Preface
This textbook represents the Finite Element Analysis lecture course given to students in the third year at the Department of Engineering Sciences (now F.I.L.S.), English Stream, University Politehnica of Bucharest, since 1992. It grew in time along with a course taught in Romanian to students in the Faculty of Transports, helped by the emergence of microcomputer networks and integration of the object into mechanical engineering curricula. The syllabus of the 28-hour course, supplemented by 28-hour tutorial and lab. classes, was structured along the NAFEMS recommendations published in the October 1988 issue of BENCHmark. The course represents only an introduction to the finite element analysis, for which we wrote simple stand-alone single-element programs to assist students in solving problems as homework. It is followed by an advanced course in the fourth year at F.I.L.S., called Computational Structural Mechanics, where students are supposed to use commercial programs. In designing the course, our aim was to produce students capable of: (a) understanding the theoretical background, (b) appreciating the structure of finite element programs for potential amendment and development, (c) running packages and assessing their limitations, (d) taking a detached view in checking output, and (e) understanding failure messages and finding ways of rectifying the errors. The course syllabus was restricted to 2D linear elastic structural problems. It has been found advantageous to divide the finite element analysis into two parts. Firstly, the assembly process without any approximations (illustrated by frameworks) followed by the true finite element process which involves approximations. This is achieved starting with trusses, then with beams and plane frames, and progressively dealing with membrane and plate-bending elements. Solid elements and shells are not treated. Our objective was to ensure that students have achieved: (a) a familiarity in working with matrix methods and developing stiffness matrices, (b) an understanding of global versus local coordinate systems, (c) the abilty to use the minimum potential energy theorem and virtual work equations, (d) the mapping from isoparametric space to real geometrics and the need for numerical integration, (e) an insight in numerical techniques for linear equation solving (Gauss elimination, frontal solvers etc), and (f) the use of equilibrium, compatibility, stress/strain relations and boundary conditions. As a course taught for non-native speakers, it has been considered useful to reproduce as language patterns some sentences from English texts. November 2006 Mircea Radeş

Prefaţă
Lucrarea reprezintă cursul Analiza cu elemente finite predat studenţilor anului III al Facultăţii de Inginerie în Limbi Străine, Filiera Engleză, la Universitatea Politehnica Bucureşti, începând cu anul 1992. Conţinutul cursului s-a lărgit în timp, fiind predat din 1992 şi studenţilor de la facultatea de Transporturi, favorizat de apariţia reţelelor de calculatoare şi de includerea sa în planul de învăţământ al facultăţilor cu profil mecanic. Programa cursului, care prevede 28 ore de curs şi 28 ore de seminar/laborator, a fost structurată în conformiatate cu recomandările NAFEMS publicate în numărul din Octombrie 1988 al revistei BENCHmark. Cursul reprezintă doar o introducere în analiza cu elemente finite, pentru care am scris programe simple, cu un singur tip de element finit, care să fie utilizate de studenţi la rezolvarea unor teme de casă. Nu se tratează învelişuri şi elemente tridimensionale. În anul IV, planul de învăţământ de la F.I.L.S. conţine cursul Computational Structural Mechanics, la care studenţii aprofundează modelarea cu elemente finite şi utilizează un program de firmă. La structurarea cursului am avut în vedere necesitatea formării unor studenţi capabili: (a) să înţeleagă baza teoretică, (b) să desluşească structura programelor cu elemente finite pentru eventuale corecţii şi dezvoltări, (c) să ruleze programe şi să recunoască limitele acestora, (d) să poată verifica rezultatele şi (e) să înţeleagă mesajele de eroare şi să găsească modalităţi de corectare a erorilor. Programa cursului a fost limitată la structuri elastice liniare bidimensionale. S-a considerat potrivit să se prezinte analiza cu elemente finite în două etape: întâi procesul de asamblare fără nici o aproximare (aplicat la grinzi cu zăbrele), apoi modelarea cu elemente finite, care presupune aproximarea câmpului de deplasări, de la triunghiul cu deformaţii specifice constante la elemente patrulatere izoparametrice, incluzând integrarea numerică. S-a urmărit ca studenţii să dobândească: (a) familiaritate cu metodele matriciale şi calculul matricelor de rigiditate; (b) înţelegerea utilităţii coordonatelor locale şi globale; (c) abilitatea folosirii principiului energiei potenţiale minime şi a principiului lucrului mecanic virtual; (d) trecerea de la coordonate naturale la coordonate fizice şi necesitatea integrării numerice; (e) o vedere de ansamblu asupra rezolvării sistemelor algebrice liniare (eliminarea Gauss, metoda frontală etc.) şi (f) utilizarea celor patru tipuri de ecuaţii – echilibru, compatibilitate, constitutive şi condiţii la limită. Fiind un curs predat unor studenţi a căror limbă maternă nu este limba engleză, au fost reproduse expresii şi fraze din cărţi scrise de vorbitori nativi ai acestei limbi. Noiembrie 2006 Mircea Radeş

Contents
Preface Contents 1. Introduction
1.1 Object of FEA 1.2 Finite element displacement method 1.3 Historical view 1.4 Stages of FEA

i iii 1
1 3 4 5

2. Displacement Method
2.1 Equilibrium equations 2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility 2.3 Force/elongation relations 2.4 Boundary conditions 2.5 Solving for displacements 2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method

9
9 10 11 12 12 13

3. Direct Stiffness Method
3.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element 3.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates
3.2.1 Coordinate transformation 3.2.2 Force transformation 3.2.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates 3.2.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix

17
17 19
19 20 21 22

3.3 Link’s truss 3.4 Direct method 3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements 3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix 3.7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix

25 26 28 29 30

iv
3.8 Joint force equilibrium equations 3.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix 3.10 Reactions and internal forces 3.11 Thermal loads and stresses 3.12 Node numbering Exercises

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 31 33 35 36 37 41

4. Bars and shafts
4.1 Plane bar elements
4.1.1 Differential equation of equilibrium 4.1.2 Coordinates and shape functions 4.1.3 Bar not loaded between ends 4.1.4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates 4.1.5 Bar loaded between ends 4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces 4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 4.1.8 Initial strain effects

47
47
47 48 49 51 52 55 56 59

4.2 Plane shaft elements Exercises

60 63

5. Beams, frames and grids
5.1 Finite element discretization 5.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends
5.3.1 Shape functions 5.3.2 Stiffness matrix 5.3.3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix

79
79 81 83
84 86 88

5.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends
5.4.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces 5.4.2 Higher degree interpolation functions 5.4.3 Bending moment and shear force

89
89 92 95

5.5 Basic convergence requirements 5.6 Frame element
5.6.1 Axial effects 5.6.2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates

96 97
97 98

1.5 Stress-strain relations 6.3 Coordinate transformation 5. stresses and strain 6.2.5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations 131 131 131 133 133 134 137 7.7 Strain energy 123 123 125 126 127 128 130 130 7.2 Shape functions 5.6 Temperature effects 6.9. Linear elasticity 6.4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates 98 100 v 5.3 Principle of virtual displacements 143 148 148 149 149 .CONTENTS 5.9 Deep beam bending element 5.4 FEM – a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.2.1 Strain energy 7.3 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Sσ 6.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam 5.3 Virtual work of internal forces 7.4 Principle of virtual displacements 7.2.6.3 Total potential energy 139 139 140 140 7.1 FEM in Structural Mechanics 7.1. Energy methods 7.2 Discretization 7.4.1 Matrix notation for loads.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix 5.4.1 Principle of virtual work 7.8 Grids 5.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V 6.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method 7.1.4.1.2 External potential energy 7.3 Stiffness matrix 100 111 116 117 118 121 6.9.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy 7.1 Virtual displacements 7.6.4 Strain-displacement relations 6.2 Virtual work of external forces 7.9.

1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) 8.1 Linear quadrilateral element 9.3.1 The four-node rectangle (linear) 8.4 The matrix [ B ] 8.1.3 The displacement field 9.1.1 Natural coordinates 9.1 Equilibrium vs. compatibility 8.1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature 200 200 .1.2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) 176 176 178 8.1.1.2.2 Shape functions 9.1.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) 8.4.3 Triangular elements 8.4.2 Numerical integration 9.1.6 Remarks 153 153 153 154 155 158 159 160 8.4 Mapping from natural to Cartesian coordinates 9.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements 7.4 Equilibrium.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector 7.1.3 Quadratic strain triangle 180 180 182 185 8.1.4.3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field 8.4.2 Convergence and compatibility 187 187 188 9 Isoparametric elements 9.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 8.4. Discretization of structure 8.3.1.2.4.6 Element load vectors 191 191 192 193 194 195 198 199 9.1.4.2. convergence and compatibility 8.1.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field 8.5 Element stiffness matrix 9.1 Area coordinates 8.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector 7.3.2 Rectangular elements 8.4 Approximating functions for the element FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 149 150 151 151 152 7.8 Solution and back-substitution 8 Two-dimensional elements 8.vi 7.1.

6 Jacobian positiveness 219 221 223 10 Plate bending 10.4 Triangular plate-bending elements 10.3.2.3.3.CONTENTS 9.2.3.3.3 Eight-node quadrilateral 9.3.1 ACM element (non-conforming) 10.1 Shape functions 9.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) 10.2.3.3.5 Six-node triangle 9.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature 9.6 Consistent nodal forces 208 209 210 211 211 213 214 9.4.5 Stress calculation 9.4.2 BFS element (conforming) 10.3 Rectangular plate-bending elements 10.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) 10.2 Shape function derivatives 9.3 HTK thick rectangular element 225 225 229 232 232 238 239 10.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) 244 245 248 250 References Index 257 265 .3 Stiffness integration 9.4 Stress calculations 203 204 207 vii 9.3.2 Thick triangular element (conforming) 10.4 Nine-node quadrilateral 9.4.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix 9.4 Element stiffness matrix 9.2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) 10.

able to store long lists of numbers and manipulate them. by means of a linear combination of trial functions. the unknown function is approximated over the entire domain. (2) Numerical Analysis. etc. weighted-residual. involving approximation methods. encompassing elasticity. and (3) Applied Computer Science. the set of finite elements is known as the mesh and the trial functions are referred to as interpolation functions. strength of materials. dealing with the development and maintenance of large computer codes. The subdomains are called finite elements. The procedure is a discretized approach: the geometric shape or the internal stressstrain-displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like coordinates) distributed through the structure. The aim is finding an approximate solution to a boundary. solving linear sets of equations. . within each element. Its task is to model and describe the mechanical behaviour of geometrically complex structures. 1. FEA is used to solve large-scale analytical problems. This requires a matrix notation. and defining the unknown state variable approximately. eigenproblems. With the individually defined functions matching each other at certain points called nodes. INTRODUCTION Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as applied to structures is a multidisciplinary technique.1.and initialvalue problem by dividing the domain of the system into a set of interconnected finite-sized subdomains of different size and shape.1 Object of FEA The object of FEA is to replace the infinite degree of freedom system in continuum applications by a finite system exhibiting the same basis as discrete analysis. based on knowledge from three fields: (1) Structural Mechanics. The primary difference between the FEA and other approximate methods for the solution of boundary-value problems (finite-difference. etc. dynamics. plasticity. The tools are the computers.

The computer is not only able to solve the discretized equations of equilibrium. The outstanding success of the finite element method can be attributed to a large extent to timing. Galerkin) is that in the FEA the approximation is confined to relatively small subdomains. the evaluation of such a function will require the solution of simultaneous equations. In FEA. or to handle parameter non-uniformities. should be easier. In order to match a given irregular boundary.2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Rayleigh-Ritz. The wide use of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method has been limited by the inability to generate suitable admissible functions for a large number of practical problems. Perhaps more important is the fact that the finite element method can accommodate systems with complicated geometries and parameter distributions. difficult to handle on a routine basis. some of them made available as open source free software. so were increasingly powerful digital computers. Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. systems with complex boundary conditions or complex geometry cannot be described easily by global admissible functions. . Since the entire domain is divided into numerous elements and the function is approximated in terms of its values at the element nodes. This was possible only at the time the computers became available. While the finite element method was being developed. in the FEA the admissible functions (called shape functions) are defined over element domains with simple geometry and pay no attention to complications at the boundaries. by making decisions concerning the finite element mesh and the assembly of stiffness matrices. Mathematically. In turn. While solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions may be difficult. the FEA can change not only the size of the finite elements but also their shape. which tend to have complicated expressions. This is the heart of the FEA when 2 applied to structures. which led to automation. This extreme versatility. has made the FEA the method of choice for the analysis of structures. in the FEA an approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. FEA is a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. but also to carry out such diverse tasks as the formulation of equations. solving [ A ] { x } = { b } is equivalent to 1 minimizing P (x ) = { x }T [ A ]{ x } − { x }T { b }. the equations of equilibrium are obtained from variational principles implying the stationarity of the functional defined by the total potential energy. defined over small subdomains of the structure. even approximately. Indeed. which is often difficult. coupled with the development of powerful computer codes based on the method. integrating known polynomial functions.

a structure is discretized (hypothetically) into finite elements and points named nodes are selected on the inter-element boundaries or in the interior of the elements. and (3) the versatility. Displacements at the nodes are taken as the primary discrete variables. The six basic steps of FEA are the following: (1) discretize the continuum. leaving only the magnitude to be found. understanding the pedigree of elements and spotting wrong answers due to the use of inadequate elements. The second part of the process is the assembly of the elements and the solution of the complete structural equations. The three main sources of approximation are: (1) the definition of the domain (physically or geometrically). the governing discrete equations are generated by a variational approach. Finer mesh yields also larger stiffness matrices. and (6) make additional computations if desired. (3) find the element properties.1. Finally. Among the reasons why the FEA has gained such universal acceptance are: (1) the routine choice of shape functions. Mesh refinements (and automatic mesh generation) do not bring necessarily increased accuracy. a larger number of equations to be solved. the internal stresses are in equilibrium with the applied loads. but may be trigonometric functions as well. hence larger computer storage space and running time. by just assembling predetermined element matrices. Finite elements are so small that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error. (5) solve the system of equations. All individual elements are assembled together in such a way that the displacements are continuous in some fashion across element interfaces. Developed originally as a method for analyzing stresses in complex aircraft structures. and curved elements flat). The first part of the finite element modeling process involves choosing the correct and appropriate types of elements. and the prescribed boundary conditions are satisfied. FEA has evolved into a technique that can be applied .2 Finite element displacement method In the finite element modeling. INTRODUCTION 3 1. making curved lines straight. The “shapes” are polynomials. (2) select interpolation functions. (2) the easiness of producing stiffness matrices (and load vectors). (4) assemble the element properties. (2) the discretization of the domain (cutting the corners. This involves recognizing error messages when this process breaks down or when it simply becomes inefficient because the structure has been modeled inconveniently. Modeling the joints and the contact between structural parts as well as the damping in dynamic problems are the most difficult tasks. and (3) the solution algorithms. Displacements within the elements are expressed in terms of these nodal displacements using interpolation functions referred to as shape functions.

Clough. The development of delta wing structures revived the interest in stiffness methods.4 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS to a large variety of linear and nonlinear. static. Ostenfeld (1926) is credited with the first book on the deformation method. The reason why Courant’s paper did not attract more attention can be attributed to poor timing. The formal presentation of the finite element method is attributed to Turner. computers capable of solving large sets of equations of equilibrium did not exist. panels. Martin. stiffeners and spars. . contains the derivation of the stiffness matrix of a flat rectangular panel using bilinear displacement interpolation.3 Historical view The idea of representing a given domain as a collection of discrete elements is not novel with the finite element method. collected later in a book by Argyris and Kelsey (1960). In the early 1940s. the idea found application in aircraft structural analysis. Ancient mathematicians estimated the value of π approximating the circumference of a circle by the perimeter of a polygon inscribed in the circle. The approximation methods have been developed by Ritz (1908) and Galerkin (1915). Turner formulated and perfected the Direct Stiffness Method at Boeing (1959). The use of piecewise continuous functions defined over a subdomain to approximate the unknown function dates back to Courant (1943). After the Second World War. The term “finite element” was first used by Clough (1960). The development of the Force Method ended in 1969. 1. who during 1952-1953 succeeded to directly derive the stiffness of a triangular panel at Boeing. stability and dynamic engineering problems. so that the method was not practical then. where wings and fuselages are treated as assemblages of stringers. ribs. In modern times. the Force Method (Flexibility Method) was sustained by Levy (1947) and Garvey (1951) and the matrix Displacement Method (Stiffness Method) was used by Levy (1953) in the sweptback wing analysis. But that geometry was inadequate to model delta wings. The first energy theorems have been established by Maxwell (1864) and Castigliano (1875). the article series by Argyris in four issues of Aircraft Engineering (1954. and Topp (1956). who used an assemblage of small triangular elements and the principle of minimum potential energy to study Saint Venant’s torsion problem. Modeling delta wings required two-dimensional panel elements of arbitrary geometry. The theoretical background of FEA laids on the energy approach of Structural Mechanics and on the approximation techniques. 1955). After a first attempt by Levy (1953) with triangular elements.

Since 1963. J. Starting with 1965 the NASTRAN finite element system was developed by COSMIC. followed by books by Przemieniecki (1968) and Gallagher (1964). Karlsson @ Sorensen. Melosh. PATRAN. 1. SESAM – by Det Norske Veritas. COSMOS-M – by Structural Research & Analysis Corp. IDEAS-MS. electromagnetics etc). ALGOR etc. who studied the sparse matrix assembly and solution techniques (1963). Bathe at M. (1975). Martin Baltimore and Bell Aero Systems under contract to NASA. Inc. boundary conditions. SAP5 and NONSAP. Preprocessing involves the input and preparation of data. crashworthiness. (2) processing. 1970). who systematized the variational derivation of stiffness matrices and recognized that FEA is a Rayleigh-Ritz method applied on small size elements (1963). finite element computer programs were freely disseminated into the nonaerospace community. STRUDL . and (3) postprocessing. fluids. who introduced the consistent mass matrix concept (1963). R. Research developed in the Civil Engineering Department at Berkeley.-J.1. MARC – by Marc Analysis Research Corporation. shape functions. completed in 1968 and first revised in 1972. and at Swansea University. 1966. SAMCEF .by the Civil Engineering Department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and McDonnell Douglas Automation Company (1967). MacNeal Schwendler. material properties and . and E. the inventor of isoparametric models. at Washington University.by SAMTECH (1965). under Martin. directed by Clough. static and dynamic stability. Irons. NISA – by Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation. Wilson.4 Stages of FEA FEA involves three stages of activity: (1) preprocessing. (1985). including computation of natural frequencies. Other known finite element codes are ANSYS. lead by Zienkiewicz. ADINA – developed by K. and thermal loading. He was joined later by K. S. STARDYNE by Mechanics Research Inc. (1978). developed by Swanson Analysis Systems (1970). developed the static condensation algorithm (1974) and three SAP computer programs (the first open source FEA software). Influential papers have been written by Argyris (1965). nonlinear static and dynamic response. ABAQUS . Bathe to develop the finite element codes SAP4 (1973). J. General purpose programs have capabilities of linear dynamic response. After 1967 the FEA has been applied to non-structural field problems (thermal. M.T.by Hibbitt.-J. Archer. L. INTRODUCTION 5 The first book devoted to FEA was written by Zienkiewicz and Cheung (1967). such as nodal coordinates. Major contributions are due to B. element connectivity.I. frontal solvers and the patch test (1964-1980). Fraeijs de Veubeke (1964) and Irons and coworkers (1964.

represented with hidden line removal. 1. 1. Fig. Fig. programs.2 . Automatic mesh generation can be used to produce nodal coordinate data and optimal node numbering. some input data can be imported from other F. through a userfriendly interface.1) and a car engine piston (Fig. Alternatively. are presented for a connecting rod (Fig. or C.2). or reading from a data file.6 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS loading. as obtained using the program SIMPAT developed by I.E. 1. Mesh plotting is a convenient and useful way of checking the input data.A.I. Badly placed nodes or improper blocking of boundary nodes can be easily traced.T. Italia.A. as well as element connectivity data.1 Three-dimensional finite element meshes. Data input can be carried out either in an interactive way. 1.D.

INTRODUCTION 7 The finite element model of a vehicle cabin frame obtained with MSC/NASTRAN is shown in Fig. Often this contains much more detail than the dynamic analysis requires.1. 1. 1. In static analyses. Fig. the cost of the solution of the linear set of equations increases linearly with the problem size. . so that condensation and dynamic substructuring are used to reduce the size of the dynamic problem before the processing stage. It would be obviously convenient to use in dynamic analyses the same finite element model that was built for the static analysis.3 In the processing stage. processing involves solving an eigenproblem or determining the transient response by incremental techniques.4 In dynamic analyses. and element quantities such as stresses and gradients (backcalculation). Fig. 1. the finite element program processes the input data and calculates the nodal variable quantities such as displacements and temperatures (equation solving).3. The cost in terms of computer resource increases with the cube of the problem size.

6. 1. b shows the optimized mesh obtained with the postprocessor ESTEREF. as obtained using ALGOR SUPERSAP. Early programs used tabular presentations. 1. vibration mode shapes and stress distributions. a Fig. containing only 814 elements and a four times reduced global discretization error.5 for a crankshaft. 1.5 Scalar nodal variables such as temperatures or pressures are presented in the form of contour plots of isotherms or isobars. Fig. 1. as in Fig. . Fig. with 1174 triangular 6-node elements. Most programs produce displays of the deformed configuration. Fig.6. 1.6 b Fig.4 shows the initial mesh and the deformed shape of a cooling tower under the wind action. a shows the two-dimensional initial mesh for the analysis of a gear tooth.8 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Postprocessing deals with the presentation of results. 1. More recent finite element programs show animated displays of the deformed configuration.

DISPLACEMENT METHOD In solving any structural problem.2. Once the displacements are determined. Fig.1 [74]. they are back-substituted into the compatibility equations to obtain bar extensions. T1 . 2. In order to illustrate the usual longhand analytical procedure. the procedure is referred to as the displacement method. T3 are the tensions in members and F1 . Variables include reaction forces at the supports and internal forces. a relatively simple pin-jointed framework will be used.1 Equilibrium equations Consider the truss shown in Fig. It works whether the structure is statically determinate or not. F2 . F5 are the reaction forces at the supports. 2. F4 . constitutive relationships and boundary conditions. there are four types of equations that should be used: equilibrium equations.1 . T2 . geometric compatibility conditions. and hence strains. 2. assume that all members are in tension and write the equilibrium of each node in turn. displacements of the bar ends and bar extensions (elongations). then stresses from the constitutive relationship. If forces and elongations are eliminated and the displacements are the variables which are solved first.

2. a b Fig.3. inclined an angle θ with respect to the X axis of the global coordinate system. 2. c) T3 2 /2 + F5 − T2 2 /2 = 0.3) The six equations (2. 2. (2. u 2 = U 2 cos θ + V 2 sin θ . T2 2 / 2 + F2 = 0.10 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS At Node 1 (Fig. At Node 3 (Fig. The displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as u 1 = U 1 cos θ + V 1 sin θ . At Node 2 (Fig. and consideration must be given to the geometry of deformation.2) (2.4) .1) (2. resolving forces horizontally and vertically leads to T1 + T2 2 2 + F1 = 0.3) have seven unknowns. 2.2. 2. 9 F − T2 2 / 2 − T3 2 /2 = 0.2 c 2. b). a).1) to (2. equilibrium gives 6 F − T1 − T3 2 /2 = 0. The system is statically indeterminate. 2. The solution is not possible by using only equilibrium.2.2 Conditions for geometric compatibility The compatibility equations relate a bar extension Δl to the displacements of the ends of the bar. Fig. Consider a typical pin-jointed element 1-2 of a frame. T3 2 / 2 + F4 = 0. The change in length of the member is (2.

2.U1 . 2E A Δl 23 = T3 2 l 2 2E A T l T1 l T l .9) EA 2E A 2E A Three more equations have been added and so there are now 12 equations for 16 unknowns.3 Applying equation (2. EA Δl 13 = T2 2 l 2 .6) (2. Starting from the Hooke’s law for uniaxial stress-strain conditions. Δl 23 = 3 .3 Force/elongation relations Truss members are in either simple tension or compression. Δl13 = (U 3 − U1 ) 2 2 + (V3 − V1 ) .5) Fig. ( ) ( ) (2.2. the force/elongation relations can be written Δl12 or T l = 1 . 2 2 2 ⎠ 2 .8) ⎛ 2⎞ ⎟ + (V3 − V2 ) Δl 23 = (U 3 − U 2 ) ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ The three equations (2.8) have nine unknowns. Δl13 = 2 . (2.7) (2. six displacements and three elongations.6) to (2. 2. Δl12 = . 2 (2. DISPLACEMENT METHOD 11 Δl = u 2 − u1 = U 2 − U1 cosθ + V 2 − V1 sin θ .5) to each member in turn leads to Δl12 = U 2 .

10).8) to force/displacement equations as follows T1 = EA EA ( U 2 − U1 ) . this set of six equations can be written in matrix form as .9) can be used to convert the compatibility equations (2. EA 6F l . EA F1 l .1) .5 Solving for displacements Equations (2.(2.10) 2. EA Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.12 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2.4 Boundary conditions The discrepancy of 4 equations is made up by adding the boundary conditions U1 = V1 = V2 = U 3 = 0 which complete the set of 22 linear algebraic equations. l l Substitution of the expressions for T1 to T3 into the equilibrium equations (2. EA − U1 − V1 − U 2 + V2 + 2 U 3 = − U1 − V1 + U 2 − V2 + 2 V3 = F5 l .3) yields 6 equations 2 U1 + V1 − U 2 − U 3 − V3 = U1 + V1 − U 3 − V3 = F2 l . Δl 12 = l l 2E A EA T2 = Δl 13 = 2 ( U 3 − U1 + V3 − V1 ) . EA − U1 + 2 U 2 − V2 − U 3 + V3 = − U 2 + V2 + U 3 − V3 = F4 l . EA 9 Fl . (2. l l 2E A EA T3 = Δl 23 = 2 ( − U 3 + U 2 + V3 − V2 ) .6)(2.

1)-(2.. F4 = −5 F . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 13 ⎡2 ⎢1 ⎢ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 ⎣ 1 1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 0 2 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 −1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎢U 2 ⎥ ⎢ 6 F ⎥ ⎥ ⋅ ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ .12) ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡U 2 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⎢1 2⎥ ⋅ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎨9 F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 3⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Substituting U 2 and V3 into the remaining equations yields the reaction forces F1 = −5F . i =1 i =1 7 7 (2.6 Comparison of the force method and displacement method Navier’s Problem. Divided by the corresponding area they give the stresses.7 ) the forces applied by each bar to the end nodes. 2.. (2. Force Method Denoting Ti ( i = 1. which are equal and opposite to the forces acting on the joints. F5 = − F . EA (2.14) . F2 = −4 F . Determine the internal bar forces and the displacement of joint 8.2.. the equilibrium equations of joint 8 can be written Fx − Fy − ∑ Ti cosθi = 0.3) yields the tensions in the members.4. EA V3 = 4 Fl .13) Substituting these forces into the equilibrium equations (2. ∑ Ti sinθi = 0. (2.. Consider the 7-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Figure 2.11) 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ 2 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2 ⎥ ⎢ V3 ⎥ ⎢ 9 F ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ The third and the sixth equation can be decoupled EA l and solved to give U2 = Fl . The joint 8 is subjected to a force of components Fx and Fy .

according to (2..18) .17) This is a set of five linear equations wherefrom the five redundant forces X 1 to X 5 are determined. 2.14). X 4 = T6 . so the framework is statically indeterminate. ∂X i ∂X i ( i = 1. ∂X i ( i = 1. ∂Fx v8 = ∂U ..14 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS This is a set of two equations with seven unknowns..16) since we are assuming no support movement.... and X 5 = T7 as redundant forces..5 ) (2.. ∂Fy (2. The components of the displacement of joint 8 are given by Castigliano’s second theorem u8 = ∂U .15) where T1 and T2 are functions of X 1 to X 5 . the five deformation conditions can be written ∂U = 0. X 2 = T4 . We choose X1 = T3 . X 3 = T5 .5 ) (2. Using Menabrea’s theorem. Fig. They are of the form l1 T1 ∂T1 ∂T + l 2 T2 2 + l i X i = 0 .4 The strain energy is U= 5 ⎞ 1 ⎛ 2 ⎜ T1 l 1 + T22l 2 + X i2l i ⎟ ⎟ 2 EA ⎜ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ ∑ (2.

3 a Fy − u8 EA ∑ i =1 cosθ i sin θ i − v 8 ∑ i =1 which is solved for u8 and v 8 . In matrix form they can be written ⎧ Fx ⎫ ⎡ K11 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ Fy ⎭ ⎣ K 21 K12 ⎤ ⎧ u8 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K 22 ⎥ ⎩ v 8 ⎭ ⎦ (2.. the larger the number of bars. Displacement Method The elongation-displacement (compatibility) equations (2.. The bar length is li = a .. only two equations are obtained for the two joint displacements.22) into the equilibrium equations (2... (2..... the larger the number of statically indeterminate forces.21) gives the force-displacement relations Ti = EA u 8 cos θ i + v 8 sin θ i sin θ i . DISPLACEMENT METHOD 15 In the force method.7 ) (2.5) are Δl i = u 8 cosθi + v 8 sin θi ...7 ) (2.23) sin θ i = 0 ..19) into the force-elongation equations Ti = EA Δl i li .24) where the stiffness coefficients are .7 ) (2.19) ( i = 1..22) Inserting (2. Regardless the number of concurrent bars. sinθ i ( i = 1.14) of joint 8 yields a Fx − u8 EA ∑ i =1 7 7 cos 2θ i sinθ i − v 8 2 ∑ i =1 7 7 sin 2θ i cosθ i = 0 .16).. hence the number of equations (2.20) Substituting (2.7 ) (2. ( i = 1... a ( ) ( i = 1.2.

409 i =1 7 EA . EA v 8 = 0.219 Fy a EA . a Solving (2. .567 EA .16 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS K11 = EA a ∑ cos2θi sinθi = 1. i =1 7 ∑ i =1 sin 3θ i = 4. a (2.25) K12 = K 21 = K 22 = EA a 7 EA a ∑ cosθi sin 2θi = 0.24) gives u 8 = 0. (2.26) The approach used in the displacement method is the same whether the structure is statically determinate or not.7097 Fx a .

3. Assembly and solution for displacements are of main concern. 3. We may imagine that the structure is built by adding elements one by one. It is acted upon by the nodal forces f1 . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD The Finite Element Method (FEM) started as an extension of the stiffness method or displacement method. cross section area Ae and Young’s modulus Ee . The nodal displacements are q 1 . It has length l e .) . q 2 . Consider a two-noded pin-jointed element in the own local coordinate system (Fig. They are natural finite elements.3.1). . linearly elastic. respectively. If the members are pin-ended bars they are real distinct elements requiring no approximation. bar elements are assumed to be uniform (EAe = const. As elements are added to the structure. with each element being placed in a preassigned location. which relates all joint displacements to all joint forces. Generally. hence to the structure stiffness matrix.1 Stiffness matrix for a bar element In the FEM. In the following. the names “joint” and “member” are replaced by node and element. pinconnected at the ends. axially loaded (no bending) and with no forces between ends. The relationship between the end forces and end displacements of each member is represented by an element stiffness matrix. contributions are made to the structure load carrying capacity. the elements of the actual structure are connected together at discrete joints. f 2 . the basic steps of the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM) are shown using a pin-jointed plane truss. In the stiffness method for skeletal structures. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. Starting with simple planar frameworks it is possible to explain the assembly process and to make an introduction into the matrix stiffness method.

1 Both the nodal displacements q 1 . q 2 and the nodal forces f1 . ⎣ ⎦ (3.6) . if end 2 is now fixed but end 1 allowed to move. which incorporate compatibility and stress/strain relations. le (3. q 1 = 1 e and Ee Ae f1 = − f 2 = Ee Ae q1 . (3. (3.5) where the element stiffness matrix in local coordinates is [ k ] = El A e e e e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ .3).1) Next.2) le Similarly. f l q 2 = 0 . the complete stiffness relationship is obtained as ⎧ f1 ⎫ Ee Ae ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = 1⎥ le ⎢ ⎪ f 2 ⎪e ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 23 144− 1443 ⎭ 2 1 nodal forces element stiffness matrix nodal displacements ⎧q1 ⎫ ⎨q ⎬ 2 ⎩ 2⎭e 1 3 (3.4) or { f }= [ k ] { q } e e e (3. then for q 1 = 0 . q 2 = 2 e and Ee Ae E A f1 = − f 2 = − e e q 2 . f 2 are positive in the positive x direction. the force/elongation relations are used. 3.18 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. If end 1 is fixed and end 2 is allowed to f l move. The equilibrium equation for the bar element is f1 + f 2 = 0.3) Combining equations (3.2) and (3.

Nodal displacements are denoted by lower case letters in the local coordinate system and by upper case letters in the global coordinate system. Displacements in the local coordinate frame xOy can be expressed in terms of the displacements in the global coordinate frame as (2.4) q 1 = Q x1 cos θ e + Q y1 sin θ e . 3. the angle θ e is the angle between the positive X-axis and the positive direction of the beam (defined as 1 to 2). 3. so that nodal forces and nodal displacements can be arranged into 4-element column vectors related by a 4 × 4 stiffness matrix.2. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 19 3. q 2 = Q x 2 cos θ e + Q y 2 sin θ e .3.2 Let the bar be inclined an angle θ e with respect to the X-axis of the global coordinate system. End forces and displacements have two components at each node.2.1 Coordinate transformation A typical bar element 1-2 is shown in Figure 3. where both the local coordinate system xOy and the global coordinate system XOY are drawn. Fig.7) . In fact.2 Transformation from local to global coordinates Bar elements in a truss have different orientations in space and it is necessary to define their stiffness properties with respect to a single global coordinate system attached to the whole structure. In matrix form (3.

3. 3. 3.Y1 ) and ( X 2 . we obtain cos θ e = . e e e (3. respectively.20 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ Qx 2 ⎪ ⎪ Qy2 ⎪ ⎩4 4e ⎭ 123 local displacements ⎧ q1 ⎫ 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ cosθ e sinθ e ⎪ ⎪ = ⎢ ⎨q ⎬ 0 0 cosθ e sinθ e ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ e 123 4 4 1444444 2444444 3 4 4 transformation matrix (3. denoting X 2 − X1 le ( X 1 .3) subjected to forces f1 and f2 applied at the ends 1 and 2.2.3 The force components in the global coordinate system are .9) 0 ⎤ sinθ e ⎥ ⎦ where [T ] = ⎡⎢ cosθ 0 e e ⎣ sinθ e 0 0 cosθ e (3.2 Force transformation Consider the pin-jointed member (Fig.8) global displacements or { q }= [T ] { Q }. le = (X 2 − X 1 ) 2 + (Y 2 − Y1 ) 2 . sin θ e = Y 2 − Y1 le . Fig. From nodal coordinate data.10) is a coordinate transformation matrix.Y 2 ) the coordinates of nodes 1 and 2. The entries in the matrix (3.10) are calculated based on the above equations.

e e T e e . Work is a scalar quantity. e e T e (3. In matrix form Fx 2 = f 2 cosθ e . e T e e T e e T e e T e (3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 21 Fx1 = f1 cosθ e . Fy1 = f1 sinθ e . 3.13) {F }= [T ] { f }= [T ] [ k ] { q }= [14]4[2444] { Q } T k ][ T 4 3 e e T e e T e e e T e e e we find where {F } = [ K ] { Q } e e e (3.15) (3.14) Substituting (3. Fy 2 = f 2 sinθ e .12) or { F } = [ T ] { f }. having the same value regardless the coordinate system { f } { q }= {F } { Q } .13). .9) for the local displacements. then equation (3.16) [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ].9) into the resulting matrix product. (3.13).13) Equation (3.3 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates Inserting equation (3. and comparing with (3.2.3.14) becomes { f } { q } = { f } [T ] { Q } = {F } { Q } .13) can be directly obtained from consideration of mechanical work. =⎢ ⎨F ⎬ ⎢ 0 cosθ e ⎥ ⎩ f 2 ⎭ e ⎪ x2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪Fy ⎪ sinθ e ⎦ 2 ⎭e ⎩ 23 ⎣ 0 1 4 4 144 244 3 1 3 4 4 2 transformation matrix local forces (3.5) into (3. equation (3.11) global force components ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ 0 ⎤ ⎡cosθ e ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ sinθ 0 ⎥ ⎧ f1 ⎫ ⎪ y1 ⎪ e ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ . e e T e hence { f } [T ] = { F } e T e e T which by transposition becomes (3.

1 Symmetric matrix Stiffness matrices are symmetrical [ K ]= [K ] e e T . ⎢ c2 c s ⎥ ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ s 2 ⎥ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪e ⎢SYM ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ (3. And so must be its inverse.10) we find the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates [K ] e ⎡ c2 cs − c2 − cs⎤ ⎢ ⎥ E A cs s2 − cs − s2 ⎥ = e e⎢ 2 . singular (order 4. rank 1) and each column (row) sums to zero. 3.18) According to Maxwell’s reciprocity theorem.17) where c = cosθ e and s = sin θ e . Remember that the element stiffness matrix is a proportionality factor between the components of forces applied by the nodes to the element and the components of nodal displacements in global coordinates ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪F ⎪ Ee Ae ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = Fx 2 ⎪ le ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e ⎡ c2 c s − c 2 − c s ⎤ ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ s 2 − c s − s 2 ⎥ ⎪ Qy1 ⎪ ⎢ ⋅⎨ ⎬ . Expressing displacements in terms of forces gives { Q }= [ K ] { F }= [ δ ] { F } e e −1 e e e so that the inverse of the stiffness matrix is the flexibility matrix [K ] e −1 = δe .2.4.4 Properties of the element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is symmetric. [ ] . the flexibility matrix δ e must be symmetrical about the leading diagonal. with positive diagonal elements. the stiffness matrix.2.22 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Carrying out the matrix multiplications and using (3. [ ] (3.17. a) 3. l e ⎢− c − cs c2 cs ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 2 cs s2 ⎥ ⎢− c s − s ⎣ ⎦ (3.

19) we obtain the strain energy which is a scalar T 1 Ue = Qe K e Qe .3 Positive diagonal elements Each diagonal entry of the matrix K e is positive.20) 2 We = { }{ } { } [ ]{ } e T e T It is equal to its transpose Ue = 1 2 { Q } [K ] { Q } e (3.3. 3. 3. a force and its corresponding displacement would be oppositely directed. The rank deficiency is 3 and this corresponds to the three possible and independent forms of rigid body motion in plane for the unsupported bar: two translations and one rotation. (3.20. so that the stiffness matrix has rank 1 (or its rank deficiency is 3). displacements are proportional to the applied loads. (3. this work is absorbed by the structure as strain energy. [ K ]= [K ] e e T . If this were not so. One can verify that the determinants of the 3× 3 and 2 × 2 reduced sets are still zero.15) into (3.4. The rigid body modes are defined {Q } e for which 2U e = Q e T e e e by the eigenvectors corresponding to its zero eigenvalues.19) 2 In the absence of dynamic effects.2. The rank of a matrix is the size of the largest sub-matrix with a non-zero determinant. a) so that which defines the symmetry. The matrix [ K ] is said to be singular. This can only be true if the determinant of [ K ] vanishes. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 23 The same result can be obtained following strain energy arguments. the total work done by these forces is T 1 Qe Fe . For linear structures. A single ungrounded bar can be moved in space as a rigid body without straining it and hence with zero strain energy.2 Singular matrix The element stiffness matrix is of order 4 and rank 1. Substituting (3.2. The zero determinant implies that there are linear relationships between its columns (rows).4. This means that there exist a set of rigid body displacements e e e { } [ K ] { Q }= 0 wherefrom [ K ] { Q } = { 0 } . which is [ ] . As forces are increased from zero to their final values.

Fy1 = k21 . (3. That is.⎦ ⎪Q y 2 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (3.17.⎥ ⎪ Q y1 = 0 ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ ⎬ .⎥ ⎪Qx 2 = 0 ⎪ ⎥ . whose components must le be equilibrated by the external forces k11 . k21 + k41 = 0 . k31 and k 41 .4. . Moreover.2. .4 Each column (row) sums to zero [ ] Consider a bar element with end 2 fixed Qx 2 = Q y 2 = 0 and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis Qx1 = 1. Fy 2 = k 41 . . . . ( ( ) ) Fig. . a) can be written ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ y1 ⎪ ⎢k 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which yields .24 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS physically unsound. 3.22) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces that must be applied to the element to preserve static equilibrium when Qx1 = 1 and all other displacements are zero.⎤ ⎧ Qx1 = 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ .21) Fx1 = k11 . the quadratic form that represents strain energy (3. the matrix K e is positive semidefinite. Fx 2 = k31 . Q y1 = 0 as in Fig. The displacement Qx1 = 1 produces an axial shortening Qx1 cosθ e = cosθ e . . .4. . E A which corresponds to a compressive force e e cosθ e . 3. Equilibrium of horizontal and vertical forces yields k11 + k31 = 0 .4 Equation (3. k 21 . 3.20) is either positive or zero.

The same applies for the other columns.6. 3. 3.1.3 Link’s truss In order to illustrate the assembly of the global stiffness matrix from the elemental stiffness matrices. Fig. 2. a b .5 The truss comprises 3 elements and 3 nodes. Fig. The global displacements and nodal forces are shown in Fig. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 25 so that the first column sums to zero. 3.5. firmly located in 1.3. 3. In the element stiffness matrix. consider Link’s truss [74] shown in Fig. A node whose global index is i has associated with it the global displacements and forces (2 i − 1) and 2 i . already analyzed in Chapter 2. It is simply supported in 2 and 3. each column represents an equilibrium set of nodal forces produced by a unit displacement of one nodal degree of freedom. and acted upon by forces 6F and 9F.

Element numbering can be arbitrary. the element stiffness matrices (3.6 Element data are given in Table 3. 3. The first three columns define the element connectivities.1 together with information useful for the computation.26 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.4 Direct method Using the data from Table 3.e.1 Member Nodes θe 0 cosθ e 1 2 2 2 2 sinθ e 0 2 2 2 2 c2 1 s2 0 1 2 1 2 cs 0 i 1 1 j 2 le EAe EAe le l 2 l 2 EA EA l EA l EA l 2 1 3 45 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 2 EA 2 3 2 3 135 − 2 l 2 2 EA 2 3.17) are calculates as 1 2 3 4 ⎡• • • • K ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢ ⎢• • • • K ⎢K K K K K ⎢ ⎢K K K K K ⎣ K⎤ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎥.1. ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎣ ⎦ . Table 3. their localization within the structure. i. K⎥ K⎥ ⎥ K⎥ ⎦ [K ] 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢ 0 = l ⎢− 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 0⎤ 1 0 0 0⎥ 2 ⎥ 0 1 0⎥ 3 ⎥ 0 0 0⎦ 4 T 1 2 5 6 [ ] ⎡ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ E A ⎢ 1 1 − 1 − 1⎥ 2 T K2 = 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 − 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ 1⎦ 6 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎡• • K K • •⎤ ⎢• • K K • •⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢K K K K K K⎥ ⎢ ⎥.

