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Preface

This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă

Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents

Preface Contents 1. Introduction

1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1

1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method

2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9

9 10 11 12 12 13

**3. Direct Stiffness Method
**

3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates

3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17

17 19

19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv

3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

**4. Bars and shafts
**

4.1 Plane bar elements

4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47

47

47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

**5. Beams, frames and grids
**

5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends

5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79

79 81 83

84 86 88

**5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
**

5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89

89 92 95

**5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
**

5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97

97 98

3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .9.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.3 Coordinate transformation 5.2.1.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.6.2 External potential energy 7.1.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.2.5 Stress-strain relations 6.9.1.8 Grids 5.4.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.6 Temperature effects 6.9 Deep beam bending element 5.1 Principle of virtual work 7. Linear elasticity 6.1 Virtual displacements 7.9.1.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6. stresses and strain 6.4. Energy methods 7.CONTENTS 5.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.1 Matrix notation for loads.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.1 Strain energy 7.1.4.2 Shape functions 5.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.6.2.2 Discretization 7.

1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.1.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .2 Numerical integration 9.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.1.4.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8. compatibility 8.3.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.1.3.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.4.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.5 Element stiffness matrix 9. Discretization of structure 8.4.3 Triangular elements 8.1.4.2 Rectangular elements 8.2.1.2.3 The displacement field 9.1.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.4.1.4.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.4.1.1.vi 7.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.3.1.2 Shape functions 9.1.1.4 Equilibrium.1 Area coordinates 8.1 Natural coordinates 9. convergence and compatibility 8.2.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.1 Equilibrium vs.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.

3.2.3.2.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.4.3.5 Stress calculation 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.5 Six-node triangle 9.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.2 Shape function derivatives 9.6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.1 Shape functions 9.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.3.4.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.4.3.CONTENTS 9.3.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.3.3 Stiffness integration 9.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.3.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.3.2.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.

With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. The subdomains are called finite elements.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape. encompassing elasticity. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. (2) Numerical Analysis. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. The tools are the computers. involving approximation methods. within each element.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. 1. etc. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique. eigenproblems.1. dynamics. etc. strength of materials. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. solving linear sets of equations. plasticity. . able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. and (3) Applied Computer Science. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. This requires a matrix notation. weighted-residual.

Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. This extreme versatility. defined over small subdomains of the structure. which led to automation. difficult to handle on a routine basis. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. which is often difficult. even approximately. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. integrating known polynomial functions. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. Mathematically. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. . While the finite element method was being developed. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. In order to match a given irregular boundary. In turn. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. Indeed. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. In FEA. should be easier. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. some of them made available as open source free software. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. which tend to have complicated expressions. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices.

and (3) the versatility.1. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. and (6) make additional computations if desired. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied . Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions. and (3) the solution algorithms. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. Finally. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. (4) assemble the element properties. (5) solve the system of equations. The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. INTRODUCTION 3 1. (2) select interpolation functions. a larger number of equations to be solved. (3) find the element properties. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. and curved elements flat). hence larger computer storage space and running time. The “shapes” are polynomials.2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). by just assembling predetermined element matrices. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. making curved lines straight. leaving only the magnitude to be found. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. but may be trigonometric functions as well.

After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. After the Second World War. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation. Clough. Martin. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. 1955). Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. 1. . Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). In the early 1940s. and Topp (1956). But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). ribs. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. In modern times.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods. panels. stiffeners and spars. so that the method was not practical then. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). static. The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. stability and dynamic engineering problems. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method.

SAP5 and NONSAP. J. shape functions. the inventor of isoparametric models. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. L.I. developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). (1975). MacNeal Schwendler. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. STRUDL . Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. R. developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). nonlinear static and dynamic response. IDEAS-MS. and E. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. SAMCEF . Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. and (3) postprocessing. electromagnetics etc). ADINA – developed by K. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. Irons. M. Archer. Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973).by SAMTECH (1965). such as nodal coordinates. including computation of natural frequencies. finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. directed by Clough. ALGOR etc. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). and at Swansea University. PATRAN. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. (1985). and thermal loading.by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). Inc. element connectivity.T. S.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. boundary conditions. J. Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). under Martin. 1. crashworthiness.1. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley. (1978). ABAQUS . completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). He was joined later by K. Bathe at M. Wilson. Since 1963. lead by Zienkiewicz.-J. Karlsson @ Sorensen.by Hibbitt. (2) processing.-J. Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964. material properties and . at Washington University. static and dynamic stability. 1966. 1970). who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). fluids. Melosh. Major contributions are due to B. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964).

2 . Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data. 1.D.T. Fig.2). 1.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. or reading from a data file. represented with hidden line removal. some input data can be imported from other F. programs. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. through a userfriendly interface.A. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced. Italia. 1.E. Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. or C.A. Alternatively. as well as element connectivity data.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. 1. Fig.I. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.

4 In dynamic analyses. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation).3. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. 1. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving). Fig.3 In the processing stage. 1. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size. so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. In static analyses. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis. 1. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires. .1. INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques. Fig.

More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF. Early programs used tabular presentations. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth. 1. Fig. 1. 1. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions.6 b Fig.5 for a crankshaft.6. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. a Fig. 1. Fig. Fig.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. as in Fig. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP.6. 1. 1. .4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action.

F2 . If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first.1 [74]. DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem. then stresses from the constitutive relationship. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. 2. Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure.1 . assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. 2. and hence strains. F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. T2 . the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . Once the displacements are determined.2. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used. F4 . they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations. geometric compatibility conditions. Fig. T1 .1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. 2.

Fig.3) have seven unknowns. 2. At Node 2 (Fig.2) (2.2.4) . 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0. (2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0.2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0.3. a b Fig. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . b). 2. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation. a). The system is statically indeterminate. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.2. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . At Node 3 (Fig.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. 2. 2.2 c 2. T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.3) The six equations (2. 2.1) (2.1) to (2. The change in length of the member is (2.

(2. 2.2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 . 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .U1 . the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 . Δl 23 = 3 .6) (2. Δl12 = .8) have nine unknowns. 2 (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions.6) to (2.5) Fig. Δl13 = 2 .3 Applying equation (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ . Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) . six displacements and three elongations. 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l . ( ) ( ) (2. 2.7) (2.8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression.

this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as . EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l . EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations.(2. (2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) . Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.10).10) 2.8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) .6)(2.9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2. EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l . l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2. EA 9 Fl . EA 6F l . EA F1 l .1) .

Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes.. EA V3 = 4 Fl . F2 = −4 F .13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints.14) . F5 = − F . EA (2. 2. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1.3) yields the tensions in the members.2. (2.1)-(2.4. i =1 i =1 7 7 (2. F4 = −5 F ...12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0. ∑ Ti sinθi = 0..6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . (2.

∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1. Using Menabrea’s theorem. We choose X1 = T3 . The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .. so the framework is statically indeterminate.15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 .14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns..18) .. the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0.4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2.. ∂Fy (2.17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined. Fig. X 4 = T6 . ∂X i ( i = 1. 2...16) since we are assuming no support movement... according to (2. and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces. X 2 = T4 . ∂Fx v8 = ∂U .14).5 ) (2. X 3 = T5 .5 ) (2. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 .

Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements...5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi . 3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 .2.21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i .22) into the equilibrium equations (2.16). In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2..20) Substituting (2. the larger the number of bars. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method. (2. the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces... ( i = 1..14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 . hence the number of equations (2.7 ) (2.19) ( i = 1.24) where the stiffness coefficients are ..7 ) (2.7 ) (2.19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li .... a ( ) ( i = 1.23) sin θ i = 0 ....22) Inserting (2.7 ) (2... sinθ i ( i = 1.. Regardless the number of concurrent bars. The bar length is li = a .

(2. a (2. a Solving (2.409 i =1 7 EA . i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. .219 Fy a EA .25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not. EA v 8 = 0.24) gives u 8 = 0.567 EA .7097 Fx a .16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1.

Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. q 2 . pinconnected at the ends. The nodal displacements are q 1 .3. They are natural finite elements. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. Generally. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. respectively.) . with each element being placed in a preassigned location. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . f 2 . axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. 3. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. linearly elastic. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee .1). bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. In the following.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. hence to the structure stiffness matrix. It has length l e . In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. As elements are added to the structure. 3. .

f l q 2 = 0 . the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3. (3. f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move.18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3.3) Combining equations (3. (3. then for q 1 = 0 . ⎣ ⎦ (3. the force/elongation relations are used. if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. le (3. q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 .6) . 3.1) Next.1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 .5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . q 2 and the nodal forces f1 .3).2) and (3.2) le Similarly.

End forces and displacements have two components at each node.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e .2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure.3. 3. Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. In matrix form (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. In fact. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2).7) . 3.2. Fig. Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.2. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.

Fig.10) are calculated based on the above equations. we obtain cos θ e = .9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are . 3.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. e e e (3.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }.2. From nodal coordinate data. 3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 .10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 . 3. sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . respectively.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. The entries in the matrix (3.3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.

=⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e .13). Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .9) into the resulting matrix product.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3.15) (3.2.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3. 3. e e T e (3. equation (3.14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } . In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . and comparing with (3. Fy1 = f1 sinθ e . (3.5) into (3.13).3. e T e e T e e T e e T e (3. e e T e e .12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }.9) for the local displacements.13) Equation (3. .11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . Work is a scalar quantity. then equation (3.14) Substituting (3.

the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. And so must be its inverse. Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ .2.4. [ ] (3.2.1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . [ ] . with positive diagonal elements. ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3. singular (order 4.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e .18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem. Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe . l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3. a) 3. 3.17.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. the stiffness matrix.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 .

displacements are proportional to the applied loads.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3. For linear structures.19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe . so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant.2. As forces are increased from zero to their final values. a) so that which defines the symmetry. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . If this were not so. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues.3. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows).19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects.3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe .20. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. 3. (3.4. (3. which is [ ] .4. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero. Substituting (3. [ K ]= [K ] e e T . 3.15) into (3.2.

