 Other Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-5 Hydrostatic Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-6 Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) . . 2.4.3 Bridge Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4 Impact Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Other Important Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Load Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS 5.4

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 112 113 113 113 114 114 116 117 117 123 123 126 126 127 129 129 133 133 133 135 136 138 138 139 140 140 142 142 144 144 145 147 147 149 150 150 150 150 151 151 152 152 153

Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Stress-Strain Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3.1 ΣFx = 0; Neutral Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3.2 ΣM = 0; Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 Beam Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 5-10 Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.5 Approximate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 5-11 Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 6.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 The Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Cable Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE 7.1 Before the Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Romans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 The Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.4 Palladio 1508-1580 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.5 Stevin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.6 Galileo 1564-1642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1 Hooke, 1635-1703 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.2 Newton, 1642-1727 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.4 Euler 1707-1783 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 The pre-Modern Period; Coulomb and Navier . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.1 Structures/Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.2 Eiffel Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.3 Sullivan 1856-1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.4 Roebling, 1806-1869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.5 Maillart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.6 Nervi, 1891-1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.7 Khan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.8 et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

. . . . . . . . 13. . . .2. . . . Point Loads.2. . . E 13-2 Semi-Circular Arch. . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . 14. 233 . . . . . . . . . 229 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Prestressing Forces . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 . . . . . . Victor Saouma . . . . 13. .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Wall Subsystems . . (Gerstle 1974) 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 12. . 13. . . .1 Beam Column Connections . . . . .1 Introduction . . .1. . . 12.1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 12-1 Prestressed Concrete I Beam 12. . . .3 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 13. .2. . . . .2 Horizontal Loads . .5 Equivalent Load . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .1. . . . . 237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . E 13-3 Statically Indeterminate Arch. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 235 . . . . . . . . .1 Geometry . . . . . . . . E 14-1 Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected 14. . . E 13-4 Semi-Circular Box Girder. . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . 12. . . . . .4 Lateral Deflections . . . 12. . . . . . 239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Gerstle 1974) . 14. . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 230 . . . . 14. . (Gerstle 1974) . 13. . . . .2 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . (Gerstle 1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Theory . . . . . . . . . .2 Statically Indeterminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Portal Method .2. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Buildings Structures . . . . . . 236 .2 Flexural Stresses .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . .1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Rigid Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 233 . . .Draft CONTENTS 7 197 197 197 200 200 200 200 202 202 204 206 206 208 209 209 211 211 214 214 215 217 217 220 220 222 222 223 224 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 12. . . . . .1 Statically Determinate . 14. 13 ARCHES and CURVED STRUCTURES 13. . . . . . . . . .2. . 14. . . . . . . . . . .2 Behavior of Simple Frames . .1. . . . . 229 . . .1 Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Cross-Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . to Vertical and Horizontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 13-5 Internal Forces in an Helicoidal Cantilevered Girder. . .3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . 236 . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . 12. . . . 233 . .1. . . .4 Tendon Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 13-1 Three Hinged Arch. . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Load Deformation . . . . . . . .3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings . . . 253 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . . . . . .1 Example: Tube Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 14. 12. . .1. . . .2 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Materials .2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Shaft Systems . . . . . . . . . . 241 Loads243 . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Kinney 1957) . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . 238 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Curved Space Structures . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Types of Trusses . Standard Rolled Sections . . . . .2 2. . . .6 3. . .13 2. . . . .15 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Effect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996) . . . . . . . . . .2 3. Snow Map of the United States. . 52 .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . Load Placement to Maximize Moments . . . . .8 2.6 1. . . . . .9 2. 55 . . .11 2. . . . . . Two Way Actions . .6 2. (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. .12 2. . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . a Rolled Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . .7 3. . . . . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind Map of the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 1. . Variations in Post and Beams Configurations Different Beam Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seismic Zones of the United States. . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Concrete microcracking . . . . Basic Forms of Frames . . . . . . . . Basic Forms of Shells . . . . . . . . . . .10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical and Normal Loads Acting on Inclined Surfaces . . . . . . . 51 . . Truck Load . . . . . . . . . W and C sections . . . Examples of Air Supported Structures . . . . . 35 . . . . .Draft List of Figures 1. . . . . . .17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures . Example of Load Transfer . Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel . .18 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. Curve of . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . 58 58 60 60 60 62 64 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . Basic Aspects of Arches . Loads on Projected Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ubc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. . . . . . . . . . Basic Aspects of Cable Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . Concept of Tributary Areas for Structural Member Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . Residual Stresses in Welded Sections . . . . 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads . . prefabricated Steel Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Transfer in R/C Buildings . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 2. . . . . . . . . . Load Life of a Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . .8 1. . . . . . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections . 47 . . . .1 2. . . . . . . Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Vibrations of a Building .8 Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D) . . . . . . . . . . . One or Two Way actions in Slabs . . . . . . . . . 36 Resisting Building Structures 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . .3 3. . .16 2. .5 2. . .

. . . . Generali. . .13 7. . . . . . . .8 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 166 167 167 168 173 175 175 176 176 177 179 184 185 187 187 194 Load Life of a Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .12 7. . . . . . . .9 LIST OF FIGURES Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke . Normalized Gauss Distribution. . . . . . . . . .6 10. . . . Generali. Generali. . . . . Cracked Section.3 9. Generali.1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generali. . . . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections . . 158 Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Internal Moment. . . . . . . . . 201 Load-Deflection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity. . . . . . . . . Local Buckling . . . . . 158 Support System. . .1 10. . Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Generali. . . . . . Generali. . . . . 208 13. . . . . . Coulomb . .2 Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . Stress distribution at different stages of loading . . .2 10. (Nilson 1978) . 207 Walnut Lane Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . 198 Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam. . . .7 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram. . . . . . . . . . (Nilson 1978)201 Determination of Equivalent Loads . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 12. . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams . . . . . . . Definition of Reliability Index . .7 12. Cross Section . . .3 12.2 12. . . Lateral Torsional Buckling . . . . . . .15 7. Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam . . . . . . . . Nervi’s Palazetto Dello Sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam. .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover Leonhard Euler . . .7 11. . . . (Billington and Mark 1983)161 Effect of Lateral Supports. . . . . . . . . .1 11. . . 159 Beam Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . 198 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon . . . . . . Failure Modes for R/C Beams . . . Page . . . . . . . . . . . 162 . . . . . . . . . . . Failure of Steel beam. . Failure of Steel beam. . . (Billington and M Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support. .16 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . .Draft 7. . . . . . . . . . . .4 11. Whitney Stress Block . . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) . . . . . . Failure of Steel beam. . . . . . Maximum Moment Section and Supp Walnut Lane Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plan View .1 12. . . . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . Probability of Failure in terms of β . . .5 10. . . . . .3 10.3 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 11. . . . . . . . 199 Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam. (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 10. . . . .5 12. . . . .5 12. .4 12. . and Cumulative Distribution Function Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R . . . . . . . . . 212 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Hinges . . . . . . . . .17 8. . .2 11. . . Limit State . . . .14 7. . . . . . . . . Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels . . . . Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. . . . . . . . . Generali. Generali. . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . 159 Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . 11 145 146 146 148 149 153 Overall Dimensions. (Lin and Stotesbury 13. Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 10. . .

. .3 Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 3. . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures 38 Z Factors for Different Seismic Zones. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . . . . . 37 Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load. . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . 31 Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2. . . . . . . . . 165 Selected β values for Steel and Concrete Structures . Φ . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Section Properties . 115 Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . 254 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft List of Tables 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. 255 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5.9 2. . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . 26 tab:secae . . . . . . . . . 48 Properties of Major Structural Steels Properties of Reinforcing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . 30 Weights of Building Materials . . . . ubc . . . . . . . . . . 169 Strength Reduction Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 S Site Coefficients for Earthquake Loading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joist Series Characteristics . . . .10 2. . 59 61 73 75 Equations of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion . . . 37 Wind Pressure Coefficients Cq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . (UBC 1995) . . . . . .3 9. . . .3 2. . . . . . 87 Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems. .1 2. .12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 14. . . 26 Unit Weight of Materials . . . . 32 Wind Velocity Variation above Ground . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . .1 Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . Joist Properties . . .8 2. . . .7 2. . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . .2 Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . 36 Ce Coefficients for Wind Load. . . . . . . . . .

Aerospace.3 3 Structures and their Surroundings Structural design is affected by various environmental constraints: 1.” (Billington 1985) 1. Technological results are forms that exist only because people want to make them. ships. elevator shafts are usually shear walls good at resisting lateral load (wind. science with the natural. They work with transportation. 1. earthquake). cars.1 1 Science and Technology “There is a fundamental difference between science and and technology. offshore structures. Mechanical. houses. nuclear and other engineers. Engineering or technology is the making of things that did not previously exist. dams. They must work in close cooperation with an architect who will ultimately be responsible for the design. hydraulic. factories. whereas science is the discovering of things that have long existed. Technology deals with the artificial. For those structures they play the leading role.Draft Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Naval structures: aeroplanes.2 2 Structural Engineering Structural engineers are responsible for the detailed analysis and design of: Architectural structures: Buildings. Sound and structure interact: • A dome roof will concentrate the sound • A dish roof will diffuse the sound . spacecrafts. whereas scientific results are informations of what exists independently of human intentions. pipelines. 2. Major movements: For example. Civil Infrastructures: Bridges. submarines to ensure the structural safety of those important structures.

restaurants. shopping centers. Design cost is comparatively negligible. airport. This in turn can place severe limitations on the structural system. parking. hospitals. 15 Thus the basic structural requirements are: Strength: stresses should not exceed critical values: σ < σf Stiffness: deflections should be controlled: ∆ < ∆max Stability: buckling or cracking should also be prevented 1.8 16 Structural Design Given a set of forces. mid-rise (up to 6-8 floors) and high rise buildings. stadium. For new structures. or stresses). manufacturing. shear. Institutional: Schools. chruch. Industrial: warehouses. we check for 17 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6 12 1.6 Architectural Design 17 Architectural Design Architectural design must respect various constraints: Functionality: Influence of the adopted structure on the purposes for which the structure was erected. Reinforced Concrete: Determine dimensions of the element and internal reinforcement (number and sizes of reinforcing bars).7 14 Structural Analysis Given an existing structure subjected to a certain load determine internal forces (axial. torsional. prisons. Aesthetics: The architect often imposes his aesthetic concerns on the engineer. and verify that no unstable failure can occur. iterative process between analysis and design. Steel/wood Structures Select appropriate section. dimension the structural element. Commercial: Offices. 13 Buildings may have different functions: Residential: housing. retail stores. 1. deflections. etc. Special: Towers. hotels. flexural. Economy: It should be kept in mind that the two largest components of a structure are labors and materials. government buildings.Draft 1. Following design. A preliminary design is made using rules of thumbs (best known to Engineers with design experience) and analyzed. which includes low-rise (up tp 2-3 floors).

Cable (tension only): The high strength of steel cables. Those are the most efficient types of structures. flexure. no shear. A cable structure develops its load carrying Figure 1. Arches (mostly compression) is a “reversed cable structure”. makes cables ideal structural elements to span large distances such as bridges. flexure/shear is minimized and most of the load is transfered through axial forces only. Arches are Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .10 Structure Types 19 Tension & Compression Structures: only. or torsion. 1.Draft 1. combined with the efficiency of simple tension. Care should be exercised in minimizing large deflections and vibrations.2. Fig.2: Basic Aspects of Cable Systems capacity by adjusting its shape so as to provide maximum resistance (form follows function). In an arch. and dish roofs.

4: Types of Trusses Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 1.10 Structure Types 21 Figure 1.

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1.10 Structure Types

23

VIERENDEEL TRUSS

TREE-SUPPORTED TRUSS

OVERLAPPING SINGLE-STRUT CABLE-SUPPORTED BEAM

BRACED BEAM

CABLE-STAYED BEAM

SUSPENDED CABLE SUPPORTED BEAM

BOWSTRING TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED STRUTED ARCH OR CABLE BEAM/TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED MULTI-STRUT BEAM OR TRUSS

GABLED TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED ARCHED FRAME

CABLE-SUPPORTED PORTAL FRAME

Figure 1.6: Different Beam Types

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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1.11 Structural Engineering Courses

25

Folded plates are used mostly as long span roofs. However, they can also be used as vertical walls to support both vertical and horizontal loads.

Membranes: 3D structures composed of a flexible 2D surface resisting tension only. They are usually cable-supported and are used for tents and long span roofs Fig. 1.8.

Figure 1.8: Examples of Air Supported Structures Shells: 3D structures composed of a curved 2D surface, they are usually shaped to transmit compressive axial stresses only, Fig. 1.9. Shells are classified in terms of their curvature.

1.11
22

Structural Engineering Courses

Structural engineering education can be approached from either one of two points of views, depending on the audience, ??. Architects: Start from overall design, and move toward detailed analysis. Emphasis on good understanding of overall structural behavior. Develop a good understanding of load trans-

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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1.12
23

1.12 References

27

fer mechanism for most types of structures, cables, arches, beams, frames, shells, plates. Approximate analysis for most of them.

Engineers: Emphasis is on the individual structural elements and not always on the total system. Focus on beams, frames (mostly 2D) and trusses. Very seldom are arches covered. Plates and shells are not even mentioned.

References

Following are some useful references for structural engineering, those marked by † were consulted, and “borrowed from” in preparing the Lecture Notes or are particularly recommended. Structures for Architect 1. Ambrose, J., Building Structures, second Ed. Wiley, 1993. 2. Billington, D.P. Rober Maillart’s Bridges; The Art of Engineering, Princeton University Pres, 1979. 3. †Billington, D.P., The Tower and the Bridge; The new art of structural engineering, Princeton University Pres,, 1983. 4. †Billington, D.P., Structures and the Urban Environment, Lectures Notes CE 262, Department of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, 1978 5. French, S., Determinate Structures; Statics, Strength, Analysis, Design, Delmar, 1996. 6. Gordon, J.E., Structures, or Why Things Do’nt Fall Down, Da Capo paperback, New York, 1978. 7. Gordon, J.E., The Science of Structures and Materials, Scientific American Library, 1988. 8. Hawkes, N., Structures, the way things are built, MacMillan, 1990. 9. Levy, M. and Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Fall Down, W.W.Norton, 1992. 10. †Lin, T.Y. and Stotesbury, S.D., Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John Wiley, 1981. 12. Petroski, H., To Enginer is Human, Vintage Books, 1992. 11. †Mainstone, R., Developments in Structural Form, Allen Lane Publishers, 1975.

13. †Salvadori, M. and Heller, R., Structure in Architecture; The Building of Buildings, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 1986. 14. Salvadori, M. and Levy, M., Structural Design in Architecture, Prentice hall, Second Edition, 1981. 15. Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Stand Up; The Strength of Architecture, Norton Paperack, 1990. 16. †Sandaker, B.N. and Eggen, A.P., The Structural Basis of Architecture, Whitney Library of Design, 1992. 17. †Schueller, W., The design of Building Structures, Prentice Hall, 1996. Structures for Engineers Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

but also to assign different factor of safety to each one. it is customary to treat them as a uniformly distributed load rather than as discrete loads. column to foundation. refer to the Universal Building Code (UBC). foundation to soil. 3 Loads are generally subdivided into two categories Vertical Loads or gravity load 1. 2. beam to girder. girder to column.2 Vertical Loads 6 For closely spaced identical loads (such as joist loads). Wind load (WL) 2. P-Delta effects (additional moment caused by the product of the vertical force and the lateral displacement caused by lateral load in a high rise building). slab to beam. Lateral Loads which act horizontally on the structure 1. (UBC 1995). Fig. 2. differential settlement of foundations.1 . 5 For a detailed coverage of loads.1 1 Introduction The main purpose of a structure is to transfer load from one point to another: bridge deck to pier. 2 There can also be secondary loads such as thermal (in restrained structures). 4 This distinction is helpful not only to compute a structure’s load.Draft Chapter 2 LOADS 2. live load (LL) also included are snow loads. dead load (DL) 2. Earthquake load (EL) this also includes hydrostatic and earth loads.

8 in. 12 in. Table 2. Hollow concrete block (light aggregate) 4 in. Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate) 4 in.c. Clay tile 10 in. Bricks 12 in. gypsum Walls Bricks 4 in.2 Vertical Loads 31 Material lb/ft2 1 1 2-10 12 1 4 1-5 6 3 9-14 3 2 17 40 14 2 10 5 40 120 30 55 80 21 38 55 Ceilings Channel suspended system Acoustical fiber tile Floors Steel deck Concrete-plain 1 in.) Plaster 1 in. Gypsum Block 5 in.3: Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . o. poured in place Partitions Clay tile 3 in.Draft 2. Wood studs 2x4 (12-16 in. Linoleum 1/4 in. 12 in. cement Plaster 1 in. 8 in. Hardwood Roofs Copper or tin 5 ply felt and gravel Shingles asphalt Clay tiles Sheathing wood Insulation 1 in.2: Weights of Building Materials Material Timber Steel Reinforced concrete lb/ft2 40-50 50-80 100-150 Table 2.

2. They range from 20 to 45 psf. 2.96 80 66.08 6 51. thus the total reduction in load is 740−410 740+600 × 100= 25% . Figure 2.2) 22 Other examples of loads acting on inclined surfaces are shown in Fig. 2.6 8 33.3 2.1 Lateral Loads Wind 23 Wind load depend on: velocity of the wind. Fig. 2.48 20 18.9 7 42.3 Lateral Loads Floor Cumulative R (%) Cumulative LL Cumulative R× LL Roof 8.5 40 (psf) (2.2 4 60 80 32 3 60 80 32 2 60 80 32 33 Total 740 410 The resulting design live load for the bottom column has been reduced from 740 Kips to 410 Kips .3.92 80 52.3 Snow 19 Roof snow load vary greatly depending on geographic location and elevation. Fig.4 80 46.2: Snow Map of the United States. 5. 2.2.3.8 80 32. ubc 20 21 Snow loads are always given on the projected length or area on a slope.Draft 2. shape of the building.44 80 59.4 9 25. geographical location. texture of the building surface and stiffness of the structure.9 5 59. For snow loads greater than 20 psf and roof pitches α more than 20◦ the snow load p may be reduced by R = (α − 20) p − 0. The total dead load is DL = (10)(60) = 600 Kips. The steeper the roof.32 80 38.4. height.2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 10 16. the lower the snow retention.

2)ft/sec2 (3600)sec/hr or qs = 0. 2. Wind load will cause suction on the leeward sides.3) where the air mass density ρ is the air weight divided by the acceleration of gravity g = 32. the air weighs 0. which corresponds to a dynamic pressure qs of about 60 psf (as high as the average vertical occupancy load in buildings). At sea level and a temperature of 15o C (59o F). Table 2. 27 28 29 Wind pressure increases with height. Fig. (UBC 1995) 26 During storms. Figure 2.00256V 2 (2.3 Lateral Loads Wind loads are particularly significant on tall buildings1 . Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .0765)lb/ft3 (5280)ft/mile qs = V (2. Fig.5: Wind Map of the United States. 2. 1 The primary design consideration for very high rise buildings is the excessive drift caused by lateral load (wind and possibly earthquakes). wind velocities may reach values up to or greater than 150 miles per hour. 35 When a steady streamline airflow of velocity V is completely stopped by a rigid body.Draft 24 25 2.0765 lb/ft3 this would yield a pressure of 2 1 (0.7 This magnitude must be modified to account for the shape and surroundings of the building.5) where V is the maximum wind velocity (in miles per hour) and qs is in psf.4) 2 (32. the stagnation pressure (or velocity pressure) qs was derived by Bernouilli (1700-1782) 1 qs = ρV 2 2 (2. V can be obtained from wind maps (in the United States 70 ≤ V ≤ 110).2 ft/sec2 .5.5.

Windward Side Gabled Frames (V:H) Roof Slope <9:12 −0.3 Lateral Loads Thus.6: Ce Coefficients for Wind Load. supporting or containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substances to be dangerous to the safety of the general public if released. II Hazardous Facilities: Structures housing. Tanks.3 −1.6.4 >12:12 0.7 Leeward Side −0. Fire and police stations.7 Table 2.4 Horizontal Projections −0. flat terrain facing large bodies of water Flat open terrain. standby power-generating equipment.34 1.Draft 2. capacity > 300 persons.4 −0.3 height > 40 ft 1.80 Exposure D C B Open. or surface irregularities 20 ft or more in height Table 2. It accounts for the fact that wind velocity increases with height and that dynamic character of the airflow (i.8. Table 2.7 −0. the design pressure p (psf) is given by p = Ce Cq Iqs The pressure is assumed to be normal to all walls and roofs and 37 (2. (UBC 1995) I Importance Factor as given by Table 2. Structures and equipment in government. extending one-half mile or open from the site in any full quadrant Terrain with buildings. III Special occupancy structure: Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly.7 9:12 to 12:12 0.7 −0.7 Walls 0. where I Essential Facilities: Hospitals. communication centers.7 −0.8 Buildings (height < 200 ft) Vertical Projections height < 40 ft 1.e the wind pressure is not steady).06-2.7: Wind Pressure Coefficients Cq .19 0.62-1.39-2.6) Ce Velocity Pressure Coefficient accounts for height. (UBC 1995) Cq Pressure Coefficient is a shape factor which is given in Table 2. exposure and gust factor. Emergency vehicle shelters.7 for gabled frames.5 −1. Ce 1. forest. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

70 mph Exposure C.3 Lateral Loads 39 400 350 300 Exposure B. 70 mph Exposure B. since the building is protected we can take Ce = 0. 80 mph Height Above Grade (ft) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Approximate Design Wind Pressure (psf) 45 50 Figure 2. From Fig. Solution: 1.5 the maximum wind velocity is St. Louis is 70 mph. I = 1..7. 80 mph Exposure C.Draft 2.54 psf. The base wind pressure is qs = 0. 2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .00256 × (70)2 = 12.7: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures Example 2-2: Wind Load Determine the wind forces on the building shown on below which is built in St Louis and is surrounded by trees.

