UNIGRAPHICS

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF UNIGRAPHICS
STUDENT MANUAL September 2002 MT10050 - Unigraphics NX

EDS Inc.

Proprietary & Restricted Rights Notices

Copyright Proprietary right of Unigraphics Solutions Inc., its subcontractors, or its suppliers are included in this software, in the data, documentation, or firmware related thereto, and in information disclosed therein. Neither this software, regardless of the form in which it exists, nor such data, information, or firmware may be used or disclosed to others for any purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. Recipient by accepting this document or utilizing this software agrees that neither this document nor the information disclosed herein nor any part thereof shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents or used or disclosed to others for manufacturing or any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. E2002 Electronic Data Systems Corporation. All rights reserved. Restricted Rights Legend The commercial computer software and related documentation are provided with restricted rights. Use, duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Government is subject to the protections and restrictions as set forth in the Unigraphics Solutions Inc. commercial license for the software and/or documentation as prescribed in DOD FAR 227-7202-3(a), or for Civilian Agencies, in FAR 27.404(b)(2)(i), and any successor or similar regulation, as applicable. Unigraphics Solutions Inc., 10824 Hope Street, Cypress, CA 90630. Warranties and Liabilities All warranties and limitations thereof given by Unigraphics Solutions Inc. are set forth in the license agreement under which the software and/or documentation were provided. Nothing contained within or implied by the language of this document shall be considered to be a modification of such warranties. The information and the software that are the subject of this document are subject to change without notice and should not be considered commitments by Unigraphics Solutions Inc.. Unigraphics Solutions Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may be contained within this document. The software discussed within this document is furnished under separate license agreement and is subject to use only in accordance with the licensing terms and conditions contained therein. Trademarks EDS, the EDS logo, UNIGRAPHICS SOLUTIONSR, UNIGRAPHICSR, GRIPR, PARASOLIDR, UGR, UG/...R, UG SOLUTIONSR, iMANR are trademarks or registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation or its subsidiaries. All other logos or trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners.

Practical Application of Unigraphics Student Manual Publication History: Version 15.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 16.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 17.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 18.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unigraphics NX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . February 1999 January 2000 December 2000 September 2001 September 2002

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Course Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Course Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Use This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classroom System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About Part File Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class Part File Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting Unigraphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unigraphics Site Specific Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unigraphics Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Gateway Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cue/Status line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Menu bar pull down menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Platform Specific Dialog Box Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shared Features of Windows File Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Creating a New Part file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening Multiple Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To Change The Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Open an Existing Part File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mouse Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mouse Pop up Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preselection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Selection Candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layer Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Layers and Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDS All Rights Reserved

-1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -4 -4 -5 -5 -6 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-9 1-11 1-15 1-15 1-16 1-24 1-25 1-27 1-30 1-30 1-32 1-34 1-34
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Drafting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering Disciplines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moving Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Class Selection Filter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3 - Save Part As (Copying a Part File) . . . . . . . . Activity 4 - Closing Part Files and Exiting Unigraphics . Activity 5 - Establish Toolbar Environment in Modeling Introduction to Solid Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate Systems in Unigraphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic WCS Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Points for Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Manipulating the WCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Origin, Edge Lengths Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Additional Toolbars in Modeling Application Activity 3 - Creating a Primitive Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diameter, Height Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Creating a Primitive Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Placement Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Horizontal and Vertical Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples of Horizontal, Vertical and Angular Positioning Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hole Creation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Creating Hole Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1-34 1-34 1-35 1-36 1-37 1-39 1-41 1-43 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-10 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-23 2-26 2-27 2-27 2-28 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-8 3-14 3-14 3-16 3-21
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Rectangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Creating Slot Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Pocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3 - Creating Pocket Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . Boss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 4 - Creating Boss Form Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Pad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5 - Creating and Positioning a Pad . . . . . . . . . . . Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating and Editing Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Information"Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Used by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Getting Familiar with Expressions . . . . . . . . . Face Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Face Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hollow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wall Thickness Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Performing a Hollow Operation . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Hollow and Selection Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3 - Creating a Hollow Feature with an Offset . . . Edge Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Blend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edge Blends Using Dynamic Input Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Creating Edge Blends with Dynamic Input Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chamfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Double Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offset Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Performing a Chamfer Operation . . . . . . . . . Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visually Inspect the Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDS All Rights Reserved

3-22 3-24 3-30 3-30 3-31 3-33 3-34 3-38 3-38 3-39 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-4 4-5 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-5 5-7 5-9 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-6 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-12 6-13 7-1 7-2
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Inspect the Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information"Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information"Expression"List All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information"Expression"List All by Reference . . . . . . . . . Playback & Suppress/Unsuppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expression Used by option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Start Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Model Construction Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions and Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sub Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Assembly Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Top Down Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom Up Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Combining Both Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Designing in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bottom Up Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Load Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fully Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partially Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unloaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Component Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Displayed Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Make Work Part icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repositioning Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dragging Components Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Left Right Up Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7-2 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 8-1 8-2 8-2 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-8 8-8 8-8 8-9 8-9 8-10 8-13 8-13 8-15 8-16 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-20 8-20
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Dragging along an axis of the coordinate system . . . . . . . . Rotation about an axis of the coordinate system . . . . . . . . Point to Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotate About a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotate About a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saving the Work Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Adding and Repositioning a Component . . . .

