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CHAPTER 7

:
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: SECOND GENERATION GSM, IS-54, IS-95

I. F. Akyildiz
Broadband & Wireless Networking Laboratory School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Tel: 404-894-5141; Fax: 404-894-7883 Email: ian@ece.gatech.edu Web: http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn

Introduction to GSM: Development of Mobile Telecommunication Systems
FDMA CT0/1 AMPS NMT CT2 IS-136 TDMA D-AMPS GSM PDC EDGE GPRS IMT-FT DECT IMT-SC IS-136HS UWC-136 IMT-DS UTRA FDD / W-CDMA IMT-TC UTRA TDD / TD-CDMA IMT-TC TD-SCDMA IMT-MC cdma2000 1X EV-DO 1X EV-DV (3X) 3G

CDMA

TDMA

IS-95 cdmaOne 1G 2G

cdma2000 1X 2.5G

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2G Reference Model
HLR

PSTN

MSC

VLR

BSC

BTS
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2G FACTS
 Today many providers all over the world use GSM (more than 184 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia,America)  More than 1.2 Billion subscribers  More than 70% of all digital mobile phones use GSM

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GSM Overview
 Several first generation analog cellular systems in Europe but incompatible - limited roaming  1987-1989 ETSI standards for pan-European Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, originally Group Spe’ciale Mobile 1982) at 900 MHz – 1992 GSM is launched – 1990-1993 Standards for Digital Cellular System at 1800 MHz (DCS 1800, recently renamed GSM 1800; US version is PCS 1900)
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GSM Overview
 Objectives: – Broad offering of speech and data services – Compatible with wireline networks – Automatic roaming and handoff – Highly efficient use of frequency spectrum – Support for different types of mobile terminal equipment (e.g., cars, portable handsets) – Digital signaling and transmission – Low cost infrastructure and terminal equipment

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GSM: Mobile Services
 GSM offers – Several types of connections Voice connections, data connections, short message service – Multi-service options (combination of basic services)  Three service domains – Bearer Services – Telematic Services – Supplementary Services

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Bearer Services
 Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points  Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) – Data Service (Circuit Switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbps asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bps – Data Service (Packet Switched) synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbps asynchronous: 300 - 9600 bps  Today: data rates of approx. 50 kbps possible

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Tele Services I
 Offered Services
– Mobile Telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz – Emergency Number common number throughout Europe (112); mandatory for all service providers; free of charge; connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible)

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Tele Services II
 Additional Services – Non-Voice-Teleservices
Fax Voice mailbox (implemented in the fixed network supporting the mobile terminals) Electronic mail (MHS, Message Handling System, implemented in the fixed network) Short Message Service (SMS) alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal using the signaling channel, thus allowing simultaneous use of basic services and SMS
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IFA’2006

Supplementary Services
 May differ between different service providers, countries and protocol versions  Important services
– – – – –

Identification: forwarding of caller number Suppression of number forwarding Automatic call-back Conferencing with up to 7 participants Locking of the mobile terminal (incoming or outgoing calls

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GSM Reference Architecture
PSTN Network & Switching Subsystem (NSS) A
VLR MSC HLR AUC EIR NMC OMC

RADIO SUBSYSTEM

Abis
Um
MT TE

BSC

BSS

BSS

BTS

BTS

ADC

OSS
Operation Subsystem

MS

MS

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BSS: BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM
* BTS (Base Transceiver Station): Sender and receiver * BSC (Base Station Controller): Controlling several transceivers
s

INTERFACES:
sUm s

: Radio interface sAbis : Standardized, open A: Standardized, open

interface with 16 kbps user channels

interface with 64 kbps user channels

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BSS: BASE STATION SUBSYSTEM
 BTS handles channel allocation, signaling, frequency hopping, handover initiation, etc.  BSC manages radio channels, paging, handoff for several BTSs  MSC is the gateway to PSTN and Packet Data Networks  MSC performs switching, paging functions, MS location updating, handoff control, etc.

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Base Station Subsystem
Functions Management of radio channels Frequency hopping (FH) Management of terrestrial channels Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels Channel coding and decoding Rate adaptation Encryption and decryption Paging Uplink signal measurements Traffic measurement Authentication Location registry, location update Handover management BTS X X X X X X BSC X X X X X X X X X X

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Mobile Station
 Mobile Termination (MT) supports physical channel between MS and base station (radio transmission, channel coding, speech coding)  Terminal equipment (TE), e.g., telephone set, speaker, microphone, keypad, and radio modem . Contains terminal/user-specific data in form of smart card (Subscriber Identify Module or SIM card), plugs into any GSM terminal like credit card and identifies user to network for personal mobility (in addition to terminal mobility) and security – SIM (Subscriber Identity Module): Smart card issued at subscription time Personalization of the mobile terminal, stores user parameters such as address and type of service Calls are directed to the SIM rather than the terminal Stores short messages Carries a PIN number that needs to be verified to make the information on the card available to the user.

