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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.1.1 Matrix notation for loads.1 Strain energy 7.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.4.2.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .2 External potential energy 7.9.1.2.9 Deep beam bending element 5.CONTENTS 5.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.2 Shape functions 5.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.1 Virtual displacements 7.1.3 Coordinate transformation 5.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.8 Grids 5.9.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2 Discretization 7.2.1. stresses and strain 6.4.6 Temperature effects 6. Energy methods 7.4.6.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.5 Stress-strain relations 6.6.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.1 Principle of virtual work 7.1.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7. Linear elasticity 6.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.9.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.

1.2 Shape functions 9.1.1.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.2.4.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .1 Natural coordinates 9.1.1.1.3.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.1 Area coordinates 8.2 Numerical integration 9.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.2.3.4.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.4.4.4.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.2 Rectangular elements 8.vi 7.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.4.1.3 Triangular elements 8.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.3.3 The displacement field 9.1 Equilibrium vs.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.2. Discretization of structure 8.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.4.1.1.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9. compatibility 8. convergence and compatibility 8.1.1.4 Equilibrium.

2 BFS element (conforming) 10.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.3.5 Six-node triangle 9.3.1 Shape functions 9.3.3 Stiffness integration 9.5 Stress calculation 9.3.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.2.4.2 Shape function derivatives 9.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.4.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.2.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.CONTENTS 9.4.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.2.3.3.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.3.3.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.

INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. plasticity. . and defining the unknown state variable approximately. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. eigenproblems. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. involving approximation methods. and (3) Applied Computer Science. The subdomains are called finite elements. able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. within each element. The tools are the computers. strength of materials. weighted-residual. etc. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. encompassing elasticity. This requires a matrix notation. by means of a linear combination of trial functions.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. (2) Numerical Analysis. solving linear sets of equations.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. dynamics. etc.1. 1.

has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. Indeed. integrating known polynomial functions. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. which is often difficult. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. This extreme versatility. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. While the finite element method was being developed. Mathematically. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. difficult to handle on a routine basis. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. should be easier. even approximately. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. In turn. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. some of them made available as open source free software. In FEA. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. In order to match a given irregular boundary. . Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. which tend to have complicated expressions. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. which led to automation. defined over small subdomains of the structure.

a larger number of equations to be solved. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. (2) select interpolation functions.1. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. and curved elements flat). and (3) the versatility. The “shapes” are polynomials. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. (3) find the element properties. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. INTRODUCTION 3 1. (5) solve the system of equations. Finally. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. (4) assemble the element properties. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. but may be trigonometric functions as well. hence larger computer storage space and running time. making curved lines straight. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . and (3) the solution algorithms. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. leaving only the magnitude to be found. and (6) make additional computations if desired. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners.

computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. In modern times. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. 1. 1955). The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. After the Second World War. The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. In the early 1940s. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). . Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. Clough. contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. stability and dynamic engineering problems. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). stiffeners and spars. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875).3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. Martin. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. ribs. and Topp (1956). so that the method was not practical then. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. panels. static. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943).

ADINA – developed by K. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. the inventor of isoparametric models. ABAQUS . 1970). who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). boundary conditions. 1966. such as nodal coordinates. shape functions. SAMCEF .by SAMTECH (1965). element connectivity. under Martin. Major contributions are due to B. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. including computation of natural frequencies.-J. Inc. and thermal loading. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. (1985). MacNeal Schwendler. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. Bathe at M. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. fluids. S. crashworthiness. directed by Clough. M. electromagnetics etc). who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). IDEAS-MS. Karlsson @ Sorensen. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. (1978). Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. (1975).4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967).1. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965).by Hibbitt. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). and E. R. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. J. Wilson. L. who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). material properties and . NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. (2) processing. PATRAN. at Washington University. nonlinear static and dynamic response.I. ALGOR etc. and (3) postprocessing. static and dynamic stability. lead by Zienkiewicz. Archer. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). Irons. Melosh.-J. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. and at Swansea University. He was joined later by K. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). Since 1963. 1.T. SAP5 and NONSAP. J. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). STRUDL .

as well as element connectivity data. 1. some input data can be imported from other F.A.2).2 . Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading.A. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I. 1.1) and a car engine piston (Fig.E.I. Fig. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. 1. or reading from a data file. Italia.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. programs. or C. Alternatively. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering.D. through a userfriendly interface. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. Fig. 1.T. represented with hidden line removal.

1. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. . 1. Fig. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. Fig. 1. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. 1. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation).3 In the processing stage. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.4 In dynamic analyses. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). In static analyses.3.

5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. 1. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. 1. a Fig. 1. Fig. 1. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth.6. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration.6.5 for a crankshaft. Fig. .6 b Fig. Fig. 1. 1. Early programs used tabular presentations. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. as in Fig. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action.

there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. T1 . F4 . displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. 2.1 . Fig. geometric compatibility conditions. 2. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. T2 .1 [74]. Once the displacements are determined. F2 . then stresses from the constitutive relationship. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. and hence strains. 2. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not.2. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions.

The system is statically indeterminate. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ .2. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar.2 c 2. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0. a b Fig. Fig. The change in length of the member is (2. 2.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ .2. a). The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. At Node 2 (Fig. b).2) (2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0.1) (2.3. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. 2.1) to (2. (2. At Node 3 (Fig. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. 2.4) .3) The six equations (2. 2.2.3) have seven unknowns. 2.

2 2 2 ⎠ 2 . (2. six displacements and three elongations. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . Δl13 = 2 .6) to (2. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l . 2.8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.2. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 .3 Applying equation (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .8) have nine unknowns. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ .5) Fig.9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.6) (2.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression.U1 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .7) (2. Δl 23 = 3 . 2 (2. Δl12 = . 2. ( ) ( ) (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions.

Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) . l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l .10) 2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2. EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations. EA F1 l . EA 9 Fl . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as .8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .10).(2. EA 6F l . (2. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.6)(2.1) .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2. EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l .

F5 = − F .2. (2. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . F2 = −4 F .3) yields the tensions in the members.1)-(2..4.12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1.14) .7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. EA (2. F4 = −5 F ..13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses. EA V3 = 4 Fl .. 2. Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2.. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints.11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl .

X 2 = T4 . ∂X i ( i = 1.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2.. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1... and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces.. X 3 = T5 . according to (2. X 4 = T6 .14). ∂Fy (2.17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined.18) . We choose X1 = T3 ..14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U .. Using Menabrea’s theorem. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U . 2.15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . so the framework is statically indeterminate.16) since we are assuming no support movement..5 ) (2. the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 . Fig..5 ) (2.

Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2..14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 .7 ) (2..19) ( i = 1..16)..24) where the stiffness coefficients are ..19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li . sinθ i ( i = 1. In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2. ( i = 1..7 ) (2. (2..22) Inserting (2...22) into the equilibrium equations (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method. the larger the number of bars.21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i ...7 ) (2.2. hence the number of equations (2..7 ) (2.20) Substituting (2.23) sin θ i = 0 . only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements. 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 .5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi . the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.. Regardless the number of concurrent bars. a ( ) ( i = 1... The bar length is li = a ..

(2.219 Fy a EA .567 EA .409 i =1 7 EA . a (2. .16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4.7097 Fx a .24) gives u 8 = 0.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0. a Solving (2. EA v 8 = 0.

f 2 . cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element.1). Generally. As elements are added to the structure. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces.) . The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. pinconnected at the ends. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. 3. q 2 . The nodal displacements are q 1 . with each element being placed in a preassigned location. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. 3. They are natural finite elements. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. respectively. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. It has length l e . hence to the structure stiffness matrix.3. . linearly elastic. In the following. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one.

4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move.1) Next.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ .3). f l q 2 = 0 . q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . le (3. (3. q 2 and the nodal forces f1 .18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. 3.2) and (3.3) Combining equations (3. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move. the force/elongation relations are used.2) le Similarly. (3. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. ⎣ ⎦ (3.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . f 2 are positive in the positive x direction.6) . then for q 1 = 0 .

In matrix form (3. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. 3.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. In fact. End forces and displacements have two components at each node. Fig.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e .2. 3. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e .2.7) . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.3.

3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.10) are calculated based on the above equations. respectively. 3. From nodal coordinate data.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. 3.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.Y1 ) and ( X 2 . le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . Fig.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. we obtain cos θ e = . denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le .2.9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3. The entries in the matrix (3. e e e (3. 3.

e e T e e .13).14) Substituting (3. then equation (3.15) (3.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e .3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3.13).12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. e e T e (3.9) for the local displacements. =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . 3. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . equation (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].5) into (3.2. (3. e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3.13) Equation (3. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e .13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.9) into the resulting matrix product. and comparing with (3. . Work is a scalar quantity. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e . e T e e T e e T e e T e (3.

10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 . Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . singular (order 4. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric.4. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3.2. [ ] (3. And so must be its inverse. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. with positive diagonal elements. a) 3. [ ] .18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe . the stiffness matrix.17. 3. the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e .2.