Moreover.24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 .4 Equation (3. 3. . 3. .2.4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. k 21 . Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 . . (3. Fy 2 = k 41 . 3. k31 and k 41 .4. Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields . Fy1 = k21 . . . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ .20) is either positive or zero.⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.21) Fx1 = k11 . ( ( ) ) Fig.22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.4. That is. . the matrix K e is positive semidefinite.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . Fx 2 = k31 . . . The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ .17. k21 + k41 = 0 .

1.5. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. 3.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. already analyzed in Chapter 2. firmly located in 1. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . In the element stiffness matrix. 3. a b .6. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F. Fig. 3.3. The same applies for the other columns. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. 3. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. 2. Fig.5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes.

e. 3. The first three columns define the element connectivities. Element numbering can be arbitrary.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. the element stiffness matrices (3.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3. i.1 together with information useful for the computation. their localization within the structure.6 Element data are given in Table 3.1. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Table 3.

eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. In the global matrix. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. Table 3. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations.2. An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . For instance. the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.28) is done systematically. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. as indicated by dots above.3. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . This is referred to as the direct matrix method. according to Table 3. so that if a node is common to several elements. .

containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.23) Q e = T e { Q }. equation (3. .5.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. 3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.

5. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. equation (3.3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. substituting (3. For the truss from Fig. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ .24) has the size of the system matrix. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.20. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.23) into (3. 3. a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ .

0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.25) and (3. (3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.26) Comparing (3.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ . 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3. T e T e e e e e (3. .27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e .

involving forces applied by elements to nodes. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations .1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. they are never used in practice.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.3. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. An alternative presentation is given below.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. based on joint equilibrium equations. 3. An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. Note that element equilibrium equations (3.5. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements. It corresponds to the free-free system. For a grounded system. 3. Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. The joint equilibrium equations. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric. 3. are used in the following.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. The expensive product (3. singular (for a plane truss. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.5. equation (3. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix. the deficiency is 3). For the truss from Fig.24) is never formed. using for convenience the truss from Fig. Apart from external forces and support reactions.7. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero.

7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }. Fig.29) . 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 . 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . e (3. 3.32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 .

the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition. equation (3. the finite element equations (3. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. e (3. Q1 = a1 . Another type are the multipoint constraints. [ ] 3. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . where bi .15) and (3.29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }.32) . of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ). As Q1 is known.23). where ns is the number of supports.30) then. Qi = 0 .27). using equations (3. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. b j and b0 are known constants. Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body.24) and (3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.3. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ .

the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig. (3. the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination. the nodal displacements are unknown.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. The matrix [ K ] is not singular. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. the nodal forces are unknown. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. respectively.35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . The final equations (3.32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }. Equations (3. and where the forces are specified.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . 3. { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. Equation (3.5. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F . For a truss supported on many supports.

38) (3. { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } . The axial force in a truss element is .37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. EA EA In general. (3. T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2. equations (3.10 Reactions and internal forces (3. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 .5. which in this case are the external reactions. 3.3.40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. for non-zero boundary conditions. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) .39) For the truss from Fig.5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. 3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ . [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. the support displacements are zero.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] .33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . .

3.5.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . 3. Duhamel (1838). where A is the cross-section area. l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. where E is Young’s modulus.36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J.42) . C. l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). M. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element. (3. Accordingly. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig. This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET .

i. (3. the element elongations are determined from (3.8.e. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or.12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse. in local coordinates. The half-bandwidth is denoted B. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.42.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. 3. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. Even so. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT .44) Because of symmetry. due to the sparseness.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. the initial stresses produced by restraining.e.3. Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. . ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. a. They are also banded. 3. if the case). with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained.

8.e. B = 12 . b. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. for the numbering from Fig.8.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. a . The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . B = 6 . equal to the size of the original matrix. i.8 b For plane trusses. a Fig. However. then progressing along the longer dimension. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. 3. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element. ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. 3. . 3.44). As a general rule. In general.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal. For the numbering scheme of Fig. the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column.

the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . For large sparse stiffness matrices. Apart from storage savings. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline.3. Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . If there are zeros at the top of a column. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. In this case. ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ .

A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program. For the solution of the finite element equations.

determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. E = 1 and F = 1 . 6 4. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements. 7 5. 2 1. Plot the deformed shape.7 -339.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.8 -343. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4.1 -361.16 -10.16 -10. 8 Axial stress 12 -4.6 176 62. Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3.83 0 12 -15 . 7 6.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1. A = 1 .1 -391. a Answer.1.3 128 127. 8 7. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9. For the truss in Fig. and c) the support reactions.7 -339. E3. 3 2.3. 6 4. 7 6.1. E3. 3 2. a. Taking l = 1 . 4 3.1. 4 3.

and R2 = 6 F .2. E3.4 F . b. Plot the deformed shape. E3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. E3. a. Fig. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219.2. . R2 = 6 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. a) Fl . and c) the support reactions. a Answer.1. b) the maximum stress. The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. and R3 = 9 . Fig.1.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 .2. b. b E3. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement.2. E3. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . The deformed shape is shown in Fig. E3.

b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137. E3. Calculate c) the support reactions.3.3. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . R2 = 3. E3. a Answer. E3.25 F A .2. E3.4 F and R3 = 2. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. b E3.6 F . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. Fig. b) the maximum stress.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. a. Consider the truss shown in Fig.3. a) Fl .3. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement.3. Plot the deformed shape. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. b. .

Consider the truss shown in Fig. a Answer.2095 -9.6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3.4. and c) the support reactions. E3. E = 1 and F = 1 . A = 1 .4. Fig.0896 .44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. b E3. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1.4. a. Plot the deformed shape. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. E3. b) the maximum stress. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements. E3.3294 2.3. Taking l = 1 .

749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9. a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .09 F l E A .3. Fig.940 . 4 1. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. 3 2. 4 1.329 0. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . b E3. E3.335 F A . E3.1. Fig.5.5.4. E3. b) the maximum stress. R2 = 0.665F . 4 Axial stress . Plot the deformed shape.0.0.335 . E3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.940 1. 3 2.335F and R4 = 0. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a .5. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1.4. b.

E3. E3.46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. A = 1 and E = 1 .366 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig.5. b. Taking l = 1 . The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements. b .5. Fig. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0.538 .

the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. true displacements are described by higher order polynomials.1. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. chains and ropes. These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. cables. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. In this section.4. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. The dimensions of p are force/length. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. For bars with distributed loads. . having one degree of freedom per node. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. 4. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends. However. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. Bars are loaded only by axial forces.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. 4.

2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x . 4.2. EA d2 u = − p (x ) . Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2.2) Fig. 4. 4. (4.3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.1) is d N + p d x = 0 .3). The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4. We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. b).5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig.1) σ x = E du d x . N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .1. a). d x2 (4. using (4. 4. dx or.4) 4.2.1 The internal axial force N is du . . (4.

so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial .3. d u d x = const . The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends. 4.4.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4. .1. d 2u d x 2 = 0 .2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 .b. where N1 (r ) = (4.3 4. a.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. 4. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node. p = 0 . Fig. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig. 4.

have no simple physical meaning. In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. 2 2 (4. (4. using (4. but the integration constants.5).8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element.9) Equation (4. but the integration constants. equation (4. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 .8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 .50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .10) is more complicated. are the nodal displacements. a and b. ⎣N ⎦ In (4. With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2.6) is simpler. q 1 and q 2 .9) can also be written u= or. (4. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . (4. The nodal expansion (4.12) Thus.11).11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . where N1 (r ) = element. e i i i =1 2 (4.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 . u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 .

The transformation from x to r in equation (4.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] .14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. e (4.4. 4. (4.6) and (4.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4. and that u varies linearly (Fig.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . 4. c). which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions.3. 2 (4.16) Substituting (4.1.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV .13) in (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }. e T e e (4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2. Equations (4. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 .

we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr . 4. .5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4. a). 4. .23) The three integration constants. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4.4. equation (4. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. a. d 2u d x 2 = const .22) which is the same as equation (3. .6). An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx . (4. have to be determined from three boundary conditions.1. b and c.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . p = const.20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . (4. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 .21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ .52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation

T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,

where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are

(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,

e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q

e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

**N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
**

quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

**The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
**

⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]

e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦

B

−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]

e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

**4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
**

Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is

W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u

le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

**Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
**

W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦

T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56

W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }

T e

(4.33)

+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦

e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }

e

+1

l = e p 2

∫

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l

e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l

e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

**4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
**

Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1

{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

**The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
**

F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have

U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }

3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or

U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 . ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method.1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . according to the connectivity Table 4. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. global stiffness matrix. The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process.4 for truss elements. which is never done in practice. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. as in (3. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices.58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. Table 4. based on element connectivity. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix.1.27).

8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element.by deleting the first element. (4. the expression (4. The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained. 4.41). due to fabrication errors.39) Substituting (4.4. Q 1 = 0 . BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3. using the boundary condition.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx .39) becomes . and the reduced load vector . as shown in section 3.13). (4.1. In fact. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix. It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long.5.