8-20 8-21 8-21 8-22 8-22 8-23 8-24 8-25

The Master Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 The Assembly Modeler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 The Master Model Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Master Model Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Master Model Drawing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 Activity 1 - Exploring a Master Model Assembly . . . . . . . 9-6 Activity 2 - Creating a Master Model Assembly . . . . . . . . 9-12 Introduction to Drafting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Uses of the Drafting Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drawing Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Editing a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a View to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Create Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing Views From a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Adding a View to a Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the View Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Button Specific Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View Option Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3 - Setting View Display Preferences . . . . . . . . . . Creating Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Associativity of Utility Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting a Utility Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 4 - Creating a Cylindrical Centerline . . . . . . . . . Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dimension Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Definition for Angular Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . Line and Point Definition for Cylindrical Dimensions . . . Dimension Local Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appended Text Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EDS All Rights Reserved

10-1 10-2 10-2 10-3 10-5 10-7 10-10 10-10 10-11 10-14 10-15 10-15 10-18 10-19 10-20 10-20 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-29 10-30 10-31 10-32 10-33 10-34
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Precision Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tolerance Type and Tolerance Value Options . . . . . . . . . . Tolerance Value Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placement Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrow Line and Extension Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leader Direction Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Justification Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5 - Creating Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placing the Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating text Without a Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Text with a Leader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Existing Dimension Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 6 - Using the Annotation Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10-35 10-36 10-37 10-39 10-40 10-41 10-42 10-44 10-48 10-49 10-50 10-50 10-51 10-52 10-52 10-53

Datum Plane Reference Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1 Reference Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2 Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Creating Datum Planes by Inferred Selection . . . . . . . . . . 11-3 Datum Plane User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4 Dual Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5 Datum Plane Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 Offset Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6 Center Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7 Datum Plane Through Cylindrical Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8 Datum Plane at an Angle Through a Cylindrical Axis . . . 11-9 Datum Plane at an Angle to a Face or Datum Plane Through an Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10 Datum Plane Tangent to a Cylindrical Face . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11 Datum Plane Through Three Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Datum Plane Defined by Point and Direction . . . . . . . . . . 11-13 Activity 1 - Creating Relative Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . 11-14 Selecting and Using Datums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20 Editing Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20 Deleting Datum Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20 Activity 2 - Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes . . . . . . . 11-21 Activity 3 - Feature on a Relative Datum Plane . . . . . . . . 11-27 Activity 4 - Creating a Hole Corner to Corner . . . . . . . . . 11-33 Datum Axis Reference Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 Datum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
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User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative Datum Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Datum Axis Through Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Datum Axis Through an Edge or Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Datum Axis Through a Cylindrical face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Datum Axis Through the Intersection of two Faces . . . . . Editing Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deleting Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Constraining Locations using Datums . . . . . Activity 2 - Relative Datum Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6 12-7 12-8 12-9 12-9 12-10 12-19

Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1 What is a sketch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2 Why sketch? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3 When should a sketch be used? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4 Sketches and the Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7 Sketches and Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8 Creating a New Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 The Sketch Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 Sketch to Define the Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9 Sketch Associative to Existing Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10 Defining the Reference Direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11 Naming a Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12 The Active Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13 Sketch Creation Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Sketch for a Base Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Sketch on an Existing Face or Datum Plane . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14 Activity 1 - Sketch Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15 Sketch Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Sketch Curve Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Infer Constraints Setting Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22 Locking a Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 Snap Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 The Infer Point Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-23 Alignment Lines While Creating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Profile Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-24 Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-26 Creating Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-27 Creating Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-28 Activity 2- Using the Sketch Profile Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-30 Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-39
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Quick Trim and Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Quick Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-40 Quick Extend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-42 Activity 3 - Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-43 Activity 4 - Sketching a Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-48 Activity 5 - Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend . . . . . . 13-55 Sketch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59 Degree of Freedom Arrows (DOF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-59 Constraining Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61 Design Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61 The Sketch Constraints Tool Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61 Creating Dimensional Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-61 Text Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64 Dimensional Constraint Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-64 Editing Dimensional Constraints` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-67 Delay Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68 Evaluate Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68 Update Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-68 Creating Geometric Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-69 Displaying Constraint Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-70 Show/Remove Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-73 Constraint Interrogation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74 Constraint Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-74 Constraint Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75 Listing Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75 Removing Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-75 Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76 Dragging Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76 Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76 Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-76 Constraining Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-78 Activity 6 - Constraining a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-80 Activity 7 - Constraining the Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-89 Convert To/From Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-100 Activity 8 - Constraint Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-101 Swept Features and Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Swept Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Swept Features from Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extrude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rules for Extruding Section String Objects . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Extrusion Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4 Activity 1 - Swept Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5 Boolean Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6 Defining Target and Tool Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7 Unite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8 Subtract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9 Intersect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9 Swept Feature Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10 Rules for Extruding With Taper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11 Extruding With Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12 Activity 2 - Extruding with Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13 Sweep along Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19 Rules for Sweeping Section String Objects Along a Guide 14-19 Guide Strings Containing Sharp Corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20 Activity 3 - Sweeping Along a Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21 Defining a Sweep Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-23 Activity 4 - Defining a Sweep Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-24 Revolve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Rules for Revolving Section String Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Body of Revolution Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26 Activity 5 - Creating a Body of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27 Activity 6 - Adding a Body of Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-32 Trimming Face Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-34 Activity 7 - Revolving and Trimming to a Face . . . . . . . . . 14-35 Activity 8 - Extruding to a Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-39 Editing the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Features of the Edit Pull Down Menu . . . . . . . . . . Edit Feature Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delayed Update on Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Feature Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Feature Pull Down Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unsuppress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delta X, Y, Z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . To a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotate Between Two Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSYS to CSYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Deleting Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Update Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Playback, Move & Delete Features . . . . . . . . . Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Add Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Dimension Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delete Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Edit Features and Positioning Dimensions . . Activity 3 - Using the Update Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Model Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Show/Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Make Current Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suppress and Unsuppress Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reorder Before/After . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Replace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Object Dependency Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 4 - Reordering with the Model Navigator . . . . . . Reattaching a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Reattach Menu dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reattach Menu dialog box Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 5 - Reattaching a Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instance Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Instance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1 - Rectangular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Activity 2 - Circular Instance Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Design Intent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11 Additional Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Point Constructor Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Points vs. Specifying Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Icon Methods To Specify a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inferred Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cursor Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Existing Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intersection Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angle on Arc/Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quadrant Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choosing a Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-6 A-9 A-10 A-12 A-14 A-16 A-18 A-20 A-22 A-24 A-26 A-28 A-30 A-32 A-34 B-1 B-1 B-2 B-2 B-3 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 B-10 B-11 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-14
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Offset Along Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-15 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transformation Options Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotate About a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mirror Through a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotate About a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Transformations for Symmetrical Geometry . . . . . . C-1 C-2 C-3 C-6 C-7 C-10 C-11 C-12 C-13