2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } .2. [ K ]= [K ] e e T . The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows).2. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments.20. displacements are proportional to the applied loads. Substituting (3. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. which is [ ] .19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . (3.4.15) into (3. 3.3.4. so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. (3.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues. a) so that which defines the symmetry.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. 3. If this were not so. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. For linear structures. As forces are increased from zero to their final values.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive.

k 21 .⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e .20) is either positive or zero. (3. k31 and k 41 . a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields .4 Equation (3. .⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . k21 + k41 = 0 . . The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . Fx 2 = k31 .21) Fx1 = k11 . . Fy 2 = k 41 . .17. Moreover. the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ . . . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . That is. 3. the matrix K e is positive semidefinite.4. Fy1 = k21 .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound.4. . ( ( ) ) Fig. . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig.2. 3. 3.22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.

3. In the element stiffness matrix. 3. 2.3.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. 3.6. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . It is simply supported in 2 and 3. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. firmly located in 1. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. already analyzed in Chapter 2. 3. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.1. The same applies for the other columns. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. Fig. Fig.5. a b .

1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. i.e.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. the element stiffness matrices (3.1.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥. Table 3. 3.1 together with information useful for the computation. The first three columns define the element connectivities. their localization within the structure.6 Element data are given in Table 3. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥. Element numbering can be arbitrary.

. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. Table 3. each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. according to Table 3.3. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . as indicated by dots above. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. This is referred to as the direct matrix method. so that if a node is common to several elements. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 .28) is done systematically.2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). For instance. In the global matrix.

with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. equation (3.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig.5. .5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. 3. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.23) Q e = T e { Q }. { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ].23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix.

5. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. For the truss from Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.23) into (3.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ . 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.3.24) has the size of the system matrix. equation (3.20. substituting (3. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }. 3. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.

26) Comparing (3.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices. . 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e .7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }. T e T e e e e e (3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ .30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3. (3.25) and (3.

It corresponds to the free-free system. are used in the following. The joint equilibrium equations. The expensive product (3. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. based on joint equilibrium equations. Apart from external forces and support reactions. using for convenience the truss from Fig.24) is never formed. 3. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. An alternative presentation is given below.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. 3. equation (3. involving forces applied by elements to nodes.3. For the truss from Fig. singular (for a plane truss.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix.5. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. 3. they are never used in practice.7.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. For a grounded system. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero. the deficiency is 3). Note that element equilibrium equations (3.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥.5. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. 3.

29) . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. 3. 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . Fig. 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . e (3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 .32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 .

of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ).23). where bi .31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ . [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }. Qi = 0 . of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . the finite element equations (3.15) and (3. it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } . Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }.3. equation (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3.27). For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. using equations (3. As Q1 is known.30) then. [ ] 3. Another type are the multipoint constraints. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes.32) . e (3.24) and (3. where ns is the number of supports. Q1 = a1 . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. b j and b0 are known constants.

(3. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . For a truss supported on many supports. The final equations (3. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. respectively. 3. Equations (3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . The matrix [ K ] is not singular. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. the nodal forces are unknown. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig. Equation (3.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination.5. the nodal displacements are unknown. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. and where the forces are specified.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ .34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ .

5. 3. 3.38) (3. (3.3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . The axial force in a truss element is .40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. which in this case are the external reactions. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } .36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 . .10 Reactions and internal forces (3.33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. for non-zero boundary conditions. equations (3.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. the support displacements are zero. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } . T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2.39) For the truss from Fig. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . EA EA In general.

M. C. Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F .5. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT .41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). 3.42) . where E is Young’s modulus. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET . 3. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. Accordingly.36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . Duhamel (1838). (3. where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). where A is the cross-section area. l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas.

adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.8. a.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . i.e.42.44) Because of symmetry. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.e. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. if the case). . { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT .3. due to the sparseness.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. in local coordinates. the element elongations are determined from (3. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. Even so. They are also banded. the initial stresses produced by restraining. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. (3. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained. 3. 3. The half-bandwidth is denoted B. with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3.

. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. b. 3.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix.8.44). 3. However. B = 6 .38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. 3. For the numbering scheme of Fig. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3.8 b For plane trusses. equal to the size of the original matrix. a . The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . a Fig.e. B = 12 . As a general rule. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. for the numbering from Fig. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix.8. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. In general. then progressing along the longer dimension. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. i.

⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . If there are zeros at the top of a column. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. Apart from storage savings. In this case. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } .3. For large sparse stiffness matrices.

40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following. For the solution of the finite element equations. Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 .

83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. 6 4. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. 3 2. a.1. 4 3.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.1 -361. E3. a Answer. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3. 4 3.16 -10. For the truss in Fig. 8 7. 7 6. 2 1. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.3. E = 1 and F = 1 . 8 Axial stress 12 -4. 7 5.83 0 12 -15 . A = 1 . we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208. 3 2.8 -343. Plot the deformed shape.16 -10.7 -339.1. E3.1.7 -339.1 -391. Taking l = 1 . and c) the support reactions. 6 4.6 176 62. 7 6. Fig.3 128 127.

2. Plot the deformed shape.1. a. E3.1. b.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . E3.2. and R3 = 9 . c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.2. E3. Fig.4 F . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b) the maximum stress. . E3. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. Fig.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . R2 = 6 . b E3. E3. and R2 = 6 F . and c) the support reactions. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement.2. a Answer. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. a) Fl . b.

Plot the deformed shape. . a Answer. E3.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. b.3.25 F A . c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 .3.3. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. Consider the truss shown in Fig. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. Calculate c) the support reactions. a) Fl .3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.4 F and R3 = 2.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. E3. a. E3. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. E3. b E3.2. b) the maximum stress. R2 = 3. Fig.6 F .

2095 -9.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. b E3. E3.3294 2. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1. A = 1 .0896 .4. a Answer.4. a. Fig.4. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b) the maximum stress. E3. Plot the deformed shape.3. and c) the support reactions. E3. Taking l = 1 . E = 1 and F = 1 . Consider the truss shown in Fig.

b) the maximum stress. 3 2. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.0. Fig.940 .665F .5. E3. a . 4 1. 4 Axial stress . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .940 1.4.5. b. E3.1.3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F .4.329 0.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3. Plot the deformed shape.335F and R4 = 0.335 . E3. 3 2. E3. R2 = 0.5. b E3.09 F l E A . 4 1. Fig.335 F A .0.

The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements.366 . E3.538 . and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. b. b . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. A = 1 and E = 1 .5. E3. Taking l = 1 .5.46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. Fig.

Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity.4.1.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. However. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . The dimensions of p are force/length. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. cables. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. . having one degree of freedom per node. 4. For bars with distributed loads. In this section. Bars are loaded only by axial forces. chains and ropes. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. 4.

(4. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2.4) 4. dx or.2. 4. EA d2 u = − p (x ) . d x2 (4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. (4.3).1) σ x = E du d x . . N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 . using (4. b).1) is d N + p d x = 0 . The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.2.1 The internal axial force N is du .3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.2) Fig. a). 4. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig.2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. 4.1.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig. 4.

d u d x = const . They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. where N1 (r ) = (4. . 4.1. Fig. 4. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . 4.3.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 .4.b. a. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. d 2u d x 2 = 0 .7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends.3 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. p = 0 .

The nodal expansion (4. are the nodal displacements. but the integration constants. 2 2 (4.6) is simpler. a and b. e i i i =1 2 (4. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. equation (4. where N1 (r ) = element.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T .12) Thus.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. (4.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x . (4. q 1 and q 2 .10) is more complicated.5). x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . but the integration constants.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. using (4. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 .9) Equation (4. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 .8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element. ⎣N ⎦ In (4.11). have no simple physical meaning. (4.9) can also be written u= or.

16) Substituting (4. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. 2 (4.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr .4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .6) and (4.4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . e T e e (4. Equations (4.3.13) in (4.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. e (4.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. c).1. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2. The transformation from x to r in equation (4. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions. (4. 4. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. and that u varies linearly (Fig.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] .

21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ . we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . have to be determined from three boundary conditions. . This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. (4.6). ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4.52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . b and c. . a). 4. equation (4.1. a.22) which is the same as equation (3. d 2u d x 2 = const .19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . 4.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = .23) The three integration constants. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4.4. (4. .5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 . ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx . p = const.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

Table 4. It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 .27). based on element connectivity. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. global stiffness matrix. as in (3. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . which is never done in practice. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process. ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies.4 for truss elements.1. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . according to the connectivity Table 4. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices.

In fact.1. (4. the expression (4.41).39) Substituting (4. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.13). BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . Q 1 = 0 .by deleting the first element.4. as shown in section 3. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. and the reduced load vector . 4. due to fabrication errors. this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained.39) becomes .38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx . (4. using the boundary condition. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) .5.