44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. (4. from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G. ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p . stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) . where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . 4.43) In the case of thermal loading. le (4. acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l . where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4. The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . 4. ⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr .40) It has the form (4.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx .41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . is shown in Fig. (4. ε0 = αT . The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations . θ l A two-node shaft finite element.33).42) After solving for nodal displacements.8.

50) .49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 . (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0. e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4. (4. θ 1 = 0.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element.45) Equations (4. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4. 4. Fig. Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4.4.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }.3) du N = .

. For non-axially-symmetric cross sections.54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements.1 with d = 5 mm . Fig.20). E4. b) the stresses in bar. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. Analogous to equation (4. E = 200 GPa . Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. Example 4. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. the same as for the axially loaded bar element.62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN .1 Solution. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t .54) Equation (4.2 m . as equation (4.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. and c) the support reactions.53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.1 Consider the bar in Fig. E4.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements. l = 0.

81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34. R4 = 38. c) Stresses are . The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .47 38. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38. Q3 = 43.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.42 = 337.62 mm 2 . A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 Q3 = 38. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.2 N .81 ⎢− 9.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥.47 − 38.47 38.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38.21 = 1662 . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 .81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9.47 mm 2 .47 76.47 76.81 ⎢− 9.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.42 mm .21 mm .47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.81 Q2 = 9.47 − 38.81 + 38.81 9. 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.8 N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . the finite element equations can be written − 9.81 48.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.28 − 38.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).28 − 38.47 + 38.94 − 38.47 38.4 d 4 )2 = 38.4. BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19.47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E

σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

**Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
**

Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2

A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,

A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

**1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
**

2 5

⎣

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

**If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,

which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are

Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

**c) Internal forces are
**

N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,

N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3

The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

**Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
**

so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦

5

**As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
**

1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,

so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4

A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1

1 3 2

⎣

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1

2 1

⎣

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1

2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

**The second and third equation yield
**

E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2

Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5

A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .

Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

**Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
**

A1 =

π δ2

4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2

4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

**[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
**

1 5

⎣

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10

2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields

⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

5 A2 141. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx .54 mm 2 F 30316 N . E4. divided into two equal length tapered elements. Q3 = F 1. E4.6 For the bar of Fig. E4.63 ⋅ 10 1. For the bar of Fig. with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . Fig.6.4 .41 ⋅ 105 .63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . using two tapered bar finite elements. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 . BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1. =− = −214. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4. A1 78.4.6 Solution.6. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0. 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1. the element stiffness matrices are .41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N .

the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements.7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ .7 Solution. Fig. 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . Comment the results. E4. E4. Example 4. The element stiffness matrices are . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar. b) a three-node quadratic element. ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ .7. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements.70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ .

⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element. The finite element equations can be written . the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar.4.

Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. ⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. c) Comments.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ .72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬. ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬.

4.8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig.4).25). The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. . E4. However. used to describe the displacement field.8. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. Solution. Example 4. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. This is because. as it is shown in a next chapter. For the case p = const.23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. . ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e . However. The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . Whenever the assumed functions. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 . the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. and b) three linear elements.25). before using equation (4. a). the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables. rotating at constant angular velocity .

Fig. l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 . E4.74 p ( x ) = p0 x .8 .

where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4.4. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . E4.26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. The nodal forces. E4. c.8. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. d.8. E4. b. BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig. equivalent to a linearly distributed load. E4. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .37). are given by equation (4. ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0. 1] .34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . The model has five degrees of freedom. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ .8. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T .8. For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig.

u⎜ ⎟ = . σ4 = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. u⎜ ⎟ = . 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution. ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . ε3 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. σ5 = . σ2 = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . σ3 = . While the nodal displacements are exact. ε5 = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . ε2 = . ε4 = . Q3 = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. Q4 = . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . Q5 = .76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. u (l ) = .

⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. e.5 p0 l .34). σ⎜ ⎟= . 1 ] . σ (l ) = 0 . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬. For p1 = p2 = p . E4. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. are given by equation (4.8. E4. h. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . The model has four degrees of freedom. σ⎜ ⎟= .5 p0 l . 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig.36). respectively. g.8. E4. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig.8. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig. f.4. If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. The distributed loads from Fig. E4.8. The nodal forces. Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . the finite element equations can be written . equivalent to a load per unit length. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . E4.8. { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T .26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ .

Q4 = . are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . Example 4. 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . Q3 = .78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l .8. ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) . E4. 27 A 10 p0 l . in local natural coordinates. e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . 27 A 4 p0 l . ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ . N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ .

5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . BEAMS. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. and for grids.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. in particular. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. apart from forces. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. respectively. . between adjacent beam elements. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. as shown in Fig. 5. In this section. then extend it to plane frames. that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects.1. which is constant over the element. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. Each node has three degrees of freedom. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . and the Timoshenko beam theory. two linear displacements and a rotation. Typically. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. 5. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. defined as the displacement along the X axis. transmit bending moments from member to member. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. that neglects transverse shear deformations.

80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. 5. then in the global coordinate system. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Fig. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system. Imposing the boundary conditions.1 In the following. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. The latter are expanded to the structure size. 5. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element. Fig. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l .2 .

(5. 5. 5. BEAMS.5. as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . describe the element stretching (Fig. f 4 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element. Fig. c).1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . f 5. the x axis. q 3 . and axial displacements q 1 . q 5 . as illustrated in Fig. b) while axial forces f 1 .2. f 3.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. a. oriented along the beam.2) Forces f 2. q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. q 4 . In a local physical coordinate system. where the nodal displacements are also shown. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. Transverse shear deformations are neglected.2. axial forces are ignored. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. at a distance y from the neutral axis. 5. (5. Alternatively.2.3). 5. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately. Only transverse loads act upon the beam.3) dx . 5.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. 5.

5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. dx dx 3 (5. and physical boundary conditions.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III .82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . two at each end.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . dx4 (5.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) . dx dx4 (5. involving the shear and bending moment. dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. . They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. dx dx (5. involving the transverse displacement and slope. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y.

and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 .4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. a 2 . 5. v = v2 = q5 .5.1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as .4): (5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends. we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 .11. v = v1 = q2 . (5. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion.11. 5. b) Fig. (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 . Integrating four times. v2 . a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . a 3 . a 4 in (5. the four integration constants a 1 . a) at x = x1 .9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . a 3 . BEAMS. at x = x 2 . ϕ 2 . p = 0 and equation (5.3. 5. ϕ1 .10) For a free-free beam element. a 2 . the integration constants a 1 .

14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element. 2 2 (5.13) Using natural coordinates.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .20) . dx = le dr . (5. called Hermitian cubic polynomials.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ . r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. { } (5.17) (5.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2. and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . (5. 2 (5.19) In (5.15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. dr 2 dx equation (5.15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ . ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e .

5 . 5.21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . graphically shown in Fig.5. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. Table 5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r. 5.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . BEAMS. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r.1.

17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . dr 2 d v le = q 3 .12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }. d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.25) .2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5. v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 . 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.24) into (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. while at node 2.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5. dr 2 5. e (5.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q .3. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.24) On substituting (5.16) and (5. ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e .

e e (5.30) gives the matrix (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5. .27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .5. = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5.32) Substituting (5.29) is based on the general formula (4. e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.30) The curvature χ (5.25) with (5. BEAMS.29).31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . e T e B e (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.26) Comparing (5.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . (5.

Fig. (5. f 3 = k 21 .33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1. 5. ⎥ . .36) .34) f 5 = k31 .3.⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ . .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . . 5.6 Equation (5. q3 = 0) and zero rotation. (5.⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ . For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 . . . .6.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 . as in Fig. .⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5. . (5. .3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5.35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.

Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces. (5. having the units of force per unit length. distributed along the beam element. However. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial.37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx . rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx . d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5. the general solution of equation (5. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed.9) is a quartic polynomial. moments and shear forces are in error. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants. Within the elements. . BEAMS. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation.39) . They can be determined.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. the displacements.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . the computed nodal displacements are exact. as shown in the following. For beams with transverse forces. The cubic shape functions do the job. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. p = const . the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. For a linearly distributed transverse load.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends.12). introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate.37) Substituting (5. p ≠ 0 . As already shown in Chapter 4. (5. 5.5. However.4. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. equation (5.

a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed.18).6. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ . . 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. . would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. 5. a b c Fig.41) or.7. p = const .90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r . if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. substituting (5. They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5.42) In Fig. by statically equivalent forces (Fig. (5. 5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. 5.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. To replace p = const .

even if it is known that. the equilibrium within the elements is broken. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. nodal forces must include moments.1. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. BEAMS.e. 5. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. Fig.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig. for uniform loading. E5. for instance. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions.1 . as shown in Example 5. E5.e. stiffening it. they have a quadratic distribution. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements. c and d. The smaller the element. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point. or refining the mesh. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force.5. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements.6. Example 5. not only shear forces. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. the smaller the error. i.1. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones.

96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ . Using a single beam element. the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends.92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl .4. as expected. 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = .2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue .

(5. v = v2 .5. (5. This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . v = v3 .8): at x = x1 . d v d x = ϕ2 . a5 in (5.45) where the quartic shape functions are . and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. at x = x3 . v = v1 . at x = x 2 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5. ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 .43) The five integration constants a 1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 . 5. a 3 . a 2 .12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. a 4 . BEAMS.

