This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Course Course Title Assignment No. Last date of receipt Of Assignment at SODE office
- NCP 29 - Construction Project Management Techniques - Fifteen - 30.10.2011
Submitted By; Name: K.S.H.ABDULLAH Register No: 211.06.26.9547.2121 Course: GPOGPM
PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND FEASIBILITY A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funds and deliverables), under taken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. It is achieved within the specified scope, quality, time and costs. Project can also be defined as organization and performance of resources such as men, money, machinery, materials, space and technology into logical sequence of activities. Most projects start with a need to have a new facility long before designers start designs and drawing of the projects and certainly before field construction work can commence. Elements of this phase include: Conceptual analysis Technical and feasibility studies and Environmental impact reports.
Here, our project is to build a cricket stadium outside a mega city over a piece of land in 16 months. In India cricket is not just a game, but it is followed like a religion. Though its not our National Sport, the craze for cricket is always at the peak. It is watched aggressively not only by old aged or middle aged people but youngsters and
speedometers to check the speed of the ball thrown by the bowlers. We have digital cameras with extra zoom. digital sound systems. Cricket Stadium construction in India is a good business focus to fetch more profit. Stadium is to be built near the mega city. An idea of a project passes through six phases before it become a reality: Conceptualization Engineering and design Procurement Page 2 . Commercialization of the game is also eye catching. stump vision cameras. Not only this. all the necessary data of the past cricket comes on the screen within a few seconds. Lot of money can be generated through giving rights to the television channels for broadcasting of the matches. It comes with the concept of more money and more fun. These all aspects strengthen the idea that cricket will live and it is part of our lives. and materials will be available easily. Money can be generated through the advertising hoardings on the ground boundary. graphics systems. boys and girls-everybody is taking keen interest to watch cricket either to watch on TV screen or at cricket stadium. There is no doubt that commercialization and glamour will draw more and more cricket spectators to the stadium to watch their favorite cricketers in action as well as beautiful girls or cheer leaders. sponsors are ready to pay money for their logos on the uniform of the cricketers. Air Port and Harbor will make it easy for importing needs goods from outside and for the transportation of international players and officials. Indian Cricket League (ICL) and Indian Premiere League (IPL) are new tournaments which are becoming more and more popular. The International Cricket Association (ICC) is also then and there introducing new rules which increase the tempo of the game. but now we have internet. Meanwhile technology was improving and become part of the game. water. The launch of 20 20’s increased the heat of cricket lovers. In only few overs batsmen hit lot of runs. Infrastructure facilities are there so the roads and transportation. Resources will be available easily. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS From conceptualization to implementation the stages in the development of construction project (here cricket stadium) fall into broadly consistent patterns but time and degree of emphasis each project takes on its own a unique character. . People go crazy to watch a fast and furious 20 20’s rather than a boring 5 days test match. CONCLUSION: After going through all these aspects we can conclude that building a cricket stadium outside the mega city will be beneficial project not to the cricket lovers only but as a profit making business also. Before there was only TV and newspapers. Showering fours and sixes tense the bowlers’ nerves but beat the heart throbs of the cricket lover spectators. Market is highly competitive and we are living in the era of Advertising and marketing.teenagers. Machinery and manpower will be available at ease. electricity. The trend of cricket is changing nowadays. So many companies would like to sponsor matches.
By contrast. A project organization will generally be terminated when the mission is accomplished. Nevertheless. According to the Project Management Institute. the discipline of project management can be defined as follows: ‘’Project management is the art of directing and coordinating human and material resources throughout the life of a project by using modern management techniques to achieve predetermined objectives of scope. Figure 1: Basic Ingredients in Project Management Page 3 . The representation in Figure -1 reflects only the sources from which the project management framework evolves. time. cost. Supporting disciplines such as computer science and decision science may also play an important role. project management is distinguished from the general management of corporations by the mission-oriented nature of a project. The basic ingredients for a project management framework may be represented schematically in Figure -1. the general management of business and industrial corporations assumes a broader outlook with greater continuity of operations. quality and participation satisfaction’’.- Construction Commissioning Operation and maintenance - PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION Generally. A working knowledge of general management and familiarity with the special knowledge domain related to the project are indispensable. there are sufficient similarities as well as differences between the two so that modern management techniques developed for general management may be adapted for project management.
