by Edna Andrews
© SEELRC 2001

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements Abbreviations 0.1 Location and number of speakers 0.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language 0.3 Dialects 1. Phonology 1.1 Orthography 1.2 Phonemic inventory 1.3. Vowels and Prosody 1.4 Consonants 1.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St. Petersburg 1.7 Tongue twisters and diction 2. Morphology 2.1 Inflectional morphology 2.2 Declension 2.3 Indeclinable Nouns 2.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2.5 Declensional desinences: plural 2.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural 2.7 The semantics of the Russian case system 2.8 Adjectives 2.9 Pronouns 2.10 Numerals 2.11 Time expressions 2.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions 2.13 Derivational Morphology 2.14 Verbs 3. Syntax 3.1 Syntax and syntactic categories 3.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals 3.3 Grammatical particles 3.4 Verbal government 3.5 Impersonal constructions 3.6 Proverbs and collocations 3.7 Use of profanity in CSR Bibliography 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 9 10 14 19 21 23 24 24 26 31 32 33 34 37 44 52 60 65 68 71 87 130 130 130 131 132 132 134 135 136


This project would not have been possible without the reviews and criticisms of several respected colleagues, including Ron Feldstein, Elena Maksimova and Irina Guliakova. My special thanks to Troy Williams for his assistance in editing, glossing and preparing a camera-ready manuscript.


masc N n. fem G I inan L m.Abbreviations A adj adv anim arc C CSR CSCR D f. neut pl sg V n/s PPP Ø // [] {} '' accusative adjective adverb animate archaic consonant Contemporary Standard Russian Contemporary Standard Colloquial Russian dative feminine genitive instrumental inanimate locative masculine nominative neuter plural singular vowel non-syllabic past passive participle zero desinence phonemic transcription phonetic transcription morphophonemic and morphological transcription English glosses 3 .

where not only declensional and agreement gender have been (or are being) renegotiated (cf. in fact. the “Russian language” of the aristocracy that made the greatest impact on the Russian literary language. German also plays an important role in the formation of scientific terminology and lexicon during the 18th and 19th centuries (Isačenko 1980: 135). Isačenko suggests that the name “Russian” be used for the written language only after the Tartar invasion and the destruction of Kiev (1980: 124). Russian is the first or second language of over 455 million speakers (Crystal 1997: 449). Over the past 200 years. he suggests the term “East Slavic recension of Church Slavonic.1 Location and number of speakers Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation and was the primary official language of the Soviet Union (cf. one during the 11th-13th centuries and another during the Second South Slavic influence (also referred to as “Re-Bulgarization”) in the 14th century. is one of three contemporary East Slavic languages. This period of diglossia lasted well into the 18th century. played a significant role in the development of the Russian language throughout its history with two periods of intensification. Maps 1 and 2). and may be used for official purposes in Kazakhstan and Ukraine. kofe (m > n)). but certainly reflects a number of phonological.CSR) has remained generally stable. belonging to the Indo-European language family. the other two being Ukrainian and Belorussian. Lotman and Uspenskij (1975: 196-7. While the contributions of all 3 were significant. it has often been the case in Russian and Soviet scholarship that Puškin has been given most of the credit for the creation of a literary language and style (Vinogradov 1990: 6-7).”] Isačenko argues convincingly that one may begin to speak of a Russian literary language (which will later give rise to CSR) during a period from 1760-1825. Recently ranked as the 4th most influential language in the world (Weber 1999: 22). dates that generally correspond with Karamzin’s life [1766-1825] (1980: 132-139). Old Church Slavonic. lebed’ (f > m). Karamzin was perhaps the most influential. Since the breakup of the USSR. morphological and lexical changes. Socio. a South Slavic language. One may characterize the coexistence of Old Church Slavonic and the East Slavic vernacular as diglossic. The most significant of these changes is found in the lexicon. However. Mixail Vasiljevič Lomonosov. Nikolaj Mixailovič Karamzin and Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin were critical contributors to the development of what can be referred to as the modern Russian literary language. Russian continues to be one of the official languages of Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. 246) demonstrate the importance of French influence as a model of constructing a literary language in Russia and argue that it was.0. the Russian literary language (henceforth Contemporary Standard Russian . but the overall number of lexical 4 .and geolinguistic situation 0. [Prior to this period.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language Russian. 0.

3-1.4).000 per year have been registered since 1986. but are also restricted stylistically and occur primarily in media. Those studies that exist include most notably the 1915 study by Moscow Dialectological Commission. Western. 0.borrowings has become significantly increased. According to Verbickaja (2001: 5). Eastern.000 lexical borrowings into CSR are registered for the period 1960-85. 9. and a major survey of the Russian dialects under the direction of Edward Stankiewicz. Kiparsky (1979: 21-25) divides the dialects of Russian into 3 major groups with a total of 8 subgroups: I. 1. Eastern. a study published in 1965 by Avanesov and Orlova. Northern CSR is considered to be formed from a combination of north and south Russian dialects (Meščerskij 1972). 5 .3 Dialects In order to appropriately introduce a description of the Russian dialects. it is necessary to point out that there has not been an adequate amount of scholarly study of the Russian dialects in the 20th century (Kiparsky 1979: 21). Olonec. The general trend in linguistics conducted in the Russian Federation of the late 20th century is to emphasize the assimilation of dialects to the standard literary language and to characterize the remaining differences as either disappearing or substandard. South Great Russian dialects: Southern. while almost 2. Such a massive influx of new lexical items has impacted areas of the phonological system of CSR. North Great Russian dialects: Northern. especially in terms of consonant palatalization (cf. Vladimir-Volga II. The large majority of these lexemes are restricted not only to specialized vocabulary in areas like economics and technologies. Central Great Russian dialects III.

The relationship between the alphabet and pronunciation in CSR is not phonemic as is found in Serbian Cyrillic (e.2-1.4.g.1 Orthography The following table gives the contemporary Cyrillic alphabet of CSR. Phonology 1. consisting of 33 graphemes. The “name” of a particular letter is included below only for those graphemes that do not have phonetic value.1. CYRILLIC А О У IPA a b v g d e/je o/jo1 ž z i j k l m n o p r s t u f x c č š šč 1 The grapheme ё/ is not generally used in Russian texts printed in the USSR and Russian Federation. compare Serbian српски and Russian сербский). 6 . and associates each grapheme with the appropriate IPA symbol. Note that the features of Russian vocalic and consonantal phonemes will be discussed in 1.

it was possible to find the use of “hard signs” in word final position in some newspaper titles and signs as a chic reminder of pre-revolutionary times and status. ю)2 following prefixes or in compound words. and the “hard sign” was returned in that particular context. и. ё. 2 7 .Ъ Ь Э Ю Я твёрдый знак -'hard sign' 2 π (еры) мягкий знак -'soft sign' e u/ju a/ja Note that the “hard sign” was eliminated in all positions after the 1917 Russian revolution and replaced by a double apostrophe (“) before group II vowels (я. During the last decade of the 20th century. The double apostrophe was a short-lived phenomenon. е.

ь).Group I vowels are represented by five graphemes (а. [The rules as stated directly above are given in terms of graphemes. unstressed O may not occur in desinences (but may occur in roots) -. may begin with a hard sign. ы. э. ё. ц. х. the names of the months and days of the week are NOT capitalized in Russian unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence. ю) obligatorily palatalize any preceding paired consonant. indicate the presence of jot when preceded by a vowel.g. ш. и. е. ч. что -'what. In CSR texts printed in Russia. ц. No Russian lexeme.] Capitalization rules are simple: (1) Only capitalize the first word in a sentence and the first word in a title. ч. strong mobile stress. х. у). ы. plural] (вы)may be capitalized as a sign of respect ( ы) in official documents and correspondence. (2) Following the 7 consonants к. not phonemes. щ. ш. (4) The pronoun 'you' [formal. and the grapheme ё is seldom marked even when ambiguous (cf. not . The role of jot in CSR pronunciation will be discussed in detail in 1. ш. г. щ. that' as a relative pronoun vs.7. ж. whether native or borrowed. е. ч. The 3 major CSR vocalic-based spelling rules are: (1) Following the 5 consonants ж. write а or у. stress is only marked in those cases that may be ambiguous (e. hushers (graphemic). ю) indicate the presence of jot in word initial position.write e. (2) Nationalities. write . ж. CSR has distinctive. ё. jirπ or a soft sign (ъ. not я or ю. and 4 of the group II vowels (я. г. (3) The pronoun 'I' (я) is only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence. о. (3) Following the 8 consonants к. interrogative pronoun). Note also that rule (2) is qualitatively different for velars (phonetic) vs. Group II vowels (я. щ. 8 . все/всё -'everyone/everything').

resulting in a total of 35 consonantal phonemes (Verbickaja 2001: 43).2. Until the 1990’s. namely “lateral” (for l. Unlike American and European Slavic linguists. ы is phonologically predictable and these sounds do not occur in contrastive distribution. m’ n. t’ k.2 below: Place of articulation _____________________________________________________________________ bilabial labiodental dental palato-alveolar palatal velar Method of Formation _______________________________________________________________________ STOP p. l’ r. d’ g. r’). some sources do not recognize /šč/ as a phoneme while giving full phonemic status to the palatalized velars.2. they are not given here as distinct phonemes. Leningrad-based phonologists opposed the Moscow school and supported a 5-phoneme model as given above. (k’) b. where the 6th is /π/ (ы). (g’) _______________________________________________________________________ FRICATIVE f.2 Phonemic inventory 1.1 below: FRONT CENTRAL BACK _____________________________________________ i u HIGH________________________________________ o ´ MID_________________________________________ a LOW_________________________________________ Note that the phonemes /o/ and /u/ are obligatorily lip-rounded. f’ s. n’ _______________________________________________________________________ LIQUID4 l.2.1 The 5 vocalic phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1. 1.1. (x’) v. b’ d. Given the fact that the occurrence of и vs. most Russian phonologists and phoneticians in the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation insist that there are 6 vowel phonemes. 4 The term “liquid” may be dropped in favor of two other terms to describe the Russian consonantal phonemes.2. l’) and “trill” (for r. v’ z. p’ t. z’ ž _______________________________________________________________________ AFFRICATE c č _______________________________________________________________________ GLIDE j _______________________________________________________________________ NASAL m. r’ Some Russian phonologists use the symbol /š’:/ for /šč/. However. s’ š šč 3 x. The 33 (or 36) consonantal phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1. 3 9 .2.

and liquids. they are pronounced together with the prepositional object as one form (cf. The relative pronoun что 'what. The most common stress shifts are from stem to ending ( -. Vowels and Prosody There are 5 vowel phonemes that occur under stress in CSR and a reduced system of 3 vowel phonemes that occur without stress in CSR. Compare the following examples: A. 'I don’t have the slightest wish to meet with her. glides. However. (unstressed relative pronoun что ) 'I heard that you don't want [to go] to school. but /n’e/ may when used in certain impersonal constructions. им всё равно ничего не нравится! 'No matter how hard I try. This implies that there will be a marked difference in the realization of stressed vs. but stress may retract to a prefix or even preposition. root. they never like anything that I do. 'I haven’t spoken with them for a long time.' Я не понимаю. rather.1. {na s’eb’a} . {v sadu} .' ак я ни стараюсь.3. desinence).including stops.'toward/onto oneself' => [nas’ib’a]). suffix.1 Stress CSR has strong. что тебе надо!? (stressed interrogative pronoun что ) 'I don't understand what you need!?' The negative particles /n’e/ and /n’i/ do not typically carry stress.>) or ending to stem (< --).3.' У меня нет ни малейшего желания встречаться с ней. unstressed vowels. что ты не хочешь в школу. 1. there is phonemic stress. 'city' 'year' Prepositions do not typically carry separate stress in CSR.'in the garden' => [fsadu].' Other terms that are useful in the context of the Russian consonantal system are: (1) obstruents . There is no vowel length nor vocalic tone/pitch in CSR. Compare: стол/стола. рука/руку запить/запил 'table' 'hand' 'to drink down/chase with a drink' город/ за город/ за городом год/ на год). mobile phonemic stress. that' /čto/ 'what' is not stressed. Compare the following: Я слышал. 10 . and that the stress may shift from one part of the lexeme to another (including prefix. and (2) resonants (or sonorants) including nasals. fricatives and affricatives. No stress on negative particles Я с ними давно не говорила.

еня спрашивает. [p’isat’] [muka] vs.2 Vowel Reduction in CSR: akan’e and ikan’e The vowel system of CSR is reduced to 3 phonemes (/a.and post-tonic syllables.4]) [p’isat’] vs. For example. очешь ли ты пойти на выставку? 'Do you want to go to the exhibition?' 3. Stress on negative particle ам с тобой не о чем говорить! 'You and I have nothing to talk about!' Other word forms that do not ever carry stress are the interrogative and subjunctive (en)clitics /l’i/ and /bi/ (ли. ‘Anna’ (CSR does not typically show consonantal length. see Feldstein 1996: 199-215).4. The placement of the interrogative (en)clitic requires it to occur between the first and second stressed word forms in the sentence (examples 1 & 2) or in the subordinate clause (example 3): 1. катер/катера -'motor boat. когда будет электричка? 'Do you know when the next train will arrive?' 2. будешь ли ты на заседании кафедры? 'Zhenya is asking whether you will be at the faculty meeting?' There are many elaborate stress systems that describe CSR. All of these systems have in common the following distinctions: (1) mobile and fixed paradigms. учитель/учителя -'teacher/s'. but there are exceptions [cf. The following chart shows the phonemes and allophones that occur in a 4syllable grid: 11 . 1. i. plural. u/) in pre. It is possible to derive a stress model that adequately describes both nominal and verbal forms.B. ‘torture’ писать/писать мука/мука 1. профессор/ профессора -'professor/s'. ‘pee’ ‘flour’ vs. [muka] ‘write’ vs. stress is directly correlated with the desinence. бы).3. (For examples of these systems. е знаете ли ы. (2) singular vs. In certain declensions. launch/(e)s'. доктор/доктора -'physician/s' etc. masculine first declension nouns with a nominative plural in /a/ are always end stressed (cf. Examples of minimal pairs based on stress: она/Анна [ana] vs. [ana] ‘she’ vs.).

12 . Later. but they do include morphophonemic characteristics in certain desinences. unstressed e may function in the word: Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: word -initial [ji] or [i] ещё.[dva šaga] or [dva šπga]. ш. щ). This alternative formulation is a more precise linguistic definition.6). Because of the relationship between orthography and vocalic phonemes (where there are 10 vowel graphemes for 5 vowel phonemes). ч. 'despair' participate in akan’e or ikan’e. depending on the preceding consonant with the grapheme e (not with the grapheme я). 'naturally' 'building'. 5 Another way to characterize the two rows would be to substitute “non-high after hard consonants and word-initial” for “back vowels” and “non-high after palatalized consonants” for “front vowels”. the graphemes a and o may also participate in ikan’e (cf. лена 'still/yet'.PRE-PRETONIC PRETONIC TONIC POST-TONIC ______________________________________________________________________ Back vowels a a/o \ (a. ц. время 'brothers'. many definitions of akan’e and ikan’e mention orthographic renderings for clarity. хорошем 'wife'. поле. unstressed я may participate in akan’e or ikan’e. 'good' (L) Following sibilants (ж. естественно здание. 1. depending on its function in the word: word -initial [ji] язык 'language/tongue' Grapheme е: Here. к сожалению -'unfortunately' . desinence [\] братья. 'Elena' Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: pre-tonic or post-tonic [i] объяснить. but Verbickaja claims that the akan’e forms are more statistically frequent (2001: 115-122). 'field'.'two steps' . o) \ ______________________________________________________________________ Front vowels5 (´) i i ´ i* /\ in endings ______________________________________________________________________ The first row is an example of akan’e and the second row is an example of ikan’e. два шага . 'time' depending on its pre-tonic or post-tonic desinence [i]6 [\] (or [i]) жена. Grapheme я: Here. Akan’e (pronunciation of /a/) and ikan’e (pronunciation of /i/) are primarily of the nature of a phonological alternation in CSR. These forms are in free variation. we will note the occurrence of ekan’e (where unstressed /´/ is pronounced as /´/) in positions where ikan’e would be expected (cf.[ks\žal’´niju] or [ks\žπl’´niju]). отчаяние 'to explain'. 6 Either и or ы occur.

1. наука . /kaf´/ = [kaf´]. The only exceptions to this rule are some (not all) foreign borrowings (cf.Although the combination vowel + vowel (meaning two group I vowels in a row) is permitted in CSR. especially in the case of /o/ (cf. and others). phonological alternation.3. /xr’izant´m/ = [xr’izant´m]. rad’io pronounced [rad’io]. see Verbickaja (2001: 71-80). it is restricted to the following environments: (1) In native Slavic words. Exceptions There are also borrowed lexemes that do not allow for standard vowel reduction. /t´nn’is/ = [t´nn’is]. V2 = group II vowel) Least palatalization CVC CVC’ C’VC Most palatalization C’VC’ А 'obscenity' А Ь 'mother' Я 'wrinkled' Я Ь 'wrinkle' /mat/ /mat’/ /m’at/ /m’at’/ [mat] [mat’] [m’æt] [m’æt’] In these instances.'science'). with no restrictions. Note that the phoneme /´/ is the only vowel that obligatorily palatalizes any preceding paired consonant. the vowel becomes more raised and fronted as the degree of palatalization increases. Due to the impact of palatalization on the phonetic realization of the vowels which their precede or follow. /s´ks/ = [s’´ks] or [s´ks]. never in the root. 13 . C’ = palatalized consonant. v + v may occur on morpheme boundaries only. v + v may occur within the root (cf. паук 'spider'. it is possible to speak of four degrees of phonetic vocalic variations due to palatalization in the following environments: (Note: C = nonpalatalized consonant.3. thus resulting in an automatic. poet pronounced [po´t]). V = any vowel. Other important examples that illustrate the range of allophonic realization due to the effects of palatalization are: это эти чуткий чуть пятка пять 'this' 'these' 'sensitive' 'almost' 'heel' 'five' /eto/ /et’i/ /čutkij/ /čut’/ /p’atka/ /p’at’/ [´t\] [et’i] [čutk’ij] [čüt’] [p’ætk\] [p’æt’] For a detailed discussion on the degrees of impact of palatalization on stressed and unstressed vowel. V1 = group I vowel. (2) In some foreign borrowings.

). it is commonly noted that Leningrad/Petersburg pronunciation demonstrates limited palatalization of /č/ compared to the rest of CSR (ibid. первого -'first'. šč).” the variant with ikan’e does occur in the speech of many speakers of CSR in the second example. t/t’. грузчик 'loader'. ). s/s’. n/n’. 5. but on occasion is still realized as [š’č] (cf. the desinence is an underlying. v/v’.'fortune. m/m’. [For more information on the differences in Moscow/Petersburg pronunciation of CSR. Also note that due to “spelling pronunciation. palatalized/nonpalatalized: p/p’. дрожжи -'yeast' [drož’ž’i]. d/d’. or basic. šč ) are either hard (c. The two most important distinctions in CSR consonants are: a. k/g (6 pairs) b. We maintain the same principle as articulated for vocalic phonemes. more normative [dažd’a] and [brπžž\t] (Verbickaja 2001: 61-2). 2. etc. especially names (cf. ёте -'Goethe'). ткать -'to spin. luck'). the palatalized variants are given in parentheses to acknowledge that there is one example where /k’/ occurs (cf. but the actual result is not [i]. z/z’. b. Moscow norms дождя -'rain' [daž’: a].ткут ) and other examples in foreign borrowings. splashes' [brπž’ž’\t] {vs. there are isolated word forms where the nonpalatalized sibilants are pronounced as if palatalized (cf. l/l’. but not in the first. a.1 Aspects of consonant realization in CSR 1. f/f’.In those desinences.. The consonant /šč/ (щ) is generally pronounced [š’:] (cf. (1) {zdan’ij -o} 'building' pronounced [zdan’ij\].2). ž) [nonpalatalized] or palatalized (č. we only list as full-fledged phonemes those sounds that occur in contrastive distribution. In addition. č.2.e. there is some controversy over the exact number of consonantal phonemes in CSR. его -'his'.. The grapheme g is pronounced /v/ in genitive desinences and the genitive singular nonfeminine personal pronoun (cf. š. 1. Stops are not aspirated. b/b’.4. see section 1. s/z.4 Consonants As noted above (1. morphophoneme {o} (cf. ž. š. voiced/voiceless: p/b. account'. ткёт. щётка -'brush'. where ikan’e might be expected. The unpaired consonants (also called sibilants) in CSR (c. 1. сегодня -'today'. 3. счёт -'bill. yielding a total of 33. r/r’ (12 pairs [or 15 pairs if the velars are included]) 4. i. In the case of the velars. but [\].] 14 . not a flap. f/v. š/ž .6. счастье . ткёшь. t/d. However. (2) {mor’-o} pronounced [mor’\] or [mor’i] in the nominative singular). The consonant /r/ is a trill. брызжет -'sprays.. weave': тку. may occur with graphemes сч/зч: исчезнуть -'to disappear' may be pronounced as [iš’:´znut’] or [isč´znut’]).

/z/. /t/ and /t’/ may not combine in roots with /c/. 9. However. /z’d’/. Foreign borrowings do not generally violate the pronunciation of consonants (as sometime occurs with the unstressed vowels). /z’/ may not combine in roots with /š/. /tj/. /ss/. esp. 15 . CC is the most well-defined by a series of phonological rules. /n’č/. or [vot]. These rules include (Verbickaja 2001: 46-8): i. бухгалтерия -'accountancy. CSR shows considerable growth in the flexibility of consonant clusters if the type CC’. /bv’/. there are some Slavic based lexemes as well as foreign borrowings that require the voiced velar fricative [©] (cf. / č/ iii.6. vb’/ dental + palatal. шоссе -'highway'-[šas´]. bookkeeping'). осподи . length is manifested as a delayed release of the velar stop) The majority of examples of lexemes in CSR with double consonants do not demonstrate any length in pronunciation (cf. mj/ v. CV. Of all of the possible combinations of vowels and consonants (CC. Word initial /v/ may be realized as more of a [w] in one specific lexeme: /vot/ (вот -'here') => 4 potential phonetic realizations in CSR speech [wo:t]. CC is the most frequent type. alveopalatals or palatals (esp. and of those that do occur. r’k/) vi.'Lord'. /n’t/. /vj/. /vv/. /pj/.[sovr’´m’´nπj]). obligatory voicing assimilation (except for /v/ and /v’/) ii. esp. /n’d’/. 7. /n’t’/. [wot]. and /č/ iv. especially the following: dental + labial. 8. /sp’/ labial + labial. /s’s’/. /s’k/. Consonant clusters are very restricted at the beginning of a word such that only those consonants that occur in prefixes may occur (cf. VV). /mb’/. /sm’/. современный -'contemporary. /n’šč/) vii. [vo:t]. Type C’C’ most often occurs when both consonants are dentals. /n’s’/. /čt/. /zz/. /n’z’/. /n’k/. /bj/. /s’t’/. Although CSR does not have phonemic consonantal length. the first consonant cannot be a labial or velar (esp. /s’/. there are occasions where one or two consonants are extended and exhibit length in pronunciations: юный песчаный к кому 'youthful' 'sandy' 'to/toward whom' [junnij] [p’i š:annij] [k:amu] (here. esp. /s/. /z’m/. /čv/. /zj/. /v’v’/. /zv’/. /fj/. modern'. /tv’/. /šš/. бухгалтер -'bookkeeper'. /z’z’/. /žž/) viii. /dv’/. There are fewer consonant clusters in stem final position. /z’b/. dj/. /bm’/. /ž/. sv’/. Jot + consonant never occurs in word initial position ix. Type C’C is statistically infrequent and in those instances where it does occur. VC.

