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SmibTUser

SmibTUser

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AU Powerlab

USER REFERENCE MANUAL FOR TRANSIENT STABILITY- SMIB AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS-SMIB DOCUMENT NO. ANTSSS – URM – 1.0

MAY 2004 ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI – 600 025

CONTENTS Page No. 1. ABOUT THE PROGRAM 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Utility of the Program 1.3 Features of the Program 1.3.1 Methods used and computational details 2. GETTING STARTED 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Opening the Menu Screen 2.3 Operations Using the Menu Screen 2.3.1 Creation of a new data file 2.3.2 Modifying an existing data file 2.3.3 Selecting a file for running the program 2.3.4 Running the program 2.3.5 Viewing output file 2.3.6 Manuals 2.3.7 Exit 3 DETAILS OF INPUT

2-1 2-1 2-3 2-3 2-5 2-6 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7

3.1 Data Requirements 3.2 Input Through Console 3.3 Input Through File 4 SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY

3-1 3-1 3-2

4.1 Single-Line Diagram and Data 4.2 Sample Input Data File 4.3 Sample Output File

4-1 4-1 4-1

ANNEXURES I II III IV V VI Single-Line Diagram and Data for Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis Sample Input Data File for Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis Interactive Queries and User Response for Transient Stability Analysis Interactive Queries and User Response for SS Stability Analysis Output File and Plots for Transient Stability Analysis Output File and Plots for SS Stability Analysis A-1 A-2 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-7

CHAPTER 1 ABOUT THIS PROGRAM 1.1 Introduction Transient and small signal stability analysis are to be carried out to assess whether the system can maintain stability or not when subjected to large and small scale disturbances respectively. The program consists of two modules, one for transient stability analysis and another for small signal stability analysis. Both the modules are developed to analyse single machine connected to infinite bus system and study the fundamentals concepts and factors related to stability of power system. The two modules are independently developed and could be run separately. 1.2 Utility of the Program The transient stability program can carryout the following. (i) Transient stability analysis using conventional machine model and modified Euler method for numerical integration (ii) Transient stability analysis using conventional machine model and R.K method for numerical integration (iii) Plot of machine swing, frequency deviation and real power generation of generator with respect to time For small signal stability, the non-linear swing equation is linearised around an operating point and the linearised equation is analysed both in time domain and Sdomain. The program has facilities for computing the following. 1. Roots of the characteristics equation 2. Damped frequency of oscillation 3. Undamped natural frequency 4. Damping ratio
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1.3 Features of the Program 1.3.1 Methods used and computational details For transient stability analysis, the machine is represented by a constant voltage source behind transient reactance and the effect of controllers are not considered. The system is characterised by non-linear differential equations. Three faults namely three phase fault at the end of one line near the generator bus, three phase fault at middle of one line and line opening and closing can be analysed with the program. The module is provided with features either to use modified Euler method or R.K method for numerical integration. A plot of machine swing, frequency deviation and generator output can be obtained. 1-1

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For small signal stability the non-linear swing equation characterising the system is linearised around the operating state and the Laplace transform of the linearised equation is used for analysis. The roots of the characteristics equation, damped frequency of oscillation, damping ratio and undamped natural frequency are obtained. Force free respons

1-2
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CHAPTER 2 GETTING STARTED 2.1 Introduction This chapter describes the procedure for accessing the specific program modules Transient Stability and Small Signal Stability modules in the AU Powerlab software package. Both the modules have features for creating new data file, editing already stored sample system data, running the program and viewing the results. The details of the procedure to use the features are given in the following sections. 2.2 Opening The Menu Screen Once the AU Powerlab software package is installed, the AU Powerlab icon will appear on the desktop. 1. Click the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop, then a window carrying Anna University frontage will appear on the screen and will disappear within few seconds. Then the Student Log-on Window will appear (Fig 2.1)

Fig 2.1 Student Log – on Window 2. Enter the student information in the respective boxes. After entering all information, click Enter button. Then the Opening Window for AU Powerlab will appear (Fig 2.2)

2-1

Fig 2.2 Opening Window for AU Powerlab 3. Click the button, ‘Transient / SS Stability – SMIB’ in the Opening Window. Then another window containing the title of the sub- modules ‘Transient stability and Small Signal Stability’ will appear (Fig 2.3).

Fig 2.3 Window for Title of Transient / SS Stability – SMIB 2-2

4.