Draft 2. (UBC 1995) I: Importance Factor: which was given by Table 2. 2. Figure 2.3 Lateral Loads 41 Figure 2.10.8) where: Z: Zone Factor: to be determined from Fig.9: Seismic Zones of the United States.8.8: Vibrations of a Building 36 The horizontal force at each level is calculated as a portion of the base shear force V V = ZIC W RW (2.9 and Table 2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

L. 160 - N. N. 160 - Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .12: Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems. N.L.3 Lateral Loads 43 Structural System RW H (ft) Bearing wall system Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less 8 All other light-framed walls 6 Shear walls Concrete 8 Masonry 8 Building frame system using trussing or shear walls) Steel eccentrically braced ductiel frame 10 Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less 9 All other light-framed walls 7 Shear walls Concrete 8 Masonry 8 Concentrically braced frames Steel 8 Concrete (only for zones I and 2) 8 Heavy timber 8 Moment-resisting frame system Special moment-resisting frames (SMRF) Steel 12 Concrete 12 Concrete intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF)only for zones 1 and 2 8 Ordinary moment-resisting frames (OMRF) Steel 6 Concrete (only for zone 1) 5 Dual systems (selected cases are for ductile rigid frames only) Shear walls Concrete with SMRF 12 Masonry with SMRF 8 Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame 6-12 Concentrically braced frame 12 Steel with steel SMRF 10 Steel with steel OMRF 6 Concrete with concrete SMRF (only for zones 1 and 2) 9 Table 2.L.L. (UBC 1995) 65 65 240 160 240 65 65 240 160 160 65 N. N. L. 160 160-N.Draft 2.L.

and the structure is 25(12)=300 ft high.25)(2.3 Lateral Loads 5. rigid space frame concrete structure in the short direction.18-b) (2. (Schueller 1996) Determine the approximate critical lateral loading for a 25 storey. For this investigation.086)(16000) = 1375 lbs 7. The total seismic base shear is ZIC (0. This office building is located in an urban environment with a wind velocity of 70 mph and in seismic zone 4. 8. The rigid frames are spaced 25 ft apart in the cross section and 20 ft in the longitudinal direction. The total vertical load is W = 2 ((200 + 0.3)(1.75) V = = = 0. there is no whiplash.18-a) (2.086W RW 12 = (0.7 lbs 12 + 24 (1375)(12) = 458.19-b) Example 2-4: Earthquake Load on a Tall Building.7 sec.17) (2.Draft 2. an average building total dead load of 192 psf is used. The load on each floor is thus given by F2 = F1 = (1375)(24) = 916. Soil conditions are unknown. 470 k 2638 k 1523 k 300/2=150’ 2(300)/3=200’ 84000 k 3108 k 5(20)=100’ Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 7(25)=175’ 25(12)=300’ .5(400)) (20) = 16000 lbs 6. ductile.3 lbs 12 + 24 45 (2.19-a) (2. The plan dimension of the building is 175x100 ft. Since T < 0.

K = 40 1−sin Φ 1+sin Φ is the pressure coefficient.10: Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures q = γW h where γW = 62. Fig.4 2.976 in Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 2.29) Example 2-5: Hydrostatic Load The basement of a building is 12 ft below grade.28) where γ is the soil density. q = Kγh (2. 41 If the structure is partially submerged. h is the height.10.Draft 2.4 Other Loads 47 Other Loads Hydrostatic and Earth Structures below ground must resist lateral earth pressure. and Φ ≈ 30◦ .0 inch (62. Ground water is located 9 ft below grade.4 lbs/ft3 . (2. Figure 2.1 39 2.4. Since p = γh we equate the two pressures and solve for h the height of the concrete slab (62. what thickness concrete slab is required to exactly balance the hydrostatic uplift? Solution: The hydrostatic pressure must be countered by the pressure caused by the weight of concrete.4) lbs/ft3 × (12 − 9) ft = (150) lbs/ft3 × h ⇒ h = water concrete 15.4) lbs/ft 3 (150) lbs/ft 3 (3) ft(12) in/ft = 14. For sand and gravel γ = 120 lb/ ft3 . it must also resist hydrostatic pressure of water.

E= earthquake.7L Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 47 48 Furthermore.1 45 46 Other Important Considerations Load Combinations Live loads specified by codes represent the maximum possible loads.11: Truck Load 2. L= live. structures should be designed to resist a combination of loads. 6. H= soil: 49 For the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method of concrete structures. Denoting D= dead.5 Other Important Considerations 49 Bridge Loads For highway bridges.3 2. design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway Transportation Officials). Hence. Lr= roof live.4.4. T= temperature.5 2. W= wind.Draft 2. The HS-20 truck is used for the design of bridges on main highways. building codes allow certain reduction when certain loads are combined together. The likelihood of all these loads occurring simultaneously is remote. 1.d. Figure 2.) requires that the following load combinations be considered: 1. This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced.4D+1.4 Impact Load 2. the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building design code (318) (318 n.3.5. Fig. S= snow. Either the design truck with specified axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform load and concentrated load.

Draft 2.13: Load Life of a Structure.5 Other Important Considerations 51 Figure 2.12: Load Placement to Maximize Moments Figure 2. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 2. 58 An example of load transfer mechanism is shown in Fig. 2. The beam or girder is really part of a three dimensional structure in which load is transmitted from any point in the structure to the foundation through any one of various structural forms.Draft 57 2. 2.17.16 or by two way slabs as illustrated in Fig.5 Other Important Considerations 1. Fig. The section is part of a beam or girder.18. Load transfer in a structure is accomplished through a “hierarchy” of simple flexural elements which are then connected to the columns. 53 2.

Draft 2.17: Two Way Actions Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 Other Important Considerations 55 Figure 2.

Fig. Usually the most desirable members are those which have a large section moduli (S) in proportion to their area (A). density of 490 lb/cu ft. 4 Practically all grades of steel have a Young Modulus equal to 29. C are channel sections MC Miscellaneous channel which can not be classified as a C shape by dimensions.Draft Chapter 3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Proper understanding of structural materials is essential to both structural analysis and to structural design. 3. . 9 Common sections are: S sections were the first ones rolled in America and have a slope on their inside flange surfaces of 1 to 6. 5 The yield stress of steel can vary from 40 ksi to 250 ksi. 3.1 3. nickle. their depth and their weight. 3. 8 Sections are designated by the shape of their cross section.1 3 Steel Structural Steel Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.000 ksi. W or wide flange sections have a much smaller inner slope which facilitates connections and rivetting. 1 2 Characteristics of the most commonly used structural materials will be highlighted.5%) or by adding other elements such as silicon. and a coefficient of thermal expansion equal to 0.65 × 10−5 /deg F. Fig.1. 27 in. riveted or welded. For example W 27× 114 is a W section. Its properties can be greatly varied by altering the carbon content (always less than 0.2. Most commonly used structural steel are A36 (σyld = 36 ksi) and A572 (σyld = 50 ksi).1 6 Structural steel can be rolled into a wide variety of shapes and sizes. 7 Steel can be bolted. deep weighing 114 lb/ft. manganese and copper. W sections constitute about 50% of the tonnage of rolled structural steel.

) and 90 (over 2. welded or bolted.1 Steel 10 59 HP is a bearing pile section. Hot and cold rolled sheets. WT is a T section cut from a W section in two. ASTM Desig. resist contraction.5. M is a miscellaneous section. Fig.2) Properties of structural steel are tabulated in Table 3.) (32 σu (kksi) A500 Cold formed welded and seamless sections. welded. Grade 100: 100 (to 2.1: Properties of Major Structural Steels 12 Rolled sections. The remaining regions continue to cool and contract in the plastic condition and develop tensile stresses. and develop compressive stresses. plates and bars Grade A: 33. 3. it cools unevenly because of varying exposure.1. Cold rolled sheet in cut lengths Structural shapes. Grade D 40. Grade E 80 Grade 36: 36 (to 4 in. Due to those residual stresses. This would have important implications on the flexural and axial strength of beams and columns. The member is hot just after rolling or welding.). Bolted and welded Atmospheric corrosion resistant Cold formed sections Bridges σy (kksi) 36 up through 8 in. Grade B: 42. Fig3. above 8. Plates and bars 1 in and 2 less thick. bolted. Bolted and welded Building frames and trusses. Grade C: 46 36 42 A501 A529 A606 A611 A 709 45-50 Grade C 33. 13 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5in. 3.Draft 3.1) (3.5 to 4 in. Fig. The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula Sx ≈ wd/10 or Ix ≈ Sx and the plastic modulus can be approximated by Zx ≈ wd/9 11 d ≈ wd2 /20 2 (3. the stress-strain curve of a rolled section exhibits a non-linear segment prior to the theoretical yielding. L are angle sections which may have equal or unequal sides.4 have residual stresses. Grade 50: 50. Hot formed welded and seamless sections. Those originate during the rolling or fabrication of a member.3 and welded ones. Buildings and bridges General structural purpose Riveted.) Table 3. The area that cool first become stiffer. A36 Shapes Available Shapes and bars Use Riveted.

A rope consists of multiple strands helically wound around a central plastic core. and usually have a yield stress of 60 ksi 1 .375 4/8=0.650 13.500 5/8=0.25 4.56 2.2 Aluminum 18 Aluminum is used whenever light weight combined with strength is an important factor.257 Area ( in2 ) 0.270 11/8=1.75 3.2: Properties of Reinforcing Bars Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg. bolting and to a lesser extent by welding. light roof framing.167 0.4 × 10−5 and a density of 173 lbs/ft3 . F (and thus must be properly protected from fire). Those properties. 14 No. 4 No.14 3. fabric roofs and other structural applications.1. Those bars have a deformation on their surface to increase the bond with concrete. F 15 16 Steel is also used as wire strands and ropes for suspended roofs. 10 No.18 1.376 0. 3 No.000 ksi (about three times lower than steel). 2 No. along with its resistance to corrosion have made it the material of choice for airplane structures.693 18/8=2. 11 No. 18 Diameter (in.43 5.128 10/8=1. 5 No.32 7. 9 No.60 Table 3.31 0.2 Aluminum 61 Reinforcing Steel Steel is also used as reinforcing bars in concrete.09 Weight lb/ft 0.303 5.2 14 3.400 4.044 2.000 ksi. Table 3. and an ultimate strength of 220 ksi.625 6/8=0.043 1.79 1. 1 Stirrups which are used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear usually have a yield stress of only 40 ksi.5202 2.36 2.00 Perimeter in 0.000 9/8=1. 8 No.000 psi) but with the addition of alloys it can go up. 7 No.Draft 3. cable-stayed bridges.875 8/8=1.96 2.668 1. Aluminum has a modulus of elasticity equal to 10.05 0.2.) 2/8=0.410 14/8=1.60 0. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .54 3.44 0.27 1.313 7.11 0. and a modulus of elasticity of 20.79 1.00 1.99 4.20 0. 19 20 Aluminum members can be connected by riveting. 3.750 7/8=0. and becomes brittle at −30 deg. Bar Designation No. 21 The ultimate strength of pure aluminum is low (13. a coefficient of thermal expansion of 2. 6 No.250 3/8=0.57 1. 17 Prestressing Steel cables have an ultimate strength up to 270 ksi. A strand is a helical arrangement of wires around a central wire.670 3.

and one of the few natural materials with good tensile properties.05% after one year (strain).4 Masonry 30 31 32 33 63 Density of normal weight concrete is 145 lbs/ft3 and 100 lbs/ft3 for lightweight concrete. and a 2% reinforcement. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .7. This shrinkage is about 0. 41 Members can be laminated together under good quality control. this is called creep. 35 36 The mortar used is a mixture of sand.5 Timber 37 Timber is one of the earliest construction materials. 38 39 The properties of timber vary greatly. all modern structural masonry blocks are essentially compression members with low tensile resistance. Thus if the concrete is restrained. masonry cement.. Fig. and the strength is time dependent. stones by the Egyptians. such as stones. 3. 3. ============== 3 For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete. and either Portland cement or hydrated lime. 40 The most commonly used species of timber in construction are Douglas fir. stacked and bonded together with mortar. 3.4 34 Masonry Masonry consists of either natural materials. When concrete is poured (or rather placed).500 psi can be achieved. 3.6 42 Steel Section Properties Dimensions and properties of rolled sections are tabulated in the following pages. As for concrete. Coefficient of thermal expansion is 0. southern pine. Concrete will also deform with time due to the applied load.65 × 10−5 /deg F for normal weight concrete.Draft 3. and ice blocks by the Eskimos. then cracking will occur 3 . and flexural strengths as high as 2. This should be taken into consideration when computing the deflections (which can be up to three times the instantaneous elastic deflection).. 4 Mud bricks were used by the Babylonians. the free water not needed for the hydration process evaporates over a period of time and the concrete will shrink. can reduce the shrinkage by 75%. hemlock and larch. or of manufactured products such as bricks and concrete blocks4 . Timber is a good shock absorber (many wood structures in Japan have resisted repeated earthquakes).

6 5310 461 542 86 22.0 W 27x368 108.8 W 21x248 72.4 6.9 6.5 5.2 5.7 6.6 343.0 835.0 108.0 337.6 9660 674 768 108 29.7 W 24x192 56.7 W 24x 84 24.0 708.0 206.2 3.0 154.5 2.5 W 24x229 67.8 10800 846 1120 168 12.7 20400 1300 1670 224 15.0 252.0 3620 267 139 28 49.5 3.6 200.0 W 21x333 97.2 3.9 2370 196 94 21 49.74 23.87 30.7 4.7 4760 345 184 37 42.0 187.9 11900 811 953 133 24.06 24.5 172.0 71.0 W 24x370 108.0 1410.4 4.0 816.99 27.0 432.43 28.66 28.1 4.26 24.2 4.02 25.0 W 24x131 38.9 4.00 24.5 4090 299 159 32 47.0 238.0 511.9 6.0 351.0 61.5 5.0 1130.9 W 21x111 32.1 6760 569 694 109 18.73 23.6 6260 491 530 82 28.6 5170 414 443 68 33.0 193.5 2.29 27.9 3220 295 333 54 31.1 3100 258 259 41 39.0 915.63 27.6 4020 329 340 53 39.0 28.29 28.0 82.1 10700 789 919 137 18.0 476.6 5.7 134.0 105.39 30.0 57.0 62.0 126.0 33.71 25.6 Architects .97 31.7 7.98 28.5 4.0 267.3 307.0 93.4 289.2 W 21x132 38.0 68.4 6.2 3540 291 297 46 43.0 263.7 W 27x235 69.0 133.3 W 24x 94 27.6 W 24x103 30.8 2.6 7.7 2.11 27.0 313.1 2.0 W 24x335 98.0 W 21x364 107.4 4.9 3.0 237.6 Zx Zy in3 in3 1880.0 1020.5 327.4 W 21x201 59.06 21.5 2.8 W 24x492 144.0 5.2 4.0 1830 154 70 16 50.0 109.61 29.0 149.0 1530.8 W 27x114 33.2 370.02 25.5 7.7 8490 644 724 110 22.2 3.0 13.83 21.0 1020.0 119.34 26.0 189.6 W 27x258 75.8 6820 531 578 89 26.0 300.4 3270 243 124 25 52.0 154.57 26.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 W 27x539 158.7 W 24x 76 22.59 27.0 375.0 2.2 1550.2 3000 245 119 26 41.5 395.0 4.0 41.8 244.2 14500 970 1170 161 20.2 1600 151 71 17 hc tw 2.6 279.7 5680 450 479 74 30.7 W 27x307 90.48 24.3 25500 1570 2110 277 13.74 23.9 19100 1290 1670 237 11.2 W 21x182 53.0 24.1 2.9 17100 1170 1490 214 13.0 168.0 1250.0 6.0 W 24x450 132.0 92.Draft Designation 3.0 394.7 10800 742 859 120 26.00 29.1 1550 131 34 10 54.7 2.68 21.0 922.0 606.2 W 27x281 82.1 W 24x 62 18.4 280.0 43.5 W 24x117 34.7 4.7 6280 455 497 71 40.36 21.0 559.6 177.0 34.8 W 21x223 65.0 850.52 31.71 29.10 23.4 W 24x104 30.5 2420 227 248 40 Structural Concepts and 32.5 3.3 2.2 W 21x402 118.5 7650 588 651 99 24.13 23.0 933.0 W 24x250 73.0 49.3 2.0 30.7 5.6 5.0 468.2 13400 957 1160 170 15.3 2.2 2.0 589.3 1130.0 437.8 5950 510 609 96 20.0 227.5 153.0 137.5 d in 32.00 24.0 26.0 6.6 1350 114 29 8 10.0 744.0 2100 176 82 18 52.3 W 21x 83 24.31 24.9 W 21x300 88.1 2670 249 274 44 37.0 567.8 4.52 27.0 296.65 29.7 W 21x101 Victor Saouma 29.92 23.74 24.9 3.0 530.0 1710.0 628.0 279.92 26.0 W 27x494 145.03 22.3 W 24x176 51.5 254.0 1120.8 12200 937 1270 189 11.0 6.47 25.8 W 21x 93 27.7 W 27x 84 24.4 W 27x146 42.0 210.4 6990 502 555 79 36.6 11900 864 1030 152 17.0 169.0 136.24 25.7 W 24x146 43.35 23.0 W 27x178 52.9 4280 380 435 70 26.0 32.0 512.5 3.2 8480 692 873 134 15.0 3.13 26.0 38.7 7.6 16100 1060 1310 179 19.8 W 27x194 57.0 171.2 253.0 122.4 7620 632 785 122 17.9 W 27x129 37.6 9600 718 823 124 20.53 24.0 769.72 22.0 115.47 25.54 27.0 214.0 81.2 W 24x207 60.5 W 27x102 30.0 W 27x448 131.9 13100 884 1050 146 22.0 461.0 W 24x408 119.8 9610 769 994 151 14.9 2700 222 109 24 45.0 418.0 741.4 278.0 W 27x 94 27.0 75.3 305.9 2.09 28.2 8870 624 704 100 32.0 5630 411 443 64 39.53 24.0 15.0 373.1 15100 1060 1320 191 14.7 3.6 W 21x166 48.3 7820 556 618 88 33.5 8.3 W 27x161 47.2 4580 371 391 60 35.81 27.0 676.9 6.5 224.0 W 27x336 98.0 37.0 1380.0 1240.8 W 21x122 35.38 27.3 W 21x 73 21.1 7.0 1010.4 1830 171 81 20 41.3 5.7 W 24x162 47.2 W 21x275 80.4 22900 1440 1890 250 14.0 97.09 26.24 bf 2tf 65 Ix Sx Iy Sy in4 in3 in4 in3 12.8 W 21x147 43.73 26.43 21.7 2850 213 106 21 10.3 2960 273 305 49 34.4 W 24x306 89.7 196.8 5.8 W 24x279 82.2 W 24x 55 16.62 21.6 4730 417 483 77 24.51 21.6 333.0 W 27x407 119.9 18100 1170 1480 200 17.5 7.0 663.7 Systems for 221.1 W 27x217 63.1 3630 329 376 60 28.4 W 24x 68 20.42 30.48 22.3 2070 192 93 22 36.2 5.

0 16.1 78.10 9.7 6.9 38.4 25.8 14.2 41.1 22.03 13.24 10.6 23.4 30.6 5.71 13.2 14.0 21.9 6.9 29.71 14.2 23.5 8.4 8.6 7.47 10.0 4.04 13.5 6.0 102.3 12.0 243.1 6.66 14.0 17.3 13.4 75.6 15.6 13.3 74.9 69.0 8.3 24.82 16.0 27.0 537.4 147.4 9.8 6.7 6.2 25.8 7.2 9.6 43.0 132.6 85.4 48.7 4.1 26.84 13.8 2.9 35.6 81.4 7.8 20.36 11.0 214.99 9.6 9.5 8.0 428.94 12.7 5.0 53.3 2.0 36.3 1.8 4.4 8.0 108.8 33.8 7.05 14.34 12.3 28.0 143.2 5.3 5.6 17.9 7.0 31.0 111.0 5.0 7.4 2.8 38.2 28.0 130.0 164.91 13.3 2.4 11.5 34.2 49.1 19.98 13.98 10.2 9.0 119.0 15.0 113.0 85.38 12.12 12.2 21.0 7.3 26.0 481.2 10.1 11.22 12.6 Zy in3 40.5 d in 14.32 15.0 2.0 8.3 8.2 44.2 11.4 8.3 49.0 6.4 36.0 12.5 37.7 4.6 8.1 10.8 16.0 96.6 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .0 9.2 41.9 46.0 275.09 9.2 29.3 11.9 20.0 196.5 5.0 115.5 54.1 6.4 77.4 19.2 6.89 12.6 31.7 6.5 98.9 35.2 10.8 89.17 10.1 67.0 5.4 39.3 7.8 11.1 29.9 15.6 60.6 11.7 16.2 603.41 15.3 7.Draft Designation 3.6 24.38 14.0 311.41 13.2 61.5 9.4 3.4 69.7 15.10 13.7 57.6 8.0 14.2 32.6 6.1 17.0 177.7 3.3 17.0 44.8 22.0 4.0 17.4 64.7 13.7 20.31 12.0 28.99 11.4 274.6 18.4 25.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 21.7 22.4 13.0 7.5 2.0 159.8 55.0 7.5 5.19 12.9 40.85 15.1 12.0 5.2 4.7 7.8 47.0 220.4 54.9 17.6 8.7 18.7 7.2 12.8 7.7 61.6 14.5 4.6 4.06 12.9 36.8 10.7 2.9 22.8 7.2 33.6 36.19 12.8 36.74 16.89 13.1 5.9 3.9 27.0 32.9 32.6 20.7 8.5 6.1 45.73 10.6 7.4 54.1 21.5 9.7 6.2 43.4 54.7 39.9 7.6 66.1 3.1 7.9 74.9 72.1 37.71 12.6 5.3 20.5 46.1 17.40 10.1 53.92 13.5 30.4 3.3 40.8 50.0 126.22 10.5 9.0 186.3 7.0 87.7 W 14x 74 W 14x 68 W 14x 61 W 14x 53 W 14x 48 W 14x 43 W 14x 38 W 14x 34 W 14x 30 W 14x 26 W 14x 22 W 12x336 W 12x305 W 12x279 W 12x252 W 12x230 W 12x210 W 12x190 W 12x170 W 12x152 W 12x136 W 12x120 W 12x106 W 12x 96 W 12x 87 W 12x 79 W 12x 72 W 12x 65 W 12x 58 W 12x 53 W 12x 50 W 12x 45 W 12x 40 W 12x 35 W 12x 30 W 12x 26 W 12x 22 W 12x 19 W 12x 16 W 12x 14 W 10x112 W 10x100 W 10x 88 W 10x 77 W 10x 68 W 10x 60 W 10x 54 W 10x 49 W 10x 45 W 10x 39 W 10x 33 W 10x 30 W 10x 26 W 10x 22 W 10x 19 W 10x 17 W 10x 15 W 10x 12 6.7 21.5 4.0 244.1 67.5 29.5 25.3 10.92 9.53 12.2 3.6 14.2 29.60 10.2 8.0 19.10 10.79 13.16 11.6 61.5 6.0 386.8 8.8 86.87 bf 2tf hc tw 67 Ix in4 796 723 640 541 485 428 385 340 291 245 199 4060 3550 3110 2720 2420 2140 1890 1650 1430 1240 1070 933 833 740 662 597 533 475 425 394 350 310 285 238 204 156 130 103 89 716 623 534 455 394 341 303 272 248 209 170 170 144 118 96 82 69 54 Sx in3 112 103 92 78 70 63 55 49 42 35 29 483 435 393 353 321 292 263 235 209 186 163 145 131 118 107 97 88 78 71 65 58 52 46 39 33 25 21 17 15 126 112 98 86 76 67 60 55 49 42 35 32 28 23 19 16 14 11 Iy in4 134 121 107 58 51 45 27 23 20 9 7 1190 1050 937 828 742 664 589 517 454 398 345 301 270 241 216 195 174 107 96 56 50 44 24 20 17 5 4 3 2 236 207 179 154 134 116 103 93 53 45 37 17 14 11 4 4 3 2 Sy in3 27 24 22 14 13 11 8 7 6 4 3 177 159 143 127 115 104 93 82 73 64 56 49 44 40 36 32 29 21 19 14 12 11 7 6 5 2 2 1 1 45 40 35 30 26 23 21 19 13 11 9 6 5 4 2 2 1 1 Zx in3 126.6 6.91 11.5 51.5 7.7 6.6 47.0 348.1 32.5 5.1 3.7 18.3 27.06 11.0 98.12 12.9 6.25 12.0 97.3 1.33 10.84 10.5 60.1 45.8 46.11 9.1 35.50 12.0 147.3 31.7 6.17 14.