1. Loss of jot in word initial and intervocalic positions: One of the most marked changes in the phonological system of CSR is the increased loss of /j/ in word initial position and intervocalic position. and across lexical boundaries. 3. This type of assimilation is regressive (cf. lucky' прелестный 'darling.4. The loss of /j/ is variable from speaker to speaker. /vz-/ (where the grapheme z > s) when followed by voiceless consonants. where only one phoneme is not pronounced. (b) exceptions to voicing assimilation The consonants /v/. /iz-/. лена -'Elena'. Some of the most common examples include words beginning in /je/. 5. знаешь -'you know'). In consonant clusters consisting of 3 phonemes. Nsg > Npl: сосед/соседи -'neighbor/s'. Voicing assimilation occurs within words. Orthography does not generally reflect those assimilations (as in Serbian-Croatian) except with the prefixes /raz-/. it will be the middle one. Paired consonants automatically palatalize (soften) before /´/ except in a restricted list of borrowings and acronyms. There are isolated examples where stem final paired consonants show a hard/soft alternation in specific declensional forms (cf. столб -'stump' [stolp]. (a) spelling of assimilations in prefixes Normal assimilation rules apply to prefix/stem boundaries. 2. but the occurrence of /j/ loss in CSR speakers is continually increasing. attractive' поздно 'late' сердце 'heart' 16 . yet'. one of the phonemes may not be pronounced in conversational CSR.2. как дела -'how are things'[kagd’ila]). город -'city' [gor\t]). and the 2nd and 3rd singular. In most cases. автобус -'bus' [aftobus]. Nsg > Gpl: песня/песен -'song/s'). Compare: счастливый 'fortunate. Word final devoicing: All paired consonants demonstrate an alternation of voiced > voiceless in word final position (cf. 6. 7. across morpheme boundaries. мои -'my'. vowel + /i/. Epenthetic /n/ occurs with any third person possessive pronoun that follows a preposition Compare: его/у него ей/ о ней 'his/ he has' 'to her/ about her' её/ про неё ему/к нему 'hers/ regarding her' 'to them/ toward them' 4. Phonological rules 1. сад -'garden' [sat]. 1st and 2nd plural of nonpast first conjugation (cf. /v’/ may block assimilation (cf. ещё 'still. твой -'your' [tvoj]). футбол -'football' [fudbol].

z’. вороньё -'carrioncrows'. consonant loss and compatibility of palatalized with nonpalatalized consonants. /vstv/ in чувство -'emotion. удостоверение -'proof. интересовавшимися -'with those who were interested'). educated speakers are pronouncing the first consonant of the cluster as hard. Note that if one of the sounds is not pronounced. Word length can extend to include as many as 8 syllables (primarily in relfexive participles in oblique case form).) (Vinogradov 1960: 81). feeling'. /ntsk/. load'). there may be considerable reduction in the number of phonemes actually pronounced in given lexemes (cf. the initial /v/ may not be pronounced. семья -'family'. здравствуй -'hello'. Palatalization of consonant clusters CSR allows for consonant clusters to show varying degrees of palatalization such that CC” may be realized as C’C’ or CC”. баловство -'over-indulgence. č/.] [konsk’ij] здесь 'here' [z’d’es’] пенсия 'pension' [p’en’s’ij\] Verbickaja (2001: 86) notes that there is a marked tendency in CSR to pronounce the first consonant of clusters with a final palatalized consonant as hard. The exceptions to this trend were found in lexemes with the clusters /s’t’/.(cf. while dentals + /j/ are palatalized on stem/ending boundaries but not on the prefix/stem boundary (cf. Other 4-phoneme consonant clusters include /stsk/. etc.3 Consonant clusters In section 1. In conversational CSR. объём -'volume. we are dealing primarily with adjectives in -sk. Compare the following: дверь 'door' [dv’er’] пью 'I drink' [pj’u] степь 'steppe' [s’t’ep’] конский 'steed' [adj. здравствуйте -'hello' [zdrast’´]. In each of these cases. It is quite often the case that labials preceding /j/ are pronounced hard (cf. evidence'. /z’d’/.1. and /ndsk/. s’.). etc. 17 .but солнце 'sun' [drop the /l/] 1. /n’ + t’. аспирантский 'graduate student'. the general properties of the consonantal system of CSR were introduced. вообще -'in general' [vaš’: ´]. The occurrence of consonant clusters with 2 or 3 consonants is quite common in CSR (cf. сейчас -'now' [š’:as]. ванович -'Ivanovich' [Ivanπč]). it will always be the second phoneme of the cluster (t or d). including preliminary remarks about standard consonant clusters. d’. She further points out that in over 80% of clusters tested in a recent study of 298 consonant clusters. строительство -'construction'. although normal word length is 2-3 syllables (cf. гигантский -'gigantic'.4.4. mischievousness'). финляндский -'Finnish'. страница -'page'. assimilation. In conversational CSR. судья -'judge'. Permissible clusters and maximum length CSR allows up to 4 consonants in a row (cf. 1. 2. but отъезд -'departure by vehicle'). пью -'I drink'.

not phonological alternations that are initially triggered within certain parts of speech and in terms of derivation and/or inflection. 2.3. Voicing assimilation of consonant clusters .5 below for details.In truth He is risen!'.оистину воскрес! -'Christ is risen! .2. trace back' vs. Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) Although vowel/zero alternations are often defined in terms of the syntagmatic environment. 4.see 1. dismount' 'to/toward everything/ everyone' An additional /o/ may also appear in Old Church Slavonicisms that appear in CSR (cf. восходить -'to go back. ascend' 'to descent. 5. it is nonetheless true that they are morphophonemic. Compare: ко мне во вторник во всём разойтись обойти изогнуть 'to/toward me' 'on Tuesday' 'in everything' 'to disperse' 'to circumvent' 'to bend' во ранции ото всего/ всех взойти сойтись ко всем/ всему 'in France' 'away from everything/ everyone' 'to mount. 18 .4. no. ристос воскрес! . всходить -'to ascend'). Epenthetic /o/ in prepositions and prefixes The phoneme /o/ is added to prepositions and prefixes when followed by consonant clusters. See section 1.

друзей 'friends' Fill vowel /i/: When consonant at end of stem is /j/ and stress falls on preceding syllable (‘ . Additional rules for vowel/zero MP alternation: (a)Fill vowel /o/ (not /e/) if first consonant in CC is a velar. Other vowel/zero alternations in the conjugation and derived imperfective verbs of CSR will be discussed in the section on morphology. Three forms in CSR defy all of the rules given above: яйцо/яиц 'egg/s' полный/полон 'full' [adj. досок -'boards'.1.5. 7 Here.5. Exceptions to vowel/zero rules stated above: 1.1. or the root is monosyllabic.1 Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) in nouns: There are three fill vowels in the nouns of CSR . Basic rules for vowel/zero morphophonemic alternation: Fill vowel /e/: When consonant at end of stem is soft. n/s verb class: brat’ -'take' .]/'deserving' [short form adj. If the final consonant of CC is a velar. девушек7 -'girls' II. семей -'families'. The following is only one version of how the rules may be stated: I. воскресений -'Sunday' Fill vowel /o/: When consonant at end of stem if hard (C/C + ^) (i.5.zovu -'I call'). 1.e.). softening of the first consonant of CC is blocked. zvat’ -'call' . see Townsend 1975: 60-80). the fill vowel is underlying /o/ but written with the grapheme e due to the spelling rule. /j/ or /c/ (C/C’ + ^) Examples: день -'day'.5. 19 .2 Short form adjectives in CSR only have the fill vowel /o/ (except for one exception given above).b’eru -'I take'.] достойный/ достоин 'deserving' [adj. 1. everywhere else) Examples: окон -'windows'.1.]/'full' [short form adj.3 Verbs in CSR have only the fill vowels /o/ and /e/ in inflection (cf. Earths'.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.1./o/. земель -ground. 2. (b)The first consonant in CC automatically palatalizes before the fill vowel if it is a paired consonant.])(from гостья -'guest' (f. /´/.1 Vowel/zero alternations in CSR 1.C/j + ^) Examples: гостий -'guest' [adj.] (For more examples of vowel/zero alternations in CSR. /i/ (where /i/ is quite infrequent).

*Also note there some forms are exceptional.but never in conjugation as a mutation of /d/} t > č. {žd occurs in imperfective verbs in -aj.5.suffix is dropped. žd (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS).1. The most important set of mutations in CSR involves a velar/palatal alternation where: K >Č G > Ž (g > z occurs in one nominal form) X>Š In addition to the velars. conjugation and synthetic comparative adjectives. the remaining consonant mutations are: d > ž.2 Consonant alternations in CSR Consonant mutations/alternations occur in word-formation.) Verbs: видеть/вижу 'to see/ I see' платить/плачу 'to pay/ I pay' сказать/скажу 'to say/ I say' писать/пишу 'to write/ I write' хлестать/хлещу 'to whip/ I whip' искать/ищу 'to seek/ I seek' конец/кончить 'ending/ to end' могу/можешь 'I can/ you can' пеку/печёшь 'I bake/ you bake' махать/машу 'to wave/ I wave' любить/люблю 'to love/ I love' спать/сплю 'to sleep/ I sleep' сломить/сломлю 'to break down/ I break down' готовить/готовлю 'to prepare/ I prepare' графить/графлю 'to draw lines/ I draw lines' побеждать/победить 'to defeat' [imperfective]/ 'to defeat' [perfective aspect] посещать/посетить 'to visit' [imperfective]/ 'to visit' [perfective aspect] 20 . šč (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS) z>ž s>š sk > šč st > šč c>č b > bl v > vl p > pl m > ml f > fl Consider the following examples of the mutations listed above: (Note in the case of comparative adjectives that in some instances the -k.

6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St.] лесть/лестный 'flattery/ flattering' коммунальная квартира/коммуналка 'communal apartment/ communal apartment' ( аша)/ аня/ анька 'Sasha/ Sanya/ San'ka' аня/ анька 'Vanya/ Van'ka' 1. high/ taller. Petersburg and Moscow. путный 'path. St.]/'buckle' нога/ножища 'leg/ leg' [aug.] путь/путёвый. way' [adj. Petersburg The literature on phonological variants between the two historical Russian capitals.Nouns (plural declensional alternations and derivational forms): друг/друзья 'friend/s' собака/собачка/собачонка/собачоночка/собачина/собачища 'dog' [with other derivative forms] бляха/бляшка 'belt buckle. only three are maintained with any regularity. harsh/ sharper. at the beginning of the twenty-first century.] сук/сучья 'bough/s' молоко/молочко ‘milk’ Note that palatalization of the stem-final consonant may be gained or lost with certain suffix types: кресло/креслице дверь/дверца зеркало/зеркальце церковь/церквушка мороз/морозец Comparative adjectives: тихий/тише близкий/ближе молодой/моложе резкий/резче редкий/реже громкий/громче высокий/выше широкий/шире сладкий/слаще* ‘armchair/armchair [endearing]’ ‘door/door [endearing]’ ‘mirror/small compact mirror’ ‘church/church [endearing] ‘freezing weather/freezing weather’ 'quiet/ quieter' 'close. nearer' 'young/ younger' 'sharp. way' [n. occurring in at 21 . However. usually identifies as many as 50 orthoepic and orthophonic differences between the two centers (Verbickaja 2001: 58). near/ closer. higher' 'wide/ wider' 'sweet/ sweeter' There are also many examples of palatalization being lost or gained in stem final position in word-formation: царь/царский 'tsar [n.] степь/степной 'steppe' [n.]/ 'path. shit' [vulg.]/ tsar' [adj.]/ 'steppe' [adj. harsher' 'rare/ rarer' 'loud/ louder' 'tall.

Petersburg area. (3) the specific pronunciation of the words дождь/дождя -'rain' as [došt’]. Petersburg. Petersburg pronunciation. песок). (2) more instances of non-palatalized consonants preceding /e/ in foreign borrowings in St.least 68% of speakers tested. [dažd’a] becoming the norm for both St. проездной [билет]). These differences are: (1) more ekan’e in the St. including the usage of the words for ‘bread’ (хлеб. Petersburg and Moscow. I would add that there are still lexical differences between St. For a complete listing of the differences with accompanying analysis. and ‘transportation cards/passes’ ([единая] карточка. булка) {in St. ‘sugar’ (сахар. хлеб -'bread' generally refers only to black bread}. especially in declensional and conjugational desinences and in the first pretonic syllable. see Verbickaja 2000: 58-69). Petersburg and Moscow. 22 .

actors and second language learners. Below are some examples of the more commonly used forms: От топота копыт пыль по полю летит.7 Tongue twisters and diction There are numerous examples in CSR of the use of tongue twisters (скороговорки) and pronunciation exercises (разминка . ила мыло не любила.' The following are common articulation exercises for actors: му-мо-ма-мэ-ми-мы 'mu-mo-ma-me-mi-my' лу-ло-ла-лэ-ли-лы 'lu-lo-la-le-li-ly' пту-пто-пта-птэ-пти-пты 'ptu-pto-pta-pte-pti-pty' бду-бдо-бда-бдэ-бди-бды 'bdu-bdo-bda-bde-bdi-bdy' сту-сто-ста-стэ-сти-сты 'stu-sto-sta-ste-sti-sty' зду-здо-зда-здэ-зди-зды 'zdu-zdo-zda-zde-zdi-zdy' врлу-врло-врла-врлэ-врли-врлы 'vrlu-vrlo-vrla-vrle-vrli-vrly' 23 . цапля сдохла.' арл у лары украл кораллы. 'The heron sneezed. 'Mother was washing Mila with soap. 'From the pounding of hooves. техника .'speech') in order to improve diction (including speed and articulation) for native speakers. 'Sasha was walking along the road and sucking on a sushka. 'Karl stole some coral from Karla. but Karla stole a clarinet from Karl. dust rises in the field. цапля сохла. Mila didn't like soap.1. the heron expired.' ла аша по шоссе и сосала сушку. а лара у арла украла кларнет. речи .'technique'.' ама мыла илу мылом.' апля чахла.'warm ups'. the heron was parched.

number and case. Finally. жадина -'greedy person'. feminine.1. A туза . and potentially signal either masculine or feminine gender (cf. Animacy is distinctive in singular declension only in masculine I declension forms. 2. some nonderivational lexemes have competing 24 . number (singular. The declensional system of CSR distinguishes gender. убийца -'murderer'. pronouns and past tense verb forms. Gender distinctions are not signaled in agreement in the plural number. accusative. пьяница -'drunkard'. старина -'antiquity. CSR verbal conjugation signals number. animacy is signaled in the accusative case.2 in chapter one. etc. conjunctions. some inanimate neuter nouns may behave as animates in the plural and exhibit G=A (cf.5. городище -'site of an ancient town'. prepositions. While all neuter nouns are treated as inanimate in the singular. locative [also called prepositional]. In plural declension.4. adjectives. N туз. gender and person such that the past tense signals gender and number. The gender of nouns may shift in derivation and in diachrony (see 2.).2 Animacy and gender Animacy in CSR is not coincident with biological animacy.’ удья нам попалась хорошая! ‘We got a good judge!’ (if the judge is a woman) In derivation. dative. the present and future tenses signal number and person. уродищ(е) -'freak'. yielding a realignment in N and G inflectional endings in the accusative. and conjugation of verbs.1 Nouns The declinable nouns of CSR are marked for gender (masculine. Note that one may encounter certain masculine nouns that are semantically inanimate but behave decline like animate nouns in the accusative singular (cf. see sections 1. [Note that although several Russian dictionaries list only masculine gender for ‘judge. genitive.’ this is not reflective of the norm in CSCR.1. уродище -'freak'. and a restricted list of substantival borrowings.0 Morphophonemic alternations For a complete list of the possible consonantal and vocalic morphophonemic alternations with examples.4-1. old man'). 2. where G=A. but rather is a characteristic of masculine and feminine nouns that generally includes those lexemes that have human or animal referents. Morphology 2. numerals. plural [which includes forms that may only exist in either singular or plural]). Agreement plays a significant role in signaling gender in nouns.4). adjectives.) 2.3 Agreement and declensional gender It is not sufficient to look at the nominative case form of a noun to ascertain its gender.2.‘ace’). and case (nominative. чудовищ(е) -'monster'.1 Inflectional morphology The inflectional morphology of CSR includes declension of nouns. Some Declension II nouns are epicene. Nondeclinable forms include adverbs. participles.1. and pronominals.1. where ‘judge’ is often used with feminine agreement by educated urban speakers]: Она хороший судья! ‘She’s a good judge. псина -'dog flesh'. nouns may also exhibit two possible genders (m/f or m/n) (cf. neuter). судья -'judge'. instrumental). 2.

is archaic) зал(а) 'hall' (fem. народ/народа/народу -'folk. G=D=L).genders in CSR that may or may not involve a formal difference. L=D. нос/в носу -'nose'. haze' туфля/туфель 'shoe/shoes' Masculine or neuter (in CSCR) кофе 'coffee' какао 'cocoa' такси 'taxicab' Some nouns are suppletive or exhibit non-productive consonant changes at the stem boundary when comparing singular and plural forms. лес/в лесу -'forest'. The correlation between the three declensions and gender in CSR is as follows: 25 . Substantival case declensions in CSR display varying degrees of syncretism (e. III declension. animate nouns. в собственном соку -'in one's own juice'). In some instances. Note that although two endings potentially exist in the locative. рис/риса/рису -'rice'. The most frequent examples include the following: человек/люди ребёнок/дети судно/суда друг/друзья сын/сыновья 'person/people' 'child/children' 'ship/s' 'friend/s' 'son/s' сук/сучья муж/мужья брат/братья сосед/соседи 'bough/s' 'husband/s' 'brother/s' 'neighbor/s' 2. N = A.g. people'. in fem. The following list gives some of the more frequent lexical examples: Masculine or feminine глист(а) 'tape worm' лебедь 'swan' тюль 'tulle. берег/на берегу -'shore'.1. A=G. u} cases (cf. was used up until the early 20th century) рояль 'grand piano' занавес(ь) 'curtain. in fem. drape' вуаль 'veil. in masc. in most cases the /e/ desinence is not used in CSR (в нашем саду -'in our garden'. II declension. and the general rule states that if an adjectival modifier is added to the noun phrase the /e/ ending must be used.4 Gender and declension There are three declensions for nouns in the singular. сад/в саду/ в детском саду (саде) 'garden'. чай/чая/чаю -'tea'). in masc. Ist declension masculine nouns will have two possible desinences in the locative {e. curtain lace' шампунь 'shampoo' фильм(а) 'film' (fem.u} and genitive {a. inanimate nouns. N=A.

________________________________________________________________________ SG I declension II declension III declension N -Ø/-o -a -Ø A inan=N. anim=A -u -Ø G -a -i -i D -u -e -i L -e/-i -e/-i -i I -om -oj -ju ________________________________________________________________________ 26 .2. this distinction does not affect the actual desinence morphophonemically (except in the genitive plural where the desinences are morphophonemically distinct). but does require a different grapheme (cf.2 Declension The endings for these three nominal declensions are given below in morphophonemic transcription and then followed by examples in Cyrillic of each’ig-a = книга -‘book’. there is the locative singular desinence -e. Morphophonemic consonant mutations of the type commonly found in the West Slavic languages are not a principle of Russian nominal declension. that desinence must be dropped before adding the case ending. Nominative feminine singular -a desinence: . In those instances where the nominative form has a desinence other than zero. which automatically softens preceding paired consonants (cf. 2.стол/столе -'‘table’).1 Formation rule for cases of nouns The desinence is added directly onto the nominative stem. there will instances where consonants may be modified or lost in declension. N/L . Nominal declensions in CSR include both fixed and mobile stress paradigms.I declension masc/neut II declension fem/masc III declension fem only The zero desinence occurs in some first declension and all third declension nouns in the nominative case. Note that although the examples display both hard and soft stem nouns. Vowel-zero alternations are very common in nominal declension. However. 2.t’ot’-a = тётя -‘aunt’). Also. Examples will also include stem/ending stress and mobile stress. .

anim=A inan=N. 2.masculine paired consonants 'student' 'table' 'bullock' 'teacher' 'dictionary' N студент стол вол учитель словарь A студента стол вола учителя словарь G студента стола вола учителя словаря D студенту столу волу учителю словарю L студенте столе воле учителе словаре I студентом столом волом учителем словарём PL N студенты столы волы учителя словари A студентов столы волов учителей словари G студентов столов волов учителей словарей D студентам столам волам учителям словарям L студентах столах волах учителях словарях I студентами столами волами учителями словарями I declension .PL I declension II declension III declension N -i/-a -i -i A inan=N.masculine unpaired consonants 'person' 'pencil' 'hero' человек карандаш герой человека карандаш героя человека карандаша героя человеку карандашу герою человеке карандаше герое человеком карандашом героем люди людей людей людям людях людьми карандаши карандаши карандашей карандашам карандашах карандашами герои героев героиев героям героях героями N A G D L I PL N A G D L I 'American' американец американца американца американцу американце американцем американцы американцев американцев американцам американцах американцами 'scenery' сценарий сценарий сценария сценарию сценарии сценарием сценарии сценарии сценариев сценариях сценариям сценариями 8 -Ø occurs in some exceptional genitive plurals (cf.2.1.2 Examples I declension . anim=A inan=N.4) 27 . anim=A -Ø/-ej -ej G -ov/-ej8 D -am -am -am L -ax -ax -ax I -am’i -am’i -am’i/’m’i ________________________________________________________________________ 2.