Curve Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 Explicit Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2 The Work Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-2 Basic Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3 The Dialog Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4 Pre Selection Highlighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 Control Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 Inferred Point Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6 Status Line Feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6 Inferred Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 General Curve Creation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8 Point Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8 String Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9 Line Creation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 Through a Point and Horizontal or Vertical . . . . . . . . . . . . D-10 Through a Point and at an Angle to the XC Axis . . . . . . . D-11 Through a Point and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-12 Parallel to An Existing Line at a Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-13 Through a Point and Tangent or Perpendicular to a Curve D-14 Tangent to a Curve and Tangent or Perpendicular to Another Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-15 Tangent to a Curve and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle to an Existing Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-16 Line Creation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-17 Activity 1 - Creating Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-18 Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-26 Creating Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-27 Creation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-27
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Dialog Bar Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Center Point, Point on Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2 - Creating Arcs and Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arc/Circle Creation Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Curve Fillet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fillet Creation Methods Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3 - Creating Fillets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edit Curve Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing an Arc or Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moving an Arc or Circle to a New Location . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Parameters Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Dragging Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 4 - Trimming Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WCS Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining Points for Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hot Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D-27 D-28 D-28 D-29 D-32 D-33 D-34 D-35 D-36 D-37 D-40 D-41 D-45 D-46 D-46 D-47 D-47 D-47 D-48 D-49 D-49 D-50 E-1 E-1 F-1

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN-1

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Course Overview

Course Overview
Intended Audience
This course is suited for designers, engineers, manufacturing engineers, application programmers, NC programmers, CAD/CAM managers, and system managers who have a need for understanding and using Unigraphics software.

Course Objectives
After successfully completing this course, the student should be able to:
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Apply the standards used in class. Demonstrate knowledge of CAD/CAM theory. Open and examine models. Create and edit parametric solid models. Create and modify basic assembly structures. Create and modify simple drawings. Modify existing geometry.

Prerequisites
There are no prerequisites for this class.

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Course Overview

How to Use This Manual
It is important that you use the Student Manual in the sequence presented because later lessons assume you have learned concepts and techniques taught in an earlier lesson. If necessary, you can always refer to any previous activity where a method or technique was originally taught. The format of the activities is consistent throughout this manual. Steps are labeled and specify what will be accomplished at any given point in the activity. Below each step are action boxes which emphasize the individual actions that must be taken to accomplish the step. As your knowledge of Unigraphics increases, the action boxes will seem redundant as the step text becomes all that is needed to accomplish a given task. Step 1 Open part file pau_topic_1.
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From the menu bar, select File Choose Open. Double-click on the parts sub-directory. Select the file pau_topic_1 and choose OK.

Classroom System Information
Your instructor will provide you with the following items for working in the classroom: Student Login: Username: Password: Home Directory: Parts Directory: Instructor: Date:

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Course Overview

Class Standards
The following standards will be used in this class. Standardization allows users to work with and predict the organization of parts created by others . All work should be performed in accordance with these standards.

About Part File Naming
In order to facilitate the identification of design models without requiring the user to open a part file, the user community must establish standard names for the various files associated with the part definition. The following is a sample usage of a filenaming standard:
part name (25 characters) revision (4 characters)

xxx_xxxxxxxxxxxx_xxxx_xxxx•prt
identifier (3 characters) configuration (4 characters) extension (4 characters)

TIP

Currently up to 128 characters are valid for file names. A four character extension (.prt) is automatically added to define the file type. This means the maximum number of user defined characters for the file name is actually 124.

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Course Overview

Class Part File Naming
This course utilizes the following filenaming standard:
underscore delimiter part name unique identifier number

pau_ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x _ x • p r t
course identifier (3 characters) underscore delimiter extension (4 characters)

Where the student is requested to save a part file for later use, the initials of the student's given name, middle name, and surname replace the course identifier pau" in the new filename with the remainder of the filename matching the original.

Expressions
The student will notice that there is a standard set of expressions resident in each of the part files as follows:
Expression Name bend_r=.5 dia=.5 h=1 l=1 out_r=.625 rad=.25 thk=.06 w=1 Intended Use identifies bend radius for sheet metal parts identifies diameter identifies height identifies length identifies the outside radius for sheet metal parts identifies Radius identifies thickness identifies width

These expressions could be entered by the user in each file or could be a standard expression file that could be imported into the part file by the user. Expression files that are valid for importing carry the file extension of .exp. The total number of characters allowed in an expression is 132.