7.85 0.x 30 C 12.28 0.0 103.1 1.5 5.9 5.63 0. 4.2 d in 15.4 3.x 15 C 9.9 1.x 8 C 5.1 5.87 0.1 Iy in4 11.26 1.2 1.4 3.80 10.0 315.x 21 C 10.6 3.20 Zx in3 8. 3. 3.99 0.20 50.53 1.64 1.5 4.78 3.1 2.8 6.0 129.38 1.17 1.0 349.56 0. 9.25 0.19 2.0 2.96 1.1 8.6 27.14 4.36 2.7 11.1 21.0 91.12 7.81 2.50 13.70 0.34 0.80 13.97 1. 12.60 29.05 0.01 0.9 67.93 1.40 C 15.37 3.x 13 C 6. 8.43 0.20 57.8 1.x 15 C 9.x 25 C 10.4 1. 10.4 4.0 144. 9.x 50 C 15.2 24.0 9.26 6. 6.78 0.x 9 C 5.3 3.48 1.6 1.13 5.9 7.5 20.8 2.4 2.94 3. 15.x 34 C 12.33 3.60 23.78 0.49 3.5 11.0 27.x 12 C 7.73 1.90 9. 6.4 60.x 13 C 8.x 5 C 3.3 17.48 0.9 6.x 30 C 10.x 7 C 4.11 2.69 0.49 0.9 1.1 4.68 8. 12.36 3.28 2.x 15 C 7.84 3. 9.32 1. 10.76 1.06 1.72 1.6 2.x 7 C 4.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 14. 8.88 3.54 0.8 46.5 42.3 5.0 162.51 2.58 1.40 26.78 3.16 1.9 44.32 1.x 10 C 6.x 11 C 6.8 3.9 51.1 7.23 0. 12.2 13.7 Sx in3 53.6 2.x 40 C 15. 6.3 10.27 0.45 0.05 1.50 12.50 1.1 8.71 2. 9.9 4.55 9.x 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .30 15.87 6.2 21.32 0.8 5.x 20 C 9.9 3.8 13.x 12 C 7.0 24.9 4.x 5 C 3.8 7.20 Sy in3 3.70 0.x 25 C 12.x 19 C 8.26 1. 5.98 1.7 18.0 8.0 2. 7.0 47.17 0.20 25.2 15.36 1.6 11.15 5.1 1. 4.0 8. bf 2tf hc tw 69 Ix in4 404.88 1.Draft Designation 3.2 78.1 32.76 0.43 1. 15.0 36.31 0.81 2.35 2.95 2.65 1. 7.23 8.38 0.47 0.x 6 C 3.3 6.4 15.5 4.40 7. 5. 3.63 0.47 3.30 Zy in3 8.13 4.17 6.92 0.15 0.23 4.42 1.17 1.3 1. 19.73 1.0 3.x 14 C 8.40 33.01 0.80 16. 10. 8.5 13.6 3.47 2.5 1.x 20 C 10.8 10.57 0.64 0. 10.8 7.

04 3.750 4.94 5.61 3.57 3.55 5.2 3.47 2.250 4.53 3.438 4.0x3.06 4.8 15.5x0.52 1.67 2.3 10.0x3.80 11.0x3.75 4.74 7.75 1.5x0.6 Steel Section Properties Designation A in2 7.83 4.86 1.6 2.0x4.79 2.78 1.33 8.86 2.18 3.25 2.70 12.16 6.66 5.74 2.99 0.15 1.33 3.55 2.500 4.9 1.8 2.86 2.0x0.49 2.65 6.44 7.10 3.0x0.11 2.0x0.20 6.8 4.39 1.9 1.438 4.500 5.99 Zx in3 9.86 4.16 1.3 1.4 11.0x3.0x3.0x0.0x0.438 5.0x3.68 7.11 1.53 3.67 6.9 5.375 4.06 2.375 5.36 2.56 3.81 2.10 9.5x0.0x0.0x0.36 3.40 1.2 2.18 Sy in3 5.83 6.313 5.56 4.23 3.33 8.49 2.60 20.0x5.71 3.5 3.3 1.63 3.0 1.1 4.0 8.5x0.03 4.73 2.0x0.0 1.0 5.29 1.750 5.313 5.0x0.60 11.81 4.75 0.71 2.40 1.9 3.39 1.42 5.4 6.30 9.0x0.75 1.3 3.0 4.0x0.74 2.3 4.250 5.2 4.0x0.16 2.4 7.90 1.0x3.47 2.60 11.0x0.0 2.80 16.40 1.0x3.95 5.0x3.80 13.5x0.9 1.6 3.44 4.88 2.32 2.30 19.0x3.500 4.41 3.7 Iy in4 17.0 4.7 5.313 4.6 2.0x0.04 1.375 5.14 3.8 6.0x0.56 1.35 1.77 4.375 5.98 6.5x0.0x4.4 2.625 5.40 2.16 2.80 8.42 2.70 6.5 1.0x3.0x4.94 5.16 0.95 2.05 2.29 1.0x3.00 16.05 3.438 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 1.07 4.8 1.07 4.50 3.30 10.88 3.79 71 5.75 3.70 12.250 4.5 1.4 8.02 0.83 1.0x3.20 23.11 1.0x4.0x3.70 7.80 8.80 15.3 5.97 4.0x4.Draft L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L 3.0 8.8 2.03 5.0x0.32 1.875 5.81 3.00 8.5x0.0 10.79 3.313 5.0x0.83 2.9 2.60 1.50 3.86 3.16 2.3 1.00 3.12 0.56 2.58 2.7 3.30 12.70 13.5 Sx in3 5.500 5.68 5.94 3.500 5.72 2.4 3.1 7.0x5.97 1.60 18.0x0.68 4.81 1.03 1.5 2.92 4.60 12.03 Zy in3 9.05 1.9 7.6 5.6 5.72 5.0 1.438 5.0x5.17 4.0x5.0x4.33 3.68 5.80 11.0x5.36 3.0x5.750 5.20 6.4 2.61 2.7 6.42 2.16 6.9 1.7 7.250 4.25 1.21 1.16 4.0x0.0x0.38 4.4 9.55 4.0x3.61 3.27 5.9 12.625 4.75 3.31 2.36 3.6 2.313 4.04 2.97 3.09 2.22 1.20 14.31 2.7 3.80 Ix in4 17.60 9.0x0.82 1.18 2.95 5.7 1.0x3.10 7.500 4.89 0.90 10.30 10.5x0.09 2.375 4.5 2.00 10.03 4.02 0.00 15.52 1.42 2.40 8.20 11.0x4.32 1.438 5.61 3.30 9.0x3.4 13.09 5.625 5.0x3.61 2.7 13.6 11.0x5.5x0.5x0.5x0.50 15.56 3.35 1.625 5.0x3.44 2.87 wgt k/f t 27.86 3.0x0.0x3.5x0.

Draft
3.7 Joists

73

3.7

Joists

43 Steel joists, Fig. 3.8 look like shallow trusses (warren type) and are designed as simply supported uniformly loaded beams assuming that they are laterally supported on the top (to prevent lateral torsional buckling). The lateral support is often profided by the concrete slab it suppors. 44

The standard open-web joist designation consists of the depth, the series designation and the chord type. Three series are available for floor/roof construction, Table 3.3 Series K LH DLH Depth (in) 8-30 18-48 52-72 Span (ft) 8-60 25-96 89-120

Table 3.3: Joist Series Characteristics
[Design Length = Span – 0.33 FT.]

Figure 3.8: prefabricated Steel Joists
45 Typical joist spacing ranges from 2 to 4 ft, and provides an efficient use of the corrugated steel deck which itself supports the concrete slab. 46 For preliminary estimates of the joist depth, a depth to span ratio of 24 can be assumed, therefore

d ≈ L/2 where d is in inches, and L in ft.

Table 3.4 list the load carrying capacity of open web, K-series steel joists based on a amximum allowable stress of 30 ksi. For each span, the first line indicates the total safe uniformly
47

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

4" 4"

Span

4"

(3.5)

Draft
3.7 Joists
Joint 8K1 10K1 12K1 12K3 12K5 Desig. Depth 8 10 12 12 12 (in.) ≈ 5.1 5 5 5.7 7.1 W (lbs/ft) Span (ft.) 8 550 550 9 550 550 10 550 550 480 550 11 532 550 377 542 12 444 550 550 550 550 288 455 550 550 550 13 377 479 550 550 550 225 363 510 510 510 14 324 412 500 550 550 179 289 425 463 463 15 281 358 434 543 550 145 234 344 428 434 16 246 313 380 476 550 119 192 282 351 396 17 277 336 420 550 159 234 291 366 18 246 299 374 507 134 197 245 317 19 221 268 335 454 113 167 207 269 20 199 241 302 409 97 142 177 230 21 218 273 370 123 153 198 22 199 249 337 106 132 172 23 181 227 308 93 116 150 24 166 208 282 81 101 132 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 14K1 14K3 14K4 14K6 16K2 16K3 16K4 16K5 16K6 16K7 16K9 14 5.2 14 6 14 6.7 14 7.7 16 5.5 16 6.3 16 7 16 7.5 16 8.1 16 8.6 16 10.0

75

550 550 511 475 448 390 395 324 352 272 315 230 284 197 257 170 234 147 214 128 196 113 180 100 166 88 154 79 143 70

550 550 550 507 550 467 495 404 441 339 395 287 356 246 322 212 293 184 268 160 245 141 226 124 209 110 193 98 180 88

550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 530 397 475 336 428 287 388 248 353 215 322 188 295 165 272 145 251 129 233 115 216 103

550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 550 408 550 383 525 347 475 299 432 259 395 226 362 199 334 175 308 56 285 139 265 124

550 550 512 488 456 409 408 347 368 297 333 255 303 222 277 194 254 170 234 150 216 133 200 119 186 106 173 95 161 86 151 78 142 71

550 550 550 526 508 456 455 386 410 330 371 285 337 247 308 216 283 189 260 167 240 148 223 132 207 118 193 106 180 96 168 87 158 79

550 550 550 526 550 490 547 452 493 386 447 333 406 289 371 252 340 221 313 195 289 173 268 155 249 138 232 124 216 112 203 101 190 92

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 503 373 458 323 418 282 384 248 353 219 326 194 302 173 281 155 261 139 244 126 228 114 214 103

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 548 405 498 351 455 307 418 269 384 238 355 211 329 188 306 168 285 151 266 137 249 124 233 112

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 507 339 465 298 428 263 395 233 366 208 340 186 317 167 296 151 277 137 259 124

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 550 363 550 346 514 311 474 276 439 246 408 220 380 198 355 178 332 161 311 147

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Table 3.4: Joist Properties

Draft
Chapter 4

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER
Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

4.1

Materials, & Geometry

1 The tower was built out of wrought iron, less expensive than steel,and Eiffel had more expereince with this material, Fig. 4.1

Figure 4.1: Eiffel Tower (Billington and Mark 1983)

2 5 6 Loads The total weight of the tower is 18.6o 1.2 Loads Location Support First platform second platform Intermediate platform Top platform Top 4 79 Width Estimated Actual 328 216 240 123 110 40 2 0 Height 0 186 380 644 906 984 Width/2 164 108 62 20 1 0 dy dx .333 . Fig. 800 k.1o 11. 4. Dead Load Idealization.000 β 18.2.Draft 4.6o 6. An idealization of the tower is shown in Fig. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .0264 0. 4.205 .3: Eiffel Tower. each with a cross section of 800 in 2 .5o 0o The tower is supported by four inclined supports. ACTUAL CONTINUOUS CONNECTION IDEALIZED CONTINUOUS CONNECTION ACTUAL POINTS OF CONNECTION Figure 4.270 .4o 15. (Billington and Mark 1983) 4. and is approximated as follows. The dead load is not uniformly distributed.2: Eiffel Tower Idealization.115 .3: Figure 4.

(Billington and Mark 1983) + = WINDWARD SIDE LEEWARD SIDE VERTICAL FORCES WIND FORCES TOTAL Figure 4.Draft 4. Reactions.6: Eiffel Tower.280k V0 Figure 4. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ¤ £¡¤ ¤¡ £¡ ¤¡£ £¡¤ ¤¡ £¡£ ¤¡¤ £¡£ ¤¡¤ £¡¤£ ¤¡£ £¡ ¢ ¡£¤£¤£¤ ¢  ¡ ¡¡ ¤¡ £¡ ¢¡¢¡¡  ¡ ¡¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢  ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢  H0 REACTIONS M0 .5: Eiffel Tower. Wind Loads.3 Reactions 81 LOADS TOTAL LOADS P P=2560k Q L/2 Q=22.

Fig. the axial force will also decrease with height.4o ) = 3.700 kip cos β = The horizontal forces which must be resisted by the foundations. (4.13-b) Hvert = 2 Note that this is about seven times smaller than the axial force at the base.12-c) (4. 100 + 2. Horizontal Reactions.4 N V INCLINED INTERNAL FORCE: N CONSEQUENT HORIZONTAL COMPONENT: H KNOWN VERTICAL COMPONENT: V H FORCE POLYGON Figure 4. 300 k and at that height the angle is 11.8.7: Eiffel Tower. 685 k (4. Internal Gravity Forces. 4. (Billington and Mark 1983) 13 Because the vertical load decreases with height. the total vertical load is Q = 1.12-a) (4. 4. remember those are caused by the dead load and the live load. 200 = 3. 14 At the second platform.4o H tan β = ⇒ H = V tan β V H = 11. 140 k(tan 18.6o thus the axial force (per pair of columns) will be = 1.300 2 k . which for a given axial strength.6o 3. (Billington and Mark 1983) 12 Gravity load are first considered. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Nvert = 3. would lead the designer to reduce (or taper) the cross-section.730 kip cos 18.8: Eiffel Tower.12-d) H 3700 k H 3700 k Figure 4.7: V V ⇒N = N cos β 11.4 0 83 β=18. 140 k N = = 11.12-b) (4.Draft 4.6o ) = 339 k (4. Fig. 300 k (tan 11.13-a) cos 11.4 Internal Forces β=18.

2 Once the reactions are determined.1.1 5 6 Equilibrium Reactions are determined from the appropriate equations of static equilibrium. Reactions are necessary to determine foundation load. A roller will allow rotation. 2 In a dynamic system ΣF = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration. Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements. 5. 1 This is the sequence of operations in the flexibility method which lends itself to hand calculation. Fig.1 1 Reactions In the analysis of structures (hand calculations). Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure. we determine displacements firsts. in 3D structures a roller may provide restraint in one or two directions. internal stresses and/or deformations (deflections and rotations) are determined last 1 . internal forces are determined next. This method is most suitable to computer implementation. Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions. in a static system must be equal to zero2 .Draft Chapter 5 REVIEW of STATICS To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. 3 4 Depending on the type of structures. it is often easier (but not always necessary) to start by determining the reactions. then internal forces and reactions. Newton’s third law of motion 5. In the stiffness method. . Summation of forces and moments. 5.1. there can be different types of support conditions. finally.

then the reaction R would have. no axial forces 2D Truss. 5. 20 In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection. Frame Beams. 16 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones. Fig. Beam Grid 3D Truss. The right hand side of the equation should be zero If your reaction is negative.3) Figure 5.Draft 5. Sy Rx = Ry Sx (5. 17 5.2. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities 3. then this will provide an additional equation (ΣM = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions.2 18 Equations of Conditions If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures).1 Reactions Structure Type Beam. no axial Force 2 D Truss.2: Inclined Roller Support Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed. Frame. Beam Equations ΣFx ΣFy ΣFy ΣMx ΣMx ΣMy ΣMy ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz 87 ΣFz ΣFx ΣFy ΣFz Alternate Set A B ΣMz ΣMz A B ΣFx ΣMz ΣMz A B C ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz Table 5.1. Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero. 19 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions. Frame.1: Equations of Equilibrium 2. The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram.

Gerstle textbok Basic Structural Analysis.Draft 5. (R )(18) − (60)(12) − (48)(6) = 0 ⇒ R = 56 k (+  ¡ ay ay 6 z Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Example 5-1: Simply Supported Beam Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below. hence it is statically determinate. Each example has been carefully selected as it brings a different “twist” from the preceding one.) ΣFx = 0. ⇒ Rax − 36 k = 0 (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. Some of those same problems will be revisited later for the determination of the internal forces and/or deflections.1. ⇒ Ray + Rdy − 60 k − (4) k/ft(12) ft = 0 )   c (+ ) ΣMz = 0. (60)(6) + (48)(12) − (Rdy )(18) = 0 ⇒ Rdy = 52 k 6 ¡  ) ΣM d = 0.5 29 Examples Examples of reaction calculation will be shown next. we have 3 equations of static equilibrium. Many of those problems are taken from Prof. Solution: The beam has 3 reactions. ⇒ 12Ray − 6Rdy − (60)(6) = 0 ¡ or through matrix inversion (on your calculator)   Rax   36   Rax   36 k  1 0 0           1  Ray 108 Ray 56 k = ⇒ =  0 1       R   52 k     0 12 −6  Rdy   360  dy         Alternatively we could have used another set of equations:   a (+ ) ΣMz = 0.1 Reactions 89 Figure 5.4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions 5. (+ .

Draft 3.7)(18) − (40)(15) − (4)(8)(8) − (30)(2) + R cy (12) = 0 ¡ ⇒ Rcy = 1. −(17.3 = 16. on center.236 = 103 k 6 12  ) ΣM = 0. 2) Snow load. of 20 psf of roof area.1 Reactions 2. we will consider only the dead load on one side of the frame. −(17.7 = 0 . Due to symmetry. Isolating bd:   (+ ) ΣMd = 0. Determine the reactions components on the frame due to: 1) Roof dead load. Solution: 1.7)(6) − (40)(3) + (4)(8)(4) + (30)(10) − R (12) = 0 (+  ¡ c dy ⇒ Rdy = 201. of 30 psf of horizontal projection. 3) Wind load of 15 psf of vertical projection. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Check 5.7 k 6 12 91 ΣFy = 0.2 − 40 − 40 + 103 − 32 − 30 + 16. Determine the critical design values for the vertical and horizontal reactions. 622. √ Example 5-3: Three Hinged Gable Frame The three-hinged gable frames spaced at 30 ft.

Fig. On a truss the axial forces are indicated as forces acting on the joints. it is assumed that 1. or welded directly to each other or to gusset plates. bolted.5: Bridge Truss 5. 3. long span roofs. space structures. we seek to determine the internal force along each member.5 Figure 5. compression negative. Depending on the orientation of the diagonals. they can be under either tension or compression. electric tower.2 Trusses 93 5.2 Basic Relations Sign Convention: Tension positive. Another source of secondary moments is the dead weight of the element.2. 5. Loads are applied at the joints only. 34 In a truss analysis or design. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 31 32 33 A truss would typically be composed of triangular elements with the bars on the upper chord under compression and those along the lower chord under tension.2 Trusses Assumptions 5. Bars are pin-connected 2. For trusses. thus the bars are not free to rotate and so-called secondary bending moments are developed at the bars.2. Trusses are extensively used for bridges. Stress-Force: σ = P A Stress-Strain: σ = Eε Force-Displacement: ε = ∆L L 4 In practice the bars are riveted.Draft 5. Joints are frictionless hinges4 .1 30 Cables and trusses are 2D or 3D structures composed of an assemblage of simple one dimensional components which transfer only axial forces along their axis.

7: X and Y Components of Truss Forces This method should be used when all member forces should be determined. Fy ). F Fx Fy = = l lx ly (5. For each joint.Draft 5. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the force is found to be negative. Fig. as those might be needed later on when considering the force equilibrium at another joint to which the member is connected. the resultant force ( F = Fx + Fy ) must be along the member. then this would imply that the wrong assumption was made. Because truss elements can only carry axial forces. ΣFy and ΣFz in 3D). there is no sign convention. Figure 5. ΣFx .2 Trusses 95 Figure 5.4) 44 Always keep track of the x and y components of a member force (Fx . 5. apply the appropriate equations of equilibrium (ΣFx and ΣFy in 2D. A member is assumed to be under tension (or compression). and starting with the loaded ones. and that the member should have been under compression (or tension). 5.7. Sketch a free body diagram showing all joint loads (including reactions) 4.6: A Statically Indeterminate Truss 3. If after analysis. 45 46 In truss analysis.

5 Tension FHG = 52 Compression Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . ⇒ FAHy − 58 = 0 ) FAH = ll (FAHy ) y √ ly = 32 l = 322 + 242 = 40 Compression ⇒ FAH = 40 (58) = 72. (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. and AB under tension. ⇒ FAHy + FHCy − 12 − FHGy − 20 = 0 ) 58 + √2432 2 (FHC ) − 12 − √2410 2 (FHG ) − 20 = 0 (II) 2 +32 2 +10 Solving for I and II we obtain FHC = −7.5 − √2424 2 (FHC ) − √2424 2 (FHG ) = 0 (I) 2 +32 2 +10 (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. ⇒ FBH ) Node H: = 43.) ΣFx = 0. ⇒ FBC (+ 6 ΣFy = 0.5 Tension ly 32 Node B: (+ .) ΣFx = 0. ⇒ −FAH + FAB = 0 (+ x FAB = lx (FAHy ) = 24 (58) = 43.Draft 5.) ΣFx = 0.5 32 .2 Trusses 97 Node A: Clearly AH is under compression.5 Tension = 20 Tension (+ . ⇒ FAHx − FHCx − FHGx = 0 43.