An alternative algebraic explanation of the assembly of system stiffness matrices is presented in the following. element 2 is located in the truss between the left end node i = 1 and the right end node j = 3 (nodal labels i and j may be assigned arbitrarily). K • • • •⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎦ [ ] At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. In the global matrix. the two displacement and force components (along X and Y) for node i = 1 are numbered 2 i − 1 = 1 and 2 i = 2 . For instance. as indicated by dots above.2.2 Node Element 1 2 3 2 Direction X Y X Y Local nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 Global nodal coordinate 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 6 3 4 5 6 1 The assembly of the unreduced global stiffness matrix (3. each member will contribute with a force component to maintain equilibrium under an arbitrary set of nodal displacements. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 27 and 3 4 5 6 ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎤ 3 ⎢ 1 − 1⎥ 4 T E A ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ K3 = 1 − 1⎥ 5 l ⎢− 1 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1⎦ 6 ⎡K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎢K ⎢ ⎢K ⎣ K K K K K⎤ K K K K K⎥ ⎥ K • • • •⎥ ⎥. Table 3. .3. according to Table 3.28) is done systematically. eventually adding it to the coefficients already accumulated at that location. so that if a node is common to several elements. The simple addition of different stiffness coefficients in a location is based on the fact that finite element equations are in fact nodal equilibrium equations. and those for the node j = 3 are numbered 2 j − 1 = 5 and 2 j = 6 . This is referred to as the direct matrix method. locating each coefficient of the element stiffness matrices into the appropriate place in the global 6 × 6 matrix (for this example). the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown.

23) Q e = T e { Q }.23) applied to the three elements yields ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪Q ⎪ 0 = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T1 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 0⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ {Q } 1 [ ] [Q ] . { } ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎪ 2 Q = ⎨ 2⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ~ ⋅⎨ ⎬ = T 2 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎤ ⎪Q2 ⎪ 0⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ~ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = T 3 ⎨ ⎬ 0⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎥ 1⎦ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩Q6 ⎭ [ ] [ Q ]. . { } ⎧Q3 ⎫ ⎡0 ⎪Q ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 0 Q3 = ⎨ 4 ⎬ = ⎢ ⎪Q5 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎢0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 [ ] [ Q ]. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere. can be expressed by equations of the form ~ (3.5 Compatibility of nodal displacements The compatibility of nodal displacements at element level. { Q } is the element displacement vector in global coordinates.5. 3.28 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 3. equation (3. with the nodal displacements at the whole truss structure level. {Q } is the ~ displacement vector of the truss structure and [T ] is referred to as a e For the truss from Fig. { } [ ] where e full connectivity or localization matrix.

a) Ue = 1 2 ~ ~ { Q }T [T e ] T [ K e ][T e ]{ Q } Ue = 1 2 or ~ { Q }T [ K e ]{ Q }.3.6 Expanded element stiffness matrix The element strain energy in global coordinates can be written in terms of the global displacement vector. 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎦ or ⎡ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ~ 1 EA ⎢− 1 K = ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 − 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 0 0 0⎥ ⎥. For the truss from Fig. 0 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ 1 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 1 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢ 1 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ l ⎢ − 1 − 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ 1 ⎦ ⎣0 0 0 ⎣− 1 − 1 1 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ [ ] ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [K ][T~ ] 2 2 T 2 2 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥.23) into (3. equation (3. 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎦ . substituting (3.20. where the expanded element stiffness matrix ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ] [T ] e e T e e (3. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 29 3.5.24) yields ⎡1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 0⎤ 1 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎥ EA ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ l ⎢− 1 ⎢ 0 0 0⎥ ⎣ 0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎦ ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 1 1 T 1 1 0 − 1 0 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0⎦ ⎣0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 0⎥ .24) has the size of the system matrix.

7 Unreduced global stiffness matrix The strain energy for the complete truss structure 1 { Q }T [ K ]{ Q }.30 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS or ~ [K ] 2 1 ⎡ 1 ⎢ 1 1 ⎢ 0 EA ⎢ 0 = ⎢ 0 l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢1 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎤ 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎦ and ~ [K ] = [T~ ] [ K ][T~ ] 3 3 T 3 3 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎡ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ EA ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥⋅⎢ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0⎥ l ⎢− 1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ ⎣ 1 − 1 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎣0 ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎥. 0 0 0 1 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0 0 1⎦ or ~ [K ] 3 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ EA ⎢0 = ⎢ l ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ 3.25) and (3.26) Comparing (3. . (3.27) The global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices. 2 can be calculated by simply adding the element strain energies U= (3.25) U= 1 1 ~ ~ ∑U = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K ] { Q }.26) we get ~ [ K ]= ∑[K e ] e . T e T e e e e e (3. 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ 0 1 −1 − 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 0 1 0 0⎥ .

An exploded layout of the truss is shown in Fig. has positive elements along the main diagonal and each column (row) sums to zero.28) The expanded element stiffness matrices have been used above only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix. 3. 3. equation (3. using for convenience the truss from Fig. ⎢ 0 − 1 1 1 − 1⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 0 ⎦ ⎣ [ ] ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [ K 1 ]+ [ K 2 ]+ [ K 3 ] (3. An alternative presentation is given below. the deficiency is 3). based on joint equilibrium equations. The expensive product (3. are used in the following. we obtain 6 equilibrium equations . Equal forces are labelled only once for clarity. Note that element equilibrium equations (3. The global stiffness assembly is a simple book-keeping exercise and is done by directly placing the nonzero coefficients of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity. Resolving nodal forces horizontally and vertically. they are never used in practice. For the truss from Fig.5.1) used so far involved only forces applied by nodes to the elements. It corresponds to the free-free system. involving forces applied by elements to nodes. The joint equilibrium equations.7. singular (for a plane truss. Apart from external forces and support reactions.5. this matrix is condensed using the boundary conditions. 3. The effect of elastic supports modelled as lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their stiffnesses along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the stiffness matrix.24) is never formed.8 Joint force equilibrium equations The assembly of the global stiffness matrix has been based on strain energy considerations. For a grounded system.3. nodes are acted upon by forces equal and in opposite direction to those applied to elements.27) yields ⎡ 2 1 − 1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 1 − 1 1⎥ EA ⎢− 1 0 = ⎥. 3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 31 The unreduced stiffness matrix K is symmetric.

3. e (3. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS F5 = Fx22 + Fx32 .29) . Fig.32 1 F1 = Fx1 + Fx2 . 1 1 F2 = Fy1 + Fy2 . 3 F6 = Fy22 + Fy 2 . 1 1 F3 = Fx 2 + Fx3 . 1 1 3 F4 = Fy 2 + Fy1 .7 In matrix form 1 ⎧ Fx1 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 1 ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎪−−− ⎪ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ ⎪ ⎪ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx2 ⎪ 1 ⎥ 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎨ 2 ⎬ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎪−−− ⎪ ⎦ 14 244 14 244 4 3 4 3 F3 ⎪ x1 ⎪ ~2 T ~3 T T T ⎪F3 ⎪ ⎪ y1 ⎪ 3 ⎪ Fx 2 ⎪ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎪ Fy 2 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎢ 0 1 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 1 0 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 1 ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ F6 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 ⎣ 4 ⎩ ⎭ 14 244 3 [ T~ ] 1 T [ ] [ ] whose partitioned form can be written in scalar product form as ~ ~ ~ { F } = [ T 1 ] T {F 1 }+ [ T 2 ] T {F 2 }+ [ T 3 ] T {F 3 } or generally ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {F e }.

15) and (3. b j and b0 are known constants. Qi = 0 .29) becomes ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T [ K e ]{Q e }= ∑ e e ~ [1~4]44K 444] {Q }.31) are of the form ⎡ K11 K12 L K1N ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢K ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 21 K 22 L K 2 N ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ = ⎪ F2 ⎪ .23).27). L L ⎥ ⎪L⎪ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎥ L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN − K N 1 a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. Boundary conditions eliminate the possibility of the structure to move as a rigid body. As Q1 is known. where ns is the number of supports. the finite element equations in the remaining N − 1 unknowns are ⎡ K 22 ⎢K ⎢ 32 ⎢ L ⎢ ⎣K N 2 K 23 K 33 L KN3 L K 2 N ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ F2 − K 21 a1 ⎫ L K 3 N ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 − K 31 a1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎪ = ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬.32) . using equations (3. Q1 = a1 .3.31) The unreduced global stiffness matrix K relates the unreduced vector of nodal forces { F } to the unreduced vector of nodal displacements { Q }.30) then. Another type are the multipoint constraints. the finite element equations (3. [ 2 ][ T 3 T e T e e (3. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎢L L L L ⎥ ⎪ L ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ K N 1 K N 2 L K NN ⎦ ⎪QN ⎪ ⎪ FN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Consider a single boundary condition.9 Reduced global stiffness matrix The global truss should be supported adequately and there should be no internal mechanism. encountered in inclined roller supports and rigid connections. [ ] 3. For an N-degree-of-freedom structure. A general type of boundary conditions include specified displacements of the support nodes. e (3.24) and (3. where bi . of the type Qi = ai ( i = 1 to ns ). Most often the support nodal displacements are zero. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 33 Substituting (3. equation (3. of the type bi Qi + b j Q j = b0 . it can be written ~ { F } = ∑ [ K e ] {Q } = [ K ] {Q } .

35) The first two equations can be written EA ⎡2 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎧6 F ⎫ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢1 2⎥ ⎣Q6 ⎦ ⎩9 F ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ . 0 −1 1 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ l ⎢ 0 ⎢− 1 − 1 − 1 1 2 0⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 2⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢− 1 − 1 1 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (3. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 0 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F4 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ −1 −1 1 2⎦ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F5 ⎥ −1 (3. Equations (3. the reduced global stiffness matrix is obtained deleting as many rows and columns as the number of specified displacements. The matrix [ K ] is not singular.5. 3. It is instructive now to consider the truss from Fig.34 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The ( N − 1 ) × (N − 1) stiffness matrix above is obtained simply by deleting or eliminating the first row and column from the original ( N × N ) stiffness matrix.34) can be rearranged as follows ⎡ 2 1 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎢ EA ⎢− 1 − 1 l ⎢ 0 −1 ⎢ ⎢− 1 − 1 ⎢ ⎣− 1 0 0 − 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎡Q3 ⎤ ⎡6 F ⎤ ⎥ − 1 − 1 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎢Q6 ⎥ ⎢9 F ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 2 1 0 − 1⎥ ⋅ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ F1 ⎥ . the following set of linear equations is obtained 1 −1 0 − 1 − 1⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ F1 ⎤ ⎡ 2 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 1 0 0 − 1 − 1⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ F2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ 0 2 −1 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢Q3 ⎥ ⎢6 F ⎥ EA ⎢ − 1 ⎢ ⎥ ⋅⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ . { Q } and { F } are the reduced vectors of global displacements and forces. Equation (3. respectively. Having assembled the unreduced global stiffness matrix.33) can be solved for the displacement vector { Q } using Gauss elimination. and where the forces are specified. (3. the nodal forces are unknown. the nodal displacements are unknown.34) It can be seen that where the displacements are specified. The final equations (3. For a truss supported on many supports. after substitution of the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q4 = Q5 = 0 and the values of the applied forces F3 = 6 F and F6 = 9 F .32) may be written in condensed form [ K ] { Q } = { F }.33) where [K ] is a reduced stiffness matrix. obtained by eliminating the row and column corresponding to the specified or “support” degrees of freedom.

for non-zero boundary conditions. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 35 and solved to give Fl Fl Q6 = 4 .33) can be written in partitioned form Q3 = ⎡ [ K aa ] ⎢[K ] ⎣ ba [ K ab ]⎤ ⎧ { Qa }⎫ ⎧ { Fa }⎫ ⋅ = . 3. { Qa } = [ K aa ] −1 ( { Fa } − [ K ab ] { Qb } ) . T { Fa } is the vector of known forces. are given by { Fb } = [ K ab ] T { Qa }+ [ K bb ] { Qb } .5) is Δl e = q2 − q1 = ( Qx 2 − Qx1 ) cosθ e + ( Q y 2 − Q y1 ) sinθ e (3. so that ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎧− 5F ⎫ ⎡ − 1 − 1⎤ ⎪F ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1⎥ Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⋅ ⎧ 3 ⎫ = ⎪− 4 F ⎪ .39) For the truss from Fig.37) then multiplied to the left by [ K aa ] −1 to yield the unknown displacements The unknown forces. [ K bb ]⎥ ⎨ { Qb }⎬ ⎨ { Fb }⎬ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ (3. 3. = ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎢ − 1 − 1⎥ ⎩Q6 ⎭ ⎪ − 5 F ⎪ ⎪ F4 ⎪ ⎥ ⎢ ⎪ F5 ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎣− 1 0 ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The elongation of an element (2. which in this case are the external reactions.5.36) is the vector of known where displacements and [ K ba ] = [ K ab ] . EA EA In general.40) which can be computed when all displacements have been determined. equations (3. . (3.3.38) (3.10 Reactions and internal forces (3. The axial force in a truss element is . { Qb } The first set of equations can be written { Fa } = [ K aa ] { Qa }+ [ K ab ] { Qb } . the support displacements are zero.

where A is the cross-section area. Accordingly.5. the element acts upon its nodes with equal and opposite forces { FT } = α EAT b − c − s c s cT . Duhamel (1838). l Stresses can be determined dividing these forces by the element crosssection areas. 3. M. (3. Restraining produces a compressive axial force α EAT in the element.42) .11 Thermal loads and stresses Thermal stresses are calculated using the “restraining method” suggested by J. The restrained state is equivalent to a pre-stressing with compressive stresses σ T = −α ET .36 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Qx1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ E A E A ⎪ y1 ⎪ Te = e e Δl e = e e b − c − s c s c ⎨ ⎬ . l 2 EA ( Q3 + Q6 ) = 5 2 F . Q3 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 2⎪ T2 = b − 1 − 1 1 1c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 EA 2 ⎪ 4⎪ T3 = b1 1 − 1 1 c ⎨ ⎬= l 2 ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (3. where E is Young’s modulus. Suppose the node displacements are completely restrained (blocked). 3.41) 2 EA Q6 = 4 2 F . This produces thermal strains ε T = −α T . the member forces are ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎪Q ⎪ EA ⎪ ⎪ EA T1 = b−1 0 1 0c ⎨ 2 ⎬ = Q3 = F . where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the amount of uniform heating (temperature difference). C. le le ⎪Q x 2 ⎪ ⎪Q y 2 ⎪ ⎭e ⎩ For the truss from Fig.

e. { fT } = α EAT b − 1 1cT .12 Node numbering Stiffness matrices are symmetric and sparse.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 37 or. 3. the initial stresses produced by restraining. Even so. due to the sparseness. the element elongations are determined from (3. They are also banded. only the diagonal elements and those from one side of the main diagonal are retained.e. i. adding to the stresses produced by the thermal (and external) loads. It is as if unrestraining forces are applied at the ends of the element to free it from the initial restraining. ⎜ l ⎟ ⎝ e ⎠ i. (3. After determining the displacements produced by these forces. ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ×⎥ ⎦ [ ] ⎡× × × × ⎢ × × × ⎢ ⎢ × × ⎢ × ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ K =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢s y m m ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × e t r i c (3. with nonzero elements in the upper triangle identified by the symbol X ← B → × × × × × × × × × × × × 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. a.44) Because of symmetry. there are many zero elements in the upper triangle.43) σ e = Ee ⎜ e − α T ⎟ . with the nonzero elements clustered in a band along the main diagonal. The half-bandwidth is denoted B.37) and the stresses are calculated as ⎛ Δl ⎞ (3. if the case). Consider the 12 × 12 unreduced global stiffness matrix of the truss from Fig.8. This is obvious for one-directional structures and can be achieved by rational node numbering in other structures. 3. .42. in local coordinates. a) These forces should be included in the vector of nodal forces (added to the external forces.

For the numbering scheme of Fig. the information in the above matrix can be compactly stored in the 12× 6 matrix below 1 2 ↓ ↓ ⎡× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× =⎢ × ⎢ ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎢ ⎢× ⎢× ⎣ × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × × B ↓ ×⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥.44).8 b For plane trusses. a . . then progressing along the longer dimension.8. equal to the size of the original matrix. a small bandwidth can be obtained by numbering nodes along the shorter dimension of a structure. B = 6 .e. 3. b. 3. 3. B is equal to 2 plus twice the maximum node number difference in an element.8. In general.38 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Since only nonzero elements need to be stored. As a general rule. B = 12 . the mth diagonal of the original matrix is stored as the mth column. for the numbering from Fig. The number of columns in the banded-form storage is equal to B . ⎥ ×⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [ Kb ] The first column contains the diagonal elements of the full matrix (3. The efficiency of band-storage increases with the order of the matrix. However. i. The second column contains the elements from the second diagonal.the half-bandwidth of the original matrix. a Fig.

In this case. efficient reduction of both storage and computing time can be achieved using the skyline storage and a skyline equation solver. only the elements between the diagonal term and the first nonzero term need be stored. If there are zeros at the top of a column.3. The line separating the top zeroes from the first nonzero element is called the skyline. Apart from storage savings. For large sparse stiffness matrices. the columns of the matrix upper triangle are stored serially and concatenated in a column vector { K s } . ⎨ ⎬ ⎪12 ⎪ ⎪13 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪17 ⎪ ⎪22⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . Consider the following matrix Column height → 1 2 2 0 k 23 k33 4 k14 k 24 k34 k 44 3 0 0 k35 0 k55 1 0 0 0 0 0 k 66 4 0 0 0 k 47 0 k67 k77 5 0 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ k 48 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ k 78 ⎥ ⎥ k88 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡k11 k12 ⎢ k 22 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Skyline The active columns are stored in the column vector { K s } and a diagonal pointer vector { ID } is built up with the indices of diagonal elements in { K s } ⎧ k11 ⎫ ⎪ k ⎪←1 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ k22 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←3 ⎪ k23 ⎪ ⎪ k33 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪←5 ⎪ k14 ⎪ {Ks } = ⎨ ⎬ ⎪ k24 ⎪ ⎪ k34 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ k44 ⎪ ⎪ L ⎪←9 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪L⎪ ⎪k ⎪ ⎩ 88 ⎭ ⎧1⎫ ⎪3⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪5⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 9 { ID } = ⎪ ⎪ . DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 39 The half-bandwidth is automatically determined within the finite element program from the node numbering. Gaussian elimination algorithms are used for symmetric banded matrices which enable also the reduction of computer time.

A generic flow chart of the Matrix Displacement Method is given in the following. For the solution of the finite element equations.40 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The height of the jth column is given by ID ( j ) − ID ( j − 1) . Matrix Displacement Method Input Data Geometric data of truss (Nodal coordinates) Material properties + Cross-section area of members Connectivity table of elements Boundary conditions ↓ 1 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Transformation to global coordinates ↓ 2 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix ↓ 3 Introduction of boundary conditions ↓ 4 Solving the linear set of equations ↓ 5 Back-calculation External reactions Member forces (and stresses) 6 . Gaussian elimination can be applied using a skyline solver program.

3 2. a.1 -391. A = 1 .6 176 62. 7 6. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Coord X 0 4 4 8 8 12 12 16 Coord Y 0 0 3 0 6 0 3 0 Displ X 0 64 208. 8 Axial stress 12 -4. 7 6.7 -339. a) The finite element model consists of 8 nodes and 13 elements.1.83 0 12 -15 . Fig. a Answer. 4 3. 2 1. 6 4.1 -361. E3.83 8 Element nr 8 9 10 11 12 13 Nodes 4. Plot the deformed shape. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 41 Exercises E3. E3. E = 1 and F = 1 .3 128 127. 8 7.16 -10. Taking l = 1 .1.3. For the truss in Fig. 7 5. 5 Axial stress 16 -10 0 16 -9.16 -10.7 0 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nodes 1.8 -343. determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement and its location b) the maximum stress and its location. 3 2. 4 3. and c) the support reactions.7 -339. 6 4.9 224 Displ Y 0 -361.1.

1.1.2. b E3. b) the maximum stress.787 EA element 7 is N 7 = −6 F A . The finite element model consists of 7 nodes and 11 elements. E3. Fig. b. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 5. R2 = 6 . Plot the deformed shape. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 7 is v7 = −219. E3.42 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The support reactions are R1 = −8 . The deformed shape is shown in Fig.2. a Answer. E3.4 F . Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig.2. Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. and R3 = 9 . and c) the support reactions. a) Fl . and R2 = 6 F . b. . Fig.2. E3. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. E3. a.

3.4 F and R3 = 2. a. Consider the truss shown in Fig.3. b) The axial stress in The vertical displacement of point 3 is v3 = −137.3. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 43 Fig. . Plot the deformed shape. b E3.83 EA element 1 is N1 = −7. The finite element model consists of 6 nodes and 9 elements. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. a) Fl . Fig. R2 = 3. E3. E3.3.25 F A . b) the maximum stress. b. Calculate c) the support reactions. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.3. c) The support reactions are R1 = 0 . E3.2.6 F . E3. a Answer.

Determine: a) the maximum nodal displacement. The finite element model consists of 4 nodes and 5 elements. we obtain the following: Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 Restr X 1 1 0 0 Restr Y 1 1 0 0 Coord X 0 0 1 2 Coord Y 0 1 0 1 Displ X 0 0 -1.0896 .6705 Displ Y 0 0 -3. b) the maximum stress. E3.4.3294 2.3. Taking l = 1 . a.4.2095 -9. b E3.4. and c) the support reactions. a Answer. Plot the deformed shape. E3. Fig. E = 1 and F = 1 . Consider the truss shown in Fig. A = 1 . E3.44 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.

a where point 6 is displaced v6 = −5 .665F . E3. E3. c) The support reactions are R1 = − R3 = 2 F . 4 Axial stress . Fig. 4 1.5.749 a) The vertical displacement of point 4 is v4 = −9.329 0.940 . E3. b) the maximum stress.4. Determine the location and the value of: a) the maximum nodal displacement. b E3. b. Plot the deformed shape.335 . Fig. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.335F and R4 = 0.335 F A .1. 3 2. a .4. b) The axial stress in element 4 is N 4 = 1. R2 = 0.3. 3 2.09 F l E A .940 1. 4 1.0.0.5. Consider the pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. E3.5. DIRECT STIFFNESS METHOD 45 Element data Element nr 1 2 3 4 5 Nodes 3.

366 .46 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Answer. E3. and the axial stress in element 15 is N15 = 0. The finite element model consists of 14 nodes and 25 elements.538 . The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Taking l = 1 .5. E3. Fig.5. the vertical displacements of points 7 and 8 are v7 = v8 = −4. A = 1 and E = 1 . b . b.

These kinematically equivalent forces are determined using the appropriate shape functions from the condition to perform the same mechanical work as the actual loading. The displacement within the element is expressed in terms of the nodal displacements using shape functions. the corresponding element stiffness matrix and load vectors will be derived. 4. This implies replacement of the distributed loads by equivalent forces applied to nodes. For bars with distributed loads. The displacement at x + d x will be u + du . In this section.1 Differential equation of equilibrium In a thin uniform rod of cross-section area A and Young’s modulus E. They are modeled by elements having one-degree-of-freedom per node. This approximation becomes increasingly accurate as more elements are considered in the model. it is common practice to use linear shape functions and two-node elements without loads between ends.4.1. chains and ropes. 4. The compatibility of adjacent elements requires only C 0 continuity. having one degree of freedom per node. It is shown that their use is tantamount to adding internal nodes. Displacements must be continuous across the element boundary. cables. BARS AND SHAFTS This chapter deals with simple one-dimensional structural elements. . true displacements are described by higher order polynomials. Their longitudinal dimension is much larger than the transverse dimensions. For a bar without loads between ends the linear interpolation is exact. However. Bars are loaded only by axial forces.1 Plane bar elements Bars are structural elements used to model truss elements. The unknown displacement field within an element is usually interpolated by a linear distribution. there are axial displacements u = u (x ) due to axial loads p(x ) . The dimensions of p are force/length.

4. (4. dx or.1.2) Fig. (4. .1) σ x = E du d x . their coordinates in the physical (Cartesian) reference system being x 1 and x 2 respectively (Fig. Nodes are conveniently numbered 1 and 2. N = Aσ x = E A dN + p (x ) = 0 .2. 4.2. The normal stresses result from Hooke’s law (4.1 The internal axial force N is du .2 Coordinates and shape functions Consider a two-node pin-jointed element in the own or local coordinate system. d x2 (4. b). a).1) is d N + p d x = 0 . 4. EA d2 u = − p (x ) . We define a natural or intrinsic reference system which permits the specification of a point within the element by a dimensionless number r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎜x− 1 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (4. using (4.5) so that r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2 (Fig. 4.3) dx The equation of equilibrium of an infinitesimal element of length dx of the rod (Fig.4) 4.48 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The axial strain is given by the strain-displacement relation ε x = du d x .3).

. d 2u d x 2 = 0 .1. d u d x = const . so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a linear polynomial . 4.6) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) (4.7) 2 2 can be considered as geometric interpolation functions. Fig. BARS AND SHAFTS 49 Fig.3 4. 4.3 Bar not loaded between ends For a prismatic bar not loaded between ends. 4. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figs. They have a unit value at the node of the same index and zero at the other node.b. a.3. where N1 (r ) = (4.2 Expressing the physical coordinate in terms of the natural coordinate yields x = N1 (r ) x 1 + N 2 (r ) x 2 . p = 0 .4.

In matrix form u= where ∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q }. The nodal expansion (4.9) can also be written u= or.10) is more complicated. (4.11).5).6) is simpler. x2 − x1 x2 − x1 1− r 1+ r q1 + q2 . (4. u= The displacement of an arbitrary point within the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements q 1 and q 2 as u = N1 (r ) q1 + N 2 (r ) q2 . the displacement at any point within an element can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements. equation (4. 2 2 (4. (4.50 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x ) = a + b x .12) Thus.9) Equation (4. a and b. e i i i =1 2 (4. but the integration constants. are the nodal displacements.8) The two integration constants above may be determined from the nodal displacements and the geometry of the element. using (4. have no simple physical meaning.10) 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) are the shape functions of the 2 2 The polynomial form (4. ⎣N ⎦ In (4. where N1 (r ) = element. q e is the column vector of element nodal displacements and is the row vector of displacement interpolation functions also named shape { } . With q1 = a + b x1 at node 1 and q2 = a + b x2 at node 2.8) becomes u= q2 − q1 q x − q2 x1 x+ 1 2 . but the integration constants.11) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 ⎦ and {q }= { q e 1 q2 }T . q 1 and q 2 . x2 − x1 x2 − x1 x − x1 − x + x2 q1 + q2 .

4 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Strains can be expressed in terms of the shape functions as εx = where du d e e = ⎣N ⎦ q = ⎣B ⎦ q dx dx { } { } (4. e T e e (4. (4.3. It gives the strain at any point due to unit nodal displacement.13) in (4.17) 144 2444 4 3 The above equation is of the form Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. The transformation from x to r in equation (4. e (4.15) where − 1 ≤ r ≤ +1 and the length of the element is l e = x 2 − x 1 . BARS AND SHAFTS 51 functions. 2 (4.16) Substituting (4.10) show that both the element geometry and the displacement field are interpolated using the same shape functions. which is referred to as the isoparametric formulation.13) ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ d (4.6) and (4.16) we obtain Ue = 1 2 { q } ∫ ⎣B ⎦ e T Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV { q }.4. The element strain energy U e is Ue = 1 2 ∫σ e x εx dV = 1 2 ∫E ε e e 2 x dV . 4. Equations (4.5) yields dx = x 2 − x1 2 dr = le dr . 4. It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1 and u = q 2 at node 2.1.18) where the element stiffness matrix k e is given by [ ] . and that u varies linearly (Fig. generally called the element strain-displacement matrix.14) is the row vector of the derivatives of shape functions. c).

. (4. have to be determined from three boundary conditions. ⎣ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx ⎦ T (4. a.21) yields dr 2 dr 2 [k ] e 2E A = e e le +1 −1 ∫ ⎨ 1 2 ⎬ ⎢⎣− 2 ⎩ ⎭ − 1⎤ .1.52 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV . 1⎥ ⎦ ⎧− 1 2 ⎫ ⎢ 1 1⎥ dr 2⎥ ⎦ or [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢−11 e e e e ⎣ (4.5 Bar loaded between ends For a prismatic bar acted upon by a uniformly distributed axial load. An internal node is added at the midpoint to comply with the requirement of a quadratic fit (Fig. This can be done if we use a three-node onedimensional element. b and c. ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎣ dr ⎦ T (4. 4. equation (4.6). 4. In terms of the shape functions [ ] e Ve [k ]= E A ∫ e e le ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dx .20) Because dN dN d r 2 dN = = . p = const.23) The three integration constants. so that the displacement field within the element may be expressed as a quadratic polynomial u (x ) = a + b x + c x 2 .4. d 2u d x 2 = const . (4.19) This form guarantees that k e will be a symmetric matrix.21) d N2 1 d N1 1 = − and = + . we can write dx dr d x l e dr [ ke ] = 2 Ee Ae le Substituting +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ dr .22) which is the same as equation (3. . . a).

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

53

For a linearly distributed axial load (as in a bar rotating at constant angular speed around an end, acted upon by a distributed centrifugal load proportional to the distance to the rotation centre), the true displacement field is given by a cubic polynomial, involving four integration constants (see Example 4.8). For an exact solution, this implies using a four-node element (adding two internal nodes). The usual practice is to assume an approximate lower order linear displacement field, i.e. a two-node element and to replace the actual linearly distributed load by equivalent nodal forces, having thus an element not loaded between ends describable by linear shape functions.

Fig. 4.4 Consider the three-node quadratic element from Fig. 4.4, a, with node 3 at the midpoint. Nodal coordinates are x1 , x2 , x3 , and the vector of element nodal displacements is q e = { q1 q2 q3 }T . The x-coordinate system is mapped onto an intrinsic r-coordinate system, given by the transformation
T

{ }

2 ( x − x3 ) . x2 − x1 It comes out that r = −1 , 0, and + 1 at nodes 1, 3, and 2 (Fig. 4.4, b). r=

(4.24)

The displacements within the element can be written in terms of the three nodal displacements q 1 , q2 , and q 3 as

u = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 2 + N 3 (r ) q 3 ,
where the quadratic shape functions N i N1 (r ) = −

(4.25)

( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are
(4.26)

1 1 r ( 1 − r ) , N 2 (r ) = r ( 1 + r ) , 2 2 N 3 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) .

The graphs of the shape functions (4.26) are shown in Fig. 4.5. They have a unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other nodes. This is a general property of the shape functions.

54

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

The expressions for these shape functions can be written down by inspection. For example, since N1 = 0 at r = 0 and r = 1 , we know that N1 has to contain the product r ( 1 − r ) , i. e. the left hand part of the equations of the vertical lines passing through nodes 3 and 2. That is, N1 is of the form N1 = C r ( 1 − r ) . The constant C is obtained from the condition N1 = 1 at r = −1 , which yields C = −1 2 , resulting in the expression given in (4.26).

Fig. 4.5 The displacement field within the element is written in matrix form as u= where

∑ N q = ⎣N ⎦ { q } ,
e i i i =1

3

(4.27)

⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ and

{ q }= { q
e

1

q2

q3

}T .

(4.28)

At any point within an element the axial displacement can be found by multiplying the matrix of shape functions by the vector of nodal displacements, as in (4.27). It is easy to check that u = q 1 at node 1, because N1 = 1 and

N 2 = N3 = 0 . Similarly, u = q 2 at node 2, and u = q 3 at node 3. Thus, u is a
quadratic polynomial passing through q1 , q2 , and q3 (Fig. 4.6). It is obtained by interpolation, using quadratic shape functions.

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

55

The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.14) is given by
⎢ ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = d r ⎣N ⎦ d x = l ⎢− 2 e ⎣ d d dr 2 1− 2r 1+ 2r 2 ⎥ − 2 r⎥ . ⎦

(4.29)

Fig. 4.6 The element stiffness matrix (4.19) is

[k ]
e

+1

Al = e e 2

∫⎣⎦
B
−1

T

Ee ⎣B ⎦ d r

or, substituting (4.29),

[k ]
e

1 − 8⎤ ⎡7 Ee Ae ⎢ = 7 − 8⎥ . ⎥ ⎢1 3l e ⎢− 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣

(4.30)

4.1.6 Vector of element nodal forces
Consider an axial load p (x ) , having the units of force per unit length, distributed along the bar element. The mechanical work of such a force is
W=

le

∫ u p dx = ∫ u
le

T

p dx .

(4.31)

Substituting (4.11), equation (4.31) becomes
W = qe It has the form

{ } ∫ ⎣N ⎦
T le

T

p dx .

(4.32)

56
W = qe

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ } {f }
T e

(4.33)
+1

where the element equivalent load vector is

{ f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦
e

T

p dx =

le

le 2

∫1 ⎣N ⎦ −

T

p dr .

(4.34)

For the linear two-node element, if the axial force is uniformly distributed, p = const . , then

{f }
e

+1

l = e p 2

T ⎣N ⎦ d r

(4.35)

−1

or, substituting (4.7),

{ f }= p2l
e

e

⎧ 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬. ⎩ 1⎭

(4.36)

A force

p le , equal to half the total force on the element, is applied at each node. 2

For the quadratic three-node element, if p = const. , substituting the shape functions (4.26) into (4.35), gives

{ f }= p l
e

e

T ⎣1 6 1 6 2 3 ⎦ .

(4.37)

4.1.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector
Assembly of the system stiffness matrix for one-dimensional structures modelled as bars is carried out as shown in sections 3.4 to 3.7 for trusses. Consider the five-node finite element model in Fig. 4.7, a. Each node has only one degree of freedom in the x-direction. The nodal displacements are Q1 , Q2 ,…, Q5 (Fig. 4.7, b). The global vector of nodal displacements is denoted by

{Q } = ⎣ Q1
{ F } = ⎣ F1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5 ⎦ T .

The nodal forces are F1 , F2 ,…, F5 . The global load vector is denoted by
F2 F3 F4 F5 ⎦ T .

The unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] proportionality factor between the two global vectors

plays the role of a

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

57

{ F } = [ K ] {Q }.

Fig. 4.7 The assembly of [ K ] from the element stiffness matrices can be explained by an energy approach. Consider the strain energy in, say, element 3. We have
U3 = 1 2

{ q } [k ] { q }
3 T 3 3

or U3 = EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ 1 ⎣ Q3 Q4 ⎦ l 3 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . 2 ⎦ ⎩ 4⎭ 3 ⎣

We can write U 3 as

U3 =

1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2

Q3 Q4

⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 Q5 ⎦ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣

0 0

0 0 EA3 0 l3 EA 0 − 3 l3 0 0

0 0 EA − 3 l3 EA3 l3 0

0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎦

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Q1 ⎫ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Q3 ⎬ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎭

or
U3 = 1 2 ~ { Q }T [ K 3 ] { Q },

58 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ~ where K 3 is the expanded stiffness matrix of element 3. global stiffness matrix.1. as in (3. based on element connectivity. but the elements of the matrix k 3 occupy the third and [ ] The strain energy of the entire structure is equal to the sum of the element strain energies U= 1 1 ~ T ~ T ∑ U e = ∑ 2 { Q } [ K e ]{ Q } = 2 { Q } ∑ [ K e ] { Q } e e e so that. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 5 ⎣ ⎦ 3 [ k ] = ElA 3 3 3 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 3 . ⎣ ⎦ 4 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 4 .1 Element 1 2 3 4 Node i 1 2 3 4 j 2 3 4 5 . the numbering of coordinates in the global stiffness matrix is shown. Overlapping elements are simply added as already shown in section 3. ⎢− 1 1⎥ 4 ⎣ ⎦ [ k ] = ElA 4 4 4 At the top and on the right of the element stiffness matrices. the global stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [ K ]= K e . according to the connectivity Table 4.4 for truss elements. This is based on the simple addition of element strain energies. Table 4. ∑[ e ] the appropriate locations of the global [ K ] matrix by the so-called direct method. The entries of the element matrices k e are placed in [ ] 1 1 [ k ] = ElA ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 1 2 − 1⎤ 1 . It has the size of the [ ] fourth rows and columns of the [ K ] matrix. 1⎥ 2 ⎦ 4 2 3 ⎣ [ k ] = ElA 2 2 2 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 2 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ 3 . which is never done in practice.27). The element matrices can be written This is a convenient algebraic explanation of the assembly process.

1.39) Substituting (4. using the boundary condition. Stresses are then calculated from the axial forces obtained using equation (3.13). Q 1 = 0 . It may arise from thermal action or by forcing members into place that are either too short or too long. due to fabrication errors. 4. BARS AND SHAFTS 59 The result is the following unreduced global stiffness matrix ⎡ A1 ⎢ l ⎢ 1 ⎢− A1 ⎢ l1 ⎢ [ K ]= E ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ A1 l1 A1 A2 + l1 l 2 A − 2 l2 − 0 0 0 A2 l2 A2 A3 + l2 l3 A − 3 l3 − 0 0 0 A3 l3 A3 A4 + l3 l4 A − 4 l4 − 0 0 F5 ⎦ T . this information is stored for the subsequent calculation of the reaction R 1 . The stress-strain law in the presence of ε 0 is of the form σ = E ( ε − ε0 ) . as shown in section 3.5. and the reduced load vector . (4. the expression (4. ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.8 Initial strain effects Let an initial strain ε 0 be induced in a bar element. The reduced (non-singular) stiffness matrix is obtained deleting the first row and column of the unreduced matrix.38) The mechanical work of external nodal forces applied to suppress the initial prestressing due to ε 0 is W= Ve ∫σε 0 dV = Ve ∫σ T ε 0 dV = ε 0 Ee Ae le ∫ε T dx .by deleting the first element. (4. In fact.4.41).39) becomes . ⎥ A4 ⎥ − ⎥ l4 ⎥ A4 ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ The global load vector is assembled as {F }= ⎣ − R1 F2 The final finite element equations are obtained.

⎩ 1 ⎭ −1 ∫ ⎧− 1⎫ ⎨ ⎬ dr .41) or { f }= ε e +1 0 Ee Ae −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ le ⎢ ⎥ d r = ε 0 Ee Ae 2 ⎣ dr ⎦ ⎧ − 1⎫ Ae ⎨ ⎬ . ⎩1⎭ hence { f }= ε e 0 Ee (4. le (4. 4.8. where the element load vector due to initial straining is { f }= ε e 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B ⎦ T l dx = ε 0 Ee Ae e 2 T +1 −1 ∫ ⎣B⎦ +1 T dr (4.44) where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion and T is the average change in temperature within the element. 4. θ l A two-node shaft finite element. stresses are computed as σ e = Ee q2 − q1 + ( − Ee ε 0 ) .33). ε0 = αT . is shown in Fig.2 Plane shaft elements From Mechanics of Materials it is known that a uniform shaft of diameter d and length l . (4. The nodal torques M 1 and M 2 can be related to the nodal rotation angles θ 1 and θ 2 using the equilibrium and the torque/rotation equations .42) After solving for nodal displacements. from a material with shear modulus of elasticity G.40) It has the form (4. where I p = is the polar second GIp 32 moment of area of the shaft cross section.60 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS W = qe { }ε T 0 Ee Ae le ∫ ⎣B⎦ T dx . (4. of length l and torsional rigidity G I p . The shaft torsional stiffness is then GIp M K= t = . acted upon by a torque M t will twist an angle θ = πd4 Mt l .43) In the case of thermal loading.

e e e where [ k ] = GlI e p ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4.8 The derivation of the shaft stiffness matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for an axially loaded bar element. (4.45) Equations (4.4. BARS AND SHAFTS 61 M1 = − M 2 = K θ 1 when θ 2 = 0.46) { M }= [ k ] { θ }. Fig. θ 1 = 0. The differential equation for torsional displacement is Mt dθ . Similarity between these two derivations occurs because the differential equations for both problems have the same mathematical form.45) may be written in matrix form as ⎧ M1 ⎫ ⎡ K ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩ M 2 ⎭ ⎣− K or in shorthand form − K⎤ ⎧ θ1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ K ⎥ ⎩θ 2 ⎭ ⎦ (4.48) = dx GI p while for the axial displacement is (4.49) dx E A The rotation angle of an arbitrary section within the shaft element can be expressed in terms of the nodal rotations θ 1 and θ 2 as θ = N1 (r ) θ1 + N 2 (r ) θ 2 .3) du N = . 4. M 1 = − M 2 = − K θ 2 when (4. (4.50) . (4.47) is the stiffness matrix of the shaft element.

1 with d = 5 mm .53) [ k ] = G lI e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4. Fig.52) or [ ke ] = which yields e 2 Ge I p e le e pe +1 −1 ∫ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ dr ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ (4. a) The bar is divided into three bar finite elements. the stiffness matrix for the shaft element can be calculated from [ k ] = G I ∫ ⎢⎢ ddN ⎥⎥ ⎣ x⎦ e e pe le T ⎢dN ⎥ ⎢ dx ⎥ dx ⎣ ⎦ T (4. as equation (4. loaded by an axial load F = 2 kN .62 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where N1 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) and N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 2 (4. and c) the support reactions.22) is used to account for axial effects in inclined beam finite elements.1 Consider the bar in Fig.20).1 Solution. E = 200 GPa . For non-axially-symmetric cross sections. the polar second moment of area I p is replaced by the torsional constant I t . E4.2 m .54) is also used to account for torsional effects in grid finite elements. l = 0. b) the stresses in bar.51) are the shape functions of the shaft element. Example 4. . the same as for the axially loaded bar element.54) Equation (4. Analogous to equation (4. Determine: a) the displacement of point 2. E4.

BARS AND SHAFTS 63 The areas of the cross sections are A1 = π d2 4 = 19. Q3 = 43.62 mm 2 .47 0 ⎥ 3 ⎢ ⎥. the finite element equations can be written − 9.81 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 mm 2 .47 38. c) Stresses are . A2 = A3 = π ( 1.47 − 38.47 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎥⎪ 103 ⎢ ⎨ ⎢ 0 − 38.47 ⋅103 ⋅ 43.8 N .62 ⎡⎢− 1 1 1 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 9.81 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎡ 9.81 ⎢− 9.94 − 38. The element stiffness matrices are ⋅ 19 [ k ] = 2 ⋅10400 .4 d 4 )2 = 38.81 48.81 + 38.81 9.28 − 38.81 ⋅ 103 ⋅ 34.81 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 9. b) The reactions are obtained from the first and fourth equation R1 = 9.47 ⎦ ⎣ 0 Including the boundary conditions (degrees of freedom 1 and 4 are fixed).28 − 38.21 = 1662 .47 76.47 38.47 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥ ⎢ − 38. [ K ] = 10 ⎢ 0 − 38.21 mm .47 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ 103 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 3 ⎬ ⎣− 38.81 Q2 = 9.47 ⎡⎢− 1 1 2 3 5 ⎣ − 1⎤ = 38.42 = 337.42 mm . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N .47 + 38.47 − 38.47 Q3 = 38.4.47 ⎦ ⎪ 0 0 ⎩ ⎣ 0 ⎫ ⎧ − R1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⋅ 38 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2 ⋅10200 . 2 ⋅ 103 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ − R4 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Retaining only the second and third equation yields ⎡ 48.47 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 − 38.94 ⎦ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⋅ 10 ⎭ with solutions Q2 = 34.47 ⋅ 103 1⎥ ⎦ The global unreduced stiffness matrix is − 9.81 ⎢− 9.47 76.2 N .47 38. R4 = 38.

64

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

σ 12 = E ε12 = E σ 23 = E ε 23 = E
σ 34 = E ε 34 = E

Q2 − Q1 Q 34.42 N = E 2 = 2 ⋅ 105 = 17.2 , l1 2l 400 mm 2 Q3 − Q2 Q − Q2 8.79 N =E 3 = 2 ⋅105 = 8.79 , 200 l2 l mm 2
Q4 − Q3 Q 43.21 N = − E 3 = −2 ⋅ 105 = − 43.2 . l3 l 200 mm 2

Example 4.2
A support, consisting of a steel bar 1 fitted inside a cast iron tube 2, is loaded by a 60 kN axial force, as in Fig. E4.2. Consider A1 = 200 mm 2 ,
A2 = 800 mm 2 , E1 = 210 GPa , E2 = 120 GPa , l = 0.2 m . Determine: a) the elongation of the assembly, b) the stress in each material, and c) the internal forces in bar and tube.

