Compiler Construction                                           To find out FIRST & FOLLOW set

                                                                  LL PARSER            The construction of a predictive parser is aided by two functions associated with a grammar called  FIRST and FOLLOW. These functions allows us to fill the entries of the predictive parsing table.                                                                                       FIRST : We associate each grammar symbol A with the set FIRST(A). The implication of this set is that the  grammar symbol A can in some steps of transition produce the elements of the set FIRST(A).          If 'α' is any string of grammar symbols, let FIRST(α) be the set of terminals that begin the string  derived from α . If  α=*=>є then add  є to FIRST(є). RULES TO COMPUTE FIRST SET

1) If X is a terminal , then FIRST(X) is {X}
 2)  If X­­> є then add є  to FIRST(X)  3)  If X is a nonterminal and X­­>Y1Y2Y3...Yn , then put 'a' in   FIRST(X) if for some i, a is in FIRST(Yi) and є is in all of   FIRST(Y1),...FIRST(Yi­1);  In other words,  Y1...Yi­1=*=>є .  If є is in all of FIRST(Yj) for all j=1,2....n, then add є to   FIRST(X).This is so because all Yi's produce є, so X definitely produces є             FOLLOW :         FOLLOW is defined only for non terminals of the grammar G. It can be defined as the set of terminals of grammar G , which can immediately follow the non terminal  in a production rule from start symbol.                  In other words, if A is a nonterminal, then FOLLOW(A) is the set of     terminals 'a' that can appear immediately  to the right of A in some     sentential  form, i.e. The set of terminals 'a' such that there exists a     derivation of the form S=*=> αAaβ for some α and β (which can be    strings ,or empty).      RULES TO COMPUTE FOLLOW SET 1) If S is the start symbol, then add $ to the FOLLOW(S).

2) If there is a production rule A­­> αBβ then everything in FIRST(β)             except for є  is placed in FOLLOW(B). 3) If there is a production A­­> αB , or a production  A­­> αBβ where
FIRST(β) contains є then everything in FOLLOW(A) is in FOLLOW(B).

     Prepared by: Paul PrOnabananda; Student of M.S in CSE NSU ID# 073764050                Email:   paul.pronabananda@gmail.com/hotmail.com/yahoo.com                                Cell: 01724843626; 01553466667; 01921144286

                                                   Compiler Construction                                           To find out FIRST & FOLLOW set
   Example : Consider the following grammar                        S­> aABe                        A­­>Abc |  b                        B­­> d           Find the FIRST and FOLLOW for each nonterminal of the grammar.             Solution : ­            Steps :  1) Find for every non terminal  if it is nullable. 2) Find FIRST for every nonterminal using rules described earlier.  3) Using the information got from calculations in steps 1 and 2 one could calculate  FOLLOW for every nonterminal by rules described earlier.       To calculate FIRST’s            a)  To calculate FIRST(S) :                  From rule   S­­>aABe   ,  we get 'a' belongs to FIRST(S)                    No other rule will help give an element in FIRST(S).                  So,   FIRST(S)={a}            b) To calculate FIRST(A) :                  From rule  A­­>Abc  ,   we can't add any element                   From rule  A­­>b   , we know that 'b' belongs to FIRST(A)                  No other rule will help give an element in FIRST(A).                 So,    FIRST(A)={b} c) To calculate FIRST(B)       From rule B­­>d  ,  we add 'd' to FIRST(B)      No other rule will help give an element in FIRST(B).                   So,   FIRST(B)={d}            To calculate FOLLOW’s        a) To calculate FOLLOW(S)             Since S is start symbol, add $ to FOLLOW(S)             From rule S­­>aABe  , we don’t get any contribution to the              FOLLOW(S)          /*See rules 2 and 3  for FOLLOW*/              From rule A­­>Abc   , since no where we see any symbol S, so               no contribution to FOLLOW(A) is found in this rule.             From rule A­­>b , again no contribution.             From rule B­­>d, again no contribution.             Hence FOLLOW(S) ={$}            b) To calculate FOLLOW(A) :

     Prepared by: Paul PrOnabananda; Student of M.S in CSE NSU ID# 073764050                Email:   paul.pronabananda@gmail.com/hotmail.com/yahoo.com                                Cell: 01724843626; 01553466667; 01921144286