52 Since dx is infinitesimally small. shear and moment.3. Fig. The infinitesimal section must also be in equilibrium. a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation. and compression in the upper ones. therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx. or “down” on a positive one. 51 There are no axial forces. Shear A positive shear force is one which is “up” on a negative face. Fig.10: Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements 5. Torsion Counterclockwise positive 3D: Use double arrow vectors (and NOT curved arrows).10. Considering an infinitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load6 w(x). Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower fibers. 5.2 50 Load. that is positive upward. a positive moment is one which causes tension along the inner side.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 99 +ve Load + Axial Force + +ve Shear +ve Moment Figure 5. Shear. 6 In this derivation.1. Alternatively.11. For frame members. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ¦¥   §§  ¥¦ ¥¥¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥¥¥¥ ¨  ¨  §   §§  © © © © © ¨¨  ¨   ©© © © . Draft Figure 5. Moment Relations Let us (re)derive the basic relations between load.Draft 5. as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive. Forces and moments (including torsions) are defined with respect to a right hand side coordinate system. 5.9: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design Load Positive along the beam’s local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention). thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy ΣF y = 0 and ΣMz = 0. Axial: tension positive. the small variation in load along it can be neglected.

13 further illustrates the variation in internal shear and moment under uniform and concentrated forces/moment. 5. 101 Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams The change in moment between 1 and 2.13: Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear. or Between Shear and Moment Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .12 and 5.Draft 57 58 5. Figure 5. ∆M21 . is equal to the area under the shear curve between x1 and x2 . Fig.12: Shear and Moment Forces at Different Sections of a Loaded Beam Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Load Shear Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Shear Moment Figure 5.

or ∆MB−A = (13)(4) = 52. 2. It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is uniform and negative) by 2 k per linear foot up to −14 k. 2. At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive. 1. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 5. The moment at A is zero (hinge support). ⇒ −RAx + 6 = 0 ⇒ RAx = 6 k  ) ΣM = 0. 4.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 103 Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations ) ΣF (+  x = 0. 3. ⇒ (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) − R (18) = 0 ⇒ R = 14 k (+  ¡ Fy A Fy (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. Moment is determined last: 1. −14 k is also the reaction previously determined at F . At C it drops again by 8 k to −6 k. At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 k to 2 k. The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear diagram. ⇒ RAy − 11 − 8 − (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ⇒ RAy = 13 k ) Shear are determined next. As a check.Draft 5.

Draft 5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 105 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 601.22(15) − 3 15 = 2 √ 139. Assuming that the frames are spaced 2 ft apart along the length of the flume. In other words.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams dM 107 B−C 3. the moment varies quadratically (since we had a linear shear). 4. that is VB−C (x) = 64. Draw the shear and moment diagrams 3. 1.22x − 3 x 2 x 0 (13.0 ft. Solution: The hydrostatic pressure causes lateral forces on the vertical members which can be treated as cantilevers fixed at the lower end.8 + 2 = 139. we obtain at node C MC = 139. maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero. the moment first increases (positive shear). 2 Substituting for x = 15.5 = 232 k.ft 2 2 − 3x)dx which is a parabola. show the location of the reinforcement. and then decreases (negative shear).06 = 3 25. If this is a reinforced concrete frame.22 max Thus MB−C = −432 + 64.8 + 13.3 − 337. we know that dx = 0 at the point where VB−C = 0.06 − 3x = 0 ⇒ x = 64.06(25. Determine all internal member end actions 2. Hydrostatic Load The frame shown below is the structural support of a flume. If we need to determine the maximum moment along B−C.8 + 13.0) − 3 (25. Locate and compute maximum internal bending moments 4.8 + 198.5 = 0 Example 5-7: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram.Draft 5.0) = −432 + 1. The moment along C − D is given by x MC−D = MC + 0 VC−D (x)dx = 139.5 − 937. Finally along C − D.

749)(5)( 5 ) = 1.246 k.744 k 1. Mc = −4.864 k.S.A.246 k. 1.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 109 2. Reinforcement should be placed where the moment is “postive”. The maximum moment is equal to Mmax = −7.493 k. 4. Example 5-8: Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame 7 That is why in most European countries..749)(3) = −2.864 + (. The shear to the right of C is V = −2. this is a negative shear. 8 Shear reinforcement is made of a series of vertical stirrups. The vertical shear at B is zero (neglecting the weight of A − B) 3. Base at B the shear force was determined earlier and was equal to 2.749)(3)( 2 ) = −7.ft 3.50 k. that is on the side of the negative moment7 .Draft 5. At the base: B M = 4. the sign convention for design moments is the opposite of the one commonly used in the U. The shear to the left of C is V = 0 + (−. At the support C.493 + (−.ft as determined above.99 = 3.246 + 5. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Based on the orientation of the x − y axis. The figure below schematically illustrates the location of the flexural8 reinforcement. Moment diagrams 3 2.ft 2 Design: Reinforcement should be placed along the fibers which are under tension.

130-(.1k -2 39 39.6)(13) 3.9k 10 +25 k k -26.8k 23.1)(3)/(4)=29.6k 11.8)(4)/(5)=23.9 (39.7 17.1k 8k 26.38 (19. 26k 10k 778k’ 28.38k 26.1 (28.122-(26.72 (26)(12)/(13)=24 (26.4 k -23 .8k (20)(15)/13=7.2)(12)/(13)=17.58)(13) k’ 800+(25.2 8k 12k 16k 5 6 20-10-10 800k’ 17.2k 7.1k 19.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams Example 5-9: Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame 26k 13’ 13 12 111 26k 13’ B 13’ C 5 10’ 10’ 20k 3 5 4 15’ D 20’ 2k/ft A Va (60)(20)-(2)(20)(20)/2 Ha 36’ 20’ E Ve 48.1)(12.8k 800’k Fy 60-(2)(20) 20k 20k (20)(20)+(60-20)(20)/2 19.5) 488’k 9 B-C 12 C-D 14 (20)(12)/(13)=18.2k 26k 10k 24k 48.3 777k’ 48 8’ k 488+(23.5) k’ +20k +25.8)(3)/(5)=17.58 -26 -0.2k 800k’ Fx F z y x F/Fy=z/x F/Fx=z/y Fx/Fy=y/x 0k’ 2k/ft 60k AB 60k 1 2 ED 3 4 1k 19.8k 17.1k -16 11 C-D 1.5 -39 .Draft 5.2)(5)/(13)=7.1 .1)(5)/(4)=48.1k 778k’ 20k 24k 0k 28.46k 7.1)(12.6)(13)/(12)=28.6k -0.6-26 2 25.8 (26.69k 18.46 (19.4 8 B-C 1.6 -0.7 0k’ 20k 0k CD -23 .6)(5)/(12)=11. 11 1k 11 30’k 22k ’ 800’k Victor Saouma +60k Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .7+ .4)(13) 1122 777 800’k 13 ’k 1130 777k ’ (39.3k 7 48.1 (28.4k BC 29.72k 7.28 (20)(4)/(5)=16 (20)(3)/(5)=12 (39.

3.16) where E is Young’s Modulus.17.19-a) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Section Properties Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium. Hence we need to relate strain to stress. Neutral Axis The first equation we consider is the summation of axial forces. 69 The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam. substituting we obtain A σx dA = − EκydA = 0 A (5. 5.4. In some textbook. 5. 66 For linear elastic material Hooke’s law states σx = Eεx (5.17) 5.15) 5.14) ρ thus. the curvature κ (Greek letter kappa) is also used where 1 κ= (5. the internal axial forces must be in equilibrium.18) A where σx was given by Eq. with equation 5.15 we obtain σx = −Eκy (5. εx = −κy (5.4.1 70 71 ΣFx = 0.4. the internal forces must also satisfy the equilibrium equations. Thus strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis. 67 Combining Eq. yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in terms of the stresses. ρ (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column). ΣFx = 0 ⇒ σx dA = 0 (5.3 68 Internal Equilibrium.4 Flexure 64 113 where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis).2 Stress-Strain Relations 65 So far we considered the kinematic of the beam.Draft 5. The internal forces on the “cut” section must be in equilibrium with the external forces.

Draft 5.3: Section Properties Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4 Flexure Y x Y 115 h y b X A x y Ix Iy = bh b = 2 h = 2 3 = bh 12 3 = hb 12 x h h’ y b’ b X A x y Ix Iy = bh − b h b = 2 h = 2 3 3 = bh −b h 12 3 3 = hb −h b 12 Y a c Y x h(a+b) 2 h(2a+b) 3(a+b) h3 (a2 +4ab+b2 36(a+b) h y b X A = y = Ix = h A x y X I x y Iy = = = = = b Y bh 2 b+c 3 h 3 bh3 36 bh 2 36 (b − bc + c2 ) Y r X A = πr 2 = 4 Ix = Iy = πr = 4 πd2 4 πd4 64 t r X A = 2πrt = πdt 3 Ix = Iy = πr3 t = πd t 8 Y b X b a a A = πab 3 Ix = πab 3 3 Iy = πba 4 Table 5.

for Statically determinate structure. Plot the deflected shape.14.67 in = ⇒r= 360 360 r3 764 764 = (18) ksi = 2 ⇒ r = = 6. we recall that that the moment is directly 81 Thus. 5. 3.4. 20k 16’ 12’ 28’ Victor Saouma 28’ Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum ∆max = σmax L (20) ft(12) in/ft 65. A positive and negative moment would correspond to positive and negative curvature respectively (adopting the sign convention shown in Fig. Identify inflection points. Fig. 4.65 = = 0. 2.65 = 4.5 80 Approximate Analysis 1 ρ ).51 in r 18 3 65. M From Fig. Locate those inflection points on the structure.15. 82 Hence. we can determine the deflected shape from the moment diagram.Draft 5. which will then become statically determinate. 1. we can: 1. 2.31-b) 5. 5.61 (5.4 Flexure 117 5. Perform an approximate analysis.31-a) in 0. 5. approximate their location.25 ( EI = κ = proportional to the curvature κ. and compare your results with the exact solution. 5. and Eq. Example 5-11: Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam Perform an approximate analysis of the following beam.67 (5.14). Statically indeterminate structure. A zero moment correspnds to an inflection point in the deflected shape.

Draft
5.4 Flexure

119

Figure 5.16: Approximate Analysis of Beams

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure 6. Check
  (+ ) ΣMA = 0; (20)(16) − (RC )(28) + (RD )(28 + 28) = ¡

121

320 − (17.67)(28) + (3.12)(56) = √ 320 − 494.76 + 174.72 = 0

(5.34-a)

7. The moments are determined next Mmax = RA a = (5.45)(16) = 87.2 M1 = RD L = (3.12)(28) = 87.36 (5.35-a) (5.35-b)

8. We now compare with the exact solution from Section ??, solution 21 where:L = 28, a = 16, b = 12, and P = 20 R1 = RA = = R2 = RB = = R3 = RD = = Pb 4L2 − a(L + a) 4L3 (20)(12) 4(28)2 − (16)(28 + 16) = 6.64 4(28)3 Pa 2L2 + b(L + a) 2L3 (20)(16) 2(28)2 + 12(28 + 16) = 15.28 2(28)3 P ab − 3 (L + a) 4L (20)(16)(12) (28 + 16) = −1.92 − 4(28)3

(5.36-a) (5.36-b) (5.36-c) (5.36-d) (5.36-e) (5.36-f) (5.36-g)

Mmax = R1 a = (6.64)(16) = 106.2 M1 = R3 L = (1.92)(28) = 53.8

9. If we tabulate the results we have Value RA RC RD M1 Mmax Approximate 5.45 17.67 3.12 87.36 87.2 Exact 6.64 15.28 1.92 53.8 106.2 % Error 18 -16 63 62 18

10. Whereas the correlation between the approximate and exact results is quite poor, one should not underestimate the simplicity of this method keeping in mind (an exact analysis of this structure would have been computationally much more involved). Furthermore, often one only needs a rough order of magnitude of the moments.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 6

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE
6.1
1

Theory

Whereas the forces in a cable can be determined from statics alone, its configuration must be derived from its deformation. Let us consider a cable with distributed load p(x) per unit horizontal projection of the cable length (thus neglecting the weight of the cable). An infinitesimal portion of that cable can be assumed to be a straight line, Fig. 6.1 and in the absence of any horizontal load we have H =constant. Summation of the vertical forces yields ) (+ ? ΣFy = 0 ⇒ −V + wdx + (V + dV ) = 0 (6.1-a) (6.1-b) dV + wdx = 0

where V is the vertical component of the cable tension at x (Note that if the cable was subjected to its own weight then we would have wds instead of wdx). Because the cable must be tangent to T , we have V tan θ = (6.2) H Substituting into Eq. 6.1-b yields d(H tan θ) + wdx = 0 ⇒ −
2

d (H tan θ) = w dx

(6.3)

But H is constant (no horizontal load is applied), thus, this last equation can be rewritten as −H d (tan θ) = w dx
dv dx

(6.4) which when substituted in Eq. (6.5)

3

Written in terms of the vertical displacement v, tan θ = 6.4 yields the governing equation for cables − Hv = w

4 For a cable subjected to a uniform load w, we can determine its shape by double integration of Eq. 6.5

− Hv

= wx + C1

(6.6-a)

8) we note the analogy with the maximum moment in a simply supported uniformly loaded beam 2 M = Hh = wL . 6.9-a) (6. the tension T is not. 6. −Hv = 5 Since the maximum sag h occurs at midspan (x = H= wL2 8h L 2) we can solve for the horizontal force (6. Thus 2 w v= x(L − x) (6. this relation clearly shows that the horizontal force is inversely 8 proportional to the sag h.9-b) = Eliminating H from Eq.Draft 6. Tmax = H 1 + 16r 2 ≈ H(1 + 8r 2 ) (6. 7 Whereas the horizontal force H is constant throughout the cable.10) Thus the cable assumes a parabolic shape (as the moment diagram of the applied load). 2! 2! 3! √ 1 b Thus for b2 << 1. the equation would have been one of a catenary2 .13) The cable between transmission towers is a good example of a catenary. Finally. 1 + b = (1 + b) 2 ≈ 1 + 2 2 Derivation of this equation is beyond the scope of this course.6-b) 2 and the constants of integrations C1 and C2 can be obtained from the boundary conditions: v = 0 at x = 0 and at x = L ⇒ C2 = 0 and C1 = − wL . Recalling that (a + b)n = an + nan−1 b + n(n−1) an−2 b2 + · or (1 + b)n = 1 + nb + n(n−1)b + n(n−1)(n−2)b + · · ·.12) 8 Had we assumed a uniform load w per length of cable (rather than horizontal projection).7 and 6. as h H .8 we obtain v = 4h − x2 x + 2 L L (6.8 we obtain1 . v= H w cosh w H L −x 2 +h (6. thus Tmax = V 2 + H2 = wL 2 2 + H2 = H 1 + wL/2 H 2 (6.1 Theory 125 wx2 + C1 x + C 2 (6. 1 2 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . we can rewrite this equation as r wL H 6 def = h L 8r (6.7) 2H This equation gives the shape v(x) in terms of the horizontal force H. Furthermore.11) Combining this with Eq. The maximum tension occurs at the support where the vertical component is equal to V = wL and 2 the horizontal one to H.

19 Final DL and LL are. Fig. 6. the anchors. 6.2.3: Truck Load 18 With two decks.68 k/ft ≈ 8 k/ft (6. this would be equivalent to DL = (390) psf(100) ft for the main span and 40 k/ft for the side ones. 000) lbs = 39 k/ft (6. This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced. 17 k (1.Draft 14 6.4: T L = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma .2 16 Loads The dead load is composed of the weight of the deck and the cables and is estimated at 390 and 400 psf respectively for the central and side spans respectively.14) For highway bridges. they can be idealized a perfectly flexible members with no shear/bending resistance but with high axial strength.2 The Case Study 127 tower supports and are firmly anchored in both banks by huge blocks of concrete. Assuming an average width of 100 ft.15) We do not consider earthquake. 15 The towers are 578 ft tall and rest on concrete caissons in the river. The HS-20 truck is often used for the design of bridges on main highways. I Because the cables are much longer than they are thick (large L ). design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway Transportation Officials).3. Figure 6. 6. the towers will be subjected only to axial forces.64) k/ ft/Lane = 7. Because of our assumption regarding the roller support for the cables. or wind loads in this analysis. we estimate that there is a total of 12 lanes or LL = (12)Lanes(. Fig. Either the design truck with specified axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform load and concentrated load.

2. 250 k 2 2 Victor Saouma (6. 6. 000 k (47) k/ft(3. 6.8 wL2 cs H = 8h = (8)(327) ft = 220.4 21 Reactions Cable reactions are shown in Fig. 500) ft = 82. 200) k 1 + (16)(0. 6.2.0934)2 = (2.2 The Case Study 129 Cable Forces The thrust H (which is the horizontal component of the cable force) is determined from Eq.000 k 6.12 the maximum tension is 327 r = Lh = 3. 200) k(1.0934 cs √ Tmax = H 1 + 16r 2 = (2.Draft 6. 6.16) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6: Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load 1 1 Vcs = wLcs = (47) k/ft(3.500)2 ft2 From Eq.500 = 0.0675) = 235.6 wTOT = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft A POINT OF NO MOMENT B REACTIONS AT TOP OF TOWER L = 3.5: Location of Cable Reactions 22 The vertical force in the columns due to the central span (cs) is simply the support reaction.500 FT Figure 6.5.3 20 6. POINTS WITH REACTIONS TO CABLES Figure 6.

000) k H = = 68. 200) in2 ss Tanchor (247.9.75 ksi 81. 200) in2 73. 29 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Fig. the volume of the block should be at least equal to V = (112. 6.Draft 27 6.2 ksi Figure 6. 474)wires/cable(0.196)2 = = 0. 000) in2 = = 77.22-a) 4 4 (4)cables(26.000) k(1. 200) in2 ss Ttower (262. 500) in2 = 82 ksi = (6. This is often idealized as a beam on elastic foundations.2 The Case Study The cable stresses are determined last. 000 ft3 or a cube of approximately 91 ft 3 150 28 lbs/ft The deck. for all practical purposes can be treated as a continuous beam supported by elastic springs with stiffness K = AL/E (where L is the length of the supporting cable). 6.4 ksi 68.03017 in2 (6.22-c) A (3.75 ksi (6.2 ksi (6.14)(0.8: Awire = Atotal = Central Span σ = ss Side Span Tower σtower = ss Side Span Anchor σtower = 131 πD2 (3.03017) in2 /wire = 3.22-b) (220. and the resulting shear and moment diagrams for this idealization are shown in Fig.000) lbs/ k = 747.8: Cable Stresses If the cables were to be anchored to a concrete block. 200 in2 (6.22-e) A (3.22-d) A (3.9 ksi 77.

.2 5 Greeks The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B. Our profession. Via Appia.Draft Chapter 7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE If I have been able to see a little farther than some others. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and experience.1 2 Before the Greeks Throughout antiquity. it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants. Hamurrabi’s code in Babylonia (1750 BC) included among its 282 laws penalties for those “architects” whose houses collapsed. Colisseums.1. and yielded great influence over ancient Egypt.000 B. one of only two commoners to be deified. which was primarily a secret religious society. At his school he allowed . Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome of a of a long and distinguished history. Sir Isaac Newton 1 More than any other engineering discipline. either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of structural materials. at Crotona in southern Italy. and seldom supplemented by new knowledge.C. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3. aqueducs. would be better appreciated if we were to develop a sense of our evolution. which were passed from generation to generation.C. No record exists of any rational consideration. Gothic cathedrals to name a few). guarded by secrets of the guild. 7. second oldest. structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science. 3 The first structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep. structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids.) founded his famous school. Despite this. 7. Fig. 4 7.

The Pantheon was erected by the Roman emperor Hadrian between AD 118 and 128. As the roman empire expanded.2: Archimed conqueror of Syracuse. The great vaulted dome is 43 m (142 ft) in diameter.3 Romans 135 Figure 7. called an oculus. 12 11 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon. the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the Via Appia.3: Pantheon preserved major edifice of ancient Rome and one of the most significant buildings in architectural history.Draft 7. topped with a dome and fronted by a rectangular colonnaded porch. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent fighters and builders. 7. Fig. in the center of the dome. The Romans apparently were more practical. Cassia.3. It is the best- Figure 7. In shape it is an immense cylinder concealing eight piers.3 10 Romans Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the Greeks. Aurelia. Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the Rhine built by Caesars). and the entire structure is lighted through one aperture. and stadium (Colliseum). 7.

(le Duc 1977) provided an in depth study of Gothic architecture. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . The skillful use of flying buttresses made it possible to build extremely tall. Medieval masons solved this difficult problem about 1120 with a number of brilliant innovations. first to an attached outer buttress and then to a freestanding pier by means of a half arch known as a flying buttress. Since the combination of ribs and piers relieved the intervening vertical wall spaces of their supportive function. thin-walled buildings whose interior structural system of columnar piers and ribs reinforced an impression of soaring verticality. separate widely spaced vertical piers to support the ribs could replace the continuous thick walls. The problem was that the heavy stonework of the traditional arched barrel vault and the groin vault exerted a tremendous downward and outward pressure that tended to push the walls upon which the vault rested outward. these walls could be built thinner and could even be opened up with large windows or other glazing.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492) 137 Figure 7. and terminated in the freestanding buttress pier. in which arching and intersecting stone ribs support a vaulted ceiling surface that is composed of mere thin stone panels. The flying buttress leaned against the upper exterior of the nave (thus counteracting the vault’s outward thrust). First and foremost they developed a ribbed vault. crossed over the low side aisles of the nave.5: Hagia Sophia dieval masons’ efforts to solve the problems associated with supporting heavy masonry ceiling vaults over wide spans. These elements enabled Gothic masons to build much larger and taller buildings than their Romanesque predecessors and to give their structures more complicated ground plans. This greatly reduced the weight (and thus the outward thrust) of the ceiling vault. The round arches of the barrel vault were replaced by pointed (Gothic) arches which distributed thrust in more directions downward from the topmost point of the arch. thus collapsing them. A building’s vertical supporting walls thus had to be made extremely thick and heavy in order to contain the barrel vault’s outward thrust.Draft 7. which ultimately absorbed the ceiling vault’s thrust. A crucial point was that the outward thrust of the ribbed ceiling vaults was carried across the outside walls of the nave. and since the vault’s weight was now carried at discrete points (the ribs) rather than along a continuous wall edge. 19 Vilet-Le-Duc classical book.