41) is . . 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .46) into equation (5.46). the element consistent load vector (5.94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) . we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . N 5 is called a “bubble function”. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.27) and performing the integration. 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. Fig. 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5.8 Substituting the shape functions (5. 5. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l .47) For p = const . 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 . In equations (5.

(5.48) 5. (5.3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. e [ ]{ q }. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5.4. .50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . BEAMS. 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. For p = 0 . they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5.6) and equation (5. When p = const . The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 .51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e .50). the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 . The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 .49) The shear force is given by equation (5.49) and (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ .12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e .5. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. + 12 2 2 2 4 .

12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . valid for p = 0 . 5. 5. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.96 Tp = T − pl e r. If the nodes are given unit rotations.5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium. Vertical translation. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. a.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const .50). Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces.9. equation (5. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. respectively. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Rotation. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium. 5. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. equation (5. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig.49) and (5. a). .9. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5. b. b).

An element should simulate constant strain states.1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4. BEAMS. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since. when element sizes shrink to zero.22) is [ ] e (5. In the case of beams.6. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig. apart from moments and shear forces. they must have at least constant curvature.5.9 c 2. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = .6 Frame element As shown in Fig. 5. 5. 5. it is acted upon by axial forces.53) .2. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 . 1⎥ ⎦ (5.9. Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . 5.l 2 = const . FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements.

the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5.54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e . where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.57) .3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .55) 5.29). 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. For node 1. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ .56) can be written in matrix form as (5.56) Equations (5. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ .10 both in the initial and deformed state. combining equations (5. (5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ . ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ .53) and (5. For slender beams. (5. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member.6. so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 .98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.6. 5.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element.

60). . { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 .10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. (5. BEAMS. 5. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 .5. (5. { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. (5.58) Fig.60) In (5.

4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. e (5.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e . by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }. (5.6.63) 5.67) . using equations (5.4). [K ].7.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e . that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions. (5.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5.64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix. e e T e e (5. (5.12) and (5. the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] . e e T e e (5.

Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. BEAMS. and hence stresses.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams .2 Solution. we obtain the finite element equations . Example 5. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . and omitting the first two rows and columns. E5. E5.2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig.2. Fig.5. are not accurate. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains.

⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 .3. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ .3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig.5 Example 5. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5.102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 . E5.29). EI v3 = Q5 = −1. Solution. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ .

E5. BEAMS.5. we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 . 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by .

16 3 M1 = − F l .5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .4 Solution. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5l 1. 27 E I . 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 . E5.5l − 1.5 − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5 − 4.5 − 1.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .5l 6l − 1.5 1. Fig.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4. 16 Example 5. 8 V3 = 5 F.5 − 4.4.5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13.5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F.4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig. E5.

5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.5 Solution. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ . BEAMS. 27 9 27 9 Example 5. E5. The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1.5 − 1.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. M3 = − Fl . 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. Fig.5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . M 1 = F l . ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . E5. V3 = F .5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ .5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . third and fifth rows and columns.

106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . 8 V3 = 7 pl . 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 . 16 V2 = 5 pl . substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl .6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig. E5. 16 Example 5. E5.6. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 . Fig.6 .

3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.1333 p l 2 ⎬ .0518 p0 l 3 .084 p0 l 4 . EI Example 5.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 .5 4.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1.5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.5l ⎡ 1. Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0.1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.5.5l 13. 4 ( ) . ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0. Answer. the finite element equations can be written 1.7.5 4.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬. BEAMS.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.5 1.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0. ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.7 p0 l ⎫ − 1.5l l 4.5 − 1. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. 3 ⎢ 1.5 4. E5.

4 ( ) Fig.7. E5. 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 .7. E5. a Fig. b . 2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 .108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ).

plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force. a b c d e Fig.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8. e. BEAMS.500e-7 1.010 1.592e-3 -1.8.5. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs. Determine the nodal displacements.8. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N . FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5.8. E5.321e-3 -8.500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0.8 The planar frame shown in Fig. E5.0699e-2 1. E5.889e-3 -1. d.309e-3 2.8 .260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.5 1.700e-6 1. shear and bending moment.531e-3 2.260e-3 -6. b. Answer.232e-2 -5.0697e-2 1. c.0698e-2 1. It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .353e-3 2. E5. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes. The diagrams of the axial force N . A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0.

The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E5. a has fixed ends in 1.9. 13.9 The planar frame shown in Fig. E5. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 .9673 mm . b. 10. E5. find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape. Fig.9. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm .9.2476 mm . 5. ϕ 6 = −0. a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . E5. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes. Fig.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. Answer. It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . A = 400 mm 2 .9.00623 rad . v 6 = −0. b .

5. 5.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5.8. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i .11. where the nodal displacements are also shown. Typically. describing bending and torsional effects. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. Each node has three degrees of freedom.12. a. 5. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. two rotations and a linear displacement. respectively.8. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . as shown in Fig. as illustrated in Fig. Fig. a translation and two rotations. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.11 5. . defined as the rotation about the X axis. They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements.5.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. 5. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I . BEAMS.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q

e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f

In (5.69)

f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)

f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,

which substituted into the strain energy

Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)

∫

e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=

kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦

r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]

te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI

e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]

e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation

It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },

e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q

e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]

e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

**5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
**

Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .

e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10

The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11

The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

**5.9 Deep beam bending element
**

Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

5. dx dx (5.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. 5. a). The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5. BEAMS. is approximated by u (x.9.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. Only transverse loads act upon the beam.5. at a distance y from the neutral axis.13. axial forces are ignored. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . Fig. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ .81) (5.80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ .82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) . dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y.

88) Equations (5. dx (5.2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.13. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal.82) and (5.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .90) (5. κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA . (5.84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 . 5.9.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT . Using natural coordinates. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . 5. .87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) . 5. r = 2 x l . (5.118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . dx (5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5. The sign convention used here (Fig.89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . (5.

5. d x3 (5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 .94) and (5. The resulting displacement functions are .95) into (5.94) (5. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.91) gives d4v =0.97) Substituting (5. l l (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5. BEAMS. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5. (5. l b2 = 4 a3 . in the new variable r.95) at r = ± 1 . d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0. l dr d r2 (5. d r3 (5.98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig. G As l 2 (5.90) and (5. l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 .5.91) which.94) and (5. becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 .96) where β= 4E I z .

(5. e e (5. e e (5. ] For β = 0 .21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1.103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix.. and defined by ... 4 ) .99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }..100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) .102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r ). (5. the first four functions (5. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5. ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 . 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) .

⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = .105) 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr . 2 2 (5. BEAMS.5.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr .109) On substituting (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5.100) and (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5. ⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr . 1 + 3β l (5.106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .99) into (5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .111) On substituting (5.100) into (5. l e B T z −1 +1 (5.108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5.109) we get .9.

114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.102) and (5. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5.105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .42) derived for a slender beam. e S T s −1 +1 (5.113) Substituting the shape functions (5.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5. .

∂n ∂y . y. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . and (d) boundary conditions. in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports. z coordinates. with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. is shown in Fig.1. 6. pv z . (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations. like centrifugal or gravity forces. stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. and S σ . and (c) concentrated forces. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . 6. (6. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled.1) . Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces.6. (b) surface forces. Points in the body are located by x. The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium.1 Matrix notation for loads. the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. ∂n ∂z . pv y . the portion on which surface forces are prescribed.

3). (6. (6.5) .3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.τ yz .τ zx .2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T .1) to (6. σ y . It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices. 6.4) where u . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. v . (6. Fig. the direct stress components σ x .1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements. (6. also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component.

2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. a) 6. ⎦T . where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. 6.6.7) Fig.2 In matrix form. equations (6.5.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T . (6.6. (6. ∂x ∂y (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T .7) can be written . The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations. a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6.

8) or.11) Fig.1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ . Sσ (6. (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } .3 In (6.10) 6. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. 6. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x .126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are . τ xy l + σ y m = ps y .2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .

∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6. y ) = = ny . ∂x ∂n m = cos (n .15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . ∂y (6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6. ∂x ∂v . 6. x ) = ∂n = nx .18) .16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u .17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } .12) In matrix form. sometimes written (6. ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6. (6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ . equations (6. (6. ∂y ∂ v ∂u + .4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.

the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .4 6. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥.21) . 6. 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.

Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length. 5 and 6 in (6.6.25) . from (6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. If stresses σ z . τ xz .23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }.22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. ⎪ ⎭ (6. and γ yz are set as zero.22). If strains ε z .21) and discarding rows and columns 3. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain.(6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . 5 and 6 in (6. discarding rows and columns 3. γ xz . and τ yz are set as zero.20). the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.

T (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV .27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T . 6. 6.32) .1. (6. 2 (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T . the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV .6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials. In plane stress (6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T . (6.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6.24).31) Substituting (6. the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig. (6. T (6. The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) .29) 6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.

In the following.1 Virtual displacements By definition. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy. 7. as applied to elastic bodies. 7. Unfortunately. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. In the finite element method. ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. virtual).1. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations.7. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious. defined over small subdomains of the structure. .1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system.

e. (7. δu . (7. Exceptions do exist. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems. Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. up to the mth order inclusive.e. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations.2) .1). i. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body. the displacement vector (6. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. i.g. the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C .1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . e) kinematically admissible.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. 6. the functional is said to have a “weak form”. plates and shells. exist and are continuous in the domain V. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. For bars. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter.e.

the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . surface tractions (6. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). because the force is constant along the virtual displacement. a). T (7.3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.2 for the uniaxial case. (7. 7.5) as shown in Fig. hence independent of the force. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu .1. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV . 7. the latter being arbitrary.3). . 7.1.7.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. ENERGY METHODS 133 7.3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6.1. c). because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements.1. b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig.2) and point forces (6.1). 7. 7.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig.1. a b Fig.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z . i T T T Sσ (7. 7.