I declension 'window' окно окно окна окну окне окном окна окна окон окнам окнам окнами

- neuter 'field' поле поле поля полю поле полем поля поля полей полям полях полями - feminine 'sister' сестра сестру сестры сестре сестре сестрой

'building' здание здание здания зданию здании зданием здания здания зданий зданиям зданиях зданиями

'freak' чудовище чудовище чудовища чудовищу чудовище чудовищем чудовища чудовищ чудовищ чудовищам чудовищах чудовищами


II declension 'room' комната комнату комнаты комнате комнате комнатой комнаты комнаты комнат комнатам комнатах комнатами

(and some masculine and epicene) 'murderer' 'article' 'book' убийца статья книга убийцу статью книгу убийцы статьи книги убийце статье книге убийце статье книге убийцей статьёй книгой статьи статьи статей статьям статьях статьями книги книги книг книгам книгах книгами

'lecture' лекция лекцию лекции лекции лекции лекцией лекции лекции лекций лекциям лекциях лекциями

сёстры убийцы сёстры убийцы сестёр убийц сёстрам убийцам сёстрах убийцах сёстрами убийцами


III declension - feminine only 'church' 'square' 'door' церковь площадь дверь церковь площадь дверь церкви площади двери церкви площади двери церкви площади двери9 церковью площадью дверью

'mother' мать мать матери матери матери матерью

'daughter' дочь дочь дочери дочери дочери дочерью


в/на двери but о двери



церкви церкви церквей церквям церквях церквями

площади площади площадей площадям площадях площадями

двери двери дверей дверям дверях дверьми

матери матерей матерей матерям матерях матерями

дочери дочерей дочерей дочерям дочерях дочерьми

2.2.3 Exceptions within declensional paradigms: The major exceptions to the I declension given above are (1) the word путь - 'path' (N/A: путь, G/D/L: пути, I: путём) (2) neuter nouns ending in the grapheme я: (SG: N/A: время, G/D/L: времени, I: временем; PL: N/A времена, G: времён, D: временам, L: временам, I: временами -'time') Other neuter nouns with this declension include: имя -'name', знамя -'banner', пламя -'flame', вымя -'udder', семя -'seed', бремя -'burden', племя -'tribe', стремя -'stirrup', темя -'crown of the head' (3) masculine family names with the suffixes -ov, -in require the adjectival desinence in the instrumental singular ( ушкин/ ушкиным -'Pushkin'; ванов/ вановым -'Ivanov') (4) feminine family names with the suffixes -ova. -ina utilize the pronominal declensional paradigm: 'this' 'Akhmatova' 'Axmadulina' N эта Ахматова Ахмадулина A эту Ахматову Ахмадулину G этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной D этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной L этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной I этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной (5) Plural family names require adjectival desinences in all non-nominative case forms: 'Bulgakovs' N улгаковы A улгаковых G улгаковых D улгаковым L улгаковых I улгаковыми (6) There are several word forms in CSR that are formally adjectival but semantically behave as nouns. Included in this group are many Russian family names. Note the following examples: столовая 'dining room, cafeteria' ванная 'bathroom' булочная 'bakery' пирожковая 'meat/vegetable pie shop' 29

примерочная парикмахерская

'fitting room' 'beauty salon'

Family names: олстая, олстой -'Tolstoy', орький -'Gorky', яземский -'Vjazemsky', Анненский -'Annensky' Many Russian adjectives in the neuter nominative form may also behave as nouns semantically: прошлое 'the past' настоящее 'the present' будущее 'the future' 2.2.4 Stress in noun declensions For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in the singular and plural declensions of the Russian noun, see Vinogradov 1960: 193-208 and Feldstein (1996:199-216). 2.2.5 Grammatical Peculiarities of the Russian Noun Gender Some Russian nouns, called epicene, may signal either masculine or feminine agreement. (For other types of gender shifts and examples of multiple gender agreement that are possible in derivational morphology, cf. 2.2.). Examples (also see Vingradov 1960: 109): пьяница брюзга заика неряха ровня подлиза зевака бродяга злюка грязнуля тупица задира разиня лежебока ворюга тихоня 'drunkard' 'grumbler' 'stutterer' 'someone who is always losing things' 'equal' 'toady' 'idler' 'vagrant' 'shrew' 'dirty creature' 'fool' 'teaser' 'gawker' 'lazybones' 'thief' 'demure person' судья егоза калека юла соня растяпа гуляка хапуга плакса сластёна ханжа невежа недотрога зубрила растеряха 'judge' 'fidgeter' 'cripple' 'whirligig, spinning top' 'sleepyhead' 'blunderer' 'reveler' 'greedy pig' 'crybaby' 'sweet tooth' 'bigot' 'boor' 'untouchable' 'crammer' 'someone who is always losing/ forgetting things' Animacy There are some neuter nouns that behave as animates in the genitive plural: чудовище/чудовищ -'monster', страшилище/страшилищ -'horrible thing'


This group includes both common and proper nouns and abbreviations. These nouns.The masculine inanimate noun ‘ace’ behaves as an animate noun in the accusative singular: туз/туза 2. and constellations).5. pinchers' 2. litter' обои перила леяды похороны прятки роды санки сласти смотрины сумерки сутки усы хлопоты хлопья хоромы часы чернила шахматы щи щипцы 'wallpaper' 'banister. also Vingradov 1960: 116-18): алименты Альпы Афины лизнецы боты будни весы вилы ворота горелки деньги дети дрова дрожжи каникулы качели люди макароны мощи ножницы носилки 'alimony' 'Alps' 'Athens' 'Gemini' 'galoshes' 'workdays' 'scales' 'pitchfork' 'gate(s)' 'catch (game)' 'money' 'children' 'firewood' 'yeast' 'holiday(s)' 'swing' 'people' 'macaroni. reflect case function syntactically via adjectival and verbal modifiers: ателье аку 'atelier' 'Baku' купе мадам 'train compartment' 'madam' 31 . watch' 'ink' 'chess' 'cabbage soup' 'tongs.3 Indeclinable Nouns There is a substantial number of Russian nouns. -u. pasta' 'relic(s)' 'scissors' 'stretcher. the majority of which are foreign borrowings. that do not decline.3 Number Nouns that only exist in singular form (primarily collective common nouns) Examples (also see Vinogradov 1960: 113-4): бельё 'linens' листва 'foliage' 'professorate' старьё 'old things' профессура 'strawberries' виноград 'grapes' клубника 'sugar' зелень 'greens' сахар родня 'kin' картошка 'potatoes' 'coal' мелочь 'small things' нефть Nouns that only exist in plural form (including common nouns.2. toponyms. -e or -o. Examples (cf. railing' 'Pleiades' 'funeral' 'hide-and-seek' 'kin' 'sledge' 'sweets' 'bridal shower' 'dusk' '24 hour period' 'moustache' 'trouble(s)' 'flake(s)' 'mansion' 'clock. most generally ending in -i.

творогу -'tvorog cheese' Note that the -u genitive desinence cannot be used with non-negated imperfective verbs. смеху -'laughter'. чайку -'tea'.' 'greatcoat' 'bet. пот/поту -'sweat'. also Vingradov 1960: 143-5): ад/аду -'hell'.‘the immortal one’) 'wall lamp' 'Goethe' 'venetian blinds' 'jury' 'interview' 'cafe' 'kangaroo' 'cinema' 'coffee' У метро ОО пальто пари радио А такси билиси фортепиано 'Moscow State University' 'metro' 'U. сыру -'cheese'.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2. берег/берегу -'shore'. sight'. хрену -'horseradish'.безе ессмертных бра ёте жалюзи жюри интервью кафе кенгуру кино кофе 'meringue' 'Bessmertnyx' (last name . нарзану -'mineral water'. бал/балу -'ball'.4. мидт -'Schmidt'). 2. быть на хорошем счету -'to be in good standing'. Masculine family names borrowed from Ukrainian or non-Slavic languages that end in a vowel generally do not decline (cf.1 Locative -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the locative in -u after the prepositions B . учеренко -'Kucherenko'. нос/носу -'nose'. песку -'sand'. перцу -'pepper'. ‘I was eating the cheese. винограду -'grapes'.N. бок/боку -'side'.‘on. весу -'weight'. сахару -'sugar'.2 Genitive -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the genitive in -u (cf. at’ (cf. чаю -'tea'. чесноку 'garlic'. ход/ходу -'motion'. быт/быту -'domestic life'. цвет/цвету -'flower' There are also a number of set expressions that require the -u locative desinence: на лету -'in the air'. идти на поводу -'to be lead around by the nose' 2. жиру -'fat'. снегу -'snow'. хеидзе -'Mkheidze'). снег/снегу -'snow'. сад/саду -'garden'. бред/бреду 'delirium'. коньяку -'cognac'. wager' 'radio' 'AIDS' 'USA' 'taxicab' 'Tbilisi' 'grand piano' The entire class of foreign feminine family names does not decline in Russian ( арко 'Sharko'. вид/виду -'view. оваленко -'Kovalenko'. рай/раю -'heaven'. свету -'society'.‘in.4. соку -'juice'. дыму 'smoke'. лимонаду -'lemonade'. табаку -'tobacco'. народу -'folk'. салату -salad'. Compare the following examples: Я ел сыр. also Vingradov 1960: 141-143): бензину -'gasoline'. шуму -'noise'. бой/бою -'battle'. рису -'rice'. борт/борту -'shipboard'.’ 32 . at’ and HA . мост/мосту -'bridge'. апиро -'Shapiro'.

5 Declensional desinences: plural 2.3 There are some examples where the standard. рукава -'sleeves'. паруса -'sails'. Christ. номера -'hotel rooms'. ни духу не хватило духу с жиру беситься спору нет 'out of the house' 'from fear' 'from the floor' 'out of the forest' 'indiscriminately' 'without risk' 'nothing has been heard' 'didn't have enough strength. колокола -'bells'. без and in set expressions (cf. директора -'directors'. literary plural form requires -ы. цветы/цвета -'flowers/colors'. but the colloquial form may demonstrate the occurrence of -á: договоры/договора -'agreements'.)/belts (clothing)'.Я поел сыру/сыра. города -'cities'. векселя -'drafts'.5.g. сторожа -'watchmen'. but each form represents a distinctive shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): учители/учителя -'teachers (e.’ The -u genitive desinence may also used in conjunction with the prepositions с. шелка -'silks' 2. сорта -'sorts/types'. ‘I ate some cheese. свитеры/свитера -'sweaters' 2. breath' 'to lose perspective from excess wealth' 'there is no argument' 2.2 There are some examples where the standard. голоса 'voices'. образы/образа -'images/icons'.5. берега -'shores'. also Vinogradov 1960: 142-143): из виду со смеху с голоду с испугу от ветру без спросу без шуму мало толку с жару дать маху говорить без умолку 'out of sight' 'from laughter' 'from hunger' 'from fright' 'from the wind' 'without permission' 'without noise/bother' 'senseless' 'from the heat' 'to miss a chance' 'to speak incessantly' из дому со страху с полу из лесу без разбору без риску ни слуху. мастера -'masters'. профессора 'professors'.5. доктора -'doctors'. 33 . глаза -'eyes'. Plato)/teachers'.1 Masculine nominative plural -a Masculine nouns that have a stressed -á nominative plural desinence (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 146-148): адреса -'addresses'. поясы/пояса -'belts (geog. из. паспорта -'passports'. Я не ел сыра. снега 'snows'.’ ‘I didn’t eat any cheese. повара -'cooks'. катера -'launches'. приговоры/приговора -'sentences/condemnations'. бока -'sides. поезда -'trains'. от. literary nominative plural form allows either the -ы or -á desinences.

G. ш) or jot. accounts'. if there is a non-zero ending in the nominative singular.1 Examples Note the following examples. then there will be a zero ending in the genitive plural. sg. Pay special attention to the frequency of vowel-zero alternations in those forms with a zero desinence. see 1. пропуски/пропуска -'blanks. There are some notable exceptions (cf. -ov. -ej10 The desinence -ov is selected if the stem-final consonant is hard (excluding ж.проводы/провода -'seeing someone off/wires'.5. волосы/волоса -'hairs'. листы/листья . студент -'student' студентов -'students' герой -'hero' героев -'heroes' стол -'table' столов -'tables' учитель -'teacher' учителей -'teachers' рубль -'ruble' рублей -'rubles' карандаш -'pencil' карандашей -'pencils' этаж -'floor. слесари/слесаря -'lathe workers' 2. редакторы/редактора -'editors'. 2.O.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural The genitive plural is considered to be the most complex of the Russian cases in terms of formation. -ев. лагери/лагеря -'camps'. крендели/кренделя -'krendel biscuits'.4 There are some examples where the standard. ёв 34 . This principle was originally discovered by R. N. absence of a desinence in the nominative singular. Note the following diagram: Desinence: NOMINATIVE SINGULAR GENITIVE PLURAL -a/-o -0 -0 -ov. level' этажей -'floors. The complexity of the genitive plural involves not only a broader range of desinental choices than is typical of the CSR case system (3 endings: zero. levels' 10 -ov is represented in Cyrillic as -ов. 2. but also the principle of selection that is determined by the presence vs. The desinence -ej is selected if the stem-final consonant is soft (palatalized or palatal) or the nonpalatalized hushers ж. Jakobson (1956/1984: 135-140). счёты/счета -'abacus/bills. /identification cards'. -ej). listing below for both regular forms and exceptions).6.1. pl. корректоры/корректора -'proofreaders'. literary nominative plural form is in free variation and allows either the -ы or -á desinences without a shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): годы/года -'years'.5. кузовы/кузова -'baskets'.‘sheets of paper/leaves’. If there is a zero ending in the nominative singular. ш. then there will be a non-zero ending in the genitive plural. отпуски/отпуска -'work leaves'. For a detailed description of the vowelzero alternation.

‘bottom (of ocean. missives' кресел -'easy chairs' озёр -'lakes' сестёр -'sisters' дочек -'daughters' досок -'boards' студенток -'students' [f. G. etc. N.словарь -'dictionary' африканец -'African' платье -'dress' дно . cuisines' статей -'articles' семей -'families' зданий -'buildings' лекций -'lectures' площадей -'squares' мышей -'mice' церквей -'churches' воскресений -'Sundays' дней -'days' земель -'Earths.)’ буй -'buoy' письмо -'letter. N.] карта -'map' лампа -'lamp' девушка -'girl' копейка -'kopeck' кухня -'kitchen. missive' кресло -'easy chair' озеро -'lake' сестра -'sister' дочка -'daughter' доска -'board' студентка -'student' [f. pl. glass. occasion/s' ботинок ботинки ботинок 'high shoe/s' солдат солдаты солдат 'soldier/s' грузин грузины грузин 'Georgian/s' англичанин англичане англичан 'Englishman/men' мать матери матерей 'mother/s' дочь дочери дочерей 'daughter/s' 35 . pl.‘bottoms’ буёв -'buoys' писем -'letters.6. ребёнок дети детей 'child/children' человек люди людей 'person/people' сын сыновья сыновей 'sons/s' муж мужья мужей 'husband/s' брат братья братьев 'brother/s' сосед соседи соседей 'neighbor/s' раз разы раз 'time.2 A list of the more frequent irregular genitive plurals is given below. ground' деревня -'village' отец -'father' словарей -'dictionaries' африканцев -'Africans' платьев -'dresses' доньев . ground' деревень -'villages' отцов -'fathers' 2. sg.] карт -'maps' ламп -'lamps' девушек -'girls' копеек -'kopecks' кухонь -'kitchens. cuisine' статья -'article' семья -'family' здание -'building' лекция -'lecture' площадь -'square' мышь -'mouse' церковь -'church' воскресенье -'Sunday' день -'day' земля -'earth.

помидор/помидоров). 36 . килограмм/килограммов.coll..]/money' 'holidays' There are also examples of free variation in genitive plural forms where two endings are possible (cf. vessel/s' 'sea/s' 'field/s' 'aunt/s' 'uncle/s' 'song/s' 'bedroom/s' 'friend/s' 'name/s' 'time/s' 'money [sg.глаз чулок сапог судно море поле тётя дядя песня спальня друг имя время деньга ------- глаза чулки сапоги суда моря поля тёти дяди песни спальни друзья имена времена деньги каникулы глаз чулок сапог судов морей полей тётей дядей песен спален друзей имён времён денег каникул 'eye/s' 'stocking/s' 'boot/s' 'boat.

the nominative case is used in apposition (where a common noun is followed by a more specific proper name). there will occasionally be instances that seem counterintuitive to L1 speakers of nonSlavic languages (cf. The fundamental functions of the Russian cases will be given below in the order of the direct (N/A) and oblique (G/D/L/I) forms. repetitions of a time frame and following quantifiers of time like 'all' and 'every' (всю неделю -'for the whole week'. see Jakobson (1935. The case system is one of the most robust structures of the grammar of CSR. то это за глупость? -'What kind of nonsense is this?').) Finally. In these instances.7 The semantics of the Russian case system The category of case in Slavic is a phenomenon that indicates the relationship between nouns and noun phrases to verbs.2. (Historically. the proper name may be in the nominative regardless of the case form of its antecedent common noun (cf. moved upon or created as a result of the verbal process.7. 37 . Forms in the accusative are acted upon. целую неделю -'for an entire week'.2 Accusative The accusative case gives a meaning of directionality or extension. 2. Although rarely mentioned. The accusative case is one of the most prevalent forms for the objects of transitive verbs in CSR. to other noun phrases and to other parts of the syntagm. The nominative form is typically given as the dictionary form of the word. and may be used after the preposition за (cf. ‘Listen to me!’ requires an accusative in CSR: лушай меня!). Formally. In order to achieve a deep understanding of the Russian case system.усть он курит. ёва работает в газете « анкт. but this is no longer a viable option in CSR. 2. it is often used as the simple predicate with verbs 'be'. Specific verbs and prepositions may require a particular case or set of cases. depending on the semantic focus. it is imperative to become acquainted with the range of reference and meaning that is available to each of the cases and to the system as a whole.. only nouns and adjectives signal case via a group of well-defined desinences. каждую среду -'every Wednesday'). Although the use of the accusative case following most transitive verbs in CSR is trivial. It is used for most (but not all) grammatical subjects.7. There is one particular syntactic context where the nominative is required that may seem counter intuitive to the English speaker. The accusative case is highly correlated with motion towards or onto an object and is the primary case for time expressions covering the smallest units of measured time to periods as large as weeks. 1958). an accusative/genitive was possible. penetrating both morphology and syntax. there will be a short discussion of the so-called vocative form in CSR.1 Nominative The nominative case functions primarily as the naming case. namely 'Let him smoke' .етербургские ведомости» -'Lyova works at the newspaper "Saint Petersburg Times"'). For a detailed discussion of the markedness values of the Russian cases.

папа): ети всегда слушаются воспитательницу. под -'under'. на -'on. become' The following prepositions must be used with the accusative: через 'across. there are 2 notable exceptions to this rule. бросаться действовать 'act' поступать доносить 'inform. 11 When playing an instrument. 38 . indicate' жаловаться обижаться 'become offended' preposition в -'in/into' играть влюбляться поступать 'play'11 'fall in love' 'act' 'influence' 'act. namely the verbs 'obey' (only accusative forms are possible with animates) and 'fear' (accusative form is required when used with names or certain common nouns like ‘mother’ . off of'. о/об 'about. However. the verbal government changes to HA + locative case.Verbs with the particle -ся are not used with the accusative case. behind'. suggest' разделять 'divide' размениваться 'look.' Common verbs that require the accusative case (with a preposition): preposition на -'on/onto' 'throw/foist oneself' влиять. onto'. into'. through' сквозь 'through' The following prepositions may be used with the accusative when motion or directionality is involved or comparison: в -'in. за -'for. gaze' соглашаться смотреть указывать 'gesture. denounce' злиться 'become angry' накрывать сердиться полагаться намекать 'refer. treat' 'become mad' 'cover' 'rely upon' 'squander' 'agree' 'complain' бросаться вступать превращаться 'throw oneself' 'enter. мама and ‘dad’ . с -'from. 'The children always obey the teacher. over.мать.' ова боится ру. 'Vova fears Ira. over'. engage' 'turn into.

39 . 'That’s brother’s book' Она студентка нашего университета. 'I recently had a book appear in print' У него нет денег на велосипед. how many'. столько -'so many') and the following numerals must be used with the genitive case: 2. 'He’s a momma’s boy' Nouns modified by adverbs of quantity (много -'much. несколько -'a few. мало -'little. 'Whose books is this? . 4 require that the following noun be in the genitive singular. many'. few'. The verb иметь -‘have’ does occur in CSR. 'She’s a student of our university' Another construction showing possession requires the preposition followed by a genitive case form. сколько -'how much. 5-10 and any numerals ending in 5-9 or 0 require that the following noun phrase be in the genitive plural. adjectives in the genitive plural [except adjectives modifying feminine nouns may be in the nominative plural]. 'You and I have a lot in common' BUT: Я имею в виду два возможных варианта. This prepositional construction у with the genitive case is the predominant form for expressing ownership or ‘having’. 'He doesn’t have money to buy a bike' У нас с тобой много общего.3 Genitive The genitive case is dominant in signaling three basic concepts: possession. several'.7. but its range of usage is much more restricted than the у construction. немного -'a little'. quantification and negation.It’s Sasha’s book' Он маменькин/мамочкин сынок.Это ашина книга. Possession is designated by putting the possessor or the object one belongs to in the genitive case: Это книга брата.2. 'I have in mind two possible options' There are restrictions to this usage when the possessor is a member of a class of proper names and/or common nouns ending in -a (both masculine and feminine) that allow for augmentation by the suffix -in-: ья это книга? . 3. У меня недавно вышла книга. 3. 4 and any numerals ending in 2.

and the reflexive particle -ся require an object in the genitive case (cf. cautious' бояться 'fear' беречься добиваться 'obtain. от -'away from'. искать -'seek. and more broadly in constructions where a verbal infinitive is required. снаружи -'from the outside'. бояться -'fear' The following prepositions must be used with the genitive: из -'out of'. наслушаться -'have one's fill of listening'. search'. отставать 'remain behind' differentiate' состоять 'consist. не было -'was not'. off of'. требовать -'demand'. мимо -'past'. following'. ждать -'wait for'. suffer. до -'up to'. около -'in the vicinity of'. между -'between' 2. touch'. free oneself' остерегаться отделяться 'separate. напиваться 'drink one's fill' мучиться torment oneself' наслушаться 'hear one's fill' опасаться 'fear. без 'without'. or the goal of a verb of motion where the focus is on motion ‘toward’ or ‘along’.-ся is the instrumental (cf. вследствие -'as a result of. Common verbs that require the genitive case (with or without a preposition): 'be careful. concern' лишаться 'deprive' 'worry. вдоль -'along. Common verbs that require either the genitive or accusative case (without a preposition): дожидаться -'await'. praise'). The other common case found with на. the secondary object of a transitive verb (often animate). 40 . not ‘onto’. не будет -'will not be' and after many negated transitive verbs. hearing). save oneself' Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix на. у -'near'. shake off' oneself' отличаться 'stand out. distance отделываться 'get rid of. take пугаться composed of' fright' страшиться 'be in fear of' спасаться 'escape. хотеть -'want'. нахвалиться -'extol. especially verbs of perception (seeing. надышаться -'inhale'. be cautious' освобождаться 'liberate. напиться -'have one's fill of drink'. внутри -'within'.With the negative нет -'is not'. натерпеться -'be through withstanding. просить -'request'. be 'be startled. avoid' 'beware. including modals). nature and weather. доставать -'reach.4 Dative The dative case functions primarily as the case of the actor in impersonal constructions (especially in the semantic context of physical and psychological human states. alongside' The following prepositions may be used with the genitive case: с -'from. вместо -'in place of'. flee' касаться 'touch on. following'.7. achieve' достигать 'attain' желать 'wish' зависеть 'depend' избавляться 'free oneself' избегать 'run away from. наесться 'have one's fill of food'). вокруг -'around'. the genitive case is required. после -'after.

’ Common verbs that require the dative case (with or without a preposition): 'applaud' верить 'believe' аплодировать звонить 'call' мстить 'avenge' 'be dangerous' готовиться 'prepare oneself' вредить возражать 'object' завидовать 'envy' отвечать 'answer' объяснять 'explain' относиться 'relate to' охладеть 'grow cold.' There are syntactic constructions in CSR that require a dative of possession. сообщать -'inform. hand over'.' ы испортил ему жизнь. say'. ам помочь? то купил тебе эту книгу? автра мы едем к друзьям на дачу. мешать -'to bother (dative). казаться -'seem. предлагать -'suggest'.' 'The bus doesn’t usually run on our street. надоедать -'become bored'. alter' подчиняться 'submit' перемениться 'become accustomed' противоречить 'contradict' привыкать радоваться 'be glad (about)' симпатизировать 'sympathize' 'empathize' советовать 'counsel' сочувствовать удивляться 'be amazed at' улыбаться 'smile' Common verbs that require the dative case of the receiver and the accusative case of the thing received: давать -'give. ‘He happens to be my brother. говорить -'speak. 'She stepped on my foot. appear' Common verbs that require either the dative case or the accusative case resulting in a different meaning of the verb: изменять -'to cheat (dative). понадобиться -'become necessary'.не нездоровится. lose interest' 'change. отправлять -'send off. показывать 'show. 'You have ruined his life. посылать -'send'. to mix (accusative)' 41 . where the possessor is expressed as a personal pronoun in the dative case (and not a possessive pronoun or a genitive case form): Она наступила мне на ногу. дарить -'give. рату очень плохо. 'I’m not well' 'Mom is cold' 'My brother is doing badly' 'Can I help you?' 'Who bought you that book?' 'We’re going to our friends’ dacha tomorrow. indicate'. аме холодно. Автобус обычно не ходит по нашей улице. to change (accusative)'. direct'.' Он мне приходится братом. present'. report' Common verbs that require the dative case of the experiencer (which appears as the logical subject in English translations of these Russian verbs): нравиться -'be pleasing to'.

приставать 'impose. at' 'about. обо всём . прислушиваться 'listen attentively to'. during the reign of. concentrate' основываться отражаться специализироваться 'play' (instrument) 'be based.Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix при. due to' 'along. agree' 'reflect. toward'. reverberate' 'admit. concerning' (о followed by consonant or jot. i. 'marry' (for males) настаивать останавливаться сосредоточивать(ся) 'insist' 'stop. despite' The following prepositions may be used with the dative case: по -'along' 2. тосковать -'be melancholy' при по Common verbs that require the locative case (always with a preposition): на: играть жениться. about' used with the verbs скучать -'be bored'. благодаря 'thanks to. acclimate'.5 Locative The locative case (also referred to as the prepositional case) is the only case in CSR that is realized exclusively in conjunction with prepositions. обо мне -‘about me’.(both with and without the reflexive particle -ся) may require an object in the dative case (cf. u. приближаться -'get closer'. The meaning of the locative case is related directly to the meaning of the preposition with which it is used: на в о/об/обо 'on. and only one of the five prepositions is used exclusively with the locative. The list of prepositions used with the locative is relatively more restricted than with the other cases. at' (nouns derived from verbs or nouns denoting processes often require на instead of в) 'in. обо followed by a pronominal with initial consonant cluster [cf. make a mistake' 'understand. look closely'. associate') The following prepositions must be used with the dative: к -'to. dissemble' 'be composed' 42 . приучать -'train. e. remain' 'specify. founded' 'reflect. присматриваться -'inspect. owing to'. reverberate' 'specialize' в: заключаться отражаться признаваться разочаровываться 'conclude.‘about everything’] 'in the presence of.7. об followed by a. придираться -'nag. confess' 'be disappointed' нуждаться ошибаться разбираться состоять 'need' 'err. harass'. присоединяться -'join. find fault'. o. вопреки -'in spite of.