Brunelleschi’s style emphasized mathematical rigor in its use of straight lines. Brunelleschi made a design feature of the necessary eight ribs of the vault. and a beautifully proportioned cupola. proportion. The dome. 7.6 a great innovation both artistically and technically. elaborate Gothic mode that still prevailed in his time.5 The Renaissance 139 31 Unfortunatly. one 33 Figure 7. consists of two octagonal vaults. and lost. circular windows. and engineers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries continued. which also include architectural reliefs.5. He then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the unfinished Gothic Cathedral of Florence. also called the Duomo. to fix dimensions of structural elements by relying on experience and judgment. flat Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 7. He was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. and perspective make him a key artistic figure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. 34 Completely different from the emotional.6: Florence’s Cathedral Dome inside the other. Brunelleschi 1377-1446 32 Brunelleschi was a Florentine architect and one of the initiators of the Italian Renaissance. His revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics. as in the Roman era. were buried in his notes.Draft 7. carrying them over to the exterior of the dome. This was the first time that a dome created the same strong effect on the exterior as it did on the interior. where they provide the framework for the dome’s decorative elements. Its shape was dictated by its structural needs one of the first examples of architectural functionalism. these important findings. In 1401 he entered. Fig.

Draft 7.7: Palladio’s Villa Rotunda Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 The Renaissance 141 Figure 7.

7. This theory being condemned by the church. probably because he contradicted Aristotelian professors.Draft 7. he received a semiofficial warning to avoid theology and limit himself to physical reasoning. where he remained until 1610. His first science was the study of the forces that hold objects together 51 Figure 7. In Padua he achieved great fame.9: Galileo was born.10. Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. condemned and had to read his recantation (At the end of his process he murmured the famous e pur se muove). 50 When he was almost seventy years old. The same year. Fig.10: Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. In 1592 he wrote Della Scienza Meccanica in which various problems of statics were treated using the principle of virtual displacement. and lecture halls capable of containing 2. he retired to his villa near Florence and wrote his final book.5 The Renaissance 143 Figure 7. (Galilei 1974). he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua. His contract was not renewed in 1592. Cover Page Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . When he published his books dealing with the two ways of regarding the universe (which clearly favored the Copernican theory) he was called to Rome by the Inquisition. He subsequently became interested in astronomy and built one of the first telescope through which he saw Jupiter and became an ardent proponent of the Copernican theory (which stated that the planets circle the sun as opposed to the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic assumptions that it was the sun which was circling Earth). his life shattered by the Inquisition.000 students from all over Europe were used.

Seventeenth Century 145 appointed Gresham Professor of Geometry at Oxford in 1665. he did not publish his law when first discovered it in 1660. Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention. 58 His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva.13 was Professor of Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . 1642-1727 Born on christmas day in the year of Galileo’s death. Fig. and was the first paper in which the elastic properties of material was discused.then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string.2 60 Newton. Fig.e. 7. and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or floor underneath. but did not develop mathematically. Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion. Newton. and set down the said distance. and set them down. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbos u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v).Draft 57 7. After the Great Fire of London in 1666. Then compare the several strtchings of the said string. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies. This became Hooke’s Law σ = Eε.6. and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail. he was appointed surveyor of London. Figure 7. and grasped.12. or 40 ft long. the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation. i. and he designed many buildings. or 30. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram “ceiinosssttuu” in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. and you will find that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights do that made them”. 59 7. 7.6 Pre Modern Period. extension varies directly with force.12: Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke “Take a wire string of 20.

He also showed that the curvature at any point along a beam is proportional to the curvature of the deflection curve.Draft 7. The effects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his death in 1727. so that aaaaa would be encoded as bdgbd. mysticism. and he secretly wrote the committee’s report. Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) made calculation of their deflection (Stiffness) and did not contribute to our knowledge of physical properties. Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society published. they left Holland and settled in Basel. Near the end of the seventeenth century this family produced outstanding mathematicians for more than a hundred years. and Euler his pupil. A letter is replaced by the next in the Latin alphabet. In addition to science. 64 Newton also engaged in a violent dispute with Leibniz over priority in the invention of calculus. 69 7. Seventeenth Century 147 63 The Principia’s appearance also involved Newton in an unpleasant episode with the English philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke. 7. Fig. Newton also showed an interest in alchemy. Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) first postulated that a force can be decomposed into its equivalent (“Potentiis quibuscunque possunt substitui earundem aequivalentes”. However.. Jacob Bernouilli is also credited in being the first to to have assumed that a bf plane section of a beam remains plane during bending.6. (Penvenuto 1991).15. and the decoded is that the radius of curvature at any point of an initially straight beam in inversely proportional to the value of the bending moment at that point. Newton used his position as president of the Royal Society to have a committee of that body investigate the question. Many pages of his notes and writings particularly from the later years of his career are devoted to these topics.. which charged Leibniz with deliberate plagiarism.6. 67 68 Bernoulli made the first analytical contribution to the problem of elastic flexure of a beam. 65 7. John was the father of Daniel.4 Euler 1707-1783 70 Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and early on caught the attention of John Bernoulli whose teaching was attracting young mathematicians from all over Europe. Jacob and John were brothers. In 1687 Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen from him a central idea of the book: that bodies attract each other with a force that varies inversely as the square of their distance. However. Another hypothesis defined the sum of two “conspiring” forces applied to the same point. but assumed rotation to be with respect to the lower fiber (as Galileo did) and this resulted in an erroneous solution (where is the exact location of the axis of rotation?). the second by the letter three away. whose secret was revealed in 1694. and the third by the letter six away.6 Pre Modern Period. In 1691 he published a logogriph Qrzumubapt dxqopddbbp . He Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ... The logogriph reads Portio axis applicatem. but because of religious persecution. According to Bernoulli. most historians do not accept Hooke’s charge of plagiarism. this “necessary truth” follows from the metaphysical principle that the whole equalts the sum of its parts.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 66 The Bernouilli family originally lived in Antwerp. and theology. historians have found little connection between these interests and Newton’s scientific work. Whereas Galileo (and Mariotte) investigated the strength of beams (Strength).

80 Three other structural engineers who pioneered the development of the theory of elasticity from that point on were Lam´.. With this invention. and electricity.16: Coulomb the correct analysis of the fiber stresses in flexed beam with rectangular cross section (Sur une Application des R´gles de maximis et minimis a quelques probl`mes de statique relatifs e ` e a l’architecture in 1773). Fig. 76 77 Navier (1785-1836) Navier was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and became a professor there in 1831. Coulomb was able to formulate the principle. and credited Clapeyron for the theorem of equality between external and internal work. Coulomb and Navier 149 The pre-Modern Period. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . governing the interaction between electric charges. In 1779 Coulomb published the treatise Theorie des machines simples (Theory of Simple Machines).7 The pre-Modern Period. Clapeyron and de Saint-Venant. After the war Coulomb came out of retirement and assisted the new government in devising a metric system of weights and measures. as was the first to publish Figure 7.Draft 7. He used Hooke’s law. 7. it took engineers more than forty years to understand them correctly and to use them in practical application 78 In 1826 he published his Le¸ons (lecture notes) which is considered the first great textbook c in mechanics for engineering. friction.16. combined with high mathematical ability an essentially practical outlook which gave direction to all his work”. the coulomb. Coulomb did also research on magnetism. ` developed the equilibrium of forces on the cross section with external forces. Lam’e published the first e book on elasticity in 1852. In it he developed the first general theory of elastic solids as well as the first systematic treatment of the theory of structures. now known as Coulomb’s law.7 75 7. an analysis of friction in machinery. was named for him. de Saint-Venant was perhaps the greatest elasticians who according to Southwell “. Coulomb and Navier Coulomb (1736-1806) was a French military engineer. In 1777 he invented the torsion balance for measuring the force of magnetic and electrical attraction. The unit of quantity used to measure electrical charges. flexure. placed the neutral axis in its exact position. 79 It should be noted that no clear division existed between the theory of elasticity and the theory of structures until about the middle of the nineteenth century (Coulomb and Navier would today be considered professional structural engineers). In 1855-6 he published his classical work on torsion.. He also worked on friction (“Coulomb friction”) and on earth pressure. and then correcly determined the stresses. Whereas the famous memoir of Coulomb (1773) contained the correct solution to numerous important problems in mechanics of materials.

Forced to flee. Roebling was the author of Long and Short Span Railway Bridges (1869). In 1902. Ironically. He built railroad suspension bridges over the Ohio and Niagara rivers and completed plans for the Brooklyn Bridge shortly before his death. Sullivan. he worked with different civil engineering organizations. In the summer of 1914. he founded his own firm for design and construction. 94 For eight years following his graduation. He opened an office in Geneva in 1919 and branches in Bern and Zurich in 1924. Form follows function became the touchstone for many in his profession. 7. He was born in Germany. his wife having died in Russia.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 151 His famous axiom. was a banker. where his father. He meant that an architect should consider the purpose of the building as a starting point. educated at the Royal Polytechnic School of Berlin and immigrated to the States in 1831. he returned to Switzerland penniless and lonely. to survey its route across the Allegheny Mountains between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. 1872. when the Salginatobel and Landquart Bridges were completed. 91 92 Roebling utilized steel cables in the construction of numerous suspension bridges and is generally considered one of the pioneers in the field of suspension-bridge construction. and from 1930. even though he is regarded today as one of the half dozen greatest bridge designers of the twentieth century. his business grew rapidly and expanded as far as Russia and Spain. Switzerland. Maillart stayed and worked in Russia until 1919. 95 96 During the twenties he began to develop and modify his ideas of bridge design. Since the World War prevented their return to Switzerland. thereafter.8. a Belgian citizen. until his death in 1940. he took his wife and three children to Russia. not as a rigidly limiting stricture.Draft 88 89 7.S. In his first job he was employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Corp. however. 1806-1869 John Augustus Roebling was an American civil engineer.8. in Bern. Because of these misfortunes Maillart felt unable to take up the construction business again and henceforth concentrated on design alone. He studied civil engineering at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and graduated in 1894. He also had tremendous respect for the natural world which played an enormous role in forging his theories about architecture (he spent all of his first summers on his grandparents’ farm in Massachusetts where he developed this love and respect for nature) expressed in his Autobiography of an Idea). who was one of the pioneers in the construction of suspension bridges. when his business was liquidated by the Revolution. 1924). 7. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 Maillart From (Billington 1973) 93 Robert Maillart was born on February 6. one of his lowest grades was in bridge design. did not apply it literally.4 90 Roebling. He then demonstrated the practicability of steel cables in bridge construction and in 1841 established at Saxonburg the first factory to manufacture steel-wire rope in the U.

Draft 7. also in Jiddah (1977-78). Saudi Arabia (1976-81). and King Abdul Aziz University.17: Nervi’s Palazetto Dello Sport needed for high towers.. Pei. .8. and permitted freer organization of the interior space. eliminated the need for internal wind bracing (since the perimeter columns carried the wind loadings). Johnson. Calatrava. 7.8 102 et al. Isler. Jiddah. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . His later projects included the strikingly different Haj Terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International Airport.. Candella.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 153 Figure 7. Torroja. To name just a few of the most influential Architects/Engineers: Menn.

No longer did I need to believe whatever was in print. Thus. as draftsman. with Freudenthal. being tired perhaps of performing long and tedious routines whose results were not always meaningful. and then I got Max Bill’s book with its invaluable collection of Maillart’s essays. no matter how high-sounding the name of the author. But my attitude with respect to calculations of reinforced concrete structures was becoming unorthodox. After several years of general practice in Mexico. Time and Architecture. since most structures I was building were of modest scale.” Very short papers. with no direct help from any university or engineering office. Any discussion should be restricted to insignificant details. especially for somebody who builds his own structures. through their writings. Johansen. I could make my own judgements about what methods of stress analysis were better suited for my practice. but never touch fundamental dogmas. my only way to break the mystery surrounding shell analysis. I recalled my old fancy with shells and began to collect again papers on the subject. If a rebel was able to produce such beautiful and sound structures there could not be anything wrong with becoming also a rebel.. I learned later that to express personal opinions is considered bad taste among technical writers. in a fashion curiously similar to what could be expected of the councils of the Church or the meetings of any Politbureau. Therefore. I devoured his articles about ”Reinforced Concrete Design and Calculation” (he was very careful to differentiate the meaning of such words and to avoid the more than semantic confusion prevalent nowadays in English-speaking countries). In a way. it may be shocking to think of a contractor as an artist.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 155 than my bare hands and no further addition to my academic background. allowed me to trust in simplified procedures to understand and analyze the distribution of stresses in shell structures. with their emphasis on simple statics and their bearing on the actual properties of construction materials and their behavior in the plastic range. Van der Broek. I found Maillart’s thoughts delightfully sympathetic and encouraging. like in the case of Nervi. Saliger. I understand that this was also true of Maillart who in many cases was the actual builder of his designs. there has been a lot of speculation about the engineer as an artist and in some instances. Since I was working practically alone. I was working with full scale models. but few people realize that the only way to be an artist in this difficult specialty of building is to be your own contractor. I could control what was happening. check the results and confirm the accuracy of my judgement or correct my mistakes. to produce Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . artistic ability to its holder). designer and contractor. Whatever I learned from then on was to be the hard way. where the building industry has been thoroughly and irreversibly fragmented and the responsibility diluted among so many trades. about the engineer as an architect (as if the title of architect could confer. which was besides. This was exactly my case and. something I could rarely find in other engineering articles. in countries like this. Following the general trend to mess up issues. but it is indeed the only way to have in your hands the whole set of tools or instruments to perform the forgotten art of building. but well provided with opinions. I discovered him in Giedion’s Space. Kacinczy and so many others who showed me there was more than a single and infallible manner to approach structural analysis. The discovery of rupture methods.Draft 7. But I am indebted to many people who did help me through their writings and Maillart was one of the foremost. Kist. I could not afford nor had time for complex calculations and did welcome Maillart’s advice that simpler calculations are more reliable than complex ones. I started to follow the bibliographic tread and met. indeed. per se. ”The Engineer and the Authorities” which expresses his position in front of the establishment and ”Mass and Quality in Reinforced Concrete Structures. It also helped me to get out of my naive belief in the indisputable truth of the printed word and to start reading with a new critical outlook. working alone.

7 ft. 8. provides a good example of the mariage between aesthetic and engineering. Fig. 3 8. 8.1 1 Geometry This sotrage house.4 k/ft (13.2 k/ft = (63. and that the total frame weight is 13. 2 The most strking feature of the Magazini Generali is not the structure itself.2 4 Loads The load applied on the frame is from the weights of the roof slab. and that the roof load is 98 psf.6) k = 0. Fig. the overhang is designed in such a way as to minimize the net moment to be transmitted to the supports (foundations).2. the total uniform load becomes. Fig.1-b) (8. but rather the shape of its internal supporting frames. Whereas the beam itself is a simple structural idealization.6 kips.1-c) qtotal = 1.3: qroof qf rame = (98) psf(14. built by Maillart in Chiasso in 1924. The frame can be idealized as a simply supported beam hung from two cantilever column supports.6 k/ft .4 + 0. 8.Draft Chapter 8 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 8.2 = 1.1.1-a) (8.6) ft (8. Given the space between adjacent frames is 14.7) ft = 1. and the frame itself.

Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) 8.3 Reactions q ROOF = 1.6) k/ft(63. Fig. 8.2-a) (8.6) ft2 = = 808 k.Draft 8.6 ft 51 k 51 k Figure 8.4: W = (1.2-b) We note that these reactions are provided by the internal shear forces. This can be achieved through a combination of compressive force on the upper fibers.6) k/ft(63. 7 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 5 Reactions Reactions for the beam are determined first taking advantage of symmetry.2 k/ft q TOTAL = 1. and the moment diagram is parabolic with the maximum moment at the center.3) The externally induced moment at midspan must be resisted by an equal and opposite internal moment. Fig.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.5. however there is a net internal couple. Thus the net axial force is zero.6 k/ft 63.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.ft 8 8 (8. equal to: Mmax = qL2 (1.6) ft = 102 k W 102 R = = = 51 k 2 2 (8. 8. and tensile ones on the lower. q TOTAL = 1.6 k/ft Figure 8.3: Magazzini Generali. Beam Reactions. 8.4: Magazzini Generali. Those can be easily determined for a simply supported uniformly loaded beam. Fig. The shear varies linearly from 51 kip to -51 kip with zero at the center.4 Forces 6 The internal forces are pimarily the shear and moments.2 k/ft 159 q ROOF = 1.6.

7. Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support.2) ft 8 Because the frame shape (and thus d(x)) is approximately parabolic. 8.4 Forces Mext = Cd ⇒ C = T =C = 161 Mext d (8.Draft 8. it was determined that the supports are contributing a compression force of about 8 kips which needs to be superimposed over the central values. then the axial forces are constants along the entire frame.8.9 This is analogous to the forces transmiited 88 k 88 k 88 k 88 k Tension Compression Tied Arch Horizontal Component Cable Force Axial Force Vertical Reaction Figure 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) to the support by a tied arch. Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram.8: Magazzini Generali.ft = ± 88 k (9. Fig. Fig. (Billington and Mark 1983) 9 The axial force at the end of the beam is not balanced. and the moment is also parabolic. M MOMENT DIAGRAM d FRAME CABLE : CURVE OF DIAGRAM FRAME : SHAPE OF DIAGRAM Figure 8. Fig. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4-b) (808) k.9. 8.4-a) (8. and the 88 kip compression must be transmitted to the lower chord. 8.7: Magazzini Generali. 8. 10 It should be mentioned that when a rigorous computer analysis was performed. Fig.

The collapse of a beam is likely to cause a localized failure. if no redistribution of load is possible (as would be the case in a statically determinate structure). 2. Variability in Loadings: All loadings are variable. There is a greater variation in the live loads than in the dead loads. either to humans or goods. whereas other are sudden and catastrophic. Variability in the strength of the material (greater variability in concrete strength than in steel strength). earthquakes). . a higher safety factor must be adopted. Finally. Differences between the actual dimensions and those specified (mostly in placement of steel rebars in R/C). Some types of loadings are very difficult to quantify (wind. 2 3 The following items must be considered in determining safety provisions: 1. Seriousness of a failure. Effect of simplifying assumptions made in the derivation of certain formulas. Consequences of Failure: The consequence of a structural component failure must be carefully assessed. This is to account for Variability in Resistance: The actual strengths (resistance) of structural elements will differ from those assumed by the designer due to: 1.Draft Chapter 9 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES of ACI and AISC CODES 9. 3. the failure of certain components can be preceded by warnings (such as excessive deformation). Alternatively the failure of a column is likely to trigger the failure of the whole structure. Alternatively.1 Safety Provisions 1 Structures and structural members must always be designed to carry some reserve load above what is expected under normal use. The purpose of safety provisions is to limit the probability of failure and yet permit economical structures.

11 Allowable strengths are given in Table 9. f (x) is a “bell curve” with inflection points at x = µ ± σ.66Fy Shear Fv = 0. but are the result of experience and judgment. Major limitations of this method σyld F. (9. For concrete structures. f (x) is a valid probability distribution function as: ∞ −∞ f (x) = 1 (9.S.6Fy Tension. 2. is the factor of safety.1: Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete 9.40Fy Concrete.3 Ultimate Strength Method 165 σ < σall = where F. Gross Area Ft = 0.45f c .5Fu Bending Fb = 0.3 9.1 12 Ultimate Strength Method The Normal Distribution The normal distribution has been found to be an excellent approximation to a large class of distributions.3. and has some very desirable mathematical properties: 1. 3. Effective Net Area∗ Ft = 0.S. 3. AISC/ASD Tension. Steel.2) 4. f (x) is symmetric with respect to the mean µ. Safety factors are not rigorously determined from a probabilistic approach. 2.45fc ∗ Effective net area will be defined in section ??.1. The probability that xmin < x < xmax is given by: xmax P (xmin < x < xmax ) = Victor Saouma f (x)dx xmin (9. ACI/WSD Tension 0 Compression 0.Draft 10 9.3) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1) 1. stresses are not linearly proportional to strain beyond 0. Table 9. An elastic analysis can not easily account for creep and shrinkage of concrete.

000 structural members designed with β = 3. 23 Reliability indices are a relative measure of the current condition and provide a qualitative estimate of the structural performance.Draft 9. m 21 22 We define the safety index (or reliability index) as β = X σ For standard distributions and for β = 3.3: Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R Failure would occur for negative values of X 19 The probability of failure Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded area to the total area under the curve in Fig. then the structure may be classified as a hazard. it can be shown that the probability of failure is 1 Pf = 9. That is 1 in every 10.5 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . If the value is too low. 9.5.1 × 10−4 . and in Fig. 9.3 Ultimate Strength Method 167 Figure 9.5 will fail because of either excessive load or understrength sometime in its lifetime. Figure 9. 24 Structures with relatively high reliable indices will be expected to perform well.4: Definition of Reliability Index 20 R If X is assumed to follow a Normal Distribution than it has a mean value X = ln Q and a standard deviation σ.091 or 1.2.4. 25 Target values for β are shown in Table 9.

75 3-3.9 0.75 0.65 Table 9. Φ Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength).0 4. αi is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.9 0. spiral reinforcement Axial Compression.85 0. Shear Φ 0. Type of Member ACI Axial Tension Flexure Axial Compression.5 3.3 Ultimate Strength Method Type of Load/Member AISC DL + LL.5 1. other Shear and Torsion Bearing on concrete AISC Tension. Members DL + LL +EL.3. Members ACI Ductile Failure Sudden Failures β 3.85 0. yielding Tension. Σαi Qi is the required strength based on the factored load: i is the type of load 32 The various factored load combinations which must be considered are AISC Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9 0.5-4 169 Table 9.75 0. Table 9.70 0. fracture Compression Beams Fasteners. ΦRn is the design strength. Connections DL + LL + WL.5 3.70 0.75 0.9 0.Draft 9.3: Strength Reduction Factors. and must account for the type of structural element. less than 1. Members DL + LL. Tension Fasteners.2: Selected β values for Steel and Concrete Structures Φ is a strength reduction factor.