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Course Overview

Colors
The following colors are preset to indicate different object types:
Object Bodies Solid Sheet Generating Curves (non sketch) Lines and Arcs Conics and Splines Sketches Sketch Curves Reference Curves Datum Features Points and Coordinate Systems System Display Color Valid colors Green Yellow Orange Blue Cyan Gray Aquamarine White Red

Seed Part
Seed parts are an effective tool for establishing customer defaults or any settings that are part dependent (saved with the part file). This may include non geometric data such as:
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Preferences Commonly used expressions Layer categories User defined views and layouts Part attributes Once a seed part is established, it should be write protected to avoid accidental modification of the seed part.

TIP

Two seed part files are available for use in this course, pau_seedpart_in for inch parts and pau_seedpart_mm for metric parts. These files incorporate the standards described above, and include the TFR TRI view as the default view.

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Course Overview

Definition of Terms
Explicit Modeling

Explicit modeling is modeling that is not parametric. Objects are created relative to model space, not each other. Changes to one or more objects do not necessarily affect other objects or the finished model. Examples of explicit modeling include creating a line between two existing points, or creating an arc through three existing points. If one of the existing points were moved, the line/arc would not change.
Parametric Modeling

A parametric model is one in which the values (parameters) used for the definition of the model are stored with the model for future editing. Parameters may reference each other to establish relationships between the various features of the model. Examples include the diameter and depth of a hole, or the length, width, and height of a rectangular pad. The designer's intent may be that the hole is always as deep as the pad is high. Linking these parameters together may achieve the desired results. This is not easily accomplished with an explicit model.
Constraint based Modeling

A constraint-based model is one in which the geometry of the model is driven, or solved, from a set of design rules applied to the geometry defining the model as constraints. These constraints might be dimensional constraints (such as sketch dimensions or positioning dimensions) or geometric constraints (such as parallelism or tangency). Examples include a line tangent to an arc, where the designer intends for that tangent condition to be maintained even though the angle of the line may change, or a perpendicular condition being maintained as angles are modified.
Hybrid Modeling

Hybrid modeling refers to the selectively combined use of the three types of modeling described above. Hybrid modelers allow designers to use parametric modeling where needed, without requiring that the entire model be constrained before proceeding. Because of this, designers have more flexibility in modeling techniques. The Unigraphics hybrid modeler supports traditional explicit geometric modeling along with constraint based sketching and parametric feature modeling. All tools are integrated so they can be used in combination.

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Getting Started

Lesson 1

PURPOSE This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the Unigraphics User Interface. Subsequent lessons will reinforce and extend the student's understanding. OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
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Start Unigraphics. Locate the Cue/Status line. Execute Menu Bar Pull Down Menus. Create a New Part File. Dock and Undock Toolbars. Open a Part File. Work with Layers Copy a Part File. Close a Part File and Exit Unigraphics.

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1

Getting Started

Getting Started

Starting Unigraphics
The first step in working in Unigraphics is to log on to a workstation and start a Unigraphics process. Because this procedure varies from company to company, and platform to platform, consult the system administrator for a site specific procedure to follow. The Unigraphics NX Activity Menu shown below will not be displayed on Windows workstations, and may or may not be displayed at Unix workstations. It is shown here to describe the options available in case this is the normal start dialog box at your site.

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Unigraphics Site Specific Startup
Unigraphics NX Activity Menu Version

Select xwi" to enable the display of curve widths

Select Starbase" to enable rotatable shaded images Select once to start Unigraphics

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Getting Started

No Part The graphic below shows the No Part" Unigraphics interface. This interface only allows the user to adjust default options, open an existing part or create a new part in which to work.
Menu bar: Use the first mouse button to select an option from the pull down menu Minimize Help Internet Explorer & History

Cue line

Status line

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Unigraphics Windows

Getting Started

The Gateway Application
Upon opening an existing part or creating a new part in Unigraphics the Gateway application is entered. Gateway allows the review of existing part files and the ability to get information on those files. To create or edit objects within a file, one of the other applications such as Modeling must be entered.
Work and displayed part names Graphics Window Restore Down Resource Bars

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Graphics area

Cue line: displays user prompts

Status line: Displays informational messages

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Getting Started

The Cue/Status line appears at the bottom of the main application window. The purpose of the Cue line is to prompt for user interaction. The purpose of the Status line is to give the user feedback about system activity. NOTE: In a Windows environment the Cue line can be relocated to the top of the user interface.

Menu bar pull down menus
The Menu Bar offers a number of options from which to choose. These options have pull down menus associated with them that allow access to areas of functionality. Holding the first mouse button down over a Menu Bar option causes the pull down menu to display. Arrows to the right of the pull down listing indicate that further cascading options are available.

Menu Bar

Cascade Menu

Pull Down Menu

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Cue/Status line

Getting Started

Platform Specific Dialog Box Variance
Most interaction with dialog boxes is the same on the Windows platform and the Unix platform. The appearance of some of the controls is slightly different as shown in the example below. Notice the variance in the display of the slider bars, check boxes, option menus, etc..
UNIX Windows 2000

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Graphics shown in this text are from a Windows workstation, some of the dialog boxes at your classroom workstation may differ slightly from those shown.