Fig. E4.2 Solution. a) Using a two-node two-element finite element model, the element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.1⋅10 ⋅ 200 ⎡⎢− 1 1 200
1 5

− 1⎤ = 2.1 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

1 [ k ] = 1.2 ⋅10 ⋅ 800 ⎡⎢− 1 200
2 5

− 1⎤ = 4.8 ⋅ 105 1⎥ ⎦

The global unreduced stiffness matrix is 48 [ K ] = 105 ⎡− 2.1 + 4..8 ⎢ 2.1 − ⎣ − 2.1 − 4.8⎤ 5 ⎥ = 6.9 ⋅ 10 2.1 + 4.8⎦ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢− 1 1⎥ mm ⎣ ⎦

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

65

If point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ 6.9 ⋅105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎥⎨ 4 ⎬, ⎣− 1 1 ⎦ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ − 6 ⋅10 ⎭

Q2 = − 0.087 mm ,
which is equal to the beam shortening. b) Stresses are
Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E1 2 = 2.1 ⋅105 = −91.3 , 200 l l mm 2 Q2 − Q1 Q − 0.087 N = E2 2 = 1.2 ⋅ 105 = −52.14 . l l 200 mm 2

σ 1 = E1 ε 1 = E1

σ 2 = E2 ε 2 = E2

c) Internal forces are
N1 = σ 1 A1 = − 91.3 ⋅ 200 = − 18.26 kN ,
N 2 = σ 2 A2 = − 52.14 ⋅ 800 = − 41.74 kN .

Example 4.3
The temperature of the bar in Fig. E4.3 is raised 800 C . If E = 130 GPa and α = 17 ⋅10−6 , determine the thermal stresses.

Fig. E4.3 Solution. We should first determine whether contact occurs between the bar and the wall. If the wall does not exist, the displacement of point 2 is

Δl = lα T = 1800 ⋅ 17 ⋅ 10 −6 ⋅ 80 = 2.448 mm > 2 mm
so that the contact does occur. Denoting by A the cross section area, the temperature forces (4.42) are

66

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

{ fT } = α T E A ⎧ ⎨

− 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ ⎧ − 1⎫ −6 5 ⎬ = 17 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 80 ⋅ 1.3 ⋅ 10 ⋅ A ⎨ ⎬ = 176.8 ⋅ A⎨ ⎬ N . ⎩ 1⎭ ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎩ 1⎭

The stiffness matrix is

[ k ] = 1.3 ⋅10

⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . 1⎥ mm 1800 ⎢ − 1 ⎣ ⎦
5

As point 1 is fixed, the finite element equations are
1.3 ⋅ 105 ⋅ A ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R 1 − 176.8 A ⎫ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ R + 176.8 A ⎬ 1800 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭

wherefrom we get the reactions

R 1 = 176.8 A − 144.4 A = 32.4 A ,
so that the normal stress is

R 2 = − 32.4 A ,

σ=

R2 N . = − 32.4 A mm 2

Example 4.4
A prismatic bar is made of two different materials, as shown in Fig. E4.4. The temperature of the central part is raised T 0C . Determine the axial stress in the bar.

Fig. E4.4 Solution. The bar is divided into three linear finite elements. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = El A ⎡⎢− 1
1 3 2

− 1⎤ , 1⎥ ⎦

1 [ k ] = E2lA ⎡⎢− 1
2 1

− 1⎤ . 1⎥ ⎦

For element 2, the vector of nodal thermal forces is

{ f }= α T E A ⎣ − 1
2 1

1⎦T .

4. BARS AND SHAFTS

67

Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q4 = 0 , the finite element equations can be written

⎡ E2 ⎢ A ⎢ − E2 ⎢ l ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣

− E2 E E2 + 1 2 E1 − 2 0

0 E − 1 2 E1 + E2 2 − E2

0 ⎤ ⎥⎧ 0 0 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ 2 ⎥⎨ − E2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎥⎪ 0 E2 ⎥ ⎩ ⎦

R1 ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ −α T E A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎬. ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪ α T E1 A ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ R4 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭

The second and third equation yield
E1 ⎡ ⎢ E2 + 2 ⎢ E ⎢ − 1 2 ⎣ E1 ⎤ 2 ⎥ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ = α T E A ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎬ ⎬ 1 ⎨ E ⎥⎨ ⎩ 1 ⎭ E2 + 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q3 ⎭ 2⎦ −

A l

with solutions Q2 = − α T l E1 , E1 + E2 Q3 = α T l E1 . E1 + E2
Q3 − Q2 E1 . =αT 2l E1 + E2

The strains in elements are

ε1 = ε 3 =

Q2 Q E1 , = − 4 = −α T l l E1 + E2

ε2 =

Stresses are

σ 1 = σ 3 = E2 ε 1 = −α T

1 , 1 1 + E1 E2

σ 2 = E1 ε 2 − E1α T = −α T

1 = σ1. 1 1 + E1 E2

Example 4.5
A steel bolt of active length l = 100 mm and diameter δ = 10 mm is single threaded with a 1.6 mm pitch. It is mounted inside a copper tube with diameters d = 12 mm and D = 18 mm (Fig. E4.5, a). After the nut has been fitted smugly, it is tightened one-quarter of a full turn. Determine stresses in bolt and tube, if for steel E1 = 208 GPa and for copper E2 = 100 GPa . Solution. The assembly is modeled by two bar finite elements as in Fig. E4.5, b. Both elements have fixed ends at points 1 and 4 so that Q1 = Q4 = 0 . The problem has a multipoint constraint

68

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Q3 − Q2 = 0.4 mm .
Such conditions are programmed using a so-called penalty approach. Herein a simpler straightforward solution is given.

Fig. E4.5 The cross section areas are
A1 =

π δ2
4

= 78.54 mm 2 , A2 =

π D2 − d 2
4

(

) = 141.37 mm

2

.

The element stiffness matrices are

[ k ] = 2.08 ⋅10 ⋅ 78.54 ⎡⎢− 1 1 100
1 5

− 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N , ⎥ = 1.63 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 1⎦ ⎦ ⎣

[ k ] = 10
2

5

⋅ 141.37 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ 5 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ N . ⎢ − 1 1⎥ = 1.41 ⋅ 10 ⎢ − 1 1⎥ mm 100 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭

The finite element equations are 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎡ 1.63 − 1.63 ⎢− 1.63 1.63 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎪ ⎪ − F ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ 105 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎪ − Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − F 0 1.41 − 1.41 ⎢ ⎥ − 1.41 1.41 ⎦ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ R4 0 ⎣ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ Retaining only the second and third equation yields
⎡1.63 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ 105 ⎢ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎥⎨ ⎣ 0 1.41⎦ ⎩ − Q3 ⎭ ⎩ − F ⎭

with solutions

E4.37 mm 2 σ2 = − Example 4.41 ⋅ 10 ⎠ or Stresses are given by F = 30314 N . using two tapered bar finite elements. the element stiffness matrices are . For the bar of Fig. σ1 = F 30316 N = = 386 .4 . with linearly variable cross-section x ⎞ ⎛ A ( x ) = A0 ⎜1 + ⎟ . E4. find the displacement at the free end under the action of force ⎝ 2l ⎠ F. =− = −214.54 mm 2 F 30316 N . 5 5⎟ ⎝ 1.63 ⋅ 10 1.6. Substituting in the multipoint constraint condition gives 1 1 ⎛ ⎞ F⎜ + = 0. Fig.4.41 ⋅ 105 .6 Solution. E4. BARS AND SHAFTS 69 F 1. divided into two equal length tapered elements.6 For the bar of Fig. A1 78.63 ⋅ 10 5 Q2 = − . Q3 = F 1.5 A2 141.6. The stiffness matrix for a bar element with variable cross section is [ k ] = lE e 2 e ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ le ∫ A dx .

E4. Model the bar by: a) two two-node linear elements. Comment the results. hence a stepwise variation of stresses along the bar.7. E4. Example 4. condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 . 5 E A0 Q3 = 48 F l . ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 7 E A0 x ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 + ⎟ dx = 4l ⎝ 2l ⎠ ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ .70 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ] 1 2 E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ = 2⎢ ⎥ A0 l ⎣− 1 1⎦ E ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ A0 = 2⎢ 1⎥ l ⎣− 1 ⎦ ∫ 0 2l l 5 E A0 ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ x ⎞ ⎛ . 4l ⎢ 0 − 7 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ From the second and third equation EA0 4l wherefrom Q2 = 4 Fl .7 Write the stiffness matrix of the bar shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written ⎡ 5 − 5 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ R1 ⎫ EA0 ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ − 5 12 − 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . ⎣ ⎦⎩ 3⎭ ⎩ ⎭ The approximate assumed linear variation of the displacement field yields constant strain elements. b) a three-node quadratic element. Fig. a) Consider the bar divided into two linear elements.7 Solution. 35 E A0 ⎡ 12 − 7 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎢− 7 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ . ⎢− 1 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ] ∫ l With Q1 = 0 . The element stiffness matrices are .

the last equation yields Q3 = ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬ 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The finite element equations can be written ⎡ 1 0 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 2 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎪ ⎢ 0 1 − 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 l ⎢ − 1 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ For F3 = 0 . ⎪ ⎭ which assumes a linear displacement field within the bar. The first two equations give 2 EA l ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 2 EA l which can be written EA l ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎡ 1 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ 2 EA ⎧ − 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + l ⎨ − 1 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨F ⎬ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ where the left hand side contains the (2 × 2) stiffness matrix of the two-node linear element. The finite element equations can be written . 1⎥ ⎦ The unreduced global stiffness matrix is ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ [ K ] = l ⎢ −1 2 −1 ⎥ . BARS AND SHAFTS 71 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = 2EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 ⎣ − 1⎤ .4. b) Consider the bar modeled by a 3-node quadratic bar element.

c) Comments. l ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ Q2 ⎭ ⎩ F2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ where the matrix in the left hand can be recognized as the conventional bar matrix developed from linear polynomials. Q3 ⎦ ⎥ 3l ⎢ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤ 1 −8 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎡ 7 2⎤ EA ⎢ ⎧Q ⎥ ⎢ 0 1 ⎥⎨ 1 7 −8 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 3l ⎢ 1 ⎥ Q 2⎦ ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎢ 1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎬.72 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ = ⎨ F2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 3l ⎢ − 8 − 8 16 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎪ ⎪ F3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎩ Condensing Q3 from condition F3 = 0 yields Q3 = ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.18) gives 1 U e = ⎣Q1 Q2 2 1 − 8 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎡ 7 EA ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ 1 7 − 8 ⎥ ⎨ Q2 ⎬ . ⎭ 1 U e = ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 ⎦ ⎡1 0 1 ⎢0 1 1 ⎣ . ⎪ ⎭ ⎧Q ⎫ Q1 + Q2 =⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦⎨ 1 ⎬. Substituting ⎧ Q1 ⎪ ⎨ Q2 ⎪Q ⎩ 3 0 ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎧Q ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎥⎨ 1⎬ ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎥ Q ⎪ ⎢1 2 1 2 ⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ into the expression of the strain energy (4. 2 ⎩ Q2 ⎭ The first two equations give ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ Q3 = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ and upon substitution of Q3 ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ EA ⎡ 7 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ EA ⎧ − 8 ⎫ ⎢ 1 7 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + 3l ⎨ − 8 ⎬ ⎣ 1 2 1 2 ⎦ ⎨ Q ⎬ = ⎨ F ⎬ 3l ⎣ ⎦⎩ 2⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩ 2⎭ which can be written again EA ⎡ 1 − 1 ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎧ F1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = ⎨ ⎬.

BARS AND SHAFTS 73 1 ⎣ Q1 Q2 2 Ue = ⎦ l ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ . as it is shown in a next chapter. Solution. used to describe the displacement field. and b) three linear elements. Determine the axial stress distribution due to the centrifugal force in the rod using: a) two quadratic elements. However. the work of nodal forces is W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e Q3 ⎦ ⎧ F1 ⎪ ⎨ F2 ⎪F ⎩ 3 Q3 ⎦ W = ⎣Q1 Q2 e ⎦ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎡1 0 1 2 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 1 2⎥ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎦ ⎨1⎬ 2 e .8. The beam is acted upon by a centrifugal linearly distributed load Consider a prismatic robot arm. ⎪2 3⎪ ⎭ ⎩ EA ⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ For p = const . form the complete homogeneous solution of the differential equation of equilibrium (4. displacements within elements depend upon the general (homogeneous plus the particular) solution. the variable Q3 must be computed from the exact nodal displacements (computed for the conventional linear element). This is because. Example 4.25).23) does not bring about a change in the conventional stiffness matrix and load vector. E4. However. The conventional formulation based on a linear polynomial will yield exact displacements within the elements only when p = 0 .8 ω = 30 rad sec (Fig.4). . before using equation (4. . For the case p = const. ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣Q1 Q2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧1 6 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ 1 6 ⎬ pl e . via a constraint equation between Q3 and the remaining nodal variables.4. rotating at constant angular velocity . The parameters in the particular part of the solution are prescribed and do not take part in the process of minimization. The exactness of the stiffness matrix and load vector also implies that the computed nodal displacements will also be exact. obtained by a minimization of the total potential energy with respect to Q3 at element level. Whenever the assumed functions.25). only the homogeneous part of the solution contains the free parameters with respect to which the total potential energy is minimized. exact displacements within the elements may be obtained from equation (4. a). the developed stiffness matrix and the equivalent load vector will be exact. ⎩⎭ ⎧1⎫ pl We may conclude that the introduction of the quadratic term in equation (4.

E4. Fig.8 . l FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where p0 = ρ Al ω 2 .74 p ( x ) = p0 x .

the finite element equations can be written R1 0 0 ⎤⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎪ ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 ⎥⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ p0l 12 0 ⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2 EA ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 − 8 14 − 8 1 ⎥ ⎨ Q3 ⎬ = ⎨ p0l 24 + p0l 24 ⎬ . For a uniformly distributed load they are given by equation (4. ⎢ ⎥ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 −8 7 ⎥ 0 1 ⎣ ⎦ The axial load acting on the two elements can be decomposed as in Fig. c. equivalent to a linearly distributed load. 1] .26) are defined for convenience over an The distributed loads from Fig. 3l ⎢ 1 −8 7 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [k ]= [k ] 1 2 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 7 −8 ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 0 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ EA [ K ] = 23l ⎢ 1 − 8 7 + 7 − 8 1 ⎥ . The nodal forces. c are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. d.8. are given by equation (4. 3l ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 p0l 12 0 − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎪ p0l 12 0 1 − 8 7 ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ . BARS AND SHAFTS 75 a) A finite element model with two quadratic elements is shown in Fig.37). The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣ 0 12 1 0 1 1 2 ⎦T .4. The element stiffness matrices are ⎡ 7 −8 1 ⎤ 2 EA ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ − 8 16 − 8 ⎥ . The model has five degrees of freedom.8. { f }= p l ⎣ 1 2 12 2 0 3 1⎦T . E4. Using the boundary condition Q1 = 0 . ⎪ 4 ξ (1 −ξ ) ⎪ ⎪1 3⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ interval [0.8. E4. E4. E4.8.34) { f }= ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T p dx = p0 l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧(1 − 2ξ )(1 − ξ )⎫ ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ − ξ (1 − 2ξ ) ⎬ ξ dξ = p0 l e ⎨1 6⎬ . where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. b.

ε3 = . we obtain the reduced global stiffness matrix and reduced global load vector which yield Q2 = 47 p0 l 2 88 p0 l 2 117 p0 l 2 128 p0 l 2 . u (l ) = . ⎜ l 3l 3 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (a) 2 2 2 1 p0 l 2 ⎛ l ⎞ 47 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 11 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 117 p0 l u⎜ ⎟ = . The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4. Q5 = . σ3 = . the displacements within the elements are approximate because the exact cubic distribution (a) has been replaced by a quadratic law. 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A 384 E A The nodal displacements can be compared with the exact solution.76 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Deleting the first row and column. σ2 = . ε4 = . 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A 48 A The stresses can be compared with the exact solution . 3 2E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A ⎝ 2 ⎠ 48 2 E A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 384 2 E A The finite element values of the nodal displacements are exact. u⎜ ⎟ = . u⎜ ⎟ = . ε5 = . 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA 48 EA The corresponding axial stresses are σ1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . ε2 = . The strains are calculated as 2 ′ ′ (N 2 Q3 + N 3 Q2 ) = p0l ( 25 − 6ξ ) . σ5 = . σ4 = . While the nodal displacements are exact.29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 3 + 4ξ − 1 + 4ξ 4 − 8 ξ ⎦ . 48 EA l 2 ′ ′ (N1′ Q3 + N 2 Q5 + N 3 Q4 ) = p0l ( 19 − 18ξ ) . l 48 EA d 1 ε1 = ε2 = which yields the following nodal values ε1 = 25 p0l 22 p0 l 19 p0 l 10 p0 l 1 p0 l . This is due to the nodal equivalence of forces. Q4 = . given by u( x ) = We obtain p0 l 2 2E A ⎛ x x3 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟. Q3 = .

34). b) A finite element model comprised of three linear elements is shown in Fig.36).8. The element stiffness matrices are 1 [ k ] = [ k ] = [ k ] = 3EA ⎡⎢− 1 l 1 2 3 ⎣ − 1⎤ . { f }= ∫ ⎣ N ⎦ e le T p dx = l e ∫ 0 1 ⎧1 − ξ ⎫ l e ⎧ 2 p1 + p2 ⎨ ⎬ [ p1 + ( p2 − p1 ) ξ ] dξ = ⎨ 6 ⎩ p1 + 2 p2 ⎩ ξ ⎭ ⎫ ⎬.4. E4. E4.8. 1 ] .5 p0 l . Using the boundary condition Q 1 = 0 . σ⎜ ⎟= .8. The nodal forces.8. equivalent to a load per unit length. the nodal forces are given by equation (4. E4. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A 18 p0 l ⎛ 3l ⎞ 10. are given by equation (4. E4. 48 A ⎝ 4 ⎠ 48 A A graph of the stress distribution is shown in Fig. the finite element equations can be written . σ⎜ ⎟= . ⎜ l2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (b) which yields the following nodal values σ (0) = σ⎜ ⎟= ⎛l⎞ ⎝2⎠ 24 p0 l ⎛ l ⎞ 22. e. g are replaced by the kinematically equivalent nodal forces shown in Fig. The element nodal load vectors are { f }= p l ⎣1 54 1 0 2⎦ T . g. p ( ξ ) = p1 + ( p2 − p1 )ξ . E4.26) are defined for convenience over an interval [ 0. f.5 p0 l . The distributed loads from Fig. respectively. The model has four degrees of freedom. 1⎥ ⎦ The axial load acting on the three elements can be decomposed as in Fig. ⎭ where ξ = x l e and the shape functions (4. h. For p1 = p2 = p . BARS AND SHAFTS 77 σ ( x )= p0 l 2A 2⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− x ⎟ . { f }= p l ⎣4 54 2 0 5⎦ T .8. { f }= p l ⎣7 54 3 0 8⎦ T . If p1 and p2 are the intensities of a linearly distributed load at nodes 1 and 2. σ (l ) = 0 .

e d 1 The strains are calculated as ε 1 = Q2 = 3 l 13 p0 l 3 4 p0 l 3 10 p0 l . l 27 EA 27 EA l 27 EA and are constant within each element. ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ 9 ⎛1 ⎞⎛1 ⎞ N 4 (r ) = − ⎜ + r ⎟ ⎜ − r ⎟ (1 + r ) .29) is given by ⎣B ⎦ = d x ⎣N ⎦ = l ⎣− 1 1⎦ .9 Show that the shape functions of the four-node cubic bar element. ε 3 = ( Q4 − Q3 ) = . ε 2 = ( Q3 − Q2 ) = . Q4 = . 81 E A 81 E A 81 E A 3 E A The element strain-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ in (4.78 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 1 −1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 3EA ⎢ − 1 2 − 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ Q2 ⎨ l ⎢ 0 − 1 2 − 1 ⎥ ⎪ Q3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 0 − 1 1 ⎦ ⎪ Q4 ⎩ The last three equations yield Q2 = 54 R1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎪1+ p l ⎪ 0 ⎪ p0 l ⎪ ⎪ 6 = ⎬ ⎨ ⎪ 54 ⎪ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ 8 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. 27 A 10 p0 l . 27 A σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = In Fig. N 2 (r ) = ⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠ N1 (r ) = − 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ .8. ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ 16 ⎝3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ 27 (1 + r ) (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . i they are compared to those given by equation (b). 27 A 4 p0 l . are the following 9 (1 − r ) ⎛ 1 + r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − r ⎞ . E4. 16 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎝3 ⎠ N 3 (r ) = . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ 13 p0 l 2 23 p0 l 2 27 p0 l 2 1 p0 l 2 = . Q3 = . in local natural coordinates. Example 4. The corresponding axial stresses are 13 p0l .

that incorporates a first order correction for transverse shear effects. FRAMES AND GRIDS Frames are structures with rigidly connected members called beams. Beams are slender members used to support transverse loading. that neglects transverse shear deformations. It is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane but not necessarily normal to the deformed neutral surface. which is constant over the element. the displacement along the Y axis and the rotation about the Z axis. BEAMS. . Each node has three degrees of freedom. This leads to the introduction of a mean shear distortion. two linear displacements and a rotation. 5.1. we first present the finite element formulation for plane Bernoulli-Euler beams. and for grids. between adjacent beam elements. The Timoshenko beam model pertains to the class of C 0 elements. respectively. transmit bending moments from member to member. 5.1 Finite element discretization A plane frame is divided into elements. This requires that both transverse displacements and slopes must be continuous over the entire member and. Typically. Grids are planar frames subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. defined as the displacement along the X axis. Beam behaviour is described by fourth order differential equations and require C1 continuity. They are connected by rigid joints that have determinate rotations and. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i . the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 . An inclined beam element will be referred to as a frame element. and the Timoshenko beam theory.5. apart from forces. One-dimensional mathematical models of structural beams are constructed on two beam theories: the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. as shown in Fig. then extend it to plane frames. in particular. In this section.

The latter are expanded to the structure size. then simply added to get the global uncondensed stiffness matrix. Elements are modelled as uniform beams without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. Fig.1 In the following. 5. then in the global coordinate system. the shape functions are established for the plane Bernoulli-Euler beam element.2 . Imposing the boundary conditions. the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector are calculated and used in the static analysis. 5. Fig. Their properties are the bending rigidity E I and the length l .80 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes. then the element stiffness matrix is calculated first in the local coordinate system.

5.2.2 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig.2. f 5. describe the element stretching (Fig. where the nodal displacements are also shown. an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used. f 3. 5.3 The axial displacement of any point on the section. (5.3). and axial displacements q 1 . as in the Bernoulli-Euler classical beam theory. at a distance y from the neutral axis. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. a. the x axis. BEAMS. q 5 . q 3 . 5. is approximated by dv u = −ϕ y = − y. is inclined an angle θ with respect to the global X axis. 5. b) while axial forces f 1 . axial forces are ignored. f 4 . Alternatively. 5. Their action is decoupled so that the respective stiffness matrices can be calculated separately.2. Transverse shear deformations are neglected. In a local physical coordinate system.5. c). Fig. f 6 and the corresponding displacements q 2 . (5.3) dx . q 6 describe the element bending (Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 81 Consider an inclined beam element.1) and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written { f }= ⎣ f 1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 ⎦ T . The vector of nodal displacements in the local coordinate system is { q }= ⎣ q e e 1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 ⎦ T (5. oriented along the beam. q 4 .2) Forces f 2. as illustrated in Fig. 5.

dx4 (5.4) where χ ≈ v′′ denotes the deformed beam axis curvature.82 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where v is the deflection of the centroidal axis at x and ϕ = v′ is the cross section rotation (or slope) at x . and physical boundary conditions. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law d2 v y. involving the transverse displacement and slope. involving the shear and bending moment.6) A where I z is the second moment of area of the section with respect to the neutral axis z. Axial strains are εx = du d2 v = − 2 y = −χ y . The negative sign above is introduced because M is considered positive if it compresses the upper portion of the beam cross section.8) The differential equation of equilibrium is EIz d4 v = p (x ) .5) The bending moment is the resultant of the stress distribution on the cross section M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z ∫ d2 v dx2 = EIz χ (5.7) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT d4 v = EIz = E I z v IV . dx2 where E is Young’s modulus of the material. dx dx (5. dx dx 3 (5. dx dx4 (5. The product E I z is called the bending rigidity of the beam. two at each end.9) This is a fourth order differential equation and consequently four boundary conditions are required. The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM d3 v = −E I z = − E I z v III . . They can be geometric or kinematic boundary conditions.

a 3 . the four integration constants a 1 . b) Fig.10) can be determined from the geometric boundary conditions at each end (Fig. and d v d x = ϕ 2 = q6 .11. BEAMS.4 This gives ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎨ ⎪ v2 ⎪ ϕ2 ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎡ x1 ⎪ ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 3 x1 ⎬=⎢ 3 ⎪ ⎢ x2 ⎪ ⎢ 3x2 ⎭ ⎣ 2 2 x1 2 x1 2 x2 2 x2 x1 1 x2 1 1 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a2 ⋅⎨ 1 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎪ a4 ⎦ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. and d v d x = ϕ1 = q3 . 5. ϕ1 . we obtain the deflection v described by a third order polynomial v (x ) = a 1 x 3 + a 2 x 2 + a 3 x + a 4 . p = 0 and equation (5. ϕ 2 . a 3 .4): (5. a 2 .3 Uniform beam not loaded between ends For a uniform beam not loaded between ends.3. Integrating four times. 5.10) For a free-free beam element. a 2 .11.5. a 4 can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements v1 . v2 . the integration constants a 1 . FRAMES AND GRIDS 83 5. 5. a) at x = x1 .9) yields d 4 v d x 4 = 0 . (5. so that the beam deflection can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ On inversion. a 4 in (5.1 Shape functions The transverse displacement v can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as . at x = x 2 . v = v2 = q5 . v = v1 = q2 . (5.

19) In (5. 2 (5. (5.14) the beam transverse displacement can be written ⎛dv⎞ ⎛dv⎞ v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) ⎜ d r ⎟ . called Hermitian cubic polynomials.20) .15) becomes v (r ) = N1 (r ) v 1 + N 2 (r ) le 2 ⎛dv⎞ le ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ + N 3 (r ) v 2 + N 4 (r ) 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎛dv⎞ ⎜ ⎜dx⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠2 (5.12) where ⎣N ⎦ is a row vector containing the shape functions.15) Because the coordinates transform by the relationship (5. dr 2 dx equation (5. ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠1 ⎝ ⎠2 (5. and { q }= ⎣ v e 1 ϕ1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T .13) Using natural coordinates. with r = −1 at node 1 and r = +1 at node 2.14) x= x1 + x 2 2 + x 2 − x1 2 r and since l e = x 2 − x 1 is the length of the element.16) Using the differentiation chain rule d v le d v = . (5. 2 2 (5.18) or v (r ) = N1 ⋅ q2 + le l N 2 ⋅ q3 + N 3 ⋅ q5 + e N 4 ⋅ q6 .12) the row vector of shape functions is ⎣N ⎦ = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢ le N2 2 N3 le ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ .17) (5. { } (5.84 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e . r= x + x2 ⎞ 2 ⎛ ⎟ ⎜x− 1 ⎜ 2 ⎟ x 2 − x1 ⎝ ⎠ (5. dx = le dr .

5. graphically shown in Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 85 The Hermitian shape functions are cubic polynomials which should satisfy the boundary conditions given in Table 5. BEAMS.5 . 5.21) N 3(r ) = 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 2 − r ) = 1 2 + 3r − r 3 .5. where primes indicate differentiation with respect to r. we obtain the expressions of the beam element shape functions in terms of r.1.5 N 1(r ) = N 2 (r ) = 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 2 + r ) = 1 2 − 3r + r 3 . 4 4 1 ( 1 + r ) 2 ( 1 − r ) = − 1 1 + r −r 2 − r 3 . 4 4 ( ) N 4 (r ) = − ( ) Fig. 4 4 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 ( 1 + r ) = 1 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 . 4 4 ( ) ( ) (5. Table 5.1 N1 r = −1 r = +1 1 0 N′ 1 0 0 N2 0 0 N ′2 1 0 N3 0 1 N ′3 0 0 N4 0 0 N ′4 0 1 Imposing the above conditions to cubic polynomials with four arbitrary constants.

v = q 2 and v = q 5 and d v le = q6 .3.16) and (5. dr 2 5.12) we obtain and d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }. while at node 2.22) we get the element strain energy 1 Ue = 2 which has the form {q } e T 8E I e l3 e +1 −1 ∫ e ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r { q } (5.24) into (5. d x2 l2 d r 2 e 2 (5.22) dv 2 d v = d x le d r Substituting (5. 4 ⎣ r⎦ ⎣ r⎦ le { } (5.86 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS It is easy to check that at node 1.23) The square of the above quantity is calculated as ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ =⎜d v⎟ ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ which can also be written 2 T ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ { } T 16 l4 e ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ T ⎢d 2 N ⎥ e ⎢ 2 ⎥ q . ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ d 2v 4 d 2 v = .2 Stiffness matrix The strain energy U e of a beam element is E Ie Ue = 2 Equation (5.25) . dr 2 d v le = q 3 . ⎢ dr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ { } ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎟ = qe ⎜ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 { } T 16 N ′′ T N ′′ q e .24) On substituting (5. e (5.17) yields ∫ e ⎛ d 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx .

29).30) The curvature χ (5.26) Comparing (5.28) Substituting the shape functions (5.29) An alternative way of deriving the matrix (5.26) we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 ′ T ′ ⎣N r′ ⎦ ⎣N r′ ⎦ d r (5.23) can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as χ= d 2v dx 2 = 4 ⎢d 2 N ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ l2 ⎢ d r 2 ⎥ e ⎣ ⎦ { q }= ⎣B⎦ { q }.29) is based on the general formula (4.27) −1 or EI [ k ] = 8l ∫ e B e 3 e +1 −1 ⎡ (N1′)2 N1′N 2 ′ ′ ′′ ⎢ ′′ ′ ′′ 2 ⎢ N 2 N1′ (N 2 ) ⎢ N ′′N ′′ N ′′N ′′ 3 2 ⎢ 3 1 ′′ ′ ′′ ′′ N 4 N1′ N 4 N 2 ⎢ ⎣ ′ ′ N1′N 3′ ′′ ′ N 2 N 3′ ′ (N 3′ )2 ′′ ′ N 4 N 3′ ′ ′′ N1′N 4 ⎤ ⎥ ′′ ′′ N2 N4 ⎥ dr .30) gives the matrix (5.32) Substituting (5. e T e B e (5. BEAMS.32) and d V = Ae d x into (5.25) with (5. . = 3e ⎢ l e ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎣ 6l 2l (5.31) where the curvature-displacement row vector ⎣B ⎦ is ⎣B ⎦ = l ⎢6 l 3r − 1 − 6 l 3r + 1⎥ . e ⎣ e e ⎦ 1 ⎢ r r ⎥ (5. e e (5. (5.21) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix due to bending in local coordinates [k ] e B 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . ′ ′′ N 3′N 4 ⎥ ⎥ ′ ⎦ (N 4′ )2 ⎥ (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 87 Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }.5.19) [ k ] = ∫ ⎣B⎦ e Ve T Ee ⎣B ⎦ dV .

f 3 = k 21 .⎤ ⎧ q2 = 1⎫ . 5.6 Equation (5.33) Consider a beam element with end 2 fixed ( q5 = q6 = 0 ) and end 1 having a unit displacement along the global X-axis ( q2 = 1.33) can be written ⎧ f 2 ⎫ ⎡ k11 ⎪ f ⎪ ⎢k ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎢ 21 ⎨ ⎬= ⎪ f 5 ⎪ ⎢ k31 ⎪ f 6 ⎪ ⎢k 41 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ which gives f 2 = k11 . k 21 + k 41 + k31 l = 0 . ⎥ . .35) This shows that the first column of the stiffness matrix represents the forces and moments that must be applied to the beam element to preserve static equilibrium when q2 = 1 and all other displacements are zero. (5.88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. Fig. . as in Fig. (5.3. For equilibrium k11 + k31 = 0 .34) f 5 = k31 .3 Physical significance of the stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (5. (5. .⎦ ⎪q6 = 0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ f 6 = k 41 . .⎥ ⎪q3 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⋅⎪ ⎨ ⎬ ⎥ ⎪q5 = 0 ⎪ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭e (5.6. . . 5. q3 = 0) and zero rotation.36) . . . .29) relates the vector of nodal forces to the vector of nodal displacements ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f2 ⎫ f3 ⎪ EI e ⎪ ⎬ = 3 f5 ⎪ le f 6 ⎪e ⎭ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎨ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎣ 6l 2 l ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ .

They can be determined.4 Uniform beam loaded between ends For a uniform beam loaded between ends. 5. d 4 v d x 4 ≠ 0 in equation (5. The corresponding five constants have to be determined from five boundary conditions.9) is a quartic polynomial. But they can be used only if the element has uniform rigidity E I z and is not loaded between nodes.1 Consistent vector of nodal forces Consider a transverse load p (x ) . p = const .37) becomes W = qe It has the form { } ∫ ⎣N ⎦ le p dx . the general solution of equation (5. The cubic shape functions do the job. BEAMS.12). the computed nodal displacements are exact. An internal node added at the centre of element will solve the problem. For a linearly distributed transverse load. However. it is the homogeneous solution of the differential equation. When the transverse load is uniformly distributed. FRAMES AND GRIDS 89 5. having the units of force per unit length. moments and shear forces are in error.37) Substituting (5. (5.9) and the beam deflected shape is no more a cubic polynomial. As already shown in Chapter 4. introducing its nodal displacement as the fifth nodal coordinate. However. adding the transverse displacement and slope at the element midpoint to the element nodal coordinates. the current practice is to use lower order approximate assumed shape functions that ensure the minimal convergence requirements. Within the elements.39) . the solution is to replace the actual distributed load by equivalent nodal forces. The mechanical work of such a force is W= le ∫ v p dx = ∫ v le T T T p dx .4. . rising the power of the function describing the displacement within a beam element is tantamount to introducing additional internal nodes.38) W = qe where the element load vector is { } {f } T e (5. (5. v (x ) will be a quintic with six arbitrary constants.5. p ≠ 0 . distributed along the beam element. Using cubic polynomials as admissible functions. For beams with transverse forces. equation (5. as shown in the following. the displacements.

by statically equivalent forces (Fig. if the transverse force is uniformly distributed. if applied in the opposite direction as constraints. . They are called “kinematically equivalent” nodal forces since they replace a distributed load p (r ) weighted with the shape functions N i (r ) so that the correct work is simulated. 5. 5. would keep all nodal displacements zero in the presence of the true loading. substituting (5. a it is seen that f 2e is a shear force and f 3e is a moment. 5.7 d The kinematically equivalent loads are those which. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. the vector of element consistent nodal forces is {f } e l = e p 2 ⎢ pl =⎢ e ⎢ 2 ⎣ +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T (5.41) or. . p = const . a b c Fig. b) would be incorrect since the beam element has the ends rigidly jointed. {f } e p l2 e 12 p le 2 p l2 ⎥ e − ⎥ .6.18).7.40) For the Hermitian two-node element. To replace p = const . (5.42) In Fig.90 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e le T l p ( x ) dx = e 2 +1 −1 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ dr T p (r ) d r .

or refining the mesh. 5. Example 5. for instance. even if it is known that. so we would expect to increase the accuracy by increasing the number of elements modeling the same structure. Assuming cubic displacement functions implies linearly varying bending moments (and hence stresses) in uniform beams. as shown in Example 5.6. it is rigidly built in the adjacent beam elements.e. they have a quadratic distribution.e. BEAMS.1. nodal forces must include moments. Even if these functions are built up to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions at the ends. the smaller the error. The source of error comes from the arbitrary selection of the shape functions. for uniform loading. Local stresses may be higher than the true ones. The finite element solution is therefore referred to as a lower bound. stiffening it.5. i. In order to ensure the C1 continuity across elements. This is equivalent to applying additional constraints to the beam.1 Calculate the transverse displacement at the centre of the simply supported beam shown in Fig.1 . the equilibrium within the elements is broken.1. Kinematically equivalent loads yield displacements which do not coincide with those produced by actual loading. Equivalent nodal forces for linearly distributed loads are given in Figs. FRAMES AND GRIDS 91 i. due to the difference between the applied load p (x ) and the resistance E I z v IV which gives rise to a sort of unbalanced residual force. The deflections of this over-stiff finite element model are smaller “in the mean” than the true deflections of the actual structure. E5. E5. not only shear forces. This applies only to the strain energy and not to the displacement or stress at a point. forcing the beam to maintain the approximate deflection. Fig. Assuming approximate deflected shapes instead of the true ones may be imagined as the result of application of a fake loading. The smaller the element. A correct solution will approach the true value with monotonically increasing values of displacements. c and d.

4. ⎝ 2⎠ 5 5. 96 E I ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ The true solution is v true = 5 pl 4 384 E I so that the approximate finite element solution is. Using a single beam element.2 Higher-degree interpolation functions Let explore the possibility of approximating the displacements of a fourth order system by a quadratic function of the form . as expected. 12 l 2 EI ( 2q3 + 4q6 ) = − pl . the equations of equilibrium can be written ⎧ pl ⎫ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 = 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl 2 ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪ EIz ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ = ⎪ 12 ⎪ .92 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Solution. Using the boundary conditions and the equivalent nodal loads. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 = 0 ⎪ ⎪ pl ⎪ l ⎥ ⎢ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ q6 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ pl ⎪ ⎪− ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ The set of equations in the unknown displacements is 2 EI ( 4q3 + 2q6 ) = pl . 24 E I pl 4 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ v ⎜ ⎟ = N 2 ⎜ ⎟ q3 + N 4 ⎜ ⎟ q6 = . 12 l with solutions q6 = − q3 = − The displacement at the middle is pl3 . the distributed load is replaced by two concentrated moments at the ends. smaller ⎛l⎞ 4 v ⎜ ⎟ = vtrue .

v = v2 . d v d x = ϕ2 . v = v1 . BEAMS. a 3 . a 2 .12) ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ N 5 ⎦ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. v = v3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ q e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 N4 (5. at x = x3 . ⎨ ⎬ 32 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ − 3 ϕ2 l ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎪ 16 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ l4 ⎥ ⎦ and and d v d x = ϕ1 . a5 in (5.43) The five integration constants a 1 . a 4 . This gives the nodal coordinates in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ v1 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 1 ⎪ ⎨ v2 ⎪ϕ ⎪ 2 ⎪ v3 ⎩ On inversion ⎡ 1 ⎢ ⎧ a5 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 11 ⎪ 4⎪ ⎢ − ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎨ a3 ⎬ = ⎢ l ⎪ a ⎪ ⎢ 18 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎢ l3 ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎢ 8 ⎩ ⎭ ⎢− ⎢ l4 ⎣ 0 1 − 4 l 5 l2 2 0 0 5 − 2 l 14 − 4 l l3 8 0 0 1 l 3 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎧ v1 ⎫ ⎥ 16 ⎥ ⎪ ϕ1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ l 2 ⎥ ⋅ ⎪ v2 ⎪ . FRAMES AND GRIDS 93 v (x ) = a 1 x 4 + a 2 x 3 + a 3 x 2 + a 4 x + a5 .43) can be determined from the end displacements and slopes. (5.5. 5.45) where the quartic shape functions are . 4l 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ a2 l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ a1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 16 ⎦ − 3 l − 2 l 2 l3 The beam deflection is given by an expression of the form (5.8): at x = x1 . (5. and the displacement of the internal node at the centre of the element (Fig. at x = x 2 .44) ⎡1 ⎫ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 1 ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢1 ⎭ ⎣ 0 1 l 1 l 2 0 0 l2 2l l2 4 0 0 l3 3l 2 l3 8 0 ⎤ ⎧ a5 ⎫ 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ a4 ⎪ ⎪ l4 ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⋅ ⎨ a3 ⎬ .

the element consistent load vector (5. 4 1 N 2 ( r ) = − ( 1 −r ) 2 r ( 1 + r )l . 8 N 1( r ) = − FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (5.47) For p = const .27) and performing the integration. Fig. we obtain the element stiffness matrix ⎡ 316 94l e 196 − 34l e ⎢ 36l 2 34l e − 6l 2 e e EI e ⎢ = 3⎢ 316 − 94l e 5l e ⎢ 36l 2 e ⎢SYM ⎣ − 512 ⎤ − 128l e ⎥ ⎥ − 512 ⎥ . 4 1 N 4 (r ) = − (1 − r ) r (1 + r ) 2 l .8 Substituting the shape functions (5.94 1 ( 1 − r ) 2 r ( 3 + 2r ) .46). 8 1 N 3 ( r ) = ( 3 − 2r ) r ( 1 + r ) 2 .46) N 5 (r ) = (1 − r ) 2 (1 + r ) 2 .41) is . N 5 is called a “bubble function”. . 5. In equations (5. 128l e ⎥ 1024 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] e B (5. having zero displacements and slopes at the ends.46) into equation (5.

e [ ]{ q }.50).12) we get M = EIz M= d2 v 4 d2 v 4 = EIz 2 = E I z 2 ⎣N ′′⎦ q e . The end bending moments are M 1 = − R3 and M 2 = R 6 .51) ⎨ ⎬ = 3 ⎢ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ R5 ⎪ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ q5 ⎪ ⎪ p l e ⎪ le ⎪ − ⎢ ⎥ 2 ⎪ R6 ⎪ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ e ⎪ q6 ⎪e ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎣ 6l 2l ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎩ ⎭e pl 2 ⎪ e ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 12 ⎭ e The first term on the right is k B elements that are called fixed-end reactions. For p = 0 .3 Bending moment and shear force Using the bending moment expression (5. .50) For elements with uniformly distributed load. (5.48) 5. 3 3 dx l e dr le 2 − l e ⎦ qe . The second term consists of The shear forces at the two ends of the beam element are T1 = − R2 and T2 = R5 .5. + 12 2 2 2 4 .6) and equation (5. { } 6E I z ⎣− 2 − l e l3 e { } (5. they are obtained substituting r = −1 and r = +1 in (5. the end equilibrium loads are given by ⎧ pl e ⎫ ⎪− 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎧ R2 ⎫ 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ q2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎡ 12 pl2 ⎪R ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ q ⎪ ⎪− e ⎪ EI e ⎪ 3⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 3 ⎪ + ⎪ 12 ⎪ . the exact moment and shear force within the element are Mp =M − 2 pl 2 pl e l e e ( r + 1) + p l e ( r + 1) 2 . 2 2 dx l e dr le { } EIz ⎣6 r l2 e (3r − 1) l e − 6r (3r + 1) l e ⎦ { q e }. 15 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. (5.7) T = −E I z T= d3 v 8 d3 v 8 = −E I z 3 = − E I z 3 ⎣N ′′′⎦ q e .4. When p = const .49) and (5.49) The shear force is given by equation (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 95 {f } e ⎢7 ple =⎢ ⎢ 30 ⎣ p l2 e 60 7 p le 30 p l2 e − 60 8 p le ⎥ ⎥ . BEAMS.

respectively. 2 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where M and T are the expressions (5.50).12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 0⎫ 1 ⎪ le l l ⎪ N 2 + l e N 3 + e N 4 = e ( 1 + r ) = linear . 5. because the structure as a whole should be in equilibrium.49) and (5. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. with node 1 fixed and node 2 having a vertical displacement l e (Fig. b. equation (5. If the nodes are given unit vertical displacements (Fig. Although equilibrium is not satisfied exactly at every interior point or across interfaces. 5.96 Tp = T − pl e r. When nodal displacements are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. Rotation. an element as a whole should be in equilibrium.9. Vertical translation. If the nodes are given unit rotations. 1⎪ 4 4 ⎪ 0⎭ ( ) ( ) which shows that the element has indeed a vertical displacement as a rigid body. a. a). equation (5. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: 1.9. and the interior points should correspond to the assumed rigid body displacement. ⎬= l⎪ 2 2 2 1⎪ ⎭ which shows that the element has indeed an anticlockwise rotation as a rigid body. valid for p = 0 . 5. b).5 Basic convergence requirements As element sizes are reduced.12) gives ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1⎫ 0⎪ 1 1 ⎪ 3 3 ⎬ = N1 + N 3 = 2 − 3 r + r + 2 + 3 r − r = 1 = const . An element should describe rigid body modes exactly. .