Draft 9.2(100) + 1.9 the cross sectional area should be A= Σαi Qi 248 = = 7.6L = 1. applying Eq. 9.9.6 USD we consider the largest of the two load combinations Σαi Qi : 1.9)Aσyld .6σyld = 0.33 in2 21. From Table 9. ASD: We consider the total load P = 100 + 80 = 180 k.4D = 1. Use A36 steel.65 in2 Φσyld (0.1. let us consider the design of an axial member.4 Example 171 9.9)(36) Note that whereas in this particular case the USD design required a smaller area.4(100) = 140 k 1. subjected to a dead load of 100 k and live load of 80 k. the allowable stress is 0. and ΦRn = (0.6 ∗ 36 = 21.6 ksi. Hence. this may not be the case for different ratios of dead to live loads.6(80) = 248 k  From Table 9.4 Example Example 9-1: LRFD vs ASD To illustrate the differences between the two design approaches. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Thus the required cross sectional area is A= 180 = 8.3 Φ = 0.2D + 1.

Thus overall buckling of the compression flange as a column cannot occur prior to its full participation to develop the moment strength of the section. we will have a failure mode governed by lateral 2 3 A) COMPOSITE BEAM B) OTHER FRAMING C) CROSS BRACING Figure 10. . A laterally stable beam is one which is braced laterally in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the web. 4 By the end of this lecture you should be able to select the most efficient section (light weight with adequate strength) for a given bending moment and also be able to determine the flexural strength of a given beam.1: Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams torsional buckling. 10.Draft Chapter 10 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS 1 This chapter deals with the behavior and design of laterally supported steel beams according to the LRFD provisions. Fig. If a beam is not laterally supported.1.

3: Failure of Steel beam.Draft 10.2 Failure Modes and Classification of Steel Beams 175 w 2 M=(wL )/8 + σy σy wu + 2 σy Figure 10. Local Buckling Victor Saouma #$%$%" !"$% !#" "!#!#$% Mp σy M p=(wL )/8 bf tw FLANGE BUCKLING WEB BUCKLING Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2: Failure of Steel beam. Plastic Hinges hf hc COMPACT Figure 10.

5.3 Compact Sections 177 Figure 10.6-b) = 16 The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula Sx ≈ wd/10 or Ix ≈ Sx d ≈ wd2 /20 2 (10.4) def ydA (10.23 as S I = def I d/2 y 2 dA A (10. and the nominal moment strength Mn is therefore referred to as the plastic moment Mp and is determined from 14 Mp = F y where Z = is the Plastic Section Modulus. Eq.3) When across the entire section.8) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6-a) (10. (10.6: Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels 13 When the yield stress is reached at the extreme fiber. the strain is equal or larger than the yield strain (ε ≥ ε y = Fy /Es ) then the section is fully plastified. is referred to as the yield moment My and is computed as Mn = M y = S x F y (assuming that bending is occurring with respect to the x − x axis).7) and the plastic modulus can be approximated by Zx ≈ wd/9 Victor Saouma (10. the nominal moment strength M n .5) The plastic section modulus Z should not be confused with the elastic section modulus S defined. 15 A ydA = Fy Z (10.Draft 10.

5 Slender Section 179 Draft & ( & QRP6 P I9 & () WX cde V Y`Y WXaWb V 4H7 GE DB@ 9 67849 53 F CA 4 (0 S& e WX ` T V WX TU V pq ir fg hig 4H7 FBE CDA t Ps QvPw 4 5u 9 0 S 1 ' 2 1 10. 10.Draft 10.5 23 Figure 10. the element is referred to as slender compression element.6 Examples Example 10-1: Z for Rectangular Section Determine the plastic section modulus for a rectangular section. width b and depth d. Since the slender sections involve a different treatment. Slender Section If the width to thickness ratio exceeds λr values of flange and web. Victor Saouma ) 1 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . it will not be dealt here. Note that we use the λ associated with the one being violated (or the lower of the two if both are). 22 All other quantities are as defined earlier.7: Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections where: Mr Residual Moment equal to (Fy − Fr )S λ bf /2tf for I-shaped member flanges and hc /tw for beam webs.

3. √ = 87.90(87. we select a W12X22 section which has a Zx = 29.9) = 79. We finally check for the maximum distance between supports.55 k/ft Mu = (1.9 k. Check the Strength by correcting the factored moment Mu to include the self weight.ft Assuming compact section.88 in A 6. Check compact section limits λp for the flanges from the table λ= bf 2tf λp and for the web: λ= hc tw = 4.3 in3 Note that Zx is approximated by wd = (22)(12) = 29.022 = 0. 9 9 4.8) = 1.16-b) (10. or 0.222 k/ft wu = 1.90(36) From the notes on Structural Materials.88 = 43 ft 36 (10.16-c) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6 Examples 181 2.1 in3 φb Fy 0. ry = Lp = = Iy 5 = = 0.2(0.ft 6. combing those two equations we have: φ b Zx F y = M u 3.1 k. For a simply supported beam carrying uniformly distributed load.8 640 = √ = Fy 640 √ 36 = 107 √ 5.5 300 ry Fy 300 √ 0. Mu = wu L2 /8 = (1. Required Zx is Zx = Mu 76(12) = = 28.55)(20)2 /8 = 77. since a vast majority of rolled sections satisfy λ ≤ λ p for both the flange and the web.222) + 1.ft Mn = M p = Z x F y = (29.16-a) (10. The design strength φb Mn is φ b Mn = φ b Mp = φ b Z x F y The design requirement is φ b Mn = M u or.8 > λ √ λp = 41.3 k.2 + 0. Self weight of the beam W12X22 is 22 lb.7 65 = √ = Fy 65 √ 36 = 10. Compute the factored load moment Mu .Draft 10.6(0.ft > Mu Therefore use W12X22 section.52)(20)2 /8 = 76 k./ft.3) in (36) (12) in/ft 3 ksi φb Mn = 0.022 kip/ft wD = 0.

it is customary to use the following notation . 3 Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed in most cases by the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Some of the most relevant provisions of this code are enclosed in this set of notes. For that section. but in poorer countries other indigenous materials have been used (such as bamboos). Other concerns. a reinforcement must be added. cracking. torsion. concrete by itself is a very poor material for flexural members. 4 5 We will focus on determining the amount of flexural (that is longitudinal) reinforcement required at a given section.Draft Chapter 11 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 11. To provide tensile resistance to concrete beams.1 6 Notation In R/C design. 11. of the American Concrete Institute (ACI-318). the moment which should be considered for design is the one obtained from the moment envelope at that particular point. such as shear.1 Introduction 1 Recalling that concrete has a tensile strength (f t ) about one tenth its compressive strength (fc ).1. and deflections are left for subsequent ones. Steel is almost universally used as reinforcement (longitudinal or as fibers). 2 The following lectures will focus exclusively on the flexural design and analysis of reinforced concrete rectangular sections.

4 13 Basic Relations and Assumptions In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete. 1) ΣFx = 0 or Tension in the reinforcement = Compression in concrete. 12 We often consider the maximum moment along a member.1.3 11 11. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the following basic relations will be used.1.003 in compression irrespective of fc . and design accordingly. 2. Note that those two materials do also have very close coefficients of thermal expansion under normal temperature. 14 Basic assumptions used: Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). determine what is the maximum moment which can be applied. Design: Given an external moment to be resisted.2: Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam 1.1 Introduction 185 Analysis vs Design In R/C we always consider one of the following problems: Analysis: Given a certain design.Draft 11. ??: Compatibility Equilibrium C d εy T T=C M_ext=Cd Figure 11. Fig. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. 11. and 2) ΣM = 0 or external moment (that is the one obtained from the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension in steel and compression of the concrete). Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the beam (b and h) are fixed by the architect. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain u = . determine cross sectional dimensions (b and h) as well as reinforcement (As ). Plane section remain plane ⇒ strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.

3: Cracked Section. Ultimate Strength Design Method 187 Figure 11. Limit State Figure 11.2 Cracked Section.Draft 11.4: Whitney Stress Block Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

and we need to determine its moment carrying capacity.003 + εs Those two equations can be solved by either one of two methods: (a) Substitute into one single equation (b) By iteration Once c and fs = Eεs are determined then MD = ΦAs fs d − β1 c 2 (11.3 1. and fy determine the design moment: fc 87 2. ρact = As bd 11.2 Cracked Section. Ultimate Strength Design Method 189 Analysis Given As .9) MD = Φρfy bd2 1 − .003 = d . If ρact < ρb (that is failure is triggered by yielding of the steel. d. We have two equations to solve this problem Equilibrium: of forces c= A s fs .85)β1 fy 87+fy 3.85fc bβ1 (11.12) (11. fs = fy ) s a = . ρb = (. if such a section exists. b. then we have two unknowns: (a) Steel strain εs (which was equal to εy in the previous case) (b) Location of the neutral axis c. † If ρact > ρb is not allowed by the code as this would be an over-reinforced section which would fail with no prior warning.003.Draft 11.11) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . fc . However.10) Strain compatibility: since we know that at failure the maximum compressive strain εc is equal to 0.2.59ρ 4.59 Mn A s fy fc b Combining this last equation with ρ = As bd yields fy fc (11.85f yb From Equilibrium c MD = ΦAs fy d − a 2 A f MD = Φ As fy d − 0. Thus from similar triangles we have c .

As = 2. 660 k.35 in2 . Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction (ΣFx = 0) a= A s fs .147 in (2.35)(60)(23) 1 − (. Iterate until convergence is reached.59) 60 (.0102 fc 87 4 87 .85β1 fy 87+fy = (.59ρact fy = As fy d 1 − . Ultimate Strength Design Method 5. Example 11-1: Ultimate Strength Capacity Determine the ultimate Strength of a beam with the following properties: b = 10 in.85fc b = (.in Note that from the strain diagram c= Alternative solution Mn = ρact fy bd2 1 − .85)(4)(10) = 4. Check assumption of fs from the strain diagram εs . 7.59ρact fy c a 4.01021) = 2.ft 4 Example 11-2: Beam Design I Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .85fc b 191 (11. fc = 4. 950 k. Solution: ρact = ρb = 2.2 Cracked Section.9)(2. 660 k.in = 245 k.9)(2.17) where c = a β1 .in 2 As bd = .003 d−c = ⇒ fs = Es .414 = = 4.147 ) = 2.85) 60 87+60 = As f y (2.Draft 11.in = (2.02885 > ρact √ a = Mn = MD = ΦMn = (.85 0.85 f f c MD = ΦMn = (.16) 6.85)(.003 < fy d−c c c (11. 950) = 2.35)(60) . d = 23 in. 000 psi and fy = 60 ksi. 950 k.35 (10)(23) = .87 in 0.35)(60)(23 − 4. 950) = 2.

1.9 may be used.42 (11. ρmax = .2 .4.2.1 . 8. 11.3 Continuous Beams 28 Whereas coverage of continuous reinforced concrete beams is beyond the scope of this course.All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum effects of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis.7L 9.42 in2 10. 8.1 .If resistance to structural effects of a specified wind load W are included in design.75)(0. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8.1 .Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to U = 1. using load factors and strength reduction factors Φ specified in Chapter 9.5.011 11.85fc b (.2 .6 through 8. 9.1 .85)(.85) fy 87 + fy 40 87 + 40 √ thus fs = fy and we use As = 2. members shall be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of this code. and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest required strength U U = 0. 8. 8.85β1 2. 8. we have converged on a.000 psi.4D + 1. ρb is equal to ρb = . Check equilibrium of forces: a= 7.5.5) in = .Required Strength 9.1.037) = . except as modified according to Section 8.4 ACI Code Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.037 = (.75ρ = (0. 000 fc . Fig.3 in . 9. the following combinations of D.011 fc 87 87 3 = .4D + 1.Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29.Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this code.85)(3) ksi(11.5 33 fc ( psi) for values of Wc between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft.3 Continuous Beams 6. L.5)(20) 193 √ A s fy (2.Draft 11.7W ) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Actual ρ is ρact = 9. For normal weight concrete.0278 > 0. Ec may be taken as 57. ?? illustrates a typical reinforcement in such a beam.7L + 1.3.Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1.2 .42) in2 (40) ksi = = 3.2.1 .In design of reinforced concrete structures.75(1.

Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement fy in excess of 80.2.3W but for any combination of D. For members with compression reinforcement. β1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.75 factor. 10.7.9D + 1.3 . 10. 10. or any other shape that results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.2. For strains greater than that corresponding to f y .10fc Ag ) or (ΦPb ).000 psi.1 .05 for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4.000 psi. 10. 9. the portion of ρb equalized by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0. stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to f y .4 .Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural calculations of reinforced concrete.Design strength provided by a member. required strength U shall not be less than Eq. and W.Stress in reinforcement below specified yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as Es times steel strain.Flexure. in terms of flexure.Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be used to increase the strength of flexural members.7 . a non-linear distribution of strain shall be considered.Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be assumed to be rectangular.90 9.3. 10.000 psi. shall be taken as the nominal strength calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code.3. except. 10.003. the ratio of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.1 . 10.3.2 .7. shear.Strength reduction factor Φ shall be as follows: 9. except for prestressing tendons. 9.3.4. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 .5 may be considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution defined by the following: 10.2. and for members subject to combined flexure and compressive axial load when the design axial load strength (ΦPn ) is less than the smaller of (0. and torsion.7.000 psi.3.2.2.2.2.2.65. 10.Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.Distance c from fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to that axis.2.75 of the ratio ρ b that would produce balanced strain conditions for the section under flexure without axial load. and its cross sections.2. except when meeting requirements of Section 18.Draft 11.Factor β1 shall be taken as 0.3.85 for concrete strengths fc up to and including 4.2 . See Section 10.4 ACI Code 195 where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more severe condition. without axial load 0. but β1 shall not be taken less than 0. (9-1). multiplied by a strength reduction factor Φ.003. its connections to other members. For strengths above 4.2. 10.6 .1 .Requirements of Section 10. and U = 0.Concrete stress of 0. 10. L. trapezoidal.2 .For flexural members. parabolic.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a distance (a = β1 c) from the fiber of maximum compressive strain.7. axial load.2 .4 .5 .4 . 10.3 . for deep flexural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans.

will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. Large crack widths will in turn result in corrosion of the rebars and poor protection against fire.2. Prestressed beams can have fc as high as 8. Fig.000 psi. 5 Main advantages of P/C: Economy. 8 The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example. fatigue strength. 12.1 1 Introduction Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones. 12. When enough concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released. it would have to have to be relatively deep (and at some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live load). we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the top and compressive stress at the bottom. or higher grade steel and concrete must be used. 3 One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to prestress the beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will be induced by the load. for a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances. concrete is then poured around the stressed bars.1 Materials 7 P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. if we were to use a steel with f y much higher than ≈ 60 ksi in reinforced concrete (R/C). 6 There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams: Pretensioning: Steel is first stressed. 4 For a simply supported beam. . 2 However. longer spans. deflection & crack control. However.Draft Chapter 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 12. 12.1. Fig. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved through prestressing of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis. then when enough strength has been reached a steel cable is passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed.1. durability. then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between concrete and steel. Postensioning: Concrete is first poured.

10.2) = 87% which is unacceptably too high. εs = 6. Figure 12. 4. The residual stres which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus (1. Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52.03 × 10−3 in/ in (12.1) we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the stretch of the steel (for prestressing to be effective).03 × 10−3 ls 7. Relaxation occurs indefinitely and produces Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ „… „… „… „… „… ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… †‡ †‡ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… ˆ‰ˆ ˆ‰ˆ ˆ‰ˆ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ €€€€‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ †‡††‡‡††‡ †‡††‡‡††‡ †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ xy xy xy xy ‘xy ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy ‘‘‘‘xyxxyyxy ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ . 10 Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which is reduction of strain at constant stress) occrs. 12. we will use Strands usually composed of 7 wires.3: 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch.03 − . there will be a change in length ∆lc = (εsh + εcr )lc (12. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 ksi. Fig.Draft 12. resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel equal to ls = lc . The total steel elongation is εs ls = 1.9 × 10−3 8. Es = 29.1 Introduction If we consider the following: 199 1.000 = 1. Note that the actual loss is (. Grade 250 or 270 ksi. A concrete beam of length lc 3.90 × 10−3 )(29 × 103 ) = 26 ksiin each case 9 Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 ksi after losses we would be left with 124 ksi or a 17% loss.90) × 10−3 (29 × 103 ) = 4 ksi Thus the total loss is 30−4 30 30 29. 9. Prestress the beam with the cable. 5. Note that yield stress is not well defined for steel used in prestressed concrete. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.3. An unstressed steel cable of length ls 2. 000 ksi. Due to shrinkage and creep. The creep and shrinkage strains are about εcr + εsh . usually we take 1% strain as effective yield.

(Nilson 1978) Figure 12.1 Introduction Q ““ ““k lllkkk “lk “llkk “l“kk l“ ““ ™d ™d™d ““ ““™d ““ ““™d™dd d™™dd “ d™d “ —˜ “ “—˜ “ “—˜—˜˜ ˜——˜˜ P P 2Q W P P h 2h/3 h/2 0 2f c 0 fc + + 2f =2f t c fc =f t 2f c “r“ rqq “r“ r“ “rqq “r“qq ““qq rrqq “qq “p“ ppoo “ppooo “p“o p“ ““ooo p“ “p“ p“ “o oo 0 0 ““““““ ““““““ ““““““ ““““““{| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| ““““““ ““““““{| ““““““ ““““““{{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| 2f t =2f c 2f c “ “ “ “gh ghgh “ “ “gh “ghghg ghghg “ “ “}~ }~}~ “ “}~ “}~}~ }~}~ “ “ “ “ef eeff “ “ef “ “eefff eefff P 2Q h/3 P h/2 2f c fc fc + Midspan + 0 Ends f c ““ tsss ts “t“s t““ “t“s t“ “tss “t“sss ss tt“ss ““ ““ ““ ““wx wwxwx “ wwxwx ““ ““ ““wx ““wxwxw xwxwx xwxwx P Q P 0 fc 2f c + ft =f c Midspan “v“ vu “vu “v“u ““u vvuuu u “v“uu v“uu “ “ “ij ijij “ “ij jiij “ijij Victor Saouma (g) (f) (e) (d) P (c) (b) (a) e θ P P P P P P e Figure 12.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam.“n“ ““““““ “ yzz yz yzz yzz yzz yzz •– “n“m ““““““yz “•– nnmmm nm ““““““ “ “n“mm ““““““yzyz “•–•– nn“mm yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz •–•– fc fc ““ ““ ““ ““ ’”’” ’”’” ““’”’” ““ ”’’” ”’’” ““’”’” f’ y Draft 12.5: Determination of Equivalent Loads Member θ h/3 P cos θ P P P cos θ P Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects P P P P P P P cos θ θ M P cos θ Equivalent load on concrete from tendon Moment from prestressing Pe P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ 2 P sin θ 2 P sin θ h/2 P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ Pe fc P cos θ P cos θ P cos θ P cos θ M P + Ends 0 None None = = = = = = fc 2f c 2f c fc fc fc 2f c fc fc 201 .

t. tension.7) 203 . we identify two types of prestressing: Stage 4 tensile stress at initial stage < 3 fci compressive stress at service stage . 17 Based on the above.2 Flexural Stresses 4. initial and service respectively): fci permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage .45fc tensile stress at initial stage 6 fc or 12 fc fc only if appropriate deflection analysis is done. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL P f2 = − Ae 1 + c P f1 = − Ae 1 − c Pi Ac ec1 r2 ec2 r2 Pi e c 1 Ic + − M0 +MDL +MLL S1 M0 +MDL +MLL S2 Pi (1Ac €€€’€€€€€ “ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ “ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“’€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ ’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ “ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“’€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ e c1 ) r2 €€Ž€€  €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ €€€€€ €€Ž€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ‘€‘€‘ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽ€ŽŽ €€€ € ‘‘ ‘‘€€€ ‘Ž€Ž ‘‘€€‘‘€ ‘€‘€€‘ €€€€ ‘€‘€€‘€ € ‘‘ €€€€ ‘€‘€€‘€ €€‘‘€ ‘€‘€€‘€ €€€ €€€€  Œ€ € Œ€ € € Œ€Œ Œ€ŒŒ € €Œ ŒŒ€ Œ€Œ € Œ€ €Œ € Œ€Œ € Œ€ŒŒ € €Œ ŒŒ€ Œ€Œ € Œ€Œ € Œ€ €ŒŒŒ Stage 1 e c2 c1 Pi (1Ac €€€€€€†€†€ †‡€€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡ ‡ ‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €†‡€†‡€†‡€†‡€€‡€‡€†‡ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡†€‡†€ €€€€€€†€†€ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€€‡€‡€†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€†€†€ €†‡€†‡€†‡€†‡€€‡€‡€†‡ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡†€‡†€ €€€€€€†€†€ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡€‡€ €€€€€€††€††€ ††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€€€€††‡†‡ ††‡†‡ Pi Ac e c1 ) r2 Stage 2 Pe (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac e c1 Mo )r2 S1 e c2 ) r2 + Mo S2 - Md + Ml S1 €€€€„€ … €€€€„…€ €€€€…€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„…€ €€€€…„€ €€€€„€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€…€ €€€€…„€ „„……„…„…€„…„…„…„…€„…„…„…„…€„…„…„…„…€€„„……„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„…€ €€€€…„€ €€€€„€ €€€€…€ €€€€„€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„„…€ „„…„…€„„…„…€„„…„…€„„…„…€€„„…„… Pe (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac €€€€€€€€€€ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚‚ƒƒ€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚ƒƒ€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€    €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ Victor Saouma 18 Figure 12. 12. i and s refer to compression. Maximum Moment Section and Support Section.60fci fti permitted concrete fcs permitted concrete fts permitted concrete Note that fts can reach 12 would be cracked.€€€Š€€ ‹ Š‹€Š‹€Š‹€€Š‹€Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€‹Š€€ ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€‹Š‹€€ ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ - Draft The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. (Nilson 1978) Those (service) flexural stresses must be below those specified by the ACI code (where the subscripts c. because section Pe (1+ Ac Mo e c2 )+ r2 S2 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects + Md + Ml S2 Mo S1 Pi e c 2 Ic Pe (1+ Ac Pi (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac e c2 Mt )+ r2 S2 Mo e c1 )r2 S1 e c1 Mt )r2 S1 e c2 ) r2 Mo e c2 )+ r2 S2 (12. 12.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity.7.

13) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 = −71 − 439 = −510 psi (12. 000) = 1.14) (0. 398 psi √ = .ft 8 (12.12-c) (12.12-b) (12. 122 psi note that −71 and −1.9-b) The flexural stresses will thus be equal to: w0 f1.12-f) f2 = − ec2 Pe M0 1+ 2 + Ac r S2 144.11-d) (12. 837) respectively. 837 + 439 = −1. f1 = − Victor Saouma ec1 Pe 1− 2 Ac r − M0 + MDL + MLL S1 (12. 000 (5. 400 3.11-e) (12.Draft 12.6 k. then the effective force Pe is equal to (1 − 0.6)(12.12-d) (12.10) f1 = − fti Pi ec1 M0 1− 2 − Ac r S1 = −83 − 439 = −522 psi √ = 3 fc = +190 (12.11-b) (12. 000 (5.2 = M0 = S1.11-a) (12. 000) = 1.2 = −1.19)(12) = − 1+ + 439 176 68. 561 are respectively equal to (0. If we have 15% losses.2 Flexural Stresses (. 320 psi (12. 000 1.15-a) (110)(12.15)169 = 144 k f1 = − ec1 Pe M0 1− 2 − Ac r S1 144.11-f) f2 = − fci M0 Pi ec2 1+ 2 + Ac r S2 = −1.ft 8 205 M0 = (12. 4.19)(12) = − 1− 176 68.2 = Thus.183)(40)2 = 36. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL MDL + MLL = and corresponding stresses f1.6fc = −2. 561 + 439 = −1.85)(−83) and (0.12-e) (12.11-c) (12.55)(40)2 = 110 k.12-a) − 439 (12. 000 439 psi (12.85)(−1. Pe and M0 .2 (36.

25’ 44 ’ ROAD 9.Draft 12.SECTION OF BEAM TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM 10" 7" 6’-7" SLOTS FOR CABLES Figure 12.25’ SIDEWALK BEAM CROSS SECTIONS TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS CROSS .SECTION OF BRIDGE 52" 10" 3" 7" 3’-3" 6 1/2" 3 1/2" 7" 30" CROSS .8: Walnut Lane Bridge. Plan View Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge 207 80 ft CENTER LINE ELEVATION OF BEAM HALF 9.

tot = 1 (44) ft(0.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge 209 Loads The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1.4 Flexural Stresses ec1 Pi 1− 2 Ac r 6) (2 × 10 (31. 1.094) k/f t2 (62. thus over a width of 62.3 26 27 12.2 2. psi (12. Prestressing force.15) k/ ft3 = 0.Draft 12.15 k/ ft3 ) road has a thickness of 0.ft 8 (5. and is estimated to be 94 psf.36 + 0.25-c) = −3.27) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .tot = 1 (2)(9.45 feet.15) k/ ft3 = 0.5) ft = 0. ec2 Pi 1+ 2 = − Ac r (2 × 106 ) (31.5 feet this gives a uniform live load of wLL = 31 1 (0.23) Finally.3.2 = M0 = S1.25-d) f2 2.13 k/ft 13 (12.23 k/ft 13 (12. (12.45) ft(0.20) 28 Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9. Pi only f1 = − (12. psi (12.72)(160)2 = 5.21) We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral diaphragms.5) = − 1+ 1.25-b) (12.81 k/ft (12.6 feet thick: qs. 354 943.26) The flexural stresses will thus be equal to: w0 f1. 29 The total dead load is qDL = 0.13 = 0. the combined dead and live load per beam is wDL+LL = 0.45 k/ft 13 (12.8)(39.36 k/ft (12. 504 k.4)(12.22) 30 The live load is created by the traffic. 354 943.5) = − 1− 1. 50.25) ft(0. The concrete (density=. 445. Thus for a 44 foot width.60) ft(0. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers due to prestressing) M0 = (1. the total load over one single beam is qr.25 feet wide and 0.8)(39.72 k/ft.45 = 0. 043 psi (12.25-a) = 490. 000) = 943.24) 12.23 + 0.3.

13. 8 Since the dawn of history. it is often more economical to build a curved structure such as an arch. and there is no shear across the midspan of the arch 2 (nor a moment).2 where the vertical load is per unit horizontal projection (such as an external load but not a self-weight). an arch can be considered as an inverted cable. 3 4 5 A parabolic arch uniformly loaded will be loaded in compression only. Essentially. suspended cable.1 Arches 6 In order to optimize dead-load efficiency. however the major (and only) difference is that equations will be written in polar coordinates. Taking moment about the crown. long span structures should have their shapes approximate the coresponding moment diagram. bricks). 2 The concepts used are identical to the ones previously seen. and is transmits the load primarily through axial compression. suspended cable or thin shells. The basic issues of static in arch design are illustrated in Fig. However. masonary. the vertical reaction is simply V = wL .1. Due to symmetry. 7 Long span structures can be built using flat construction such as girders or trusses. mankind has tried to span distances using arch construction. 13.1) . 9 M = Hh − wL 2 L L − 2 4 =0 (13. and labour was not an issue. Essentially this was because an arch required materials to resist compression only (such as stone. but can also resist flexure through its flexural rigidity. hence an arch. arches can be used to reduce the bending moment in long span structures. Like cables. or tendon configuration in a prestressed concrete beam all are nearly parabolic. for spans in excess of 100 ft. 13. Fig. A semi-circular arch unifirmly loaded will have some flexural stresses in addition to the compressive ones.Draft Chapter 13 ARCHES and CURVED STRUCTURES 1 This chapter will concentrate on the analysis of arches.

Draft 13. First.3. live loads may act on portion of the arch. a span/rise ratio ranging from 5 to 8 or perhaps as much as 12. then due to the inclination of the arch the actual self weight is not constant. 16 In a parabolic arch subjected to a uniform horizontal load there is no moment. in practice an arch is not subjected to uniform horizontal load. However. 13.2) We recall that a similar equation was derived for arches. it is obvious that one should use as high a rise as possible. However. and the arch advantage diminishes. and H is analogous to the C − T forces in a beam. 14 If the arch has only two hinges. Fig. as the ratio goes higher. 12 13 An arch is far more efficient than a beam. 10 Since equilibrium requires H to remain constant across thee arch. An arch carries the vertical load across the span through a combination of axial forces and flexural ones. then bending moments may exist either at the crown or at the supports or at both places. a parabolic curve would theoretically result in no moment on the arch section. is frequently used. or if it has no hinges. the depth (and thus the weight) of an arch is not usually constant. APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING EXCEPT AT THE BASE APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING INCLUDING BASE w w h’ H’ H’=wl /8h’< wl /8h 2 2 M h V V h h’ M base M crown L M base h H’<H H’<H H’<H V V Figure 13. A well dimensioned arch will have a small to negligible moment. Since h is much larger than d. and the section would then have a higher section depth. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 15 Since H varies inversely to the rise h. H will be much smaller than C − T in a beam. we may have buckling problems.1 Arches Solving for H H= wL2 8h 213 (13. They are also easy to analyse through statics.. and h is the overall height of the arch. thus the line of action will not necessarily follow the arch centroid. and relatively high normal compressive stresses. and possibly more economical and aesthetic than a truss in carrying loads over long spans. For a combination of aesthetic and practical considerations. Finally. 11 Three-hinged arches are statically determinate structures which shape can acomodate support settlements and thermal expansion without secondary internal stresses. This last effect can be neglected if the live load is small in comparison with the dead load. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3: Two Hinged Arch.

6 B θ r B dP=wRdθ R A R A θ θ R cosθ C Figure 13.7-a) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6-a) ⇒ Cy = = = moment arm wR wR θ=π θ=π (1 + cos θ)dθ = [θ − sin θ] |θ=0 2 2 θ=0 wR [(π − sin π) − (0 − sin 0)] 2 π 2 wR (13.6-b) 2. −(Cy )(2R) + ¡ θ=π wRdθ R(1 + cos θ) = 0 θ=0 dP (13.2 k  (13. −(Cx )(R) + (Cy )(R) − θ= π 2 θ=0 wRdθ dP R cos θ moment arm =0 (13.6: Semi-Circular three hinged arch Solution: I Reactions The reactions can be determined by integrating the load over the entire structure 1.8 k   =   34. 900        = RCx 80 50 3. 000          ⇒   RAy    RAx We can check our results by considering the summation with respect to b from the right: √   B (13.1 Arches      215 Solving those four equations simultaneously we have: 140 26.4) Example 13-2: Semi-Circular Arch. where ds = rdθ).5) (+ ) ΣMz = 0. −(20)(20) − (50.25 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 80 60 0 0   RAy   R   Ax    RCy               2.2)(33.Draft 13. Vertical Reaction is determined first:   (+ ) ΣMA = 0.9)(60) = 0 ¡  RCy    RCx         15.9 k          50. Horizontal Reactions are determined next   (+ ) ΣMB ¡ = 0. 13.1 k      29.75) + (34. (Gerstle 1974) Determine the reactions of the three hinged statically determined semi-circular arch under its own dead weight w (per unit arc length s.

The real curvature φ is obtained by dividing the moment by EI φ= wR2 π π M = (1 − sin θ) + (θ − ) cos θ EI EI 2 2 (13.000 in4 . Solution: 1. causing a virtual internal moment δM = R [1 − cos θ − sin θ] 2 0≤θ≤ π 2 (13. acting on any section θ in the right half of the rib.70 in2 . axial. 13.0337 wR EI 4 (13. Fig.1 Arches III Deflection are determined last 217 θ α=0 wRdα · R(cos α − cos θ) + M = 0 π 2 (1 (13.16-a) 13.15) p 2. Assume that the rib is a W24x130 with a total area of 38.2 Statically Indeterminate Example 13-3: Statically Indeterminate Arch. application of the virtual work equation yields: 1 ·∆ = 2 π 2 δP θ=0 wR2 π π R (1 − sin θ) + (θ − ) cos θ · · [1 − cos θ − sin θ] Rdθ EI 2 2 2 dx M =φ EI δM = = wR4 7π 2 − 18π − 12 16EI . Consider that end C is placed on rollers. a moment of inertia equal to 4. E of 30. as shown in Fig.1. Hence.8 as caused by a concentrated vertical load of 10 k at the center line of the span. and flexural strains. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .000 k/in2 .21 in2 . that it has a web area of 13. (Kinney 1957) Determine the value of the horizontal reaction component of the indicated two-hinged solid rib arch.14) 1. The virtual force δP will be a unit vertical point in the direction of the desired deflection. 13-7. and a shearing modulus G of 13. ?? A unit fictitious horizontal force is applied at C.000 k/in2 . are shown at the right end of the rib in Fig.Draft 13.12) (13. The axial and shearing components of this fictitious force and of the vertical reaction at C.13) ⇒ M = wR2 − sin θ) + (θ − π ) cos θ 2 1. Consider shearing.

22.36) P sin θ 2 cos θ P cos θ 2 − sin θ (13.17) 3.002 + 0.18-b) (13. for the rib from C to B.20-a) (13. If only flexural strains are considered. and a real horizontal force of 1 k is assumed to act toward the right at C in conjunction with the fictitious horizontal force of 1 k acting to the right at the same point. the result will be ∆Ch = 22.Draft 13.55 + 0.18-c) (13.18-a) (13. the result would be HC = Comments 1.18-e) (13.313 (13.20-b) 6.309 (13.003 = 22. M δM V δV N δN = = = = = = P (100 − R cos θ) 2 1(R sin θ − 125.309 + 0.76 k 2. If the above values are substituted in Eq.21) 7.55 = 9.1 Arches 219 2.18-f) (13. For the given rib and the single concentrated load at the center of the span it is obvious that the effects of shearing and axial strains are insignificant and can be disregarded.18-g) ds = Rdθ 4.75 k δChCh 2. The load P is now assumed to be removed from the rib.002 = 2.22) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .898 and π/2.023 − 0. The expression for the horizontal displacement of C is B 1 ∆Ch = 2 δP δM C M ds + 2 EI B δV C V ds + 2 Aw G B δN C N ds AE (13.313 in B B δM δN C N ds AE (13. 13.57 (13.17 and integrated between the limits of 0.19) 5. 13. From Fig.9.57 ∆Ch = = 9. The value of the horizontal reaction component will be HC = 22.18-d) (13. The horizontal displacement of C will be given by δChCh = 2 B M V ds + 2 ds + 2 δV EI Aw G C C = 2.

Draft 13.176Eb4 .3.2 Curved Space Structures 221 with respect to the x and y axis are BP and AB respectively. Noting that the member will be subjected to both flexural and torsional deformations. Bending Moment: θ 0 wRdα = 0 ⇒ V = wrθ (13. Assuming a unit virtual downward force δP = 1.385E)(.23-b) (13. 2. and k a factor equal to . The flexural stiffness EI is given by EI = E bd = E b(2b) = 12 12 3 3 2Eb4 3 = .229 for d = 2. The torsional stiffness of solid rectangular sections J = kb3 d where b is the shorter side of the section. 5. Applying three equations of equilibrium we obtain A Fz − A Mx − A My − θ=π θ=0 θ=π θ=0 θ=π θ=0 wRdθ = 0 ⇒ A Fz = wRπ A Mx = 2wR2 A My = −wR2 π (13. Considering both flexural and torsional deformations.27) Flexure Torsion where the real moments were given above.3) = . and GJ = (. we have δM δT = R sin θ = −R(1 − cos θ) (13. 1.385E.26) III Deflection are determined last we assume a rectangular cross-section of width b and height d = 2b and a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. 3.229b4 ) = . 4. and replacing dx by rdθ: π δP ∆ = δW ∗ δM 0 M Rdθ + EIz δU ∗ π δT 0 T Rdθ GJ (13. Hence b E E G = 2(1+ν) = 2(1+. Torsion: θ 0 (wRdα)(R sin α) = 0 ⇒ M = wR2 (1 − cos θ) (13. d the longer. we seek to determine the two stiffnesses. Shear Force: θ (+ 6 ΣFz = 0 ⇒ V − ) 2.25) ΣMT = 0 ⇒ + 0 (wRdα)R(1 − cos α) = 0 ⇒ T = −wR2 (θ − sin θ) (13.23-a) (13.28-b) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .24) ΣMR = 0 ⇒ M − 3.28-a) (13.667Eb4 .23-c) (wRdθ)(R sin θ) = 0 ⇒ (wRdθ)R(1 − cos θ) = 0 ⇒ II Internal Forces are determined next 1.

2 Curved Space Structures 223 Figure 13.34-b) The axial and shear forces N. we consider the free body diagram of Fig.34-a) (13.1.2 25 For the equilibrium equations.33) Equilibrium 13.35-a) (13. M = −L×P where L is the lever arm vector from B to A. B P + F = 0. 13. 26 F = −P (13. ΣM = 0. Vs and Vw are all three components of the force vector F along the N.35-b) (13.35-c) Vs = F·s Vw = F·w Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and W axes and can be found by dot product with the appropriate unit vectors: N = F·n (13. S. The resultant force vector F and resultant moment vector M acting on the cut section B are determined from equilibrium ΣF = 0. L×P + M = 0. and thus its unit vector is determined from w = n×s (13.Draft 13.12 an applied load P is acting at point A.11: Geometry of Curved Structure in Space 24 The weak bending axis is normal to both N and S.2.

13: Helicoidal Cantilevered Girder Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2 Curved Space Structures 225 Figure 13.Draft 13.

47-c) (13.2 Curved Space Structures 227 6.47-f) Vs = F·s = 0 1 Vw = F·w = − K P T = M·n = − P R (1 − cos θ) K PH πK (1 Ms = M·s = P R sin θ Mw = M·w = − cos θ) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the components of the force F = −P k and the moment M are obtained by appropriate dot products with the unit vectors N H 1 = F·n = − K P πR (13.47-e) (13.Draft 13.47-b) (13.47-d) (13. Finally.47-a) (13.

θcol = θbeam . 14. the end moments and rotations are equal (unless there is an externally applied moment at the node). Fig. Rigid. In a rigid connection. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. θcol = θbeam . Semi-Rigid: The end moments are equal and not equal to zero. 14. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. θbeam = θcol .1.2 Behavior of Simple Frames 2 For vertical load across the beam rigid connection will reduce the maximum moment in the beam (at the expense of a negative moment at the ends which will in turn be transferred to .1. In a flexible connection the column and beam end moments are both equal to zero. and Semi-Flexible Joints Flexible that is a hinge which can transfer forces only. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. but the rotation are different.1: Flexible.1 1 Introduction Beam Column Connections The connection between the beam and the column can be. Rigid: The connection is such that θbeam = θcol and moment can be transmitted through the connection.θc ) s s θ b = θc Semi-Flexible Flexible Rigid Figure 14. In this case we really have cantiliver action only.1 14.Draft Chapter 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14.1: θb θb θb θc θc θc θb = θc θb = θc M=K(θ b . The end rotation are not equal. the difference in rotation is resisted by the spring Mspring = Kspring (θcol − θbeam ). Furthermore.

3: Deformation. M’=Ph 2 Moment M Axial -w/2 w/2 w/2 a b POST AND BEAM STRUCTURE P p M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 c d SIMPLE BENT FRAME p -M’/L M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 e f p THREE-HINGE PORTAL -M’/L M’ -M’/L w/2 -w/2 M M M/h -M’/L g h -M/h -M/L p/2 M/h M’/2 M’/2 w/2 w/2 p/2 THREE-HINGE PORTAL 0. and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects -M’/2L M’/2L M’/L p/2 M/L p/2 M’/L M’/L . Moment.64M 0.36M/h 0.68M/h w/2 w/2 -0.36M/h -M/L p/2 M’/2 M’/2 p/2 TWO-HINGE FRAME w/2 -w/2 0.4M/h w/2 w/2 i j -0.1 Introduction 231 Frame Type L w Deformation w/2 Shear W=wL. Shear.5M’/L p/2 p/2 M’/4 M’/4 p/2 -M’/L M’/4 M’/4 Figure 14.Draft h 14.4M 0. M=wL/8.55M 0.45M 0.45M 0.68M/h -0.4M w/2 -w/2 -M/L 0.68M/h k l RIGID FRAME 0.

we assume a uniform horizontal force of 0. 1. and 120 ft high with a vertical load of 400 k acting on it at the base. Most efficient for very high rise buildings. 14.3 ft < eActual N.9) (14. It is required to compute the flexural stresses and the shearing stresses in the wall to resist the wind load. both of them can also have a structural role in trnsfering vertical and horizontal loads.ft 2 2 2.ft(120)2 ft2 Mmax = = = 5.4 ft P (400) k (14. When shear-walls subsytems are used. then it can provide an excellent resitance to horizontal load in the plane of the wall (but not orthogonal to it). 13 14 If the wall is braced by floors.ft = = 14.8 kip/ft of vertical height acting on the wall.10) M (5. or steel trusses constitute a rigid subsystem.2. This is only adequate for small rise buildings. The critical eccentricity is (20) ft L = = 3. 14. Fig.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall 15 From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 16 We consider a reinforced concrete wall 20 ft wide. 760) k.Draft 14.2 11 14.8-b) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8) k. 6 6 thus there will be tension at the base.2 Buildings Structures 233 Buildings Structures There are three primary types of building systems: Wall Subsytem: in which very rigid walls made up of solid masonry. Rigid Frame: which consists of linear vertical components (columns) rigidly connected to stiff horizontal ones (beams and girders).2. Maximum shear force and bending moment at the base Vmax = wL = (0.1. ecr = Victor Saouma (14. Vertical Shafts: made up of four solid or trussed walls forming a tubular space structure.G.5.1 12 Wall Subsystems Whereas exterior wall provide enclosure and interior ones separation. If this is not the case. 1 ft thick. staircases) and/or exterior. The tubular structure may be interior (housing elevators.ft(120) ft = 96 k wL2 (0. Walls are constructed out of masonry. The resulting eccentricity is eActual = 3. As a result of wind. it is best if the center of orthogonal shear resistance is close to the centroid of lateral loads as applied. 760 k.8-a) (14.8) k. timber concrete or steel. 14. paneled or braced timber. This is not a very efficient structural form to resist lateral (wind/earthquake) loads. then there will be torsional design problems.

7 × 12) in (12) in = 250 k 2 width (14. as to the tensile stress of 460 psi. 4 (14. Using the maximum moment of 5. but use a trussed shear wall instead of a concrete one.7) ksi (14. it would have to be resisted by some steel reinforcement. If we now add the effect of the 400 kip vertical load. which in turn will be increased by 4/3 for seismic and wind load. The total amount of steel reinforcement needed is As = (250) k = 9. 1.20) 2. Given that those stresses are service stresses and not factored ones. Fig.21-b) 3.2.2 Buildings Structures 235 9. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .21-a) (14. The compressive stress of 740 psi can easily be sustained by concrete. we adopt the WSD approach. and tension at the other. The stress distribution is linear.7 ft 460 460 + 740 460 + 740 12. The design could be modified to have no tensile forces in the columns by increasing the width of the base (currently at 20 ft).16) σall = (20) = 26.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 17 We consider the same problem previously analysed.6. The force in the diagonal which must resist a base shear of 96 kip is (similar triangles) F = 96 (20)2 + (24)2 ⇒F = 20 (20)2 + (24)2 (96) = 154 k 20 (14. 10. 14. the foundations should be designed to resist tensile uplift forces (possibly using piles). The length of the tension area is given by (similar triangles) x 20 460 = ⇒x= (20) = 7. compression at one end.8-b).18) 13. 760) k. 14. F =± (5.Draft 14. The total tensile force inside this triangular stress block is 1 T = (460) ksi(7. 760 kip-ft (Eq. 14.22) 4. the forces would be C = − T (400) k − 288 = −488 k 2 (400) k = − + 288 = 88 k 2 (14.19) This amount of reinforcement should be provided at both ends of the wall since the wind or eartquake can act in any direction.7 ksi 3 11. we can compute the compression and tension in the columns for a lever arm of 20 ft. and use an allowable stress of 20 ksi. In addition.1.4 in2 (26.17) (14.ft = ±288 k (20) ft (14.