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Getting Started

The New Part File, Open Part File, and Save Part File As dialog boxes have some very useful common features. The Look in: option menu shows the name of the current selected drive or directory. Selecting the arrow on the right side of the box (or anywhere within the box) will list a hierarchy of the available folders and drives.

Choosing anywhere away from the list of the available folders and drives will dismiss the listing without selecting another folder or drive.

The list in the window below the Look In: box shows the available folders and files in the currently selected directory. The folder symbol represents a sub directory, Unigraphics part files have the .prt extension. button works with the Look in: option menu to The Up One Level traverse back up through the directory hierarchy.

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Shared Features of Windows File Dialog Boxes

Getting Started

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1
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The Create New Folder the current directory.

button allows new sub folders to be created in

The View Menu pulldown button allows the appearance of the listing in the window to be modified. The default listing is that of a List. Selecting the Details button will display a more detailed listing of the files and folders including Name, Size, Type, last Modified date and time, and any Attributes that may apply to the file. Other options include; Large Icons, Small Icons and Thumbnails.

Properties can be accessed by selected mouse button three while in the Details" view mode

The ?

button at the top right of the dialog box changes the cursor to

and allows selection of any of the controls in the dialog box for a short description of its function.

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Getting Started

This activity demonstrates how to create a new part file. Step 1 Create a new part file.

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Choose the New icon.

The New Part File dialog box appears as shown.

Shaded radio" button indicates selected option

Current directory path and file extension

Step 2 Specify the units of measure for the new part file.
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Choose the Millimeters radio button.

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Activity 1 - Creating a New Part file

Getting Started

Step 3 Enter a new part file name. File names are governed by the naming conventions established for the operating system of the computer. In addition, standards set up by the company or project will affect naming conventions. Contact the system administrator for specific information on the number and types of characters for a valid file name.
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With mouse button 1, click in the File name field. Key in ***_new_1, where *** represent your initials. This will be a standard practice for this class to insure that the user at each workstation will be able to save his or her own part files. Ensure the directory is set to your home" directory. This will also be a standard practice for this class. Any part that you create should be saved in a directory that you have permissions to. Choose OK. The system processes the information and the part file is created and is loaded" into the current Unigraphics session. On Windows workstations the dialog box shown below will be displayed while the processing takes place.

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The creator of a file has read and write access, which means they may modify the file and save the changes. Step 4 Save the part.

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Choose the Save icon.

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Unigraphics NX

Getting Started

The Unigraphics user interface supports the use of Toolbars to allow quick access to most of the available functionality via logical groupings of common functionality displayed as Icons. Each application has a set of toolbars which support functions within that application. In turn, each application can also have toolbars and icons displayed which allow access to functions which are most commonly accessed for the specific application (e.g. Modeling vs. Drafting) NOTE: When the Unigraphics session is exited, the state of the Toolbars is saved, this will be the state displayed when the same user restarts Unigraphics. This is controlled by the Save layout at exit option under the General tab in the Preferences→User Interface dialog box. Toolbars may be in one of two states. The first is undocked where they are free floating on the screen. The graphic below shows three toolbars in an undocked state, located randomly by the user on the screen. These toolbars are shown within the Unigraphics window, but may be located outside the window depending on screen setup.

Undocked Toolbars

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Toolbars

Getting Started

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The second state that Toolbars may be in is docked, where they anchor to the main Unigraphics window, either horizontally or vertically. The graphic below shows several toolbars. The Standard, View and Layer toolbars are docked horizontally just below the Menu Bar, while some Modeling application toolbars are docked vertically on the right and left side of the Unigraphics window. Docked toolbars are always within the Unigraphics window.
Docked Toolbar (Vertical)

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Docked Toolbars (Horizontal)

Control of Toolbar display may be accessed from one of 3 places:
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Choose Tools"Customize from the main menu. Choose View"Toolbars from the main menu. Use the Third Mouse Button within the Unigraphics window, outside the Graphics window.

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Getting Started

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The display of each toolbar, as well as each element of each toolbar, is user customizable. To turn ON or OFF the display of a toolbar choose Tools"Customize or click MB3 in the toolbar area and select Customize. Placing a check in the box next to the toolbar name will instantly display the toolbar in the graphics area.

Getting Started

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To turn ON or OFF the display of a toolbar element choose the Commands tab. Placing a check in the box next to the toolbar command will instantly display the command in the appropriate toolbar. Removing the check turns off the display.

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Getting Started

More than one part file may be loaded at any time. This means that several parts may be worked on interchangeably. There are two designations for loaded part files:
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Displayed - The part file is displayed in the graphics area. Work - The part file is accessible for creation and editing operations.

In most cases the displayed part and the work part are the same. There are times when working in an assembly when it is advantageous that the work part be other than the displayed part.

To Change The Displayed Part
Unigraphics allows multiple part files to be open in the same session. These parts may have been loaded explicitly or implicitly, as a result of being referenced by a loaded assembly. The Window option works in two ways: In the first method, an option for More Parts is selected. This displays the Change Displayed Part dialog box and lists all parts being referenced in the current session, excluding the current displayed part. This listing will include all components in an assembly structure as well as any loaded parts not contained in a loaded assembly. In the second method, a list of up to ten previously displayed parts is generated as the displayed part is changed. This list contains the latest displayed part at the top (excluding the currently displayed part) and then each previous part in the order that they were displayed until a total of ten are listed. To change the displayed part to any of the parts in the list simply select its name from the list.