9. 5. c) ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎪ l l ⎪ ⎪ le v (x ) = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ N2 − e N4 = e 1 − r 2 .1 Axial effects The axial nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ = kS ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭ where the stiffness matrix for stretching (4.2. it is acted upon by axial forces. An element should simulate constant strain states.53) .6 Frame element As shown in Fig.6. they must have at least constant curvature.5. 5. apart from moments and shear forces. Assuming zero nodal vertical displacements and unit rotations in opposite directions (Fig.l 2 = const . Because there is no coupling between the bending and stretching displacements. FRAMES AND GRIDS 97 a b Fig. 5. an inclined beam element should include longitudinal displacements since.22) is [ ] e (5. the two stiffness matrices can be added taking into account the proper location of their elements. 5. In the case of beams. 1⎥ ⎦ (5.9 c 2. when element sizes shrink to zero.52) [ k ]= ElA ⎡⎢−11 e S e ⎣ − 1⎤ . 5. ⎬= 2 4 ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2 ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ so that the second derivative (curvature) is constant ( ) v′′ = . BEAMS.

55) 5.57) .54) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ − 2 ⎥ l 4E I ⎥ ⎥ l ⎥e ⎦ 0 [k ] e . combining equations (5.56) Equations (5. q 2 = −Q 1 sin θ + Q 2 cos θ .6.53) and (5.29).2 Stiffness matrix and load vector in local coordinates For the frame element. this ratio may be as small as 1 20 or 1 50 . the vector of consistent nodal forces is (i l ) The ratio of the bending terms to the stretching terms in (5. where ‘i’ is the relevant radius of gyration.3 Coordinate transformation A frame element is shown in Fig. (5. ⎧ q1 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎣− s s ⎤ ⎧ Q1 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ c⎥ ⎩ Q 2 ⎭ ⎦ .56) can be written in matrix form as (5.6. the local linear displacements q 1 and q 2 are related to the global linear displacements Q 1 and Q 2 by the equations q 1 = Q 1 cos θ + Q 2 sin θ . For node 1.98 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. If there is a uniformly distributed load on a member. For slender beams.10 both in the initial and deformed state. 12 ⎥ ⎦ T (5. and arranging the elements in proper locations we get the element stiffness matrix given by ⎡ EA ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢− E A ⎢ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 12 E I l3 6E I l2 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I l2 − 0 6E I l2 4E I l 0 6E I l2 2E I l − EA l 0 0 EA l 0 0 0 − 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l 0 12 E I l3 6E I − 2 l ⎤ ⎥ 6E I ⎥ ⎥ l2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ l ⎥ . 5.54) is of order 2 { f } = ⎢0 ⎢ e ⎢ ⎣ p le 2 p l2 e 12 0 p le 2 − p l2 ⎥ e ⎥ . so the stiffness matrix may possibly be numerically ill-conditioned. (5.

60). { Q } is the beam element displacement vector in the global e e coordinate system and [T ] e ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (5.60) In (5. (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 99 where c = cos θ and s = sin θ . . { q } is the beam element displacement vector in the local coordinate system. The angular displacements (rotations) are the same in both coordinate systems q 3 = Q3 .10 Adding the similar relationships for node 2 ⎧ q4 ⎫ ⎡ c ⎨q ⎬=⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣− s we obtain e s ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬.58) Fig. BEAMS.59) { q } = [ T ] { Q }. 5. c⎥ ⎩ Q 5 ⎭ ⎦ e e q6 = Q6 . (5.5.61) is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix for plane frames. (5.

the stiffness matrix of the frame element in global coordinates is obtained as [ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .7.62) The nodal loads due to a uniformly distributed load p are given by The values of F e { } are added to the global load vector. e e T e e (5.6. (5. that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the entire structure level. (5. [ ] { } [ ] The global uncondensed stiffness matrix is equal to the sum of the expanded element stiffness matrices ~ [K ] = K e . using equations (5.100 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 5. (5.66) The equations of equilibrium can be regarded as having been derived as soon as the reduced stiffness matrix and load vector have been calculated using the boundary conditions.67) .7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix is assembled from element matrices ~ K e using element connectivity matrices T e . by equations of the form ~ Q e = T e { Q }. e e T e e (5. e (5.60) ε e = − y v′′ = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ q e = − y ⎣N ′′⎦ T e { } [ ] { Q }.4).4 Stiffness matrix and load vector in global coordinates Using the same procedure as in section 3. Having solved [ K ] { Q } = { F } it is routine to backtrack and recover the eth element strains.12) and (5.63) 5. {F }= [T ] { f } e e T e (5.65) ∑[ ] e where ~ ~ ~ [ K ] = [T ] [ K ][T ] . [K ].64) [ ] The global stiffness matrix.

2 Calculate the transverse displacement at the free end of the cantilever stepped beam shown in Fig. Example 5. Strains are derivatives of an approximate displacement (in beams . − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 0 The unreduced global stiffness matrix is 12l − 24 12l ⎡ 24 ⎢ 12l 8l 2 − 12l 4l 2 ⎢ − 6l E I ⎢− 24 − 12l 36 K ]= 3 ⎢ 2 − 6l 12l 2 l ⎢ 12l 4l ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 ⎢ 0 ⎣ [ Using the boundary conditions at the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . E5. Fig. FRAMES AND GRIDS 101 Strains. are not accurate. and hence stresses.2. Consider the beam divided into two cubic Hermitian elements. and omitting the first two rows and columns. The element stiffness matrices are [k ] 1 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ 2E I ⎥ . E5. BEAMS. = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l [k ] 2 6l − 12 6l ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ EI ⎥ . = 3 ⎢ ⎢− 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ l ⎢ ⎥ 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎣ 6l 2l 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎥.second derivatives) and differentiation inevitably decreases accuracy. we obtain the finite element equations .5.2 Solution.

102 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ 2 EI ⎢ − 6l 12l l 3 ⎢ − 12 − 6l ⎢ 2l 2 ⎣ 6l ⎡ 36 − 6l ⎢ − 6l 12l 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6l 2l 2 ⎣ or ⎧ Q3 ⎪ ⎨ Q4 ⎪Q ⎩ 6 ⎫ 1 ⎪ ⎬= 2 ⎪ 216l ⎭ − 12 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q4 ⎥⎪ ⎨ 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q5 ⎥ − 6l 4l 2 ⎦ ⎪ Q6 ⎩ ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎥⎨ 4 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎪ ⎪−F ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.3 Calculate the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam shown in Fig. E5. ⎢ 9l 216 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 21l − 27 99 ⎥ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎩ 180 ⎭ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎣ By substitution into the equation with non-zero right hand side EI (− 12 Q3 − 6l Q4 + 12 Q5 − 6l Q6 ) = − F l3 the transverse displacement in 3 is obtained as F l3 .29).5 Example 5. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ The three equations with zero right hand side can be written 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎫ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 . EI v3 = Q5 = −1. Solution. Assembling the element stiffness matrices (5. ⎪ ⎪ 6l ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎡ 11l 2 9l − 21l ⎤ ⎧ 12 ⎫ ⎧ 60l ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1 ⎪ ⎪ 27 − 27 ⎥ ⎨ 6l ⎬ Q5 = ⎨ 108 ⎬ Q5 . l ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎦ ⎣ . Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements. the unreduced global stiffness matrix is obtained as 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ 0 − 12 6l ⎥ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 [ K ] = 3 ⎢ 6l 2l 2 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ .3.

at the simply supported end Q5 = 0 . Omitting the corresponding rows and columns. 7l ⎧0 ⎫ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬ = − ⎨ ⎬ Q3 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎩ 6l ⎭ ⎦ Fig. we obtain the finite element equations 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎡ 24 0 EI ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 0 8l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ . 96 E I v2 = Q3 = − The rotations are ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 3 F l2 . E5. 96 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = 12 F l 2 .5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 103 At the fixed end Q1 = Q2 = 0 . 7l Q6 = − 12 Q3 . 96 E I The support reactions are given by . 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ The last two equations give ⎡ 8l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎣ or Q4 = 3 Q3 .3 Substitution of Q4 and Q6 into the first equation gives ⎧ 3 7l ⎫ F l3 24 Q3 + ⎣ 0 6l ⎦ ⎨ ⎬ Q3 = − EI ⎩ − 12 7l ⎭ or 7 F l3 . BEAMS.

5l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ 0 ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ 2 − 1.5l 6l − 1.4.5l 1.5l 2l l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1.104 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎡ − 12 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ 2 0 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 − 6l 2l 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ − 12 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ which yield V1 = ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ M1 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪V ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ 11 F. E5.5 − 4.5 − 1.5l 6l ⎦ ⎩ Q4 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ with solutions v2 = Q3 = − 8 F l3 .5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ − F ⎫ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ ⎢ 2 ⎥⎨ l 3 ⎣ − 4.5l − 1. 8 V3 = 5 F.5 1. 16 Example 5. the finite element equations can be written − 12 6l 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 6l 4l 2 2 − 6l 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 13.5 − 1.4 Solution. Fig. 27 E I . 16 3 M1 = − F l .5l l ⎢ 0 ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭ From the third and fourth rows we obtain E I ⎡ 13. E5. Consider the beam modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5 − 4. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = Q6 = 0 .4 Find the transverse displacement at 2 and the support reactions for the beam with fixed ends shown in Fig.5l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ M 3 ⎪ 0 1. 2 2 2 ⎥⎨ 3 ⎢ 6l − 4. 81 E I ϕ 2 = Q4 = − 2 F l2 .5l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪− F ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.

BEAMS. third and fifth rows and columns.5l ⎩ ⎭ The support reactions are V1 = 20 4 7 2 F . M 1 = F l .5l ⎥ ⎪ − 2 ⎪ E I ⎪ V3 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪M 3 ⎪ l 2 ⎦ ⎩ 27 ⎭ ⎣ 1. The continuous beam is modeled by two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements.5. ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l 3 ⎢− 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q3 = Q5 = 0 . the finite element equations can be written 6l − 12 6l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ 12 ⎢ 6l 4l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 2⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V2 − p l 2⎪ 0 E I ⎢− 12 − 6l 24 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. we obtain ⎡ 4l 2 ⎢ 2 ⎢ 2l ⎢ 0 ⎣ 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎥⎪ 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎦⎩ EI l3 2l 2 8l 2 2l 2 0 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ − p l 12 ⎬ .5 − 1.5 Calculate the rotations at supports and the reaction forces for the two-span beam shown in Fig. Fig. ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ . E5. 3 ⎢ 6l 0 8l 2 − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ − p l 2 12 ⎪ 2l 2 l ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪V3 − p l 2 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ p l 2 12 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Omitting the first. V3 = F .5 Solution. E5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 105 Substituting the displacements into the other four equations yields 6l ⎤ ⎧ V1 ⎫ ⎡ − 12 8 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 6l 2l 2 ⎥ ⎧− l ⎫ 2 EI ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 81 ⎪ F l = ⎪ M 1 ⎪ . 27 9 27 9 Example 5. M3 = − Fl .5 where the right span carries a uniformly distributed load.

8 V3 = 7 pl . 16 V2 = 5 pl . E5.6 Find the transverse displacement and the angle of rotation at 2 for the beam shown in Fig. substituted into the second and third equation EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎧ 2l 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ 8l 2 ⎪ ⎬ Q2 + ⎢ 2 ⎪ ⎢ 2l ⎭ ⎣ 2l 2 ⎤ ⎧ Q4 ⎫ ⎞ p l 2 ⎧− 1⎫ ⎥⎨ ⎬⎟= ⎨ ⎬. 4l 2 ⎥ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ ⎟ 12 ⎩ 1 ⎭ ⎦ ⎠ ϕ 2 = Q4 = − pl3 . E5. 96 E I The reaction forces are calculated from ϕ1 = Q2 = 6l 0 ⎤ ⎧ Q2 ⎡ 6l EI ⎢ ⎪ − 6l 0 6l ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 0 − 6l − 6l ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ obtaining V1 ⎫ ⎧ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎨ V2 − p l 2 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ V − pl 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 3 ⎭ V1 = − pl .6 .6. Fig. 16 Example 5. 32 E I (b) Substituting the rotations (b) in (a) we obtain pl3 .106 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The first equation above yields ⎧Q ⎫ Q2 = ⎣ − 1 2 0 ⎦ ⎨ 4 ⎬ ⎩ Q6 ⎭ (a) which. 48 E I ϕ3 = Q6 = pl3 .

5 4.1333 p l 2 ⎬ .7 p0 l ⎫ − 1. substituted into the first two equations EI l3 gives ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎧ − 0.3 p 0 l ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0.1333 p0 l ⎪ l ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎪ 0 V3 − 12 − 6l 12 − 6l ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 6l 2l 2 − 6l 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪Q6 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Deleting the first. the finite element equations can be written 1.5l l ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ E I ⎢− 1.0518 p0 l 3 . ⎟ 0 ⎭ ⎦⎩ 4⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎠ ⎩ v2 = Q3 = −0.5l 6l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 EI ⎢ ⎪ 4.5l 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎧ V1 − 0.5l − 12 6l ⎥ ⎪Q3 ⎪ ⎪ − 0.7 Find the shape functions for the 3-node beam element shown in Fig. EI Example 5.5 4.2 p0 l 2 ⎪ − 1. Using the boundary conditions Q1 = Q2 = Q5 = 0 .1333 p0l ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 4 ( ) . Two Bernoulli-Euler beam elements are used to model the system.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 1.084 p0 l 4 . 3 ⎢ 1. EI ϕ 2 = Q4 = 0.5 − 1. Answer.3 p0l ⎫ ⎡ 13. N 1( r ) = 1 2 r 4 − 5r − 2r 2 + 3r 3 .5.5l 6l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q ⎬ + ⎨ 2l 2 ⎬ Q6 ⎟ = ⎨0. ⎪ ⎭ Q6 = − 3 1 Q3 − Q4 2l 2 which.5l ⎡ 1.5 4.5l 6l − 6l 2l ⎥ ⎪Q4 ⎪ ⎪ 0.5l l 4.7. BEAMS.5l 13.5l 2 2 2l 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪M 1 − 0. 4 ( ) N 2 (r ) = 1 2 r 1 −r − r 2 + r 3 .5l ⎤ ⎧ Q3 ⎫ ⎧ 6l ⎫ ⎢ 4.3 p0 l ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=⎨ 2 2 2⎥⎨ 2 ⎬.5 1. FRAMES AND GRIDS 107 Solution.5l 6l 2 2l 2 ⎥ ⎨ Q4 3 ⎢ ⎥ l ⎢ 6l 2l 2 4l 2 ⎥ ⎪ Q6 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The last equation yields ⎫ ⎧ − 0 . E5. second and fifth rows and columns we obtain ⎡ 13.

2 1 2 r 4 + 5r − 2r 2 − 3r 3 . E5. E5.108 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS N 3(r ) = 1 − r 2 N 5 (r ) = ( ) 2 . N 4 (r ) = r 1− r 2 ( ). 4 ( ) N 6 (r ) = 1 2 r −1− r +r 2 + r3 . b .7. 4 ( ) Fig.7. a Fig.

531e-3 2.5 1. The frame is modeled with 6 elements and 7 nodes.232e-2 -5. Nodal data Node nr 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Restr X 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Y 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 Restr Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Coord X 0 0 0 0. Determine the nodal displacements.889e-3 -1.0699e-2 1. E5.0698e-2 1. Answer. a b c d e Fig.8.8.260e-3 -6. shear T and bending moment M are shown in Figs.5. BEAMS.700e-6 1. plot the deformed shape and the diagrams of axial force.309e-3 2. A = 1600 mm 2 and I = 2 ⋅ 10 mm .4 2 2 Coord Y 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 Displ X 0 0. E5.592e-3 -1.0697e-2 1.010 1.321e-3 -8.260e-2 The deformed shape is shown in Fig.8.8 . It has E = 2 ⋅ 1011 N m 2 .500e-7 1. a has pinned ends and is loaded in 2 by a force 5 4 F = 1000 N . FRAMES AND GRIDS 109 Example 5. e. d. b. E5. c.8 The planar frame shown in Fig. The diagrams of the axial force N .500e-7 0 Rotation Z -1. E5.353e-3 2. shear and bending moment.0696e-2 0 Displ Y 0 8.

Fig. A = 400 mm 2 . It is loaded by a couple M 3 = 2 ⋅ 106 N mm and two point loads F6 = −2 ⋅ 10 4 N and F12 = −10 4 N . b .2476 mm . a The displacements in 6 are h 6 = 0. b. E5. 5. ϕ 6 = −0. Answer. a has fixed ends in 1. 10. E5.9. 13.9673 mm . v 6 = −0. The deformed shape is presented in Fig. Fig. E5. l1− 2 = 100 mm and l 9 −10 = l 9 −11 = 200 mm . E5.9 The planar frame shown in Fig. The frame is modeled with 12 elements and 13 nodes.9.110 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 5. I = 2 ⋅104 mm 4 . For E = 2 ⋅105 N mm 2 . find the displacements in 6 and plot the deformed shape.9.9.00623 rad .

a.1 Finite element discretization The grid is divided into finite elements. defined as the rotation about the X axis. the torsional rigidity G I t and the length l . They are special cases of tree-dimensional frames in which each joint has only three nodal displacements. without shear deformations and not loaded between ends. 5. two rotations and a linear displacement. the rotation about the Y axis and the displacement along the Z axis. BEAMS. a translation and two rotations. Typically. as illustrated in Fig.8 Grids Grids or grillages are planar structural systems subjected to loads applied normally to their plane. the degrees of freedom of node i are Q3 i − 2 .11 5. 5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 111 5.11.5. Q3 i −1 and Q3 i .8. 5. 5. respectively. Each node has three degrees of freedom. Elements are modelled as uniform rods with bending and torsional flexibility. where the nodal displacements are also shown. Their properties are the flexural rigidity E I .12.8.2 Element stiffness matrix in local coordinates Consider an inclined grid element. Only cross sections whose shear centre coincides with the centroid are considered. as shown in Fig. . describing bending and torsional effects. Fig. Nodes are located by their coordinates in the global reference frame XOY and element connectivity is defined by the indices of the end nodes.

112

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

In a local physical coordinate system, the x axis, oriented along the beam, is inclined an angle α with respect to the global X axis. The z axis for the local coordinate system is collinear with the Z axis for the global system. Alternatively, an intrinsic (natural) coordinate system can be used.

Fig. 5.12 The vector of element nodal displacements is

{ q }= ⎣ q
e e

1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

⎦T ⎦T .

(5.68)

and the corresponding vector of element nodal forces can be written

{ f }= ⎣ f
In (5.69)
f 3 and

1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

(5.69)
f 5 are

f 6 are transverse forces, while f 2 and

couples producing bending (Fig. 5.12, b). The corresponding displacements q 3 , q 6 are translations, while q 2 , q 5 are rotations. Their column vectors are related by the flexural stiffness matrix. Rearranging the matrix (5.29) we obtain

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

f2 f3 f5

⎡ 4l 2 6l 2l 2 − 6l ⎤ ⎧q 2 ⎫ ⎫ ⎢ ⎥ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 6l − 12 ⎥ ⎪q 3 ⎪ ⎪ EI e ⎢ 6l ⎨ ⎬. ⎬= 3 ⎢ 2 6l 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎪q 5 ⎪ ⎪ l e ⎢ 2l ⎥ f6 ⎪ ⎢− 6l − 12 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎪q 6 ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭

(5.70)

The axial nodal forces f 1 , f 4 are torques and the nodal displacements q 1 , q 4 are twist angles. They describe torsional effects so that their action is decoupled from bending. The respective stiffness matrix can be calculated

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

113

separately. The derivation of this matrix is essentially identical to the derivation of the stiffness matrix for axial effects in a frame element or in a truss element. The twist angle can be expressed in terms of the shape functions (4.51) as

θ (r ) = N1 (r ) q 1 + N 2 (r ) q 4 ,
which substituted into the strain energy
Ue = G It e 2

(5.71)


e

⎛ ∂θ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
+1

2

(5.72)

yields, after the change of coordinates, the element stiffness matrix

[ ]=
kte

2 G It e

le

−1

∫ ⎣N ′ ⎦
r

T

′ ⎣N r ⎦ d r .

(5.73)

As a consequence of this analogy, the nodal forces are related to the nodal displacements by equation ⎧ f1 ⎫ e ⎧ q1 ⎫ (5.74) ⎨ ⎬ = kt ⎨ ⎬ ⎩ f4 ⎭ ⎩ q4 ⎭

[ ]
te

where the stiffness matrix for torsional effects is

[ k ] = GlI
e t

e

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 1 ⎥ . ⎣ ⎦

(5.75)

In (5.75), G is the shear modulus of elasticity and I t e is the torsional constant of the cross section. For axially symmetrical cross sections the latter is the polar second moment of area. For the grid element, combining the stiffness matrices from equations (5.70) and (5.75), we get the stiffness matrix in local coordinates relating the nodal forces (5.69) and the nodal displacements (5.68) −a 0 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ a ⎢ 0 4l 2 6l 2 − 6l ⎥ 0 2l ⎥ ⎢ 6l 12 0 6l − 12 ⎥ EI e ⎢ 0 = 3 ⎢ ⎥ a 0 0 0 0 ⎥ l e ⎢− a ⎢ 0 2l 2 6l 0 4l 2 − 6l ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 6l − 12 0 − 6l 12 ⎥ e ⎦ ⎣

[k ]
e

(5.76)

where a = G I t e l 2 E I e . e

114

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

5.8.3 Coordinate transformation
It is necessary to transform the matrix (5.76) from the local to the global system of coordinates before its assemblage in the stiffness matrix for the complete grid. As has been indicated, the z direction for local axes coincides with the Z direction for the global axes, so that only the rotational components of displacements should be converted. The transformation of coordinates is defined by equation

where q e system,

{ } is the element displacement vector (5.68) in the local coordinate

{ q } = [ T ] { Q },
e e e

(5.77)

{ Q } = ⎣Q
e

1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6 ⎦ T

is the element displacement vector in the global coordinate system (Fig. 5.12) and ⎡c ⎢− s ⎢ ⎢0 =⎢ ⎢0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎣ s 0 c 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 0⎥ ⎥, c s 0⎥ − s c 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0 1⎥ ⎦ 0

[T ]
e

(5.78)

where c = cos α and s = sin α , is the local-to-global coordinate transformation matrix. The same transformation matrix (5.78) serves to transform the nodal forces from local to global coordinates.

5.8.4 Element stiffness matrix in global coordinates
Using the same procedure as for frame elements, we obtain the stiffness matrix of the grid element in global coordinates as

[ K ]= [T ] [ k ][T ] .
e e T e e

(5.79)

It is used to assemble the unreduced global stiffness matrix [ K ] using ~ element connectivity matrices T e that relate the nodal displacements at element level with the nodal displacements at the complete structure level, by equations of the form (5.64).

[ ]

5. BEAMS, FRAMES AND GRIDS

115

For grounded systems the unreduced matrix [ K ] is then condensed using the boundary conditions. The effect of lumped springs can be accounted for by adding their values along the main diagonal at the appropriate locations in the global stiffness matrix.

Example 5.10
The grid shown in Fig. E5.10 is fixed at points 1 and 2, has E = 210 GPa , G = 81 GPa , l = 1 m and diameter d = 20 mm . Find the vertical displacement of point 7 when the grid is loaded by forces F7 = F8 = −500 N and draw the spatial deflected shape.

a Fig. E5.10

b

Answer. The grid is modeled with 14 elements and 8 nodes, having 18 dof’s. The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.10, b. The deflection is w7 = − 0.436 m .

Example 5.11
The grid shown in Fig. E5.11, a is fixed at points 1 and 2, and has l = 1 m , I = 0.785 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , I t = 1.57 ⋅ 10 −8 m 4 , E = 210 GPa and G = 81 GPa . Find the vertical displacement of point 5 when the grid is loaded by a force F5 = −103 N . Draw the deflected shape and the diagrams of the bending moment and torque.

116

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

a

b

c Fig. E5.11

d

Answer. The grid is modeled with 5 elements and 5 nodes, having 9 dof’s. The largest displacement is w5 = − 0.4 m . The deflected shape is presented in Fig. E5.11, b. The bending moment and torque diagrams are shown in Figs. E5.11, c, d.

5.9 Deep beam bending element
Shear deformation becomes important when analyzing deep beams, for which Bernoulli’s hypothesis is no more valid. The nonlinear distribution of shear stresses produces the warping of the cross section. A simplifying hypothesis (Poncelet, 1825) considers an average shear strain, constant over the cross section. This way, planar cross sections remain undistorted and plane (warping neglected) but no more perpendicular to the centroidal axis. The assumption is adopted in the formulation of the Timoshenko beam element used in vibration studies.

9. axial forces are ignored. 5.82) γ xy = dv ∂u ∂ v + = −ϕ + = −ϕ + v′ . is approximated by u (x. as in the Bernoulli-Euler theory. where ϕ is the cross section rotation at position x . a). The strain components ε x and γ xy are given by (5.13 The axial displacement of any point on the section. Fig. dx dx (5.5. σ x = E ε x = −E (5. BEAMS. y ) = − y ϕ (x ) .80) εx = du dϕ = −y = − yϕ ′ . dx where E is Young’s modulus of the material. dx ∂ y ∂x where v′ is the slope of the deformed beam axis. Note that the slope v′ is no more equal to the rotation ϕ . at a distance y from the neutral axis.83) The bending moment is the resultant of the normal stress distribution on the cross section . Normal stresses on the cross section are given by Hooke’s law dϕ y.1 Static analysis of a uniform beam Beams with cross sections that are symmetric with respect to the plane of loading are considered herein (Fig. 5.81) (5.13. Only transverse loads act upon the beam. FRAMES AND GRIDS 117 5.

dx (5. (5.90) (5. . The shear force is given by T (x ) = − dM . dx (5.84) where I z is the second moment of area of the cross section.87) where G is the shear modulus of elasticity. Using natural coordinates. 5.87) give T = G As ( v′ − ϕ ) .88) Equations (5. elimination of M and T gives the differential equations of equilibrium G As v′′ − G Asϕ ′ = 0 . κ is a shear factor and As is the ‘effective shear area’ calculated as As [ ∫τ dA ] = ∫τ 2 2 dA .89) For a uniform beam not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) .118 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS M (x ) = − σ x y dA = E I z A ∫ dϕ = E I zϕ′ dx (5. b) is that positive internal forces and moments act in positive (negative) coordinate directions on beam cross sections with a positive (negative) outward normal. The sign convention used here (Fig. (5.14) of length l (the index e is omitted) not loaded between ends ( p = 0 ) . r = 2 x l .13. 5. 5.85) The transverse load per unit length is p (x ) = − dT . (5.82) and (5.86) The average shear strain is γ xy = T T = G As κ AG (5.91) G As v′ + E I z ϕ ′′ − G Asϕ = 0 .2 Shape functions Consider a prismatic beam element (Fig.9.

92) Changing to the r coordinate yields d4v =0. d x4 and d 3ϕ = 0.95) ϕ (r ) = b 3 r 2 + b 2 r + b 1 .95) at r = ± 1 . becomes 2 dv d 2ϕ +β −ϕ = 0.90) and (5.91) gives d4v =0. in the new variable r. d x3 (5.14 Eliminating ϕ and v in turn in (5.96) where β= 4E I z . l dr d r2 (5.97) Substituting (5. BEAMS. The resulting displacement functions are .94) and (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 119 Fig. l b2 = 4 a3 .98) This leaves only four independent constants which can be determined by evaluating (5.96) gives b3 = 6 a4 . d r3 (5.95) into (5. G As l 2 (5. (5.94) and (5.94) (5.91) which. d r4 and d 3ϕ = 0. The seven constants of integration are not independent since the above solutions must also satisfy equation (5.5.93) The general solutions of these equations are v (r ) = a 4 r 3 + a 3 r 2 + a 2 r + a 1 . l b1 = 2 12 a2 + β a 4 . 5. l l (5.

] For β = 0 .120 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎢ v = ⎢ N1 ⎣ ⎢2 ~ ⎣l l N2 2 N3 2 ~ N3 l e l ⎥ N4 ⎥ 2 ⎦ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.. the first four functions (5. (5.102) 2 ~ N 2 (r ) = ~ N3 ( r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) ) ) [ − 1 −2r + 3r ( 3 − 3r )... e e (5. and defined by . (5.21) and the last four functions satisfy the relationship 2 ∂ Ni ~ N i (r ) = l ∂r ( i = 1. 2 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . e e (5. 4 ) .100) { q }= ⎣v The shape functions are N 1( r ) = 1 ϕ 1 v2 ϕ 2 ⎦ T . 3 ( )] [ 2 + 3r − r + 6β ( 1 + r ) .99) ϕ = ⎢ N1 N 2 where ~ ~ ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ ~ { q } = ⎣N ⎦ { q }.. (5. ] N 4 (r ) = ~ N1 ( r ) = 4 ( 1 + 3β ) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 [ − 1 −r + r 2 2 + r 3 + 3β − 1 + r 2 .102) become the third degree Hermitic polynomials (5.103) It is useful to introduce a third set of shape functions which are used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. ] ~ N 4 (r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [ − 1 +2r + 3r 2 + 6β ( 1 + r ) .101) 1 4 ( 1 + 3β ) [ 2 − 3r + r 2 3 + 6β ( 1 − r ) . ( )] ) ( − 3 + 3r ) . ] N 2 (r ) = N 3(r ) = 1 4 ( 1 + 3β 1 4 ( 1 + 3β [1 −r − r ) ) + r 3 + 3β 1 − r 2 .

⎜ dx⎟ ⎝ ⎠ l dr .109) On substituting (5. ⎣ dr ⎦ ~ ˆ ⎣ N ⎦= ⎣ N ⎦ − l (5. 1 + 3β l (5.107) the contribution due to bending is B Ue E Iz 2 = 2 l −1 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ d r ⎟ dr . l e B T z −1 +1 (5. 2 2 (5. BEAMS.110) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to bending ~ ~ [ k ] = E I 2 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr .108) we get B Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T 2 EIz l −1 ∫ ⎣N ′⎦ ⎣N ′⎦ dr { q } ~ T ~ e (5. FRAMES AND GRIDS 121 2 ⎢ dN ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ .9.5.3 Stiffness matrix The strain energy for a beam element with shear effects included is E Iz Ue = 2 As l2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛dϕ ⎞ G As ⎜ ⎜ d x ⎟ dx + 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 l 2 −l 2 ∫ ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ϕ − ⎟ dx .100) into (5.108) and the contribution due to shear is G As l S Ue = 2 2 +1 ∫ −1 ⎛ 2 dv ⎞ ⎟ dr .106) dϕ 2 d ϕ = dx l dr +1 and dx = (5.111) On substituting (5.105) 5.99) into (5.100) and (5. ⎜ϕ − ⎜ l dr⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 2 (5.104) They are 3β 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ N1 (r ) = N 2 (r ) = − N 3 (r ) = N 4 (r ) = . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (5.109) we get .

102) and (5.113) Substituting the shape functions (5.114) The vector of consistent nodal forces is identical to the corresponding vector (5.112) wherefrom we obtain the element stiffness matrix due to shear l ˆ ˆ [ k ] = G A 2 ∫ ⎣N ⎦ ⎣N ⎦ dr .105) and performing the integration yields the stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ 12 ⎢ 1 EI z ⎢ 6l = 1 + 3β l 3 ⎢− 12 ⎢ ⎣ 6l (4 + 3β ) l − 6l 6l − 12 2 − 6l 12 − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 2 ⎥. ⎥ 2⎥ (4 + 3β ) l ⎦ − 6l (2 − 3β ) l 6l 2⎥ ⎤ (5. .42) derived for a slender beam.122 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S Ue 1 = 2 {q } +1 e T l G As 2 −1 ˆ ∫ ⎣N ⎦ T ˆ ⎣N ⎦ d r { q e } (5. e S T s −1 +1 (5.

with emphasis on two-dimensional problems. Any point on the surface has a local outward-pointing normal n whose orientation is usually described by its three direction cosines ∂n ∂x . stresses and strains An arbitrarily shaped tree-dimensional body of volume V. (c) stress/strain relations or Hooke’s law. LINEAR ELASTICITY In this chapter the fundamental concepts from the linear theory of elasticity are recalled. pv z . (6. Their the magnitude per unit volume is denoted by components pv x . It is convenient to write these components as a single body force vector { pv } = ⎣ pv x pv y pv z ⎦ T . is shown in Fig. 6. the portion on which surface forces are prescribed. pv y . (b) equations of compatibility or strain/displacement relations.6. ∂n ∂z .1. In general there may be three sets of applied forces: (a) internal body forces. ∂n ∂y . the portion of the boundary on which displacements are prescribed. The four main groups of equations are written in the matrix notation used in FEA: (a) equations of equilibrium. The total surface S of the body has two distinct parts: S u . in equilibrium under the action of external loads and the reactions in supports.1) . and (c) concentrated forces. and (d) boundary conditions. like centrifugal or gravity forces. and S σ . (b) surface forces. 6.1 Matrix notation for loads. Points in the body are located by x. y. z coordinates. Internal body forces Internal body forces inside the volume V can be inertial forces.

4) where u . Thus {σ } = ⎣σ x σ y σ z τ xy τ yz τ zx ⎦T .σ z and the shear stresses τ xy . the direct stress components σ x . Stresses and strains The stresses inside V will have two types of component.1) to (6.τ yz . It is convenient to represent both stress and strain components as single column matrices.3) Any system of loads has to fall into categories (6.1 Displacements It is natural to form the single displacement vector { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . σ y . also having three components { ps } = ⎣ ps x Concentrated loads ps y ps z ⎦T .124 Surface tractions FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Likewise there could be surface forces (not necessarily normal pressures) on the surface Sσ . (6. Fig. w are the displacement components inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements. v . (6.τ zx .5) . defined by the magnitude per unit surface area. (6.2) Concentrated loads are defined by their three components { Fi } = ⎣ Fi x Fi y Fi z ⎦T . (6. 6.3).

The small linear increments in stresses are equilibrated by the applied body forces yielding the following equilibrium equations.7) Fig.2 Equations of equilibrium inside V Figure 6.6) In two-dimensional problems {ε } = ⎣ε x ε y γ xy ⎦T .2 shows stresses acting on an infinitesimal element in the plane xOy. ⎦T . a) Strains are represented in vector form as ε y ε z γ xy γ yz γ zx (6. (6. (6.6. ∂x ∂y (6.6. 6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 125 In two-dimensional problems {σ } = ⎣ σ x {ε } = ⎣ε x σ y τ xy ⎦T . a) 6. + ∂y ∂x ∂τ xy ∂σ y + + p v y = 0. where τ xy = τ yx ∂σ x ∂τ yx + pv x = 0.7) can be written .5. equations (6.2 In matrix form.

11) Fig. denoting the matrix of differential operators ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [∂ ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and using (6. Sσ (6.126 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂y ∂ ∂x ⎤ ⎧σ ⎥⎪ x ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ τ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ p vx ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎬ = −⎨ ⎩ pvy ⎭ ⎪ ⎭ (6. The equilibrium along the two axes directions yields σ x l + τ yx m = ps x . ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ (6. 6.10) 6.11) the direction cosines for the outward normal n are .3 In (6.9) [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } . τ xy l + σ y m = ps y . (6.2 Equations of equilibrium on the surface Let now consider an element near the loaded boundary Sσ .1) ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ .8) or.

18) . ⎪ ⎩ sy ⎭ ⎭ (6.4 gives the deformation of the dx − dy face for small deformations.13) or in condensed form [ n ] T {σ } = { p s } . ∂y ∂ v ∂u + . ∂y ⎥⎩ v ⎭ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (6.11) can be written ⎧σ ⎡ nx 0 n y ⎤ ⎪ x ⎢ 0 n n ⎥ ⎨σy y x ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎩ τ xy ⎫ ⎪ ⎧ ps x ⎫ ⎬ =⎨ p ⎬ . equations (6. ∂x ∂ y εx = εy = γ xy = (6. ∂y (6.15) where ∂T n implies that the operators in [ ∂ ] T are acting upon n.16) In matrix form ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎧ εx ⎫ ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ εy ⎬ = ⎢ 0 ⎪γ ⎪ ⎢ ⎩ xy ⎭ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y and can be summarized as ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬. LINEAR ELASTICITY 127 l = cos (n .12) In matrix form.17) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } . y ) = = ny . 6.14) [ ∂ n ] {σ } = { p T s }. ∂x ∂v . (6. sometimes written (6. The equations of compatibility have the familiar form ∂u . ∂x ∂n m = cos (n . (6. x ) = ∂n = nx .6.3 Strain-displacement relations Figure 6.

0 ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 2 ( 1 + ν )⎥ ⎦ 0 0 (6.19) −ν ⎡1 − ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢ ⎢ 1 [C ]= 1 ⎢ E ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ The inverse relation is 0 0 0 2 (1 +ν 0 0 ) 0 0 2 (1 +ν ) ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥.128 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. where the material elastic compliance matrix is (6. The inverse of [ C ] is the material stiffness matrix (6.4 Stress-strain relations For linear isotropic elastic materials. the stress-strain relations come from the generalized Hooke’s law {ε } = [ C ] {σ } .20) {σ } = [ C ] −1{ε } = [ D ] {ε } .21) . 6.4 6.

21) and discarding rows and columns 3. If strains ε z .22) ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1 −ν ⎥ 2 ⎦ A thin planar body subjected to in-plane loading on its edge surface is said to be in plane stress. If stresses σ z .20). τ xz .23) The inverse relations are given by ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ E ⎬= 2 ⎪ 1 −ν ⎭ ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6.24) which is used as {σ } = [ D ] {ε }. ⎪ ⎭ (6. the Hooke’s law can be written ⎧ εx ⎪ ⎨ εy ⎪γ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ 1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ −ν ⎪ E⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎭ −ν 1 0 ⎤ ⎧σx ⎪ 0 ⎥ ⎨σy ⎥ 2 (1 + ν ) ⎥ ⎪ τ xy ⎦⎩ 0 ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. γ xz .6. from (6. we obtain ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎡ ⎫ ν ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ E ⎢ ν 1 −ν ⎬= (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎪ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎤⎧ ⎥ ⎪ εx ⎥ ⎨ εy ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎩ γ xy ⎦ 0 0 1 −ν 2 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ (6. and τ yz are set as zero. a small thickness in the loaded area can be treated as subjected to plane strain. 5 and 6 in (6. discarding rows and columns 3. 5 and 6 in (6.22). Plane strain If a long body of uniform cross section is subjected to transverse loading along its length.(6. LINEAR ELASTICITY 129 ⎡1 − ν ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ E ⎢ [D] = (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Plane stress ν 1 −ν ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 0 0 0 0 1 −ν 2 SYM 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ . and γ yz are set as zero.25) .

The stress-strain relations become {σ } = [ D ] ( {ε } − {ε 0 } ) . 6.130 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is also used as {σ } = [ D ] { ε } but here [ D ] has a different expression as in (6. (6.21) we obtain the strain energy in terms of strains U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } [ D ] {ε } dV . (6.5 Temperature effects The temperature strains are represented as initial strains {ε 0 } = ⎣ α T αT αT 0 0 0 ⎦ T . In plane stress (6.28) {ε 0 } = (1 + ν ) ⎣α T αT 0⎦ T .32) .29) 6.6 Strain energy For linear elastic materials.31) Substituting (6.1. 2 (6.26) where T is the temperature rise and α is the coefficient of linear expansion of the material.30) For the elastic body shown in Fig.24).27) {ε 0 } = ⎣α T In plane strain αT 0 ⎦ T . 6. T (6. T (6. the total strain energy is given by U= 1 2 V ∫ {ε } {σ } dV . the strain energy per unit volume in the body is U0 = 1 {σ 2 }T {ε } = 1 {ε }T {σ }. (6.

virtual displacements are: a) arbitrary (fictitious.1 Principle of virtual work (PVW) PVW is basically a statement of the static equilibrium of a mechanical system.7. 7. Instead of solving differential equations with complicated boundary conditions. Unfortunately. as applied to elastic bodies. In the following. virtual). Good approximations can be realized with low-degree polynomials. the approximate solution is constructed using local admissible functions. Variational methods put less strict conditions on the functions approximating the displacement field than the analytical methods based on differential equations. Displacements are calculated by methods based on the principle of virtual work and/or the principle of minimum total potential energy.1. the finite element method evaluates integrals of relatively simple polynomial functions. . systems with complex geometry or complex boundary conditions cannot be accomodated easily by global admissible functions. In the finite element method.1 Virtual displacements By definition. The classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique represents a variational approach whereby a distributed system is approximated by a discrete one by assuming a solution of the differential eigenvalue problem as a finite series of admissible functions. 7. b) infinitesimal (follow the rules of differential calculus). ENERGY METHODS The finite element method can be considered a Rayleigh-Ritz method. defined over small subdomains of the structure. the form known as the principle of virtual displacements (PVD) will be used.

Because the continuity required is reduced from C 2 in the governing differential equation to C1 in the variational equation. up to the mth order inclusive. Exceptions do exist. while a continuity C1 is imposed for beams. m = 2 and the assumed functions must have continuity C 0 . i. If the differential equation of the problem is of order m = 2n . the vector of virtual displacements is {δu } = ⎣ δu δv δw ⎦ T . (7. e. i. where [ B ] is the strain-displacement matrix.1) The vector of the corresponding virtual strains will be { δε } = [ B ] { δu } . the displacement vector (6. as opposed to the symbol d which designates actual differentials of position coordinates. Denoting by 1 { u} = ⎣u v w⎦ T . the admissible functions must have continuity C n −1 . Remember that a function of several variables is said to be of class C m in a domain V if all its partial derivatives. plates and shells. exist and are continuous in the domain V. A continuity C 0 is generally required for bars and elasticity problems.e.e. consistent with the system kinematic boundary conditions (geometric constraints). For beams m = 4 and the approximating functions must have continuity C . the functional is said to have a “weak form”. the geometrical boundary conditions must be satisfied to the (n − 1)th derivative. (7. 6.1).2) . δu . e) kinematically admissible.132 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS c) not related to either the actual displacements or to the forces producing them. The symbol ‘ δ ’ was introduced by Lagrange to emphasize the virtual character of the variations.4) inside the body or on the surface Sσ with unprescribed displacements (Fig. For bars. d) continuous in the interior and on the surface of the body.g. A virtual displacement will be denoted by ‘ δ ’ in front of a letter.

3 Virtual work of internal forces For a three-dimensional continuum. the virtual work of internal stresses is δ WI = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV .5) as shown in Fig.3). b) or nonlinear elastic (Fig. because the external loads remain constant during the action along the virtual displacements.1. i T T T Sσ (7. a b Fig. . because the force is constant along the virtual displacement.2) and point forces (6.1 c Note also the absence of the factor 1 2 which occurs in the expression of the work of elastic forces. T (7. Note that it is simply (force × displacement). 7. (7.2 Virtual work of external loads For a bar in tension (Fig. 7. 7.1. hence independent of the force. the latter being arbitrary. ENERGY METHODS 133 7. the virtual work of external loads is δ WE = V ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A + ∑ { δui } { Fi } . 7. c). surface tractions (6. In the general case of loading by conservative body forces (6. the virtual work of the external force F is δWE = F ⋅ δu .1. a). 7.1).1.4) Note that the scalar product under the first integral is { δu }T { pv } = δu ⋅ pv x + δ v ⋅ pv y + δ w ⋅ pv z .3) It has the same value whether the bar material is linear elastic (Fig.1.7.2 for the uniaxial case. 7.

it is independent of material behaviour. stresses remain constant during the action on virtual strains. i. 7.6.4 Principle of virtual displacements For elastic bodies.134 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. whether the material is elastic or inelastic. V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { pv }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A − ∑ { δui } { Fi } = 0 . then during an arbitrary small displacement from the equilibrium position. Note that the virtual work of reaction forces at supports is zero. Since the principle of virtual displacements is an equilibrium requirement. It applies only .6) Also: A body is in equilibrium if the internal virtual work equals the external virtual work for every kinematically admissible displacement field. 7.1. then equilibrium relations can be obtained and the displacement parameters determined. i T T T T V Sσ (7. so that the PVD will ensure approximate equilibrium.e. the principle of virtual displacements states that: If a system is in equilibrium. the virtual work of applied loads equals the virtual work of internal forces δWE = δWI .6) δWE is the work of external loads on the virtual displacements { δu } which are independent of loading and kinematically admissible.2 Again. The nodal displacements do not permit the fully equilibrating position to be reached. If stresses are expressed in terms of a set of parameters defining completely the displacement pattern – the nodal displacements. a) In (7. (7.