The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l . ε0 = αT . ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.40) It has the form (4. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4.44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. le (4. is shown in Fig.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l .43) In the case of thermal loading. 4. (4. (4. θ l A two-node shaft finite element. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p .42) After solving for nodal displacements.33).41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr .8. stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G. 4.

Fig. θ 1 = 0.45) Equations (4. Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4.3) du N = . M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.4. (4.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element. (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element.50) . e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . 4. (4.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }.

Analogous to equation (4. Fig. l = 0.2 m . E = 200 GPa . the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .54) Equation (4.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. the same as for the axially loaded bar element. b) the stresses in bar. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4.20).62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN . a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements.1 Solution. E4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. E4. .1 Consider the bar in Fig. and c) the support reactions.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. as equation (4. Example 4. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2.1 with d = 5 mm .54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements.

81 Q2 = 9.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.62 mm 2 .47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.21 = 1662 . c) Stresses are .47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).2 N .4.47 38. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 . the finite element equations can be written − 9. R4 = 38.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.81 9. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .47 76.47 mm 2 . [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.28 − 38.94 − 38.81 48.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.47 − 38.47 38.47 76. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.81 ⎢− 9.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.47 + 38.47 38.28 − 38. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.42 mm .47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.81 ⎢− 9.81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9. A2 = A3 = π ( 1.4 d 4 )2 = 38.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.8 N .42 = 337.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.47 − 38. Q3 = 43.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.47 Q3 = 38.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.21 mm .81 + 38.47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

4 . For the bar of Fig.6. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0.6 For the bar of Fig.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.5 A2 141. E4. E4.63 ⋅ 10 1. =− = −214. Q3 = F 1. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1.6. E4.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . A1 78.6 Solution.4. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. divided into two equal length tapered elements. with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx .54 mm 2 F 30316 N . the element stiffness matrices are . σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 . using two tapered bar finite elements.41 ⋅ 105 . Fig.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − .

70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. E4. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ .7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. Fig. b) a three-node quadratic element. 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. Comment the results. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . Example 4. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements. The element stiffness matrices are . the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .7 Solution. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ . E4.7.

BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ .4. 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. The finite element equations can be written . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . c) Comments. 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬.

23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e .25). Example 4.4.8. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). . displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. However. However. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . a). rotating at constant angular velocity . BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. For the case p = const. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . Solution. This is because. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. Whenever the assumed functions. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization.4).8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig. via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. before using equation (4. E4.25). The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . and b) three linear elements. as it is shown in a next chapter. form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. used to describe the displacement field. . the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact.

E4.8 .74 p ( x ) = p0 x . l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 . Fig.

The model has five degrees of freedom. c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T .37). where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . b.4.8. c. E4.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. E4. E4. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . The nodal forces. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T . ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0.8. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. are given by equation (4. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ . d.8. E4. 1] . equivalent to a linearly distributed load. the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig.8.

given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. Q3 = . u⎜ ⎟ = . ε4 = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . u (l ) = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . Q4 = . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. u⎜ ⎟ = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . Q5 = .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . ε2 = . σ4 = . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . σ5 = . While the nodal displacements are exact. 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. σ3 = . ε3 = . σ2 = . ε5 = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution.

8. The model has four degrees of freedom. are given by equation (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . The nodal forces.8. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . E4. 1 ] .5 p0 l . E4. the finite element equations can be written .5 p0 l . 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig.8. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. E4. For p1 = p2 = p . g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ .8. σ (l ) = 0 . g. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. f. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. σ⎜ ⎟= . ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. e.8. ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. h.34). respectively. b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T .4. the nodal forces are given by equation (4.26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. equivalent to a load per unit length. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . σ⎜ ⎟= .36). 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. E4. E4. The distributed loads from Fig.

e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l .8. 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. i they are compared to those given by equation (b). l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l . 27 A 10 p0 l . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ .9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . E4.78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 27 A 4 p0 l . Q3 = . in local natural coordinates. Example 4. Q4 = . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ .

the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. defined as the displacement along the X axis. Each node has three degrees of freedom. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. then extend it to plane frames. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. that neglects transverse shear deformations. and the Timoshenko beam theory. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . 5.5. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. as shown in Fig. Typically.1. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. respectively. In this section. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. and for grids. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. 5. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. between adjacent beam elements. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. in particular. transmit bending moments from member to member. which is constant over the element. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. apart from forces. two linear displacements and a rotation. BEAMS. . FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams.

then in the global coordinate system. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l . Fig. 5.2 . Imposing the boundary conditions. 5. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Fig.1 In the following.80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. The latter are expanded to the structure size.

describe the element stretching (Fig. c). (5. 5. q 3 . where the nodal displacements are also shown. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. a. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. q 4 . 5. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.2. q 5 .5. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . 5. as illustrated in Fig.1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . Fig. f 3. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis.2. BEAMS. (5. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. f 4 . The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. at a distance y from the neutral axis. In a local physical coordinate system. oriented along the beam. the x axis. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element.3) dx . Transverse shear deformations are neglected. f 5.2) Forces f 2.3). b) while axial forces f 1 . and axial displacements q 1 .3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. axial forces are ignored. 5. 5. 5. Alternatively.2.

involving the transverse displacement and slope. and physical boundary conditions. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III . Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . dx dx 3 (5. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. two at each end. . dx4 (5.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV .5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. dx dx4 (5. The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. dx dx (5.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. involving the shear and bending moment.

ϕ 2 . Integrating four times.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. v2 . a) at x = x1 . a 3 . v = v2 = q5 . the four integration constants a 1 . a 3 . (5.10) For a free-free beam element. 5. b) Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . v = v1 = q2 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.4): (5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. (5. 5. p = 0 and equation (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5.3. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 . a 2 . 5. ϕ1 .1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as .9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . a 4 in (5.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig.11. and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . at x = x 2 . BEAMS.11. a 2 . the integration constants a 1 .5.

and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. 2 2 (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.17) (5. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5. r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ . (5. (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e .19) In (5.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.20) . dr 2 dx equation (5.13) Using natural coordinates.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 . with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2. { } (5.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ . called Hermitian cubic polynomials.14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. 2 (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . dx = le dr .

4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. Table 5. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. 5. graphically shown in Fig. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5.5 . BEAMS.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 .21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .1. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r.5. 5.

17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. dr 2 5. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .3. 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5. d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.24) into (5. while at node 2.25) .22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5. dr 2 d v le = q 3 . e (5.2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e . v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }.24) On substituting (5.16) and (5.

e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5. BEAMS.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5.26) Comparing (5.30) The curvature χ (5.25) with (5.32) Substituting (5.30) gives the matrix (5.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.5.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5. e e (5.29) is based on the general formula (4. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }. e T e B e (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . (5. .29).32) and d V = Ae d x into (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ .

33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . .6 Equation (5.34) f 5 = k31 . q3 = 0) and zero rotation.⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ .6. .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . Fig. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. .88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 .33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. (5. ⎥ . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 . For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 .3. (5. 5. . . f 3 = k 21 . . (5.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5.36) . 5. .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. . as in Fig. .

They can be determined. having the units of force per unit length. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes.39) . moments and shear forces are in error. the displacements. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem.9) is a quartic polynomial. BEAMS. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial.12). However. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. The cubic shape functions do the job. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends.37) Substituting (5. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . Within the elements. (5. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5.5. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. For beams with transverse forces. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx . equation (5. the general solution of equation (5. distributed along the beam element. (5. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. For a linearly distributed transverse load. the computed nodal displacements are exact. as shown in the following. 5. However.4. As already shown in Chapter 4. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. p = const . p ≠ 0 . .

41) or. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5. . .90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . To replace p = const . a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which.6. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. 5. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. substituting (5. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed.7.18). p = const . 5. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. a b c Fig. 5. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. (5. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ .42) In Fig.

6. i. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure.e. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements.1 . as shown in Example 5. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. not only shear forces. they have a quadratic distribution. even if it is known that. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs.1. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound. Example 5. stiffening it. for instance.1. BEAMS.5. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. E5. the smaller the error.e. c and d. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. E5. for uniform loading. The smaller the element. 5. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. or refining the mesh. Fig. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. nodal forces must include moments.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig.

92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is.4. 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue . 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . as expected. Using a single beam element. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl .

FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . 5. at x = x3 . (5. (5.43) The five integration constants a 1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. v = v3 . d v d x = ϕ2 . v = v1 . a 3 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . at x = x 2 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig.5. a 2 . BEAMS.12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.8): at x = x1 .45) where the quartic shape functions are . v = v2 . 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. a5 in (5.43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. a 4 .

we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5. Fig. 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .47) For p = const . 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5.27) and performing the integration. the element consistent load vector (5. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . .46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 .94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . 5.46) into equation (5.41) is .8 Substituting the shape functions (5. In equations (5.46). 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l . N 5 is called a “bubble function”. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.

4. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe .6) and equation (5. The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 . 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 . + 12 2 2 2 4 .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. When p = const .12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e .49) The shear force is given by equation (5. they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. (5.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e . (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ . .48) 5. { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 .49) and (5. e [ ]{ q }.50).50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. BEAMS. For p = 0 .5. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ .51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions.

When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced.96 Tp = T − pl e r. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. .50). with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5.9. a). the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1. valid for p = 0 .49) and (5. If the nodes are given unit rotations. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . respectively. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces.9. 5. Vertical translation. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. equation (5. Rotation. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. b. equation (5. b). 5. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. 5. a. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium.

when element sizes shrink to zero.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ .l 2 = const . 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . they must have at least constant curvature.6 Frame element As shown in Fig.6. 5. it is acted upon by axial forces.53) .9.9 c 2.2. An element should simulate constant strain states.22) is [ ] e (5. BEAMS.5.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. 5. apart from moments and shear forces. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. In the case of beams. 5. 1⎥ ⎦ (5.

3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. combining equations (5.56) Equations (5.57) . the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.55) 5. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ .2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. (5.53) and (5.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. 5.6.6.29).10 both in the initial and deformed state. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ . (5.54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e . so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ . ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ . For node 1. For slender beams. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.56) can be written in matrix form as (5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ .

60) In (5. . FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .58) Fig. 5.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }.5. { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. (5.60). (5. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 . BEAMS.10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬. (5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 . { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system.

(5.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix. by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .12) and (5. using equations (5. e e T e e (5. [K ]. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. (5. e e T e e (5.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector.63) 5.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . e (5.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e .67) .7.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e .6. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level. (5.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.4).

Fig. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. E5.2 Solution. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. and omitting the first two rows and columns. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ .second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. Example 5. and hence stresses. are not accurate. BEAMS. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams . we obtain the finite element equations .2. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains.5.

l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig.29). Solution. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .5 Example 5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 . Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. EI v3 = Q5 = −1. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.3. E5.

E5. 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. BEAMS. 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns.5. at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by . 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .

5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. 16 3 M1 = − F l . E5.5 − 4.5 − 1.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5l 1. Fig. 16 Example 5.5 1.4. 8 V3 = 5 F.5 − 1. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5l 6l − 1. E5. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13. 27 E I .5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .4 Solution.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1.5l − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 . 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.5 − 4.

V3 = F .5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. E5. E5.5. M 1 = F l . ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . 27 9 27 9 Example 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . third and fifth rows and columns.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1.5 − 1.5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . Fig. 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. BEAMS.5 Solution. M3 = − Fl . the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 .106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 8 V3 = 7 pl . 16 Example 5. 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl . E5.6 . E5.6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig. Fig. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 .6. 16 V2 = 5 pl . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬.

5 1.0518 p0 l 3 . Answer. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.7. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5l ⎡ 1.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0.5 4.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5 4.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.5l 13. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 . EI Example 5.5 4.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0.084 p0 l 4 .1333 p l 2 ⎬ . E5.5 − 1. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.5l l 4. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1. the finite element equations can be written 1. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system. 3 ⎢ 1. BEAMS. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0. 4 ( ) .

4 ( ) Fig. E5. 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . b . 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 .7.108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . E5. N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).7. a Fig.

shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs.8 The planar frame shown in Fig.0698e-2 1.592e-3 -1.321e-3 -8. a b c d e Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. Determine the nodal displacements. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. E5.5. Answer. e.8. The diagrams of the axial force N . Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.0697e-2 1.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.8 .8. E5.531e-3 2.309e-3 2. E5.353e-3 2.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N .4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .5 1.500e-7 1.260e-3 -6. d.0699e-2 1.889e-3 -1. b. shear and bending moment.700e-6 1. c.8.232e-2 -5. E5. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 . BEAMS.010 1.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1.

5. A = 400 mm 2 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. 10. Answer.9.00623 rad . E5. ϕ 6 = −0.2476 mm . E5.9. E5. 13. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . Fig. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 .9 The planar frame shown in Fig.9. b.9673 mm . l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . a has fixed ends in 1. b . v 6 = −0. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. E5. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N .9. Fig.

a translation and two rotations.5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . as shown in Fig. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . 5. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. Fig. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. respectively. Each node has three degrees of freedom. 5. 5. where the nodal displacements are also shown. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . 5.8.8.12. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. Typically. BEAMS. .11 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5.11.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. two rotations and a linear displacement. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . describing bending and torsional effects. a. defined as the rotation about the X axis. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. as illustrated in Fig. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

5. is approximated by u (x. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material.13.9. at a distance y from the neutral axis. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ .1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y. 5. a). Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . axial forces are ignored. Fig. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x .5. BEAMS. σ x = E ε x = −E (5.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section .13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5.81) (5. dx dx (5. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis.

84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section. 5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) .90) (5. Using natural coordinates.88) Equations (5. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5. (5. .14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . dx (5. 5. The sign convention used here (Fig. (5. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . dx (5.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . (5.82) and (5. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA .91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 .118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig. 5. r = 2 x l .13. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM .85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT .9.

d x3 (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5. 5. d r3 (5. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5.94) and (5. in the new variable r.5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 .90) and (5.95) into (5. BEAMS.94) (5.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5.91) which.94) and (5. The resulting displacement functions are .92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0. G As l 2 (5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig.91) gives d4v =0.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .97) Substituting (5. (5.95) at r = ± 1 . l b2 = 4 a3 .96) where β= 4E I z . l l (5.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . l dr d r2 (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.

2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. (5.103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .. the first four functions (5.101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .. ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) . and defined by . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) .102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ).100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }..21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. e e (5. (5. ] For β = 0 . e e (5. (5.99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.. 4 ) . ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 .

BEAMS.111) On substituting (5. 1 + 3β l (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.9.99) into (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = . ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .100) into (5.100) and (5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx . l e B T z −1 +1 (5.5.109) On substituting (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ . ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.105) 5. 2 2 (5.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .109) we get .

102) and (5. . e S T s −1 +1 (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5.114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.42) derived for a slender beam.113) Substituting the shape functions (5. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.

z coordinates. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. and S σ . and (d) boundary conditions. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. y. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . pv y . The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. 6. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. ∂n ∂y .1) .6. is shown in Fig. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. (6. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . like centrifugal or gravity forces. ∂n ∂z . The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u .1 Matrix notation for loads. (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. (b) surface forces. pv z . LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. 6. and (c) concentrated forces.1. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces. Points in the body are located by x.

6. Fig.τ zx . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . v .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ .τ yz . (6. w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements. (6.1) to (6.4) where u .3). the direct stress components σ x .2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T .3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6. σ y . (6. Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component. (6. It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices.1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T .5) .

a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6.7) Fig. ⎦T .6. ∂x ∂y (6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . equations (6. The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations. (6.7) can be written .6.2 In matrix form. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0. 6.2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. (6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6. a) 6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T .5.

9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } .11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are .3 In (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . (6.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6.8) or.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .11) Fig. 6. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6.10) 6. τ xy l + σ y m = ps y . Sσ (6.

∂x ∂v . The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u .3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6.17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } .13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . x ) = ∂n = nx . 6. y ) = = ny . LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .18) . ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . (6. ∂x ∂n m = cos (n . (6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6.16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. sometimes written (6.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ . ∂y (6. equations (6. ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6.12) In matrix form.15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n.6.

4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } . the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } . The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.4 6.21) . 6.19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

and γ yz are set as zero.22).21) and discarding rows and columns 3. γ xz .24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }.25) . from (6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. discarding rows and columns 3. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. ⎪ ⎭ (6. and τ yz are set as zero. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. τ xz .20).(6. If stresses σ z . 5 and 6 in (6.23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. If strains ε z . 5 and 6 in (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ .6.

T (6. (6.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6.31) Substituting (6. 6.1. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV .5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T . the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) . In plane stress (6.27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T .24). 2 (6. (6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.32) .6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. 6. (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T .29) 6. T (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .30) For the elastic body shown in Fig.

systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. In the following.1. defined over small subdomains of the structure.7. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. . the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. In the finite element method. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system. as applied to elastic bodies. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. 7. Unfortunately. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. 7.1 Virtual displacements By definition. virtual).

where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T .g. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives.1). If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. δu . 6. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. (7.e. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. i.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. e. For bars. exist and are continuous in the domain V. up to the mth order inclusive.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them.e. i. the displacement vector (6. (7. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . plates and shells. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). Exceptions do exist. e) kinematically admissible. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter.2) .

(7.1. because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.1). . the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . ENERGY METHODS 133 7.3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu .2 for the uniaxial case. 7. 7. i T T T Sσ (7. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). 7.1.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z . c). 7.1.1.5) as shown in Fig. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. 7. a b Fig.3).2) and point forces (6.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV . because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements. T (7.1. 7.7. a).3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. hence independent of the force.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig. surface tractions (6. the latter being arbitrary.