' 'That novel was written by my sister. 'Igor’ likes to play tennis with Kira. о/об -'about'. fraternize' обмениваться 'exchange places' переписываться 'correspond' оказываться 'grant. Этот роман был написан моей сестрой. горь любит играть с ирой в теннис. ill' обладать 'possess. в -'in'.6 Instrumental The instrumental case is used for the agent of an action. advise' смеяться 'laugh' 43 .” The instrumental is often used with verbs of being and becoming and is prominent in giving the agent in passive constructions.' 'Vitya wants to become president. jeer' наслаждаться 'savor.' 'That question is being discussed by historians. обо -'about' The following prepositions may be used with the locative case: по -'about. value' драться 'fight' дорожить 'sacrifice' заниматься 'study. enjoy' общаться 'converse. ельзя есть суп вилкой! аша пишет карадашом. utilize' развлекаться 'amuse oneself' ругаться 'curse' руководить 'govern.' 'You can’t eat soup with a fork!' 'Masha writes with a pencil. rule' служить 'serve as' следить 'watch after' следовать 'follow' советоваться 'counsel.' 'My father was a soldier during the war. Отец был солдатом во время войны. busy жертвовать oneself' извиняться 'beg forgiveness.специализироваться участвовать 'specialize' 'participate' убеждаться 'be certain' The following prepositions must be used with the locative: при -'near. The use of the instrumental without a preposition is often translated as “by means of” versus the use of the instrumental following the preposition с meaning “together with. render' работать 'work as' пользоваться 'use.' Common verbs that require the instrumental case (with or without a preposition): болеть 'be sick. manner or means of performing an action. знакомиться 'become acquainted' excuse oneself' 'be interested' издеваться 'mock' интересоваться любоваться 'admire' казаться 'seem. Этот вопрос обсуждается историками. in the vicinity of'. appear' махать 'wave' хлопать 'slam' 'reconcile oneself' наблюдать 'observe' мириться насмехаться 'mock.7. rule' встречаться 'be proud' делиться 'share' гордиться 'treasure. итя хочет стать президентом. на -'on' 2. have' 'date. regarding'. meet with' владеть 'command.

под -'under. there is. за -'behind. Katyusha' иш! -'Misha' ит! -'Rita' юсь! -'Lyusya' сюш! -'Ksyusha' арин! -'Marina' ядь еть! . above' The following prepositions may be used with the instrumental case: с -'with'. ашок) ен! енусь! енуль! -'Lena' (but never with related forms like Алёна. in front of'. The following paradigms demonstrate the range of possibilities of adjectival declension. Long form adjectives inflect for case. deal' 'govern' 'nurse. Short form adjectives only exist in the predicate nominative form and inflect for gender and number. underneath' 2. look after' 'boast.8.‘Aunt Masha’ 2.1 Adjectives of positive degree Adjectives of positive degree in CSR fall into two major types: long forms and short forms. only number and case are reflected. In the plural forms. еночка) р! -'Ira' ам! -'mama' ап! -'papa' ёнь! -'Lyonya' юд! -'Lyuda' вет! -'Sveta' аль! -'Valya' ен! -'Gena' ёш! -'Lyosha (for Alyosha)' ать! атюш! -'Katya. 44 . аш! ань! ур! ашуль! -'Sasha' ( but never with related forms like анёк.7. for'.‘Uncle Petya’ ёть аш! . emulate' 'consider oneself' 'divert oneself' 'rule.7 Vocative There is generally no mention of a vocative case in the literature on CSR. command' 'boast. brag' 'be' становиться торговать(ся) управлять ухаживать хвалиться быть (infinitive or past tense) 'become' 'barter.соревноваться считаться увлекаться править хвастаться являться 'compete. над -'over. This zero desinence is used only with a limited list of derivative proper names (usually having no more than 2 syllables) and a very restricted list of common nouns.8 Adjectives 2. in fact. a special morphological form with a zero ending used as an address form. swagger' 'be' The following prepositions must be used with the instrumental: перед -'before. number and gender. However.

Long form adjectives: SINGULAR Hard-stem masculine 'big' 'good' N большой хороший A N/G G большого хорошего D большому хорошему L большом хорошем I большим хорошим 'strong' сильный сильного сильному сильном сильным feminine 'big' большая большую большой большой большой большой/ большою neuter 'big' большое большое большого большому большом большим 'good' хорошая хорошую хорошей хорошей хорошей хорошей/ хорошею Hard-stem N A G D L I feminine 'strong' сильная сильную сильной сильной сильной сильной/ сильною masculine 'evening' вечерний N/G синего вечернего синему вечернему синем вечернем синим вечерним 'blue' синий 'good' хорошее хорошее хорошего хорошему хорошем хорошим ‘strong’ сильное сильное сильного сильному сильном сильным Soft-stem N A G D L I feminine 'autumn' осенняя осеннюю осенней осенней осенней осенней/ осеннею neuter 'morning' утреннее утреннее утреннего утреннему утреннем утренним Long form adjectives: PLURAL Hard-stem 'big' 'good' N большие хорошие A N/G G больших хороших D большим хорошим L больших хороших I большими хорошими 'strong' сильные сильных сильным сильных сильными 45 .

adj.8.8. painful'). consisting of two parts: более/менее ‘more. Adjectives that give ordinal numerals. Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: намного In attributive usage. great' хорош/хороша/хорошо/хороши -'good' силён/сильна/сильно/сильны -'strong' Soft-stem синь/синя/сине/сини -'blue' Note that the neuter short form adjective is formally indistinguishable from the typical adverb except in those instances where the word stress may differ ( not form comparatives.3 Comparative degree of adjectives Comparative adjectives have distinct forms in order to express attributive versus predicative syntactic functions. denote temporal qualities. less’ + positive adjective. or end in the suffix -sk.больнó. denote animal names. Hard-stem masc/fem/neut/pl велик/велика/велико/велики -'large.Soft-stem N A G D L I 'blue' синие синих синим синих синими 'evening' вечерние N/G вечерних вечерним вечерних вечерними 'autumn' осенние осенних осенним осенних осенними 2. the comparative adjective is analytic in nature. . or end in the suffix -skdo not have short forms. For more information on restrictions in the formation of comparative adjectives. 2.бóльно -'sick. see Vinogradov 1960: 292-93.2 Short form adjectives: singular and plural nominative Adjectives that give ordinal numerals. adverb . Note the following examples более интересный роман 'a more interesting novel' менее толстая книга 'a less thick book' более широкое окно 'a wider window' менее приятные люди 'less pleasant people' 46 .

ей. д » ж. An older form of the desinence. consonant cluster or -k. к » ч. х » ш.suffix: (г » ж. старше 'old/er' [of things] vs.ы говорили про намного более серьёзную проблему 'We talked about a much more serious problem' There are four synthetic comparative adjectives that occur in attributive usage: лучший 'better' худший 'worse' меньший 'smaller' больший 'bigger' [Note that the stress is distinctive between the positive большой and comparative больший] In predicative usage. older [of people] худой » худее 'thin/ner' красивый » красивее 'pretty/ier' (2) -e ending with accompanying consonant mutation of stem-final consonant. the comparative is synthetic and has two possible forms: (1) -ee desinence with accompanying stress shift to the ending in roots of two syllables or less (with some exceptions) and no stem modification. т » ч. ст » щ. в » вл): жаркий » жарче 'hot/ter' большой » больше 'big/ger' громкий » громче 'loud/er' толстый » толще 'fat/ter' 47 . is also possible and occurs in CSR in songs and poetry: круглый » круглее 'round/er' трудный » труднее 'difficult/ more difficult' красный » краснее 'red/der' светлый » светлее 'light/er' (color) прямой » прямее 'straight/er' острый » острее 'sharp/er' интересный » интереснее 'interesting/more interesting' глупый » глупее 'dumb/er' симпатичный » симпатичнее 'nice/r' серьёзный » серьёзнее 'serious/ more serious' приятный » приятнее 'pleasant/ more pleasant' сильный » сильнее 'strong/er' дружный » дружнее 'friendly/ier' быстрый » быстрее 'fast/er' холодный » холоднее 'cold/er' новый » новее 'new/er' умный » умнее 'smart/er' тёплый » теплее 'warm/er' весёлый » веселее 'happy/ier' добрый » добрее 'good/better' старый » старее vs.

’ (the object compared is in the genitive case) (2) Ольга умнее. чем атьяна. the following constructions are possible: (1) Он старше моего отца. complexity) 'dear/er' 'strict/er' 'quiet/er' 'simple/r' 'frequent/ more frequent' 'young/er' 'expensive/ more expensive' 'sharp/er' 'tight/er' 'dry/ier' 'rich/er' 'steep/er' 'thick/er' (viscosity) 'clean/er' Some comparatives with the -e desinence are more exceptional in their formation. ‘Ol’ga is smarter than Tanya. including suppletive forms.лёгкий » легче дорогой » дороже строгий » строже тихий » тише простой » проще частый » чаще молодой » моложе (или младше) дешёвый » дешевле резкий » резче тугой » туже сухой » суше богатый » богаче крутой » круче густой » гуще чистый » чище 'light/er' (weight. suffix loss. 48 . or more unexpected consonant mutations (including с » ш. ‘He is older than my father.’ (the object compared may be in any case and is obligatorily preceded by -'than') Note that type 1 may only be used when the head phrase of the comparison is in the nominative case. з » ж): плохой » хуже 'bad/worse' старый » старше 'old/er' хороший » лучше 'good/better' малый/маленький » меньше 'small/er' высокий » выше 'tall/er' мелкий » мельче 'shallow/er' далёкий » дальше 'far/farther' долгий » дольше 'long/er' близкий » ближе 'near/er' редкий » реже 'rare/r' узкий » уже 'narrow/er' сладкий » слаще 'sweet/er' широкий » шире 'wide/r' глубокий » глубже 'deep/er' When comparing two things using predicative forms. In those instances where either type 1 or 2 are syntactically possible.

etc. Type 2 is preferred when the head phrase contains a verb other than the zero copula ‘to be’: Preferred: горь играет лучше. kindest' отвратительнейший 'most despicable' (b) stems ending in /k. g.’) are: (a) stems ending in a consonant other than /k. type 1 is preferred.there may be semantic constraints that will dictate preference.. x/ require the suffix . к » ч. The synthetic forms are more restricted than was seen with comparative synthetic forms.4 Superlative adjectives exhibit both analytic and synthetic formation patterns. see Vinogradov 1960: 296.. чем аша.).8. х » ш): широчайший 'widest' высочайший 'tallest' мельчайший 'shallowest' глубочайший 'deepest' мягчайший 'softest' редчайший 'rarest' сладчайший 'sweetest' тончайший 'thinnest' тишайший 'quietest' величайший 'greatest' строжайший 'strictest' For more information on restrictions in the formation of superlative adjectives. For example.айш. when comparing qualities that are more intrinsic to the objects (age. Synthetic superlative adjectives also utilize on occasion a prefix наи.. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' 2. g.ейш-: красивейший 'prettiest' прекраснейший 'most excellent' великолепнейший 'most splendid' добрейший 'nicest' богатейший 'richest' приятнейший 'nicest. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' Possible: горь играет лучше аши.to intensify the degree: наиважнейший наикрасивейший наичистейший наистрожайший (устар.(г » ж. (1) The rules and desinences for synthetic superlative adjectives (which are also sometimes treated as comparatives meaning ‘ a most.) 'most important' 'most beautiful' 'cleanest' 'strictest' (archaic) 49 . x/ require the suffix . height.

numbers and genders and often translated as ‘the most. the genitive case can be used to show possession in specific constructions.based on comparative adjectival forms: наилучший наихудший наибольший наименьший 'best' 'worst' 'biggest' 'smallest' (2) Rules for analytic formation of superlatives (available in all cases. pronominal adjectives obligatorily have one of the following suffixes: (1) a stem-final jot suffix (2) a possessiving suffix in /-ov/ or /-in/ (Cyrillic -ов. -ев. CSR has a full complement of possessive pronouns that can also be used instead of the genitive case. where the desinence is -j. there is a third class of adjectives that can show possession.8. In addition to the use of the genitive case. 2.Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: наиболее наиболее интересный роман 'a much more interesting novel' наиболее удобный диван 'a much more comfortable couch' наиболее необходимое из одежды 'a much more necessary piece of clothing' In addition to the forms given above. 50 . -ин. the second of which is used primarily in verse. Unlike the qualitative and relational adjectives discussed above. The pronominal possessive adjectives in CSR are called as such based on their declensional paradigm.. (3) the /i/ in the masculine singular desinence is a fill vowel..5 Pronominal possessive adjectives As was noted in the discussion on case. see Vinogradov 1960: 321-325. -ын) Note that the instrumental feminine singular has two potential forms. Beyond these two major options. there are four forms with the prefix наи.’): самый + positive adjective самый красивый самая умная самое большое самые приятные 'most attractive' 'most intelligent' 'largest' 'most kind' Stress in adjectival declensions: For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in all degrees and forms of adjectives.

птичий -'bird'). Note the following semantic differences in pronominal adjectives vs. sg. заячий -'rabbit'. one may find potentially competing adjectival forms with very specific. мужичий -'manly'. sg. собачий -'canine'. божья божью божьей божьей божьей божьей/ божьею fem. кошачий -'feline'. non-overlapping meanings. sg. медвежий -'ursine'. отцова отцову отцовой отцовой отцовой отцовой/ отцовою fem. sg. волчий -'lupine'. In some instances. лисий -'leonine'. коровий -'bovine'. 'maternal' мамин N/A мамина мамину мамином маминым neut. овечий -'sheep'. щенячий -'puppy'. 'godly' божий N/A божьего божьему божьем божьим neut. рыбачий -'fish'.N A G D L I masc. or male/female (девичий -'girlish'. sg. and some common nouns relating to professions. садовничий -'gardener'). sg. sg. sg. казачий -'Cossack'. 'paternal' отцов N/A отцова отцову отцовом отцовым neut. nationality. sg. мамино мамино мамина мамину мамином маминым plural 51 . божье божье божьего божьему божьем божьим fem. отцово отцово отцова отцову отцовом отцовым plural отцовы N/A отцовых отцовым отцовых отцовыми N A G D L I мамина мамины мамину N/A маминой маминых маминой маминым маминой маминых маминой/ мамиными маминою Other common possessive pronominal adjectives include forms derived from animal names (cf. лягушачий -'froggy'. plural божьи N/A божьих божьим божьих божьими N A G D L I masc. other possessive adjectival forms: мамин друг/мамина подруга 'mom’s friend' материнская любовь 'a mother’s love' masc.

2.9 Pronouns The following section describes pronouns in CSR. The basis for inclusion in this category is primarily a semantic one. Formally, many of the so-called pronouns given below are of a mixed nominal-adjectival declension. In the case of the personal pronouns, there are also examples of suppletive forms. The traditional presentation of pronouns in the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 385-406) include 8 categories: personal, reflexive, possessive, interrogative-relative, demonstrative, definite, negative and indefinite. Examples of each type will be given below. 2.9.1 Personal and reflexive pronouns The Russian pronouns distinguish three persons (first, second, third) and a reflexive (oneself) that refers to all persons, two numbers (singular, plural, three genders in the third person only, and 6 cases (with some syncretism). Note that the reflexive personal pronoun never occurs in the nominative case and always refers back to the subject of the sentence or clause. (Refer to the section of reflexive verbs to find a more detailed discussion of the semantic differences between the reflexive personal pronoun себя and the bounded reflexive verbal particle -ся). The full declensional paradigms of the CSR personal and reflexive pronouns are given below. Note that the third person singular and plural forms require an epenthetic /n/ following a preposition (cf. all locative case forms, some accusative, genitive, dative and instrumental forms). 'I' я меня меня мне мне мной 'you(sg)' ты тебя тебя тебе тебе тобой 'he/it' он его его ему нём им 'it' оно его его ему нём им 'she/it''we' 'you(pl)' она мы вы её нас вас её нас вас ей нам вам ней нас вас ей нами вами 'they' они их их им них ими 'self' --себя себя себе себе собой


2.9.2 The use of the second person pronouns In addition to its generic meaning as the second person singular pronouns, ты is also used as the “familiar” form. The sociolinguistic parameters of its usage include referents that are children, members of the immediate family (regardless of age), and people of one’s own age up through high school and including university. Once adulthood is reached, it is less trivial to determine appropriate 2nd person pronominal usage. In many instances, one of the parties verbally requests permission to change from the 2nd plural вы to the 2nd singular ты. In recent years, there is among certain groups a more relaxed attitude about the usage of the familiar form instead of the formal one. The second person plural is also used as a singular in “formal” discourse. Children refer to all adults beyond the immediate family as вы. In school, university or the work place, the use of вы is required when speaking to teachers, professors and employers. Once a relationship between interlocutors has been established, pronominal usage may be negotiated as mentioned directly above.


2.9.3 Capitalization of the second person formal pronoun In writing, the formal ы must be written with a capital letter wherever it occurs in a sentence. The use of a capital letter in the second person ы is unique in Russian pronouns. The first singular я is never capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence. 2.9.4 Possessive and reflexive pronouns The possessive pronouns (also referred to as possessive pronominal adjectives) reflect all three persons including the reflexive, gender, number and case. The masculine and neuter forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic. Feminine forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic in 4 cases: genitive, dative, locative and instrumental. The third person possessive pronouns are formally identical to the accusative/genitive form of the third person personal pronouns (его -'his', её -'her', их 'their') and do not further decline. 'my' 'our' 'one’s own' m n f m n f m n f N мой моё моя наш наше наша свой своё своя A N/G моё мою N/G наше нашу N/G своё свою G моего моей нашего нашей своего своей D моему моей нашему нашей своему своей L моём моей нашем нашей своём своей I моим моей нашим нашей своим своей 'your' (sg) m n f твой твоё твоя N/G твоё твою твоего твоей твоему твоей твоём твоей твоим твоей 'your' (pl) m n ваш ваше N/G ваше вашего вашему вашем вашим 'his/its' 'her/its' 'their' m/n f pl его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их


f ваша вашу вашей вашей вашей вашей

2.9.5 Usage of the reflexive possessive pronoun The reflexive pronoun is required most specifically in predicates when referring to third person pronominal forms as subjects (cf. Он поехал на своей машине -'He took his own car'). However, it is also possible to find reflexive pronouns in instances where the reflexive modifies the grammatical subject (cf. воя ноша не тянет -'One’s own burden is not heavy'; воя рубашка ближе к телу -'One’s own shirt is closer to the body'; Он свой человек -'He’s one of us/our kind of guy'; У тебя есть своя машина? -'Do you have your own car?'). It is typical for English speakers to overuse possessive pronouns in Russian, including reflexive possessive pronouns. In normal Russian speech, possessive pronouns are omitted in instances where possession is obvious, especially when speaking of family members (cf. ать не разрешает мне пить пиво -'My mother won’t let me drink beer').


There is more flexibility is the use (or non-use) of the reflexive possessive pronoun in Russian with third-person plural subjects. Compare the following examples: рузья обсуждали свои планы. рузья обсуждали их планы. BUT: ети рассказали о своих планах. ети рассказали об их планах 'The kids told about their own plans.' 'The kids told about their (someone else’s) plans.' 'The friends discussed their (common) plans.' 'The friends discussed their (individual) plans.'

2.9.6 Interrogative personal pronouns Note the declension of the Russian pronouns 'who' (кто) and 'what' (что). These pronouns are gendered (masculine and neuter respectively). In colloquial Russian, the syntactic agreement with кто may on rare occasions be feminine (cf. 'Who is that' (fem) кто такая?). Also in colloquial Russian, the genitive form of что may be used as a subject or object and the pronunciation of the nominative form may be [чо] (spelled чё) , not the expected [што] (spelled что). The interrogative personal pronoun что may also function as a relative pronoun (see the following section). 'who' (always masculine) кто кого кого кому ком кем 'what' (always neuter) что что чего чему чём чем


2.9.7 Interrogative possessive pronouns and relative pronouns The interrogative possessive pronoun 'whose' reflects gender, case and number. The other interrogative and relative pronouns include the following: который: ы знаешь студента, о котором говорит ева? 'Do you know the student Seva is speaking about?' - Это моя сестра. - оторая? '-That’s my sister. - Which one?' какой: акая прекрасная погода! 'What fabulous weather!' ай мне какую-нибудь книгу! 'Give me a book' (any one).


что он хочет.' ам! Я хочу поехать с друзьями кататься на лыжах! . 'I am the same now as before. 'Give him what he wants.' 'whose' m n f чей чьё чья N/G чьё чью чьего чьей чьему чьей чьём чьей чьим чьей 'which. с каковым цепной медведь кланяется «господам» по приказанию своего вожатого ( ушкин).' каковой: ерестов отвечал с таким же усердием.' что: ай ему (то).No way!' 55 .Это ашина книга.каков: аков я прежде был.' Я знаю. the archaic кой is also used in CSR: ы всё делаешь кое-как! 'You do everything half-assed.' чей: ья это книга? . 'Whose book is this? .и в коем случае! 'Ma! I want to go skiing with friends! . that' m n f pl какой какое какая какие N/G какое какую N/G какого какой каких какому какой каким каком какой каких каким какой какими N A G D L I Although generally restricted to set expressions. 'Berestov answered with the same conviction as a chained bear that bows to the gentlemen at the command of his master.It’s Sasha’s book. таков и ныне я. 'I know that he wants to call you. что он хочет тебе позвонить.

I’ll wash them myself. there is semantic ambiguity between the personal pronouns 'everything' (всё) and 'everyone' (все) and the neuter singular and plural forms of 'all. whole.what’s her name? She used to live below us. 'Start from the very beginning. entire'. Due to formal syncretism. -'Let me help you with the dishes. entire'. 'Yesterday I saw -. one of them (весь/всё/вся/все) has a pronominal declension (given below). and while many contemporary Slavic languages still maintain this 56 .8 Definite pronouns Of the several lexemes for 'all. [See section on superlative adjectives for the meaning of 'most' with самый. Note the difference in stress.' . -No need. 2.' Я пожала руку самому арышникову! 'I shook the hand of Baryshnikov himself!' чера я видел эту самую .авай я тебе помогу с посудой. the very' (сам/самый).' ачинай с самого начала. nonpalatalized) and in usage between the intensifiers 'self. всяческий -'all kinds of'. каждый -'every'. the stem-final consonant (palatalized vs. .она жила этажом ниже know -.'self' m n сам само N/G само самого самому самом самим 'all/entire' m n f весь всё вся весь всё всю всего всей всему всей всём всей всем всей N A G D L I f сама саму самой самой самой самой pl сами N/G самих самим самих самими pl все N/G всех всем всех всеми N A G D L I 'the very' m n самый самое N/G самое самого самому самом самым f самая самую самой самой самой самой pl самые N/G самых самым самых самыми Other examples in this class include всякий -'any'.9.9. Я сама всё помою.е надо.ну как её зовут? ы знаешь кто .9 Demonstrative pronouns Although the third person personal pronouns in CSR were historically derived from the class of demonstratives.] .

'this/that/the' m n f pl этот это эта эти N/G это эту N/G этого этой этих этому этой этим этом этой этих этим этой этими 'that/that kind of' m n f такой такое такая N/G такое такую такого такой такому такой таком такой таким такой 'this/that/the' m n f тот то та N/G то ту того той тому той том той тем той N A G D L I pl те N/G тех тем тех теми N A G D L I pl такие N/G таких таким таких такими In addition to these forms. and additionally form compounds with the neuter nominative form . These forms translate as both 'this' and 'that' or even 'the' in English. with 'something' . In some grammars. 'someone' . section on indefinite pronouns for more information]). the contemporary Russian demonstrative pronouns form a specific class of two distinct forms (immediate and more distant).connection (cf.о каком-то [cf. the occurrence of тот implies a second element (or an этот) to which it is being compared.то (cf. 'about some kind of .' . see Dolgova and Maksimova (1996: 217-233)..с чем-то.кто-то. Note some of the more common ones: то да сё о том. о сём сию минуту не от мира сего до сих пор на сей раз 'this and that' 'about this and that' 'this very minute' 'not of this world' 'until now' 'for/at this time' For more information on contemporary usage of ‘sej’. 57 . Macedonian toj). there is the so-called archaic сей that occurs in many expressions in CSR. However. one will find demonstrative pronouns called demonstrative pronominal adjectives because of their declension..