T3 (Fig. Consider three states of the analyzed system: 1.7. e). ENERGY METHODS 135 for loading by conservative forces. 7. producing the elongations Δ1 . The joint 4 is acted upon by the external forces F1 . Example 7. of components u1 and u2 (Fig. c). b). 2. 7. 7. The final state of static equilibrium.4. a). T2 . The virtual displacements δu1 and δu2 and the virtual bar extensions δΔ 1 . in which the external force F. d). 7. of components F1 = F sinα and F2 = F cosα . which produce virtual elongations in bars δΔ1 .3 Solution. 7. 3. F2 and by internal forces T1 . Δ3 (Fig. in which the joint 4 is given a virtual displacement of components δu1 and δu2 (Fig.4. 7. An imaginary state.4. loaded by a force F. δΔ3 satisfy the compatibility equations (2. δΔ2 . which do not change direction during the action on the virtual displacements. f). Δ2 . The joint reacts with forces equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. Fig. find the internal bar forces and the displacement of point 4. The initial state.1 For the three-bar pin-jointed framework shown in Fig. δΔ3 (Fig. the applied forces remaining constant. The external work is independent of the path taken. 7. in which bars are not loaded by external forces and are not prestressed (Fig. 7.4.4.4.19) . δΔ 2 .3. produces a displacement of the joint 4.

9) Substituting (7.8) Fig.21) can be written (7. the force-elongation equations (2.7) Δ 1= T1 l . 7. EA Δ 3= T3 l . δΔ2 = δu 2 . EA (7.7) into (7.6) using the products of real forces and virtual displacements we obtain T1 δ Δ 1+ T2 δ Δ 2 + T3 δ Δ 3 = F1 δu1 + F2 δu2 .9) and collecting coefficients of δu1 and δu2 . For the three bars.4 Equating internal work to external work (7. δΔ3 = −δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . gives (7.136 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS δΔ1 = δu1 sinθ + δu 2 cosθ . EA Δ 2= T2 l cosθ .

6. we could put either to zero. Substituting (7. T1 cosθ + T2 + T3 cosθ = F2 .11) These are indeed the equations of equilibrium.6.7.12) 7. b) Convert { δε } to { δu } using the integration by parts V ⎜ ⎟ ∫ σ x δε x dV = ∫ σ x δ ⎜ ∂ x ⎟ d x dy dz = ∫ ⎝ ⎠ V ⎛ ∂u ⎞ σx Sσ ∂ (δu ) d x l d A = ∂x δu ∂σ x dx dy dz .10) must be zero whatever the values of δu1 and δu2 .11).7). (7. the components of the displacement of point 4 can be determined from the following equations 2 EA 2 sin θ ⋅ u 1 = F1 . ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .1. cosθ ⎠ l ⎝ (7. This can only be true if their coefficients vanish T1 sinθ − T3 sinθ = F1 .5 Proof that PDV is equivalent to equilibrium equations Consider a form of equation (7. then in (7. a) without point forces V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } { pv }dV + ∫ { δu } { ps }d A . ∂x dV = Sσ ∫ σ x d(δu ) l d A = ∫ σ x δu l d A − ∫ Sσ V V ∫ σ y δε y dV = Sσ ∫ σ y δv m d A − ∫ δv V ∂σ y ∂y dV . T T T V Sσ (7.10) Since δu1 and δu2 are unrelated to each other. Equation (7. V ∫ τ xy δγ xy dV = ∫ τ xy (δ v ⋅ l + δu ⋅ m)d A − ∫ Sσ V ∂τ xy ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ xy ⎜ ⎜ ∂ x δ v + ∂ y δu ⎟ dV . ENERGY METHODS 137 δu1 (T1 sin θ − T3 sin θ − F1 ) + δu2 (T1 cos θ + T2 + T3 cos θ − F2 ) = 0 . It is confirmed that the principle of virtual work is an equivalent statement of statical equilibrium.8) in the finite form of (7. (7. l EA ⎛ 1 ⎞ 2 ⎜ 2 cos θ + ⎟ u 2 = F2 .

its coefficients must vanish. The equations of equilibrium emerge from the brackets [ ∂ ]T {σ } + { pv } = { 0 } in V. [ n ]T {σ } − { ps } = { 0 } on Sσ . Adding together V ∫ ( δε x σ x + δε y σ y + δγ xy τ xy )dV = ∫ [ δu (σ x l + τ xy m)+ δ v (τ xy l + σ y m) ] d A − Sσ − V ∫ ⎡ ⎛ ∂σ x ∂τ xy + ⎢δ u ⎜ ⎜ ∂y ⎢ ⎝ ∂x ⎣ ∂σ y ⎞ ⎛ ∂τ ⎟ + δ v ⎜ xy + ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dV . Part of the surface. So. . that is the stress and displacement fields are continuous.e. when using approximate functions for { u }. Sσ V Because { δu } are arbitrary. it is not necessary to worry about the equilibrium boundary conditions. Most finite elements in use today do not achieve continuous stresses across interfaces. This applies only within a single element and up to its surface. On substituting in (7. Sσ V V which is true provided [ ∂ ] T {σ } and {ε } are finite in V. It is conventional to remove the unknown reactions by choosing the virtual displacements { δu } to be zero over Sσ .6.138 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS where l and m are direction cosines of the outward normal at the surface. but only in the mean. i. ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦ In matrix form (Gauss’ theorem) T T T T T ∫ { δε } {σ }dV = ∫ { δu } [ n ] {σ }d A − ∫ { δu } [ ∂ ] {σ }dV . The PVD supplies equilibrium conditions both within and on the surface of the body. The componets of stresses at element interfaces may not balance at a point. Sσ . b) T T T T ∫ { δu } ( [ ∂ ] {σ } + { pv }) dV − ∫ { δu } ( [ n ] {σ } − { ps }) d A = 0 . is supported in some way and there the tractions { ps } will be unknown reactions and not specified loads.

(7. For a bar in tension. gives d x2 (7.15) For a beam in bending. substituting ε = − y δU = ∫ l ⎛ ⎞ ∂ 2δv ∂ 2 v ⎜ 2 ⎟ E y dA ⎟ dx = ⎜ ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ x2 ⎜ ⎝A ⎠ ∫ ∫ l d 2δv d2v EI dx . V δ U = δWI . (7. yields dx δU = V ∫ δε σ dV = ∫ δε Eε A d x = ∫ l l d δu du EA dx .4). dx dx d2v (5. the virtual increase of strain energy is δU = Because 1 2 V ∫ {ε } T T [ D ] { ε } dV .7. substituting σ = E ε and ε = du . V ∫ { δε } [ D ] {ε } dV + 1 ∫ { ε }T [ D ] { δε } dV . ENERGY METHODS 139 7.32) U= 1 2 For a virtual strain { δε } . d x2 d x2 (7.14) For an elastic body. ∫ { δε } V T [ D ] {ε } dV = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV = δWI . 2 V T ({ δε } δU = T [ D ] {ε } ) = { ε } T [ D ] { δε } .16) The above expressions can be obtained directly from the strain energies .2.2 Principle of minimum total potential energy The total potential energy Π of an elastic body is defined as the sum of the strain energy U and the work potential of external loads WP Π = U + WP .13) 7.1 Strain energy Consider the strain energy (6. the virtual variation of the strain energy is equal to the virtual work of the internal stresses on virtual strains.

An external point load F j has potential energy − F j u j ( ) instead of ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ − F j u j ⎟ .3 Total potential energy The total potential energy (7.2 External potential energy The work potential of external loads WP is equal to the negative product of external forces by the corresponding displacement WP = − WE .13) can be written Π = ∫ { δε }T {σ } dV − ∫ { u }T { pv }dV − V V Sσ ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ { ui } { Fi } . i T T (7. (7. 2 ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. ⎜ d x2 ⎟ d ⎝ ⎠ 2 (7. a gravitational force F = m g acts in the opposite direction to a vertical displacement h and the potential becomes m g h .20) For virtual displacements {δu } δWP = − δWE .19) The negative sign appears because the external loads lose some of their capacity for doing work when displaced in the direction they act. For a three-dimensional continuum WP = − V ∫ {u } { pv }dV − ∫ {u } { ps }d A − ∑ {ui } { Fi } . (7.17) for a beam U= ∫ l EI 2 ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ x.13. being independent of the linear properties of the body on which it acts.2. i T T T Sσ (7. a) Its variation is .18) 7.140 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for a bar U= ∫ l E A ⎛ du ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dx . For example.21) 7.2. because this potential arises from the magnitude of force and its ⎝ 2 ⎠ capacity to do work when it moves.

U i = Ti Δ i = 2 2 li and the external potential energy is WP = − ∑F u . (7. a) hence.22. Reciprocally. rather than a result of the equilibrium.6) it follows that (7. the total potential energy has a stationary value.2 For the truss shown in Fig. Based on equation (7. then it is in a stable equilibrium state.22) δΠ = 0 . An equivalent statement is: For conservative systems. Thus. then the total potential energy has a minimum value. the stationary value is a minimum. ENERGY METHODS 141 δΠ = δU + δWP = δWI − δWE . Example 7. if under the action of external loads and reaction forces the total potential energy of a deformable body is a minimum. the strain energy for a bar is 1 1 E Ai 2 Δi . of all possible kinematically admissible displacement fields.7. at equilibrium. any kinematically admissible displacement field which minimizes the total potential energy represents a stable equilibrium configuration. the equilibrium is stable.3. it can be considered that (7. If δ 2 Π > 0 . according to the compatibility relations. the total potential energy can be written . i i i Expressing the elongations in terms of displacements. a) is a condition that establishes or defines the equilibrium. The principle of minimum total potential energy states that: If a deformable body is in equilibrium under the action of external loads and reaction forces. the one satisfying equilibrium corresponds to a minimum value of the total potential energy. Reciprocally. 7.22.

Cancelling the derivatives of Π with respect to each independent variable ∂Π = 0. 7. l l l At equilibrium. Example 7. For a beam segment loaded as shown. Π is stationary. the total potential energy is Π = 1 2 ∫ E I (v′′) d x − ∫ p v dx + M 2 0 v′ 0 − M l v′ − T0 v0 + Tl vl . ∂ u2 we obtain the equilibrium equations (7. Show that PMTPE is equivalent to the equilibrium conditions inside and at the ends of the beam. δΠ = 0 or ∫ E I v′′ δ(v′′)d x − ∫ p δv dx + M l l 0 ′ δ v0 − M l δ v′ − T0 δ v0 + Tl δ vl = 0 .5.3 Apply the principle of minimum total potential energy to a beam in bending.5 Solution. Fig. subjected to a distributed load and to the end bending moments and shear forces as shown in Fig.142 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Π = + EA ( u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l EA (− u1 sinθ + u2 cosθ 2l )2 + EA 2 u2 + 2 l cosθ )2 − F1 u1 − F2 u2 . ∂ u1 ∂Π =0. 7.11). l (a) Integrating by parts the first term gives .

ENERGY METHODS 143 ∫ l E I v′′ δ(v′′) d x = l ∫ l E I v′′ d ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ δ ⎟ dx = dx ⎜ dx ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ∫ E I v′′ d (δv′) = l l 0 = E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − ∫ d x (E I v′′) dx δv′ = E I v′′ δv′ − ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx. For a beam. or δ v′ = 0 . or δ v0 = 0 . l l d ′ Integrating by parts the last term gives ∫ (E I v′′) δv′ dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d x (δv)dx = ∫ (E I v′′) d (δv)= l l l ′ ′ d ′ = (E I v′′)′ δ v l 0 − ∫ l l 0 d (E I v′′)′ dx δ v = (E I v′′)′ δ v dx l 0 − ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx. or δ v′ = 0 . the other terms deliver the equilibrium conditions at the beam ends ( E I v′′) 0 = M 0 . 0 ( E I v′′)0′ = T0 . ( E I v′′) l = M l . The coefficient of δ v in the integrand gives the equation of equilibrium (E I v′′)″ = p (x ) . 7. which are the boundary conditions. the transverse displacement v (x ) is approximated by a finite series . l l 0 ″ Equation (a ) becomes l E I v′′ δ v′ 0 − (E I v′′)′ δ v + ∫ (E I v′′) δv dx − ∫ p δv dx − M δv′ l l l 0 ″ + T δv l 0 =0 or ″ ′ ∫ ((E I v′′) − p ) δv dx + ( E I v′′ . and l ( E I v′′)l′ = Tl .M ) δv′ − (( E I v′′ ) − T )δv l l 0 =0. or δ vl = 0 .7. As δ v is arbitrary.3 The Rayleigh-Ritz method The Rayleigh-Ritz method involves the construction of an assumed displacement field.

(7. 7..24) which is a linear algebraic set of equations in the constants a j . whose values are determined from the stationarity conditions δΠ = ∑ ∂a j ∂Π j δa j = 0 . and ϕ j ( x ) are prescribed functions of x . The necessary requirements for the convergence of the Rayleigh-Ritz method are the following: a) The approximating functions must be continuous to one order less the highest derivative in the integrand.e.4 For the beam shown in Fig. n ) . i.. the latter becomes a function of the parameters a j . Consider: E = 210 MPa . The solutions are back-substituted into (7. c) The sequence of functions must be complete. Solution. I = 1600 mm4 . to be admissible functions. If the functions are not selected from the domain space of the operator of the equation being solved (completeness property) the resulting solution could be either zero or wrong.23) into the expression of the total potential energy Π . Because δa j are arbitrary. b) The functions must individually satisfy the geometric boundary conditions.144 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS v (x ) ≅ ∑ a ϕ (x ) j j j =1 n (7. Substituting the displacements (7. F = 100 N and q = 200 N m .6 find the vertical displacement of point 2.. l = 3 m . ∂aj ( j = 1. called admissible functions. Example 7. ∂Π =0. that satisfy the kinematic (geometric) boundary conditions and are continuous within the definition interval. which is more accurate the more terms are selected in the respective series.23) where a j are undetermined constants called generalized coordinates.23) which represents an approximate deflected shape.. The total potential energy is .

27) ϕ1 (x ) = x 2 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l4 . (7. v′ (0) = 0 .6 Substituting (7.25) The geometric boundary conditions are v (0) = 0 . for simplicity. ⎝ 3 ⎠ v (l ) = 0 . (7. where the functions (7.26).26) In the following. 7. ϕ 2 (x ) = x 3 (3 x − 2 l )( x − l ) l5 . l 2l 3 Requiring Π to be stationary with respect to a1 and a 2 . ⎛ 2l ⎞ v ⎜ ⎟=0.27) into (7.25) we obtain the functional 1 Π = EI 2 ′ ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′ ) dx − ∫ q ( a1 ϕ1 + a2 ϕ2 ) dx − . leads to two equations relating the generalized coordinates ∂Π = EI ∂ a1 ∫ ( a1 ϕ1′′ + a2 ϕ2′′ ) ϕ1′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ1 d x − F ϕ1(l 2) = 0 . ENERGY METHODS 145 1 Π = EI 2 ∫ 0 l ⎛ d2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ d x − q v (x )d x − F v ⎛ l ⎞ . 0 2l 3 l .7. Fig. the transverse displacements are approximated by a series consisting of only two terms v ( x ) = a1 ϕ1 (x ) + a2 ϕ 2 (x ) . 2 0 l l −F [ a1 ϕ1(l 2) + a2 ϕ2 (l 2) ].28) satisfy all geometrical boundary conditions (7. ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ d x2 ⎟ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 2l 3 2 ∫ l (7.

a) subjected to a load F. 3 5 l 4320 l 10 72 E I 269 EI a + a =− ql. a1 + a2 = 4.7.28). we obtain 56 E I 11 EI a 1 + 10 3 a2 = − ql. EI a2 = −0. 7. 7.30) For a small virtual displacement δu .00207 q l4 . the displacement is v (l 2 ) = a1 ϕ1 (l 2) + a2 ϕ 2 (l 2) = = 1 1 q l4 = 2. 5 l3 The solutions are a1 = 0. the equations are linear in aj .9 ⋅10− 5 16 32 E Iy Example 7. Because Π is of second order in ϕ and ϕ ′ . 3 1 3 2 7 l 46656 l For example. b) is 1 2 ku − Fu . The total potential energy (Fig. for F = q l 6 . E I (7.146 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂Π = EI ∂ a2 ∫ ( a ϕ ′′ + a ϕ ′′ ) ϕ ′′ d x − ∫ q ϕ 1 1 2 2 2 0 2l 3 l l 2 d x − F ϕ 2 (l 2 ) = 0 . the coefficient of a1 in the first equation is EI ∫ ( ϕ ′′ ) 1 0 l 2 dx = EI 1 ∫ l ( 36 x 8 0 l 2 − 30 l x + 4 l 2 ) 2 dx = 56 E I . Substituting the functions (7. the variation of the total potential energy is δ Π = k u δu − F δ u = ( k u − F ) δ u .00257 q l4 . Comment on the approximations of the Rayleigh-Ritz method.7.48 mm.29) In 2. Answer. 2 Π = (7.5 Consider a linear spring of stiffness k (Fig. .

7. . (7. b indicate that a) Because Π eq is a minimum. Fig.32) k =− The strain energy is (7. equations (7.34) If F is prescribed and the resulting u has been approximated by a RayleighRitz solution uapp ≠ ueq .32) – (7. F ueq − F ueq = − F ueq = − 2 2 2 k 1 F2 1 F2 . the potential energy for an approximate displacement which satisfies the kinematic boundary conditions is greater than the true value Π app > Π eq . the exact solution corresponds to an absolute minimum value of Π .33) U eq = 1 2 1 F2 = −Π eq .34) and Fig. The total potential energy of the equilibrium configuration is 1 1 1 F2 . 7. b.31) As seen in Fig. k ueq = 2 2 k (7.7.7. In magnitude Π app < Π eq .7 For δΠ =0 we obtain k ueq − F = 0 . ENERGY METHODS 147 The equilibrium equation is obtained by requiring δΠ to be zero ( Π be stationary) for arbitrary δu . 7. = 2 Π eq 2 Π eq Π eq = The stiffness is (7.7.

Then determine stresses.M. Admissible functions are defined over small size finite elements. 2 Π eq ↓ (7. 7.M. the unknown function is approximated piecewise over the entire domain (continuity at global level). with simple geometry and well identified structural behaviour.a localized version of the Rayleigh-Ritz method Instead of finding an admissible function satisfying the boundary conditions for the entire domain. which is often difficult. etc. Given a geometrically complex structure (including the boundary conditions) and the external loads { pv } .E. 6. in Structural Mechanics a) Problem. . b) The approximate stiffness is overestimated k ↑= 1 F2 . b) Solution approach. internal forces.36) An approximate compatible displacement field corresponds to a structure which is stiffer than the actual structure and therefore will give a lower bound on displcement.E. { Fi } .1 F. With these individually defined functions matching each other at certain points (nodes) at the element interfaces. in the FEM the admissible functions are defined over small size subdomains.148 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the approximate total potential energy is underestimated. 7. .4. taking advantage of graphical and animation facilities. to present output data in an engineering format. The geometric shape and the internal displacement field are described by a series of discrete quantities (like nodal coordinates and nodal displacements) distributed through the structure. reaction forces. Use PVD or PMTPE as an approximate method for solving the boundary-value problem. c) Procedure. For this a matrix notation is used.1).4 F. d) Tools. Computers are used to store long lists of separate numbers and to manipulate them. find the displacement field { u } within V and on the surface Sσ (Fig. k↑ (7. { ps } .35) c) The approximate displacement is underestimated u ↓= F .

the trial function is expressed as a finite expansion . ENERGY METHODS 149 7. Elements are defined by their nodal coordinates and some physical parameters. equation (7. Fig.4. ⎜ Ve ⎟ Sσ e ⎝ ⎠ ∫ (7.37) As a summation of virtual works on all elements.2 Discretization The structure is divided into finite elements (Fig. The aim is the calculation of the element stiffness matrix and load vector. only δ Π e will be considered. 7. a) can be written (considering only surface tractions) δΠ = V ∫ { δε } {σ }dV − ∫ { δu } { ps }d A = 0 .4. T T Sσ (7.8 7. 7.3 Principle of virtual displacements For the entire structure.6.7.4 Approximating functions for the element In the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 7.4.8) that define the mesh. PVD yields δΠ = ∑ δΠ e e = ∑ ∫ e ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ T T ⎜ { δε } {σ }dV − { δu } { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 .38) In the following.

{ } The proper selection of shape functions ensure the continuity of the displacement field at global level.150 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ a1 ⎫ ⎪a ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ (7. defined by Q e remains to be found. A finite element described by admissible shape functions (integrable in the interior and with equal values of generalized coordinates at element interfaces) is referred to as co-deformable or conforming.18) {ε } = [ ∂ ] { u } = [ ∂ ][ N ] {Q e }= [ B ] {Q e }.4. . 7. where [ B ] is the matrix of differentiated shape functions.the displacement unknowns at the nodes { a } = Q e and to prescribe admissible functions denoted ⎣ϕ ⎦ = ⎣N ⎦ so that { } 0 ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ ⎣N u ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ v ⎬=⎢ 0 ⎪w⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N v ⎦ 0 e ⎤ ⎧ Qu ⎪ e 0 ⎥ ⎨ Qv ⎥ e ⎣N w ⎦ ⎥ ⎪ Qw ⎦⎩ 0 { }⎫ { }⎪ ⎬ { }⎪ ⎭ (7.40) or { u } = [ N ] {Q e }. The strain virtual variation is (7. ∑ n The basic idea of FEM is to choose the constants . where [ N ] is the matrix of shape functions (interpolation functions).39) u (x ) ≅ a j ϕ j (x ) = ⎣ϕ1 ϕ 2 L ϕ n ⎦ ⎨ 2 ⎬ = ⎣ϕ ⎦ { a } L⎪ ⎪ j =1 ⎪ an ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ where the undetermined constants a j have no direct evident signification.5 Compatibility between strains and nodal displacements From the compatibility relationship (6. The reason is that elements are small enough so that the shape of the displacement field can be approximated without too much error and only the magnitude.41) { δε } = [ B ] {δQ e }.

cancelation of the bracket yields the element equilibrium equation { } [ K ] {Q }= {F }.4.45) where Q e is the vector of nodal element displacements. (7.7 Assembly of the global stiffness matrix and load vector In the next step. ENERGY METHODS 151 7. e e e (7.4. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ As δQ e are arbitrary and non-zero. the virtual work for an Ve T T e T e e T ∫ {δ Q } [ B ] [ D ][ B ]{Q }dV − ∫ { δQ } [ N ] { ps }d A = 0 Ae ⎜ = { δQ } ⎜ ∫ [ B ] ⎜ e T ⎛ T [ D ][ B ] dV ⎝ Ve {Q }− ∫ [ N ] e Ae T { ps }d A ⎟ = 0 . { } { } [ ] [ ] The variation of element displacements is . (7.42) where the element stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve e T [ D ][ B ] dV (7.7.6 Element stiffness matrix and load vector Using the constitutive equation element is δΠ e = or δΠ e {σ } = [ D ] {ε } . The kinematic connectivity is expressed by the relationship between element and global displacements ~ Q e = T e { Q }. {Q } is the vector of the ~ global displacements of the structure and T e is a connectivity matrix. all individual elements are assembled together so that the displacements are continuous across element interfaces and the boundary conditions are satisfied. containing ones at the nodal displacements of element nodes and zeros elsewhere.43) and the vector of consistent nodal forces is {F }= ∫ [ N ] Ae T { ps }d A .44) 7.

It has been used only to show algebraically how to assemble a global stiffness matrix.152 ~ { δQ }= [ T ] { δQ }. e T e e e T e e e or using (7. e e FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS (7.50) The above procedure is never used in practice.49) Applying the boundary conditions. . the condensed equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } .48) and the global load vector is ~ { F } = ∑ [ T e ] T {Q e }. 7.45) and (7.46) {δQ }T ∑ e ~ ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] {Q } = {δQ } ∑ [ T ] {Q }. e (7.4. The assembly is done by directly placing the nonzero entries of element stiffness matrices in the right locations of the global stiffness matrix based on element connectivity.50).25). In the back-substitution phase. e T (7. element stresses are evaluated as ~ {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = [ D ][ B ] Q e = [ D ][ B ] T e { Q } { } [ ] where [ D ] is given by (6. e T e e T e T e e As { δ Q } are arbitrary and non-zero.8 Solution and back-substitution Nodal displacements are determined by solving the linear equations (7.47) where the global stiffness matrix is [ K ]= ∑ e ~ ~ [ T ] [ K ][ T ] e e (7. the unreduced global equilibrium equations are [ K ] {Q } = { F } . (7.46) The PVD equation for the entire structure is ∑ {δQ } [ K ] {Q }= ∑ {δQ } {F }.24) or (6.

and uniformly stressed regions can be left with a small number of larger triangles. joined together at their corners (nodes). that allow closed form derivations. In-plane displacement.1 The plane constant-strain triangle (CST) Before the advent of arbitrarily shaped isoparametric elements.8. designed to be primarily loaded in their plane and to resist loads by membrane action rather than bending. The very first approximate finite element developed in 1956 to model delta wing skin panels. so that the corners of adjacent elements have common displacements. the three-noded triangle with constant strain field. 8.1 Discretization of structure The plate is divided into a number of straight-sided triangles (Fig. without the need for numerical integration. discussed in the next chapter. The elements fill the entire region except of a small region at the boundary. This unfilled region exists for curved boundaries and it can be reduced by choosing smaller elements. which is considered constant. the CST was one of the most widely used elements and is still available in systems today.1. is treated separately. 8. This chapter presents the element stiffness matrices and consistent force vectors for triangular and rectangular elements. TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTS Many engineering structures can be modeled as two-dimensional flat plates. 8. A large number of small elements can be densely packed into a region of expected high stress gradients. strain and stress components are uniform through the plate thickness. It is a much more adaptable shape than the rectangle and it allows the user to tailor the element mesh to suit any structural geometry. a). .1. composite and sandwich plates being studied in other courses. Only transversely homogeneous plates will be analyzed herein.

the assumed displacement field is linear u (x .154 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The three nodes of the isolated element from Fig.1. 2 and 3. a Fig. y ) = a4 + a5 x + a6 y with six arbitrary parameters. y2 ) and ( x3 . The corresponding nodal coordinates are designated as ( x1 . 8.2 Polynomial approximation of the displacement field The displacements u and v of a point within the triangle are expressed in terms of the nodal displacements. The displacement components of a local node j are denoted as u j in the x direction and v j in the y direction. each node has two degrees of freedom. y1 ) . ( x2 . y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y . y3 ) . v ( x . (8.1) 8. Because for two displacements there are six boundary conditions. Thus. The numbering is in anticlockwise direction to avoid calculating a negative area.2) . (8.1. 8. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 T ⎦ . b are numbered locally as 1.1 b Each node is permitted to displace in the two directions x and y.

only one need be considered in detail. ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎦ (8.1.3) Evaluating the expression for u at the three nodes gives the nodal displacements in terms of the polynomial coefficients ⎧ u1 ⎪ ⎨ u2 ⎪u ⎩ 3 or e ⎫ ⎡ 1 x1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎪ ⎢1 x 3 ⎭ ⎣ y1 y2 y3 ⎤ ⎧ a1 ⎥ ⎪a ⎥⎨ 2 ⎥ ⎪ a3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ .3 Nodal approximation of the displacement field In the polynomial approximation (8.16) are εx = ∂u = a2 = const .8.4. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 155 The strains (6.2) the constants ai have no physical meaning.5) { a } = [ A ] −1 { u e }. ∂x εy = ∂v = a6 = const . . in which the constants are the nodal displacements and the displacement field is obtained by interpolation based on values of corner displacements. (8. . Since the functions for u and v are of the same form. .4) { u }= [ A ] { a } . (8. A nodal approximation is preferred. ∂y γ xy = ∂u ∂ v + = a3 + a5 = const . ⎡ 1 x1 [A ] = ⎢ 1 x2 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x3 ⎣ By inversion y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ . ∂ y ∂x hence the name “constant strain triangle”. ⎪ ⎭ (8. a) where (8. We can write u = ⎣1 x ⎧ a1 ⎪ y ⎦ ⎨ a2 ⎪a ⎩ 3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ = ⎣1 x ⎪ ⎭ y⎦ { a } . 8.6) where .

(8.7) α i = x j yk − xk y j . k permute in a natural order. 3 ) (8.13) . 2.156 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [A ] in which −1 ⎡α1 α 2 α 3 ⎤ 1 ⎢ β1 β 2 β 3 ⎥ . = ⎥ 2A ⎢ ⎢γ 1 γ 2 γ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (8.12.6) into (8. 2A ( i = 1. 2. γ i = xk − x j (8.11) By transposition T −T T ⎣N ⎦ = [A ] ⎣1 x y ⎦ .12) 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) . Substituting (8.3) gives u = ⎣N ⎦ {u } e (8. a) Similarly v = ⎣N ⎦ v e . β i = y j − yk . j . The area of the triangle A is equal to one half the magnitude of the determinant of [ A ] 1 x1 2 A = 1 x2 1 x3 y2 = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) + ( x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) .9) The determinant is positive if nodes 1. y3 y1 (8. 3 are labeled anticlockwise around the element. ⎧ N1 ⎪ ⎨ N2 ⎪N ⎩ 3 or Ni = ⎫ ⎡ α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ (8.10) where the row vector of shape functions −1 ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎣ 1 x y ⎦ [ A ] .8) and the subscripts i . { } (8.

14) yields . 2A (8.10) and (8. a) can also be written N1 (x .14) ∑ Ni = 1 . have a unit value at node i and zero values at the other two nodes.15) Combining (8.2: N i ( xi . y ) = N 2 (x . 3 ) (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 157 The shape functions (8. 8. 2A 1 [ x1 y2 − x2 y1 + ( y1 − y2 ) x + (x2 − x1 ) y ] . 2A 1 [ x3 y1 − x1 y3 + ( y3 − y1 ) x + (x1 − x3 ) y ] . 2. as illustrated in Fig. b) Fig. j = 1. 3 (8. and i =1 ( i . y ) = N 3 (x . y ) = 1 [ x2 y3 − x3 y2 + ( y2 − y3 ) x + (x3 − x2 ) y ] .2 The shape functions N i vary linearly. yi ) = δ i j . 8.8.12.12.

3. a) Fig. 8.y ) =u1 N1 (x.16) or ⎧u⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩v⎭ ] { q e }.1. u2 and u3 .y ) + u3 N 3 (x.y ) + u2 N 2 (x. . (8.y ) determines a plane surface passing through u1 .158 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 ⎧ u1 ⎪v ⎪ 1 0 ⎤ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎨ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎦ ⎪ u3 ⎪ ⎪ v3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8.4 The matrix [B ] Strains are expressed in terms of displacements as ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x = [ ∂ ] { u }= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ∂ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎧u⎫ ⎢ ∂ ⎥ ⎨ ⎬= 0 ∂y ⎥ ⎩ v ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [N ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ {ε } e ] { q e }= [ B ] { q e }. 8. as shown in Fig.16. 8.3 The displacement u (x.

∂y ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ ⎡ β1 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ γ1 ⎣ ⎡ y2 − y3 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x3 − x2 ⎣ 0 β2 0 β3 γ1 0 β1 γ 2 y3 − y1 γ2 0 β2 γ 3 0 x1 − x3 y3 − y1 0 ⎤ γ3 ⎥ . A is the element area and [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix given by (6.1.18) where t e is the element thickness.25) for plane strain conditions. ⎥ y1 − y2 ⎥ ⎦ 0 x3 − x2 y 2 − y3 y1 − y2 x2 − x1 0 0 x1 − x3 (8.5 Element stiffness matrix and load vector The element stiffness matrix (7.8. Sometimes it is 0 x32 y23 y31 ⎡ y23 1 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 2A ⎢ x32 ⎣ 0 x13 y31 y12 0 x13 0 x21 0 ⎤ x21 ⎥ ⎥ y12 ⎥ ⎦ (8.43) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV = [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] t e A. ⎥ β3 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎤ x2 − x1 ⎥ . When the surface load distribution (per unit .24) for plane stress and by (6. a) where the notation is obvious. (8. the shape function N 3 is zero while N1 and N 2 are similar to the shape functions in one dimension.17) The matrix written simply [B] is constant for a given CST element. satisfying N1 + N 2 = 1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 159 The matrix of the derivatives of shape functions is ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂N 1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ∂y 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x ∂ N3 ∂x 0 ∂ N3 ∂y ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N3 ⎥ .17. Along an edge 1-2. The consistent nodal forces due to traction loads acting on a portion of the boundary are calculated as for a linear two-node element. 8.

160 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS area) is linear. Because of linearity they coincide with the static resultants. 6 f 2e = lte ( p1 + 2 p2 6 ) (8. Benchmark tests using triangular elements have shown that CST elements. b which however produces a larger bandwidth. 8. are much inferior to higher order elements in a coarse mesh.5. and this could be corrected by using the “union jack” pattern of Fig. 8. even in a fine mesh.4). Fig.6 Remarks A mesh like in Fig. a is clearly a directionally sensitive assembly. varying from p1 at node 1 to p2 at node 2 (Fig.4 The nodal forces associated with the weight of an element are equally distributed at the nodes. Fig. 8. 8.5 . the nodal forces are f1e = lte ( 2 p1 + p2 ) . 8.19) where t e is the thickness of the element. 8.1.5.

A simple example of stress averaging is shown in Fig.6 . The simplest form of averaging consists of simply connecting the centroids of two adjacent triangles and to assign the mean stress value to the crossing point of this line with the common edge. The diagram compares the theoretical stress distribution along the marked line with the averaged values calculated using CSTs. 8. only one quarter of the plate is considered. Taking advantage of symmetry. 8. This means that along an edge which is common to two elements the stresses are different across the edge. Most programs contain facilities for averaging the stresses. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 161 A drawback of the displacement form of the finite element method is that equilibrium is only satisfied in the mean or over the element. Fig.6 for a square plate with a circular hole.8. where they should be continuous.

b) stresses in elements.17) is [B ] 1 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ 1⎢ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ . The material stiffness matrix (6. y2 = 0 . Divide the plate into four CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. E8. x2 = l .24) is ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ D ]= E ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ .1 A square plate of thickness t and Young’s modulus E is pin-jointed at three corners and subjected to a force F at the free corner (Fig. The area is A = l 2 2 and the matrix (8. Let ν = 0 . the nodal coordinates of element 1 are x1 = y1 = 0 .162 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The procedure will be used in Example E8. a Fig. ⎥ l ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (b) The element stiffness matrix (8. x3 = 0 . ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ b (a) With the origin of coordinate axes at the plate centre.1 Solution. y3 = l . a).18) is .3 Example 8. E8.1. and c) the support reactions.

2 2 T 1 2 . The stiffness matrix of the rotated element is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. . (c) [K ] 1 ⎡ 3 2 1 2 −1 −1 2 −1 2 0 ⎤ ⎢ 32 0 −1 2 −1 2 −1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 0 0 0 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. . In general. 12 12 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 12 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (d) Element 2 can be obtained by rotating 900 anticlockwise element 1. e e T e e (f) For θ = 900 we obtain ⎡ 0 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ 0 1⎥ ⎥ −1 0 ⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] 2 0 −1 0 (g) The stiffness matrix of element 2 is [ K ] = [T ] [ k ] [T ]. the transformation matrix for a rotation with an angle θ is ⎡ c ⎢−s ⎢ ⎢ 0 =⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ s c 0 0 0 0 0 c 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 0 0⎥ c s⎥ ⎥ −s c⎥ ⎦ 0 [T ] e 0 −s c (e) where c = cos θ and s = sin θ .8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 163 1 T [ K ]= [k ]= [ B ] 1 1 [ D ] [ B1 ] t A .

17) and performing the product (8. 2E t The reaction forces for half the plate are obtained as H3 = − F 4 . the finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 1 1 2 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ −1 −1 2 −1 ⎡ 3 ⎢ 0 3 0 −1 2 0 − 2 0 − 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 ⎪ ⎪ F 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 12 0 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V2 ⎪ Et ⎢ − 1 2 −1 2 0 1 2 ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬. Using the appropriate boundary conditions. H5 = − F 4 .1. 1 0 0 ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎢ SYM 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (h) The same matrix is obtained by substituting the nodal coordinates x1 = y1 = 0 . E8. y3 = 0 in (8.18). only the upper half of the plate can be considered (Fig. 0 0 12 1 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H3 ⎪ 2 ⎢ −1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 0 2 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V3 ⎪ −2 ⎢ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∗ ⎪ ⎢ −1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ H4 ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ 0 0 1 2 ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ V4 ⎪ −1 2 0 ⎢ 1 2 −1 2 0 ⎣ ⎦⎩ ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ Solving E t ⎡ 3 − 1⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=⎨ ⎬ 2 ⎢ − 1 1 ⎥ ⎩ u2 ⎭ ⎩ F 2 ⎭ ⎣ ⎦ we obtain the nodal displacements u1 = F . Due to symmetry. x2 = 0 . 2E t u2 = 3F . so that for the entire plate H4 = − F 2 . y2 = 1 .164 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [K ] 2 ⎡ 3 2 −1 2 −1 2 0 −1 1 2 ⎤ ⎢ 32 1 2 −1 0 −1 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 12 0 0 −1 2 ⎥ Et ⎢ = ⎢ ⎥. . ∗ H4 = − F 4 . x3 = −1 . b).

. 2 ⎬ ⎨ σy ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪ τ ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎩ xy ⎭2 { } Example 8. E8.2). ⎬ ⎢ ⎥ 2l E t ⎨ ⎬ 2 l t ⎨ ⎪− 1 2 ⎪ ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢0 0 1 2⎥ ⎭ ⎩ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎪ ⎨ σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy { } { ε }= [ B ] { q } 2 2 2 ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪0⎪ 0 0 0 −1 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎡ 1 ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎪ 0 ⎪ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪. The units are coherent.3 . = ⎢ 0 −1 0 1 0 0 ⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ l ⎪ 0 ⎪ 2l E t ⎪− 1⎪ ⎢ −1 1 0 0 1 −1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ⎧ σx ⎫ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎧1⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. = ⎢ 0 0⎥ ⎨ ⎬ ⎨ ⎬ u l 2l E t ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 1 0⎥ ⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎩− 1⎭ ⎣ ⎦ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎬ =[D ] ε = E ⎪ ⎭1 ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎧2⎫ ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ F ⎪ 0 ⎪= F ⎪ 0 ⎪. Divide the plate into three CST elements and find: a) the nodal displacements. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ { ε }= [ B ]{ q } 1 1 1 {ε } 1 ⎧2⎫ ⎡− 1 1⎤ 1⎢ ⎥ ⎧ u1 ⎫ = F ⎪ 0 ⎪ . Assume the cantilever to have unit thickness t = 1 and be in plane stress.8. b) stresses in elements.2 A thin triangular plate is fixed along the edge 5-4 and loaded by forces F1 = −1 and F2 = −2 along the upper edge in its plane (Fig. with Young’s modulus E = 1 and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. and c) the support reactions. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 165 Strains and stresses in elements are ⎧ u1 ⎪ 0 ⎡ −1 0 1 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪u 1 ⎪ = ⎢ 0 −1 0 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎨ 2 ⎥ 0 l⎢ ⎢ −1 −1 0 1 1 0 ⎥ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

17). the stiffness matrix is calculated longhand from equation (8. and the matrix [ D ] is given by (6. . based on the nodal coordinates.18).24).166 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig. The input data are given below For each element.2 Solution. where the matrix [ B ] is obtained from (8. E8.

903 0 2.165 ⎣ ⎦⎩ The solution to these equations gives ⎫ ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎬=⎨ ⎬.165 − 0. ⎪ ⎪−2⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ u1 = 7. v1 = −40.8.192 − 0.165 − 0.903 ⎥ ⎪ v2 ⎢ 0.165 ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎡ 0.192 − 0.301 0 ⎥ ⎪ u3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 0 0 − 1.835 .192 1.125 0 − 1.192 0 ⎥ ⎪ v1 ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ − 0. .111 − 0.823 .542 . u2 = 6.317 ⎢ 0 0.686 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 167 The element stiffness matrices are the following: The condensed global stiffness matrix is The condensed finite element equations can be written 0 0 − 0.666 0 1.111 0.111 ⎢ 0 − 0. v3 = −13.301 0 0 ⎥ ⎪ u2 − 0.666 ⎢ ⎥⎨ 0 2.582 . u3 = −2.125 ⎥ ⎪ v3 ⎢ − 0.712 . v2 = −15.317 0.317 0.

The plate has length l = 60 mm . Normally.1.3 . E = 210 GPa and ν = 0. and this leads to misleading results.6. to allow longhand calculation.3. Compare the stress values at the periphery of the hole obtained by FEM and from the theory of elasticity. However. gives only one value of σ x .168 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The output data are presented below: The reaction forces at nodes 4 and 5 are obtained from the ‘unused’ unreduced equations. being a constant strain element. thickness t = 5 mm . a). is subjected to loads that produce uniform tensile stresses σ 0 = 5 MPa at its ends (Fig. a distribution of bending stresses from compressive at 4 to tensile at 5 is expected. c) the distribution of σ x stresses in the midsection. width b = 40 mm . Determine: a) the deformed shape of the hole. Solution. a more realistic stress distribution along the edge 4-5 is obtained.3 A thin rectangular plate. Ascribing stress values to the element centroids and averaging them as shown in section 8. Taking advantage of the symmetry of geometry and symmetry of loading. which is wrong. the plate should be modeled by many more elements. b) the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. Along the edge 4-5. containing a circular hole of radius a = 10 mm . Note that the adopted discretization is very crude. we can analyze only one-quarter of the plate (upper right). E8. element 3. . Example 8.

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 169 Fig. b.3. E8. The centroids of the elements near the midsection are marked. The points along the x axis are constrained in the y direction. E8. Fig.3. but the element numbering is omitted for clarity.8. E8. c.3.3. b The applied nodal forces are shown. a A 55-node. Let x and y represent the axes of symmetry. The hole is elongated in the direction of the loading axis. E8. The deformed shape is shown in Fig. and the crossing points of the lines connecting the centroids with the common sides (where stresses are averaged). are denoted a to f. . 81-element mesh is created as shown in Fig. and points along the y axis are constrained along the x direction.

. E8. Stress values in elements near the midsection are given in Table E8.170 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Fig.3.3. Fig. Elements are hatched according to the value of von Mises stresses.3. using five intervals with limits shown in the legend. E8. d The maximum von Mises stress is 19. d.6 MPa and occurs in element 1. E8.3. c The calculation of stresses is summarized in Fig.