V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.e. i T T T T V Sσ (7. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. a) In (7. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. (7. It applies only . i. 7. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero.6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements.6. whether the material is elastic or inelastic.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies. 7.2 Again. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. it is independent of material behaviour. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI .1.6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains.

2.4. 7. e). Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1. Fig.4. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. T3 (Fig.4. ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. producing the elongations Δ1 .3. 7. Example 7.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. 3. The final state of static equilibrium. c). δΔ 2 . b). δΔ3 (Fig.7. The initial state.4.3 Solution. produces a displacement of the joint 4. 7. Δ2 . The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . Δ3 (Fig. δΔ2 . 7. 7. a). 7. the applied forces remaining constant.4. in which the external force F. δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. T2 . The external work is independent of the path taken. 7.19) . An imaginary state. which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 . 7. The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα .4. d). which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. loaded by a force F. F2 and by internal forces T1 . find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig. f). in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig.

4 Equating internal work to external work (7.7) into (7. EA (7.9) Substituting (7.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 . gives (7. 7.9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 .7) Δ 1= T1 l . δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ .21) can be written (7. EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ . For the three bars. the force-elongation equations (2.8) Fig. δΔ2 = δu 2 . EA Δ 3= T3 l .

l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 . cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7.6.1. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ . b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz .10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other.11).7.6. then in (7. Equation (7. ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 . a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A . T T T V Sσ (7.7). (7. ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV .5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7.12) 7. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium. we could put either to zero. Substituting (7. This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 .8) in the finite form of (7. It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium. (7.

e. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V.6. On substituting in (7. Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Sσ . ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . i.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. its coefficients must vanish. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous. So. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. but only in the mean. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. when using approximate functions for { u }. is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads. The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ . . Part of the surface.

∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI .14) For an elastic body. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx .32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . d x2 d x2 (7. V δ U = δWI .15) For a beam in bending. gives d x2 (7.13) 7.4).16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies . For a bar in tension.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains. dx dx d2v (5. (7. substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } . (7. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV . ENERGY METHODS 139 7.7. yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .2.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP .

20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE . being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts. An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ . a) Its variation is . a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . (7. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.21) 7.19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act.2. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.2.18) 7.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE .13. (7. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . For example. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7.13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } . i T T T Sσ (7. i T T (7.

the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . (7.6) it follows that (7.7. Reciprocally. If δ 2 Π > 0 . a) hence.22. Example 7. i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. Based on equation (7. the equilibrium is stable.3. then it is in a stable equilibrium state. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields. rather than a result of the equilibrium. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. it can be considered that (7. Reciprocally. Thus. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . according to the compatibility relations. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. the total potential energy has a stationary value. the total potential energy can be written .22. 7. the stationary value is a minimum.2 For the truss shown in Fig. An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems.22) δΠ = 0 . at equilibrium.

3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending.5 Solution. ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives . ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. For a beam segment loaded as shown. Fig. Example 7. Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. Π is stationary. l l l At equilibrium. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig.5.11). 7. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . 7.

For a beam. ( E I v′′) l = M l . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field. and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl . or δ v′ = 0 .7. As δ v is arbitrary. The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. or δ vl = 0 . 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . 7. the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . or δ v′ = 0 . which are the boundary conditions. l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . or δ v0 = 0 .

Because δa j are arbitrary.6 find the vertical displacement of point 2. ∂Π =0. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. i. Solution. called admissible functions.23) which represents an approximate deflected shape. Example 7.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . F = 100 N and q = 200 N m . 7. The total potential energy is ..e. c) The sequence of functions must be complete.24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . (7.. l = 3 m . Substituting the displacements (7... If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong. Consider: E = 210 MPa .4 For the beam shown in Fig. n ) . The solutions are back-substituted into (7. ∂aj ( j = 1. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series. I = 1600 mm4 . that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates. whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . to be admissible functions.

27) into (7. 7. ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ .26). ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0. 0 2l 3 l . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ]. for simplicity. l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 .7. (7. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 . the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . (7.28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . where the functions (7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 .6 Substituting (7.25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 . Fig. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7. v′ (0) = 0 .26) In the following.27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 .25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − .

3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. E I (7. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0.7. The total potential energy (Fig. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u .28). the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I .5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. for F = q l 6 .29) In 2. EI a2 = −0. the equations are linear in aj . 7. 7. Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ .7. Substituting the functions (7. Answer. we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. a) subjected to a load F.30) For a small virtual displacement δu . a1 + a2 = 4.00257 q l4 .146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 .9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7.00207 q l4 . 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu . . 2 Π = (7.48 mm. the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method.

7. F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . b.7.7.33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq . .31) As seen in Fig. k ueq = 2 2 k (7. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7.7. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . equations (7.32) k =− The strain energy is (7. ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . 7. Fig.32) – (7.7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. (7.34) and Fig. In magnitude Π app < Π eq . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π .34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq . 7.

d) Tools. with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour. { Fi } .4.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated.M. For this a matrix notation is used. which is often difficult. Then determine stresses. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 .M. . 7. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem.35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F . taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. reaction forces. internal forces. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. b) Solution approach. etc.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement.1). With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces.1 F.E.E. k↑ (7. { ps } . 6. .4 F. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } . to present output data in an engineering format. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains. 7. c) Procedure.

38) In the following.4. 7. Fig. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. equation (7.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method.4.4. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure. ENERGY METHODS 149 7. 7. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .8 7. only δ Π e will be considered.7. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector.6. T T Sσ (7.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion .8) that define the mesh. 7.

41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants .18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }. The strain virtual variation is (7. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions.4.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions). . 7. { } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude. defined by Q e remains to be found.39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6.

ENERGY METHODS 151 7.7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step.4.4.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7. e e e (7.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A . (7. { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix.44) 7. cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }. (7.

e T (7. It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.50) The above procedure is never used in practice. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. .45) and (7.50). In the back-substitution phase.4. e (7.48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }.24) or (6.25). e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7. the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . 7.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .49) Applying the boundary conditions.

the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. joined together at their corners (nodes). This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. 8. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. a). In-plane displacement.8.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today. . and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles.1.1. 8. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. without the need for numerical integration. 8. is treated separately. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. discussed in the next chapter. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. that allow closed form derivations. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. which is considered constant.

1. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . ( x2 .1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y. each node has two degrees of freedom. Thus. the assumed displacement field is linear u (x . y1 ) . y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters.1. 8. b are numbered locally as 1. (8. y3 ) . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y . v ( x . (8. y2 ) and ( x3 . The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. 2 and 3. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. a Fig.154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig.2) . The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area.1) 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. 8.

A nodal approximation is preferred. only one need be considered in detail. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . . ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const . ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ . .4) { u }= [ A ] { a } .5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. 8.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const .3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8. ⎪ ⎭ (8. (8. ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6.1. a) where (8. . (8. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form.8.4.6) where .

12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .8) and the subscripts i . y3 y1 (8. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element.9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1. { } (8. 2A ( i = 1.12. 2.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] . ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8. k permute in a natural order.156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . 2. j .11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ . 3 ) (8. = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8.6) into (8. Substituting (8.13) .7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . (8.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . β i = y j − yk . The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) . γ i = xk − x j (8.

y ) = N 2 (x . y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .10) and (8. and i =1 ( i .12. 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] .8.12.15) Combining (8.14) yields . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. 8. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] .2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. a) can also be written N1 (x . 2A (8. 2. 8. j = 1.14) ∑ Ni = 1 . b) Fig. yi ) = δ i j .2: N i ( xi . 3 (8. as illustrated in Fig. y ) = N 3 (x . 3 ) (8. have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.

3.y ) + u2 N 2 (x. 8. 8.158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.y ) =u1 N1 (x. (8. u2 and u3 .1.16.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 .3 The displacement u (x.y ) + u3 N 3 (x. as shown in Fig.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. a) Fig. 8. .

The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element.8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension. a) where the notation is obvious. A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6. Along an edge 1-2.17. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . When the surface load distribution (per unit . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ .1.24) for plane stress and by (6.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7. (8.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. 8. ∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ .25) for plane strain conditions. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A.18) where t e is the element thickness.

8. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig.5. even in a fine mesh.160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear.4). 8.5 . 8. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. 8. b which however produces a larger bandwidth.5.19) where t e is the thickness of the element.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. Fig. 8. Fig.1. the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. 8.

6 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. only one quarter of the plate is considered. The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge.8.6 for a square plate with a circular hole. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. Fig. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig. 8. Taking advantage of symmetry. where they should be continuous. 8.

18) is . Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements.1 Solution. a Fig. y3 = l . x2 = l . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre. b) stresses in elements.1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. and c) the support reactions.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8.24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ .162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. Let ν = 0 . The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. E8. E8. y2 = 0 . a). The material stiffness matrix (6. x3 = 0 .3 Example 8.1. the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 .

In general. . e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. 2 2 T 1 2 .8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A . 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. . (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .

E8. y2 = 1 . Using the appropriate boundary conditions. ∗ H4 = − F 4 . x3 = −1 . Due to symmetry.164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. H5 = − F 4 . 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . 2E t u2 = 3F .1.17) and performing the product (8. 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . .18). only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. x2 = 0 . b). y3 = 0 in (8. the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. b) stresses in elements. E8. . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ .2). 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig.3 . = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress. The units are coherent. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. and c) the support reactions.8.

where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. .17). based on the nodal coordinates. the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8.24). and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. E8.18).2 Solution. The input data are given below For each element.166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.111 − 0.192 − 0.165 − 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0.111 0. v3 = −13.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0. .125 0 − 1. v2 = −15.317 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.542 .301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0.823 .686 .317 ⎢ 0 0.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.192 1.8. v1 = −40.582 .317 0.903 0 2. u2 = 6.712 .165 − 0.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7. u3 = −2.666 0 1.192 − 0.835 .

thickness t = 5 mm .168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. element 3. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8.6. The plate has length l = 60 mm . Normally. Solution. and this leads to misleading results. Along the edge 4-5. a). Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. gives only one value of σ x . is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . which is wrong. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. being a constant strain element. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). E8. E = 210 GPa and ν = 0.3 . to allow longhand calculation. Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. width b = 40 mm .3. a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained. . c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection.1. Example 8. However. the plate should be modeled by many more elements.3 A thin rectangular plate. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading.

The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. are denoted a to f. E8.3. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). The deformed shape is shown in Fig. b. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction.3.3.3. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked.8. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. E8. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. Fig. c. b The applied nodal forces are shown. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity. . 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. E8. E8. a A 55-node.

c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3. E8. E8. Fig. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8. .3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. E8.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. d.3. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3.

6667 0. thickness 5 mm .4577 11.5768 0.174 0. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value . width of the reduced portion 40 mm .85 e 6.5693 5.0752 σy 0. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.2632 0.68 f 4.69 d 7.78 MPa .6155 10. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.9228 0. E8.8037 Stresses σ x .068 7. have the following values: Point a 15. Example 8. fillet radius 20 mm .6445 5.78 b 11. MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ . ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig.5706 -0.4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.25 .8.1651 0.6221 0. is σ xa = 15.3595 σ eq 19.7073 3. E8.0178 11. width of the extended portion 80 mm .39 c 9. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20.4.8845 1. a) has length 150 mm . The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa . a).3. in point a.927 0. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.5786 7.89 σ x .815 1. averaged at points a to f.0595 0.6821 10.763 τ xy -0.7162 4.3275 8.9433 7.

4. only half of the plate is considered.4.4. b. . have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. The right edge has four elements. E8. for the quarter plate. Fig.7 MPa . c for five stress intervals given in the legend. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate.4. and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. E8. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. The largest equivalent stress is 604. E8.172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa . b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. Taking advantage of the symmetry. The resulting five nodal forces. a Answer. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 . The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig. E8. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N .19). The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction. Fig.

y60 = 21. y65 = 20. x64 = 95 . v65 = −4.5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.3160 0.52 .5 . b are given below: x60 = 92.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .17) 0 − 0. v60 = −3. This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1. The matrix [ B ] is (8.12367 . c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0. x65 = 95. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.97e − 3 .92e − 3 . The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1.3160 ⎥ . Solution. u64 = 0.35 .5 .12247 .1925 mm 2 . = 0.1216 0.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0.42 given by Singer (1962). TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig. y64 = 18 .4.25 .3757 0 0. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622. E8. v64 = −3.3757 − 0. ⎥ ⎢ 0. The triangle area is A96 = 4.11224 .2982 − 0.63e − 3 .4. u65 u60 = 0.415. Calculate the element stresses.0596 0 − 0.7 MPa .0596 − 0.8. Example 8. E8.1216 0 0.

97e − 3 0. E8.174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6. a.5333 2. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.11224 − 3.72 63. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .08⎦ T . Fig.1333 0 ⎥ .6.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0. The load is not applied at the tooth tip. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0.58 − 120.24) ⎡ 2. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry. a . σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.92e − 3 ⎦ T .12247 − 4.6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig.63e − 3 0.1333 0. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }. E8.6.12367 − 3.

b The stress distribution is shown in Fig. c. E8.8. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E8. Fig.6. E8. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas.6. b. Fig.6.6. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. E8. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. c .

y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. From condition N1 ( x1 .7. b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x. y ) = x y . ( ) (8.2. 8. y1 ) = N1 ( 0. N1 ( x . the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . 8. y1 ) = 1 . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x .7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ .176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8. built up beams and boxes. and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 .1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. For example. a b N4 ( x. a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . Fig.2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. y j = δ ij .20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b . 8. hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ .

N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . all like powers in x and y are not present. v ( x .24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8. The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour.…. { } (8.22) (8.21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . Because. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1. y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. the assumed displacement field is u (x . N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads. 4 4 N1 = (8. That is.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation.23) has one drawback – they are not complete. In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not. there are eight boundary conditions. b r= 2x −1. a (8. 1 ± s = 0 . for two displacements.25) The use of the shape functions (8. (8. .8.

The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below.2. The 4-node element has flat sides.178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. because the strain energy is underestimated. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms.8 Figure 8. (≥ 3) 8. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. . The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio . Generally.9. 8.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV . In comparison.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. Fig. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. stresses are lower than the true values. Fig. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero.8. 8.8. 8. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation.

9 In Fig. 2 4 N1 = − .8. Using the nodal approximation. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . v ( x . (8.. (8. N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) . Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ). TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x . 8.29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . + N8 u8 . 4 4 (8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates. 8. N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . + N8 v8 . 8. Fig....27) so that the strains are quadratic.9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . In the natural system of coordinates r and s.7. the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). the old ones are presented in Fig.

The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 . by division to the triangle heights.180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2.−1) = 1 .1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 . 3...30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8.31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] . the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8. which gives the expression of N1 in (8. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1. ζ2 = .29). { } (8.10. h2 . and nondimensionalized.3.e.e. N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . a).3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. elements having linear. h3 from the three sides (Fig.. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . one has to use a large number of elements. The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . 8 and have a value of unity at node 1. 1 + r + s = 0 . Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. i. as h1 h2 h3 . 8. 8. i. Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . Equivalently. 1 − r = 0 . c1 = −1 4 .. ζ3 = . quadratic or higher-order strain expansions.

8. or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . b).10.34) By inversion.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . 8. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 . (8.33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions. ζ3 = A3 A . one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 .32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig. ⎪ ⎭ (8.8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A . ζ2 = A2 A . (8. we obtain equation (8. Fig.

N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . In Fig. 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 .11. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 .37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8.11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . 3 ) (8. γ i = xk − x j . Fig. { } (8.182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. 2. the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. 8. (8.38) . 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 8.8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1. β i = y j − yk .9) and the expressions (8.36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q .35) where A is given by (8. 8. obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST.3.

y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.43) The results for first.44) . (8.8). ζ 2 . However. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A . (2 + a + b ) ! (8. ζ 3 .8. The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation.9) and β i .41) where A is the triangle area (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . γ i are defined by (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8. y to ζ1 .39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8.and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A . so we must transform from x . Using (8. 6 (8.

There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary.12). Denoting ζ 2 = r. so the element is truly isotropic. 8.48) . There are twelve nodal displacements. the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. 2 (8. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. (8. 8. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. six for each component. containing all possible products. ζ 3 = s. y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 . Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig. N3 = s .12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . 2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8.47) Fig. N2 = r .45) The displacement field is complete. the nodal approximation (8.37) is obtained. (8.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 .

v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid. This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation.3. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c .49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions.50) where . four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways. a. the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. 8.13. i =1 9 (8. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . Since the function is cubic. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 .8. treated in the next chapter.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials. 8. Fig. if the polynomial is not complete. This element is shown in Fig. 8. The side nodes are located at the third points. (8. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components.

8.186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . a total of 18 parameters (Fig. Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) . 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). x x (8. vc ) as the remaining parameters. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) .13. . are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . 2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. there are six . 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . b). 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. At each corner. as nodal quantities. 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8.51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 ..52) the interpolation polynomials. (8. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix.52) In (8. N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). . The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . two displacements and four first derivatives. 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) .

1 Equilibrium vs.56) . compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous.8.54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 . + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x . ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6. β i are defined by (8.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y .4. 8. v ( x .4 Equilibrium. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i . of the rectangular element.55) Equations (8. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. (8. one can say that: a) Within elements.26) (8. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y .16) in (8. + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33].8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid.54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6.55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8. 8. For example. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. The same interpolation functions are valid for v .

the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . b) Between elements. = b4 = 2 = 0 . Happily. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. the elements fit together. the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. But as already shown. As the discretization is refined. so the first equation (8. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. compatibility may or may not be satisfied. One cannot conclude from this that. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations.4. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. Moreover.55) is not satisfied.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. For example. the edges remain straight. However. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . c) At nodes. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. for any nodal displacement. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. In some cases it can give better results.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. 8. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. inter-element stress continuity may exist. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. However. = a3 + a4 x . Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. in general. So.

The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. strains. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. If not. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations.e. e) The element should have no preferred directions. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. Also. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. extraneous nodal forces appear. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. plate and shell elements. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. The computed displacements. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. c) Rigid body modes must be represented.8. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements. . Elements must not overlap or separate. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. However. If this requirement is violated. In the case of beam. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. i. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system.

v1 = 0 . ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1. E8.6. Fig. If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model. Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } . v3 = 4 . . u2 = 1 .25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . u4 = 1 . a simple patch test is carried out as follows.190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. u3 = 4 .7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . v4 = 1 . the internal node must behave accordingly.7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. v2 = 1 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. E8. The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 .