2. iv. Planning sets all other functions of management viz. Project communications management to ensure effective internal and external communications. Analysis Anticipation Scheduling resources Co-ordination and control Production of data All effectively managed projects involve the preparation of the project plan.The main objectives of planning are listed below: i. 2. staffing. 5. estimating. time and quality. Subsequently. Project scope management to ensure that all the work required (and only the required work) is included. Project human resource management to development and effectively employ project personnel. according to Hallows. 6. scheduling. design. organizing. setting performance requirements. In Projects and Trends in the 1990s and the 21st Century. motivating. 4. 4. The Project Management Institute focuses on nine distinct areas requiring project manager knowledge and attention: 1. 8. Specification of project objectives and plans including delineation of scope. PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROL Planning is the basic function of the management. project management in construction encompasses a set of objectives which may be accomplished by implementing a series of operations subject to resource constraints. coordinating etc. Project integration management to ensure that the various project elements are effectively coordinated.Specifically. contracting and construction in the entire process. budgeting. "The basic project document is the project plan. Project risk management to analyze and mitigate potential risks. Maximization of efficient resource utilization through procurement of labour. Project procurement management to obtain necessary resources from external sources. Development of effective communications and mechanisms for resolving conflicts among the various participants. author Jolyon Hallows says." The basic components of the project. Project time management to provide an effective project schedule. cost. and the constraints imposed on human material and financial resources. and selecting project participants. ii. 3. Project cost management to identify needed resources and maintain budget control. 7. 3. the functions of project management for construction generally include the following: 1. iii. are Page 4 . Planning is concerned with ‘how and when’ to achieve the predetermined objectives. Project quality management to ensure functional requirements are met. 9. The project lives and breathes and changes as the project progresses or fails. v. how it is to be achieved. Implementation of various operations through proper coordination and control of planning. materials and equipment according to the prescribed schedule and plan. and what resources will be necessary. These conflicts should be resolved at the onset of a project by making the necessary tradeoffs or creating new alternatives. There are potential conflicts between the stated objectives with regard to scope. This is the fundamental document that spells out what is to be achieved. directing.
Define everything that needs to be done. PROJECT WORK BREAKDOWN Work within each phase to identify the events or tasks. Control involves comparing the actual achievement with the plans. " a good project manager recognizes from the outset that a project plan is far more than an academic exercise or tool for appeasing upper management. Weekly and monthly meetings are invaluable in helping to control progress. Progress can be recorded on planning charts that clearly indicate what is happening and where corrective action needs to be taken. If a programme is to be really effective as a control document. this is called the work breakdown structure. and their associated subtasks.laid out in the figure below." CONTROL OF PROGRESS ON SITE Without control planning loses much of its value." says Hallows. and something without which the project manager cannot proceed. it must represent time and quantity of work carried out. Page 5 . "With the plan as a road map. It must be applied continuously to update the plans and to enable reconsideration of the workload in the light of what has already taken place. often updated on-the-fly. The action necessary for correcting underproduction will be considered and the best solution will then be incorporated into the programme for the next period. a vital document which is referred to frequently. telling us how to get from one point to another. It is the blueprint for the entire scope of the project.
1 2.1 2.3. W B S LEVEL 1 22.214.171.124.4. the WBS lists each task.4 2. The simplest form of WBS is the outline.2.5 2. although it can also appear as a tree diagram or other chart. The WBS can be used to plot assignments and schedules and to maintain focus on the budget.3 2.1 2. milestones.2 2.2 2. and deliverables.4 2. each associated subtask.2 W B S ELEMENT ALL DOCUMENTATION & APPROVALS ENABLING WORK Clearing Site Enabling construction activities FOUNDATION Excavation Footings Stab columns STAND CONSTRUCTION Columns & Beams Walls Roofs Fencing INTERIORS Flooring Electric Works Page 6 .1 2.1 126.96.36.199.3 2.2 2.3. Sticking with the outline.3.The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) The WBS has become synonymous with a task list.2 2.
7 2.4. including materials. Each of these major cost categories consists of a number of cost components.3 2. According to the American Association of Cost Engineers. cost engineering is defined as that area of engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are utilized in the application of scientific principles and techniques to the problem of cost estimation.4 2.2 2.4.5 2.4. A cost estimate at a given stage of project development represents a prediction provided by the cost engineer or estimator on the basis of available data.6 2. The capital cost for a construction project includes the expenses related to the initial establishment of the facility: • • • • • • • • • • Land acquisition. cost control and profitability. A cost estimate establishes the base line of the project cost at different stages of development of the project. holding and improvement Planning and feasibility studies Architectural and engineering design Construction. The costs of a constructed facility to the owner include both the initial capital cost and the subsequent operation and maintenance costs.1 2.3 188.8.131.52. including assembly.6 Carpentry Works Plumbing Works Painting Works Seating Arrangement Emergency Arrangements GROUND Pitch Construction Landscape (Lawn) Boundary Line Arrangement PROJECT COMPLETION COSTING ACTIVITY Cost estimating is one of the most important steps in project management. equipment and labor Field supervision of construction Construction financing Insurance and taxes during construction Owner's general office overhead Equipment and furnishings not included in construction Inspection and testing Page 7 .4.5 2.4.5.