7.2 Again. then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined.6. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements. whether the material is elastic or inelastic. i T T T T V Sσ (7. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached.e. It applies only . so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium. i.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. (7.1.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. a) In (7. it is independent of material behaviour. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI . Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. 7. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 .

7. 7. The final state of static equilibrium. 7. δΔ3 (Fig. produces a displacement of the joint 4. Example 7. b). δΔ2 . The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. the applied forces remaining constant. The initial state. 2. 7. Fig. F2 and by internal forces T1 .4. δΔ 2 . 3.19) . 7. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. 7. Δ3 (Fig. 7.4. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 .3 Solution.3. The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . c). T2 . which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. e). producing the elongations Δ1 . Δ2 . d). in which the external force F. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig.4. f). of components u1 and u2 (Fig. 7. loaded by a force F.4. T3 (Fig. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα .4. Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. a). The external work is independent of the path taken. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2.4.7. An imaginary state.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig.

δΔ2 = δu 2 .9) Substituting (7. 7. the force-elongation equations (2. EA (7.8) Fig.21) can be written (7.7) Δ 1= T1 l .136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA Δ 3= T3 l . For the three bars.7) into (7. gives (7. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .4 Equating internal work to external work (7.9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 .6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 . EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ .

⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 . Equation (7. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A .6. T T T V Sσ (7.1.7). then in (7. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . (7.10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .11). b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz . l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 . Substituting (7.8) in the finite form of (7. we could put either to zero.12) 7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.7. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 .6. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 . (7. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other.

i. its coefficients must vanish. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface.e. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . On substituting in (7. So.6. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV .138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. but only in the mean. Part of the surface. Sσ . b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. . is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. when using approximate functions for { u }. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions.

1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx . substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } .2.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } .13) 7. For a bar in tension. dx dx d2v (5. the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains.7. d x2 d x2 (7. ENERGY METHODS 139 7. ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies .14) For an elastic body.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP . the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . (7. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV .4). (7.15) For a beam in bending. gives d x2 (7. V δ U = δWI . yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .

140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. i T T (7. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts. i T T T Sσ (7. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.18) 7.2.21) 7.20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . For example.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } .13.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. (7.2.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE . a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h . (7. a) Its variation is . because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.

rather than a result of the equilibrium.2 For the truss shown in Fig. the total potential energy has a stationary value. the stationary value is a minimum. If δ 2 Π > 0 . the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. Based on equation (7. according to the compatibility relations. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . Thus. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements.6) it follows that (7.7. the equilibrium is stable. a) hence. Reciprocally. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. then it is in a stable equilibrium state.22) δΠ = 0 . it can be considered that (7. Example 7. of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. then the total potential energy has a minimum value.22. at equilibrium. 7. the total potential energy can be written . (7. Reciprocally. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u .3. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium.22.

δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 . l l l At equilibrium.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending.11). 7. Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. Example 7. 7. Fig. Π is stationary.5. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl .142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 .5 Solution. Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. For a beam segment loaded as shown. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives .

7. 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . For a beam. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . or δ v0 = 0 . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series .3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . or δ v′ = 0 .7. l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. or δ v′ = 0 . or δ vl = 0 . ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. which are the boundary conditions. As δ v is arbitrary. ( E I v′′) l = M l .

6 find the vertical displacement of point 2.e. The solutions are back-substituted into (7.4 For the beam shown in Fig. Because δa j are arbitrary. Substituting the displacements (7.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates.23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. (7. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. I = 1600 mm4 ... ∂aj ( j = 1. n ) . l = 3 m . c) The sequence of functions must be complete. i. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j .. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 .24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand. 7.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π ..144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. Consider: E = 210 MPa . to be admissible functions. called admissible functions. Example 7. The total potential energy is . ∂Π =0. and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . Solution.

25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 . (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 . ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. for simplicity. v′ (0) = 0 . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. 7. Fig.28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. where the functions (7.6 Substituting (7.27) into (7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . 0 2l 3 l .25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − .27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7.26).26) In the following. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ .7. the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . (7.

we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. EI a2 = −0.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . Answer. the equations are linear in aj .9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. for F = q l 6 . Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ .48 mm. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u . a) subjected to a load F.7.28).146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.7. a1 + a2 = 4. 7. The total potential energy (Fig. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . Substituting the functions (7. 7.00257 q l4 . b) is 1 2 ku − Fu . . 2 Π = (7.00207 q l4 .29) In 2. E I (7.

34) and Fig.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .7.32) – (7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π .31) As seen in Fig. 7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 .7. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . In magnitude Π app < Π eq . 7. ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . 7. F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . k ueq = 2 2 k (7.33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . (7. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7. equations (7.32) k =− The strain energy is (7.7. Fig. b.

148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. 7. .4 F. 6. { Fi } . taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. For this a matrix notation is used. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour. internal forces. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them.4.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F .M. . c) Procedure.M. which is often difficult. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . b) Solution approach. etc. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level).E. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. reaction forces. 2 Π eq ↓ (7.E.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. Then determine stresses. 7. d) Tools. { ps } .1).1 F. to present output data in an engineering format. k↑ (7. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig.

7.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .4.8 7. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. ENERGY METHODS 149 7. 7.7. Fig. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.8) that define the mesh. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion . equation (7. only δ Π e will be considered.4. T T Sσ (7.6. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.38) In the following.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . 7.4.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method.

defined by Q e remains to be found.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . .41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. 7.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions).18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.4. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level. The strain virtual variation is (7.39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming.

4. cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero. (7.4. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is .7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A .6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied.44) 7. (7. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. e e e (7. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . ENERGY METHODS 151 7.

e T (7. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. 7.25).48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. In the back-substitution phase. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . (7. e (7.50).24) or (6.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.49) Applying the boundary conditions.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }. the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }.45) and (7. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. . It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.4.

designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. that allow closed form derivations. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. 8. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. . In-plane displacement. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. 8. discussed in the next chapter. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses.1. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements.1. without the need for numerical integration. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. 8. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. a). is treated separately. joined together at their corners (nodes). which is considered constant.8. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today.

a Fig.1.1. v ( x . the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . 8.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig.1) 8.1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters. ( x2 . (8. (8. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. y1 ) . Thus. y2 ) and ( x3 . The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. 2 and 3. The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . each node has two degrees of freedom. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. b are numbered locally as 1.2) . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y . The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area. y3 ) .

2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const .16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const . ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”.6) where .1.4. in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. . (8. (8. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8. . ⎪ ⎭ (8. only one need be considered in detail. a) where (8. 8.8. ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ .3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6. A nodal approximation is preferred. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const .

y3 y1 (8. { } (8.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. Substituting (8.7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . γ i = xk − x j (8.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . j . β i = y j − yk . a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) . 2A ( i = 1.12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8.6) into (8. 3 ) (8.12.13) .156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . 2. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element.8) and the subscripts i .10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8. (8. k permute in a natural order. 2.

y ) = N 2 (x . j = 1. 3 (8.2: N i ( xi .14) ∑ Ni = 1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8.12. 2A (8. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] .2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] .10) and (8. y ) = N 3 (x . yi ) = δ i j .8. and i =1 ( i .15) Combining (8. 8. a) can also be written N1 (x . as illustrated in Fig. 8. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes. b) Fig. y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] . 3 ) (8.14) yields . 2.12.

4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. u2 and u3 . as shown in Fig.16.3 The displacement u (x. 8. (8.y ) + u2 N 2 (x.3. 8. 8. .16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 .1.y ) + u3 N 3 (x. a) Fig.y ) =u1 N1 (x.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.

8. (8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.25) for plane strain conditions.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.8. The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ .18) where t e is the element thickness. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .24) for plane stress and by (6. a) where the notation is obvious.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8.17.1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ . satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . Along an edge 1-2. When the surface load distribution (per unit .

even in a fine mesh. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . 8. 8.5 .4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. Fig. 8. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. 8. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig.4).1. b which however produces a larger bandwidth.19) where t e is the thickness of the element.5. Fig.5. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. 8. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 8.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. 8. Fig. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs.6 . The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. 8.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. Taking advantage of symmetry.8. only one quarter of the plate is considered. where they should be continuous. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig.

a Fig.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ .3 Example 8. E8. b) stresses in elements. x3 = 0 . y2 = 0 . the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 . Let ν = 0 . a).162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8.18) is . The material stiffness matrix (6.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ .1 Solution. ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. y3 = l .1. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. E8.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. x2 = l . and c) the support reactions.

12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . . e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. 2 2 T 1 2 . In general. .8.

1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. E8. H5 = − F 4 .17) and performing the product (8. y2 = 1 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. ∗ H4 = − F 4 .18). . 2E t u2 = 3F . 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . b). y3 = 0 in (8. x3 = −1 . Due to symmetry. only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. x2 = 0 . so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 .1. Using the appropriate boundary conditions. 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 .

E8.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.2). ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ .3 . ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪.8. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. The units are coherent. b) stresses in elements. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. and c) the support reactions.

where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.17). E8.2 Solution.24). based on the nodal coordinates.166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. . The input data are given below For each element.18).