It’s a tie. 'Your opinion is absolutely irrelevant in this matter. 'He isn’t thinking about anything.' икто не забыт.' некого/нечего: екому позвонить! 'There’s no one to call. 'He saw something unusual. Each of these forms requires a negated verb form that. They’re going to flunk us anyway.' ничей: .and не. Note the following examples: никто: икто не хочет об этом думать! 'No one wants to think about that!' ы ни с кем не общаемся.' никакой: воё мнение не имеет никакого значения в этом деле. -'What’s the score? Who’s winning? . ничто не забыто! 'No one and nothing is forgotten!' ничто: Она ничего не понимает! 'She doesn’t understand anything!' Он ни о чём не думает. However.ичья. 'Someone by the name of Boris called you today.2.' ечего нам заниматься! ас всё равно провалят.акой счёт? чью пользу? . 'We don’t hang out with anyone. No new declensional types are introduced in this section. the prefixes ни.' екто по имени орис тебе звонил сегодня.' 58 . in some grammars.10 Negative and indefinite pronouns To complement the interrogative and definite pronouns there are two groups of negative and indefinite pronouns.' некто/нечто: Он видел нечто необычное. is characterized as a double negative. 'There’s no point in studying.9.are detached when used with prepositions.

'I sat for a while. 'I can’t meet with you now.О чём-то очень важном. although very popular in literary texts through the early 20th century. 'There’s some maniac following me. 'Bring us something from France. I’ve already made plans to meet someone else.некоторый: Я сидела некоторое время.' This form.Something very important. Note that although listed by the Russian Academy grammar as an indefinite pronoun.я с кем-то уже договорилась о встрече. звини. Sorry.' акой-то маньяк меня преследует.' екоторые люди считают. 'What are you thinking about? . but is still found in dictionaries when listing verbal government. 'A certain strange citizen approached me with a question.' некий: екий престранный гражданин обратился ко мне с вопросом. 'Some people think that they are always right.' -либо: ы слышали что-либо об этом фильме? 'Have you heard anything about this movie?'12 -то: то-то должен знать ответ на мой вопрос! 'Someone should know the answer to my question. а потом пошла спать. and then I went to bed.' Я не смогу с тобой встретиться сейчас . is not used often in CSR.' -О чём думаешь? .' -нибудь: то-нибудь мне звонил вчера? 'Did anyone call me yesterday?' ривези нам что-нибудь из ранции. что они всегда правы. these forms are often quite specific and definite: 12 59 .

agree with the head noun of the phrase. первое.' 'thirty.10 Numerals Cardinal numerals in CSR are declined and have a unique declension for 'two. one time') is used for 'one. третья.' 'forty. Ordinal numerals are adjectival in form.' The adjectival form. 'two' distinguishes masculine/neuter vs. and correspond to each of the cardinal numbers. 'Tomorrow is the 17th of August. Note the following examples using ordinals: автра будет семнадцатое августа.' Уже восьмой час! 'It’s after seven (o’clock). 'I graduated in 2001. одноразовый шприц . In counting.' etc. третьи четвёртый пятый шестой седьмой восьмой девятый десятый одиннадцатый двенадцатый тринадцатый четырнадцатый пятнадцатый шестнадцатый семнадцатый восемнадцатый 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 . раз два/две три четыре пять шесть семь восемь девять десять одиннадцать двенадцать тринадцатый четырнадцать пятнадцать шестнадцать семнадцать восемнадцать ORDINAL первый. The numeral 'one' is pronominal in form and occurs in 3 genders and 2 numbers. One other unique feature of compound numerals is the fact that all parts decline. four'. means 'one-time. разовый. третье. number and gender. three. feminine and is similar in declension to 'three' and 'four' (although 'three' and 'four' do not distinguish gender). первые второй третий.' Я окончил университет в две тысячи первом году. Ordinal numbers are required in a different range of contexts that one might expect coming from a non-Slavic language perspective. первая.' CARDINAL один/одно/одна/одни. disposable' [cf. Note that 'third' is the only ordinal numeral in CSR that has a pronominal declension.2. distinguish case. the word form раз (which also means 'once. 'Olya arrived on the evening of the fifth.] One numerical symbol will be given to the left for both cardinal and ordinal numerals instead of English words for both (cardinal: one. ordinal: first).' Оля приехала пятого вечером.'disposable syringe']. [Refer to the section on hard-stem adjectives for examples of ordinal declension. but excluding 'ninety' and 'one hundred') are third declension feminine nouns. Most other numerals ('five' to 'twenty.

000.000.000 1.19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 102 103 104 105 110 120 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 10.000 100.000 девятнадцать двадцать двадцать один двадцать два/две двадцать три двадцать четыре двадцать пять тридцать сорок пятьдесят шестьдесят семьдесят восемьдесят девяносто сто сто один/одна/одно сто два/две сто три сто четыре сто пять сто десять сто двадцать двести триста четыреста пятьсот шестьсот семьсот восемьсот девятьсот тысяча две тысячи три тысячи десять тысяч сто тысяч миллион миллиард девятнадцатый двадцатый двадцать первый двадцать второй двадцать третий двадцать четвёртый двадцать пятый тридцатый сороковой пятидесятый шестидесятый семидесятый восемидесятый девяностый сотый сто первый сто второй сто третий сто четвёртый сто пятый сто десятый сто двадцатый двухсотый трёхсотый четырёхсотый пятисотый шестисотый семисотый восьмисотый девятисотый тысячный двухтысячный трёхтысячный десятитысячный стотысячный миллионный миллиардный Cardinal numeral declensions: m n один одно N/G одно одного одному одном f одна одну одной одной одной pl одни N/G одних одним одних m/n f два две N/G двух двум двух N A G D L три N/G трёх трём трёх четыре N/G четырёх четырём четырёх 61 .000.000 1.

sg/ respectively) may be used after numerals (never людей) and some adverbs of quantity (сколько. while the use of the distinct forms of 'years' (лет/годов) is semantically determined: ы живём на улице ороховой уже тридцать лет.) 5-20.1 Case usage with numerals When a cardinal numeral is in the nominative form (including accusatives that are identical to nominatives). 35-40.I N A G D L I одним пять пять пяти пяти пяти пятью одной одними восемь восемь восьми восьми восьми восьмью/ восемью двенадцать двенадцать двенадцати двенадцати двенадцати двенадцатью двумя двадцать двадцать двадцати двадцати двадцати двадцатью тремя сорок сорок сорока сорока сорока сорока четырьмя сто сто ста ста ста ста N A G D L I пятьдесят пятьдесят пятидесяти пятидесяти пятидесяти пятьюдесятью восемьдесят восемьдесят восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмьюдесятью девяносто девяносто девяноста девяноста девяноста девяноста тысяча тысячу тысячи тысяче тысяче тысячью/ тысячей тысячи тысячи тысяч тысячам тысячах тысячами N A G D L I двести N/G двухсот двумстам двухстах двумястами триста четыреста N/G N/G трёхсот четырёхсот трёмстам четырёмстам трёхстах четырёхстах тремястами четырьмястами пятьсот восемьсот пятьсот восемьсот пятисот восьмисот пятистам восьмистам пятистах восьмистах пятьюстами восьмьюстами 2. 3. people' and 'years. then the adjective may be nominative plural. the following rules apply: 1 + nominative singular adjective and nominative singular noun 2.10.' Они уехали в зраиль в конце семидесятых годов. 'We’ve been living on Goroxova Street for 30 years. 'They left for Israel at the end of the 1970’s. 4 + genitive plural adjective and genitive singular noun (Note: If the referent of 2/3/4 is feminine.' 62 . несколько). 25-30. only the form человека/человек (gen. etc. + genitive plural adjective and genitive plural noun There are two distinct genitive plural forms for the word 'persons.' In the first case.

then the case following the numeral must match the case of the numeral itself: с пятью моряками 'with five sailors' о десяти рефератах 'concerning/about ten research papers' между ста щенками 'in between a hundred puppies' In CSR. Collective numerals are never used to refer to exclusively female groups. especially in complex. The use of collective numerals is obligatory when modifying nouns that only exist in the plural (cf. what remains most stable is the obligatory reflection of case in the final numeral of the phrase. thousand. An addition tension occurs in case choice in phrases with a large numerical value (hundred. the Russian Academy Grammar notes that collective numeral forms may occur as high as 18 (1960: 379).10. However. Note the following examples with case forms given in the order of their frequency based on a survey of 100 educated urban speakers of CSR: [For more information on this point. there is a growing disparity in the way in which speakers decline or fail to decline numerals. двое детей . million) between the genitive and the case of the phrase itself. оба/обе .] 1. с тысячью друзьями/друзей 'with a thousand friends' (instrumental form is preferred over genitive) 3. двое часов .‘both’ 63 . All collective numerals used in non-oblique case forms require the genitive plural of the noun phrase that it modifies.трое братьев и пятеро щенков 'three brothers and five puppies'). с миллионом друзей/кошек/долларов 'with a million friends/cats/dollars' (all nouns following the numeral are genitive plural) 2. compound numerical expressions. This tendency is recognized and noted in the 1960 Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 369). All collective numerals are end-stressed in the oblique cases. со ста друзьями/кошками/долларами 'with a hundred friends/cats/dollars' (instrumental form is obligatory with animates and preferred with inanimates) 2. с тысячью долларов 'with a thousand dollars' (genitive form is preferred almost to the exclusion of the instrumental) 5.'two children') and are optional when talking about male groups or animals (cf.If the numeral is in an oblique case. When consulting literary works for examples. с тысячью кошек/кошками 'with a thousand cats' (genitive form is preferred slightly over instrumental) 4.2 Collective numerals Collective numerals refer to groups of something as one whole.'two watches'. although in speech the forms for 2-8 are the most common. see Andrews 1996b: 131-140.

non-feminine (m/n) -.] The nominative/accusative forms require that the following noun be in the genitive singular. “dozen”) трёшка/трёха 'three rubles' тройка 'three-horse carriage. three-piece suit. Note the following examples: одна десятая девять пятнадцатых половина 'one tenth' 'nine fifteenths' 'one half' (which declines like a regular 2nd decl. while the oblique cases require plural agreement in the oblique case (cf.полутора. Other commonly used expressions of collectives include the following prepositional phrases that are now written as one word and some other collective numerical forms are given below. Notice that the forms for 'both' are also not end-stressed in oblique-case forms like all other collective numerals and require the genitive singular in the nominative/accusative cases. there are also 2 forms for 'both' (where one is masc/neuter and the other feminine).полтора/полторы. '2' N двое A N/G G двоих D двоим L двоих I двоими '3' трое N/G троих троим троих троими 'both' m. there is a single form -.3 Fractions and halves The numeral 'one and a half' in CSR.' не меньше полутора суток .S.) 64 . полтора часа 'one and a half hours.' distinguish two genders in the nominative/accusative -.'no less than one and a half 24-hour periods').feminine vs. [In some instances.In addition to the typical collective numerals with no gender distinctions. These examples are merely the tip of the iceberg: вдвоём 'the two of us together' втроём 'the three of us together' вчетвером 'the four of us together' впятером 'the five of us together' вдвойне 'two times more' втройне 'three times more' пяток 'five of a kind' (usually eggs) пятак 'five kopecks' десяток яйц 'a box of ten eggs (metric for the U. a grade of 'C'' 2. one may still see and hear the older genitive form полуторы when used with feminine nouns. In all oblique cases. like 'both' and 'two.10. Fractions are expressed in a combination of cardinal and ordinal numeral types.n / f оба/обе N/G обоих/обеих обоим/обеим обоих/обеих обоими/обеими '4' четверо N/G четверых четверым четверых четверыми '5' '7' пятеросемеро N/G N/G пятерых семерых пятерым семерым пятерых семерых пятерыми семерыми Обои is the commonly heard substandard form of 'both' in colloquial speech.

Minutes. час .'Seconds.00 with a period. and (2) normal time telling used by speakers in everyday life. минута.11 Time expressions Expressing time in CSR is best presented as a progression from smaller to larger time units. When actual dates are involved.) Note the following examples: 1.три пятых 'two thirds' две третьих две третьих двух третьих двум третьим двух третьих двумя третьими 'three fifths' 'three fifths' три пятых три пятых трёх пятых трём пятым трёх пятых тремя пятыми N A G D L I Distribution of quantities is used with the preposition по followed by the dative case with 'one' and по followed by the accusative (which looks nominative) case with quantities larger than one: аждый получил по одному карандашу. о сколько? ( котором часу?) 'At what time?' 2:00 4:15 10:30 B + accusative case: в два часа в четыре пятнадцать/в четверть пятого/в пятнадцать пятого в десять тридцать/в пол-одиннадцатого/в половине одиннадцатого 65 . where the accusative case is required. there are two conventions: (1) schedule time using the 24-hour clock used in media. including the obligatory use of the genitive case in dates that include the day. train stations. (Both conventions will be listed under 1 A and B in the order given above. When telling time. Hours' A. airports. there is a clear correlation between units of time up to a week. по нескольку месяцев по шесть человек в ряд 'Everyone got one pencil. centuries) where the locative case is required. екунда.' 'for several months at a time' 'six people to a row' 2. The seasons of the year and times of the day generally require the instrumental case. years. etc. When seen from this perspective. not a semi-colon) шесть двадцать/двадцать минут седьмого девять тридцать/ полдесятого/половина десятого четыре сорок пять/ без четверти пять/ без пятнадцати пять B. колько времени? ( оторый час?) 'What time is it?' 5:00 6:20 9:30 4:45 Nominative case of numeral: пять часов (CSR uses 5. there is the addition of certain genitive constructions. month and year. and from a week to larger units (months.

1:50 в час пятьдесят/без десяти два 2. од .' 'On what day?' 'On Tuesday.'Weeks' [The most commonly missed time expression by English-speaking L2 learners of CSR. Seasons and times of the day (instrumental) осенью.' 7.'Days and Dates' [Note that CSR does not capitalize months or days. есяц . C.] A.He was born on January 20th (or February 1st in the old style). D.) ретьего.) о вторник. Day. neuter) егодня девятое. летом.' 3.Он родился двадцатого января (или первого февраля по старому стилю) тысяча восемьсот восемьдесят четвёртого года.) егодня среда.] HA + locative а какой неделе? 'In/during what week?' на этой неделе 'this week' на прошлой/той неделе 'last week' на следующей/будущей неделе 'next week' 4. spring. 'When was Evgenij Ivanovich born? . еделя . year combined (genitive) огда вгений ванович родился? . winter' 66 .' 'What is the date?' 'The 9th. ень и число . March to August are stemstressed.' 'On what date?' 'On the 3rd. summer. весной. акой сегодня день? (nom. month.] B + locative каком месяце? 'In which month?' феврале 'In February' ноябре 'In November' апреле 'In April' 5. акого числа? (gen.'Months' [The months from September to February are end-stressed. 'What day is it?' 'Today’s Wednesday.'Years' B + locative каком году? (тысяча девятьсот) девяностом году две тысячи первом году две тысячи седьмом году 'In which year?' 'In 1990' 'In 2001' 'In 2007' 6. зимой 'in the fall. какой день? (B + acc. B. 1884. акое сегодня число? (nom.

' The dative plural is also possible for times of day or days of the week: по вечерам 'in the evenings' по утрам 'in the mornings' по ночам 'late at night' по средам 'on Wednesdays' (Note the stress variation in this form.'We are going to St. at dusk.) ы едем в итер на неделю. днём. at dawn' (HA + locative) Also note that Russian is very specific about the difference between 'evening' and 'night.' Time spans: ‘from .' аз в год(у). на рассвете 'in the morning. 'Zhenya finished writing the letter in 30 minutes. Petersburg in a week. the locative is used in colloquial CSR. at night' 'at dawn/dusk..' ы едем в итер через неделю. Petersburg for a week. на закате.' еня написал письмо за полчаса. 'Liza answered us in two seconds. 'We are going to St. 'Once a year' (Here. ночью BUT: на заре. 'Five times a month. вечером. in the evening.. until’ от ушкина до улгакова с девяти до пяти с пятого по десятое сентября ‘from Pushkin to Bulgakov’ ‘from nine to five’ ‘from September 5th through the 10th’ 67 .) по понедельникам 'on Mondays' Other time expressions using different prepositions (or no preposition) with the accusative case: колько раз в день? 'How many times a day?' ять раз в месяц. Petersburg a week already.утром. 'We’ve been on the road to St. 'I had an strange dream last night. during the day.' where 'night' is after midnight until dawn: егодня ночью мне приснился странный сон.' ы едем в итер уже неделю.' иза ответила нам в две секунды.

adjectives. according to you. without thinking through' втихаря 'quietly on the side' Adverbs of quantity много мало. Some of these forms are declined nouns. intentionally' (negative meaning) сгоряча 'like a hothead. немножко сколько несколько нисколько столько 'many. just a bit' еле-еле 'barely' назло 'on purpose. how much' 'several' 'not any' 'so many. Note the following examples: пулей 'like a bullet' налево 'to the left' певуче 'song-like' вшестером 'all six together' лёжа 'while lying down' молча 'silently' шутя 'jokingly' по-твоему 'in your opinion. pronouns and numerals. rudely' вслух 'out loud' наяву 'in the flesh' где 'where' всегда 'always' навсегда 'forever' всюду 'everywhere' наотрез 'abruptly' напрямую 'directly' впритык 'really tight. no spare time' чуть-чуть 'a little bit. искренне 'sincerely' It is common practice is the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 611-626) to consider a broad range of forms in the adverbial class. so much' 68 . немного. much' 'few. adverbs may have forms with hard. not much' 'how many. others are combined with prepositions.2.and soft-stems: искренний/искренно.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions Adverbs are formed very simply from adjectival stems by merely dropping the desinence and adding -/o/: красивый/красиво 'pretty' простой/просто 'simple' трудный/трудно 'difficult' In some instances. or formed from verbs or verbal adverbs. the way you do things' по-свински 'like a pig. a little. not many.

' Adverbs of quantity and verbal agreement: The singular is generally used (which means neuter past tense and 3rd person singular for present and future). not at all. while the first one is more evaluative and characterizes the amount of work as much less.' ного детей плавало в бассейне.У меня мало работы. Consider the following examples: отите ещё винца? 'Would you like some more wine?' ай мне ещё чаю/чая. but the plural may be possible in some instances where a greater emphasis is on the individuality of the members of the group. немного. У меня немного работы. 'I have very little work/I haven’t got enough work. The adverb ещё -'still. not much. 69 . немножко. 'Give use another 10 minutes to play.' У тебя много работы? 'Do you have lots of work?' ет.' ет.' Here. Adverbs of quantity require the genitive case (usually plural. есять человек мне звонили сегодня вечером. 'Give me some more tea. yet' also acts as an adverb of quantity in some contexts.' 'I have a bit of work/ just a little.' Remember: The genitive plural of ‘people’ after cardinal numerals and the adverbs of quantity сколько and несколько is человек. 'Ten people called me this evening. 'Lots of kids were swimming in the pool. but the singular is also used with certain lexemes that are reluctant to pluralize). 'No.' ай нам ещё десять минут поиграть. the second answer is neutral. 'No.

and (4) examples of compound prepositional phrases. into. see the sections on the individual cases and the section on verbal government. at. over' I согласно про 'about. at' 'on. after. down from' [in comparing equals] I/G/A около от(о) 'from' G вдоль из(о) 'from' G возле до 'up to. during' L вопреки над(о) 'above.'What’s up with this idiot?').] Below is a list of commonly used prepositions divided into three types: (1) prepositions that are also preverbs. across' раз'in multiple directions. but certain ones do modify (with the addition of the /o/ vowel) when combined with lexemes beginning in consonant clusters. upon' [in distribution . Prepositions play a major role in verbal government. in the presence of. concerning' A 3 Preverb meanings пере/пре're-. in' [time] A 'through' A 'around. near. until. (2) prepositions that are not preverbs. but there is one usage of the preposition за that requires a nominative form (singular or plural) of the noun phrase (cf. to a point' G благодаря при 'affiliated with. having' G сквозь с(о) 'together with.' 'right before' cases D I/G I 'along.Prepositions Prepositions in CSR are nondeclinable forms. while others may be used with multiple cases to express different meanings. motion (accusative case) expressions. Some prepositions are restricted and used with only one case. onto. то это за глупость/глупости? . against' L/A через/чрез у 'at. all over' вз/воз/вс/вос'upward' вы'out' 'for' (the sake of) G 'pass' (by) G 'across. [For more information on prepositions in verbal government. The largest group of prepositions taking multiple cases is determined by static/locational (locative case) vs. about' 'along side' 'thanks to' G G G D 'in spite of' D 'according to' D 13 All prepositions require some case other than the nominative. at the moment of. (3) preverbs that are not prepositions. around. 1 Prep meanings в(о) на за по 'in.'What kind of nonsense is this?' то это за идиот? . at' 'behind. near' 'along. for' 2 Prep к между перед cases L/A L/A I/A/ (N)13 meanings 'towards' 'between' 'in front of. 70 .'10 each'] D/L/A для под(о) 'under' I/A мимо о/об(о) 'about.

13 Derivational Morphology Russian derivation occurs primarily by means of prefixation and suffixation. mutate or drop. for a while' побережье повсюду поплавать 'shoreline' 'all over' 'swim a little' ________________________________________________________________________ под(о)'under. begin' закат закусочная загулять 'sunset' 'snack shop' 'lose one’s way. go wild and be irresponsible' ________________________________________________________________________ по 'set off. In some instances a root may be identified as predominantly substantive (nominal). The following sections will give an overview of word formation in CSR with examples of prefixation and suffixation in nouns. The root serves as the base and center of derivation and may or may not occur without its word-formative components. adjectives. sew a lot of' ________________________________________________________________________ за 'follow. adverbs and verbs. Many prefixes and suffixes can be shared by more than one part of speech while others cannot. Townsend (1977) and Andrews (1994). Compound prefixes and suffixs are allowed in CSR. cf. or verbal. sub-' подмышки подземный подкупить 'underarms' 'underground' 'buy with a bribe' Noun Adjective/Adverb въезд впервые 'entrance' (by vehicle) 'for the first time' 71 .4 Prep рядом с из-за в соответствии с meanings 'next (door) to' 'because of (smthg bad). Vinogradov (1960).1 Prefixes for nouns.13. (For more information on the specifics of Russian derivational morphology. In word-formation.) 2. consonants and vowels may shift. adjectives and verbs (native Slavic) with examples Prefix в(о) 'in(to)' Verb вкладывать 'deposit. The following section will list all of the Slavic prefixes and suffixes and many of the borrowed prefixes and suffixes. adjectival. from behind' 'in correspondence/conjunction with' cases I G I 2. invest' ________________________________________________________________________ на 'on(to)' налог нарядный нашить 'tax' 'dressed up' 'sew on.

co-' сокурсник смежный созвониться 'college classmate' 'mixed' 'call each other' ________________________________________________________________________ от(о) 'away from' отгул отдельно отличиться 'time off work' 'separately' 'distinguish oneself' ________________________________________________________________________ из(о) 'from inside to out' излишки искусный избить ис(о) 'excesses' 'tasteful.) ухоженный угнать 'wow!' 'well-groomed' 'hijack. across. well'beat up badly' conceived' ________________________________________________________________________ до 'up to. discharge' 'intelligent. circumscribe'объедки ограниченныйосудить 'left-overs. until. down from. make angry' ________________________________________________________________________ при 'arrive. перекур переходный передать over' 'a smoke break' 'crossing' 'pass on' предел прекрасный предать 'boundary.________________________________________________________________________ о/об(о) 'around. sentence' 'pre-election' '(fore)warn' ________________________________________________________________________ раз. over' надпись надкусанный надрезать 'sign' 'showing teeth-marks' 'make a cut on top' ________________________________________________________________________ про 'through' (time or space) промах прохладный продумать 'a miss' 'cool' 'think through' ________________________________________________________________________ пере/пре. un-' разряд разумный рассмотреть рас'spark. scraps' 'limited' 'condemn. to a point' добавка договорный довести 'second helping' 'contractual' 'lead to. carjack' ________________________________________________________________________ с(о) 'together. edge' 'wonderful' 'betray' ________________________________________________________________________ пред 'pre-' предложение предвыборный предупредить 'proposition.'re-. judge' обсудить 'discuss' ________________________________________________________________________ у 'leaving. consider' 72 . add on' приправа приличный притворяться 'spice. logical' 'analyze. moving away' улёт (coll.'in multiple directions. sauce' 'appropriate' 'pretend' ________________________________________________________________________ над(о) 'above.