Click the button ‘Transient Stability’ or the button ‘Small Signal Stability’ depending upon the module you require. Then the Menu Screen for this module will appear (Fig 2.4)

Fig 2.4 Menu Screen for Transient Stability The following are the operations that can be performed under this module. i. Create New File ii. Modify Existing File iii. Select File for Running iv. Run v. View Output vi. Manuals vii. Exit The operations Run and View Output will be activated only after the operation ‘Select file for Running’ is carried out. 2.3 Operations Using the Menu Screen The details of operations that can be performed using the Menu Screen are given below 2.3.1 Creation of a new data file 1. Click the button ‘Create New File’. Then the window for entering the input data file name will appear (Fig. 2.5). Enter the file name (maximum eight alphabetic characters) and then click the button ok. The text editor (wordpad) window will appear (in Fig 2.6). 2-3

Fig 2.5 Window for Entering Input File Name

Fig 2.6 Text Editor(Word Pad ) Window 2-4

2. Enter the input data in the same sequence as given in chapter three of this manual. 3. After entering all the input data, save the file, close the text editor window and control will return to Menu Screen. 4. If the whole data could not be entered in one sitting, then the file created with partial data can be saved. The remaining data can be entered in the next sitting by accessing the saved file using the procedure explained in the next section. 2.3.2 Modifying an existing data file 1. Click the button ‘Modify Existing File’ on the Menu Screen, Then the file-open dialogue window will appear (Fig 2.7)

Fig 2.7 File-Open Dialogue Window 2. Select the desired file and then click the button open. The desired data file appears on the wordpad. (Fig 2.8). The necessary modifications are carried out and the modified file is saved either in the original name or in a new file name. Then close the text editor window.

2-5

Fig 2.8 The Desired Data File 2.3.3 Selecting a file for running the program Click the button ‘Select File for Running ’. Then the file -open dialogue window will appear (Fig 2.7). Select the required file and click the button open. Then the control will return to Menu Screen. Now the buttons run and view output will be enabled. 2.3.4 Running the program 1. Click the button Run. Then the ‘Transient Stability’ module or ‘Small Signal Stability’ module as the case may be, will be executed and a message ‘Stop program terminated’ will appear. Close the DOS prompt window by entering ‘Exit’ and pressing return key. Then the control will return to Menu Screen.

2.3.5 Viewing Output File 1. Click, the button View Output. Then the output file will appear in a text editor (Fig 2.9). A print of this result can be taken if desired. When this window is closed, the control will return to Menu Screen.

2-6

Fig 2.9 Window for Input Data File 2. Click the button view plot. A drop down menu with machine swing, frequency deviation and P-generation will appear. Select the required plot and click the button. Then the plot will appear. (Fig 2.10 – machine swing). A print of this result can be taken if desired . Note: It may be noted that the output of the previous run will be erased and the output of the latest run will be stored in the output file. The output of the latest run will also be erased when the session is completed and the user quit the program. 2.3.6 Manuals Click the button Manuals. Then a dropdown menu with User Manual and Laboratory Manual will appear. Click the button, Laboratory Manual. Then the Laboratory manual for the experiment Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis - SMIB will appear. If you click the button User Reference Manual, then the ‘User Reference Manual’ for Transient and Small Signal Stability program modules will appear. Click either of the buttons to view the relevant part of the respective Manual. 2.3.7 Exit To quit from the operations performed under the Menu Screen click Exit button

2-7

CHAPTER 3 DETAILS OF INPUT 3.1 Data Requirements The data required for the modules Transient Stability and Small Signal Stability can be broadly classified into two groups i. Data to be fed through console (a) Transient stability Informations regarding the specific method of numerical integration to be used out of modified Euler and R.K. methods for transient stability analysis, the type of fault chosen from among the three type of fault specified, fault application and clearing time are to be entered through console. The details are given in section 3.2 (b) Small signal stability
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Information regarding initial condition perturbation of co-efficient are to be entered through console. ii. Data to be fed through a stored data file