                                                   Compiler Construction                                           To find out FIRST & FOLLOW set
              From rules A­­>b , B­­>d   we get no contribution.               From rule S­­>aABe    we expect to get some contribution.               See rule 2 of forming FOLLOW(on page 2)               As per that , we can add everything in FIRST(Be) in FOLLOW(A)               except for epsilon.                 FIRST(Be)=FIRST(B) ={d}               So add 'd' to FOLLOW(A).               Since Be is not nullable, so we can't use the rule 3 (See page 2)               For rule   A­­>Abc ,  we do get some contribution straight away.               From rule 2(page 2), 'b' belongs to FOLLOW(A)               No other rule will help give an element in FOLLOW(A).               Hence  FOLLOW(A)={d,b}          c)  To calculate FOLLOW(B)              Only rule S­­>aABe contributes.              By rule 2 , 'e' belongs to FOLLOW(B). Hence  FOLLOW(B)={e}        

(compiler construction) Top down parsing (continued) Last lecture we talked about recursive descent parsing, which I said was the method of choice if you don't have an automated parsing tool (such as Yacc) to do the dirty work for you. Recall that in order for RD to work, our grammar had to be LL(1), which meant that any time we had a choice of several alternatives, we must be able to decide upon one alternative based only on the NEXT input token. That is, if we have a choice, such as

A -> alpha | beta | gamma | delta we must be able to tell which choice to take based on only ONE token. Let us today examine some implications of this. If the correct alternative to take at this point is an alpha, then either (1) the next token must be something that can begin an alpha, or (2) it must be legal for alpha to match nothing, and the next token must be something that can follow an A. Possibility (1) leds us into defining a relation, which we will call FIRST. FIRST(alpha) will be the set of symbols that can begin a string derived

     Prepared by: Paul PrOnabananda; Student of M.S in CSE NSU ID# 073764050                Email:   paul.pronabananda@gmail.com/hotmail.com/yahoo.com                                Cell: 01724843626; 01553466667; 01921144286

                                                   Compiler Construction                                           To find out FIRST & FOLLOW set
starting from alpha (remember alpha may contain tokens and/or nonterminals). Possibility (2) leds us into defining a relation FOLLOW(A), which is the set of symbols that can legally follow an A. Note that in this case, unlike the first, the "argument" is a single nonterminal. I want to quickly go over the algorithm to compute first and follow. Really, the details are not all that important. What you should know is (1) what first and follow are, and (2) how they are used. The details of how to compute first and follow are given in the book in much more detail, if you really want to see it. The initial step is to discover all the nonterminals that can derive nothing. Let us call this the EPSILON set. Clearly anything that has an epsilon production on the right hand side is in the epsilon set, so we first scan the productions and add these symbols. Next, we repeatedly do the following: Scan the productions, If anything has all nonterminals on the right hand side, and if all those nonterminals are in the epsilon set, then add the left hand side to the epsilon set. we do this until we have scanned the productions at least once without adding anything to the epsilon set. Now to construct FIRST(alpha), there are three cases: alpha begins with a terminal - x , then first(alpha) consists of only x. alpha begins with a nonterminal, X we go compute first(X), and assign this to first(alpha). now if X is in the epsilon set, we also add first(remainder) to first(alpha). alpha is epsilon - add epsilon to first set. To compute the follow set of a nonterminal X, look at all the places X is used in the grammer. Compute what could come next (using the first set information) after we have seen the X. This is the follow set. (depending upon time, give railroad diagram form for grammar, and intuition about first and follow in terms of railroad charts). Once we have first and follow, we can rephrase the LL(1) requirement, as follows: When we are faced with a choice A -> alpha | beta | gamma | delta The first sets of the choices must be distinct, and if any choice can be empty than these must also be distinct from the follow set for A. We can also rephrase our construction rule for building a procedure for recognzing nonterminals. In this example, our procedure would be

     Prepared by: Paul PrOnabananda; Student of M.S in CSE NSU ID# 073764050                Email:   paul.pronabananda@gmail.com/hotmail.com/yahoo.com                                Cell: 01724843626; 01553466667; 01921144286

                                                   Compiler Construction                                           To find out FIRST & FOLLOW set
boolean procedure A() if next token in first set for alpha then recognize alpha else if next token in first set for beta then recognize beta else if next token in first set for gamma then recognize gamma else if next token in first set for delta then recognize delta else error the error is replaced by "return true", if epsilon is a legal choice for this nonterminal. This all seems very straightforward. We can encode our choices in a table, indexed by nonterminals and terminals and containing right hand sides. M[A,x] is "if you are looking for an A, and the next token is an x, then this is the production to use." Procedure is given on page 225. How do we use this? Build a push down automata with a stack full of GOALS. algorithm given on page 226. This is our first example of a table driven parser. Advantages of table driven parsers: (1) small and (2) fast disadvantages: (1) hard to debug if you are doing it by hand.

     Prepared by: Paul PrOnabananda; Student of M.S in CSE NSU ID# 073764050                Email:   paul.pronabananda@gmail.com/hotmail.com/yahoo.com                                Cell: 01724843626; 01553466667; 01921144286

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