'contra' контрагент контрреволюционный 'contra-agent' 'contrarevolutionary' ________________________________________________________________________ супер-'super' суперобложка супермодный 'book cover' 'super-fashionable' 73 .'upward' взгляд вздорный взлететь 'view. without sin' ________________________________________________________________________ па. ugliness' 'unfortunate' 'behead' ________________________________________________________________________ не'not' неправда невесёлый нездоровиться 'untruth' 'unhappy' 'to be not well' ________________________________________________________________________ пра. remove' безобразие обездоленный обезглавить 'disorder.'anti-' Noun Adjective/Adverb Verb_______ антихрист антифашисткий 'Antichrist' 'antifascist' ________________________________________________________________________ авто.________________________________________________________________________ вз/воз/вс/вос. adverbs and verbs (borrowings) The general frequency of most of these forms is not very robust beyond specialized.2 Prefixes for nouns.13. adjectives.'half' полубог полуголый полусидеть 'half God' 'half naked' 'half sit.'take off.'step' пасынок 'stepson' ________________________________________________________________________ пол(у).'ex' экс-муж 'ex-husband' ________________________________________________________________________ псевдо.'great.'pseudo' псевдоискусство псевднонаучный 'pseudo-art' 'pseudo-scientific' ________________________________________________________________________ контр. glance. sit up in bed' 2. discharge' ________________________________________________________________________ (о)без.'auto-' авторучка автомобильный автоматизировать 'ball-point pen' 'automotive' 'automate' ________________________________________________________________________ экс. technical vocabulary. look' 'foolish' 'take off' ________________________________________________________________________ вы'out of' выстрел выходной выписать 'a (gun) shot' 'day off' 'write out. original' прадед праведный 'great grandfather' 'pure. Prefix анти.

13. Where relevant. Derivation in the verb will be treated in a separate section. TV with built-in VCR.ультразвук ультрафиолетовый 'ultrasound' 'ultraviolet' ________________________________________________________________________ гипер-'hyper' гипертоник гипертрофированный 'hypertonic' 'hypertrophic' ________________________________________________________________________ квази.2 and examples in the following sections of specific suffixes.3 Suffixation in Russian Nouns and Adjectives The richness of Russian word formation has produced volumes of scholarship that attempts to describe and explain the formal and semantic aspects of this phenomenon. Compound suffixes are given at the end of the list. For examples.3. nose of tool' _ 74 . If other agreement genders are possible above and beyond the obvious declensional ones. Suffix Agentive Noun Non-agentive Noun______ -к-а красотка двойка 'a beauty' '“D” grade.1 Agentive suffixes in the noun Some of the suffixes given below may also be non-agentive. those examples will be noted in the far right column.). washing machine' _______________________________________________________________________ -/о/к сынок носок 'son' 'sock. it will be listed first (cf.5. м/ж . see section 1. ср . ж feminine. In the following sections. toe-tip.'quasi' квазиморфема квазилинейный 'quasi-morpheme' 'quasi-linear' ________________________________________________________________________ 2.masc. м . If common gender is the most prevalent form of the class. suffix -ag-a). I will briefly summarize in tabular form the nominal and adjectival suffixes in CSR. 2. Only suffixes that occur in more than 4 lexemes are included. and fem.13. number of bus/trolley' мойка 'washing. see Andrews 1996a: 36-123.________________________________________________________________________ микро-'micro' микроклимат микроскопичный 'microclimate' 'microscopic' ________________________________________________________________________ макро-'macro' макроструктура макроаналитический 'macrostructure' 'macroanalytical' ________________________________________________________________________ ультра-'ultra' У . For a detailed discussion of the status of individual suffixes as distinct or allomorphs. they will be marked individually (cf. car wash.neuter. Consonant alternations are an important part of derivation in CSR.masculine.

______________________________________________________________________ -ок игрок челнок 'player' 'wooden boat' (in CSCR. The remaining 4 are very restricted technical terms (e.g. a total of 7 forms are inanimate with the suffix. 3 are both animate and inanimate. бомбардировщик. misunderstanding' In Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of Russian. refers to persons involved in resale of products bought abroad in Russia) _______________________________________________________________________ -ик братик домик 'brother' 'house' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак чудак сорняк 'weirdo' 'weed' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак-а коммуняка железяка 'Commie' 'metal piece. 14 75 . пикировщик .both refer to airplanes ['bomber'. -щик. 'dive-bomber']). mine-sweeper' _______________________________________________________________________ -х-а пряха 'weaver ' неумёха (м/ж) 'someone who can’t do anything right' _______________________________________________________________________ -ах-а деваха 'girl' аняха (м) 'Vanya' (name) растеряха (м/ж) 'someone who is always losing things' _______________________________________________________________________ -их-а пловчиха неразбериха 'female swimmer' 'disorder. Of those 7. smthg made of metal' _______________________________________________________________________ -ник карманник разговорник 'pick-pocket' 'conversation book' _______________________________________________________________________ -чик счастливчик карманчик 'lucky person' 'pocket' _______________________________________________________________________ -щик изменщик тральщик14 'traitor' 'trawler.

metal beam' _______________________________________________________________________ -иц-а волчица вещица 'female wolf' 'thing' _______________________________________________________________________ -ниц-а дачница больница 'women living 'hospital' at her dacha' _______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-а бабища вонища 'old woman' 'horrible stench' 76 .) _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/ц американец венец 'american man' 'crown. panic' горёха (м) 'Igor’ (name)' выпивоха (м/ж) 'heavy drinker' _______________________________________________________________________ -ух-а сеструха желтуха 'sister' 'jaundice' грязнуха (м/ж) 'dirty. unkempt person' _______________________________________________________________________ -аг-а бедняга (м/ж) общага (ж) 'poor thing' 'dormitory' парняга (м) 'fellow' дворняга (ж) 'mixed-breed or stray dog' _______________________________________________________________________ -уг-а хапуга (м/ж) дерюга (ж) 'greedy person' 'sackcloth' парнюга (м) 'fellow' севрюга (ж) 'salmon' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыг-а сквалыга (м/ж) булыга (ж) 'stingy person' 'stone' (arc._______________________________________________________________________ -ох-а дурёха суматоха 'fool' 'turmoil.

special school (military. on the shore) _______________________________________________________________________ -тель читатель двигатель 'reader' 'engine. music. motor' _______________________________________________________________________ -ар ветеринар стационар 'veterinarian' 'hospital' _______________________________________________________________________ -арь глухарь словарь 'deaf person' 'dictionary' _______________________________________________________________________ -ор ухажёр прожектор 'beau. round stone' (often near water. boyfriend' 'search light' _______________________________________________________________________ 77 .)' _______________________________________________________________________ -бище кладбище 'cemetery' _______________________________________________________________________ -овище кнутовище 'handle of a whip' _______________________________________________________________________ -ин-а гадина горошина 'despicable person' 'a pea' человечина (м/ж) человечина (ж) 'huge person' 'human flesh/meat' _______________________________________________________________________ -щина годовщина ‘anniversary’ _______________________________________________________________________ -ин болгарин 'Bulgarian man' _______________________________________________________________________ -ун врун валун 'liar' 'large._______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-е детище винище 'pet project' 'wine' басище (м) голосище (м) 'male bass singer' 'voice' пожарище (м/ср) 'fire' ______________________________________________________________________ -лище страшилище (м/ср) училище 'someone scary. etc. ugly' 'institute.

baron’s daughter' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-а девушка верхушка girl' 'top (of mtn).) полюшко 'my little child’ 'field' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш/к-о солнышко пятнышко ‘my sunshine’ 'spot. racket. miss. noise._______________________________________________________________________ -ач лихач тягач 'someone who drives 'tow truck' fast and reckless' _______________________________________________________________________ -ич москвич 'Moscovite' Александрович 'Aleksandrovich' (male patronymic) _______________________________________________________________________ -ш-а кассирша 'female cashier' левша (м/ж) 'left-handed person' папаша (м) 'pop' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш-а вруша (м/ж) 'liar' Андрюша (м) 'Andrej' атюша (ж) 'Kate' _______________________________________________________________________ -н-я родня возня 'relatives' 'fussing around. stain' (said of persons) 78 . оня/соня bother' 'Sofia (name)/sleepy-head' _______________________________________________________________________ -ын-я барыня 'baroness' _______________________________________________________________________ -ышн-я барышня 'young lady. head (of gov’t)' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-о чадушко (arc.

'heat wave' heavenly body' (inan. −ь-е/-и-e and -к-а. -от-а.13. The suffixes -ость.] In terms of deverbalized nouns.2 Non-agentive suffixes in the noun [For more information on these types of non-agentive suffixes. see Townsend (1975: 152200) and Vinogradov (1960: 235-263)._______________________________________________________________________ -оч/о/к сыночек разочек 'son' 'one time. once' _______________________________________________________________________ -оч/к-а атюшечка подушечка 'Kate' (name) 'pillow' _______________________________________________________________________ -ур/к-а дочурка печурка 'daughter' 'small stove' _______________________________________________________________________ -ень/к-а маменька 'mommie' папенька (м) 'daddy' _______________________________________________________________________ -ал театрал централ 'theatre lover' 'main city prison in Tsarist Russia' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-а здоровила (м/ж) 'big and healthy person' заводила (м/ж) 'leader. Suffix Zero suffix Non-agentive noun_________________________ рассказ (m 1st decl) 'story' еда (f 2nd decl) 'food' связь (f 3rd decl) 'connection' 79 . one who takes the initiative' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-о светило пекло 'famous person.) _______________________________________________________________________ 2.3. the primary suffix types that participate are 3: zero suffixes. and изн-а are most commonly associated with adjectival base forms.

4 Adjectival suffixes (qualitative and relational) [For a discussion of possessive adjectives and the suffixes -ov and -in. down pour' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш розыгрыш 'contest' (to win smthg) ________________________________________________________________________ -ик + /о/к дождичек 'rain' _______________________________________________________________________ 2. see the section on possessive adjectives in the previous chapter. 'representation.] 80 . smthg new' _______________________________________________________________________ -он (coll._______________________________________________________________________ −ь-е/-и-е открытие 'opening (ceremony)' повторение/повторенье 'repetition' враньё 'lying' _______________________________________________________________________ -ств-о озорство 'mischief' представительство 'office representing a business or political organization'.13.) музон 'cool music' блузон 'stylish blouse' _______________________________________________________________________ -аж шпионаж 'espionage' персонаж 'character. representative' _______________________________________________________________________ -ость открытость 'openness' солидарность 'solidarity' _______________________________________________________________________ -изм коммунизм 'communism' марксизм 'Marxism' _______________________________________________________________________ -аци-я демократизация 'democratization' _______________________________________________________________________ -от-а красота/лепота 'beauty' высота 'height' _______________________________________________________________________ -изн-а новизна 'novelty. personage' ________________________________________________________________________ -ель метель 'snow storm' _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/нь ливень 'heavy rain.

ецн-. -онн-. clever' застенчивый 'shy' _______________________________________________________________________ -атбородатый 'bearded' _______________________________________________________________________ -оватглуховатый 'pretty deaf' _______________________________________________________________________ -авкровавый 'bloody' слащавый 'sweet. Petersburg' _______________________________________________________________________ -нкнижный 'book' _______________________________________________________________________ -овзвуковой 'sound' медовый 'honey' _______________________________________________________________________ -истпористый 'porous' _______________________________________________________________________ -енн-/-оннприжизненный 'during one’s lifetime' организационный 'organizational' _______________________________________________________________________ -ньвечерний 'evening' осенний 'autumn' _______________________________________________________________________ -шньздешний 'local' _______________________________________________________________________ -ливговорливый 'talkative' расчётливый 'calculating' _______________________________________________________________________ -чивнаходчивый 'resourceful. Adjective__________________________________ питерский 'smthg associated with St. -ическ-. овск-. -ск-. -овн-. ийск-. handsome' ленивый 'lazy' _______________________________________________________________________ Suffix -ск- 81 . -ичн-. ебн-. saccharin' _______________________________________________________________________ -астгорластый 'loud voiced' _______________________________________________________________________ -ивкрасивый 'beautiful. -льн-. очн-.and -sk(e.For more examples of variations of the basic suffixes given below.g. -/н-.). -тельн-. инск-. -енн-. -енск-. see Townsend (1975: 216-222) where he gives a detailed set of examples with “enlarged suffixes” in -n. ейск.

Jaroslavo) пожарище 'large fire' 'place where fire occurred' кострище 'large campfire' 'place where campfire had been' судище 'big court (building)' 'court as abstract concept' (arch. forms in -ищ-е may carry negative connotations.'bear'. the feminine form must be уродина. ugly person').2. added to an animal name.) топорище 'large axe' 'axe arm/handle' The one form in -ищ-е that is both masculine and feminine is уродище ('freak. remains of city' дворище 'large (court)yard' 'site of former court' (esp. [Zaliznjak (1977: 74) acknowledges the use of the -u desinence in this instance. Number one below is the preferred form while number 2 is also acceptable.5. Feminine agreement is allowed with this form in the nominative case only. Considering all 180 -ищ-е forms given in Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of Russian. indicate locations and large groups of people or gods.'dog'). although productive in general. In other case forms. Another complication encountered with -ищ-е occurs in case forms other than the nominative. 'I saw such a huge bear!' In attempting to state a general meaning of the -ищ-а/е suffix. Note the following examples: masculine neuter городище 'large city' 'archeological site. the gender of the base noun determines whether the ending is -e (masculine) or -a (feminine) (cf. (3) no form in -ищ-е becomes animate if the base noun is not already marked for animacy. 122 are neuter. masculine animates in -ищ-е form an unexpected paradigm.5 Augmentatives. especially in the accusative case. When -ищ. but fails to give the -e form as a possible alternative. The doublets that occur in this suffix class are either masculine or neuter. медведище .1 Augmentatives and gender shifts in CSR: A Semantic Excursus There are two productive suffixes that yield a meaning of enlargement in nominal derivation in CSR. diminutives and gender shifts in the Russian noun 2. The -ищ-е suffix.] (1) Я видел такого медведищу or (2) Я видел такого медведище.13. 58 are masculine (14 of these are animate) and only 7 forms have gender doublets (where one is feminine). собачища . I prefer to speak of a spatially extended range of reference of the signified that is complementary to the 82 . namely -ищ-а/е and -ин-а. In addition to the meaning of enlargement. Three generalizations are worth stating at this point: (1) there is never a shift in gender from base noun to augmented form in the meaning of 'large.13.' (2) a change in gender is accompanied by a change in meaning. is not productive in terms of potential gender shifts from the substantival base form to the augmented form.

cattle (m)' If enlargement is the central meaning of the two suffixes presented above. one may explain this so-called exception by acknowledging the way in which -ищ-е behaves semantically as a quantifier. while also productive. may have nothing to do with a meaning of enlargement or intensification (cf. then how can we characterize the differences between these suffixes? A new definition is especially necessary for the . while the suffix -ищ-е gives enlargement/intensification through increasing quantification of an expanded space.1. In addition.] The . night stick (f)' скотина 'scum (m/f). Consider the following examples: домина 'large house' человечина 'large person. human flesh' бусина 'one bead' градина 'one piece of hail' морковина 'one carrot' Examples of some of the more common gender doublets include the following: псина 'large dog (m/f). predominantly animate nouns.10. I would suggest that in contradistinction to the -ищ-е suffix. they are nonproductive as well. monster. Я видел таких уродищ/чудовищ/страшилищ! 'I saw such ugly people/monsters/freaks!' As I have discussed elsewhere (1996a: 134-6). the suffix -ин-а gives enlargement/intensification through individuation (or restricted quantification) of a bounded space. in fact. as well as a clearly-bounded subset of the referential space available. examples above). This feature of the semantic field of -ищ-е is most clearly seen in its usage in the plural. which.ин -a suffix. dog flesh (f)' дубина 'stupid person (m/f). The semantic field of -ин-a is somewhat different from -ищ-а/е in that enlargement and intensification are not the only meanings available. Another feature of the -ищ-е suffix that needs to be accounted for is the behavior of neuter nouns like уродище. 83 .ин -a suffix. much like numerals act as quantifiers.sense of 'large' (человечище . is more restrictive in combining with verbal and participial stems. страшилище ('ugly person.'huge person') or 'something stronger' (голосище -'loud voice') in specific speaker interpretations. [Compare with the gradation of case usage after oblique case numerals in section 2. In other words. the -ин-a suffix produces a referent that is both maximally visible. we find numerous examples that give a meaning of “individuation” of the referent. freak') in the accusative plural where they are all treated as animate (using the genitive plural desinence). чудовище. Although there are quite a few gender doublets in -ин-a.

Some suffixes are more likely to have a diminutizing meaning. слатенький/сладенький 'sweetie'). In some cases. (1) It is hardly ever the case that a particular nominal suffix is always diminutizing in meaning. al (1960: 264-270) and Townsend (1975: 196-99. 2. Perception of usage and actual usage are distinct categories that exhibit varying degrees of intersection and overlap depending on a range of sociolinguistic variables (especially age. However.1 General principles 1. The use of proper names with suffixes exhibited a large degree of variation.'cute.(cf. Adult speakers use complex morphological substantival forms when speaking to small children. 4.13. 3. Women are more likely to admit to using diminutive forms more than men. and if there are any children and/or grandchildren in the immediate family). красивенький 'beautiful. while in others they are quite separate. 237).'tiny'. education. while other suffixes that have traditionally been considered diminutizing are hardly ever so.2 Diminutives in CSR There are numerous thorough accounts of nominal and adjectival diminutives in CSR (including Vinogradov et. certain compound suffixes are almost always more confirmation of the important dynamic interactions between categories of grammatical and lexical meaning in Russian derivation. adorable'. (2) The only truly diminutizing suffix in the Russian adjective is with some form of еньк. 2. беленький шарф . see Andrews 1996a: 138-147. these two characterizations overlap. [For more specifics of one of these studies. adorable'. хорошенький .2. Based on a series of studies that I have conducted in St.] 2.The so-called augmentative suffixes discussed above are a revealing test ground for demonstrating very vividly that the rules of declension and gender agreement play a significant role in the determination of meaning -.'little white scarf'.13. in order to properly contextualize these examples. In the following comments. малюсенький . Russia with over 1000 informants during the past 10 year period. Petersburg. I will briefly review in tabular form those suffixes that can have a diminutive or endearing (Russian уменьшительный/ласкательный) meaning. The lexical basis for diminutives is highly variable for specific age groups (where age is more salient statistically than speaker/hearer gender). but that actual diminutive usage is not clearly determined by speaker gender.5. I will include those suffixes that speakers have selected and/or produced independently as characteristic of their speech. as well as state a set of conclusions that were derived from the data collected. a few remarks are in order.5. gender. 5. 84 . a non-diminutive meaning is possible given the appropriate context and intonation: орошенькое дело! 'What a mess!' (when something bad has happened) (3) One of the most interesting aspects of diminutive forms is how contemporary speakers actually perceive and actively use these forms. Note however that even in these examples. speaker/hearer relationship.

Note that while the forms below may be used as diminutives. The English gloss will not add 'little' to every entry. cabin' 'field' 'kitty' 'my sunshine' 85 . For example. honey' 'brother' (not necessarily younger) 'sofa' 'milk' 'door' 'mirror.5.13. little city') may refer to a huge city (like St.6. городок ('city. The most popular “diminutizing” suffixes (based on my 1994 survey) were: -к-а -ик -/о/к -ён/о/к -оч/к-а 7. Suffix -/о/к -к-а -ик -чик -к-о -ц-а -ц-о -/е/ц -иц-а -иц-е -ин/к-а -ич/к-а -уш/к-а -уш/к-о -оч/к-а -ыш/к-о Noun городок зайка братик диванчик молочко дверца зеркальце винцо морозец сестрица платьице пылинка сестричка избушка полюшко кошечка солнышко English gloss 'city' 'bunny. especially since not all of these words can be used with 'little' in English. this does not mean that the individual suffix itself is primarily a diminutizing one. Other commonly produced diminutive forms included the following suffixes: -он/к-а -оч/е/к -уш/к-а -ыш/к-о -ул-я -ун-я -ут-а -ён-а -/е/ц -ц-о -к-о 2. Petersburg in the well-known television series with that name).2 Examples of diminutive lexical items with specific suffixes The morphology of suffixes that are associated with diminutive usage do not demonstrate gender shifts as seen with the augmentative suffixes discussed above.2. compact' 'wine' 'freezing weather' 'sister' 'dress' 'tiny bit of dust' 'sister' 'hut.

-иш/к-о -иш/к-а -онь/к-а -он/к-а -ул-я -ун-я -он/о/к -ута -ён-а -ш/к-о письмишко зайчишка девонька сестрёнка сынуля руня поросёнок Анюта сластёна окошко 'letter' 'bunny. honey' 'girl' 'sister' 'son' 'Irina' 'piglet' 'Annie' 'sweetie' 'tiny window' 86 .

14. есть.А у меня есть. but I will only use determinate/indeterminate in the body of this work given its greater accuracy in representing the actual semantics of the category. where есть is used only in statements or questions of ‘existence’ and суть is used as a noun meaning ‘essence’. Note the following examples: Я студент. [This distinction is also referred to as unidirectional/multidirectional. ‘I have in mind a new style. biaspectual) Tense (past. as is true of a large number of works on the Russian verbs. де.‘But I do. 1966. singular) Jakobson (1957/1984: 51) also lists the evidential occurring in CSR via the use of the particles мол. Jakobson produced a series of the most profound articles even written on the contemporary Russian verb system. some Russian verbs (especially verbs of motion) distinguish two forms of the imperfective -. neuter) Number (plural.determinate and indeterminate (Russian определённая/неопределённая форма). In addition to these categories. ‘I am a student. I do.’ 15 [Jakobson (1957/1984: 50) lists the hortative and imperative as injunctives) 87 .’ Я имею в виду новый стиль.’ У тебя есть катер? .’ . ‘Do you have a boat?’ . The old forms есть/суть do occur in CSR but with a different meaning. non-past) Mood (conditional. ‘That’s not the point. indicative.’ е в этом суть. 3rd) Voice (passive. active) Gender (feminine. but in many cases the prepositional construction у with the genitive case is preferred. 1956.‘Yes. imperative)15 Person (1st. ‘I don’t have any money. . is based most significantly on Jakobson’s contributions. The following presentation. imperfective. masculine.а.14 Verbs The following categories are represented in the Russian verb: Aspect (perfective.2. 2nd. 2.] Before moving forward.1 ‘Have’ and ‘be’ languages The verb ‘be’ (быть) does not occur in the present tense in CSR. it is important to note that Roman O.’ У меня нет денег. The verb ‘to have’ (иметь) exists in CSR. especially Jakobson 1948. дескать ('he/she says/said').