0178 11.85 e 6. a).6667 0. ⎜ 2r 2r ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where r is the distance from the x axis (Fig. Example 8.2632 0. width of the reduced portion 40 mm .4 An axially loaded thin plate with a circular fillet (Fig.3 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 σx 20. a) has length 150 mm .3.4577 11.69 d 7.89 σ x . MPa The theoretical distribution of stresses σ x in the midsection of a plate containing a small circular hole and subjected to uniaxial tension is approximated by ⎛ a2 3 a4 ⎞ σ x = σ0 ⎜ 1+ 2 + 4 ⎟ .7073 3.1651 0. width of the extended portion 80 mm .8. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.7162 4.8037 Stresses σ x .68 f 4.8845 1.25 . E8.5786 7.5706 -0. averaged at points a to f.6445 5.815 1.5693 5.5768 0. fillet radius 20 mm .174 0.4.3275 8.39 c 9.78 b 11.3595 σ eq 19. E8.9228 0.763 τ xy -0. The averaged value of elements 1 and 2.6155 10.6821 10. which is surprisingly accurate for the rough mesh used in the exercise.9433 7. have the following values: Point a 15.927 0. The normal stress at a point far to the right of the fillet has a uniformly distributed value . is σ xa = 15.0752 σy 0.78 MPa . in point a. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 171 Table E8.0595 0. The maximum stress occurs at the periphery of the hole (r = a ) and is σ xmax = 3σ 0 = 15 MPa .6221 0. thickness 5 mm .068 7.

4. have magnitudes of 5500 N at the upper and lower node. The largest equivalent stress is 604. for the quarter plate. only half of the plate is considered. The right edge has four elements. Taking advantage of the symmetry. The distribution of von Mises stresses is shown in Fig.4. .172 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS of 440 MPa .4. c for five stress intervals given in the legend. a Answer. Fig. Points along the left edge are constrained in the horizontal direction. E8.19). and 11000 N at the three middle nodes. The nodal loads for each element are 440 × 25 / 2 = 5500 N . The resulting five nodal forces. The points along the symmetry axis are constrained in the vertical direction.7 MPa . E8. A model comprising 95 nodes and 144 CST elements is constructed as shown in Fig. each with a surface of 25 mm 2 . E8. b The nodal loads are calculated from equation (8. Fig. E8. Determine the stress concentration factor for the circular fillet. b.4. Find the location and magnitude of the maximum von Mises stress in the plate. subjected to a normal stress of 440 N mm 2 .

5 .17) 0 − 0. Example 8.11224 . = 0. E8.63e − 3 .415.0596 0 − 0. E = 2 ⋅ 105 MPa and ν = 0.8. v65 = −4.25 . c Values of the principal stress σ 1 around the fillet are presented in the upper part.3757 − 0.12247 . y65 = 20.12367 .5 .3160 ⎥ . u65 u60 = 0.3757 0 0.42 given by Singer (1962). ⎥ ⎢ 0. The triangle area is A96 = 4. v60 = −3. E8. b are given below: x60 = 92.2982 − 0.0596 − 0.1925 mm 2 . The matrix [ B ] is (8. y60 = 21.35 .4. u64 = 0.92e − 3 .5 The nodal coordinates and the nodal displacements of element 96 in Fig.52 .1216 0. Calculate the element stresses. v64 = −3.2982 ⎢ [ B ]= ⎢ 0 0. Solution.1216 0 0.7 MPa . The stress concentration factor relative to the value 440 MPa is 1. The largest principal stress σ 1 is 622.4198 0 ⎤ ⎡ − 0.4198 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ .97e − 3 . This value is reasonably close to the theoretical true value of 1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 173 Fig.4. x64 = 95 .3160 0. x65 = 95. y64 = 18 .

Fig.63e − 3 0. σ y τ xy ⎦ T = ⎣596. The load is not applied at the tooth tip.12367 − 3. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 .12247 − 4.58 − 120. but is distributed over a larger area than for the mating contact of two teeth.08⎦ T . a .174 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The matrix [ D ] is (6.72 63.6. E8.1) is { q } = ⎣ 0.8 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5 The vector of nodal displacements (8.1333 0.97e − 3 0. a.5333 0 ⎤ [ D ] = 10 ⎢ 0. E8. {σ } = ⎣σ x Example 8.6.5333 2. to concentrate only on the influence of fillet geometry.11224 − 3.24) ⎡ 2.1333 0 ⎥ .92e − 3 ⎦ T .6 Find the deformed shape and the stress distribution in the loaded gear tooth shown in Fig. Element stresses are given by {σ } = [ D ][ B ] { q }.

c. Fig. The deformed shape is presented in Fig.6. b The stress distribution is shown in Fig.6. E8. c .6. where the equivalent von Mises stresses are indicated. E8. E8. b. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 175 Answer. E8. Note the restraints which model the tooth built-in end. Note the stress concentration at both fillet areas.8.6. Fig. The adopted finite element mesh has 126 nodes and 212 CST elements.

y ) = y b x⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . 8. y ) = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ab a ⎠⎝ b ⎠ ⎝ Likewise. y j = δ ij .2 Rectangular elements Rectangular elements are the easiest to discuss and are used to model stiffened thinwalled panel structures. y ) = c1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) . 8.7 We have to find two-dimensional shape functions which have unit values at one selected node. a b N4 ( x. From condition N1 ( x1 .176 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 8. the remaining three shape functions are N2 ( x. Fig. built up beams and boxes. hence ab 1 ( a − x ) ( b − y ) = ⎛ 1− x ⎞ ⎛ 1− y ⎞ . hence it must be of the form N1 ( x . 8.7. but zero at all other nodes on the element N i x j . y ) = x a y ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1− ⎟ . y1 ) = N1 ( 0. ( ) (8.20) They can be generated using the equations of the sides. y ) = x y . y1 ) = 1 . N1 is identically zero on lines x = a and y = b .2. N1 ( x . b ⎠ ⎝ N3 ( x.0 ) = 1 we get c1 = 1 .1 The four-node rectangle (linear) Consider the 4-node element in Fig. a⎠ ⎝ It is convenient to transform to dimensionless central coordinates . and has a unit value at the node with the same index N1 ( x1 . For example.

v ( x .25) The use of the shape functions (8.…. where the stiffness has to be reevaluated as the load increments are applied and plasticity spreads. (8. N2 = 1 (1 + r ) (1 − s ) . there are eight boundary conditions. That is. Many users prefer to use higher order elements rather than use a larger number of small 4-noded rectangles. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 177 s= 2y −1.23) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 0 ⎤ e q . the assumed displacement field is u (x . { } (8.22) (8. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . all like powers in x and y are not present. y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . 4 4 N1 = (8. 4 4 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . In this case x y is present but x 2 and y 2 are not.24) where {q } e T = ⎣u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (8.21) The equations of element sides become 1 ± r = 0 . 1 ± s = 0 . Thus the variation of strain does not have the same order in all directions. .23) has one drawback – they are not complete. The 4-noded rectangular element is exploited in non-linear problems like elasto-plastic behaviour. a (8. for two displacements.8.26) The direct strain ε x = a2 + a4 y is constant in the x direction whereas the shear strain γ xy = a3 + a4 x + b2 + b4 y varies linearly with x and y . y ) = b1 + b 2 x + b 3 y + b4 x y . The required shape functions are 1 (1 − r ) (1 − s ) . Because. Some improvement can be gained by diminishing the shear variation through the use of reduced integration on the shear contribution in the element stiffness matrix. N4 ⎥ ⎦ u4 v4 ⎦ . b r= 2x −1. The displacements u and v of a point within the rectangle can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements by a polynomial approximation.

8 Figure 8. The ratio spurious shears a = = aspect ratio .8. The direct strains are ε x = d a on the upper and lower surface. In comparison. .178 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The element stiffness matrix (7. Fig. where [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] . The poor performance of the 4-noded element is shown below. a shows the deformed shape of a single element in pure bending. because the strain energy is underestimated. The stress discontinuities at element interfaces can be comparable with the mean values and the free edge stresses are not zero.39) is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e Ve T [ D ][ B ] dV .2 The eight-node rectangle (quadratic) The higher order 8-node rectangular element is shown in Fig. 8. 8. bending strains b This explains the poor results obtained with high aspect ratio elements which have also badly conditioned stiffness matrices. 8.2. Fig. (≥ 3) 8. b shows the expected circular deformed shape free of shear deformations. Adding four nodes means adding four supplementary boundary conditions (or nodal displacements) so that in the polynomial approximation we can add four more (higher order) terms.9. Generally. At the element ends the shear strain is γ xy = d b and only the centre has no shear deformation.8. in an example where it is expected to behave like a slender beam in which bending stresses are dominant. stresses are lower than the true values. The 4-node element has flat sides.

y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x 2 + b5 x y + b6 y 2 + b7 x 2 y + b8 x y 2 . Fig. Note that choosing the last terms in x 3 and y 3 would make the element more anisotropic. + N8 u8 .9 In Fig. N 2 = − 1 ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . (8.. Using the nodal approximation.9 only the lines through the new nodes are shown for clarity. 4 4 1 1 N 3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). 8. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + . v ( x . 4 4 (8.28) where the shape functions N i can be easily built up based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodes (serendipity approach). 8. 2 2 1 1 N 7 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) (1 + s ) . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 179 The assumed displacement field is cubic u (x .. In the natural system of coordinates r and s. (8. N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . N6 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ) . The 16 constants can be expressed (interpolated) in terms of the 16 nodal displacements and the nodal coordinates.8.27) so that the strains are quadratic. the shape functions have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) ..29) 1 1 N5 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 8. 2 4 N1 = − .7.. + N8 v8 . the old ones are presented in Fig. the displacement field is expressed as u = N1 u1 + N 2 u2 + N 3 u3 + . y ) = a 1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + a7 x 2 y + a8 x y 2 . N 8 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) ( 1 + s ).

Therefore N1 is of the form N1 = c1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) .e. c1 = −1 4 .3.30) { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 (8. where c1 is a constant which is determined so as to yield N1 (− 1.3 Triangular elements In order to obtain accurate results for stresses with a constant strain discretization. Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . as h1 h2 h3 . Considerable effort has been devoted to develop ‘refined’ elements. ζ1 = H1 H2 H3 . 8. i.. N1 should vanish on the sides defined by the equations of lines passing through nodes 2 to 8: 1 − s = 0 .e.1 Area coordinates For a triangle it is possible to define a completely symmetrical coordinate system known as area coordinates. Equivalently. ζ3 = . h2 . 1 + r + s = 0 . h3 from the three sides (Fig.10. one has to use a large number of elements. { } (8. 3. ζ2 = . The position of any point M in the triangle is identified by the perpendicular distances h1 .. the functions [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N [ ] ] 8. which gives the expression of N1 in (8.. 8. i.31) follow and the element stiffness matrix k e can be evaluated using [ D ] .. and nondimensionalized. The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 where 0 N1 N2 0 0 L L N8 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . N8 ⎥ ⎦ v8 ⎦ T . quadratic or higher-order strain expansions. elements having linear.−1) = 1 .180 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The interpolation function N1 should be zero at nodes 2. a). 8 and have a value of unity at node 1. 1 − r = 0 . by division to the triangle heights.29).

Fig. 8. one obtains ζ1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 = 1 . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 181 or ζ1 = A1 A .8.32) As A1 + A2 + A3 = A (Fig. ⎪ ⎭ (8.33) so the three coordinates are not independent and they behave like the shape functions. y = ζ 1 y1 + ζ 2 y2 + ζ 3 y3 .34) By inversion. ζ3 = A3 A . or in matrix form ⎧1 ⎫ ⎡1 ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎨ x ⎬ = ⎢ x1 ⎪ y ⎪ ⎢y ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ 1 ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ ⎨ ζ2 ⎪ζ ⎩ 3 or 1 x2 y2 1 ⎤ ⎧ ζ1 ⎪ x3 ⎥ ⎨ ζ 2 ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎪ ζ 3 ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.12) ⎫ ⎡α1 ⎪ 1 ⎢ ⎬= ⎢α 2 ⎪ 2 A ⎢α ⎭ ⎣ 3 β1 γ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ β2 γ 2 ⎥ ⎨ x ⎬ ⎥ β3 γ 3 ⎥ ⎪ y ⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ . 8. (8. (8. b).10.10 The physical coordinates of point M can be expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = ζ 1 x1 + ζ 2 x 2 + ζ 3 x3 . we obtain equation (8. ζ2 = A2 A .

the equations of the three sides and the lines through the mid-side nodes are shown using area coordinates. 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ N 5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2. { } (8. Fig.9) and the expressions (8.8) are α i = x j yk − xk y j . N6 ⎥ ⎦ v6 ⎦ T . 8. (8.2 Linear strain triangle (LST) The linear strain triangle is a six-noded element. 3 ) (8. γ i = xk − x j .182 ζi = 1 ( α i + βi x + γ i y ) .3. β i = y j − yk .11 The shape functions are readily seen to be 1 ⎛ N1 = 2 ⎜ ζ1 − 2 ⎝ N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 . 8.38) .36) The displacements in terms of the nodal displacements are ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 1 N2 0 0 L L N6 N2 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . 8. In Fig.35) where A is given by (8. N 2 = 2 ⎜ ζ 2 − ⎟ ζ 2 . 2A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ( i = 1.11. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . N 3 = 2 ⎜ ζ 3 − ⎟ ζ 3 . 1⎞ 1⎞ ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟ ζ1 . obtained adding three mid-side nodes to the CST.37) where { q }= ⎣u e v1 u2 v 2 L L u6 (8.

ζ 2 . The inverse relationship is ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ζ ] −1 ⎪ ∂∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ 1 ⎡ β2 ⎪ ⎬= ⎢ ⎪ 2A ⎣ γ 2 ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ β3 ⎤ ⎪ ∂ ζ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂ γ3 ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ∂y ∂ ζ2 ∂y ∂ ζ3 ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ (8. The integration is frequently performed numerically.34) obtaining x = (x 2 − x1 ) ζ 2 + (x3 − x1 ) ζ 3 + x1 .33) we can eliminate ζ1 in (8.44) .and second-degree terms are ∫ζ A i dA = A .8.42) where d A = l 3 dζ 2 l 2 dζ 3 sinθ = 2 A dζ 2 dζ 3 . so we must transform from x . y = ( y2 − y1 ) ζ 2 + ( y3 − y1 ) ζ 3 + y1 . ζ 3 . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. However.43) The results for first. y to ζ1 . Using (8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 183 To form [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] we need to find the derivatives of shape functions with respect to the physical coordinates.9) and β i . 6 (8. it can be solved explicitly in terms of a. The element stiffness matrix is [k ]= ∫ [ B ] e A T [ D ][ B ] t e d A .41) where A is the triangle area (8. b and [ D ] using the integration formula for monomials ∫ζ A a b i ζj dA = 2 A a! b! . (2 + a + b ) ! (8. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (8. 3 ∫ζ ζ i A j dA = A . γ i are defined by (8. (8. 12 ∫ζ A 2 i dA = A .8).40) where [ J ] is the Jacobian of the transformation.39) Using the chain rule for partial derivatives ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂ ζ3 ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂ζ ⎪ 2 ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ∂ ζ3 ⎭ ⎣ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.

2 2 v = b1 + b2 ζ 2 + b3 ζ 3 + b4 ζ 2 + b5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + b6 ζ 3 . It is convenient to locate these interior nodes at the mid-points of the sides. 2 (8. six for each component. Solving for the constants in terms of the nodal displacements.12). N2 = r . the displacement expansion on a boundary must involve only the nodal quantities for that boundary. without recourse to computationally inefficient internal nodes. Denoting ζ 2 = r.37) is obtained. 8. 8. The physical coordinates of a point within the triangle are x = ( 1 − r − s ) x1 + r x 2 + s x3 . containing all possible products. ζ1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 = 1 − r − s (8. the nodal approximation (8.45) The displacement field is complete. (8. N3 = s . (8.12 The coefficients of the nodal coordinates are genuine geometric interpolation functions N1 = 1 − r − s . so the element is truly isotropic. ζ 3 = s. There are twelve nodal displacements.48) . y = ( 1 − r − s ) y1 + r y2 + s y3 .46) we can introduce oblique triangular coordinates (Fig.184 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The LST element is based on expanding the displacements in a complete second-degree polynomial in ζ 2 and ζ 3 2 u = a1 + a2 ζ 2 + a3 ζ 3 + a4 ζ 2 + a5 ζ 2 ζ 3 + a6 ζ 3 . There are three constants for this case (the function is quadratic) and an additional interior node is required for each boundary.47) Fig. In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility.

This is the basic idea behind the isoparametric formulation. taking as nodal quantities the displacement components. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 185 The nodal displacements for the 3-node triangle can also be written u = ( 1 − r − s ) u1 + r u2 + s u3 .50) where . In order to satisfy inter-element displacement compatibility. An additional interior node is needed to maintain completeness of the polynomial since. v = ( 1 − r − s ) v1 + r v2 + s v3 . if the polynomial is not complete. the displacement function for a side must depend only on the nodal displacement quantities for the side. Since the function is cubic. Fig. 8. treated in the next chapter. This element is shown in Fig. The displacement nodal expansion has the form u = ∑ N i ui + N c u c . the stiffness will have preferred direction which is not desirable. four nodal quantities are required to define the distribution on a side. i =1 9 v = ∑ N i vi + N c v c . One possibility is to work with corner point nodes and two interior nodes per side.13 The displacements are expressed as complete cubic polynomials.8. (8. It is convenient to take the interior node at the centroid.13. a. 8. 8. i =1 9 (8.3 Quadratic strain triangle A triangular element with a quadratic displacement field can be built up in two ways.3.49) so that the same functions can be used as interpolation functions. The side nodes are located at the third points.

2 N8 = ζ 3 ( γ 2 ζ1 − γ 1 ζ 2 ) + ( γ 1 − γ 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . It is convenient to take the displacement components of the centroid (uc . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). The nodal expansion for u has the form u = N1 u1 + N 2 u′ 1 + N 3 u′y1 + N 4 u2 + N 5 u′ 2 + . The solution is to include displacement ∂ u ∂ u ∂v ∂v derivatives . 2 N 6 = ζ 2 ( β 3 ζ1 − β1 ζ 3 ) + ( β1 − β 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .13. 2 N 2 = ζ1 ( γ 3 ζ 2 − γ 2 ζ 3 ) + ( γ 2 − γ 3 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .. N 2 = ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ 2 − 2 ) . . . vc ) as the remaining parameters. (8.53) N c = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . (8. 2 N 9 = ζ 3 ( β1 ζ 2 − β 2 ζ1 ) + ( β 2 − β1 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 N 3 = ζ1 ( β 2 ζ 3 − β 3 ζ 2 ) + ( β 3 − β 2 ) ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 .186 N1 = N3 N4 N6 N8 Nc FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 1 1 ζ1 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ1 − 2 ) . N 5 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ 2 − 1 ). two displacements and four first derivatives. are 2 N1 = ζ1 ( ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . expressed in terms of triangular coordinates. b). 2 N 5 = ζ 2 ( γ 1 ζ 3 − γ 3 ζ1 ) + ( γ 3 − γ 1 ) ζ 1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . 2 2 9 9 = ζ 3 ζ1 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ) . At each corner. 2 2 = 27 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . N 4 = ζ 2 ( ζ 2 + 3 ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 ..52) the interpolation polynomials. 8. + + N 9 u′y 3 + N cuc . as nodal quantities.51) Another possibility is to work only with corner nodes. N 9 = ζ 3 ζ 1 ( 3 ζ 1 − 1 ) .52) In (8. 2 9 9 = ζ1 ζ 2 ( 3 ζ1 − 1 ) . Two additional displacement quantities not associated with the boundaries are required for completeness. ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y nodal variables. 2 2 1 = ζ3 ( 3 ζ3 − 1 ) ( 3 ζ3 − 2 ) . x x (8. in order to reduce the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix. N 7 = ζ 2 ζ 3 ( 3 ζ 3 − 1 ). a total of 18 parameters (Fig. 2 2 N 7 = ζ 3 ( ζ 3 + 3 ζ1 + 3 ζ 2 ) − 7 ζ1 ζ 2 ζ 3 . there are six .

55) are not satisfied by the assumed displacement field (8. For example.26) (8. β i are defined by (8. y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x y . TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 187 where γ i .54) Substituting the strain-displacement relations (6. 8.16) in (8. but equilibrium is usually not satisfied. Substituting the stress-strain relations (6. compatibility In a FEM solution based on assumed displacement fields. ∂x 2 ∂y 1− ν ∂ ∂ γ xy + ε y + ν ε x = 0.8) and the subscript c refers to the centroid. v ( x .55) Equations (8. compatibility is satisfied if the assumed element displacement field is continuous.56) . (8.1 Equilibrium vs. pv x Let write the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements for the case = pv y = 0 .4.24) into the equilibrium ∂ 1− ν ∂ ε x +ν ε y + γ xy = 0. 2 ∂x ∂y equations (6. y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y .7) we obtain ( ) ( ) (8. of the rectangular element. The same interpolation functions are valid for v . + 2 = − 2 ⎜ ∂ y 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y ⎝ ⎠ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2 v 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2 v ∂ 2u ⎞ ⎜ ⎟.4 Equilibrium. + = − 2 ⎜ ∂ x 2 ∂ x ∂y ⎟ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎝ ⎠ u ( x .54) gives ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 1 + ν ⎛ ∂ 2u ∂ 2v ⎞ ⎜ ⎟. one can say that: a) Within elements.8. convergence and compatibility It is useful to make some general comments on the fulfilment of the equilibrium and compatibility conditions in a finite element solution based on assumed displacement fields [33]. 8.

Inter-element equilibrium is obviously violated in the CST. u and v are linear in x (or y ) along element edges. where stresses are constant within the element but differ from one element to another. for both the 3-node triangle and the 4-node rectangle. and ∂x ∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂ x2 ∂ y which is not zero. However. the direct strain ε x is linear in the y direction whereas the shear strain γ xy varies linearly with x and y . for any nodal displacement. and equilibrium of nodal forces and moments is satisfied. and adjacent elements do not overlap or separate. in a ‘proper’ finite element solution. any violations of equilibrium and compatibility tend to vanish as more and more elements are used in the mesh. equilibrium is satisfied within the CST because of its extreme simplicity. Moreover. = b4 = 2 = 0 . the solution will converge monotonically to the true solution. but this is the case only in a field of constant strain. provided that the new mesh contains all the nodes of the previous meshes. the elements fit together. When inter-element compatibility is satisfied. But as already shown. One cannot conclude from this that. compatibility is enforced by joining elements at these locations. As the discretization is refined. Happily. compatibility may or may not be satisfied.188 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ∂u ∂u ∂ 2v ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = a2 + a4 y . the edges remain straight. the convergence of displacements with the mesh refinement must be monotonic from below.4. For example. 8. in general. b) Between elements. the sequence of solutions to a problem is expected to converge to the correct result if the assumed element displacement fields satisfy the following criteria: . so the first equation (8. as in the case of uniform beams loaded only at nodes. However. The rectangle would satisfy equilibrium if a4 = b4 = 0 . the rectangle is inferior to the triangle. c) At nodes.2 Convergence and compatibility As the mesh of elements is refined. inter-element stress continuity may exist. the finite element solution gives an upper bound on the total potential energy. and equilibrium is usually not satisfied. = a3 + a4 x . The finite element equations are a set of equilibrium equations and the solution is such that resultant forces and moments acting on each node are zero.55) is not satisfied. So. In some cases it can give better results.

However. b) When the nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of constant strain. . The computed displacements. we do not know whether the potential energy corresponding to a particular non-conforming element is higher or lower than the true value. c) Rigid body modes must be represented. the element type is invalid or at least suspect (it may happen that an element is valid in certain configurations only). Invariance exists if complete polynomials are used for element displacement fields. Internal nodes are to be neither loaded nor restrained. Elements should be invariant with respect to the orientation of the load system. it is not possible to construct a minimizing sequence with non-compatible elements.8. noncompatible elements do not provide a bound on the potential energy. Such elements do satisfy inter-element compatibility in the limit of mesh refinement. It is achieved even when based on incomplete polynomials. plate and shell elements. as each element approaches a state of constant strain. This requirement is violated by many successful non-conforming elements. If not. the slope must be continuous across interelement boundaries. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEMBRANES 189 a) The displacement field within an element must be continuous. If this requirement is violated. d) Compatibility must exist between elements. the displacement field must produce the constant strain state throughout the element. and the equations of nodal equilibrium are altered. Elements must not overlap or separate. Also. The boundary nodes are then given either displacements or forces consistent with a constant strain state. To satisfy the requirements on both rigid body modes and constant strain rates. e) The element should have no preferred directions. In the case of beam. extraneous nodal forces appear. i. When nodal degrees of freedom are given values corresponding to a state of rigid body motion. the element must exhibit zero strain and therefore zero nodal forces. The check is done using the so called “patch test”. strains. The model consists of an assembly of several elements arranged so that at least one node is completely surrounded by elements. if there is a ‘balanced’ representation of terms in the polynomial expansion. This means that by suitably specializing the nodal displacements for the nth discretization. This is normally ensured by the selection of shape functions.e. the expansion must be at least a complete polynomial of order equal to the highest derivative occurring in the strain-displacement relations. and stresses within elements should be consistent with the constant strain state. we will not be able to reproduce the displacement patterns corresponding to the n − 1 previous discretizations.

v4 = 1 . u4 = 1 . If these are the boundary conditions imposed to the model.6.7 For the assembly of four triangular elements shown in Fig. v1 = 0 . The condensed set of finite element equations has the form [K ] ⎧ ⎨ where [K ] depends on the material properties and {F } depends on both the material properties and the prescribed nodal displacements. u3 = 4 . the internal node must behave accordingly.190 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Example 8. v3 = 4 . a simple patch test is carried out as follows. E8.7 Assume a displacement field u=v= x+ y for which the strains are {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T .25 and the strains at any point must be {ε } = ⎣1 1 2⎦ T . Its solution must be u5 ⎫ ⎬ = {F } . ⎩v5 ⎭ u5 = v5 = 1. Fig. E8. u2 = 1 . . v2 = 1 . The resulting nodal displacements are u1 = 0 .

because only the displacement expansion is refined whereas the geometry definition remains the same.1) . The constant strain triangle is an isoparametric element though it was not treated like that. The coordinates of node i are ( xi . If we develop higher order triangular elements while keeping straight sides. the result is an isoparametric element. they are subparametric elements.1. yi ) . In fact. The vector of element nodal displacements is defined as { q }= ⎣ u e 1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 ⎦ T . For isoparametric elements. It is possible to construct subparametric elements whose geometry is determined by a lower order model than the displacements.9. 9. The displacement components of a local node i are denoted as ui in the x direction and vi in the y direction. we obtain a subparametric element. 2. When the eight node rectangle is transformed into a quadrilateral with straight sides. a. (9. Elements with curved sides provide a better fit to curved edges of an actual structure. The local nodes 1.1 Linear quadrilateral element Consider the general quadrilateral element shown in Fig. The construction of shape functions and evaluation of stiffness matrices for quadrilateral and higher-order elements with curved sides faces difficulties which are overcome by the use of isoparametric elements and numerical integration. 3 and 4 are labelled counterclockwise. When it is mapped into a quadrilateral with parabolically curved sides. 9. the shapes of the interpolation functions and not the parameters are the same. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS Simple triangular and rectangular elements allow closed form derivations of stiffness matrices and load vectors. Each node has two degrees of freedom. the same interpolation functions are used to define the element shape as are used to define the displacement field within the element.

192 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 1 ] . s } plane. 9. a Fig.1 Natural coordinates A natural coordinate system can be attached to a quadrilateral element as illustrated in Fig. The coordinates r and s vary from − 1 on one side to + 1 at the other. s ∈ [ − 1.1 b In the development of isoparametric elements it is useful to visualize the quadrilateral coordinates plotted as cartesian coordinates in the { r . 9.2 b . In the reference plane. 9. 1 ] . y } is called the isoparametric mapping.1.1. called the reference element (or master element). The transformation between the natural coordinates { r . b. quadrilateral elements become a square of side 2 (Fig.2. s } in the reference plane and the cartesian coordinates { x . 9. They are called quadrilateral coordinates. taking the value zero over the quadrilateral medians. which extends over r ∈ [ − 1. This is called the reference plane. a). a Fig.

si ) are the coordinates of node i . The drawback is that the mapping is a change of coordinates which implies complications in the evaluation of the integral in the element stiffness matrix. b) .9.2.23) developed for the rectangle are directly applicable 1 1 N1 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) . s ) = 1 ( 1 + r ri )( 1 + s si ) . 4 4 The following compact representation is useful for the implementation in a computer program Ni ( r . The advantage is that the interpolation functions defined for the reference element are the same for all actual elements and have simple expressions.2 Shape functions The interpolation functions (8. N 2 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) . 4 4 (9.4.4. a) y = ⎣N ⎦ y e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 193 Each quadrilateral ‘child’ in the { x .2) 1 1 N3 = ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) . i =1 i =1 4 4 (9. s } plane (Fig. x3 ⎪ x4 ⎪ ⎭ (9. 4 (9. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. y } is generated by the ‘parent’ or ‘reference’ element from the { r . 9. 9.1. N 4 = ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) . The coordinates of a point within the element are expressed in terms of the nodal coordinates as x = N1 x1 + N 2 x 2 + N 3 x3 + N 4 x 4 = ∑ N i x i . y = N1 y1 + N 2 y2 + N 3 y3 + N 4 y4 = ∑ N i y i .4) In matrix form x = ⎣N ⎦ x e = ⎣N1 { } N2 N3 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ N4 ⎦ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ x1 ⎫ x2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. b).3) where ( ri .

the same shape functions are used to express the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values as are used to define the element shape. overlaps or discontinuities . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( r .3 The displacement field In the isoparametric formulation. i. along the side 2-3 (Fig. s ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r s . where (9. along each side the approximation is linear. For example.194 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9. 2 2 r =1 The four-node quadrilateral is termed a “linear” (sometimes bi-linear) element because its sides remain straight during deformation. s ) . If u and v are the displacement components of a point located at ( r .7) As the shape functions in natural coordinates (9. v = N1 v1 + N 2 v2 + N 3 v3 + N 4 v4 = ∑ N i v i . because r (or s) is constant.2) fulfil continuity of geometry and displacements both within the element and between adjacent elements. polynomial models are inherently continuous within the element. = 1− s 1+ s u2 + u3 .5) which can be written in matrix form { u } = [ N ] { q e }. Then it is easy to show that the displacements along a side of the element depend only upon the displacements of the nodes occurring on that side.1. r = 1 and u u r =1 (9. N4 ⎥ ⎦ (9. 9. then u = N1 u 1 + N 2 u 2 + N 3 u 3 + N 4 u 4 = ∑ N i u i .2. As mentioned in Chapter 8.8) = a1 + a2 + ( a3 + a4 ) s .e.6) [ N ]= ⎡ ⎢ N1 0 N1 N2 0 0 N2 N3 0 0 N3 N4 0 ⎣ 0 0 ⎤ . there are no openings. a). the compatibility requirement is satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. This ensures interelement compatibility. i =1 i =1 4 4 (9.

ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 195 between the elements. so that u ( x) 2 −3 = b1 + cb3 + ( b2 + m b3 + c b4 ) x + m b4 x 2 . The 4-node isoparametric quadrilateral is a conforming element. s ) .10) where [ J ]= ⎡ ⎢ J11 ⎣ J 21 J12 ⎤ J 22 ⎥ ⎦ (9.4).10) and (9. Transformation of differential operators Using the chain rule of differentiation.1. we need to express the derivatives of a function in { x . The approximation (9.9) For example. y ) to be an implicit function of r and s as f = f [ x (r . If the u displacement is approximated as u ( x . s ) ] . y (r . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. the 4-node quadrilateral is a non-conforming element. Along 2-3. it can also be expressed as .1. y } coordinates in terms of its derivatives in { r . 9. Also.11) is the Jacobian matrix. because the interpolation displacement model provides rigid body displacements in the natural coordinate system. (9.4 Mapping from natural to cartesian coordinates Subsequently. the conditions of both rigid body displacements and constant strain states are satisfied in cartesian coordinates too. where m is the slope of 2-3. s } coordinates. along each side the approximation is quadratic. On the contrary. This is done considering the function f = f ( x .9) is non-conforming.9. we have ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ∂r ⎪ ⎬ = ⎢ ∂x ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ∂s ⎭ ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥⎪∂y ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬=[J ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ] ⎪ ∂∂x ⎨ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. u ( x ) varies quadratically and cannot be uniquely defined as a function of u 2 and u 3 . 9. a) has the form y = m x + c . y ) = b1 + b2 x + b3 y + b4 x y . Using (9. the equation of the side 2-3 (Fig.

a) Analogously. For the four-node quadrilateral element [ J ]= 1 ⎡ ⎢ − (1 − s ) (1 − s ) 4 ⎣ − (1 − r ) − (1 + r ) (1 + s ) (1 + r ) ⎡ x1 − (1 + s ) ⎤ ⎢ x 2 ⎢ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.14) where [ j ] = [ J ] −1 is the inverse of the Jacobian matrix [ j ]= ⎡ ⎢ j11 ⎣ j21 j12 ⎤ 1 ⎡ J 22 − J12 ⎤ . the inverse relationship is (9. − y1 − y2 + y3 + y4 + ⎥ + r ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂ ⎬ .196 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂ ⎪ [ J ] = ⎪ ∂∂r ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣x ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ y⎦ = ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ∂s ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣ ⎣N ⎦ { x e } ⎣N ⎦ { y e }⎦ = (9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. ⎥= j22 ⎦ det [J ] ⎢ − J 21 J11 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.12) ⎫ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂ r ⎣N ⎦ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =⎨ ⎬ ∂ ⎪ N⎦ ⎪ ⎣ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎭ ⎩ ⎣{ x e } { y e }⎦ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ (9. where A0 = 1 8 (9.16) [ ( y4 − y2 )( x3 − x1 ) − ( y3 − y1 )( x4 − x2 ) ] .15) For the four-node quadrilateral element det [ J ] = A0 + A1 r + A2 s .13) ⎡ − x1 + x 2 + x3 − x 4 + ⎢ 1 ⎢ + s (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) [ J ]= ⎢ 4 − x1 − x 2 + x3 + x 4 + ⎢ ⎢ + r (x1 − x 2 + x3 − x 4 ) ⎣ ⎧ ∂ ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂ ⎪ ⎪∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎡ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎢ ⎭ ⎣ ∂r ∂x ∂r ∂y ∂s ∂x ∂s ∂y ⎤⎧ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥⎪ ∂ ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ − y1 + y2 + y3 − y4 + ⎤ ⎥ + s ( y1 − y2 + y3 − y4 ) ⎥ ⎥.13. .

the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d x ×d y . Transformation of an infinitesimal area An additional result that will be needed is the relation dx dy = det [ J ] dr ds . . It is equal to the area of the elemental parallelogram enclosed by the two vectors d r and d s directed tangentially to the r = const . .17) It is needed because. y }. determined on the reference element. j are base vectors. we need [ j ]. (9. By equating the moduli of the cross products d x ×d y = d x d y ⋅ k . Because r = r ( x . in terms of ∂x ∂y Usually [ j] is used because we want to express ∂f ∂f . and i . The components of these vectors in a cartesian coordinate system are dr = ∂x ∂y d r ⋅ i + d r ⋅ j = ( J11 i + J12 j ) d r . s = s ( x . y ) . The above expressions will be used in the derivation of the element stiffness matrix. contours respectively. where d x = d x ⋅ i . In cartesian coordinates { x . In a curvilinear system { r .9. d y = d y ⋅ j . for the evaluation of the element stiffness matrix. and s = const . y ) ∂r ∂s are not explicitly known. ∂f ∂f . the integration on the real element is replaced by the simpler integration over the reference element. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 197 A1 = A2 = 1 8 1 8 [ ( y3 − y4 )( x2 − x1 ) − ( y2 − y1 )( x3 − x4 ) ]. [ ( y4 − y1 )( x3 − x2 ) − ( y3 − y2 )( x4 − x1 ) ] . ∂r ∂r d s = ( J 21 i + J 22 j ) d s . the elementary area dA is given by the modulus of the cross product d r ×d s . s } .

j J12 J 22 k 0 d r d s = det [J ] d r d s ⋅ k 0 9.7). ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9.43) is [k ]= t ∫ [ B ] e e A T [ D ][ B ] d A . where (9.9) into (7. where [ ∂ ] is the matrix of differential operators (6.41) [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ] .19) [ N ] is the matrix of Substituting (6.21) ⎡ j11 [ B1 ] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ j21 ⎣ j12 0 j22 0 j21 j11 0 j22 j12 ⎤ ⎥.17).1.198 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS i d r ×d s = J11 J 21 we obtain equation (9. (9.5 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix (7.18) where [ D ] is the material stiffness matrix and t e is the element thickness.41) gives the strain-displacement matrix ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= [∂ ] [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ∂ ⎢ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂ ⎥ [ N ]. The matrix of differentiated shape functions [ B ] is (7. ∂y ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ (9.14) we obtain [ B ] = [ B1 ][ B2 ] .20) Using the transformation (9.9) and shape functions (9. (9.22) .

as shown in the following. the element stiffness matrix can be written [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 +1 +1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 199 and ⎡ ∂ ⎢ ∂r ⎢ ⎢ ∂ [ B2 ] = ⎢ ∂ s ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ [ N ]. − (1 + s )⎥ (1 − r ) ⎥ ⎦ 0 Using equation (9. . the consistent nodal forces applied along that side are calculated as for a linear two-node element. then the equivalent nodal force vector is { f }= 1 l ⎣ 0 2 e 2−3 0 px py px py (9.9.24) Because [ B ] and det [ J ] are involved functions of r and s. along side 2-3 in Fig.6 Element load vectors Because the displacements along a side of the quadrilateral isoparametric element are linear. the above integration has to be performed numerically. (9.1. p y ) per unit length 0 0 ⎦T . 9.23) or 0 0 (1 − s ) ⎡ − (1 − s ) ⎢ − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) 0 [ B2 ] = 1 ⎢ (1 − s ) 0 − (1 − s ) 0 4⎢ ⎢ 0 − (1 − r ) 0 − (1 + r ) ⎣ (1 + s ) (1 + r ) 0 0 0 0 (1 + s ) (1 + r ) − (1 + s ) (1 − r ) 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.1.17).25) if p x and p y are constants and l 2 −3 is the length of the side 2-3. If there is a distributed load having components ( px . 9. ∂ ⎥ ⎥ ∂r ⎥ ∂ ⎥ ∂s ⎥ ⎦ (9.

9. The particular positions of these sampling points are known as Gauss Points.27) .. A polynomial of order (2n − 1) can be ‘fitted’ to f ( r ) by imposing n weights wi and n sampling points in such a way that the summation +1 −1 ∫ f (r ) d r = ∑ wi f ( r i ) i =1 n (9. + a2 n r 2 n −1 . As the order of the displacement field increases. They turn out to be the roots of Legendre polynomials and so the method is referred to as a Gauss-Legendre integration.2 Numerical integration The numerical evaluation of stiffness integrals is usually done by Gaussian quadrature.. + wi f (ri ) + .. 1 ] by a polynomial which can be integrated exactly.26) is exact up to the chosen order. the differentiated shape functions in the matrix [ B ] grow algebraically more cumbersome. the integral of a polynomial function is replaced by a linear combination of its values at the integration points ri : +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) + . It is more efficient than other methods. as for example the NewtonCotes integration.. For higher order elements. (9. + wn f (r n ) .1 One dimensional Gauss quadrature The one-dimensional version of the Gauss method relies on the concept that any function f ( r ) can be represented approximately over the interval r ∈ [ − 1.2. because it involves only a half of the sample values of the integrand required by the latter. whose heights are equal to the function values at the sampling points. The isoparametric mapping introduces det [ J ] in the integrand so that closed form evaluation of stiffness integrals becomes impossible.200 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9... In other words. the stiffness integrals become progressively more complicated. The 2n coefficients are determined from the condition that the above equation is satisfied for a polynomial of order 2n − 1 of the form f ( r ) = a1 + a2 r + a3 r 2 + . The actual area represented by the integral is replaced by a series of rectangles of unequal widths.

..29) so that 2 = w1 + w2 + . n . + wn ) + ) ( ) (9. + wn r n + . i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r d r = ∑ wi r i . + wn r n .3.... ( −1 ∫ d r + a2 ∫ r d r + .30) L L L L L L 2 2 2 0 = w1 r1 n −1 + w2 r 2 n −1 + ........ ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 201 On substitution above we get +1 a1 + a2 w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + . 3 (9.. + a2 n w1 r12 n −1 + w2 r 2 2 n −1 + .. + wn r n 2 n −1 . + wn . 2 . 2 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + .. This is a set of 2 n equations... i =1 n +1 −1 ∫ r α d r = ∑ wi riα . + a2 n −1 +1 +1 −1 ∫r 2 n −1 d r = a1 ( w1 + w2 + . + wn r n n −1 . linear in wi and nonlinear in r i .. 9. The 2 n parameters are determined from conditions wi > 0 ⎫ i = 1. i =1 n Generally +1 0 ⎧ ⎪ rα dr = ⎨ 2 ⎪ α +1 ⎩ −1 ∫ if i is odd if i is even (9..28) Identifying the terms +1 −1 ∫ d r = ∑ wi . + wn r n . a) +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r ≈ w1 f (r1 ) . − 1 < r i < +1 ⎬ ⎭ One-point formula For n = 1 we have the midpoint rule (Fig... 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 + ..9.

31) For a polynomial of order 2n − 1 = 2 ⋅ 2 − 1 = 3 . to separate shear from extension effects.5773502691 3 ∫ f ( r )d r = 1 ⋅ f ( 0. Two-point formula For a two-point integration +1 −1 ∫ f ( r )d r = w1 f (r1 ) + w2 f (r 2 ) . it is employed in some selective integration schemes. b) +1 −1 r1 = − r 2 = 1 = 0.57735 ) . 9. 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .3. The solution to this set of equations is w1 = w2 = 1 .g.30) give 2 = w1 + w2 . (9. e. 2 2 2 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 . 3 3 3 0 = w1 r1 + w2 r 2 .3 . so that (Fig.57735 ) + 1 ⋅ f ( − 0. avoiding the so-called shear locking by using reduced integration for shearing. Fig. However. 9. equations (9.202 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS which is exact only when f (r ) is a polynomial of order 1.

∫ ⎥ i =1 j =1 −1 ⎢ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ ( ) ( ) I= For n = 2 ∫ ∫ f ( r . s2 ) + f ( r2 . r 2 = s 2 = 0.2 Two dimensional Gauss quadrature The one dimensional version of Gaussian quadrature is readily extended to two dimensions if we use the rectangles or isoparametric quadrilaterals of section 9.774596 ± 0. 9.339981 ± 0.347854 1 2 3 4 1 3 5 7 ± 0. Table 9.1 for the first four orders.774 ) .1: I= +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ f ( r .652145 0. s ) d r d s = ∑ ∑ wi w j f ri . .57735 . s j ⎥ ds = ∑ wi ∑ w j f ri .3.861136 0 9.2.0 1.57735 ± 0.555 ⋅ f ( − 0. Weights.1 Number of Gauss points Order of polynomial integrated exactly Gauss Points.774) + 0. i =1 j =1 n n ( ) (9.57735 . r1 = s 1 = − 0. s1 ) + f ( r1 .555 ⋅ f ( 0.5555 0.888 ⋅ f ( 0 ) + 0.8888 0. s )d r d s ≅ +1 +1 −1 −1 +1 n n ⎡ n ⎤ ⎢ ∑ w j f r . s2 ) .0 0. s j . so that I = f ( r1 . 9.2.9. s j . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 203 Three-point formula For a three-point integration (Fig.32) w1 = w2 = 1 . ri 0 wi 2. c) ∑ wi f (ri ) = 0. 3 i =1 Gauss points and weights are given in Table 9. Gauss quadrature formulae for quadrilateral elements are shown in Table. s1 ) + f ( r2 .

2.2 n Number of Gauss points n×n Gauss Points.24) is [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e 1 1 −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] dr ds which means that the integral above actually consists of the integral of each element (below or above the main diagonal) in an ( 8 × 8 ) matrix. 3. 3. 3. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 3 9 (3 × 3) 40 ⎛ 5 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. w j 1 (1×1) 1 4 (= 2 × 2) at centre 2 4 (2 × 2) 1 (= 1 × 1) at points 1. s j Weights.3 Stiffness integration The element stiffness matrix (9.204 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Table 9. wi . 3. 2 . 2. det [ J ] is a linear function of r and s . In general. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 9. For a rectangle or parallelogram it is a constant. 4 81 ⎝ 9 9 ⎠ 64 ⎛ 8 8 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. Therefore. 4 25 ⎛ 5 5 ⎞ ⎜ = × ⎟ at points 1. 2.2. the elements of . ri . The elements of [ B ] are obtained by dividing a bilinear function of r and s by a linear function.