Data to be fed through the stored data file is same both for transient stability analysis and small signal stability analysis, since the same SMIB system is used for both the study. Hence only a single data file is created for both the study. Before running the modules, a data file should be created containing all the required data and in the specified sequence given in section 3.3. This file can be created using the editor facility as explained in chapter 2 of this manual. The following data should be compiled from the single line diagram and data of the SMIB power system to be studied. (a) System details (b) Generator data (c) Transformer and transmission line data The user is urged to refer to chapter 4 on sample system study for illustration. 3.2 Input Through Console (a) Transient stability When the transient stability module is run on the computer, four interactive queries appear on the screen, requiring the response of the user. The user should enter the respective index value depending upon the choice of option. The details of queries that appear on the screen and the sequence in which they appear are given below along with required explanation. Statement 1: ‘Enter the Index for integration: (Enter 1 for modified ‘Euler’ method, 2 for ‘Runge Kutta’ method)

3-1

Statement 2: ‘Enter the case number of fault: ( Enter 1 for opening and closing of line No-2. Enter 2 for three phase to ground fault near the generator bus on line no-2 Enter 3 for three phase to ground fault at middle of line no-2.) Statement 3: ‘Enter the time of fault application in seconds: Statement 4: ‘Enter the time of fault clearance in seconds: Small signal stability When the small signal stability module is run on the computer, two queries appear on the screen, requiring the response of the user. The user should enter the required input data. The details of queries that appear on the screen and the sequence in which they appear are given below Statement 1: ‘Enter the initial perturbation in degrees’: It is assumed that the system is subjected to a small disturbance, because of which there is a small perturbation in machine angle in degrees. Enter the perturbation in degrees Statement 2: ‘ Enter the damping co-efficient in p.u.’ Enter the value of KD in p.u. (change in power in p.u. / change in speed in p.u.) 3.3 Input Through File – (Common for transient and small signal stability analysis) The data file to be created should contain the following groups of data in the sequence indicated. As this data is to be read in free format, each data should be separated by a blank space. Group 1: Student information This group consists of the following six sub-groups (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Title of the Experiment Case Title Name of the Student Roll Number Semester Number Date of Experiment

The subgroup (i) consists of two lines of data, character string (upto 80 characters per line) bearing the title of the experiment. Each one of the sub-groups (ii) to (vi) consisting of one line of data, character string (up to 80 characters) bearing the respective information

3-2

Group 2 : General system data System data consists of one line of four data as given below 1 Real Where 1: Step size for numerical integration in seconds 2: Total time of simulation in seconds 3: Frequency in Hertz 4: Base MVA Group 3: Generator data 1 Real Where, 1 : Active power generation in p.u. 2: Power factor 3: Xd’ of Generator in p.u. 4: MVA rating of generator 5: H constant of generator in seconds Group 4: Transformer and transmission line data 1 Real Where, 1: Transformer reactance in p.u. 2: Transmission Line-1 reactance in p.u. 3: Transmission Line-2 reactance in p.u. 2 Real 3 Real 2 Real 3 Real 4 Real 5 Real 2 Real 3 Integer 4 Integer

3-3

CHAPTER 4 SAMPLE SYSTEM STUDY 4.1 Single-line Diagram and Data Single-line diagram and the data of a single machine connected to an infinite bus system taken as sample system is given in Annexure - I 4.2 Sample Input Data File The sample input data file prepared for running the modules Transient Stability and Small Signal Stability is given in Annexure II. The interactive queries appeared on the screen and the response of the user while running Transient Stability module and Small Signal Stability module using the data file in Annexure II are given in Annexure III and Annexure IV respectively. 4.3 Sample Output Data File The sample output file generated by running the Transient Stability module using the input data file data given in Annexure -II is given in Annexure V. The plots of the output are also given. The small stability program was run using the same input file in Annexure II and the corresponding output file is given in Annexure V. The plots of the output is also given.

4-1 ANNEXURE I Single – Line Diagram and Data for Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis Transformer

L.T G Et P + jQ

Infinite Bus EB Fig.1 Single-line Diagram

(a) Plant data No. of units Capacity of each unit Generator Voltage (b) System data The data for the system in p.u on a base of 2220 MVA, 24kv is given below Machine transient reactance X’d = 0.3 p.u Inertia constant H Frequency f Transformer reactance Line 1 reactance Line 2 reactance (c) Plant operating condition Real Power generation P = 0.9 p.u Power factor = 0.9 lagging Generator terminal voltage Et = 1.0 p.u. = 3.5 MW-S/MVA = 60 Hz frequency = X = 0.15 p.u = X = 0.5 p.u = X = 0.93 p.u =4 = 550 MVA = 24kv