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.542 .125 0 − 1.192 − 0. v2 = −15.192 − 0.165 − 0. v3 = −13.165 − 0.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0. v1 = −40.823 . ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7.111 − 0.111 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.666 0 1.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2. .8.686 .712 .582 .835 .317 ⎢ 0 0. u3 = −2.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0. u2 = 6.317 0.903 0 2.317 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.192 1.

b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. being a constant strain element.1. thickness t = 5 mm . the plate should be modeled by many more elements. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. a). to allow longhand calculation.168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. Solution. Along the edge 4-5. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. width b = 40 mm . The plate has length l = 60 mm .3 . we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). element 3.3 A thin rectangular plate.6. . Normally. a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. E8. Example 8. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection.3. gives only one value of σ x . However. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . and this leads to misleading results. which is wrong. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.

3. E8. b The applied nodal forces are shown. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. E8.8. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. The deformed shape is shown in Fig.3. E8. c. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. . E8. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. Fig. b.3.3. are denoted a to f. a A 55-node.

.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. Fig.3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses. E8.3. E8.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3. E8.3. d. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19.

E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0. a) has length 150 mm .0752 σy 0. E8.3595 σ eq 19. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ . The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .763 τ xy -0.068 7.6155 10.2632 0. Example 8. is σ xa = 15.5706 -0. E8.85 e 6. width of the reduced portion 40 mm . a).78 b 11.6821 10.7073 3.5693 5.3275 8.6445 5. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value .78 MPa .815 1.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20.927 0. in point a.89 σ x .4.39 c 9. averaged at points a to f.6667 0.174 0. have the following values: Point a 15.9433 7.5768 0. thickness 5 mm .6221 0.5786 7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.8.0178 11.8037 Stresses σ x .0595 0.4577 11. width of the extended portion 80 mm .68 f 4.8845 1.1651 0. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.3.69 d 7.25 .7162 4.9228 0. fillet radius 20 mm .

. Fig. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . E8. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. The largest equivalent stress is 604. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. E8. only half of the plate is considered. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. for the quarter plate. E8.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . The resulting five nodal forces. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. c for five stress intervals given in the legend. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. The right edge has four elements.19). A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig.4. a Answer.4. Fig.4.7 MPa .4. b. E8. Taking advantage of the symmetry. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622. v60 = −3. u64 = 0.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0. y60 = 21. The triangle area is A96 = 4.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig. v64 = −3.3757 − 0. x65 = 95.0596 0 − 0.12367 . Calculate the element stresses.5 .0596 − 0.5 .4. E8.3160 ⎥ . This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1.3160 0.8.415.52 .1216 0 0.1925 mm 2 .12247 . Example 8.35 . v65 = −4. y64 = 18 . c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.2982 − 0.25 . ⎥ ⎢ 0.97e − 3 .17) 0 − 0.92e − 3 .4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .3757 0 0. y65 = 20. = 0. E8. u65 u60 = 0.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0. The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. The matrix [ B ] is (8.7 MPa . b are given below: x60 = 92.11224 .63e − 3 .4. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.42 given by Singer (1962). Solution. x64 = 95 .1216 0.

174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.24) ⎡ 2. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0. a . a.12367 − 3.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0. E8. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.97e − 3 0.1333 0 ⎥ .12247 − 4. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .58 − 120. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.5333 2. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.08⎦ T .92e − 3 ⎦ T .1333 0. Fig.72 63.6.63e − 3 0. E8.11224 − 3.6. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.

6. E8. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig. c . E8. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated.8. c. E8.6. Fig. Fig. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas.6.6. b.

hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ .176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8. From condition N1 ( x1 . built up beams and boxes. y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides.7. y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise.2.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. N1 ( x . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . ( ) (8.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. 8. y1 ) = 1 .7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. a b N4 ( x. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates .1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. y j = δ ij . Fig. 8. 8. y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . y ) = x y . For example.

b r= 2x −1. { } (8.25) The use of the shape functions (8. the assumed displacement field is u (x . all like powers in x and y are not present. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . for two displacements.…. Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . 1 ± s = 0 .23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y .8.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . (8. a (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. That is. The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . 4 4 N1 = (8. Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles.22) (8.24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) .21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. Because. there are eight boundary conditions. v ( x . In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads.23) has one drawback – they are not complete.

8. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation. stresses are lower than the true values. Fig. because the strain energy is underestimated. In comparison. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. 8. (≥ 3) 8. The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. Generally. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . 8.8 Figure 8.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7.9. 8. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero. The 4-node element has flat sides.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. Fig. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .8. .2.

N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) .27) so that the strains are quadratic. 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .7. In the natural system of coordinates r and s. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 .8. Fig. the old ones are presented in Fig. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . (8.. The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates. (8. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. 8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . + N8 v8 . Using the nodal approximation. v ( x . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . 2 4 N1 = − . 8.9 In Fig.29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . 8. 4 4 (8. N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . + N8 u8 .9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 ...28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach)..

N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T .29). the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8.. h2 . h3 from the three sides (Fig. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 .10. one has to use a large number of elements. Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. 8.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2. 8 and have a value of unity at node 1. 1 − r = 0 . N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 .31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] . i.e. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . { } (8. 8. 3.−1) = 1 . and nondimensionalized.. which gives the expression of N1 in (8. Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . by division to the triangle heights. as h1 h2 h3 . ζ2 = . The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . 1 + r + s = 0 ..e.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization.30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. ζ3 = . c1 = −1 4 . i..3. quadratic or higher-order strain expansions.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. Equivalently. elements having linear. a).

⎪ ⎭ (8. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.8. Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .10.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . b). 8. 8.33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions.34) By inversion. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . (8. ζ3 = A3 A . ζ2 = A2 A . (8. we obtain equation (8.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig.

11. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. Fig. N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . 8.35) where A is given by (8. 3 ) (8. 8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . 2.11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8. β i = y j − yk . the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. (8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . In Fig. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . 8. 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .3.9) and the expressions (8.38) . obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST. 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1. { } (8.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . γ i = xk − x j .

(8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a.8. ζ 3 . 6 (8. ζ 2 . 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . so we must transform from x .41) where A is the triangle area (8.9) and β i .43) The results for first. γ i are defined by (8.33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A .34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 .8). The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. The integration is frequently performed numerically. However. y to ζ1 .44) . Using (8. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . (2 + a + b ) ! (8.

without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. (8. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 .45) The displacement field is complete.12). There are twelve nodal displacements. 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . Denoting ζ 2 = r. N3 = s .37) is obtained. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.47) Fig. so the element is truly isotropic. There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary. the nodal approximation (8. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. 8.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . 8. It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. (8. containing all possible products. N2 = r .184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 .48) . 2 (8. the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. ζ 3 = s. six for each component. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig.

The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. This element is shown in Fig.3. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. treated in the next chapter. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. Since the function is cubic. if the polynomial is not complete. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. 8. i =1 9 (8. a. Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 .49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. The side nodes are located at the third points. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation.13. 8. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable.8. (8. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . 8.50) where .

(8. 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). . b).. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . there are six .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix.52) the interpolation polynomials. N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . vc ) as the remaining parameters. ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . a total of 18 parameters (Fig. 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . . (8. 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . as nodal quantities. 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. 8. At each corner. The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . x x (8.52) In (8. N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ).53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . two displacements and four first derivatives.

but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. For example. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6.4. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 .26) (8.1 Equilibrium vs. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. of the rectangular element. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i .4 Equilibrium. one can say that: a) Within elements. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y .55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8.8.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33].16) in (8.56) . compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. β i are defined by (8.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . 8. v ( x .55) Equations (8. 8. ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0. The same interpolation functions are valid for v . (8.

One cannot conclude from this that. 8. b) Between elements. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero.4.55) is not satisfied. Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. However.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . Moreover. Happily. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. the elements fit together. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . in general. In some cases it can give better results. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . As the discretization is refined. inter-element stress continuity may exist. However. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. But as already shown. for any nodal displacement. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. the edges remain straight. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. = b4 = 2 = 0 . the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. c) At nodes. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. = a3 + a4 x . So.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. For example. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. so the first equation (8. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes.

plate and shell elements. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. i. If this requirement is violated.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. strains. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. However. The computed displacements. . we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). d) Compatibility must exist between elements. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. Also. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations.e. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. In the case of beam. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. If not. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. extraneous nodal forces appear. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. e) The element should have no preferred directions. Elements must not overlap or separate. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state.

a simple patch test is carried out as follows. E8. The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements.6. ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1.25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } .190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. . u3 = 4 . E8. v4 = 1 . v3 = 4 . u2 = 1 . If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 . the internal node must behave accordingly. v1 = 0 . Fig. v2 = 1 .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . u4 = 1 .7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig.