(9. 9. Each node has two degrees of freedom. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. In fact. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise.1) . because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same. 2.1. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element. a. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. For isoparametric elements. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. they are subparametric elements.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. yi ) . The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . The local nodes 1. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction.9. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements. we obtain a subparametric element. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . 9. the result is an isoparametric element. If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure.

1. 9. s } plane. 9. a). In the reference plane. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . 1 ] . a Fig. The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. s ∈ [ − 1. y } is called the isoparametric mapping.192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. They are called quadrilateral coordinates.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig.2. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. 1 ] . This is called the reference plane. 9. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. 9. b.1.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . a Fig.2 b . quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig. called the reference element (or master element).

x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) .23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . s } plane (Fig. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i .4. 9.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix.4.1.4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 4 4 (9. The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) .3) where ( ri . N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x . 4 (9. b) . b).9. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. si ) are the coordinates of node i .2. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . 9.

r = 1 and u u r =1 (9. where (9. s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .e. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 9. the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. This ensures interelement compatibility. i. Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side. there are no openings.1. because r (or s) is constant. s ) . then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i .8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s . As mentioned in Chapter 8. For example. a). along the side 2-3 (Fig.5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 . the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. overlaps or discontinuities . along each side the approximation is linear.2. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r .3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation.7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i .

s ) ] . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . Also. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . This is done considering the function f = f ( x .9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . a) has the form y = m x + c . because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. Using (9.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.11) is the Jacobian matrix. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . 9. (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements.1.10) and (9. along each side the approximation is quadratic. On the contrary.10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9.1. the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. Along 2-3. where m is the slope of 2-3. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . 9. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . s } coordinates.4). The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . it can also be expressed as . The approximation (9.9) is non-conforming. y (r . s ) .9) For example. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.

⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s . .16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] . − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ . a) Analogously. the inverse relationship is (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ .13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.13.196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9.14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9.

It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. s } . [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . ∂f ∂f . we need [ j ]. the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . (9. d y = d y ⋅ j . y ) . s = s ( x . determined on the reference element. The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . y }. In a curvilinear system { r . .9. and i . In cartesian coordinates { x . where d x = d x ⋅ i . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . Because r = r ( x . and s = const .17) It is needed because. Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . contours respectively. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . j are base vectors. The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ].

43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A .22) . The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7.9) into (7. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. (9.1. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.9) and shape functions (9.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness. (9.19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9.20) Using the transformation (9. j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.7). where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6. where (9.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ].17).21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.

the above integration has to be performed numerically. as shown in the following. along side 2-3 in Fig.24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds .17). (9. 9.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.1. 9.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9.25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3.1. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element.9. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. . ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ].

(9. as for example the NewtonCotes integration. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + .2. + wi f (ri ) + .. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. As the order of the displacement field increases.27) . The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible. The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature..1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points. + a2 n r 2 n −1 . the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome.. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly. + wn f (r n ) .26) is exact up to the chosen order.. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. It is more efficient than other methods... For higher order elements. 9. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . In other words.

This is a set of 2 n equations.. i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9.29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + .. a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . + wn r n + .....30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + . i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα .. linear in wi and nonlinear in r i . ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + . 9.. + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + . + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + ... 3 (9. + wn . + wn ) + ) ( ) (9.. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + ...28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi .3.. i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i .. + wn r n .. The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. n . − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig.... + wn r n n −1 .9.. + wn r n . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . + wn r n 2 n −1 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. 2 ..

202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 . equations (9.3. 9.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 . avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. it is employed in some selective integration schemes.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . e. However.57735 ) .57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. Fig. (9. to separate shear from extension effects.3 .g. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0. 9. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . so that (Fig. 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .

s2 ) .57735 ± 0.32) w1 = w2 = 1 . s2 ) + f ( r2 .0 0.1 for the first four orders.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0.774596 ± 0.2. s j . so that I = f ( r1 .0 1. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . r 2 = s 2 = 0. ∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r . ri 0 wi 2.861136 0 9.555 ⋅ f ( 0.339981 ± 0. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9. Weights. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9. s j . r1 = s 1 = − 0. s1 ) + f ( r2 .652145 0. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0.57735 .5555 0.774) + 0.774 ) .8888 0.555 ⋅ f ( − 0.1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r . Table 9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig. 9. s1 ) + f ( r1 .347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.57735 .3.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r .9. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table.2. s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri . . 9.

the elements of . In general. wi . 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. s j Weights.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9. ri . w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 2. 3. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 3. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . 2. 3. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. 3. Therefore.2.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points. 2. 2 .24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix.

33).9. t e . These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. e (9. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. we can write . This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear. This is cheaper as well. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined.33) The integral in (9. the minimum number of integration points. The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model.4). 9. Therefore. the stiffness matrix equation (9.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig. In this case. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration.33) represents the volume of the element. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points. 9. Fig.4 However. Taking the thickness. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function. From practical considerations. in the present case.

For the first term in (9. s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r . s )] ] [ B ( r . s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 .1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .34) we need .206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r . s j = ± 0. 9. s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9. s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9.11) [ J ( ri . s2 ) ] . Example 9.1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig.57735 .34).34) + t e [ B ( r2 .5 instead of r i . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9. s j = ± 0.s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant. b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9. For convenience.

stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points.5 1.5 ⎢− 0.2.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element.5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ . (9.9.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 − 1. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1. 1976).5 0. However.5 − 1.5 − 1.5 1.5 1. .125 . [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0. a refined mesh should be used in these regions. 5 1. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. 5 ⎣ 0.5 − 1. 5 1. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours.5 0 0 0 0 0. In order not to miss these peak stresses.35) In practice. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element. − 1. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.5 − 1. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1.5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ .5 0. 5 0. the Jacobian matrix (9. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node.5 0 0 0 0 1. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0.

In practice.3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic.2. even if it is supported conventionally. 9. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s .5.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 . b). 9. The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. For a single 8-node rectangular element. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme . using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration. as are the stresses. Fig.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . (9.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.2. a) and the master element is a square (Fig.5. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. 9.

The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . 9. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded.29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). For an 8-node quadrilateral element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points. one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri . (9. For ease in programming. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements.9. in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. due to reduced integration. = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . It was shown that. For the 8-node quadratic element. . it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant.3.

⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9. the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥.42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . (9. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r . (9.45) leads to .3.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) .39) for mid-side nodes.40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) . (9. s ) y i i =1 8 (9. = si 1 − r 2 .44) 9.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9. 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 .41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q . s ) x i . v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 .

3. s ) yi . − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ . s ) xi . s ) x i 8 i . ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr .3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e .46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. (9.48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y . ∂r ∂ N i (r . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . s ) yi .3.49) 9.4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9.9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9. ∂s 9.

53. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] . = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.54) the elements of the matrix (9.53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] . evaluated by numerical integration.55) ij . the stiffness matrix (9.53.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . (9. ij (9. (9. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9. (9.44).

k 2 = k 3 . Mohraz.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. A close inspection of equations (9.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . ∂x i =1 ∂ y . Therefore.3. 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. A. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. This method (K.9. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. 9. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w .56) and then to work out equations (9. Gupta & B. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j .57) The explicit form of equation (9.

A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. closer results to the true values are obtained. This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. 9. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are .214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . element by element. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. Consider a distributed load p . All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. (9. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. However. into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge.3. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program. specified in force per unit length. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary.

s ) p k k =1 8 k . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr .65) .59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9.61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9. the sign of the force vector { } n (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . { f } is reversed.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.42). (9.63) the element.9. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.

E9.2.66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . Fig. . Find the equivalent nodal forces.2 Consider the element of Fig. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x . Example 9. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r . y axes.2 Solution. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 .61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . ⎪ ⎭ (9. E9. Equation (9.

In the above expressions. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. b). Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4. ⎩− g ⎭ (9.26).67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] .67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9. a with gravity loading. r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. E9.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. Find the equivalent nodal forces.2.3. E9. Solution. The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9.9. . but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P .68) Example 9.

70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b .74) Therefore. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. 16 1 (9. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 . (9. 1 1 (9.218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .70) can be written f yi = − (9.76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 . the force (9. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 .73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W .69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab . I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9. the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9. L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 .77) −1 −1 .

E9. b.9. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively.6 .6. The master element is presented in Fig. Fig. 9. 9.3. 9. it contains an internal node. 9. Again.6. E9. b. a.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig.

. 2 (9. . have the expressions . Fig. (9.6. The polynomial is incomplete. s. r. 9. In general. It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) . b. the polynomial should have the first four terms 1. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes.78) Along the sides of the element. for three points.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials. The shape functions are defined as follows.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 .7. 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . 9. which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s .7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 .1. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ).) . as shown in Fig. we can define generic shape functions L1 . and rs . which. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0. Considering the r axis alone.. and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. as shown at the bottom of Fig. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . 9.

as shown at the right of Fig.6. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . Alternatively. L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) .. (9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity.e. 9. with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9. b. they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 .80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) .9. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) .81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) .82) . the degree of the polynomial is 2).9. By referring to the master element in Fig. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. Similarly. a) is an element of order 2 (i. one can use the serendipity elements. a. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) .6. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. 9. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . 9. 9.8). 2 (9. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) .5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. 9. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 9.9. The six node triangle (Fig. The polynomial involves six constants.

Because of terms ζ 2 .84) Fig. ζ 3 in the shape functions. and x = ∑ Ni x i . N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9. 9. i =1 (9.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . this element is also called a quadratic triangle.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T .8 The isoparametric representation is (8. 9.9 .222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i . Fig.

4. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9.9. It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 . a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. can be evaluated using (9. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. s ) coordinates are defined by (8. 39]. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element. where stresses may be computed.85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles.24) if the (r . 9.4. which has to be integrated numerically. ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 .46). A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. it is more likely to be negative at corners. ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . and. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location.13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. particularly at that corner. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes.

This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side. 0 .10 This point lies within the element (Fig. i. if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l .e.5 l . For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. 2x2 −l If . 9. 9. 2x2 −l Fig. l 3l < x 2 < .224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.5 l ≤1. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0.5 ) l − 2 r x2 . then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 .

In this chapter. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. . and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed.10. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. These elements may be either triangular. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane. For thin plates. 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. For this case. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. 10. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory. in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface.1 . For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig.

= −z 2 .1) where w ( x.226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. ∂x ∂z (10.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w .3) . 10. z ) = − z ∂w . ∂x v ( x. a). y. z ) = − z ∂w . ∂y (10. 10. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig. ε y = = −z 2 .2) a Fig. ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0. (10. Fig.2.2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. 10. γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0. y.

7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A .9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10.10) .3.8) Fig.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig. 10. the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } . PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T . 10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .4) Since σ z = 0 . Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz . where (10.10. 12 (10. (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥. (10. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10.5) (10.

⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10. (10.15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio.curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length).16) . The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ (10.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment . (10.15) it can be shown that (10.11) and (10. Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟. From (10. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) .

2.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10.15).8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy . the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid.16) into the last equation (10.21) 10. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed.19) The strain energy (10. 10. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. To overcome this problem. A ∫ (10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10. The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory. (10. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z .10. Then. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦. First. b).9) (10.

∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . + ∂x ∂z (10. γ z x = 0 . ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } . y ) . v (x . y .230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x .26) ∂w . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.29) V . (10.23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + .24) reduces to (10. (10. where the curvature vector is (10. z ) = − zθ x (x .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. y ) . y . θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }.24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u .22) where θ x . z ) = z θ y (x . (10.27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10.26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w . to the middle plane before deformation.28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . and equation (10. equation (10.4). (10.

T S A (10. on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.12). ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .24). PLATE BENDING 231 or. which is not true.30) For isotropic materials. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains.10. If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness. the above expression reduces to (10. equation (10.20).31) or (10.32) The strain energy (10. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . where { χ } is given by (10. As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − .30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy .11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. If θ x = .

Melosh . complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. Clough.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h. one at each corner. for convergence. therefore.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre. irrespective of the element shape. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second. (10. Hence. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements. namely.20) and the potential of the external load by (10. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w .5 shows the ACM element (Adini. 1963). 10.1961.21). 10. The assumed form of the displacement function. taken as degrees of freedom at each node. these become . having four node points. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − .3. These three quantities are.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. Also. Fig. the strain energy is given by (10.33) Figure 10.

5 The expression (10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } . a) w = ⎣P ( ξ . 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom.36.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added. (10. .37) Differentiating (10.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }. (10. (10.10. which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.η )⎦ {α } .39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . a ∂ξ (10.38) (10. 10. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 . Fig. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ .36) (10.

45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . (10.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }.44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ . (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. evaluating (10.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬.η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } .38) and (10.42) into (10.36).43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . a) yields { } (10. η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.45) where ( ξi . Indeed. (10.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .42) Substituting (10. for conciseness.39) at ξ = ±1 .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. e e (10. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. (10.36. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }.

43) into (10.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .45) into (10. this is not the case with the rotation θ y .10. 3. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3.46) Substituting (10.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10. and hence the rotation θ x .47) Evaluating (10. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. e T e e (10. ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side. Unfortunately. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming. The rotation θ y is given by (10. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w . Substituting (10. 2. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q .49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }.η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ .4) and (10.

0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ .η )⎦ . −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.50) Substituting the shape functions from (10.

(10. [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10.5).51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10. a The remaining submatrices of (10. A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . it is simpler to use the expression (10. b β= b . [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] .54) and integrating. In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ .10.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. In deriving this result. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a .

43) with ⎣N i (ξ . the results are convergent. this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states. 10. Unfortunately.4.55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. 10. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner.57) in which ( ξi . The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10.2). It is a four-node thin plate bending element. of the form shown in Fig. 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. In this case. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5.η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . As this controls the shear strain in equation (10. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces.21) as for uniform slender beams.1966). when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element.3. The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node. Fox and Schmit . However.238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 . This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. In the limit. (10. as an increasing number of elements is used. the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10.50).ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. the displacement function is of the form (10. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 .43) but with 16 terms . The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.

53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 .43) and (10.21).5). . 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one.59) of the first six terms in (10.26). 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 . ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10.59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x.24) and (10. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not.3. the strain energy expression is (10. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig. The highest derivative of w . 10. it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y .33). for convergence.58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first. Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 . For a thick plate-bending element. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10. 10.and ydirections. the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. w .59).10.30) and the potential of the external load is (10. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 .3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. (10. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ . This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10.49) and (10. Hence. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element.

3). (10. The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i .65) . θ x and θ y are continuous between elements.240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.60) where the functions N i are defined by (9.1977) expands separately w . ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10. e B S (10. θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment. expressions (10.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q .26) and (10.63) Substituting (10. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha . θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i .65) In (10. 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10. 4 ( )( ) (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. e T e e (10. that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη .61) These functions ensure that w .24).62) into (10. θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values. In matrix form. It represents the shear deformation directly.

69) and (10.70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .10.71) Substituting (10.72) into (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .(10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.67) (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10.69) (10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending . The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.61) into (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .

a .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10. b β= b . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a . ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ .74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. 2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥.

a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.73) into (10.61) into (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.63) and (10. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10. Substituting (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87]. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.52).10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.52).76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.

Alternative methods. . There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element. e (10. This is avoided by selective integration. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. 10.g. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10. However. In very thin plates. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. S S e (10.78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region.79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. Obviously..53). However. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w .

2 and 3 have coordinates (0. ( ) (10.6 The expression (10.81) (10. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom.80) is incomplete. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms.0) . Nodes 1. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10. (10.0) and (x3 . In order to maintain symmetry.82) Differentiating (10.80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } . a) w = ⎣P ( x .1962). where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ . (10. PLATE BENDING 245 10. 10. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal.81) gives .81.10. Fig.80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. namely.6 shows the T element (Tocher . and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. y )⎦ {α } . There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node.4. (x2 . y3 ) . the transverse displacement w .

87) into (10. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10. the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition.87) Substituting (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10.89) and.81. Unfortunately. therefore.85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10. e e (10. a) yields [ ] { q }. (10.83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } .246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }. (10.83) along the side 1-2. Evaluating (10.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . gives . of equation y = 0 . the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x . This element is non-conforming. If this occurs. e −1 (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. cannot be inverted.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } .

In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation. due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms. Substituting (10. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. (10. Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements.88) into (10.8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . Moreover.4) and (10. Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of .92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements.93) ∫x A m n y dA . These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } . ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10.10. α 5 and α 8 .80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. the assumed function (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . while the tangential component θ x is not. To alleviate this.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.

Nodes 1.96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8.97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . (10.35). There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node. and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . expressions (10. namely. These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. In matrix form. (10. Tocher. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi . θ X and θY are continuous between elements.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3. ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. 10. θY = ∑ ζ i θY i .4.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. the transverse displacement w .95) where wi . In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10. θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. They ensure that w . 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.

[ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .101) Substituting (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ . ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10.99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥.24) and using (10.24) and using (10.100) As this matrix is constant. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8.10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.8). the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].96) into (10.99) Substituting (10. (10. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10.102) Substituting (10.99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.102) into (10.96) into (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10.104) S 33 where .

The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. substituting the shape functions from (10.-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10. ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. .4.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969.65). ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Dhatt1967). ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Stricklin et al. 10. For pz = constant.105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node.98) into (10.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10.

For instance. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). along a side.7 b For a side i − j .10. The shear strain energy is neglected.4. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides.106) . only the bending strain energy is considered. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered. a Fig. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. To remedy this. of length l k . in which the curvatures are expressed.24). as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. The T element presented in section 10.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. 10. 10.7. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. a). Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements. It was shown that.

Fig. The parameter α k has to be eliminated. b). ( ) (10. The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. Then. α 5 .108) . ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k .8.8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes. the three parameters α 4 . 10. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10.7. 10. α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . Initially. 10. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 . b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j .8. a). 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k . 10.

110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ .109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j . wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j . Then. {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . j.111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T .10.109) into (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10.109) The equation (10. (10.108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 . PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10. (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . k.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . where (10. θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10.

⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.1 Corner point.1.254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }.114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . Table 10. 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. 2l k 2l m (10. the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm . 2. (10.115). 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix .116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . as shown in Table 10. ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. 3 ⎦ (10. 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i. 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm .112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) .113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ . (10.115) In (10.

{ } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e .120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }.24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ . (x2 . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q . in a local coordinate system [18]. y2 ) and (x3 . ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ .10. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only.118) The curvature vector (10. using a Hammer integration rule. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68]. y3 ) .112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained. (10. presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η . y1 ) . The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form.120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 . { } (10. Equation (10. 2A { } (10. In the following. In (10. (10.

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

**β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
**

cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2

∫

A

**where the material matrix [ D
**

Ue =

]

1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },

e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]

e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫

0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References

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238. vector of − beam 90. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 187 Conforming elements 150. 187 Coordinate transformation 19.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces. 150. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 .

122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 107.266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 94. 22.. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85.

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