A-1

ANNEXURE II Sample Input Data File for Transient and Small Signal Stability Analysis 0.01 0.9 0.15 5.00 0.9 0.50 60 0.3 0.93 2220 555 3.5

ANNEXURE III

Interactive Queries and User Response for Transient Stability Analysis

A-2

ANNEXURE IV Interactive Queries and User Response for Small Signal Stability Analysis

Note ; The value for the damping co-efficient may be chosen as Range of value: 1.0 to 20.0

A-3

ANNEXURE – V – Output File and Plots for Transient Stability Analysis
----------------------------------AU POWERLAB Single Machine Infinite Bus System - Transient Stability Analysis ----------------------------------Date & Time: 06-05-2004 & 15:41:15

********************************************************************* INPUT DATA ----------GENERAL DATA ------------Step width of simulation is Total time of simulation is System frequency is System base MVA is MACHINE DATA ------------Real Power Generation Power Factor Xdp of Machine MVA rating of the Machine H constant of machine SYSTEM DATA -----------Reactance of Transformer Reactance of Transmission line1 Reactance of Transmission line2 FAULT DATA ----------The fault applied is end of line 2 near HT bus Time of fault application is Time of fault clearing is : Three phase to ground fault at : 1.0000000 in Sec : 1.0500000 in Sec : : : 0.15000000 in p.u. 0.50000000 in p.u. 0.93000000 in p.u. : : : : : 0.90000000 in p.u. 0.90000000 0.30000000 in p.u. 555.00000 in MVA 3.5000000 in Sec : : : : 0.010000000 in Sec 5.0000000 in Sec 60.000000 in Hz 2220.0000

A-4

Plots:

Time Vs Machine Swing Plot
84.7087 M / c S w i n g D e g. 31.0781 0.0000 Max. 84.7087 Min. 31.0781 Time sec 5.0000

Time Vs Frequency Deviation Plot 0.4177
F r e q u e n c y D e v. Hz

-0.4177
0.0000

Max.417727 Min. 41772

TIME sec

5.0000

A-5

Time Vs Real Power Generation Plot
1.0977 P G e n e r a t I o n

pu
0.0000 0.0000 Max. 1.09772 Min. 0 TIME sec 5.0000

A-6

ANNEXURE VI

Output File and SS Stability Analysis

----------------------------------AU POWERLAB Single Machine Infinite Bus System - Small Signal Stability Analysis ----------------------------------Date & Time: 06-05-2004 & 15:43:28

********************************************************************* INPUT DATA ----------GENERAL DATA ------------Step width of simulation is Total time of simulation is System frequency is System base MVA is MACHINE DATA ------------Real Power Generation Power Factor Xdp of Machine MVA rating of the Machine H constant of machine SYSTEM DATA -----------Reactance of Transformer Reactance of Transmission line1 Reactance of Transmission line2 FAULT DATA ----------The disturbance applied is : Line - 2 opening and closing : 5.000000 in degrees : 3.0 in p.u. : : : 0.1500000 in p.u. 0.5000000 in p.u. 0.9300000 in p.u. : : : : : 0.9000000 in p.u. 0.9000000 0.3000000 in p.u. 555.0000 in MVA 3.500000 in Sec : : : : 0.01000000 in Sec 5.000000 in Sec 60.00000 in Hz 2220.000

The initial perturbation The damping co-efficient is

A-7
*********************************************************************

OUTPUT DATA -----------Roots of the characteristic equation are, Root1 Root2 : : -0.1077091+j7.365728 -0.1077091-j7.365728 : : : 7.366516 in Hz 7.365728 in Hz 0.01462145

Undamped natural frequency of oscillation(Wn) Damped natural frequency of oscillation(Wd) Damping ratio (ZEETA)

Plot:

Time Vs Machine Swing Plot
46.7717 M/ c S w i n g D e g.

36.9978 0.0000 Max 46.7717 Min 36.9978 TIME sec 5.0000

A-8

Time Vs Frequency Deviation Plot

0.0955 F r e q u e n c y D e v. Hz -0.1000 0.0000 Max. 0966076 Min. 100006 TIME sec 5.0000

Time Vs Real Power Generation Plot 0.9844
P G e n e r a t i o n p u 0.8130 0.0000 Max. 984394 Min. 81302 TIME sec 5.0000

A-9

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