2 Buildings Structures ~ 20 ’ 237 20 ’ 20 ’ ~ 20 ’ w = 0.600 k produces an axial stress of σax = 7.4 ksf = 17 psi = A 2(20)(1) ft2 (14.26) 6.Draft 14.ft(20/2) ft = ±12.25) 5.3 Rigid Frames 21 Rigid frames can carry both vertical and horizontal loads.28-a) (14. Victor Saouma ”•¡¡¡”•¡¡¡–—¡¡¡¡–— ”• ”• ”• –— ” –— –— –— ”•¡”• ”• ”• –— ” –— —–— —–— •¡•”¡•”¡”•¡¡—–¡–—¡—–¡¡¡–— ”¡¡¡•¡•” ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” —– —– ¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”•¡”¡”¡¡ –¡¡–¡¡¡ •¡”¡”¡•”•¡”•¡–¡—–—¡–¡¡¡—–— •¡•¡¡”• —¡¡—¡¡¡ ”” –—– –—– •”¡•”¡•”¡”¡”¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•”¡•¡¡—–¡¡¡¡–— ” —– —– ”•¡”• ”• –— ”” –— –—–— –—–— ¡•¡•¡•¡”• —¡—¡—¡¡¡— ”•¡”¡”¡•”¡”•¡–¡—–¡–¡¡¡—– •¡•”¡•”¡”¡¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•¡•” ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” ——– ——– ¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”•¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ”•¡¡¡”•”¡¡¡–—–¡¡¡¡–—– ”•¡”•¡¡”•¡–—¡¡–—¡¡¡ ”” –—– –—– ”•¡”• ”• ”• –— ” –— —–— —–— ¡•¡•¡”•¡¡—¡–—¡—¡¡¡–— ”•¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ” – – •¡•”¡•”¡”¡¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•¡• ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” ——– ——– ¡”¡”¡”¡”•¡–¡–¡–¡¡¡– •¡•¡¡” —¡¡—¡¡¡ ”•¡”•¡”•¡•¡”•¡–—¡—¡–—¡¡¡— ”•¡•¡•¡”•”¡¡—¡–—–¡—¡¡¡–—– ”” –—– –—– ”•¡•¡•¡¡ —¡¡—¡¡¡ ” ” – ”” – –—–— –—–— ¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ”•¡¡¡•”¡”•¡¡—–¡¡¡¡—– •¡¡¡•”¡•”¡¡—–¡¡¡¡—– ” •” •” —– ” —– ——– ——– •¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”¡”¡”¡¡”• –¡¡–¡¡¡ ¡¡¡”•¡¡¡–—¡¡¡¡–— ” – – 120 ’ N.28-c) P −(1. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 4.27) thus we do not have any tensile stresses.28-b) (14.7: Design Example of a Tubular Structure. 600) ft4 (14. The vertical load of 1.5 ksf = ±87 psi =± I (4. The average shear stress is τ= V (96) k = 2. 760) k. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 600) k = = −20 ksf = −140 psi A (4(20)(1) ft2 (14.2. 14. The maximum flexural stresses: σf l = ± MC (5. however their analysis is more complex than for tubes.A. and those stresses are much better than those obtained from a single shear wall. The total stresses are thus σ = σax + σf l σ1 = −140 + 87 = −53 psi σ2 = −140 − 87 = −227 psi (14.8 k/ft H = 96 k 60 ’ Figure 14.

8L)(0.30) (14.1L Figure 14. 14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 239 Vertical Loads The girders at each floor are assumed to be continuous beams. L s equal to 0.9: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads.9 w w M lef t = M rgt = − (0. Inflection points are assumed to be at (a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder. 4. the inflection point is at 0.8 the original length of the girder. and at the support for a simply supported beam. Fig. (Note that for a rigidly connected member. Girder Moments 1 1 M + = wL2 = w (0. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small. and columns are assumed to resist the resulting unbalanced moments from the girders. Fig. depending on the nature of the connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for the approximate location of the hinge). 14.211 L. Based on the first assumption. all beams are statically determinate and have a span.9 w M lft Mrgt Vrgt Vlft 0.045wL2 2 2 Victor Saouma (14. Girders at each floor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load.Draft 14.1 30 31 14. L.3.29) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1L) = −0. 2. Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns above and below the floor. hence. 32 33 End forces are given by Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is.8)2 L2 = 0.1L 0.8L L 0. Basic assumptions 1. (b) Mid-height of the columns 3.1L)2 − (0.08wL2 s 8 8 Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by.

Draft 14. 14. 14. Thus. 14. High rise buildings. have predominantly shear deformations. with possible exception when the columns on the first floor are hinged at the base.12 V ext = F lateral 2No. Location of inflection points. then Fig. Fig. (c) At the center of each girder.35) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the deflected shape is characterized by shear deformations. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any floor level will be distributed among these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as much horizontal shear as each interior columns of the frame. 2. or at the base if hinged. of bays V int = 2V ext (14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 241 Column Shear Points of inflection are at mid-height. the approximate analysis of this type of structure is based on 1. 36 The portal method is based on the following assumptions 1.2. where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension.2 34 Horizontal Loads We must differentiate between low and high rise buildings.3. the deflected shape is dominated by overall flexural deformation.11 V = M top h 2 (14. Low rise buidlings.34) Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears above and below a floor will be resisted by girders at the floor.1 Portal Method 35 Low rise buildings under lateral loads.3. Distribution of horizontal shear forces. 14. (b) Mid-height of floor columns if rigid support. where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension. 2. Inflection points are located at (a) Mid-height of all columns above the second floor. 37 Forces are obtained from Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the columns at each floor and summing the lateral forces above it.

Draft 14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings Pabove 243 Vrgti-1 Vlfti Figure 14.25K/ft 15 30 K K 5 12 9 6 0.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 1 2 10 3 4 20’ 30’ 24’ Figure 14. ?? below P = P above + P rgt + P lft (14. and moment diagram for the following frame.39) Example 14-1: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Draw the shear. Column Axial Force P Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the column above.14: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads. Approximate Analysis of a Building Vertical Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .15: Example. Fig. Solution: 0.

Draft 14.6’k -4.5’k +4.1’k -10.6’k +3.0’k -6.6’k -6.6’ k -3.2’k -20.0’k 24’ +11.2’ -4.0’ -20.5’k +5.6’k -6.5’k -13.5’ k -3.5’ k 30’ +18.0’ k k k -13.0’ k -10.0’k -9.0’k -9.5’k k -4.6’ +6.5’k Figure 14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 245 0.5’k +16.5’k +5.0’k -4.0’k +23.5’k +4. Moments Due to Vertical Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’ +32.25K/ft 5 12 9 6 0.1’k -6.6’k +6.16: Approximate Analysis of a Building.5’k -5.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 1 2 10 3 4 20’ +8.5’k k +3.6’k -5.

5) V5 15+30 (2)(3) 2(V1 ) = (2)(7.0K -5.ft = 35. Shears Due to Vertical Loads Horizontal Loads.45K +0.ft = − 17.ft k.0K -7.0 K +7.0 35.ft = 17.56K -0.5 17.80K +0.5 35.51K +0.0 k.17: Approximate Analysis of a Building.5 k 7.5)(14) 2 (5)(14) 2 (5)(14) 2 (2.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings +2.5 K -3.75K -2.5K +5.ft = − 35.5 K 247 +3.5) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2.0K -0.5 k 5k 5k 2.5) 2(V1 ) = (2)(2.0 k.5) V1 = = = = = = = = 2. Top Column Moments top M5 bot M5 top M6 bot M6 H = V12 5 = top = −M5 H = V62 6 = top = −M6 V up H (2.0 K +3.5 k.5)(14) 2 top M7 = 72 7 = bot = −M top M7 7 top M8 = 82 8 = bot = −M top M8 8 V up H = =− = =− 17.ft k.ft k.70K +0.0 K -3.64K -0.93K -0.5K -6. Portal Method 1.75K +6.0 k.5 k 15 k 15 k 7. Column Shears V5 V6 V7 V8 V1 V2 V3 V4 = = = = = = = = 15 (2)(3) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2.ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 k.Draft 14.5 k 2.81K Figure 14.

5 I J K L M L3 24 0.25 0.045*D4*D3^2 =0.5 N O P Victor E.08*I5*I3*I3 =+I13 =-I22 Rgt =-I20 Column Column =2*L14/A5 =2*L11/A4 Beam Column Lft Cnr Rgt =-0.045*I4*I3^2 =0.XLS L2 30 0.08*N5*N3*N3 =+N13 =-N22 Rgt =-N20 Col Col Col =-P10 =-Q11 =-P13+Q12 =-Q14 =2*Q14/A5 =2*Q11/A4 =+D10 =-C11 SHEAR Bay 1 Col MOMENTS Bay 1 Col =2*C14/A5 =2*C11/A4 =+C28+D22 0 Beam 0 =-F20+I20 Beam 0 Beam 0 =+G28-F22+I22 0 =-K20+N20 =+L28-K22+N22 0 =-P20 =+Q28-P22 =+D13+C12 =-C14 AXIAL FORCE Bay 1 Col ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ¶¶½½½ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶³¶³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½ ½½ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ½½½ ½½ ½½ ½½ ½½½ ½½½ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½·½ · · · · ³³³· ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ·½½·½ ·· ·· ·· ·· 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                 ªª ªªª ªªª ªªª ªªª §§ªª§ª §§§ §§§ §§§ §§¤§ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤    ¤                         š š š š š š ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ¤¤¤ ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ššš ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ šš šš šš šš šš šš ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨¨«« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¤¤¨¨¨ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¤¤ ¡¡¡¤¤ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡žž¡¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž ššžžž šš šš šš šš šš ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨¨««¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ žž¡¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨¨««¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ žž¡¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž « « « « « ¨« ¨ ¨ ¨ ¥¨¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¡¥¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ž¡ ž ž ž ž ›ž› ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ››› ››› ››› ››› ››› ››› ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ››› ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› Draft Victor Saouma Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads A 1 2 3 Height 4 14 5 16 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B Span Load Load C L1 20 0. Equations in Spread-Sheet Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 .045*N5*N3^2 =0. Saouma Q 14.08*D4*D3*D3 =+D10 =-F10+I10 =-G11 =2*G14/A5 =2*G11/A4 =-F13+I13+G12 =-G14 Bay 2 Bay 2 Bay 2 =+I3*I5/2 Beam Lft =+I3*I4/2 =-0.19: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads.045*D5*D3^2 =0.25 0.5 D E F G H APROXVER.045*N4*N3^2 =0.08*D5*D3*D3 =+D13 =-D22 Rgt =-D20 Column Column Beam Column Lft Cnt Rgt =-0.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings Figure 14.045*I5*I3^2 =0.ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÇÇËËË ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÀÀÀÄÄÄ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËË ËË ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËË ËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËËË ËËËË ËËËË ËËËË ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ Ë Ë Ë Ë ÈÈË ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈÄ Ä Ä Ä ÁÄÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÈÈÌÌ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÁÁÅÅ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÉÌÌÌ É É É É É ÉÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÂÅ Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÉÉÍÍÍ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÂÂÆÆÆ Â Â Â Â Â ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ Í Í Í Í ÊÊÍ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊÆ Æ Æ Æ ÃÆà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà ÃÃà ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà =+D20 =+D3*D5/2 Beam Lft =+D3*D4/2 =-0.25 0.08*I4*I3*I3 =+I10 =-K10+N10 =-L11 =-K13+N13+L12 =-L14 Bay 3 Bay 3 Bay 3 =+N3*N5/2 Beam Lft =+N3*N4/2 Beam Lft Cnt Rgt =-0.08*N4*N3*N3 =N10 =-0.

5’K +35’K +35’K +17.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 251 15K 30K 5 12 9 6 13 10 7 14 11 8 14’ 1 2 3 4 16’ 20’ 30’ 24’ +17.5’K +60’K -17.20: Approximate Analysis of a Building.Draft 14.5’K +77.5K +77. Moments Due to Lateral Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’ K -77.5’K -17.5’K -60’K -120’K +17.5’ K -17.5’ K -60’K +17.5’K -17.5 K -120’K +17.5’K Figure 14.5’K -77.5K +77.5’K +120’K -35’K +120’K -35’K +60’K -17.5’K -77.

Lateral deflections are often limited by code requirements.XLS =+I18 Rgt =-I8 Rgt J =+K28+J21-M21 =+J18-M18 Column =+K22 =+F12 =+K19 =+F9 Column =-K12 =+F12*B12/2 =-K9 =+F9*B9/2 Column K Bay 2 Bay 2 Bay 2 L 0 0 Beam =-2*M11/M$3 =-2*M8/M$3 Lft Beam =+K12-K10+J11 =-M11 =+J8+K9 Lft Beam 30 L2 M =+M21 =+M18 Rgt =-M8 Rgt N =+O28+N21-Q21 =+N18-Q18 Column =+O22 =+F12 =+O19 =+F9 Column =+K13 =+K12 =+K10 =+K9 Column O Bay 3 Bay 3 Bay 3 P 0 0 Beam =-2*Q11/Q$3 =-2*Q8/Q$3 Lft Beam =+O12-O10+N11 =-Q11 =+N8+O9 Lft Beam 24 L3 Q =+Q21 =+Q18 Rgt =-Q8 Rgt R =+S28+R21 =+R18 Col =+S22 =+E12 =+S19 =+E9 Col =+H13 =+H12 =+H10 =+H9 Col Victor E. 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§ uuuu¦jjj ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ tttt¦iii ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ssss‰‰‰‰‰‰‰‰hhh¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ rrrrˆ¦ˆˆˆˆˆˆˆggg ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¥qqqqfff ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ pppp¤eee ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ iiii‡¤‡‡‡‡‡‡‡ddd ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ hhhh††††††††™™™¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ gggg…¤…………………˜˜˜ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ffff„¤„„„„„„„——— ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤eeeeƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ––– ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ‚  € y x w v u t s r q p i h g fe A 16 30 14 15 H B Lat. Portal Method 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 H2 11 10 9 H1 8 7 6 5 # of Storeys 4 3 2 # of Bays 1 PORTAL METHOD 3.e. they must move together and through their stiffness (deformation per unit load) we can determine the contribution of each subsystem. 2. Table 14. for example ∆ < h/500 where h is the height of the story or of the building.2. A building that deflects severly under lateral forces may have damage problems associated with vibration (as with vertical defelctions of beams).Draft 38 Even at schematic or preliminary stages of design. Through the evaluation of deflection. Lateral Deflections Figure 14. Force C =SUM($C$9:C12) =+D12/(2*$F$2) =2*E12 =+C9 Tot D =+D9/(2*$F$2) Ext Shear E =2*E9 Int 2 3 F G =+H28-I21 =-I18 Col Bay 1 AXIAL FORCE =+H22 =+E12 =+H19 =+E9 Col Bay 1 SHEAR =-H12 =+E12*B12/2 =-H9 =+E9*B9/2 Col Bay 1 MOMENTS H 0 0 Beam =-2*I11/I$3 =+I21 =-2*I8/I$3 Lft Beam =+H12-H10 =-I11 =+H9 Lft Beam 20 L1 I PORTAL. Since all systems are connected. Saouma S Victor Saouma 14. vertical and lateral load.22: Portal Method. one may also get some idea of the relative horizontal load carried by the various vertical subsystems in a building (i. we now seek the design parameters for the frame.4 Lateral Deflections Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses.4 14. Equations in Spread-Sheet Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 253 . 1. how much is carried by the shaft compared to the frames).

00 12.2V h GA h (14.00 20.50 4.17 17.00 12.00 1.00 4.4 Lateral Deflections Mem.00 4. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) concentrated load ∆≈ 2 where for concrete and steel G ≈ 5 E.0 23. shear deflections.46 17.50 11.17 77.00 7.46 Design Values 86.00 6.50 13.00 12.00 5.00 1.Draft 14.50 8.46 22.23: Shear Deformation in a Short Building.50 3.50 0.00 4.75 97. 9.1 39 Short Wall In short structures (as with short beams).50 23.60 18.2: Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads 14.23 dominates.00 7.20 36.00 Hor.00 3.00 6.50 0. For a V ∆ WALL ELEVATION Figure 14.00 2.00 5.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 27. -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear Vert.00 16.50 10.00 11.70 36.67 90. 77.50 0. Fig.92 24.46 255 9 10 11 12 13 14 Table 14.00 8.50 16.40) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .4.75 17. 14.10 18.75 77. Victor Saouma ´³´³³´³´³´³´³´³ ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ³´³³´³´³´³´³´³ ³²³´³²³²³²³²³²³´ ²´³´³²³´³´³´³´³´³² ³²³²´³²³²³²³²³²³²´ ´²´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´ ²³²³²³²³²³²³²³²³² ´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´ ²³²³³²³²³²³²³²³ ³³²´²³³³³³³²´² 1.75 6.00 1.

44-a) (14. 14. Fig.26.25: Deflection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels.4 Lateral Deflections LINTELS L ∆ 257 w a 2 WALLS CONNECTED BY LINTELS Figure 14.Draft 14.44-b) (14.4 43 Frames Deflection of a rigid frame is essentially caused by shear between stories which produces vertical shears in the girders. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) and δ ≈ αh (14.45-a) (14.43) 14. From the portal method we can estimate those deformations. The deformation for the first story at the exterior joint can be approximated from ∆col = ∆gdr = ∆totE VcolE h3 12EIcolE Vgdr L2 h 2VcolE Lh2 = 12EIgdr 12EIgdr 2L h VcolE h2 + 12E IcolE Ig dr (14.45-c) = ∆colI + ∆gdr = Victor Saouma ·¶¶ µ¶¶ µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶µ· ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ·µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ ¶¶ ¸¹ ¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¹¸¸¹ ¹¸¸¹ ¶¶¸¹¸¹ α h LINTEL BENDING α α RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WALL AND LINTEL DEFORMATION Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .44-c) 44 = ∆colE + ∆gdr = 45 For the interior joint: ∆col = ∆gdr = ∆totI VcolI h3 12EIcolI Vgdr L2 h 2VcolI Lh2 = 12EIgdr 12EIgdr h L VcolI h2 + 12E IcolI Ig dr (14.4.45-b) (14.

4 Lateral Deflections SIDE SWAY P 259 Figure 14. and at the point in question. A and E the corresponding cross sectional area and modulus of elasticity. ??. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 14. P the force in the same member due to a unit (1) force applied in the direction of the deflection sought.28: Side-Sway Deflection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load. H1 H2 H3 H4 P1 C ∆c C 1 δT ΣH a a T ∆ δc h C Figure 14.4.48) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) The total deflection ∆ at C is given by ∆=Σ PPL AE (14.47) 49 where: P is the force in any member due to loading on the whole system.Fig. L is the length of the member.Draft 14. we can neglect the web deformation and consider only the axial deformations in the colums: ∆ ≈ δt +δc h a Th δt + δc = 2 AE (14. 50 Alternatively.5 48 Trussed Frame The cantilever deflection due to column shortening and lengthening (produced by overturning moment) is usually of secondary importance until the building is some 40 stories or higher.29: Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame.

087 1 √ ∆ = = h 156 1.50-d) (14. We next consider the deflection of the top of the frame.51) which indicates a drift ratio of Drift Ratio for Building = Drift Ratio for Ground Floor = (0.49-d) (14. and the remaining 5/6 will be carried by the shaft. which ranges between 1/1. but in order to be really effective.7) = 0.062/2 = 0.50-b) (14. especially for the top floor. the girder stiffness will also need to be increased.ft(156)4 ft4 ∆ = = 0.49-f) The ∆ ratio is much less than 1/500 as permitted in most building codes.64 ft4 (4.062 ft (14.8) k.50-f) ∆ = = 3. Comparing the frame deflection of 0. Assuming that each frame takes 1/9 of the total wind load and shear. since thegirders contribute about 2/3 of the Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Proportioning the lateral load to the relative stiffnesses. and if door openings are considered.Draft 14. the deflection will be correspondingly smaller. 2.50-e) (14.ft(156) ft = 41. which decreases linearly to the top. the frame would not be stiff enough to carry all the lateral load by itlself. Increasing the column size will stiffen the frame.087 ft.49-e) (14. and s within h the usual index for concrete buildings.50-c) (14.40 ft with the shaft deflection of 0.64 ft4 12 12 3.031) = 0. the average drift will be 0.000 and 1/2. it is seen that the frame is about five times more flexible than the shaft. 000) ksf (0.52-b) 4.7 k/col (2)(9) (41.8) k. the frame would carry about 1/6 of the load.52-a) (14. 400) ft4 0. 000) ksf(9.062) ft 1 = 194 (12) ft (14.7) k(12)2 2(60) ft (12) ft 4 + (3.500. the value of 1/1.8 + 34. whereas the story drift index may be higher.4 Lateral Deflections E = 3 × 106 psi = 432.64) ft 0.087 ft 8(432.800 indicates only the average drift index for the entire building. and neglecting column shortening. If the wall thickness is reduced. 000 ksf (4.50-a) (14. Furthermore.40 ft (14. Since the story drift varies with the shear in the story.31 ft per story and the deflection at top of the building is approximately ∆ = (13)(0. then: ∆ = Icol = Igdr = ground VcolI = VcolE h2 h 2L + 12E IcolE Ig dr bh3 (20/12)(20/12)3 = = 0. 800 261 (14. The deflection due to moment increases rapidly at the top.00116(18.4) ft 1 = 400 (156) ft (0.46) ft4 12(432.

4 Lateral Deflections 263 TUBE HAT FULL CANTILEVER DEFLECTION WIND HAT .HEIGHT BRACE WITH CANTILEVER CORE BENDING TIEDOWN RESISTANCE ARM OF CORE SHAFT ONLY TOTAL RESISTANCE ARM IS INCREASED BY COL. ACTION DEFLECTION Figure 14.32: Effect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .TRUSS TRUSS TENSION COMPRESSION T C C T CORE WITH BRACING EFFECT BRACING REDUCES OVERALL DEFLECTION OF BUILDING HEIGHT MID .Draft 14.

The Maillart Papers. Timoshenko. S.Draft Bibliography 318. The design of Building Structures. The Tower and the Bridge.: 1973. American Institute of Steel Construction. S. Bruxelles. International Conference of Building Officials. Billington.. Dover. Dover Publications. Entretiens sur L’Architecture. G. .: 19xx. A.: 1991. Princeton University. Addison-Wesley. (ACI 318-83).: 1957. Technical report. Palladio. A. History of Strength of Materials. Department of Civil Engineering. Out of Print. Lin. D. Kinney. Two New Sciences. American Concrete Institute. Billington. XX. Billington.: 1978. V. T. A. Manual of Steel Construction.: 1981.: 1974. Drake translation. and Mark. John Wiley. Penvenuto. Galilei. The Ten Books on Architecture.d. Basic Structural Analysis. le Duc.: 1977. J. Gerstle. Mark and J. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. W. Springer-Verlag. D. Including Centers of Gravity and Forces of Percussion.: 1996. and Stotesbury. Technical report. A. Dover Publications. Prentice Hall.: 1982. Nilson.: 1983. R. Abel (eds). S. D. Princeton University. of Steel Construction. Department of Civil Engineering. The Four Books of Architecture. Pierre Mardaga.: xx. Belgique. Anon.: n. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers. R. K. C. University of Chicago. Envyclopaedia Brittanica. I. Indeterminate Structural Analysis. in D. Uniform building code. University of Wisconsin Press. Second National Conference on Civil Engineering: History. Vitruvius: 1960. Schueller. John Wiley and Sons. An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics. Design of Prestressed Concrete. Heritage and the Humanities. Wisc. Billington. UBC: 1995. xx.: 1986. E.: 1985. Madison. Load and Resistance Factor Design.: 1974. Structural studies. Out of Print.

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