In fact. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. For isoparametric elements. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. they are subparametric elements. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. The local nodes 1.1. yi ) . 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. Each node has two degrees of freedom. because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. the result is an isoparametric element. 9. 9. (9.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. a.1) .9. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. we obtain a subparametric element. 2. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements.

s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . s ∈ [ − 1. 9. s } plane. a Fig.2 b . They are called quadrilateral coordinates.1. This is called the reference plane. called the reference element (or master element). quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. b. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r .2. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. 9. a). a Fig. y } is called the isoparametric mapping. 1 ] . In the reference plane.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. 9. 9.1.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . 1 ] .

4. b) .2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r .3) where ( ri .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 4 4 (9. 9.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.9.2. b). si ) are the coordinates of node i . a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . s } plane (Fig.4.23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i . x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.1. 4 (9. 9.

1. This ensures interelement compatibility.e. the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r .194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. a). 9. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. i. Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. For example.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . because r (or s) is constant. s ) . along each side the approximation is linear.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r . there are no openings. along the side 2-3 (Fig. = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 .3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . As mentioned in Chapter 8. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9.2. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i . s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. overlaps or discontinuities . where (9.

Along 2-3.9) For example. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . Also. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. 9.9. s ) . y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . This is done considering the function f = f ( x .10) and (9. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9.4). If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x .1. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r .9) is non-conforming. the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. s ) ] .11) is the Jacobian matrix. it can also be expressed as . The approximation (9. a) has the form y = m x + c . The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. (9. along each side the approximation is quadratic. y (r . the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. 9. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.1. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y .10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9. s } coordinates. Using (9. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. where m is the slope of 2-3. On the contrary.

16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] .14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ .13. where A0 = 1 8 (9.15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥. ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. a) Analogously.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . the inverse relationship is (9.

and i . In cartesian coordinates { x . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . ∂f ∂f . y ) . (9. It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. .9. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. s = s ( x . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. where d x = d x ⋅ i . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. y }.17) It is needed because. Because r = r ( x . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . we need [ j ]. s } . In a curvilinear system { r . determined on the reference element. d y = d y ⋅ j . and s = const . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . j are base vectors. [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . contours respectively.

(9.22) . where (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.20) Using the transformation (9.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.17).19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .9) into (7.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .7). where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.1.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] . (9.9) and shape functions (9. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.

then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T .24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s.1.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3. (9. 9. along side 2-3 in Fig.1.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥. If there is a distributed load having components ( px .17).9. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . 9. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. the above integration has to be performed numerically. the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. . as shown in the following. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear.

The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths. It is more efficient than other methods. As the order of the displacement field increases. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. + a2 n r 2 n −1 .. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. + wn f (r n ) ..26) is exact up to the chosen order.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature. For higher order elements. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly.. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter.27) . the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. + wi f (ri ) + . In other words. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + .2. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. 9. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9..1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1.. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. (9. The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible.

... + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + .... + wn r n . + wn r n n −1 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + . − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig. linear in wi and nonlinear in r i ..9. The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + .30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + . + wn . 2 ... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i ... 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + wn r n 2 n −1 . i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα .3..29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . 3 (9.28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi .. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) .. + wn r n . This is a set of 2 n equations.. 9. + wn ) + ) ( ) (9. i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9... + wn r n + ..... n .

b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . However. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . to separate shear from extension effects.3. 9. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. it is employed in some selective integration schemes.g. (9. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 9. so that (Fig.3 . Fig.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . equations (9.57735 ) .202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. e.31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 .

so that I = f ( r1 . 9. Table 9.652145 0.774) + 0. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r .774 ) .1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r .888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0. Weights. r1 = s 1 = − 0. s1 ) + f ( r2 . Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.1 for the first four orders. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9. s2 ) .2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9.339981 ± 0.2.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.9. ri 0 wi 2. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.3.2. s2 ) + f ( r2 . 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9.57735 .555 ⋅ f ( 0.774596 ± 0.0 1.8888 0. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . s1 ) + f ( r1 . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri . c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0. 9.555 ⋅ f ( − 0. s j . ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r . r 2 = s 2 = 0. s j .57735 ± 0.5555 0. .861136 0 9.0 0.57735 .32) w1 = w2 = 1 .

s j Weights. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 3. 3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. In general.24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 3. 2. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 2.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9.2. 2. the elements of . 3. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . Therefore. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. wi . The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 2 .2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. ri .

Therefore. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. we can write . Fig. 9. Taking the thickness. From practical considerations. In this case.33) The integral in (9. 9. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function.9. the minimum number of integration points. in the present case. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9.4).33) represents the volume of the element. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. the stiffness matrix equation (9. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes.33). e (9. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. This is cheaper as well.4 However. t e . indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds .

For the first term in (9. s j = ± 0. s j = ± 0. For convenience. s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥.34) + t e [ B ( r2 .34) we need . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1.1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig.5 instead of r i . d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9. s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9. s2 ) ] . s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) .206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i .11) [ J ( ri . 9.57735 . The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. s )] ] [ B ( r .34).s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . Example 9.

5 1. 5 ⎣ 0. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 − 1. 5 1.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5 0 0 0 0 1.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ . stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element.9.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0.5 − 1. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0.5 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.5 1. (9. a refined mesh should be used in these regions.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element.5 − 1.5 ⎢− 0.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ .5 − 1. − 1.2.11) is ⎡ 10 −0. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. 1976).5 ⎢ 0 − 0.5 1. However.125 . 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1.5 0. 5 0.35) In practice. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9. the Jacobian matrix (9.5 − 1.5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0. . Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries. In order not to miss these peak stresses.5 0. 5 1. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .

as are the stresses.36) The element has three nodes along one edge.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme . b). (9. Fig. 9.5.2. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. 9. In practice. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. 9. For a single 8-node rectangular element. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s .5. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic.2.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. even if it is supported conventionally.

For an 8-node quadrilateral element. 9. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9.29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . For ease in programming. 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . . 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . For the 8-node quadratic element. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ).1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme.38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . (9. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. due to reduced integration. It was shown that. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) .9. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant. 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion.37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) .3.

44) 9. (9. the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. s ) x i . when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q .42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T .40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. = si 1 − r 2 .39) for mid-side nodes. i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . (9.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes.45) leads to . 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9. when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .3. (9. s ) y i i =1 8 (9. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 .

49) 9. − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.3.3. s ) xi . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . s ) x i 8 i . (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ . ∂s 9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. s ) yi .46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . s ) yi .4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr .

a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . ij (9. the stiffness matrix (9. (9. k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.54) the elements of the matrix (9.44). (9. evaluated by numerical integration. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] .52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ .53. (9.55) ij .53.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ .212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9.

9.56) and then to work out equations (9. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . A. This method (K.3.57) The explicit form of equation (9. Gupta & B. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w . k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j . 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method. Therefore.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. A close inspection of equations (9.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. k 2 = k 3 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. 9. Mohraz.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . ∂x i =1 ∂ y .

Consider a distributed load p . specified in force per unit length.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. 9. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points.214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi .58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V .3. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. element by element. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are . (9. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. closer results to the true values are obtained. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. However.

9.61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. { f } is reversed.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r .65) .63) the element. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 . py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr .42).s ) p k k =1 8 k .60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. (9.

61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . E9. Example 9.2. Equation (9. For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 .2 Consider the element of Fig. 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . E9.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . .2 Solution. Find the equivalent nodal forces. Fig. y axes.66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . ⎪ ⎭ (9.

.2. Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. E9. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . ⎩− g ⎭ (9. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P .3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9.9. but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. a with gravity loading. E9. Solution.68) Example 9.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] . Find the equivalent nodal forces. b).67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction.3.26). In the above expressions. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9. The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .

72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. (9. 1 1 (9.75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 .70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b .218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. 16 1 (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9. I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.70) can be written f yi = − (9. the force (9.77) −1 −1 .73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .74) Therefore. ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W .

The master element is presented in Fig. a. E9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. b.3. 9. b. 9. 9.6. Again.6.6 . Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. 9. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 . Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. E9. it contains an internal node.9.

6. The polynomial is incomplete. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms .7. for three points. and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. and rs . v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 . L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . as shown at the bottom of Fig. s. have the expressions . the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. Considering the r axis alone. .. (9. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0.) .1. b. as shown in Fig. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). we can define generic shape functions L1 . 9. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s .7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. 2 (9.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials.78) Along the sides of the element. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. r. The shape functions are defined as follows. Fig..220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . which. 9. In general. 9.

N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) .6. as shown at the right of Fig.6. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. b. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . the degree of the polynomial is 2). but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions.9. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) .8). 9.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. a. By referring to the master element in Fig.. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. 9. 9. 9. The polynomial involves six constants.81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. 9. one can use the serendipity elements. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) .9.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) .9.82) .80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . The six node triangle (Fig. Similarly. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) . the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. 2 (9. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. (9. Alternatively. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle.e. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. a) is an element of order 2 (i. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 9. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) .

i =1 (9. N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9.84) Fig. Because of terms ζ 2 . Fig.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T .9 . ζ 3 in the shape functions.222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . and x = ∑ Ni x i . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i . 9. 9.8 The isoparametric representation is (8. this element is also called a quadratic triangle.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .

85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. where stresses may be computed. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. 9. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 .9.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. it is more likely to be negative at corners. A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. 4. 39]. s ) coordinates are defined by (8.46). Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress.4. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. particularly at that corner. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping.13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location. which has to be integrated numerically. ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . can be evaluated using (9. and. This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles.24) if the (r .

5 l ≤1. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0. if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l .10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . 2x2 −l If .5 l .10 This point lies within the element (Fig.e. l 3l < x 2 < . 0 . 9. This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. i.5 ) l − 2 r x2 . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 2x2 −l Fig. 9.

For this case.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. For thin plates. .1 . Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. In this chapter. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. 10. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. These elements may be either triangular.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. 10.10. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available.

(10. = −z 2 .3) . γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. 10. ∂y (10. ∂x v ( x.2) a Fig.1) where w ( x. z ) = − z ∂w . y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. Fig. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0. a). y.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . 10.2. 10. y. ∂x ∂z (10. ε y = = −z 2 . z ) = − z ∂w .2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }.

10.4) Since σ z = 0 . the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.10) .3.8) Fig. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . 10.5) (10.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig.7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10. 10. where (10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T . (10. PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T . (10. 12 (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.

15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.15) it can be shown that (10. Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.11) and (10. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 .curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10. (10. ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length).16) .14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio. + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . From (10. ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials .13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) . ⎟ ⎠ (10. The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . (10.

Then.9) (10. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.10.19) The strain energy (10.16) into the last equation (10.15). the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid. 10.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10.2. To overcome this problem. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. First. the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. b). Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. A ∫ (10. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z .21) 10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed. (10. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10.8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy .20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory.

(10. equation (10.22) where θ x .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u . where the curvature vector is (10. (10. ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . v (x . to the middle plane before deformation.22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10. y ) .28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV .29) V .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. and equation (10.24) reduces to (10. ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . (10.4). γ z x = 0 .27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ .26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . y . (10.26) ∂w . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. y . z ) = z θ y (x . z ) = − zθ x (x .23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . y ) . θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }.230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . + ∂x ∂z (10.

30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy .32) The strain energy (10. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .30) For isotropic materials. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin.12).31) or (10. If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . which is not true. If θ x = . equation (10. T S A (10. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains.20).11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. PLATE BENDING 231 or.10. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − . where { χ } is given by (10.24). the above expression reduces to (10. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.

10.1961. taken as degrees of freedom at each node.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10. 1963). irrespective of the element shape. Hence. Also. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w .20) and the potential of the external load by (10. The assumed form of the displacement function. Clough.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. therefore. These three quantities are. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . for convergence.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h. complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. 10. the strain energy is given by (10. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. namely.3. one at each corner.21). Melosh . (10. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. Fig. these become . having four node points.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms.33) Figure 10. There are three degrees of freedom at each node.

(10. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . 10.38) (10. (10.36) (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ .39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . a ∂ξ (10. 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w . the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.5 The expression (10.37) Differentiating (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant. . which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ .10.η )⎦ {α } . Fig. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w .36. (10.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.

ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. (10. a) yields { } (10.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . Indeed. (10. (10.36.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }. e e (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.42) into (10.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ . evaluating (10. η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬.38) and (10.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.42) Substituting (10.36). ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .39) at ξ = ±1 .45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. for conciseness.45) where ( ξi .40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.

e T e e (10. 2. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side.49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q .46) Substituting (10. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ . If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. The rotation θ y is given by (10. 3. Substituting (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y . PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w .45) into (10.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬.10. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }.47) Evaluating (10.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3.43) into (10. Unfortunately. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.4) and (10. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ . and hence the rotation θ x . The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming.

236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ . 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.η )⎦ .

10.51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] .54) and integrating. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10.52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . (10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ . A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.5). In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . In deriving this result. 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. b β= b . it is simpler to use the expression (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] .53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . a The remaining submatrices of (10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .

g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . In the limit. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. Fox and Schmit . the results are convergent.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.3.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . 10.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element.4. of the form shown in Fig. the displacement function is of the form (10. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. However.43) but with 16 terms .η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. (10. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node. as an increasing number of elements is used.57) in which ( ξi .56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . 10. This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10.2). g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 .1966). this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. In this case. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative.50). Unfortunately. A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5.21) as for uniform slender beams.

Hence. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 . This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson.59). The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y .59) of the first six terms in (10. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first.49) and (10. the strain energy expression is (10. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. For a thick plate-bending element.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ . This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10.and ydirections.26).3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 .21).59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ .24) and (10.5).30) and the potential of the external load is (10. 10.3. (10.53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10.33). 10.10. The highest derivative of w . for convergence. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. w . . ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig.43) and (10.

θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i . i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . e T e e (10.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.3).26) and (10. (10.1977) expands separately w . The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i . It represents the shear deformation directly. e B S (10. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. 4 ( )( ) (10.64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .65) In (10. θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i .65) . expressions (10.60) where the functions N i are defined by (9.63) Substituting (10. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements.62) into (10.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes. In matrix form.61) These functions ensure that w .44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q .24).

66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .68) and the resulting matrices into (10.69) (10.(10.72) into (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.71) Substituting (10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.61) into (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .67) (10.10.69) and (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.

b β= b .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . a . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .

The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87]. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.61) into (10.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10. Substituting (10. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.52).76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.63) and (10.67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .73) into (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.52).10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by . a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.

This is avoided by selective integration. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. S S e (10.53). lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. However. In very thin plates. e (10. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w . large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements. 10. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. However. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. Alternative methods.. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. .244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.g. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. Obviously.

the transverse displacement w .80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal. (10. Fig. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. In order to maintain symmetry.6 The expression (10.4. and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes.0) and (x3 .80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . PLATE BENDING 245 10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. (10. ( ) (10.80) is incomplete. y3 ) . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it.81) gives .6 shows the T element (Tocher .1962). namely.81.0) . y )⎦ {α } . (x2 . 10. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.10.81) (10. a) w = ⎣P ( x .82) Differentiating (10. Nodes 1.

gives . a) yields [ ] { q }. e e (10. e −1 (10. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } . If this occurs.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } . (10.81. cannot be inverted. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition.83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10. Evaluating (10.87) Substituting (10.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . This element is non-conforming. therefore.89) and.87) into (10.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. of equation y = 0 .246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. Unfortunately.83) along the side 1-2.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .

The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes.10.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } . To alleviate this.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes.4) and (10.93) ∫x A m n y dA . (10. These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A .88) into (10. Substituting (10. α 5 and α 8 . Moreover. the assumed function (10.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ .90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . while the tangential component θ x is not. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation.

In matrix form. They ensure that w . These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. (10. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . namely.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . Tocher. Nodes 1. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node.4.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using . expressions (10.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes.35). the transverse displacement w . θ X and θY are continuous between elements. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i.95) where wi . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. 10. (10.96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ .

67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10.102) into (10.96) into (10. (10.10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .99) Substituting (10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.24) and using (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].96) into (10. [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .104) S 33 where .102) Substituting (10.100) As this matrix is constant.8).101) Substituting (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .24) and using (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.

Stricklin et al. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.4. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. substituting the shape functions from (10. Dhatt1967).65).98) into (10.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. 10. The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. For pz = constant.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. .-1969.

The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). 10. The shear strain energy is neglected. of length l k . In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. For instance. along a side. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. It was shown that. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. only the bending strain energy is considered. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k. a Fig. 10. a). The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. The T element presented in section 10.106) .1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. To remedy this.10.7. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory.4. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig.7 b For a side i − j . are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically.24). in which the curvatures are expressed.

The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. ( ) (10. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j . Fig. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side.7.108) . the three parameters α 4 . a). Initially. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. 10. The parameter α k has to be eliminated. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k .8. the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . 10. 10. Then. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 .107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). 10. 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. α 5 .8. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. b).

10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. where (10. The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10.109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T . θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j .110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . Then. j.109) The equation (10. (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 .111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . k. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10. θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . (10.109) into (10. {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T .108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.

i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ .115). 3 ⎦ (10. 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix .112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. 2. (10. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm .1 Corner point. 2l k 2l m (10.114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i.254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }.115) In (10. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10.1.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1. Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. (10. 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . Table 10. the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . as shown in Table 10.

In the following. y3 ) .10. ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . 2A { } (10.118) The curvature vector (10. 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q .24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . (x2 . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . Equation (10.120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . (10. (10. y2 ) and (x3 . y1 ) . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained.117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . { } (10. using a Hammer integration rule.120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. in a local coordinate system [18]. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] . In (10. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 187 Conforming elements 150. vector of − beam 90. 238. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 150. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 245 Numerical integration 200 100.

22.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 107. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158.. 94. 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17.

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