Total cost of construction This cost will be covered in 5 years exactly.26000000 x 5 = 21000 Sqm = Rs. fees from sponsors etc.126000000 = Rs.26000000 = Rs. (Note: Other income from the broadcasting rights to the Vehicle Parking. 6000 =Rs. This method calculates the minimum completion time for a project along with the possible start and finish times for the project activities.) The Critical Path Method The most widely used scheduling technique is the critical path method (CPM) for scheduling.6000 = 21000 x Rs.100 Assuming One match average spectators Earning from match tickets Per year earning through matches In 5 years earning through matches Say the built up area for the stadium Cost of construction per Sqm Therefore. many texts and managers regard critical path scheduling as the only Page 8 .100 x 65000=Rs. 6500000 = Rs. TV channels. often referred to as critical path scheduling.The operation and maintenance cost in subsequent years over the project life cycle includes the following expenses: • • • • • • • • Land rent.will be different than this ticket income.6500000 x 4= Rs. Indeed. if applicable Operating staff Labor and material for maintenance and repairs Periodic renovations Insurance and taxes Financing costs Utilities Owner's other expenses COST OF PROJECT: Capacity of spectators Time limit Average cost of ticket Per year matches =4 = 65000 = Rs. 130000000 = 80000 =16 months =Rs. hoarding advertising.
if a dummy activity X is introduced. The actual input of the data to a computer program may be accomplished by filling in blanks on a screen menu. Two nodes are introduced to represent the start and completion of the project itself. critical path scheduling assumes that a project has been divided into activities of fixed duration and well defined predecessor relationships. these restrictions imply that the construction plan can be represented by a network plan in which activities appear as nodes in a network. as in Figure 9-6. No resource constraints other than those implied by precedence relationships are recognized in the simplest form of critical path scheduling. 10-1. For example. A dummy activity is assumed to have no time duration and can be graphically represented by a dashed line in a network. as shown in Page 9 . one of two activities requiring the same piece of equipment might be arbitrarily assumed to precede the other activity. space or labor. The actual computer representation of the project schedule generally consists of a list of activities along with their associated durations. as shown in part (b) of the figure. Furthermore. Formally. material. The critical path itself represents the set or sequence of predecessor/successor activities which will take the longest time to complete. Computer programs and algorithms for critical path scheduling are widely available and can efficiently handle projects with thousands of activities. This artificial precedence constraint insures that the two activities requiring the same resource will not be scheduled at the same time. With an activity-on-branch network. reading an existing datafile. most critical path scheduling algorithms impose restrictions on the generality of the activity relationships or network geometries which are used. Several cases in which dummy activities are useful are illustrated in Fig. if the problem in part (a) is changed so that activity E cannot start until both C and D are completed but that F can start after D alone is completed. and no two nodes can have the same number or designation. 10-1(a). the unique designations for activity B (node 1 to 2) and D (node 1 to 3) will be preserved. a project consisting of two activities performed in parallel that each require three days would have each activity critical for a completion in three days. A predecessor relationship implies that one activity must come before another in the schedule. Any delays along the critical path would imply that additional time would be required to complete the project. In essence. dummy activities may be introduced for the purposes of providing unique activity designations and maintaining the correct sequence of activities. construction planners often represent a resource constraint by a precedence relation. There may be more than one critical path among all the project activities. Also. Thus. as described in Chapter 9. and a resource constraint is a constraint deriving from the limited availability of some resource of equipment. For example. However. To use critical path scheduling in practice.usable and practical scheduling procedure. required resources and predecessor activities. the critical path can be defined as the longest possible path through the "network" of project activities. or typing data directly to the program with identifiers for the type of information being provided. the order in the new sequence can be indicated by the addition of a dummy activity Y. Nodes are numbered. A constraint is simply a restriction on the options available to a manager. the elimination of activity C would mean that both activities B and D would be identified as being between nodes 1 and 3. In Fig. so completion of the entire project could be delayed by delaying activities along any one of the critical paths. The duration of the critical path represents the minimum time required to complete a project. Graphical network representations rather than a list are helpful for visualization of the plan and to insure that mathematical requirements are met. The duration of the critical path is the sum of the activities' durations along the path.
Page 10 . dummy activities may be necessary to meet the requirements of specific computer scheduling algorithms.part (c). In general. but it is important to limit the number of such dummy link insertions to the extent possible.
Page 11 .
Construction Project Management Techniques. spectators. Published by NICMAR. cricket association etc.Critical Path Method by Primavera Software: Many computer scheduling systems support only one network representation. BIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE 1. A good project manager is familiar with either representation. August 2011 Page 12 . either activity-on-branch or activity-onnode. CONCLUSION: This cricket stadium will be profitable for all the parties say sponsors.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?