Infinitive: Past/preterit: -t’. -č’ -l.2 Verbal desinences in CSR The following table will outline in morphophonemic transcription the basic endings for all of the forms of the Russian verb.2. All present participles (active and passive) are only imperfective. -at -Ø (t’e). ‘-ot’e. All verbs with the particle s’a are by definition intransitive. -i (t’e) ‘-a. ‘-om. ‘-ot. ‘-im-ij (bounded) (unbounded) (bounded with a dash) 16 Only transitive verbs may form passive participles. ‘-oš. -všis’ (with reflexive verbs) Participles16: active preterit: active present: passive preterit (ppp): passive present: Particles associated with verbs: reflexive: -s’a conditional: -bi hortative: -ka -vš-ij. ‘-it’e. -l’i Non-preterit: [Note that the indicative conjugation of imperfective verbs yields a present tense and the indicative conjugation of perfective verbs yields a future tense.14. -ut -u. ‘-it. .] 1st conjugation: 2nd conjugation: Imperative: Verbal adverbs: -u. -vši ‘-as’. Over 99% of all ppp’s are perfective. -la. -nn-ij. ‘-onn-ij ‘-om-ij. -v. -t’i. 88 .šij -šč-ij -t-ij. ‘-iš. -lo. ‘-im.

with a hyphen. sg. including negation.' 'He’s not ready. In general. 'Oleg never talks to anyone.14.3 Verb negation in CSR In order to negate any verb in Russian.' Note that the не is pronounced together with the verb as if one word with one stress accent. 'That’s not true. sg.. these forms may be written as one word or remain two separate words. а поездка была удачной.' One of the most useful sources to assist in determining if word forms. то ни говори. the trip was a success. не была. the stress may move to the не (cf.2. sg.' 'Regardless of/no matter what you say. neut. Moscow: Russian Language Publishers. If the sentence has more than one verb. adjective or adverb is negated by не. 1992. are written as one word. fem. and pl. In some instances. then each verb must be negated. не были). 89 . не было. Note the following examples: Это неправда. 'wasn’t' in masc. simply insert the negative word-form не 'not' before the verb. is the dictionary entitled литно или раздельно? Опыт словаря-справочника. Он не готов. A single verb may only be negated once. or as separate words.. any word in the sentence may be negated by не. The negative prefix ни is not sufficient by itself to give negation of a verb and will always require the presence of the form не (except when it is used in a non-negative sense): Олег никогда ни с кем не разговаривает. If a noun. forms ..не был.

In short. the HCB may give a future tense by conjugating the verb 'to be' (быть) followed by the HCB infinitive: Infinitive: читать ( ) 'read' Present tense: читаю читаешь читает читаем читаете читают Past tense: читал читала читало читали Future tense: буду читать будешь читать будет читать будем читать будете читать будут читать прочитать ( ) 'read' прочитал прочитала прочитало прочитали прочитаю прочитаешь прочитает прочитаем прочитаете прочитают The majority of scholars who study aspect argue that the perfective is the marked form of the oppositions. What this means is that the meanings generated by perfective aspectual usage have more semantic density that the imperfectives. In addition to the future tense CB verbs. I will use the Russian abbreviations (HCB/CB) to refer to these two aspects. meaning 'view. This does not mean that the 90 . Russian verbal aspect choice depends upon the speaker’s viewpoint. [From this point forward.] The relationship between aspect and tense is straightforward and generally explained in the following manner: Past: Present: Future: HCB/CB HCB HCB/CB In order to explain the different usages of non-past here. Those 2 choices are called imperfective (HCB .2. how he/she perceives the verbal action and chooses to characterize it.4 Verbal aspect The Russian word for aspect is вид. note that the indicative conjugated form of imperfective (HCB) verbs gives a present tense meaning.несовершенный вид) and perfective (CB . look' and captures the essence of the semantics of verbal aspect in CSR. while the indicative conjugated form of perfective (CB) verbs gives a future tense meaning.совершенный вид).14.

it is important to note that this result continues to be relevant up to the moment of speaking. which means that an L2 learner of Russian will nevertheless need to acquaint him. especially in the past tense.' Этот фильм мне очень понравился. The imperfective aspect primarily focuses on the process by naming the verbal action.' 4. his or her viewpoint. However. rather. A corollary of this is seen in the use of past tense imperfective verbs referring to something that is no longer in effect: Этот фильм мне очень нравился в детстве. L1 speakers of CSR use the imperfective in a creative and robust way. 6.or herself with the normative aspectual behaviors of competent L1 speakers of CSR. One indication of the continued relevance of the result of a transitive perfective verb in the imperative mood is the general requirement that the direct object must be explicitly given in the sentence: апиши ответ на доске! 'Write your answer on the board!' 5. The specific realization of this boundedness and specificity is often a sense of completeness where the verbal action is bounded in time and space. it is the speaker that almost totally controls the choice of aspect. I am fundamentally opposed to characterizing the meaning of Russian aspect with a list of rules. Aside from the restrictions of the present tense. bounded aspect. it all depends upon what the speakers wants to convey. When perfective verbs give the meaning of a completed result.imperfective has no meaning. Whether or not a result was achieved is not excluded here. it 91 . The imperfective is generally considered to be used more frequently than the perfective. L2 speakers of CSR make a large number of errors due to overuse of the perfective. but it is not the major focus of the imperfective aspect. the imperfective has more room for negotiating meanings. 3. In the end. 7. 'I really liked the movie (and still do). General remarks on aspectual usage in CSR: 1. I will provide some general guidelines that have proven to be useful for L2 learners of Russian. When answering a question.'I used to like that movie when I was a kid. The perfective aspect is the more restricted. most important discourse strategy to master in order to achieve appropriate aspectual usage with minimal effort is to remember: A significant amount of language use can be boiled down to questions and answers. The single. Having said this. remember that speakers are part of cultural and social communities. 2.

9. 92 . [For a discussion of the difficulties in determining aspectual pairs in CSR.] Below is a list of some of the more commonly encountered bi-aspectual verbs and uniaspectual/unpaired verbs of CSR. I haven’t. Averjanova. if the speaker has little information or no real expectations as to what the answer may be. The verbal classifier/suffix that is most often encountered in bi-aspectual verbs is -ova-. When asking a question with a past tense verb. организовывать (HCB) 'organize'. see Andrews. the question and answer are usually imperfective.ет. is quite problematic. Pjadusova 2001: generally correct to maintain the aspect given in the question unless the answer involves a strong negation of the question. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that what many linguists have considered to be a psychological and grammatical reality of the Russian verb system. читал. CB in all other tenses] 'organize ' [past is exclusively CB] 'wound' Some bi-aspectual verbs actually form pairs in colloquial CSR.14.ы читал рассказы елевина? .' 2. Bi-aspectual verbs адресовать атаковать бежать велеть голосовать жениться использовать исследовать казнить обещать образовать организовать17 ранить 17 'address' 'attack' 'run (away from a prisoncamp)' 'command' 'vote' 'marry (said of men)' 'use' 'investigate. research' 'execute' 'promise' 'form' [bi-asp. The significance of this phenomenon in the aspect system of CSR is complex and unresolved in the scholarly literature. Ozhekov/Shvedova Russian-Russian dictionary (1992) Tolkovyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka). I have. .а. form only. не читал. and in the case of образовывать 'form' and сорганизовать (CB). the imperfective gives a very strong meaning of denial. 8. -'Have you ever read any of Pelevin’s stories?' -'Yes. the derived imperfectives are achieving more recognition as literary forms (cf. in conj. In negative answers. .5 The role of BI-ASPECTUAL verbs in CSR There is a relatively large group of statistically-frequent verbal forms in CSR that are either uni-aspectual [unpaired] (Russian одновидовый) or bi-aspectual (Russian двувидовый). namely paired verbs.' -'No.

spout' There are some verbs that.'live' значить . 93 . specify the aspect of the infinitive. lists the classes of Russian verbs determined by one stem.'be ill' бороться . one stem can accurately generate all of the necessary verb forms. cease’ ‘become accustomed to’ ‘continue’ ‘become’ ‘be weary. when used with a following infinitive. Averjanova.'need' скончаться . торопиться ‘quit. start’ ‘become unaccustomed to’ ‘stop.'die. based on Jakobson 1948. see Andrews. bad)' жить .14. расхотеться Verbs requiring a following perfective: забывать/забыть мечтать оставаться/остаться спешить. give up. gush. разучиться хотеться/захотеться.рекомендовать родить родиться Uni-aspectual18: HCB болеть . break (a habit)’ ‘end. pass away' хлынуть . stay. Note the following examples: Verbs requiring a following imperfective: бросать/бросить кончать/кончить надоедать/надоесть начинать/начать отвыкать/отвыкнуть переставать/перестать привыкать/привыкнуть продолжать становиться/стать уставать/устать учиться/научиться.e. tire’ ‘learn. finish’ ‘be fed up with’ ‘begin. The rules for determining the verbal stem of any verb in Russian (excluding no more than 19 irregular verbal stems) are: 18 For a more complete listing. stop wanting’ ‘forget’ ‘(day)dream’ ‘remain.'mean' ожидать .6 Verbal classes in CSR The following is a summary of all of the verbal classes (suffixed and non-suffixed) of CSR.'regain consciousness' очутиться . be left’ ‘hurry’ 2.'come to one’s senses' очнуться .'struggle' выглядеть .'expect' 'recommend' 'give birth' 'be born' CB опомниться .'come rushing.'find oneself (in a location)' понадобиться . Pjadusova 2001: 22. This system. i. unlearn’ ‘want.'look (good.

truncate the first vowel) Consonant 1 + Consonant 2 = C2 (i.all remaining classes are 1st conjugation.(1) Determine the infinite and third person plural indicative forms.e. The two major divisions are between suffixed and nonsuffixed verbal classes. c > č s. These will be marked in the description of each verbal class. Using 94 . choice the third plural form.14.e.e.: -l -l Correct form: p’isa + l = p’isal (addition) čitaj + l = čital (truncate C1) 2. The list of possible consonant alternations in the Russian verb are: d. list the past passive participial (ppp) endings associated with each class and the derived imperfective suffixes associated with each class. note their productivity or lack thereof. I will give all of the verbal classes. Only suffixed verbs may be 2nd conjugation -. (2) Remove the verbal desinence. z.e.6. t > šč Examples of deriving the one-stem: Verb 'read' 'write' infinitive: čita-t’ p’isa-t’ 3rd pl čitaj-ut p’iš-ut stem: čitaj p’isa 'carry' n’os-t’i n’os-ut n’os 'lead' v’os-t’i v’od-ut v’od Examples of using the one-stem to derive the correct verbal form: Stem: p’isa čitaj Past masc. truncate the first consonant) Whether or not a consonant alternation will occur is determined within the individual verbal class. (3) Compare the remaining stems. mere addition) Vowel 1 + Vowel 2 = V2 (i. (6) Rules for consonant/vowel combinations between stem and desinence: Vowel + Consonant = VC (i. sk > šč b > bl p > pl m > ml v > vl f > fl Old Church Slavonic influence: d > žd . (5) If the stems are identical in length. (4) The longer of the stems is THE ONE-STEM. In the first table. x > š st. g > ž t. mere addition) Consonant + Vowel = CV (i.1 Russian conjugation All verbs in Russian (except for the small number of exceptional verbs) belong to one of the verbal classes given below.

-nu ppp desinence ‘-onn-ij* -nn-ij -------- derived imperfective suffix aj/ivaj aj/ivaj/vaj ivaj -nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -t-ij -t-ij ivaj aj ivaj ivaj vaj ivaj/aj 95 .e. i/. -ej (most are intransitive) 9. The consonant alternations that occur in conjugation according to verbal classes are rulegoverned and exceptionless. 9. The regularity of consonant alternations will become more variable in the categories of the past passive participle and derived imperfective verb forms. The specific rules for softening and stress will be included in the description of each of the verbal classes with full conjugated forms of a verb from each class in the second table. Townsend includes an additional nonsuffixed class that I will give under the section on exceptional verbs. 4 and 10 are the largest (50-60 verbal roots in each).ja] First conjugation: 4. -aj 8. the -i and -e classes have substitutive softening in the 1st sg. The rules for bare softening are as follows: (Jakobson 1948/1984: 22-3) The final consonant of an open full-stem is palatalized or palatal before the vowels /e. in full stems where hard consonant + /a/ or /o/ > palatal or cons. -ova 7. the productive classes are 1. Classes with consonant mutations (Jakobson’s “substitutive softening”) will be marked with an asterisk. nonpalatalized (or hard) before /o. and hard or palatal before /a/.6. Velar stems generally participate in substitutive softening. 6. see Townsend (1975: 85-148). [For more specific information on all of the verbs in each of these classes and the specifics of derived imperfective verbs. they will be marked also with an asterisk. 12 from the suffixed groups).2 One-stem verb system Suffixed verbs: Second conjugation: 1. If substitutive softening occurs in the ppp or derived imperfective. non-syllabic -a (n/s-a) 6. Closed stems end in hard consonants or jot.] 2.the numbering of the table below. but yield bare softening before the imperative desinence. Of the remaining non-productive classes. numbers 2. 7. and -a and -ova maintain this alternation in the imperative. -i* 2. -ova and -avaj classes have substitutive softening in all person in the conjugated form. -a 5. -e* 3. 8. -husher a [subgroup . In the class of second conjugation verbs. Note that only the consonants given above may undergo substitutive softening (i. u/. The -a. cluster). conjugated form only.14. while the smallest classes have as few as 2-5 stems (essentially all of the nonsuffixed classes and 11.

/m 19. -avaj (always HCB -3 stems) 12. k/g 23. oj 16. j 17. -[nu] (disappearing nu) (most are intransitive) 11. -o Nonsuffixed verbs (all 1st conj): 13.10. /n. b (2 stems) -t-ij -------t-ij aj -----ivaj -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij* ‘-onn-ij vaj vaj vaj vaj vaj aj aj aj aj aj aj 96 . s/z 22. /r 20. n 15. v 14. t/d 21. ij 18.

-nu.14. Non-syllabic resonant classes include -/r and -/n.14. m.] [A terminology reminder. and -ev-. 2nd sg. there are many instances where a mutation would be expected and does not occur. 3rd pl.3 The rules of consonant and vowel alternations in derived imperfectives (1) Normal truncation/addition of one-stem system apply in imperfective derivation with an additional rule: -aj.6. In any case. Resonants in CSR are: /j. 2. (3) A vowel shift -. [This 2nd part is similar to “deep truncation” in the -[nu] class in the past tense. z. g. -iv-.o >a -. Obstruents are: /k. b/. 1st sg.6. These mutations are more frequent in the -i class and rare in the -e class. /m. (4) A fill vowel /i/ occurs in classes with (a) non-syllabic resonants (only и occurs). 1st pl. r/. [This type of alternation of the vowels и/ы is additional evidence that they are allophones of each other and not distinct phonemes. d. imperative) 'sit down' сесть сяду сядешь сядем сядут сел сядь 'lie down' лечь лягу ляжешь ляжем лягут лёг ляг 'sing' петь пою поёшь поём поют пел пой 'be' быть буду будешь будем будут был будь 'go' (on foot) идти иду идёшь идём идут шёл иди 'go' (by veh. t.] (2) Potential consonant mutations occur with perfectives from the -i and -e classes. masc. and (b) the -nu and n/s-a classes (и or ы may occur).before addition of the -ivaj.] Flier (1972: 236-260) proposes an alternative view of imperfective derivation where the primary suffix is -aj preceded by 3 imperfectivizing suffixes: zero. s.) ехать еду едешь едем едут ехал езжай/ поезжай 'shave' бриться бреюся бреешься бреемся бреются брился брейся 'swear' клясться клянусь клянёшься клянёмся клянутся клялся клянись 'eat' есть ем ешь едим едят ел ешь 'give' дать дам дашь дадим дадут дал дай 'take' взять возьму возьмёшь возьмём возьмут взял возьми 'accept' принять приму примешь примем примут принял прими 97 .suffix. -[nu] truncate entirely.2. v. past.4 Exceptional verbs (Forms given vertically: infinitive. n.

.'grow' расти расту растёшь растём растут рос расти 'sleep' спать сплю спишь спим спят спал спи 'be mistaken' 'roar. For more examples and exercises on participles and verbal adverbs.5 Participles and verbal adverbs: Examples: ричастие и деепричастие Infinitive pairs (HCB/CB) читать/прочитать (ай) писать/написать (а) спрашивать (ай)/спросить (и) 'read' 'write' 'ask' pres. Averjanova.] Verbal Class Participle CB/Derived Imperfective 1. -e рассмотренный рассмотреть/рассматривать просидеть/просиживать 3.ža ---------отлежаться/отлёживаться 4. -a записанный записать/записывать 98 .] [The glosses will be given by number following the Russian examples.6. passive читаемый --------спрашиваемый 'which is being read' 'which is being asked' ppp прочитанный написанный спрошенный 'which was read' 'which was written' 'which was asked' Examples by verbal class: [Note that the participial and derived imperfective examples are not necessarily related. rush' гнать гоню гонишь гоним гонят гнал гони 'remove.14. rent' снять сниму снимешь снимем снимут снял сними 2. Pjadusova 2001: 237-272. active читающий пишущий спрашивающий 'who is reading' 'who is writing' 'who is asking' past active (про)читавший (на)писавший спрашивавший/спросивший HCB 'who was reading' 'who was writing' 'who was asking' CB 'who had read' 'who had written' 'who had asked' pres. -i купленный оставить/оставлять перекусить/перекусывать 2. cry' ошибиться реветь ошибусь реву ошибёшься ревёшь ошибёмся ревём ошибутся ревут ошибся ревел ошибись реви 'grind' молоть мелю мелешь мелем мелют молол мели 'hope' надеяться надеюсь надеешься надеемся надеются надеялся надейся 'want' хотеть хочу хочешь хотим хотят хотел *хоти 'send' послать пошлю пошлёшь пошлём пошлют послал пошли 'run' бежать бегу бежишь бежим бегут бежал беги 'understand' понять пойму поймёшь поймём поймут понял пойми 'drive. see Andrews.

chase' (of drink) 'which has begun' 'begin' 'which was squeezed. tight' 'push' (a button) 'which was worn (out)' 'wipe off' 99 'which was bought' . k/g 23. -aj 8. /r 20. /n. 17. 19. sketched' 'to make contigent upon' 'which was worked out' 'to work out/off' 'which was warmed up' 'become ripe' 'which was locked. /m 19. 10. -o 13. oj 16. elected' 'to dial. 16. -nu 10. 4. 2. 8. analyze' 'sit through' 'stay in bed and get well' 'which was noted. 11. избранный нарисованный отработанный согретый замкнутый свергнутый --------проколотый пережитый одетый закрытый надутый выпитый начатый сжатый стёртый переведённый унесённый привлечённый выгребенный набрать/набирать обусловить/обуславливать. -avaj 12. close off' 'who was deposed' 'disappear' --------------------'which was pierced' 'pierce' 'which was lived through' 'live through. record' 'chosen. обусловливать отработать/отрабатывать созреть/созревать замкнуть/замыкать вздрогнуть/вздрагивать исчезнуть/исчезать ----------проколоть/прокалывать пережить/переживать одеть/одевать накрыть/накрывать сдуть/сдувать запить/запивать начать/начинать нажать/нажимать вытереть/вытирать расцвести/расцветать перегрызть/перегрызать увлечь/увлекать разгрести/разгребать 'leave (behind)' 'have a snack' 'which was considered' 'consider. -ova 7. 12. 6. 3. 13. v 14. n/s-a 6. survive' 'who was dressed' 'dress' 'which was closed' 'cover. recorded' 'to note/jot down. 7. ij 18. 18. 14. set the table' 'which was blown/puffed up' 'let the air out' 'which was drank' 'wash down.5. t/d 21. j 17. closed' 'lock. n 15. -[nu] 11. s/z 22. 15. get a lot of smthg' 'which was drawn. 5. 9. b Glosses: 1. -ej 9.

"я"form) only.14. -i. 'which was translated' 'which was carried away' 'who was drawn to' 'which was raked off' 'bloom' 'chew through' 'fascinate' 'clean off.20. просить (нсв) -’request’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past прошу просишь просит просим просите просят просил просила просило просили проси(те) прося Active просящий просивший Passive просимый (попрошенный) 100 . 22. 21.e. clear' 2. forms).(-и-) • Mutation of final root consonant in first person singular form (i. 23.6 One-stem verb system SUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS SECOND CONJUGATION 1. • Stress may shift (from 1st sg ending to stem in other conj.6.

приготовить ( ) -’prepare’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past приготовлю приготовишь приготовит приготовим приготовите приготовят приготовил приготовила приготовило приготовили приготовь(те) приготовив Active приготовивший Passive приготовленный 101 .

(-е-) Mutation of final root consonant in 1st person singular form.2. • • • -e. look at’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сижу сидишь сидит сидим сидите сидят сидел сидела сидело сидели сиди(те) сидя Active сидящий сидевший Passive посмотрю посмотришь посмотрит посмотрим посмотрите посмотрят посмотрел посмотрела посмотрело посмотрели посмотри(те) посмотрев Active посмотревший Passive посмотренный 102 . There are about 50 verbs in this class ) -’be sitting. sit’ сидеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past посмотреть ( ) ‘watch. Stress can shift.

3.(-а-) (including all hushers and jot-types [стоять. бояться]) лежать ( ) -’be in a lying position’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past лежу лежишь лежит лежим лежите лежат лежал лежала лежало лежали лежи(те) лёжа Active лежащий лежавший Passive постоять ( ) -’stand around’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past постою постоишь постоит постоим постоите постоят постоял постояла постояло постояли постой(те) постояв Active постоявший Passive 103 . husher -a.

-a.(-а-) • Mutation of final root consonant all through the present tense. write on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past напишу напишешь напишет напишем напишете напишут написал написала написало написали напиши(те) написав Active написавший Passive написанный 104 . • There are about 60 verbs in this class./colloq. • Stress often shifts from end to stem in all forms of non-past other than 1st sg.FIRST CONJUGATION VERBS 4. ) -’wave’ маxать ( Non-Past Form я машу ты машешь он/она/оно машет мы машем вы машете они машут Past Tense Form Masculine махал Feminine махала Neuter махало Plural махали маши(те)/махай(те) (conv.) Imperative Verbal Adverb махая Participles Active Passive Present машущий Past махавший написать ( ) ‘write.

‘wait. • A fill vowel is often inserted into stem (o/e) (cf.5. non-syllabic -a. throw up’) • If stress shift occurs.(-а-) • No mutations. брать/беру -‘take’.‘lie. call’) [Forms without fill vowels include врать/лгать .‘rip. лжёшь) ) -’tear. strip off’ драть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past деру дерёшь дерёт дерём дерёте дерут драл драла драло драли дери(те) деря Active дерящий дравший Passive 105 .’ рвать .’ ждать . only in feminine past tense • Restricted occurrence of substitutive softening (g >ž in ‘lie’: лгу. звать/зову ‘name.

enter.набрать ( ) -’push. load on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past наберу наберёшь наберёт наберём наберёте наберут набрал набрала набрало набрали набери(те) набрав Active набравший Passive набранный 106 .

• Stress does not generally shift from uj (exceptions include совать -‘stick in’ [сую. суёшь].mostly with foreign roots. плевать .spit) • Verbs in this class are only imperfective aspect./ -ева-) • Rule: -ova.(-ова./ -ева-) > uj (уй) in nonpast and imperative. организовать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past танцевать ( ) -’dance’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past or bi-aspectual) -’organize’ организую организуешь организует организуем организуете организуют организовал организовала организовало организовали организуй(те) организуя Active организующий организовавший Passive организуемый организованный танцую танцуешь танцует танцуем танцуете танцуют танцевал танцевала танцевало танцевали танцуй(те) танцуя Active танцующий танцевавший Passive танцуемый (станцованный) 107 . -ova./ -eva (-ова. • There are thousands of verbs in this class .6./-eva.

(-ай-) No mutation.7. make’ делать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past делаю делаешь делает делаем делаете делают делал делала делало делали делай(те) делая Active делающий делавший Passive делаемый деланный отработать ( ) -’work off. No stress shifts Thousands of verbs in this class. work out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отработаю отработаешь отработает отработаем отработаете отработают отработал отработала отработало отработали отработай(те) отработав Active отработавший Passive отработанный 108 . • • • -aj. ) -’do.

Very few verbs in this group. ) -’have. No stress shifts.(-ей-) No mutations. • • • -ej. possess’ иметь ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’become white’ белеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past имею имеешь имеет имеем имеете имеют имел имела имело имели имей(те) имея Active имеющий имевший Passive белею белеешь белеет белеем белеете белеют белел белела белело белели белей(те) белея Active белеющий белевший Passive 109 .8.

disappears in past tense • 2).(-ну-) • Two subgroups: • 1). -nu. reach’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past достигну достигнешь достигнет достигнем достигнете достигнут достиг достигла достигло достигли достигни(те) достигнув Active достигший Passive достигнутый отдохнуть ( ) -’relax’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отдохну отдохнёшь отдохнёт отдохнём отдохнёте отдохнут отдохнул отдохнула отдохнуло отдохнули отдохни(те) отдохнув Active отдохнувший 110 Passive .remains in past tense достигнуть ( ) -’achieve.9 and 10. -nu. -nu.