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Opening Multiple Parts

Getting Started

Activity 2 - Open an Existing Part File
This activity will demonstrate working with toolbars to establish an efficient working environment in the Gateway application for this course as well as how to load an existing part file into the work session. Continue with the previous part file ***_new_1. Step 1 Display the Standard toolbar in the Gateway Application.
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Click Mouse Button 3 (MB3) in the toolbar area and choose Customize.

Click MB3 within toolbar area.

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Getting Started

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Verify that the Standard toolbar is checked ON.

The Standard toolbar should be displayed on the screen docked in the upper left corner under the Menu bar.

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Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 2 Open the part file pau_intro_1.

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Choose the Open icon.

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The Customize Dialog box appears and shows the current toolbars which are displayed.

Getting Started

The Open Part File dialog box appears.

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Check the current directory displayed in the Look in field. If necessary, choose the proper directory from the option menu.
Part Preview window

Directory List Box

File List Box

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Getting Started

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Select pau_intro_1 in the file list box and choose OK, which opens the file (or double click on the file name).

Notice the Status Line. It displays useful information as to what the system is doing while the part file is retrieved, as well as other information pertaining to the operation being performed.
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Choose OK in the Warning dialog box to dismiss the Read Only message.

Once the part is open the following actions occur:
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Options for viewing the contents of the file are available on the menu bar. The graphics area is now active, showing the model in the condition in which it was last saved. The title bar of the Unigraphics window displays the current work part in brackets [pau_intro_1.prt] and that its status is Read Only, meaning that changes may not be saved in this file.

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It is important to keep in mind that a loaded part file is only a copy of what is stored on disk. Any new work that you do is not permanent until the part file is saved on disk.

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Notice that there are no radio buttons for Inches and Millimeters in the Open Part File dialog box. The units of the file were determined prior to creation and may not be changed within an active Unigraphics session. A part file's units can be converted using a program called ug_convert outside of the active Unigraphics session.

Getting Started

Step 3 Display the View, Selection and Utility toolbars.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and verify the View, Selection and Utility toolbars are checked ON.

The toolbars are displayed on the screen in an Docked state. Remember that toolbars may be docked horizontally on the top or bottom and vertically on the left or right. Locate the toolbars.

View

Selection

Utility

NOTE: Icons may vary for each toolbar

Step 4 Undock and Dock the Utility toolbar. NOTE: This portion of the activity is simply meant to show how to undock and dock toolbars. Whether toolbars are in docked or undocked conditions the process for moving them is very similar.
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Place the cursor on the handle portion of the Utility toolbar and press and hold down mouse button 1 (MB1).

Select on the Handle

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Getting Started -

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Release MB1.

Notice the toolbar in an undocked condition displays a header with the name of the toolbar.

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Place the cursor on the header portion of the Utility toolbar and press and hold down MB1.
Select Here

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Drag the toolbar such that the header portion falls within the main menu bar as shown below, note that the ghosted display of the outside of the window changes in size as the cursor leaves the graphics window.

Locate Here

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Release MB1.

The Utility toolbar is docked to the Unigraphics window.

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Drag the toolbar onto the graphics window, note that the ghosted display of the outside of the window changes in size.

Getting Started

Step 5 Move a docked toolbar.
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Place the cursor on the handle portion of the Utility toolbar and press and hold down MB1.

Select Here

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Drag the toolbar such that it is aligned under the Standard toolbar completely to the left side of the window. Release MB1.

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The Utility toolbar remains docked to the Unigraphics window in the proper position.

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Select the View toolbar on the handle and drag the toolbar such that it is aligned to the right of the Standard toolbar.

Locate Here

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Getting Started -

Locate Here

Step 6 Leave the part open, it will be used again in a later activity.

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Select the Selection toolbar on the handle and drag the toolbar such that it is aligned to the right of the Utility toolbar.

Getting Started

Mouse Navigation
The mouse may be used as well as the keyboard to make selections. Examples of two different mouse devices are shown. The mouse buttons are referred to as the first, second, or third mouse buttons, starting from left to right. (This order can be reversed, for users who prefer that orientation, in most terminal control panels.)
3-BUTTON MOUSE 2-BUTTON MOUSE Both buttons together execute the second mouse button action

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1

2

3

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The mouse may be used to perform various actions as shown in this chart.

Mouse Button
First Mouse Button (left only) MB1

Action
Selects or drags objects

Second Mouse Button (center OK while in an operation. Press and hold or both buttons) MB2 down while in the graphics area to Rotate the view. Hold down Shift+MB2 to Pan and hold down Ctrl+MB2 to Zoom In/Out. Third Mouse Button in graphics area MB3 Mouse arrow over icons or option menu in a dialog box Displays pop up menu for Back, Apply, Cancel, Pan, etc. Also displays action information for objects selected with MB1. Displays either the icon or option label.

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Getting Started

As mentioned in the previous chart, the mouse may be used to perform various kinds of actions depending upon placement and position in the steps of the process. When the cursor is in the graphics area and the third mouse button is depressed, the Quick View Pop Up menu shown in the graphic below is displayed. The pop up menu provides a shortcut to many of the functions that are frequently used in Unigraphics.