The existence of these modes is indicated by the stiffness matrix having more zero eigenvalues than rigid body modes. This will be the case if one of these modes gives zero strain at the integration point. These are modes of deformation which give rise to zero strain energy. in the present case. Taking the thickness.9. it is best to use as few integration points as is possible without causing numerical difficulties. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 205 [ B ]T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] are bi-quadratic functions divided by a linear function.24) becomes [ ] [k ]≈ [ B ] e T [ D ][ B ] ∫ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ t det [ J ] dr ds . e (9. to be constant and noting that det [ J ] is linear.4 However.4). we can write . t e . 9. Using the 2 × 2 rule (9. one integration point is unacceptable since it gives rise to zero-energy deformation modes (Fig.33). From practical considerations. is the number required to evaluate exactly the volume of the element. Therefore. This is cheaper as well. indicates that the volume can be evaluated exactly using one integration point.33) represents the volume of the element. A lower limit on the number of integration points can be obtained by observing that as the mesh is refined. the stiffness matrix equation (9. with the aim of decreasing the stiffness and so compensating for the overstiff finite element model. In this case. This means that k e cannot be evaluated exactly using numerical integration. 9. An alternative is to use reduced integration at fewer points than necessary. the state of constant strain is reached within an element. Fig.33) The integral in (9. the minimum number of integration points. Experience has shown that the best order of integration for the 4-node quadrilateral element is a ( 2 × 2 ) array of points.

34) we need . 9. s )] ] [ B ( r . s ) ]+ 1 1 [ B ( r1 . consider approximately the Gauss Points at r i .21) ⎡ j11 [B ]= 1 ⎢ 0 4⎢ ⎢ j 21 ⎣ j12 0 j 22 0 j 21 j11 0 ⎤ ⎥ j 22 ⎥ j12 ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 1 − s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 1− s j ⎢ 0 − (1 − ri ) ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ( ) 1− s j 0 1+ s j 0 1 + ri − (1 + ri ) 0 1− s j 0 0 0 − (1 + ri ) 0 0 1+ s j 1 + ri − 1+ s j 1 − ri 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − 1+ s j ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ri ⎥ ⎦ ( 0 0 ) . s2 ) ] T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 .11) [ J ( ri .s j ) ] = 1 ⎡ −( 1 − s j ) ( 1 − s j ) ( 1 + s j ) − ( 1 + s j ) ⎢ 4 ⎢ − ( 1 − ri ) ⎣ − ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 + ri ) ( 1 − ri ) ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x3 ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 ⎤ y2 ⎥ ⎥ y3 ⎥ ⎥ y4 ⎦ and its determinant.5 instead of r i . s j = ± 0. The calculation consists of four basic steps: a) Calculation of [ J ] at the Gauss points (9.57735 . 30 ⎥ ⎥ 25 ⎦ det [ J ] and [ B ] calculated at GP1. s2 ) ] . s 1 )] ] [ B ( r2 .206 e e 1 1 T 1 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [ k ] ≅ t [ B ( r .34) + t e [ B ( r2 . s ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r .34). s2 )] ] [ B ( r2 . For the first term in (9.1 with the following nodal coordinates ⎡ x1 ⎢x ⎢ 2 ⎢ x3 ⎢ ⎣ x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 ⎤ ⎡ 10 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ 8 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ ⎥. s j = ± 0. Example 9. s 1 ) ]+ +t e T (9.1 Consider the quadrilateral element from Fig. d) Calculation of [k ] e using the 2 × 2 rule (9. s2 )] ] [ B ( r1 . b) Calculation of the inverse [ j ] = [ J ] −1 at the Gauss points. s2 ) ]+ + t e [ B ( r2 . For convenience. s2 ) ] [ [ D ] det [J ( r1 . s 1 ) ]T [ [ D ] det [ J ( r2 . ( ) c) Calculation of the [ B ] matrix (9.

the Jacobian matrix (9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 207 At GP1.5 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 1. ⎥ 850 ⎢− 12 10 − 49 30 36 30 25 − 50⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 9.5 0 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥.2. 5 1. In order not to miss these peak stresses. stresses are evaluated at the Gauss points. 5 ⎣ 0.5 − 1.5 ⎢− 0.5 − 1.5 1. where they are found to be accurate (Barlow. the matrix [ B ] is given by (9.21) 0 ⎤ ⎡ 60 − 20 0 [ B ] = 1 ⎢ 0 0 − 13 61 ⎥ ⎥ 1700 ⎢ ⎢− 13 61 60 − 20⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 0 ⎡− 0.5 1. [ j ] = [ J ] −1 = 1 ⎡ 60 − 20 ⎤ .5 ⎦ 0 30 0 30 0 − 50 0 ⎤ ⎡− 10 1 ⎢ [ B ] = ⎢ 0 − 12 0 − 49 0 36 0 25 ⎥ . However. Some programs which use Gauss point stresses extrapolate to the element nodes and then output the mean value if several elements meet at a node. 5 1.5⎤ ⎢ 20 ⎢ [ J ]= 1 ⎡ 4 ⎢− 0.5 − 1. Gauss point values are ideal for constructing internal stress contours. − 1.5 0.11) is ⎡ 10 −0.5 − 1.5 1.5 ⎢ 0 − 0. stresses {σ } = [ D ] [ B ] {q e } vary within the element. 425 ⎢ − 13 61 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At GP1. ⎣ ⎦ det [ J ]= 53. 5 ⎥ ⎥ 0.5 0. 1976). .5 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 − 0.5 − 1. Maximum stresses usually occur at edges of plates or at other discontinuities at the element boundaries.9. 5 0.125 .5 ⎥ ⎢ 25 ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ 8 Its determinant and inverse are 10 ⎤ 15 ⎥ 1 ⎥= 30 ⎥ 8 ⎥ 25 ⎦ ⎡ 61 20 ⎤ ⎢ 13 60 ⎥ .35) In practice. a refined mesh should be used in these regions.4 Stress calculations In the quadrilateral element. (9.

Fig. using a 2 × 2 integration scheme would result in a singular stiffness matrix. (9.5 The displacement functions in simple polynomial form (8. For a single 8-node rectangular element.2. 9. b). The difference is that in cartesian coordinates it has curved sides (Fig. v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 . so that the displacement variation should be parabolic (three constants) to satisfy compatibility. as are the stresses. even if it is supported conventionally.208 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 9.2. and 2 × 2 integration is normally used for this popular element. It would seem necessary to use a 4 × 4 Gauss quadrature for exact stiffness integration. The product [ B ] T [ D ][ B ] is therefore fourth order and det [ J ] is cubic. In practice.5.36) The element has three nodes along one edge. The eight-node quadrilateral employs displacement fields quadratic in r and s . 9.27) are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 .3 Eight-node quadrilateral This element is the isoparametric version of the eight-node rectangle presented in section 8. 9. large groups of elements will not suffer from such mechanisms. a) and the master element is a square (Fig. The optimal sampling points for this element are the Gauss points for the 2 × 2 scheme .5.

better displacements are obtained using a 3 × 3 Gauss point mesh.9. 2 1 N6 = (1 + r ) 1 − s 2 . For ease in programming. Care is needed because the accuracy declines with excessive shape distortion. they belong to the serendipity *) family of elements. det [ J ] is of third order hence the minimum number of integration points is 4 (2 × 2) . si ) are the natural coordinates of node i: for corner nodes 1 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) (r ri + s si − 1) . The eight-node curved ‘quad’ is ideal for nonlinear problems and can be easily adapted to model cracks by moving the midside nodes. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 209 and not those for the higher order 3 × 3 scheme. For an 8-node quadrilateral element. 4 1 N 2 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 − r + s ) . 2 1 N 7 = 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s ) . 4 N1 = − 1 1 − r 2 (1 − s ) . one can also use the following equivalent formulae in which ( ri .29) have the following expressions 1 ( 1 − r ) ( 1 − s ) (1 + r + s ) . in order to evaluate the minimum order of the numerical integration. due to reduced integration.1 Shape functions The shape functions (8. 4 ∂ N i ri ( 1 + s si ) (2r ri + s si ) . For the 8-node quadratic element. It was shown that. (9. so the advantages of reduced integration are compounded. ∂ N i = si ( 1 + r ri ) (2s si + r ri ) . = ∂r ∂s 4 4 Ni = (9. 4 1 N3 = − ( 1 + r ) ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − r − s ). it is sufficient to examine the Jacobian determinant.37) 2 1 N8 = ( 1 − r ) 1 − s 2 . 4 N5 = ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ) As they are constructed based on the equations of the lines passing through the nodal points.3. 9. 4 1 N 4 = − ( 1 − r ) ( 1 + s ) (1 + r − s ) . .38) ___________ *) After the extraordinary discoveries of the princes of Serendip from the horror novels by Horace Walpole (1717-1797).

s ) y i i =1 8 (9. i =1 8 y = ∑ N i (r .39) for mid-side nodes. ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) (9.210 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS for mid-side nodes. = si 1 − r 2 . the matrix [ B ] = [ ∂ ][ N ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [ B ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢∂N ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥. (9.41) ⎨ ⎬ =[N ] q .40) The displacements inside the element can be expressed in terms of the nodal displacements as ⎧u⎫ e (9. = − s ( 1 + r ri ∂r ∂s 2 Ni = ( ) ( ) ). (9.45) leads to . v⎭ ⎩ where N 0 N 2 0 L L N8 0 ⎤ [ N ]= ⎡ 1 .2 Shape function derivatives Use of the isoparametric formulation x = ∑ N i (r . 2 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni 1 = − r ( 1 + s si ) . when si = 0 1 1 − s 2 ( 1 + r ri ) .44) 9. s ) x i . 2 ∂ Ni 1 ∂ Ni = ri 1 − s 2 .3. (9.42) ⎢ 0 N 0 N 2 L L 0 N8 ⎥ 1 ⎣ ⎦ { } { q }= ⎣u e 1 v1 u2 v 2 L L u8 v8 ⎦ T . ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ] is ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y (9.43) Having generated the shape functions [ N ] . when ri = 0 1 1 − r 2 ( 1 + s si ) .

3. ∂s 9. s ) xi .4 Element stiffness matrix The element stiffness matrix is +1 +1 [k ]= t ∫ ∫ [ B ] e e −1 −1 T [ D ][ B ] det [ J ] d r d s (9. ∂r ∂ N i (r .47) ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r .3. ∂r ∂x = ∂s ∂y = ∂s ∑ ∂ N∂(sr .9. s ) x i 8 i .46) where ∂x = ∂r ∂y = ∂r ∑ ∑ i =1 i =1 8 ∂ N i (r . s ) yi . (9.51) [ D ] = ⎢D 2 D 4 0 ⎥ .48) and its determinant is det [ J ] = ∂x ∂ y ∂x ∂ y . s ) yi .49) 9. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (9. − ∂r ∂s ∂s ∂r (9.50) where t is the thickness of the plate and the material stiffness matrix [ D ] has the form ⎡ D1 D 2 0 ⎤ (9. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 D5⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 211 − ∂y ∂r ∂x ∂r ⎤ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎥⎨ ⎥ ⎪ ∂ Ni ⎥ ⎪ ∂s ⎦⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎨ ∂N i ⎪ ⎪ ∂y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ ∂ Ni ⎫ ⎡ ∂y ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ 1 ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = [ j ]⎨ ∂N ⎬ = i ⎪ det [ J ] ⎢ ∂ x ⎪ ⎪ − ⎢ ∂s ⎪ ⎪ ∂s ⎪ ⎣ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ 8 (9.3 Determinant of the Jacobian matrix The Jacobian matrix is ⎡ ∂x ⎢ r [ J ]= ⎢ ∂x ⎢∂ ⎢ ∂s ⎣ ∂y ∂r ∂y ∂s ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ .

ij (9. evaluated by numerical integration. (9.212 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Substituting (9.54) the elements of the matrix (9.53.53.44). a) w = t e w p wq det [ J ] .55) ij .53) ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎦ or Denoting [ k ] i j = ⎢k 1 ⎣ ⎡k 3 k 2⎤ k 4⎥ ⎦ . = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (9. have the form ⎡ ∂ Ni ⎢ ∂x w p wq ⎢ ⎢ 0 q =1 ⎢ ⎣ n [k ] i j = t e ∑∑ p =1 n 0 ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂y ∂ Ni ∂x ⎡ ∂N j ⎢ ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ [D]⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ∂N j ⎦ ⎢ ∂y ⎣ ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ det [ J ] . k 1 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 1 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ k2 k3 ij ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.52) The (16 × 16) element stiffness matrix contains submatrices [ k ] i j which. = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 2 + D5 ⎜ ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. a) can be determined as ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟. (9.50) can be written ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N2 +1 +1 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎡ ke ⎤ = te ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ −1 −1 ⎢ ⎢ L ⎢∂N ⎢ 8 ⎢ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∫∫ 0 ∂ N2 ∂y L 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N1 ⎤ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N1 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎥ ∂ N2 ⎥ ∂x ⎥ ⎥ L ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂ N8 ⎥ ⎥ ∂x ⎦ ⎥ T ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ ⎢ ∂x [D ] ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ∂ N1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂x L L ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 L ∂y ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ det [ J ] d r d s ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ . (9. the stiffness matrix (9.

providing that the material properties are constant throughout the element. ∂x i =1 ∂ y . 9.55) by incorporating the relevant material constants. Mohraz.3. Therefore.57) The explicit form of equation (9. Gupta & B.57) for the quadratic 8-node element is ⎧σx ⎪ ⎨σy ⎪τ ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D1 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢D 2 ⎪ ⎢ 0 ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ∂ N1 ⎢ 0 ⎤ ⎢ ∂x ⎥ 0 ⎥⎢ 0 ⎢ D5⎥ ⎢∂N ⎦ ⎢ 1 ⎢ ∂y ⎣ 8 D2 D4 0 L ∂ N2 L 0 ∂y ∂ N2 ∂ N8 L ∂x ∂y ⎤ ⎧u 1 ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ 2⎬ ⎥ ⎪L ⎪ ⎥ ⎪v ⎪ ⎥ ⎪ 8⎪ ⎦⎩ ⎭ wherefrom σ x = D1 ∑ i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ui + D2 ∑ vi . A close inspection of equations (9. such that ⎡ ⎢∑∑ w =⎢ ⎢ ⎢∑∑ w ⎣ ∂ Ni ∂x ∂ Ni ∂y ∂N j ∂x ∂N j ∂x ∂ Ni ∂x ∂N ∑∑ w ∂ yi ∂N j ⎤ ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ∂N j ⎥ ∂y ⎥ ⎦ [ S ]i j ∑∑ w (9. k 4 i j = ∑∑ w ⎜ D 4 + D5 ⎜ ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ When i = j . 0 ∂ N1 ∂y ∂ N1 ∂x ∂ N2 ∂x 0 ∂ N2 ∂y 0 ∂ N8 ∂x 0 ∂ N8 ∂y ∂ N8 ∂x (9. A.9. 1972) reduces the computing time by a factor of nine over the full matrix multiplication method.55) shows that all the terms are of the form (cons tan t ) × (material property) × ( product of shape function derivatives ) . k 2 = k 3 . This method (K.5 Stress calculation The vector of element stresses is {σ } = [ D ][ B ]{ q e }. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 213 ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ N j ∂ Ni ∂ N j ⎞ ⎟.56) and then to work out equations (9. it is useful to store separately in an array [ S ] i j the sum of the products of the shape function derivatives multiplied by w .

into the global load vector which represents the right hand side of the linear set of equations to be solved for displacements. for a quadratic isoparametric element the nodal forces due to distributed loads must be computed in accordance with equation (7. (9.3. A better alternative is to calculate stresses at the Gauss points. if the stresses of all elements meeting at a node are averaged. the actual pressure distribution along an element edge is replaced by a parabolic distribution defined by the pressure values at each of the three nodes along that edge.59) The equivalent nodal forces are added. ui + D4 ∑ ∂x i =1 ∂ y (9. The components of the force p d r acting upon an elemental length d r are .214 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS σ y = D2 ∑ 8 8 i =1 8 ∂ Ni ∂ Ni vi . It has been found that nodal stresses from an 8-node quadratic element are usually incorrect. in which superior accuracy is obtained and averaging is not necessary. so that there is no need to sort out the appropriate shape functions for the three nodes with given pressure values. All intermediate values can be calculated using the shape functions. acting along the s = +1 edge of an element. specified in force per unit length.6 Consistent nodal forces Unlike the triangular element. element by element. and it is therefore reasonable to expect the most accurate stresses and strains occurring at the same points.58) τ xy = D 5 ∑ ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ ∂ Ni ∂ Ni ⎞ vi ⎟. ui + ⎟ ∂x ⎠ i =1 ⎝ ∂ y In some programs the stresses are determined at nodes. since the nodal positions are readily located and it is convenient to output the displacements and stresses at the same points. 9. in which all loads can be reduced to nodes intuitively or by statics. closer results to the true values are obtained. Edge pressure When coding the load vectors in a computer program.44) { f }= ∫ [ N ] e Ve T { p }d V . This is due to the fact that the element stiffness is calculated by sampling at the Gauss points. Consider a distributed load p . However. It is usual to use all the nodes of the element in the computation.

42). ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 215 ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎧ px ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎬ = p ⎨ ∂ x ⎬ dr . since a positive pressure is assumed to act towards the centre of e If the same pressure acts on the edge s = −1 .63) the element.60) The consistent load for p is given by a modified form of equation (9. ⎪ ⎪i ⎭ (9. A more general equation applicable to the two edges s = ±1 is ⎧ ∂y ⎫ ⎞ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎛ 8 ⎪ ⎪ f e = ∑ wi ws [N ]T ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎬ i =1 ⎠⎪− ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ⎪ ∂ r ⎪i ⎩ ⎭ where w s takes up the value of the s coordinate for the loaded edge.62) wi [ N ] T fe = ⎬ ⎪ i =1 ⎪i ⎭ where pi is the pressure at the Gauss point i along the s = +1 edge and is computed by equation { } ∑ n ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ pi ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ p= ∑ N (r .61) The above vector is usually integrated numerically and is written as ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ (9. { f } is reversed.59) in which the volume integral has been reduced to a line integral { f }= ∫ e +1 −1 where [ N ] is given by (9.s ) p k k =1 8 k . the sign of the force vector { } n (9.64) A similar expression for pressure loads on the r = ±1 edges is { f }= ∑ e n i =1 ⎧ ∂y − ⎞ ⎪ ∂s ⎛ 8 ⎪ T⎜ wi wr [N ] ⎜ ∑ N k p k ⎟ ⎨ ⎟ ∂x ⎠⎪ ⎝ k =1 ⎪ ∂s ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ . (9.9.65) . ⎧ ∂y ⎪ ∂r ⎪ p [ N ]T ⎨ ∂x ⎪− ⎪ ∂r ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ dr ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (9. py ⎭ ⎩ ⎪− ⎪ ⎪ ∂r ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ (9.

y axes. it is possible to integrate the equations for the equivalent nodal forces explicitly. Find the equivalent nodal forces.2. For the rectangular element ∂y ∂x = 0 and = a . For the edge s = +1 we have N1 = N 5 = N 2 = N 6 = N8 = 0 . E9. 1 2 ∫ 4 ( 1 + s si ) ( 1 − r ) d r .2 Consider the element of Fig. we can write f y3 = − f y7 = − P 2 P 2 +1 −1 +1 −1 1 ∫ 4 ( 1 + r ri ) ( 1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r .61) gives ∂r ∂r {f } e ⎧ f y3 ⎪ = ⎨ f y7 ⎪f ⎩ y4 ⎫ +1 ⎪ ⎬= p ⎪ −1 ⎭ ∫ ⎧ N3 ⎪ ⎨ N7 ⎪N ⎩ 4 ⎫ ⎪ ⎬ (− a ) d r . E9. .66) Denoting the total pressure load P = 2 p a . Fig. Equation (9.216 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS For a rectangular isoparametric element with edges parallel to the x .2 Solution. Example 9. a with a uniform pressure load along the top edge. ⎪ ⎭ (9.

The integration is carried out numerically and equation (9. but in the ratio 1 6 : 2 3 : 1 6 (Fig. In the above expressions. ⎩− g ⎭ (9. substituting r i = 1 and s i = 1 for node 3. 4 3 1 (1 − r )(2)(− r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . 4 6 ∫ ( ) ∫ Hence a uniform load acting along an edge is not distributed in the intuitive ratio of 1 4 : 1 2 : 1 4 . r i = 0 and s i = 1 for node 7. Gravity loading For gravity loading (downwards negative) the vector of equivalent nodal forces (9. E9. a with gravity loading. 4 6 1 ( 2 ) 1 − r 2 dr = − 2P . ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS P 2 +1 −1 217 f y4 = − ∫ 1 (1 + r ri 4 ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) d r . E9. Solution. Find the equivalent nodal forces.67) where m is the mass per unit area and g the acceleration in the y direction.67) takes the form { f }= ∑∑ w w e n n i i =1 j =1 j ⎧ 0 ⎫ m [ N ] T ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] .26). . b).3.68) Example 9.9. yields f y3 = − f y7 = − f y4 = − +1 −1 +1 −1 +1 −1 P 2 P 2 P 2 ∫ 1 (1 + r )( 2)( r + 1 − 1) d r = − P . Because all the equivalent nodal forces act in the y direction. and r i = −1 and s i = 1 for node 4. The same result could have been obtained noticing that the integrands in the above equations are the shape functions of the three-node isoparametric onedimensional element (4.2.59) is { f }= ∫ m [ N ] e T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬d x d y = ⎩− g ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m [N ] T ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s ⎩− g ⎭ (9.3 Consider the rectangular element of Fig.

the equivalent nodal forces for gravity loading at a corner node i are given by f yi = − +1 +1 (9. 1 1 (9. the force (9. and I3 = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) d r d s = − 4 . I2 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) s si d r d s = 3 +1 +1 4 (9. L⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N8 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ ∫ ∫ (9.77) −1 −1 .75) For a midside node i with ri = 0 . W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) = − W ⎛ 4 + 4 − 4 ⎞ = W . the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − s ) (1 + r ri ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .71) 4 where +1 +1 I1 = −1 −1 ∫ ∫ (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) r ri d r d s = 3 +1 +1 (9. ⎜ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ 3 3 ⎠ 12 (9.73) since si = ±1 for all corner nodes. the integral is f yi = − 1 W 2 ∫ ∫ m g 2 (1 − r ) (1 + s si ) det [ J ] d r d s = − 3 .74) Therefore.76) −1 −1 For a midside node i with si = 0 .218 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ f y1 ⎫ f y2 ⎪ ⎪ = L ⎬ ⎪ f y8 ⎪ ⎭ +1 +1 −1 −1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ N1 ⎫ ⎪N ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ m g ⎨ 2 ⎬ det [ J ] d r d s .70) can be written f yi = − (9. +1 +1 For a corner node i the integral becomes f yi = − −1 −1 ∫ ∫ m g 4 (1 + r ri ) (1 + s si ) ( r ri + s si − 1) det [ J ] d r d s .72) since ri = ±1 for all corner nodes. 16 1 (9. W ( I1 + I 2 + I 3 ) .70) Denoting the total weight of the element W = m g ⋅ 2a ⋅ 2b . (9.69) For a rectangular element det [ J ] = ab .

Fig.4 Nine-node quadrilateral This element belongs to the Lagrange family of elements. b.3. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 219 Fig. which would have been assigned intuitively to the corner and midside nodes respectively. 9. it contains an internal node. Apart from the eight nodes located on the boundary. 9.6 . E9. E9. The local node numbers for this element are shown in Fig.3 Hence for gravity loading the equivalent nodal forces are as shown in Fig. 9.6. The master element is presented in Fig. a.6. they are different from the values of − W 12 and − W 6 . Again. 9.9. b.

and is determined by its values at the three nodes on that side. as shown in Fig.78) Along the sides of the element.) . and rs . have the expressions . which contains the terms of polynomials of various degrees in the two variables r and s . we can define generic shape functions L1 . . as shown at the bottom of Fig.6. L 3 (r ) = r (1 + r ) .7 Since a linear quadrilateral element has four nodes. 9.220 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The associated displacement functions in polynomial form are u = a1 + a2 r + a3 s + a4 r 2 + a5 r s + a6 s 2 + a7 r 2 s + a8 r s 2 + a9 r 2 s 2 . 2 L 2 (r ) = ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) . b.. for three points. 9. L2 and L3 having unit value at the node with the same index and zero at the other two nodes L1 (r ) = − r (1 − r ) . v = b1 + b2 r + b3 s + b4 r 2 + b5 r s + b6 s 2 + b7 r 2 s + b8 r s 2 + b9 r 2 s 2 .7. the polynomial is quadratic (with three terms . the polynomial should have the first four terms 1.79) They turn out to be Lagrange polynomials.. 2 (9. which. In general. a pth-order Lagrange rectangular element has ( p + 1) 2 nodes ( p = 0. The shape functions are defined as follows. The quadratic quadrilateral element has 9 nodes. 9. r. The polynomial is incomplete.1.as can be seen setting s = 0 in u ). It contains the complete polynomial of the second degree (6 terms) plus other three terms which have to be located symmetrically: the third degree terms r 2 s and r s 2 and also an r 2 s 2 term. Fig. Considering the r axis alone. (9. Higher-order rectangular elements can be systematically developed with the help of the so-called Pascal’s triangle. s.

ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS L 1 (r ) = 221 ( r − r 2 ) ( r − r3 ) ( r1 − r 2 ) ( r1 − r3 ) . N 2 = ζ 2 ( 2 ζ 2 − 1 ) . 9. 9. 9. One can view the position of the terms as the nodes of the triangle. N 6 = 4 ζ 3 ζ1 . they can be condensed out at the element level to reduce the size of the element matrices. a) is an element of order 2 (i.5 Six-node triangle Higher-order triangular elements can be developed using Pascal’s triangle (Fig. N5 = 4 ζ 2 ζ 3 .8). Alternatively. the degree of the polynomial is 2).80) The shape functions N i can be constructed as products of the above onedimensional functions ⎡ N1 ⎢N ⎢ 5 ⎢ N2 ⎣ N8 N9 N6 N 4 ⎤ ⎧ L 1 (r ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ N 7 ⎥ = ⎨ L 2 (r ) ⎬ ⎣ L 1 (s ) L 2 (s ) L 3 (s ) ⎦ . ⎥ N 3 ⎥ ⎪ L 3 (r ) ⎪ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ (9.e.82) . with the constant term and the first and last terms of a given row being the vertices of the triangle. but their shape functions cannot be obtained using products of one-dimensional interpolation functions. generic shape functions can be defined along the s axis.36) N1 = ζ1 ( 2 ζ1 − 1 ) . L 3 (s ) = s (1 + s ) . 2 (9. Since the internal nodes of the higher-order elements of the Lagrange family do not contribute to the inter-element connectivity. as shown at the right of Fig. 9. the shape functions can be expressed in terms of area coordinates as for the linear strain triangle (8.9. as can be seen from the top three rows of Pascal’s triangle. which can be expressed in terms of the nodal values of the variable being interpolated. 9. The polynomial involves six constants. a. L 2 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 3 ) ( r 2 − r1 ) ( r 2 − r 3 ) .6. 2 L 2 (s ) = ( 1 + s ) ( 1 − s ) . By referring to the master element in Fig. N 4 = 4 ζ1 ζ 2 .81) It should be cautioned that the subscripts of N i refer to the node numbering used in Fig. Similarly.. b. 9. (9.6. The six node triangle (Fig. one can use the serendipity elements. b L1 (s ) = − s (1 − s ) . L 3 (r ) = ( r − r1 ) ( r − r 2 ) ( r 3 − r1 ) ( r 3 − r 2 ) .9.9. N 3 = ζ 3 ( 2 ζ 3 − 1 ) .

i =1 (9.9 .8 The isoparametric representation is (8. N6 ⎥ ⎦ { } (9.222 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 2 2 where ζ 1 = 1 − ζ 2 − ζ 3 . 9. this element is also called a quadratic triangle. and x = ∑ Ni x i .84) Fig. Because of terms ζ 2 . ζ 3 in the shape functions.37) ⎧ u ⎫ ⎡ N1 ⎨ ⎬=⎢ ⎩v⎭ ⎣ 0 0 N1 v1 u2 6 N2 0 0 N2 L L N6 L L 0 0 ⎤ e q . i =1 y = ∑ Ni y i . Fig.83) where { q }= ⎣u e 1 v 2 L L u6 6 v6 ⎦ T . 9.

any internal angle of each corner node of the element should be less than 1800 .13) to shape functions is that [ J ] can be inverted. it is more likely to be negative at corners. where stresses may be computed. Note that while the Jacobian is always computed at Gauss points. The sign of det [ J ] should be checked. particularly at that corner. ⎦ ⎣ 1 1 . ∂ r ∂ N 2 ∂ N1 ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . This gives ∂ ∂ ∂ = − . If the Jacobian becomes negative at any location.4.6 Jacobian positiveness In the higher-order isoparametric elements discussed above. as an internal angle approaches 1800 there is a loss of accuracy in the element stress. The Gauss quadrature formulas for a triangle differ from those considered earlier for the rectangle. ∂ s ∂ N 3 ∂ N1 (9. we note the presence of ‘midside’ nodes.24) if the (r . a warning message will be signaled indicating the nonuniqueness of mapping. This condition ensures that det [ J ] does not attain a value of zero in the element. which has to be integrated numerically. 39].85) Details on numerical integration schemes for triangles are given in [18. This inverse exists if there is no excessive distortion of the element such that lines of constant r or s intersect inside or on the element boundaries or there are re-entrant angles. then [ j ] and the operators in increase without limit and consequently produce infinite strains. Therefore to ensure that [ J ] can be inverted. If the determinant det [ J ] → 0 . It must be placed inside the middle third of a side. When the element is degenerated into a triangle by increasing an internal angle to 1800 then [ J ] is singular at that corner. can be evaluated using (9. A necessary requirement for applying equation (9. and.46). 4. The midside node should be as near as possible to the centre of the side. 9. [∂ ] will The above statements are illustrated for the one-dimensional quadratic isoparametric element shown in Fig. s ) coordinates are defined by (8.9. ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS 223 The element stiffness matrix. The row vector of shape functions is ⎢ ⎥ ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣N1 N 2 N 3 ⎦ = ⎢ 2 r ( r − 1) ( 1 + r )( 1 − r ) 2 r ( r + 1) ⎥ . A similar situation occurs when two adjacent corner nodes are made coincident to produce a triangular element.

This explains 4 4 why it is recommended to place precautiously the ‘midside’ node inside the middle third of a side.10 This point lies within the element (Fig. if −1 ≤ where 0 ≤ x 2 ≤ l . 9.5 ) l − 2 r x2 . 2x2 −l Fig. 2x2 −l If .10) if − 1 ≤ r 0 ≤ 1 . For any x2 this determinant vanishes at the point r0 = 0. then det [ J ] does not vanish on the element.e. l 3l < x 2 < .5 l ≤1.224 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The Jacobian matrix is [ J ] = J11 = ⎢ ∂N1 ⎢ ⎣ ∂r ∂N 2 ∂r ⎧ x1 ∂N 3 ⎥ ⎪ ⎥ ⎨ x2 ∂r ⎦ ⎪ ⎩ x3 ⎫ ⎪ ⎢ 2r − 1 − 2r ⎬=⎢ ⎪ ⎣ 2 ⎭ ⎧ 0 2r + 1 ⎥ ⎪ ⎨ x2 2 ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎩ l ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.5 l . i. 0 . 9. ⎪ ⎭ The determinant of the Jacobian matrix is det [ J ] = J11 = ( r + 0.

in which on the faces of plate the shear strains are equal to zero.1 . Thin plates with transverse shear neglected are analyzed based on Kirchhoff’s classical theory. 10. . For thick or composite plates some higher-order shear deformation plate theories are available. The plate has constant thickness h and is subject to distributed surface loads. it can be assumed that the plate deformation may be expressed by the deformation state at the middle surface. The x-y plane is taken to coincide with the middle surface of the plate (Fig. that is the thickness-to-span is h l ≤ 0.10. These elements may be either triangular. Such structures can be analyzed by dividing the plate into an assemblage of twodimensional finite elements called plate bending elements. Kirchhoff’s hypotheses are adopted: a) there is no deformation (stretching) in the middle plane of the plate. which is the plane midway between the faces of the plate. For thin plates. enclosures surrounding machinery and bridge decks are subject to loads normal to their plane.1) and the positive z-direction is upwards. PLATE BENDING Flat plate structures. For this case. b) normals to the middle plane of the undeformed plate remain straight and normal to the middle surface of the plate during deformation. such as the floors of buildings and aircraft. finite element displacement models for the flat plate bending problem are discussed. and c) the direct stress in the transverse direction can be disregarded. 10. Plates with a constant shear deformation through the plate thickness are treated in the Reissner-Mindlin plate theory.1 Thin plate theory (Kirchhoff) A plate is described as a structure in which the thickness is very small compared with the other dimensions. rectangular or quadrilateral in shape. In this chapter.

Fig. y. (10. ∂x v ( x. a).2 The strain vector can be written in the form b {ε } = ⎣ ε x where the curvature vector ε y γ x y ⎦ T = − z { χ }. 10. ∂x ∂z (10.1 The components of the strain are given as follows: εx = ∂2w ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂2w ∂v ∂2w . γ x y = = −2 z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂v ∂w + =0.2) a Fig.3) . ∂z ∂ y γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u + = 0. ε y = = −z 2 . ∂y (10. = −z 2 .226 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The displacements parallel to the undeformed middle surface are given by u ( x. z ) = − z ∂w . 10. y. 10.1) where w ( x. y ) denotes the displacement of the middle surface in the z-direction (Fig.2. z ) = − z ∂w .

10.3. 12 (10.9) Denoting Di j = −h 2 ∫d ij z2 d z (10. (10.5) (10.3 The positive sense of internal bending and twisting moments (per unit length) is shown in Fig.8) Fig. ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ d11 [ D ] = ⎢ d12 ⎢ ⎢ d16 ⎣ (10.4) Since σ z = 0 . where (10. d12 d 22 d 26 d16 d 26 d 66 ⎤ ⎥.10) . PLATE BENDING 227 ⎢ 2 {χ }= ⎢ ∂ w 2 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ ∂2w ∂ y2 ∂2w ⎥ 2 ⎥ ∂x ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ T . (10. 10. Their definig equations are h2 ⎣M x My Mxy ⎦= −h 2 ∫ z ⎣σ h2 x σ y τ xy ⎦ dz .7) The strain energy in the plate can be written as U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ }T {ε }dV = 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A . the stress-strain relations take the form {σ } = [ D ] {ε } = − z [ D ] { χ } .10.6) {σ } = ⎣σ x and σ y τ x y ⎦T .

curvature equations can be expressed as follows ⎧ ∂2w ⎪ ∂ x2 D16 ⎤ ⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎥⎪ ∂ w D26 ⎥ ⎨ ∂ y2 D66 ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎦⎪ ∂ w ⎪ ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎡ D11 ⎪ ⎢ ⎬ = ⎢ D12 ⎪ ⎢D ⎭ ⎣ 16 D12 D22 D26 (10. ∂x ∂y ∂ Qx ∂ Q y + + pz = 0 .14) E is Young’s modulus and ν is the Poisson’s ratio. From (10.11) or { M } = − [ D ]{ χ } For isotropic materials . (10. ⎟ ⎠ Qy = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ y ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.228 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS the moment . The equilibrium equations are ∂M x ∂M y x − Qx = 0 . ⎟ ⎠ (10.15) where p z is the lateral distributed load (per unit surface) and Qx .15) it can be shown that (10.13) D= 12 1 − ν ( E h3 2 ) .12) ⎡ 0 ⎢1 ν [ D ] = D ⎢ν 1 0 ⎢ 1 −ν ⎢0 0 2 ⎣ where ⎤ ⎥ ⎥.16) . ∂x ∂y forces (per unit length). + ∂y ∂x ∂M x y ∂M y + − Qy = 0 . ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (10.11) and (10. (10. Q y are the shear Qx = − D ∂ ⎛ ∂2w ∂2w ⎜ + ∂ x ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟.

According to Reissner-Mindlin assumptions.16) into the last equation (10. ⎣τ z x τ yz ⎦= 3 2h ⎞ ⎟ ⎣ Qx ⎟ ⎠ Qy ⎦.8) can be expressed as D U= 2 ∫ A 2 ⎡⎛ 2 2 ⎢ ⎜ ∂ w + ∂ w ⎞ + 2 (1 − ν ⎟ ⎢ ⎜ ∂ x2 ∂ y 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎢⎝ ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ∂2w ∂ 2w ⎟ ⎥ ⎜⎜ ∂ w ⎟ )⎜ ⎜ dx dy .2 Thick plate theory (Reissner-Mindlin) For moderately thick plates. the differential equilibrium equation for isotropic materials can be obtained as ∂4w p ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + 4 = z . Then. D ∂y ∂x ∂ y ∂ x4 The bending and torsion stresses are given by (10. Reissner proposed to introduce the rotations of the normal to the plate midsurface in the xOz and yOz plane as independent variables.2. PLATE BENDING 229 By substituting (10. − 2 ∂ x ∂ y2 ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟ ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎝ ⎦ (10. the thickness-to-span ratio is not small enough to neglect transverse shear deformations and Kirchhoff’s assumption is no longer valid. the classical hypothesis of zero transverse shear strain is relaxed.20) The potential of the external load is W P = − p z w dx dy . A ∫ (10.10.19) The strain energy (10. Mindlin simplified Reissner’s assumption considering that normals to the plate midsurface before deformation remain straight but not necessarily normal to the plate after deformation.17) ⎣σ x σ y τxy ⎦= 12 z ⎣M x h3 My Mxy ⎦ (10.21) 10. the displacements parallel to the middle surface can be expressed as . First.9) (10. To overcome this problem. The displacements of the middle surface are independent of the rotations of the normal (Fig.15). The transverse normal stress is disregarded as in the Kirchhoff’s theory. 10.18) and the shear stresses by 2 ⎛ ⎜ 1 − 4z ⎜ h2 ⎝ where a parabolic distribution is assumed. (10. b).

γ z x = 0 . ∂z ∂ y ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T . y .25) Substituting for the displacements from (10. and equation (10. y ) .22) where θ x .4). to the middle plane before deformation.230 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS u (x . θ y are the rotations about the Ox and Oy axes of lines originally normal The in-plane strains are now given by { ε } = − z { χ }. + ∂x ∂z (10.27) where κ is a shear correction factor and [ D ] = ⎡⎢ G 0 S ⎣ ⎡1 0⎤ ⎤ E ⎥ = 2 (1 +ν ) ⎢ 0 1 ⎥ . ∂y Note that when γ y z = 0 . equation (10. v (x .24) reduces to (10. z ) = z θ y (x . where the curvature vector is (10. (10. (10. y . (10.29) V .22) gives ∂w ⎧ −θ + ⎧γ yz ⎫ ⎪ x ∂ y {γ } = ⎨ ⎬ = ⎪ ⎨ ∂w ⎩ γ zx ⎭ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬. ∂x The average shear stresses are given by {τ } = ⎨ ⎧τ yz ⎫ = κ DS τzx ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 0 G [ ]{ γ } .24) The transverse shear strains are γ yz = γ zx = ∂w ∂u . (10. ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ (10.26) gives θ x = θy = − ∂w .28) The strain energy in the plate can be written as the sum of the energies due to bending and shear deformation U= 1 2 V ∫ {σ } {ε }dV + 2 ∫ T 1 {τ }T {γ }dV . ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.23) ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ∂v ∂w + . z ) = − zθ x (x . y ) .26) ∂w .

T S A (10. This assumption is equivalent to the introduction of ‘parasitic’ shear stresses that force the normal to remain a straight line.10. equation (10. integrating through the thickness U= 1 2 ∫ A h3 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d A + 1 12 2 ∫ κ h {γ } [ D ]{γ }d A . on the faces of plate the shear strains are not zero. The transverse shear constitutive equation is ∂w ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ −θx + ∂ y ⎪ ⎧ Qy ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ . If a constant shear strain is considered through the plate thickness.30) can be expressed as U= 1 2 1 2 ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂θ y ⎢M x ⎜ − ⎜ ∂x ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ∂θ ⎞ ⎛ ∂θ ⎟ + Mxy ⎜ x − y ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ ∂w ⎟ + Qy ⎜ − θ x + ⎜ ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ∂θ ⎤ ⎟ + M y x ⎥ dx dy + ⎟ ∂y ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ dx dy .24). As the thickness of the plate becomes extremely thin. the shear strain energy predicted by the finite element analysis can be magnified unreasonably and a ‘shear locking’ occurs for large span-to-thickness ratios. ⎟ ⎠⎦ + ∫ A ⎡ ⎛ ∂w ⎢Qx ⎜ θ y + ⎜ ∂x ⎣ ⎝ ∂w ∂w and θ y = − .31) or (10. If θ x = .12).30) For isotropic materials. ⎬=κG ⎨ ⎨ ∂w ⎬ ⎩ Qx ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ θy + ⎪ ∂x ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10.32) The strain energy (10.20). where { χ } is given by (10. ∂y ∂x The main drawback of this theory is the arbitrary averaging of the shear strains. which is not true.11) becomes ⎡ ⎫ 0 ⎢1 ν ⎪ ⎢ν 1 0 ⎬=D ⎢ 1 −ν ⎪ ⎢0 0 ⎭ 2 ⎣ ⎧ ∂θ y − ⎤⎪ ∂x ⎥⎪ ∂θ x ⎪ ⎥⎨ ∂y ⎥⎪ ⎥ ⎪ ∂θ ∂θ y x ⎦ ⎪ ∂x − ∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy (10. PLATE BENDING 231 or. the above expression reduces to (10.

20) and the potential of the external load by (10. In terms of the ∂y ∂x dimensionless coordinates ξ and η . (10. irrespective of the element shape.5 shows the ACM element (Adini. having four node points.1 ACM element (non-conforming) Figure 10.4 shows a thin rectangular element of thickness h.3 Rectangular plate bending elements For a thin plate bending element. namely.3. Melosh . Hence. Clough. and the two rotations θ x = and θ y = − . complete polynomials of at least degree two should be used. according to the convergence criteria of the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Fig. the strain energy is given by (10. one at each corner. Also.232 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 10.21).33) Figure 10. There are three degrees of freedom at each node. 10. The highest derivative appearing in these expressions is the second.1961. These three quantities are. taken as degrees of freedom at each node. these become . 1963). is w = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 x y + a6 y 2 + higher degree terms. the transverse ∂w ∂w displacement w . therefore. The assumed form of the displacement function. for convergence. 10. it will be necessary to ∂w ∂w and are continuous between ensure that w and its first derivatives ∂x ∂y elements.4 The dimensionless coordinates ξ = x a and η = y b will be used in the following with the origin at the plate centre.

which are symetrically located in Pascal’s triangle.36. (10.35) Note that this function is a complete cubic to which two quartic terms ξ 3η and ξη 3 have been added. a ∂ξ (10. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having twelve terms.35) can be written in the following matrix form w = 1 ξ η ξ 2 ξ η η 2 ξ 3 ξ 2η ξ η 2 η 3 ξ 3η ξη 3 ⎣ ⎦ {α }.38) (10. 10.36) (10. a) w = ⎣P ( ξ .η )⎦ {α } . (10.34) Since the element has 12 degrees of freedom. PLATE BENDING 233 θx = 1 ∂w .10. This ensures that the element is geometrically invariant. b ∂η θy = − 1 ∂w . . 2η 0 ξ2 2ξη 3η 2 ξ 3 3ξη 2 (10.5 The expression (10. where {α }T = ⎣ α1 ∂w = 0 1 0 2ξ ∂ξ α 2 α 3 L α12 ⎦ . (10. Fig. that is w = α1 + α 2 ξ + α 3η + α 4 ξ 2 + α 5 ξ η + α 6η 2 + + α 7 ξ 3 + α 8 ξ 2η + α 9 ξη 2 + α10η 3 + α11ξ 3η + α12 ξη 3 .36) gives ⎣ ⎣ η 0 3ξ 2 2ξη η 2 0 3ξ 2η η 3 ⎦ {α } .37) Differentiating (10.39) ∂w = 0 0 1 0 ξ ∂η ⎦ {α }.