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Network and Switching Subsystem
 NSS is the main component of the GSM – Switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control  Components – Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) Controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC

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Network and Switching Subsystem
 The MSC (Mobile Switching Center) plays a central role in GSM – switching functions – additional functions for mobility support – management of network resources – interworking functions via Gateway MSC (GMSC) – integration of several databases

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Network and Switching Subsystem
Detailed Functions of a MSC – specific functions for paging and call forwarding – termination of SS7 (signaling system no. 7) – mobility specific signaling – location registration and forwarding of location information – provision of new services (fax, data calls) – support of short message service (SMS) – generation and forwarding of accounting and billing information
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Network and Switching Subsystem
– Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) Home Location Register (HLR): central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) Visitor Location Register (VLR): local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR Equipment Identity Register (EIR): registers GSM mobile stations and user rights. Stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized. It allows stolen or fraudulent mobile stations to be
identified

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Network and Switching Subsystem
– Authentication Center (AUC)
Authentication Center (AUC) is accessed by HLR to authenticate a user for service. It contains authentication and encryption keys for subscribers Generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR Authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system

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Handoff (Handover in Europe)
 Two types – Internal: between BTSs that belong to the same BSSs – External: between two different BSSs controlled by the same MSC  Sometimes there are handoffs between BSSs that are controlled by two different MSCs (the old MSC continues to handle call management)  Reasons to handoff: – Signal strength deterioration at the edge of a cell – Traffic balancing (to easy traffic congestion)
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4 Types of Handover
1
MS

2
MS

3
MS

4
MS

BTS

BTS BSC

BTS BSC
MSC

BTS BSC MSC

 Intra-cell: due to narrowband interference need to switch to another frequency  Inter-cell, intra-BSC: MS moves from one cell to another, but stays within the control of the same BSC  Inter-BSC, intra-MSC: between cells controlled by different BSCs (handover controlled by the MSC)  Inter MSC: between cells belonging to different MSCs

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GSM – TDMA/FDMA

(124 Frequencies; in each Freq there are 8 channels (time slots))
935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz)

qu en cy

fre

Downlink
890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz)

Uplink

Each channel is separated in time via a frame

time

GSM TDMA Frame 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.615 ms

1
Each frame is subdivided into 8 GSM time-slots

GSM Time-Slot (normal burst)
tail user data S Training S user data S tail
guard space

8.25 IFA’2006

guard space

Each slot represents a physical TDM channel and lasts for 577 µs

3 bits

57 bits

1

26 bits

1

57 bits

3

8.25

Each TDM channel occupies the 200 kHz carrier for 577 µs every 4.615 ms

577 µs

S: Stealing bit

ECE4833

GSM-Time Slot (Burst Period)
1 time slot  156.25 bit durations = 0.577 µ s Bit rate  270.833 kbps

Tail (Trail Bits): Allow synchr. of transmissions from MSs located at different distances from the BS. Consist of 0s. User Bits: User data encrypted in blocks by conventional encryption of 114 plaintext bits into 114 ciphertext bits; the encrypted bits are then placed in two 57 bit fields in the time slot.
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GSM-Time Slot (Burst Period)
Stealing Bit:
Used to indicate whether this block contains data or is “stolen” for urgent control signalling.

Training Bits:

Allow the receiver to synchronize itself; enables MSs and BSs to determine that the received signal is from the correct transmitter and not a strong interfering transmitter. They are also used for multipath equalization, extracts the desired signal from unwanted reflections.
IFA’2006 ECE4833
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GSM Physical Channels
TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
Timeslot 1 Frequency 1 Frequency 2 : : Frequency 124
Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 1 Ch 1

2
Ch 2 Ch 2

3
Ch 3 Ch 3

4
Ch 4 Ch 4

5
Ch 5 Ch 5

6
Ch 6 Ch 6

7
Ch 7 Ch 7

8
Ch 8 Ch 8

: :
Ch 5 Ch 6 Ch 7 Ch 8

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GSM-Channels
 The total RF Spectrum (~50 MHz) is located in 890-915 MHz (upstream) and 935 – 960MHz (downstream)  This spectrum is divided into 124 RF carriers of 200KHz.  The offset of the upstream/downstream pairing is fixed 45 MHz.  Each RF carrier is further divided into 8 time slots (TDMA)-physical channels  There is no pre-assignment of any channels to a specific and exclusive use.
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GSM Hierarchy of Frame Structure
Hyperframe (=2048 superframes=2,715,648 frames=21,725,184slots) 0 1 2 ... 2045 2046 2047 3 h 28 min 53.76 s

perframe (=51 multiframes))

0

1

2

...