NOTE: The View toolbar may also be used to perform many of the view manipulation functions found in the View Pop-Up Menu.

Refresh

Fit

Zoom

Zoom Rotate In/Out

Pan

Wireframe Settings

Shaded Settings

Wireframe

View Orientation

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Mouse Pop up Menu

Getting Started

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The following table gives a brief summary of some of the options in the pop up menu.
Option Apply Back Cancel Refresh Fit Description Performs operation displayed in the current dialog box. Goes back to a previous dialog box. Terminates the current operation. Refreshes the entire graphics window. Erases temporary display entities. Fits the entire part to the view. Utilizes the fit percentage found on the Preferences→Visualization→Screen dialog box. Generally used in a modeling view. Changes the view scale via a user specified rectangle. Changes the view scale via specification of a reference point and dragging the size using the mouse. Rotates the model using the X Y method. Pans the view in the direction you pull the mouse. Performs a Refresh operation as well as redisplaying silhouette curves of faces and hidden edges of solids. Restores the original view that was in effect before one of the following operations was performed: zoom, pan, rotate. Specifies the shading method in which the solid model is displayed. Specifies the method of display of hidden edges in the graphics window. Expands a drawing's member view to the full graphics area. This is a toggle. The affected view becomes the work view and remains the work view until the expand is turned off. Redisplays the current view in a canned view orientation. The original visualization settings and view modifications are retained. Active only in a modeling view. Replaces the current view with one of the canned views. Active only in a modeling view. Reverses the effect of the last single operation performed. Any operation or edit performed prior to the last one will not be affected by undo.

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Zoom Zoom In/Out Rotate Pan Update Display Restore Display Mode Hidden Edges Expand Orient View Replace View Undo

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Getting Started

The selection toolbar may be used anytime the selection of an object for modification or the extraction of data is required. There are three major categories of objects that a user may focus on: General Objects, Features, and Components.

Components General Objects Features

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Selection Toolbar

Getting Started

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Depending on which category the user has selected, the Type Filter may be used to narrow the band of selectable objects.

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General Objects

Features

Components

The remaining options of the toolbar may be used to further discriminate in the selection of objects.

Color

Layer

Reset

Deselect All Class Selection Select All Name Selection

Once an object has been selected, mouse button 3 (MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object.

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Getting Started

General Objects Operations

Components Operations

Features Operations

NOTE:

Options may vary based upon application and object selected.

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NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the selected object for the shown pop-up dialogs to appear.

Getting Started

Preselection
Preselection allows highlighting of objects that are selectable for various operations as the selection ball is moved over them. Preselection by default is ON in Unigraphics. Preselection may be controlled by choosing Preferences"Selection from the menu bar. The color of the highlighting is specified in the Color option menu. Preselection also applies to highlighting objects that are being deselected, usually through use of <Shift> first mouse button. The state of the Preselection setting is not saved with the part, and lasts only through the current session.

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Multiple Selection Candidates
During the graphics area selection process it is common to have more than one selectable object contained in the selection ball. QuickPick is a selection confirmation interface that allows immediate selection of a single object or an easy method for browsing through multiple selection candidates. During selection the act of moving the selection ball over a selectable object causes the object to pre highlight in the preselection color. Selecting during this pre highlighting phase causes the highlighted object to be chosen for the action to be performed. Should there be more than one selectable object at the selection ball location and the cursor lingers for a short period of time, the appearance of the cursor changes to a cross followed by an ellipsis (+...) indicating that there is more than one selectable object at this position. Selection after the cursor changes display will result in the presentation of the QuickPick dialog box shown below.

NOTE: The amount of time the cursor must be stationary for the ellipsis (+...) to appear can be adjusted by choosing Preferences"Selection and adjusting the Confirmation slider.

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Getting Started

NOTE: When the Quick Pick dialog box is presented upon selection of an object, Mouse Button 1 can also be used anywhere on the graphics screen to progress through the multiple candidates. This will also progress the highlighted number in the Quick Pick dialog box and give feedback in the Status line displaying the type of object being highlighted.

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Each selectable object beneath the cursor is represented by a number. Moving the cursor over the number highlights the object in the graphics area and displays the type of object in the Status area. The desired object may be selected by selecting its numbered button. The maximum number of buttons displayed at once is six. As shown in the previous graphic, when there are more than six objects in the selection list, the end button is shown truncated. Placing the cursor in the area outside the truncation causes the buttons to scroll in the direction indicated.

Getting Started

Layer Control
Unigraphics offers users the control of visibility and selectability of objects by the use of layers. A layer is a system defined attribute that all objects in Unigraphics must have. Some other required attributes are color, font, and width. A layer may be thought of as a partition in the part file that objects reside in, or on for the purpose of organization. There are 256 usable layers in Unigraphics, one of which is always the Work Layer. Any of the 256 layers can be assigned to one of four classifications of status:
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Work Selectable Visible Only Invisible

The Work Layer is the layer that objects are created on and is always visible and selectable while it remains the Work Layer. Layer 1 is the default Work Layer when starting a new part file. When the Work Layer is changed to another, the previous Work Layer automatically becomes Selectable and could then be assigned a status of Visible Only or Invisible. The number of objects on one layer is not limited. Each user has the freedom to choose which layers they will create objects on and what the status will be. However, it should be mentioned that the use of company standards in regards to layers would be beneficial. To assign a status to a layer or layers, choose Format→Layer Settings or select the Layer Settings icon, which may be turned ON in the Utility toolbar as shown below.