(-авай. hand over’ давать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’sell’ продавать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past продаю продаёшь продаёт продаём продаёте продают продавал продавала продавало продавали продавай(те) продавая Active продающий продававший Passive продаваемый даю даёшь даёт даём даёте дают давал давала давало давали давай(те) давая Active дающий дававший Passive даваемый 111 . -avaj.> -ай-) in the present tense • In the imperative. the -avaj.remains.11. ) -’give.(-авай-) • Rule: -avaj.> -aj.

-o.12. l >l’ in non-past forms) бороться ( ) -’fight’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past борюсь борешься борется боремся боретесь борются боролся боролась боролось боролись борись/боритесь борясь Active борящийся боровшийся Passive 112 . r > r’.(-о-) (nonproductive. restricted class.

-v.(-в-) • Consonant /v/ occurs in conjugated non-past form • Stress may shift in feminine past tense.NONSUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS (all are 1st conjugation) Syllabic Resonants 13. ) -’live’ жить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past живу живёшь живёт живём живёте живут жил жила жило жили живи(те) живя Active живущий живший Passive (прожитый) отплыть ( ) -’swim/float away’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отплыву отплывёшь отплывёт отплывём отплывёте отплывут отплыл отплыла отплыло отплыли отплыви(те) отплыв Active отплывший 113 Passive .

arise’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past встану встанешь встанет встанем встанете встанут встал встала встало встали встань(те) встав Active вставший 114 Passive . -n.14. стать ( ) -’become’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past стану станешь станет станем станете станут стал стала стало стали стань(те) став Active ставший Passive встать ( ) -’get up.(-н-) • Consonant /n/ occurs in non-past conjugated form.

• No stress shifts. открыть ( ) -’open’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past закрыть ( ) -’close’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past открою откроешь откроет откроем откроете откроют открыл открыла открыло открыли открой(те) открыв Active открывший Passive открытый закрою закроешь закроет закроем закроете закроют закрыл закрыла закрыло закрыли закрой(те) закрыв Active закрывший Passive закрытый 115 .15. -oj.(-ой-) • o > y (о > ы) before a consonant.

(-й-) дуть ( ) -’blow’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past дую дуешь дует дуем дуете дуют дул дула дуло дули дуй(те) дуя Active дующий дувший Passive (сдутый) 116 .16. -j.

) -’drink’ пить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past пью пьёшь пьёт пьём пьёте пьют пил пила пило пили пей(те) Active пьющий пивший Passive (выпитый) убить ( ) -’kill’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past убью убьёшь убьёт убьём убьёте убьют убил убила убило убили убей(те) убив Active убивший Passive убитый 117 . • /e/ fill vowel in imperative • Stress may shift in feminine past.17. -ij.(-ий-) • Vowel /i/ is dropped in non-past form and present participle.

Non-syllabic 18. • Stress may shift in the past tense./ -м-) • n / m > a (н / м > а) before a consonant.(-н. ) -’start. begin’ начать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past начну начнёшь начнёт начнём начнёте начнут начал начала начало начали начни(те) начав Active начавший Passive начатый 118 . -n./ -m.

19. -r. • /R > ER before any other consonant. No -l in past tense masculine singular умереть ( ) -’die’ Non-Past Form умру я ты умрёшь умрёт он/она/оно умрём мы умрёте вы умрут они Past Tense Form умер Masculine Feminine умерла умерло Neuter умерли Plural умри(те) Imperative Verbal Adverb умерев Participles Active Passive Present умерший Past стереть ( ) ‘wipe off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сотру сотрёшь сотрёт сотрём сотрёте сотрут стёр стёрла стерло стерли сотри(те) стерев Active стёрший Passive стёртый 119 .(-р-) • /R > ER'E before infinitive ending.

Obstruents 20. ) -’lead. побредши* Active побредший 120 Passive .(-т. conduct’ вести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past веду ведёшь ведёт ведём ведёте ведут вёл вела вело вели веди(те) ведя Active ведущий ведший Passive ведомый (уведённый) побрести ( ) -’wander off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past побреду побредёшь побредёт побредём побредёте побредут побрёл побрела побрело побрели побреди(те) побредя. • t/d + l > l in past tense (reverse truncation) • Stress shifts to end in past tense. -t./ -д-) • t / d > s (т / д > с) before infinitive ending./ -d.

*Note that with verbs of motion, there are often 2 possible perfective verbal adverb forms, where the form in -я is literary and the form in -вши is either colloquial or archaic. In some instances, there is a shift in meaning (cf. донеся - ‘having carried to’ vs. донёсши - ‘having informed on’). 21. -s- / -z- (-с- / -з-) • Masculine past-tense /l/ drops (reverse truncation) ) -’carry’ нести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

несу несёшь несёт несём несёте несут нёс несла несло несли неси(те) неся Active несущий нёсший Passive (занесённый)

довезти ( ) -’transport up to (by vehicle)’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

довезу довезёшь довезёт довезём довезёте довезут довёз довезла довезло довезли довези(те) довезя Active довёзший Passive довезённый 121

22. -k- / -g- (-к- / -г-) • Masculine past tense drops /l/. • Mutation of consonant in non-past 2nd/3rd singular; 1st/2nd plural ONLY. помочь ( ) -’help, aid, assist’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Non-Past Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

помогу поможешь поможет поможем поможете помогут помог помогла помогло помогли помоги(те)

Active помогший


испечь ( ) -’bake’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

испеку испечёшь испечёт испечём испечёте испекут испёк испекла испекло испекли испеки(те) испёкши Active испёкший Passive испечённый 122

23. -b- (-б-) выгрести ( ) -’rake/clean out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past скрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

выгребу выгребешь выгребет выгребем выгребете выгребут выгреб выгребла выгребло выгребли выгреби(те) выгребши/выгребя Active выгребший Passive выгребенный

скребу скребёшь скребёт скребём скребёте скребут скрёб скребла скребло скребли скреби(те) скребя Active скребущий скрёбший Passive


соскрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past соскребу соскребёшь соскребёт соскребём соскребёте соскребут соскрёб соскребла соскребло соскребли соскреби(те) соскрёбши Active соскрёбший Passive соскребённый 124 .

it is possible to occasionally encounter minimal pairs with the non-s’a verbal equivalent + the reflexive. оделся и ушёл на работу. ильм хорошо смотрится.2. but now. 'return (oneself)' 'look at yourself. заниматься/позаниматься (чем. он сам себя одевает. (1) Reflexive: the verbal action refers back to the nominative subject.' 'That dress looks great on you.emphatic Compare the following: Он встал в шесть. unbounded pronoun себя 'self'. but in many instances only one aspect has the -s’a. bathed quickly. look' (passive) 'My sister is always looking at herself in the mirror. латье отлично смотрится на тебе.' возвращаться/вернуться (куда. bathe (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' . 'After the accident my brother was unable to get dressed without assistance for quite a while.7 Verbs with the bound particle -ся All verbs in -s’a are intransitive by definition and occur in 6 basic types: (1) 'reflexive' (возвратный) (2) 'mutual actions' (взаимный) (3) 'passive' (страдательный) (4) 'impersonal' (безличный) (5) verb only occurs with -s’a particle (6) a small group of verbs that have an iterative meaning In some instances. he is able to dress himself. a year later. got dressed and left for work. с кем. a single verb may belong to several of the 6 types given above. I will give aspectual pairs (HCB/CB) where feasible. 'He got up a six. In this class. у кого) мыться/помыться одеваться/одеться одевать/одеть себя 'occupy oneself.' (2) Mutual actions: the verbal action is done to 'each other' созваниваться/созвониться (с кем) 'call each other ' целоваться/поцеловаться (с кем) 'kiss each other' встречаться/встретиться (с кем) 'meet with each other. date' видеться/увидеться (с кем) 'see each other' Увидимся скоро! 'See you soon!' 125 . Note the following examples of -s’a verbs. study. быстро помылся. spend time doing smthg' 'wash. а теперь. откуда) смотреться/посмотреться (во что) естра всё время смотрится в зеркало. год спустя.' 'The film is worth seeing. Examples will be included below.14.' осле аварии брат долго не мог одеваться без помощи.

Это книга легко читается ‘That book’s a good read. 'The child can’t sit still. The actor of the verb. 'Ira sleeps well at her summer home. спалось (no infinitive) писаться работаться житься сидеться представляться/представиться ам хочется завести собаку.' не думается.' 126 . if expressible at all. 'I get sad when he acts like that. кончаться/кончиться 'end. meet' 'correspond' (be pen pals) (3) Passive: the verbal action is done by a “logical” subject that may be given in the instrumental case. start' читаться 'read' (cf.знакомиться/познакомиться (с кем) переписываться (с кем) 'become acquainted. но нет денег.' ре хорошо спится на даче. 'want. This category is much broader than -s’a verbs and may occur with a variety of forms (see Impersonal constructions in section 3.' оле не пишется уже второй год.' ак-то сегодня не работается нам! 'We’re just not in a working mood today!' ак вам живётся на юге? 'How’s life treating you in the south?' ебёнку не сидится. 'Kolya has had writer’s block for two years now.5). conclude' начинаться/начaться 'begin. become' то тут делается? 'What’s going on in here?' не делается грустно от его поведения.' (4) Impersonals: there is no nominative subject. 'Mother isn’t well.' не плохо представляется её состояние в данный момент 'It’s hard for me to imagine at the moment her state of mind. The nominative subject is what is generally the object in a transitive construction and is inanimate.' атери нездоровится. хотеться/захотеться думаться/подуматься нездоровиться спится. 'I think that his conclusion is incorrect. что его вывод неправильный. is often in the dative case.’) открываться/открыться 'open' закрываться/закрыться 'close' делаться/сделаться 'occur. desire' 'think' 'be unwell' 'sleep' 'write' 'work' 'live' 'sit' 'imagine' 'We want to get a dog. be happening. but we don’t have any money.

examples and exercises.'get busy. but not all prefixed verbs of motion are perfective. The meaning of the determinate verb is like a “freeze frame. fear' 'need.225. become necessary' 'lie down' 'sit down' 'sit down and make yourself comfortable' (6) This is the smallest set of -s’a verbs. решаться/решиться .determinate and indeterminate. -/заняться . ask to go potty' (said of a child). take care of'.1 Determinate verbs 1. together with their prepositional government. 'begging to be done/said') or the semantics of the verb are considerably different from the non-s’a form (cf.'ask permission. there are some forms in -s’a that are either very close in meaning to their non-s’a counterpart (cf.'come to a decision after giving it serious thought'. браться/взяться . -e. get a grip on yourself. [For a complete listing of all prefixed and non-prefixed verbs of motion. t/d. Below is a list of the most important examples of this category. кусаться Осторожно! рыться чесаться 'bite' 'Watch out! The dog bites!' 'dig' 'scratch.14. Pjadusova 2001: 124 .(5) These verbs never occur in CSR without the -s’a particle. 2. проситься/попроситься . the action characterized is like a snapshot. There are two imperfective forms of non-prefixed verbs of motion . нравиться/понравиться бояться/(побояться) -/понадобиться ложиться/лечь садиться/сесть присаживаться/присесть 'like' 'be afraid. Determinate verbs are either irregular in conjugation or belong to the following classes: -aj.'depend upon someone. a moment in the space/time continuum. 2.8 Verbs of motion The Russian system of verbs of motion has been one of the more popular topics in scholarly and pedagogical works on CSR. 2. case usage.'get a hold of each other. s/z. 127 . see Andrews. полагаться/положиться .8. The perfective is only possible with a prefix. These verbs are very restricted in meaning and this usage should not be generalized to other verbs without checking a reliable Russian dictionary or grammar.14.” i. Averjanova. put your trust in someone'. itch' обака кусается! In addition to the six groups given above. I will briefly review the major formal and semantic principles of the category with examples. get busy doing something').e.

’ Я люблю кататься на лыжах. ‘I like to ride the train. ‘The clock struck twelve while we were walking along the embankment.’ 4.8. The determinate has an embedded goal that.’ 6. корабли и катера плывут в краю ночном. асы пробили двенадцать. огда я ехал на работу. ‘I was on my way to work when I saw a horrible accident.’ [Note the following perfective form: ождь/снег пошёл.8.’ b.2 Indeterminate verbs 1.’ Я люблю ездить поездом. ‘I’m going home.' Я очень часто хожу в туалет. If the determinate occurs in the past tense.prefix 1.” чера вечером мы ходили в гости к аше.3 Simple perfective verbs of motion with po. There are exceptions to this generalization (cf.’ b.’ 4.’ ебе это платье очень идёт. Bulanova song) 5.’ 3. The determinate form is most often translated as a progressive -ing form. ‘Yesterday evening we went to Sasha’s house. ‘The bus is heading for the park. уда ты идёшь? ‘Where are you going?’ Я иду домой. ‘I love to ski. ‘How did you go? .’ [also perfective .’ 2. The indeterminate may refer to 'using the bathroom.’ ождь/снег шёл. There are some expressions that may only use a determinate form. a. я видел страшную аварию.By car. ‘My mom’s having trouble walking lately. The po.’ 2. Автобус идёт по улице.14. ой ребёнок уже ходит. ‘We set off for the movies. it must mean one of the following: a. when explicit. ‘It started to rain.’ c. Past tense form often gives meaning of a “round trip. ‘It’s raining.3. ‘The bus is going down the street. example 4c). snowing. is almost always accusative. The indeterminate names the action. Автобус идёт в парк. ‘I go to the bathroom frequently. когда мы шли по набережной.’ ать в последнее время плохо ходит. ‘That dress is becoming to you/looks good on you.’ 128 . snow.’] овый фильм идёт. колько идти/ехать? ‘How long does it take on foot/by vehicle?’ ождь/снег идёт.14. snowing.perfective has the following meanings when used with a determinate stem: inception of the action ы пошли в кино.сходить] 2. ‘Ships and boats are going to the night world’ (lyrics of 2001 T. ‘It was raining. ‘A new film is playing/showing. а чём вы ездили? . The indeterminate may characterize the action. ‘My child can already walk.а машине.

is combined with an indeterminate stem. the verbs ходить/идти are generally used.ормально! ‘How was your trip? . the traditional description is misleading. boats and some taxis) use the forms ходить/идти. then use летать/лететь. a round trip meaning is obligatory] ак вы доехали? . to a game).4 Different modes of motion Russian verbs of motion will often distinguish between motion ‘on foot’ and motion ‘by vehicle. ак вы съездили? .14. even when a mode of transportation was engaged. The forms ездить/ехать must be used when going beyond the city limits or between countries. When going about town (to work.’ [here.Fine. 2. buses. хорошо! ‘How was your trip? .change of speed or direction ойдём быстрее! ‘Let’s go faster!’ 2.Great. Note the following parameters concerning this distinction: 1.’ In fact. If flying is involved.пасибо. to the movies. trolleys.. Vehicles on tracks or routes (especially trains.8. the meaning is usually one of duration with no culminating spatial goal: походить ‘walk around for a little while’ поездить ‘drive around for a while’ Note that there are a number of perfectives formed from both determinate and indeterminate verbal stems. 129 . only one leg of the trip is completed] 2. 3. thanks!’ [here. When the prefix po. trams.

' сли бы он был умным. му сорок лет. but shares it with either the word preceding or following it. does not take the stress.' Я бы позвонила ему.' сли бы ты знала. you wouldn’t have brought it up. then he would have gotten into college on the first try. there is a great deal of variety and flexibility in Russian word order. му лет сорок. but something is stopping me.3. but may indeed change the referential meaning in a profound way. Like all particles in CSR. Inanimate and non-pronominal objects often occur after the verb. In general. The future tense is generally required in conditional clauses following eсли -'if'. Not all hypothetical constructions are conditionals and vice-versa. VSO are also possible. 'If you don’t come on time. 'If he were smart. 'I would call him.' 130 . что я думаю по этому поводу. many of the nuances found in the English verb tenses in conditional constructions are ambiguous in Russian. The particle бы is used either before or after the verb. he’d get in to college on the first try. он бы поступил в университет с первого раза. Because CSR does not have a complex tense system. но что-то меня останавливает. we won’t make it to the concert. сли may also be used together with the hypothetical particle бы.' 'I owe him $10.' 'If he were to have been smart.1 Syntax and syntactic categories Word order in CSR has typologically been categorized in the context of the world’s languages as SOV and SVO. a change in word order may not only change the tone of the utterance.' 'If you hadn’t known what I thought about that. In terms of these 2 generalizations. 'If you (only) knew what I think about that.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals The Russian realization of the conditional mood is straightforward. if the object is pronominal or an animate common or proper noun. Syntax 3.' 'If he would have been smart. OVS. Compare the following sentences: Я должен тебе сказать кое-что. he would have gotten into college on the first try. which is obligatorily in the past-tense form. Note the following examples and their multiple English translations: сли ты не придёшь вовремя. (то) мы не успеем на концерт.' 'He’s about forty years old. However. The orders OSV.' 3. (то) ты бы не завела эту тему. 'I should tell you something.' 'He’s forty years old. then it is more likely to occur before the verb. Я ему должен десять долларов. you wouldn’t have brought it up.

' Note the following examples: ариса спрашивает.3. there is the interrogative particle ли.' Я переехала в етербург работать. Namely.3 Grammatical particles In addition to the hypothetical particle бы. The particle ли is required in reported questions and when evoking the meaning of 'whether [or not]. идут ли ему новые брюки? 'Sasha wants to know if his new pants look good on him. right?' Purpose clauses or constructions in which the subject wants someone to do something require the use of чтобы in CSR. 'I moved to St. что ли? 'Kira is going to call at nine. Petersburg in order to find a job. чтобы ты позвонил сестре. ли must follow the first word-form that carries stress in the clause. чтобы найти хорошую работу. Petersburg to work. 'He wants you to call your/his sister. знаете ли ы.' ира собирается звонить в девять.' ы не знаем. есть ли у неё греческий словарь.' 131 .' аша интересуется. 'I moved to St.' Я переехала в етербург. 'We don’t know whether or not she has a Greek dictionary. когда будут давать зарплату? 'Larisa is asking if you know when they’re going to be giving out our monthly salary. This means that ли may not be the second word if the first word is a preposition or a negative particle. Note the following examples: тобы все твои мечты сбылись! 'So that all of your dreams come true!' (said as a toast or a wish) Он хочет. The rules for placement of the interrogative particle ли are more rigid than for the other particles.

'I decided to stay with friends in Moscow for another week.' е сбивай меня с толку! 'Don’t get me off track/make me lose my train of thought. The cases required with verbs in CSR is a rich combination of the entire system. a verb will require only one object case. 'There’s a draft.' январе очень холодно.' а твоём примере я убедился в том. The semantic fields that are generally associated with impersonal expressions include: Weather and nature не холодно. In the present section.' ует.5 Impersonal constructions Impersonal constructions play a major role in sentence-level discourse in CSR.' ебёнок наконец-то взялся за ум. but can occur with the zero-copula 'be' in present tense constructions with adverbs. 'I’m cold.'I can’t sit still. Substantial lists of verbs and their government are given in the discussion sections of each of the Russian cases. 'My kid finally got his head on straight/got his act together. and a third singular form in the present and future. In order to show the complexity of verbal government in CSR. we have seen the importance of syntactic constraints of case usage following particular word forms. 'We were warm until Ksyusha opened the window.'We couldn’t sleep last night').4 Verbal government In earlier sections on nouns and prepositions. as well as in the section on prepositions. We have already seen one example of impersonal constructions in connection with a set of verbs with the particle -s’a (cf. 'Dad is getting us interested in his work. while in other instances multiple cases and prepositional phrases are possible. 'It’s freezing outside.3.' ебе не дует? 'Is the draft getting you?' орозит. что нельзя пить! 'After watching you I became convinced that no one should drink!' 3. Impersonal constructions are not bound only to verbal constructions.' Я решил остаться в оскве у друзей ещё на неделю.' 132 . In some instances. I will survey the range of forms that are used as impersonals and the semantic space which they occupy. 'It’s very cold in January. пока сюша не открыла окно.' ам было тепло.' ам сегодня ночью не спалось . consider the following examples: апа вызывает интерес у нас к своей работе. не не сидится . Those truly impersonal verbs will always have a neuter singular form in the past tense.

' 'It smells wonderful in the garden. еня знобит. От него воняет.' 'I’m not well.ождит. саду благоухает.' 'I have a pain in my chest. 'it’s awkward for us' 'The child threw up in school. 'It’s raining.' Psychological and physiological human states (and smells) му грустно.' 'Lucy can’t keep her eyes open.' 'Everything went dark' (Vanya passed out). У ани потемнело в глазах. юсю клонит в сон. 'He’s sad.' 'We’re uncomfortable' (emotionally and/or physically).' 'I’ve got chills. It’s rainy. У него заложило уши.' 'He’s broken out in a fever.' 'His ears are stopped up.' 'She’s going to be bored at that lecture. Use of infinitive in simple statements and questions аказать вам такси? ам помочь? е сходить ли нам в кино?! оложить ещё? ать тебе ручку? 'Can I call you a cab?' 'Do you need some help? Can I help you?' 'Would you like some help?' 'What about us going to a movie?' 'Would you like some more?' 'Do you want me to get you a pen?' 'Would you like a pen? Can I get you a pen?' 133 . 'There’s a ringing in my ears. ахнет хлебом.' 'It smells like bread.' 'He stinks.' ебёнка вырвало в школе. не нездоровится. й будет скучно на этой лекции. ам неудобно. У мамы звенит в ушах. У меня болит в груди. го бросает в жар.

3. Note the following examples: [The parts in parentheses are optional in the recitation. Mixel'son (1994). For a thorough treatment of proverbs and collocations.. Permjakov (1970).' 'Live and learn. (люби и санки возить!) Язык до иева (доведёт!) 'Be careful what you wish for!' 'From your mouth to God’s ear. Because of the frequency of proverb/collocation usage..use it!' 134 . In other instances. а что боролись. Moščevitina (1996).] My translations are not literal.6 Proverbs and collocations The use of proverbs and collocations remains a very important part of normal Russian discourse..' 'Slow and steady wins the race. see Dal' (1862/1957).... (дальше будешь. and being young is yucky too. and the hearer may add on what could be considered a continuation of the proverb itself.) юбишь кататься. век учись.[А молодость гадость!] ервый блин (комом!) ише едешь. the entire proverb is stated.and die a fool!' 'Old age sucks. in many instances only a portion of the saying is pronounced. Mertvago (1995). Mokienko (1999).' 'You have a tongue -. but attempts at an English equivalent...' 'If at first you don’t succeed. The parts in brackets are potential retorts.' 'You can’t have your cake and eat it too. (на то и напоролись!) воими бы устами (да мёд пить!) ек живи.. [а дураком умрёшь!] тарость не радость! .

3. I would like to outline the basic trends in the use of obscenity in spoken and written Russian. ёшкин кот. The situation in spoken Russian is also rather complicated. ёлки-моталки. стерва сукин сын ёлки-палки.7 Use of profanity in CSR The subject of profanity in Russian has long been taboo. едрёна мать 'Go to the devil!' 'bitch/bastard' 'son-of-a-bitch' 'fiddlesticks' 'Crap! (lit.' For the curious reader who is interested in this topic. This trend is no longer as true as it once was. 135 . and provide some simple euphemisms that are used by a broad range of the population. Until the early 1990’s. One of the more interesting uses of this type of obscenity (from a purely linguistic point of view) is the ability to replace the root of a given word with an obscene root in order to achieve a mundane meaning like 'steal' or 'bore. It is still the case that women are less likely to use profanity than men. it was impossible to imagine seeing in official print any form of verbal obscenity. especially beyond the immediate family. In the following remarks. there are a series of Russian dictionaries of obscenities published both in Russia and abroad that are easily available. ё-кэ-лэ-мэ-нэ -лин! ё-моё. ёкси-шмокси . Some of the words that one will commonly encounter in media and discourse include: ди к чёрту! сука. 'pancake')' 'Dammit!' The use of the 3 Slavic roots in various word-formative combinations is often referred to as “three-story obscenity” (трёхэтажный мат)and no examples of that phenomenon will appear here. However. but it is no exaggeration to state that the Russian media is still more conservative in its use of profanity in public than many of its western counterparts. contemporary speakers of Russian are more freely using profanity in larger discourse situations than was true in the Soviet era.

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Ukrainian. Belorussian). .Articles are not a feature of the East Slavic languages (Russian.

.This topic is not addressed in the present grammar.

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