48

49

50

6.12 s

Multiframe (traffic multiframes)=51 FRAMES 0 1 2 ... 48 49 50 235.4 ms

Frame: 8 burst of time slots

0

1 slot burst

...

6

7

4.615 ms 577 µs

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GSM Hierarchy of Frame Structure
Hyperframe (=2048 superframes=2,715,648 frames=21,725,184slots) 0 1 2 ... 2045 2046 2047 3 h 28 min 53.76 s

Superframe (=26 multiframes)) 6.12 s 0 1 ... 24 25

Multiframe ( control multiframes) 0 1 ... 24 25 120 ms

Frame: 8 burst of time slots 0 1 slot burst ... 6 7 4.615 ms 577 µs

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REASON FOR FRAME HIERARCHY
* Needed to identify the location of certain bursts among the large stream of bursts that are directed toward different MSs. * Each MS needs a a number of counters to track the related packets at different levels of the hierarchy. * GSM radio interface has several traffic and control channels defined in a hierarchy built upon the basic 8-slot TDMA transmission format.
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GSM Logical Channel Structure
TCH TCH/F BCH TCH/H CCCH DCCH CCH CBCH

FCCH

SCH

BCCH

PCH

AGCH

RACH SACCH

ACCH

SDCCH

FACCH
32

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GSM Channel Types
 3 groups of logical (i.e., Virtual Circuits) channels, TCH, CCH and CBCH, which are realized on top of physical channels.  TCH (Traffic Channel) (BS <-> MS) To carry voice or data traffic of the users  CCH (Control Channel) For control and signaling functions  CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel) For broadcast functions from a service center to a MS in a cell area.
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GSM Logical Channels
 Traffic (TCH) Channels: Two-way, carrying voice and data – Full-rate traffic channels (TCH/F) – Half-rate traffic channels (TCH/H) – Full rate channel may carry 13 kbps speech or data at 12, 6, or 3.6 kbps – Half rate channel may carry 6.5 kbps speech or data at 6 or 3.6 kbps
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GSM Logical Channels, cont..
 CCH consists of 3 groups of logical control channels, BCH, CCCH and DCCH  BCH (Broadcast Channel): Point-to-multipoint downlink only. Contains three sub-channels, BCCH, FCCH and SCH

– BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel): Used by the BTS to broadcast synchronization parameters, available services, and cell ID. I.o.w. sending cell identities, organization info about common control channels, cell service available, etc.
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IFA’2006

GSM Logical Channels
– FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel): An MS uses it to synchronize its carrier frequency and bit timing. – SCH (Synchronization Channel): Used by the BTS to broadcast frame synchronization signals to all MSs; I.o,w., send TDMA frame number and base station identity code to synchronize MSs.
IFA’2006 ECE4833
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GSM Logical Channels, cont…
 CCCH (Common Control Channel) One way:
Consists of three sub-channels, PCH, AGCH and RACH. These channels are used for paging and access - PCH (Paging Channel): Used by BTS to page the MS – AGCH (Access Grant Channel): to assign MSs to stand-alone dedicated control channels for initial assignment; Used by the MS to access the BTS for call establishment – RACH (Random Access Channel): for MS to send requests for dedicated connections; for the acknowledgement from the BTS to the MS
after a successful attempt by MS using RCH.

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GSM Logical Channels, cont…
 DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel): bi-directional
point-to-point -- main signaling channels. Consist of two sub-channels, SDCCH and ACCH

– SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel): for service request, subscriber authentication, equipment validation, assignment to a traffic channel; Call establishment and mobility management

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GSM Logical Channels, cont…
– ACCH consists of two sub-channels, SACCH and FACCH
SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel): for out-of-band signaling associated with a traffic channel, e.g., signal strength measurements; Assigned to each TCH and SDCCH. Used to
exchange parameters between the BTS and the MS to maintain the link.

FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel): for preemptive signaling on a traffic channel, e.g., for handoff messages;
Used to support fast transitions in the channel when SACCH is not adequate.

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