⎪0⎪ ⎩ ⎭ . ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10. (10. e e ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎦ {q }. evaluating (10. (10. η = ±1 gives { q }= [ A ]{α }.η )⎦ T ⎧1 2 2 ⎪ 8 ( 1 + ξ i ξ ) 1 + η jη 2 + ξ i ξ + ηi η − ξ − η ⎪ b ⎪ ( 1 + ξi ξ )( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 =⎨ 8 ⎪ a ⎪ ( ξi + ξ ) ξ 2 − 1 ( 1 + ηi η ) ⎪ 8 ⎩ ( )( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ( ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎬.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i.40) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] w = ⎣N (ξ . ⎧ 0 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ .42) into (10.40) where { q } = ⎣w bθ aθ L w bθ aθ ⎦ {α }. ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎧0⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ 0 ⎬. for conciseness.42) Substituting (10. a) yields { } (10. (10. (10.38) and (10. e T 1 x1 y1 4 x4 y4 e Solving (10. Indeed.36). ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ The element is non-conforming.45) where ( ξi .η )⎦ q e = ⎣ ⎣N1 ⎦ −1 {q } . e e (10.36.41) and the matrix [ A ] is given in [87] but not reproduced here.43) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ .44) and the shape functions are defined as ⎣N i (ξ .234 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Evaluating (10. ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 + η ) 2 + η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( ) )⎫ ⎪ ⎬.45) on the side 2-3 (for ξ = +1 ) gives ⎣N 1 ⎦ T ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎧ (1 4 )( 1 − η ) 2 − η − η 2 ⎪ = ⎨ (b 4 )( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ( )⎫ ) ⎪.39) at ξ = ±1 .

8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [k ] { q }. then w and θ x will be continuous along the common side.4) and (10. are uniquely determined by their values at nodes 2 and 3. Substituting (10. ⎪ ⎭ η (− 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 3 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 + η ) ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.47) Evaluating (10. ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ − (a 2 ) ( 1 − η ) ⎭ ⎩ ( ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎬. 2.43) into (10.46) Substituting (10. If the element is attached to another rectangular element at nodes 2 and 3. =⎨ ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎪ − a ( 2 + 2ξ ) ( 1 + η η ) ⎪ i i ⎪ ⎪ 8 ⎭ ⎩ ( ) (10.47) along ξ = +1 gives −η ( − 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N1 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨− (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) η (− 1 − η ) ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ∂ ⎣N 2 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ (b 8) ( − 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬. ⎪ ⎭ −η ( 1 − η ) ⎧ ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ T ⎪ = ⎨ − (b 8) ( 1 + η ) η 2 − 1 ∂ξ ⎪ 0 ⎩ ( ) The above expressions indicate that θ y is determined by the values of w and θ x at nodes 1. PLATE BENDING 235 This indicates that the displacement w .10. and 4 as well as by θ y at nodes 2 and 3. e T e e (10.46) gives ∂ ⎣N i (ξ .η )⎦ T ∂ξ ⎫ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ξ i η ( ηi − η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ b ξ i ( ηi + η ) η 2 − 1 ⎬ .45) into (10. The rotation θ y is not continuous across the side 2-3 and the element is non-conforming.49) A and the strain-displacement matrix is . 3. this is not the case with the rotation θ y . The rotation θ y is given by (10. Unfortunately. ∂ξ ⎦ a ∂ξ a ⎣ ∂ξ { } (10.34) θy = − ∂ ⎣N 4 ⎦ ⎥ e 1 ∂w 1⎢∂ N = − ⎢ ⎣ 1⎦ L ⎥ q . ⎪ ⎭ ⎫ ⎪ ⎬.48) where the element stiffness matrix is h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] e 3 T [ D ] [ B ]dA (10. and hence the rotation θ x .

50) Substituting the shape functions from (10.51) where the submatrices have the following expressions ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢4 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨2α + 5 (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧4 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎢ [ k11 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α + (1 − ν )⎬ b 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎢ ⎣ ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− 2β − (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥.η )⎦ . −ν a b ⎥ ⎥ 4 2 4 ⎧ ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ − ⎨2β 2 + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10.236 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ ∂2 ⎪ 2 ⎪ ∂x 2 ⎪ [ B ]= ⎪ ∂ 2 ⎨ ⎪ ∂y ⎪ ∂2 ⎪2 ⎪ ∂x∂ y ⎩ ⎫ ⎧ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 ⎪ ⎪ a ∂ξ ⎪ ⎪ 1 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ N⎦ = ⎨ 2 ⎬⎣ 2 ⎪ ⎪ b ∂η ⎪ ⎪ 2 ∂2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ab ∂ξ ∂η ⎭ ⎩ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎣N (ξ .45) and integrating gives the element stiffness matrix [k ] e ⎡ [ k11 ] ⎢ Eh ⎢ = 2 48 1 −ν a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎣SYM 3 ( ) [ k12 ] [ k13 ] [ k14 ]⎤ [ k22 ] [ k23 ] [ k24 ]⎥ ⎥ [ k33 ] [ k34 ]⎥ [ k44 ]⎥ ⎦ (10. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎤ ⎨− β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥. 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β + ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 2 β − α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k12 ] = ⎢ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨α − (1 + 4ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ 2 β + (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ⎡ ⎧ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎫ 2 2 ⎨α − ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎢− ⎨2 β + α + 5 (7 − 2ν )⎬ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎭ ⎢ ⎩ ⎧1 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ [ k13 ] = ⎢ ⎨− α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b ⎨ α + ( 1 − ν )⎬ b 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ ⎢ 0 ⎨ β − ( 1 − ν )⎬ a ⎢ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎣ ( ) ( ) .

A typical integration is then of the form +1 +1 −1 −1 ∫∫ ξ mη n dξ dη = ⎨ ⎧ ⎪ 0 4 ⎪ (m + 1)(n + 1) ⎩ m or n odd m and n even For p z = constant . [ k34 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k12 ][ I1 ] . a The remaining submatrices of (10. (10.54) and integrating. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0⎤ [ I 2 ] = ⎢0 − 1 0 ⎥ .51) are [ k22 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k11 ][ I 3 ] . b β= b . In terms of the nodal displacements they can be expressed as e z { f }= p .5). the vector of equivalent nodal forces is obtained as ab T ⎣ 3 b − a 3 b a 3 − b a 3 − b − a⎦ . substituting the shape functions into { f } = ∫ ⎣N ⎦ e A T pz d A (10. In deriving this result. [ k23 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k14 ][ I 3 ] .36) for w and substitute for {α } after performing the integration. [ k24 ] = [ I 3 ]T [ k23 ][ I 3 ] . it is simpler to use the expression (10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ [ I 3 ] = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ .10. ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0 0 − 1⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10. [ k44 ] = [ I 2 ]T [ k11 ][ I 2 ] . 3 Stresses at any point in the plate are given by (10.53) The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. PLATE BENDING ⎡ 2 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 2 ⎢2 β − 2α − 5 (7 − 2ν ) ⎨ 2α + 5 (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ ⎧2 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎢ ⎧− 2α 2 − 1 (1 − ν )⎫ b [ k 41 ] = ⎢ ⎨ ⎨ α − (1 − ν )⎬ b ⎬ 5 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎩ ⎭ ⎢ 1 ⎧ ⎫ ⎢ ⎨− β 2 + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a 0 ⎢ ⎩ 5 ⎭ ⎣ 237 ( ) ⎧ ⎫ ⎤ 2 1 ⎨− β + (1 + 4ν )⎬ a ⎥ 5 ⎩ ⎭ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎧2 2 4 ⎫ 2 ⎨ β − (1 − ν )⎬ a ⎥ 15 ⎩3 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ and α= a .52) where ⎡ − 1 0 0⎤ [ I1 ] = ⎢ 0 1 0⎥ . [ k33 ] = [ I1 ]T [ k11 ][ I1 ] .

21) as for uniform slender beams. (10.57) in which ( ξi .55) where [ B ] is defined in (10. this violates the fundamental requirement that the element can represent all constant strain states.4. 10. of the form shown in Fig. In this case. 4 4 1 1 f i (η ) = 2 + 3ηi η − ηi η 3 . A compromise is to use the cubic Hermitian polynomials for the deflection shape functions but reduce the order to linear for the rotation shape functions. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. It is a four-node thin plate bending element. However. and discontinuities in slope occur at interfaces.ηi ) are the coordinates of node i. In the limit.56) 1 1 2 + 3ξ i ξ − ξ i ξ 3 .43) but with 16 terms . The solution used for the BFS element is the introduction of ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η as an additional degree of freedom at each node. g i (ξ ) = − ξ i − ξ +ξ i ξ 2 + ξ 3 . the plate will tend towards a zero twist condition.3. g i (η ) = − ηi − η +ηi η 2 + η 3 . 4 4 f i (ξ ) = ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) (10. 10.50).η )⎦ where T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ b f i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎬ . Unfortunately. when we examine the derivatives of these products we find that the twist ∂ 2 w ∂ξ ∂η is zero at all four corners and that there is no constant component to this second derivative. the displacement function is of the form (10. The nodal expansion of the displacement function has the form (10. ⎪ − a g (ξ ) f (η ) ⎪ i i ⎩ ⎭ (10. can be obtained using products of separate one-dimensional Hermitian shape functions (5.2). as the mesh is refined and the element size is decreased.2 BFS element (conforming) A conforming rectangular element.43) with ⎣N i (ξ . the results are convergent. commonly referred to as the BFS element (Bogner. Fox and Schmit . This element does have constant strain but is non-conforming. as an increasing number of elements is used. As this controls the shear strain in equation (10.1966).238 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS {σ } = − z [ D ][ B ]{q e }.

w . the shear deformations become important and a Reissner-Mindlin plate model is adopted. the strain energy expression is (10.33).53) where the matrix ⎣N ⎦ is defined by (10.5). 2a 1 θ x3 − θ x 4 .3. Hence.and ydirections. Although the BFS element is more accurate than the ACM element. PLATE BENDING 239 1 { q } = ⎣w e T ′ θ x1 θ y1 w′x y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ′ w′x y 4 ⎦ .30) and the potential of the external load is (10. 10. with { χ } and {γ } given by (10. . The highest derivative of w . 10. for convergence.59) of the first six terms in (10. 2a ( ) ( ) ( ) Applying the above constraints to the BFS element makes it a nonconforming one. θ x and θ y are the only degrees of freedom required at the nodal points (Fig. (10.η )⎦ T ⎧ f i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎫ ⎪ b f (ξ ) g (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ i i =⎨ ⎬. 2b 1 θ y 2 − θ y3 .24) and (10. For a thick plate-bending element.49) and (10. The transverse displacement and tangential slope are continuous between elements but the normal slope is not.43) and (10. ⎪ − a g i (ξ ) f i (η ) ⎪ ⎪ ab g i (ξ ) g i (η ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ (10. 2b ( ) ′ w′x y 2 = ′ w′x y 4 = 1 θ x 2 − θ x1 . This is ensured by the presence in the functions (10.59).59) It can be shown that this element can perform rigid body movements without deformation and can describe pure bending behaviour in the x. The element stiffness matrix and consistent vector of nodal forces are given by (10. This is overcome in the WB element (Wilson. θ x and θ y appearing in these expressions is the first.3 HTK thick rectangular element When the thickness is greater than about a tenth of the plate width.21).26).58) ′ where w′x y ≡ ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y and ⎣N i (ξ . it is difficult to use in conjunction with other types of elements in built-up structures due to the presence of the degree of freedom ∂ 2 w ∂x ∂y . Brebbia – 1971) by introducing the approximations ′ w′x y1 = ′ w′x y 3 = 1 θ y1 − θ y 4 .10.

θ x and θ y in terms of their nodal values.65) In (10. i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 (10. In matrix form.62) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w4 θ x 4 θ y 4 ⎦ . without having to infer it as the derivative of the bending moment.24). The displacement functions are of the form w = ∑ Ni w i . that is Ni = 1 1 + ξ i ξ 1 + η iη . expressions (10.26) and (10. It represents the shear deformation directly.63) Substituting (10. (10.44) and ⎡ N1 [ N ]= ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎣ N1 0 0 L N1 L (10. θ y = ∑ Ni θ y i .240 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS The four-node HTK element (Hughes.1977) expands separately w . ⎥ N4 ⎥ ⎦ (10.65) . θ x = ∑ Ni θ x i . 0 0 L N4 0 0 0 N4 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥. 4 ( )( ) (10. e T e e (10.60) can be written ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y where ⎫ ⎪ e ⎬=[N] q . e B S (10.3).62) into (10.30) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ] { q }. ⎪ ⎭ { } (10.61) These functions ensure that w .64) where the element stiffness matrix k e can be written as the sum of the matrices due to bending and shear [ ] [ k ] = [ k ] + [ k ]. Taylor and Kanoknukulcha .60) where the functions N i are defined by (9. θ x and θ y are continuous between elements.

66) gives the element stiffness matrix due to bending .(10.72) into (10.71) Substituting (10. PLATE BENDING 241 h [ k ] = ∫ 12 [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [BB ] d A S S (10.10. ⎢ 0 ∂N ∂ y 0 =⎢ i ⎥ ⎢ 0 ∂ Ni ∂ x − ∂ Ni ∂ y ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10.66) A and [ k ] = ∫ κ h [ B ] [ D ][ B ] d A .70) where ⎣ ∂x 0 ∂ y − Ni Ni ⎤ .67) (10.73) 4 ⎣( ⎦ S i i i i i i i i i Substituting (10.61) into (10. 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.71) gives [ ] BiB ⎡0 − ξ i 1 + η iη 4a ⎤ 0 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ξ i 1 + η i η 4 a − 1 + ξ i ξ η i 4b ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) (10. The strain-displacement matrix [ B ] is of the form [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] S S T A B B B 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 (10.69) and (10.68) where [ ] BiB The strain-displacement matrix B S is of the form S S 1 S 2 S 3 S 4 [ ] [ B ]= [ [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] [ B ] ] ∂N [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ∂ N S i i i 0 − ∂ Ni ∂ x ⎤ ⎡0 ⎥.69) (10.68) and the resulting matrices into (10.72) and ( ηη a 0 [ B ] = ⎡⎢ ξ1 +1ξ+ ξ )η ) 4b − (1 + ξ ξ )(1 + η η ) 4 (1 + ξ ξ )(01 + η η ) 4 ⎤⎥ .

2 ⎥ 1 2 2⎥ − 4 β + ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } [k ] B 13 2⎧ ⎫ 2 2 1 ⎨ − α − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ b 3⎩ 2 ⎭ 1 (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥.74) where the submatrices are ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 4 3 ⎧ 2 1 ⎫ 2 ⎨α + ( 1 −ν )⎬ b 2 ⎩ ⎭ 1 − (1 +ν )a b 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ⎥. a . b β= b . − (1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 4⎧ 2 1 ⎫ β + ( 1 −ν )⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 11 [k ] B 12 ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎡0 ⎢ ⎢ = ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 2 α 2 − ( 1 −ν ) b 2 3 1 − ( 3ν − 1 ) a b 2 0 { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . ( 1 +ν )a b ⎥ 2 ⎥ 2⎧ 1 ⎫ − β 2 − ( 1 −ν ) ⎬ a 2 ⎥ ⎨ 3⎩ 2 ⎭ ⎥ ⎦ 0 [k ] B 14 ⎡0 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 = ⎢0 − 4α 2 + ( 1 − ν ) b 2 3 ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ( 3ν − 1 ) a b ⎢ 2 ⎣ { } ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 1 − ( 3ν − 1) a b ⎥ . 2 ⎥ 2 2 2⎥ β − ( 1 −ν ) a ⎥ 3 ⎦ 0 { } and α= a .242 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS [k ]= B 48 1 − ν 2 ( E h3 ) ⎡ kB ⎢ 11 ⎢ ⎢ ab ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ B B B 12 13 14 B B B 22 23 24 B 33 B 34 B 44 (10.

97) and [k ] S 11 ⎡1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ ⎡ − 1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Substituting (10.73) into (10. The above expressions are presented in reference [87]. PLATE BENDING 243 The remaining submatrices of (10.52).61) into (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥. a2 ⎥ ⎦ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.63) and (10. a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 13 [k ] S 14 The remaining submatrices of (10. The vector of equivalent nodal forces is ⎧ pz ⎫ ⎪ f = ⎣N ⎦ ⎨ 0 ⎬ d A (10.71) and the resulting matrices into (10.75) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.10. [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S S 12 13 14 S S S 22 23 24 S 33 S 34 S 44 (10.76) ⎪ 0 ⎪ A ⎩ ⎭ For pz = constant.52). a2 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ − 1 + α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ α 2b α 2 b2 ⎢ a 0 ⎣ ⎡1 − α 2 α 2b ⎢ = ⎢ − α 2b α 2 b 2 ⎢ −a 0 ⎣ − a⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.74) are given by relationships corresponding to (10.75) where γ S = E h 3 12κ G b 2 is a shear parameter similar to (5.76) and integrating gives { } ∫ e T⎪ { f }= p a b ⎣ 1 e z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ T (10. The bending and twisting moments per unit length are given by .67) gives the element stiffness matrix due to shear [k ] S ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 ⎢ E h3 ⎢ = 48 γ S a b ⎢ ⎢ ⎢SYM ⎣ [ ] [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ . substituting the shape functions from (10.77) which means that one quarter of the total force is concentrated at each node.

10. into four triangles) and work with different displacement functions over each region. The above analysis can be easily extended to 8-node or higher-order plate elements. the individual functions must be continuous (up to the first derivatives) across the interior boundaries as well as the exterior boundaries. considering rather difficult to generate a displacement function valid over the entire rectangular element. S S e (10. The bending strains in the 8-node version are recovered accurately if sampled at the reduced (2 × 2) Gauss points. e (10. Benchmark problems have shown that the HTK element yields accurate solutions for simply supported or clamped plates. There are different formulations using mixtures of corner and mid-side freedoms in order to achieve near complete polynomials. .78) where [ I 3 ] is defined by (10.53). This is avoided by selective integration. the standard (2 × 2) integration is reported to give good results for width-to-thickness ratios up to 50. However. lowering the integration order for the stiffness matrix due to shear. suggest to subdivide the element into regions (e.4 Triangular plate bending elements In this section we outline the development of some plate-bending triangular elements. large errors can occur in the case of cantilever plates. However. Obviously. θ x and θ y which is not true for thick plates. The most accurate values are at the Gauss points of a (2 × 2) numerical integration scheme. Alternative methods.26) thus imply a dependent relationship between w ..79) The most accurate values are at the centre of the element. In very thin plates. The shear forces per unit length are ⎧ Qx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=κ h ⎩ Qy ⎭ [ D ][ B ]{q }. There is no perfect rectangular plate-bending element.g.244 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ Mx ⎪ ⎨ My ⎪M ⎩ xy ⎫ ⎪ h3 = − [ I3 ] [ D ] B B ⎬ 12 ⎪ ⎭ [ ]{q }. the shear strains become very small and near-zero values in (10.

where {α }T = ⎣ α1 α 2 α3 L α9 ⎦ .1962). namely. ∂x Since the element has 9 degrees of freedom. ( ) (10. (10.4.80) is incomplete.1 Thin triangular element (non-conforming) Figure 10.6 shows the T element (Tocher . and the two rotations θ x = and ∂y θy = − ∂w with respect to the local axes. Nodes 1. PLATE BENDING 245 10. (10. (x2 .80) Note that a complete cubic has ten terms so that the polynomial (10. a) w = ⎣P ( x . In order to maintain symmetry. There are three degrees of freedom at each ∂w node. the displacement function can be represented by a polynomial having nine terms. that is w = α1 + α 2 x + α 3 y + α 4 x 2 + α 5 x y + α 6 y 2 + + α 7 x3 + α8 x 2 y + x y 2 + α 9 y 3 . the transverse displacement w .0) and (x3 .81. The local x-axis lies along the side 1-2 and the local y-axis is perpendicular to it. 2 and 3 have coordinates (0. y3 ) . Fig. y )⎦ {α } .0) .82) Differentiating (10. the coefficients of x 2 y and x y 2 are taken to be equal.6 The expression (10.10. 10.81) (10.81) gives .80) can be written in the following matrix form w= 1 x ⎣ y x2 xy y2 x3 (x 2 y + x y2 ) y3 ⎦ {α } .

cannot be inverted. (10.81. therefore. a) yields [ ] { q }. This element is non-conforming.84) where { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . e e (10.88) x2 − 2 x3 − y3 = 0 (10. y )⎦ Ae e e (10. If this occurs. gives .85) and the matrix ⎡1 0 0 ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢ ⎢ 1 x2 0 =⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎢ 0 −1 0 ⎢1 x y3 3 ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 ⎢ ⎣ 0 −1 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 − 2 x2 2 x3 0 0 0 0 2 x2 0 2 2 x3 y3 + x3 y3 2 x3 + 2 x3 y3 2 − 2 x3 y3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 y3 2 3 y3 0 [A ] e 0 − 2 x3 0 2 − 3x3 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ .87) Substituting (10.87) into (10. e −1 (10.86) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ Solving (10. of equation y = 0 .89) and. 0 0 0 0 x2 0 x3 y3 x3 − y3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 y3 2 y3 0 0 0 0 3 x2 0 2 3 x2 3 x3 (10. Unfortunately. the matrix [ A ] is singular whenever w = ⎣P (x .83) at the nodal points gives { q } = [ A ] {α } . the locations of the nodes should be altered to avoid this condition. (10.246 ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎫ ⎡ 1 x y x2 x y y2 x3 ⎪ ⎢ 0 0 x 2y ⎬=⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x − y 0 − 3x 2 ⎭ ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS x2 y + x y2 x2 + 2x y − 2x y − y2 y3 3y2 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ {α }.84) for {α } gives {α } = [ Ae ] −1 {q } .83) ⎥ ⎦ Evaluating (10.83) along the side 1-2. Evaluating (10.

due to the x 2 y and x y 2 terms.10.93) ∫x A m n y dA .8) gives Ue = 1 2 { q } [ k ]{ q } e T e e (10. 0⎥ ⎦ ⎧w ⎪ ⎨ θx ⎪θ ⎩ y ⎡ 1 x 0 x2 0 0 ⎫ x3 ⎢ ⎪ 0 x 0 0 ⎬ =⎢0 0 1 ⎪ ⎢ 0 − 1 0 − 2 x 0 0 − 3x 2 ⎭1− 2 ⎣ (10.94) Note that nodal coordinates are usually given in global axes. The vector of consistent nodal forces is given by (10. The edge 1-2 was taken along the x-axis. while the tangential component θ x is not.92) and the strain-displacement matrix is 2y 0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 0 2 0 0 6x ⎢0 0 0 0 0 2 0 [B ]= ⎢ 2x 6y ⎥ . Therefore the normal slope is not continuous between elements. the assumed function (10. α 5 and α 8 . ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 (x + y ) 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ A typical element of the integrand in (10. To alleviate this. In this case θ x is a tangential component and θ y is a normal component of rotation. Moreover. PLATE BENDING 247 0 x2 0 0⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥ {α } . Calculation of the element stiffness matrix referred to local axes requires the local coordinates of . The transverse displacement w and the normal component θ y are continuous between elements.88) into (10.90) The rotation θ x is a quadratic function having coefficients α 3 . { f }= [ A ] ∫ e e −T A T ⎣P ⎦ p z d A . These cannot be determined using the values of θ x at nodes 1 and 2 only.4) and (10.91) where the element stiffness matrix in the local coordinate system is h [ k ] = [ A ] ∫ 12 [ B ] e e −T 3 A T [ D ] [ B ]d A [A ] e −1 (10.92) is of the form which can be evaluated analytically. (10. Substituting (10. in some plate-bending elements a linear variation of the tangential component of rotation is adopted.80) is not invariant with respect to the choice of coordinate axes.

2 Thick triangular element (conforming) Consider a thick triangular element (THT element – Henschel. They ensure that w . ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ (10. (10. namely. Nodes 1.248 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS nodes 2 and 3.98) Functions expressed in area coordinates can be differentiated with respect to Cartesian coordinates using .97) and ⎡ ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ⎤ [ N ] = ⎢ 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 ⎥ . These can be obtained from their global coordinates using the corresponding transformation matrix. (10. 2 and 3 have area coordinates ζ 1 . 10. In order to assemble the global stiffness matrix.4.35). θY = ∑ ζ i θY i . expressions (10. θ X = ∑ ζ i θ X i . In matrix form. the element matrices have to be first transformed from local to global axes through a matrix triple product which is one of the more time-consuming procedures in finite element analysis. The displacement functions are assumed to be w = ∑ ζ i wi .96) where the vector of nodal displacements is { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ X 1 θ Y 1 L w3 θ X 3 θ Y 3 ⎦ . θ X i and θY i are the degrees of freedom at node i. the transverse displacement w . and the two rotations θ X and θY with respect to the global axes. ζ 2 and ζ 3 (8. i =1 i =1 i =1 3 3 3 (10.95) are written ⎧ w ⎪ ⎨θX ⎪θ ⎩ Y ⎫ ⎪ ⎬=[N ⎪ ⎭ ]{ q e }. 1969) referred to a global coordinate system.95) where wi . θ X and θY are continuous between elements. Tocher. There are three independent degrees of freedom at each node.

24) and using (10. ∂ y 2 A i =1 i (10. the stiffness matrix due to bending is h [ k ] = 12 A [ B ] B 3 B T [ D ] [ B B ].99) gives the straindisplacement matrix due to bending [B ] B ⎡ 0 0 − β1 0 0 1 ⎢ = 0 γ1 0 0 γ2 2A ⎢ ⎢ 0 β 1 − γ1 0 β 2 ⎣ −β2 0 −γ2 0 0 0 γ3 0 β3 −β3 ⎤ ⎥ 0 ⎥.10. ∂ x 2 A i =1 i where β i and γ i are defined in (8. (10.99) Substituting (10.102) into (10.24) and using (10. ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ (10.101) Substituting (10.104) S 33 where .8). [ k ] ⎥⎦ S S 12 13 S S 22 23 (10.102) Substituting (10. ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ γ i ∂ζ .99) shows that the straindisplacement matrix due to shear is [B ] S ⎡ ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ β1 2A 0 − ζ1 ζ1 0 β2 2A 0 −ζ2 ζ2 0 β3 2A 0 −ζ3 ζ3 ⎥ ⎤ γ1 γ2 γ3 2A 2A 2A ⎥. −γ3 ⎥ ⎦ (10.96) into (10.96) into (10.103) gives the stiffness matrix due to shear ⎡ kS ⎢ 11 = κG h ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ SYM ⎣ [k ] S [ ] [ k ] [ k ] ⎤⎥ [ k ] [ k ] ⎥⎥ .100) As this matrix is constant.67) and integrating using the formula ∫ζ A m n p 1 ζ2 ζ3 dA = m ! n!p ! 2A (m + n + p + 2)! (10. PLATE BENDING 249 ∂ 1 3 ∂ = ∑ β i ∂ζ .

The above relationships are presented in reference [87]. substituting the shape functions from (10.250 2 2 ⎡ β 1 + γ1 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ1 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 1 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS − γ1 6 A 6 0 β1 ⎤ [k ] S 11 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.-1969.3 Discrete Kirchhoff triangles (DKT) The difficulties to formulate simple (minimum degrees of freedom) and high-performing elements based on the Kirchhoff theory at the continuum level (which requires a C1 continuity for w ) led to the development of the so-called Discrete Kirchhoff (DK) technique (Wempner-1969. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ [k ] S 13 ⎡ β3 β 1 + γ 3 γ 1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.76) and integrating gives the vector of equivalent nodal forces { f }= p e z A T ⎣1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0⎦ 3 (10. 10.98) into (10. For pz = constant. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 23 ⎡ β3 β 2 + γ 3 γ 2 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ2 β2 ⎤ 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. ⎥ A⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎦ The complete element stiffness matrix is the sum (10. .105) which shows that one third of the total force is concentrated at each node. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ β1 ⎤ − γ2 6 A 6 0 β2 ⎤ [k ] S 22 ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.65). Stricklin et al. ⎥ A⎥ 6⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 12 ⎡ β2 β 1 + γ 2 γ1 ⎢ 4A ⎢ γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ 2 ⎡β 2 +γ2 2 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ2 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 2 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ1 6 A 12 0 ⎥ 6⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥.4. ⎥ A⎥ 12 ⎥ ⎦ [k ] S 33 2 ⎡β 2 +γ3 3 ⎢ ⎢ 4A γ3 ⎢ =⎢ − 6 ⎢ β 3 ⎢ ⎢ 6 ⎣ − γ3 6 A 6 0 β3 ⎤ ⎥ 6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥. Dhatt1967).

10. the rotations vary quadratically and their tangential component (normal slope) is not continuous between elements. in terms of the first derivatives of the rotations (10. 10. the transverse shear strains are either taken equal to zero at the mid-side points (collocation on sides) or their integral along each edge is taken equal to zero. The shear strain energy is neglected.7 b For a side i − j . To remedy this. The latter condition means that the transverse displacement w can vary cubically. in the discrete Kirchhoff triangles the two components of rotations are assumed independent of one another. The Kirchhoff constraints are imposed in a discrete manner on the element or/and on the sides. in which the curvatures are expressed. a Fig. The tangential component θ s is assumed to vary linearly along each edge. as in the ReissnerMindlin plate theory. For instance.7.1 can be called a ‘continuous’ Kirchhoff triangle. The T element presented in section 10. In this case only C 0 approximations of these rotations can be considered.106) . only the bending strain energy is considered. The aim is to preserve the C 0 continuity of the tangential components of rotations (normal slopes). It was shown that. along a side. PLATE BENDING 251 In the formulation of various DK plate elements. while the normal component θ n varies quadratically (Fig. the tangential and normal components of rotations θ s k and θ n k at the mid-side node k.10. of length l k .4.24). a). are defined in terms of the components along the coordinate axes by ⎧ θ s k ⎫ ⎡ ck ⎨θ ⎬ = ⎢ ⎩ n k ⎭ ⎣ − sk where sk ⎤ ⎧ θ x k ⎫ ⎨ ⎬ ck ⎥ ⎩ θ y k ⎭ ⎦ (10. Constant curvature patch-tests are needed to check the validity of the elements.

the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes are eliminated. a). α 6 must be expressed in terms of the degrees of freedom at the corner nodes. 10. At the mid-side node k 1 θ ni + θ n j + α k .8. α 5 . The rotation θ s is assumed to vary linearly (Fig. b) θ s = ( 1 − s′ )θ s i + s′θ s j .8. 10. Initially. ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10. The parameter α k has to be eliminated. Its expression in terms of the dimensionless coordinate can be written as s′ = s l k θ n = ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k . the three parameters α 4 .108) . it is assumed that it has six nodes (Fig. ( ) sk = y j − y i l k . 2 θnk = ( ) where the first term in the right hand side is expressed in terms of the rotations at the corner nodes. Fig. b). 10. 10.7. The rotation θ n varies parabolically (Fig. Then. ( ) (10. This is done requiring the shear strains γ s z to vanish along each side.107) Consider a discrete Kirchhoff triangle (DKT) with three nodes and three degrees of freedom per node (sometimes called DKT9). One kind of ‘discrete’ Kirchhoff constraint is formulated in integral form as j j ∫ i γ s z ds = ∫ i ⎛ ∂w ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ∂s + θn ⎟ ds = 0 .8 In order to eliminate the degrees of freedom at mid-side nodes.252 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ck = x j − x i l k .

111) {α } = ⎣ α 4 ⎣Px ⎦ = ⎣ − P4 s4 − P5 s5 − P6 s6 ⎦ . ⎣ P4 P5 P6 ⎦ = ⎣ 4ξ ( 1 − ξ − η ) 4ξη 4η ( 1 − ξ − η ) ⎦ .109) The equation (10. (10. k.109) into (10. ⎣Py ⎦ = ⎣ P4c4 P5c5 P6 c6 ⎦ . (w j − wi ) + l k ∫ [ ( 1 − s′ )θ ni + s′θ n j + 4s′ ( 1 − s′ )α k ] d s′ = 0 . The rotations θ x and θ y can be expressed as θ x = ⎣N ⎦ {θ x } + ⎣Px ⎦ {α }. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) (10. {θ x } = ⎣θ x1 θ x 2 θ x3 ⎦T . where (10. 2l k 4 ( ) ( ) or. j. {θ y }= ⎣θ y1 α5 α6 ⎦ T . θ x and θ y in terms of the corner nodal variables Substituting (10. because w is cubical and θ n is quadratic. the condition γ s z = 0 will be ∂s satisfied at all points along the contour. θ y 2 θ y 3 ⎦T . in terms of the degrees of freedom of the corner points αk = 3 3 wi − w j − − s k θ x i + c k θ y i − s k θ x j + c k θ y j .110) ⎣N ⎦ = ⎣ N1 N 2 N3 ⎦ = ⎣1 − ξ − η ξ η ⎦ . PLATE BENDING 253 Equation (10. wherefrom we obtain αk = 3 3 wi − w j − θ n i + θ n j .108) can be written ∫ dw + ∫ θ i 0 1 0 j lk n ds = 0 .10.110) we obtain the explicit expressions of . Then.109) can also be obtained by adopting a Hermitian cubic polynomial for w (s ) and using the discrete Kirchhoff collocation constraint (zero ∂w shear strain) γ s z = + θ n = 0 at points i. θ y = ⎣N ⎦ {θ y }+ ⎣Py ⎦ {α }.

115) In (10. the nodal rotations θ x i and θ y i have the expressions used in Kirchhoff’s theory θ xi = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂y ⎟ . (10.112) { q } = ⎣w e T 1 θ x1 θ y1 L w3 θ x 3 θ y 3 ⎦ . 3 ⎦ ⎣N1y ⎦ = ⎣Niy1 N iy = 1 N iy 2 N iy . 4 4 N ix2 = N i − N ix = 3 N iy = N ix .114) ⎣N1x ⎦ = ⎣N ix1 N ix = − 1 N ix2 N ix . 4 4 3 3 Pk ck − Pm cm . the shape functions have the following expressions 3 3 Pk sk + Pm sm .254 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS ⎧ θx ⎫ ⎨ ⎬=[N ⎩θy ⎭ where ] {q e }. i 1 2 3 Side k ( i − j ) 5 (2−3 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 4 (1− 2 ) Side m ( i − j ) 4 (1− 2 ) 6 (3 −1 ) 5 (2−3 ) . 3 2 3 3 Pk sk ck + Pm sm cm . ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ θ yi = − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎟ . 2. Taking into account the hypotheses adopted in formulating the DKT. 2l k 2l m (10. as shown in Table 10. (10. 3 ⎦ (10. 2l k 2l m 3 3 2 2 Pk sk − Pm sm . 4 4 N iy = N i − 3 In the above expressions the indices k and m relate to the two edges having the common corner point i.1 Corner point.116) 3 3 2 2 Pk ck − Pm cm . ⎥ y y y ⎥ ⎢ ⎣N1 ⎦ ⎣N 2 ⎦ ⎣N 3 ⎦ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ Nx 1 (10. ⎠i ⎝ ⎛∂w⎞ ( i = 1.1.115). Table 10. 3 ) allowing the introduction of Kirchhoff-type boundary conditions.113) [ N ]= ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣N 2x ⎦ ⎣N3x ⎦ ⎤ .

(10. the continuity C 0 of θ n is maintained.120) ⎧ β 2 ⎣G ⎦ + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { X } = ⎨ 2β 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 ⎬ . { } (10. y3 ) . y1 ) . { } θ y = ⎣H ⎦ q e . y2 ) and (x3 . in a local coordinate system [18].24) is written for convenience as ∂θ x ∂y ∂θ x ∂θ y ⎥ − ⎥ ∂x ∂y ⎦ T = ⎣ χ1 χ2 χ12 ⎦ T . ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ H ] . 2A 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { Z } q . (10. PLATE BENDING 255 Because the parameters α k are eliminated using an expression which is a function of the nodal variables of the side k only. The stiffness matrix of the DKT element can be expressed in explicit form. 2A { } (10. ⎪ γ H + 2γ H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 . Equation (10.10. In the following. 1 e ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ {Y } q . using a Hammer integration rule. it will be derived in global coordinates as in [68].118) The curvature vector (10. presented explicitly in terms of the local oblique coordinates ξ and η .112) can be split as θ x = ⎣G ⎦ q e . In (10. ⎪ β G + 2β G ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5 ⎧ γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ {Y } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ . (x2 .117) The shape function row vectors ⎣G ⎦ and ⎣H ⎦ .119) The elements of the curvature vector can be expressed in terms of the rows of the ( 6 × 9 ) matrices [ G ] and [ H ] as follows χ1 = χ2 = 1 ⎣1 ξ η ⎦ { X 2A }{ q e }. can be rewritten as ⎣G ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎣H ⎦ = ⎣1 ⎢ ∂θ {χ }= ⎢ − y ⎣ ∂x ξ η ξ 2 ξη η 2 ⎦ [ G ] .120) χ12 = { } where A is the area of the triangle with vertices (x1 .

256

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

⎧ γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ + β 2 ⎣H ⎦ + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ ⎫ 2 3 2 3 ⎪ ⎪ { Z } = ⎨ 2γ 2 ⎣G ⎦ 4 + γ 3 ⎣G ⎦ 5 + 2β 2 ⎣H ⎦ 4 + β 3 ⎣H ⎦ 5 ⎬ , ⎪ γ G + 2γ G + β H + 2 β H ⎪ 3 ⎣ ⎦6 2 ⎣ ⎦5 3 ⎣ ⎦6 ⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎣ ⎦5

(10.121)

where ⎣G ⎦ i and ⎣H ⎦ i represent the ith row of [ G ] and [ H ] , respectively, and

β i = y j − yk and γ i = xk − x j as in (8.8), with i, j, k taking values 1, 2, 3
cyclically. Substituting for the curvature terms into the bending strain energy expression 1 { χ }T [ D ] { χ }d x d y , Ue = (10.122) 2


A

where the material matrix [ D
Ue =

]
1 2

has the form (10.13), U e can be written as

{ q } [ K ]{ q },
e T e e

where K e is the element stiffness matrix in global coordinates, given by

[ ]

[K ]
e

⎡ [ X ]⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ [Y ] ⎥ 2A ⎢ [Z ]⎥ ⎣ ⎦

T

⎡ D11 [ R ] D12 [ R ] D16 [ R ]⎤ ⎡ [ X ] ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ D22 [ R ] D26 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Y ] ⎥ , ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ SYM D66 [ R ]⎥ ⎢ [ Z ] ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

(10.123)

with ⎡ 12 4 4 ⎤ 1 ⎢ [ R ]= ⎢ 4 2 1 ⎥ . ⎥ 24 ⎢ 4 1 2⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (10.124)

The matrix K e is of rank 6, so there are 3 deformation modes with zero strain energy. The integrations in (10.122) have the form

[ ]

∫∫
0 0

ξ 1−ξ

ξ mη n dξ dη ==

m ! n! . (m + n + 2)!

The presented procedure avoids the matrix triple products needed when the element stiffness matrix is given in the local coordinate system.

References
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238. vector of − beam 90. 95 − frame 98 − constant strain triangle 160 − linear quad 199 31 . 150.Index ACM plate-bending element Admissible functions 144 Area coordinates 180 Aspect ratio 178 Assembly of global matrices Axial effects 97 232 8-node quad 214 ACM plate-bending element 237 T plate-bending element 247 THT plate-bending element 249 Expanded stiffness matrix 29 External potential energy 140 Force transformation 20 Four-node rectangle 176 Frame element 97 Gauss points 200 Gauss quadrature 200 − one-dimensional 200 − two-dimensional 203 Gravity loading 217 Grids 111 Hermitian polynomials 85 HTK plate-bending element 239 Initial strain effects 59 Internal forces 35 Inverse of Jacobian matrix 196 Isoparametric elements 191 Jacobian matrix 195 Jacobian positiveness 223 Joint force equilibrium equations Kinematic equivalent forces 47 Kirchhoff’s hypotheses 225 Lagrange polynomials 220 Linear elasticity 123 Linear strain triangle 182 Master element 192 Natural coordinates 192 Nine-node quad 219 Nodal approximation 155 Nodal forces 55 Node numbering 37 Non-conforming elements 232. 248 Consistent nodal forces 214 Consistent vector of nodal forces 89 Constant strain triangle 153 Continuity 132 Convergence 97. 98 Deep beam 117 Direct method 26 Direct stiffness method 17 Discrete Kirchhoff constraints 252 Discrete Kirchhoff triangle 250 Displacement method 9 Effective shear area 118 Eight-node quad 208 Eight-node rectangle 178 Energy methods 131 Equation of equilibrium 199 Equivalent nodal forces. 245 Numerical integration 200 100. 187 Coordinate transformation 19. 151 − − − − Band storage 38 Bars 47 Bar element 47 Beams 79 Beam element 83 − stiffness matrix 87 − vector of nodal forces 89 Bernoulli-Euler beam theory 79 BFS plate-bending element 238 Compatibility 28. 187 Conforming elements 150.

266 Object of FEA 1 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Skyline storage 39 Stiffness matrix 17 − bars 17. 120 − constant strain triangle 157 − four-node rectangle 177 − eight-node rectangle 179 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 186 − linear quadrilateral 193 − eight-node quad 209 − nine-node quad 221 − six-node triangle 221 − ACM plate-bending element 234 − BFS plate-bending element 238 − HTK plate-bending element 240 − THT plate-bending element 248 Shear correction factor 118. 53 − shaft 62 − beam 85. 122 − constant strain triangle 159 − frame 98 − grid 113 − linear strain triangle 183 − linear quadrilateral 199 − eight-node quad 211 − T plate-bending element 247 − ACM plate-bending element 236 − HTK plate-bending element 242 − THT plate-bending element 249 Strain-displacement matrix 158.. 22. 230 Six-node triangle 221 . 94. 236 − relations 121 Strain energy 124 . 52 − shaft 61 − beam 87.139 − bending 231 − shear 232 Stress averaging 161 Stress-strain relations 122 Subparametric elements 191 T plate-bending element 245 Temperature effects 124 Thick plate theory 229 Thermal loads 36 Thin plate theory 225 Total potential energy 140 Transformation of − differential operators 195 − infinitesimal area 197 Triangle area 156 − quadratic strain triangle 185 Triangular membrane element 180 − linear strain triangle 182 − quadratic strain triangle 185 − six-node 221 Triangular thin plate element 245 − thick plate element 248 Two-dimensional elements 153 Two-point formula 202 Unreduced global stiffness matrix Virtual displacements 131 − work of external loads 133 − work of internal forces 193 WB plate-bending element 239 30 Pascal’s triangle 220 Patch test 190 Plate bending elements 225 − rectangular 232 − triangular 244 Polynomial approximation 154 Principle of − minimum total potential energy − virtual displacements 134 − virtual work 131 Quadratic strain triangle 185 − triangle 222 Quadrilateral membrane element − eight-node 208 − linear 191 − nine-node 219 139 191 Rayleigh-Ritz method 143 Reactions 35 Rectangular membrane element 176 − thin plate element 232 − thick plate elements 239 Reduced global stiffness matrix 33 − integration 205 Reference element 192 Reissner-Mindlin plate theory 229 Serendipity elements 209 Shaft elements 60 Shape functions − bars 50. 107.

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