Work Layer can also be changed here

Layer Settings

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Getting Started

Work Layer Text Box

Select a layer from the Layer/Status listing and choose one of the four buttons below the listing.

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The following dialog box appears:

Getting Started

Layers and Categories
The following layer and category standards will be followed in this class.

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Model Geometry
Object Type Solid Geometry Inter part Modeling Sketch Geometry Curve Geometry Reference Geometry Sheet Bodies Layer Assignment 1-20 15-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 Category Name SOLIDS LINKED_OBJECTS SKETCHES CURVES DATUMS SHEETS

Drafting Objects
Object Type Drawing Borders Layer Assignment 101-110 Category Name FORMATS

Engineering Disciplines
Object Type Mechanism Tools Finite Element Meshes and Engr. Tools Manufacturing Quality Tools Layer Assignment 121-130 131-150 151-180 181-190 Category Name MECH CAE MFG QA

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Getting Started

In the process of creating a model, there are times when it is necessary to move an object to a different layer. This option is available using Format→Move to Layer. The objects which need to be moved are then selected using the Class Selection menu. Once all of the objects to be moved are selected, the Layer Move dialog box appears.

To complete the process, the destination layer may be entered in the Destination Layer or Category field, or the layer may be selected from the list. Choose OK or Apply to move the object(s). If Apply is chosen, more objects may be selected to move by choosing the Select New Objects button.

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Moving Layers

Getting Started

Class Selection
The Class Selection dialog box is used to filter for certain types of objects during graphics area selection. Normally direct selection using the selection ball in the graphics area is enough to get the desired object. There are times when filtering using the Class Selection options is necessary or very helpful to ensure that only desired object/types are selected. This often occurs in complex parts.

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Name filter

Filter methods

Area filters

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Getting Started

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The Name filter allows selection by object(s) by entering an assigned name attribute. Filter Methods allows control of the selection of objects according to attributes such as features, type, color, and layer.
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Features allows features (e.g. block, hole, datum, sketch) to be selected for various operations (e.g. delete or information). Once this option has been selected and features have been identified, choosing OK will perform the operation which introduced the Class Selection dialog. This option is not available for all operations (e.g. edit object display and Move to Layer). Type allows the object types (e.g. curve, edge, body, datums) to be included or excluded from the selection process. Color allows objects to be included or excluded from the selection process based on their color. All colors are initially selectable as the default. Layer is used to specify the layer(s) on which to allow selection. Valid layer selection may include a single layer, an existing category, or a layer range. Other is used to filter for font (line type), width, and user defined attributes. Reset is used to return all fields to the default state.

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Class Selection Filter Types

Getting Started D

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Rectangle/Polygon Method is an option menu used to specify how objects are selected relative to an area defined by a rectangle or a polygon as discussed below. The rectangle or polygon is oriented in the current view plane and may be used in any view. A rectangle may be used by selecting a cursor location and dragging the cursor to another cursor location. The Polygon button must be selected prior to specifying the boundary with rubber banding line segments in the graphics area.
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Inside - Objects completely inside the rectangle/polygon are selected. Outside -Objects completely outside the rectangle/polygon are selected. Crossing - Objects crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon are selected. Inside/Crossing - All objects inside the rectangle/polygon as well as those crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon. This is the default method. Outside/Crossing - All objects outside the rectangle/polygon as well as those crossing the boundary of the rectangle/polygon.

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Up One Level allows selection of the next level component or group if components or groups are enabled for that operation. This is useful in assemblies work. Select All selects all objects in the work view by current filter methods settings. All but Selected selects all objects in the work view except for those currently highlighted by selection. Chain allows the selection of a sequence of contiguous curves or solid edges. Polygon allows the selection of objects using a polygon that is specified in the graphics area. (See Rectangle/Polygon Method above.)

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Getting Started

This activity shows how to make a copy of an existing part file by saving it using a different name. Continue with the previous part file pau_intro_1. Step 1 Create a copy of a part file.
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Choose File→Save As...

The Save Part File As dialog box appears.
Directory where part is to be saved Up One Level

Enter new filename here

Step 2 Save a copy of the file in the desired directory.
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In the Save Part File As dialog, use the Save in: option menu to navigate to the proper directory to save the part file. (HINT: should be one level up from the parts folder)

Step 3 Enter a new part file name.
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Click in the File name field.

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Activity 3 - Save Part As (Copying a Part File)

Getting Started -

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Key in ***_intro_1 as the new part file name where *** represent your initials.

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Type filename here

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Choose OK.

The Status Line states that the part file is being saved. When the save is complete, the message Part file saved" displays. Work in Unigraphics may be resumed. Step 4 Save the work.

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Choose the Save icon.

Once again, Unigraphics informs you in the Status Line that it is saving the part file. When the save is complete, the message Part file saved" is displayed.

TIP

You can save your work and exit Unigraphics all at once by choosing File"Close"Save All and Exit.

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Getting Started

This activity shows how to close a part file and exit Unigraphics. Continue with the previous part file ***_intro_1. Use File→Close→Selected Parts to close one or more of the loaded parts. Close All may be used to close all parts loaded in the current session from the Close Part dialog box. Step 1 Close the part file.
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Choose File→Close→Selected Parts.

The Close Part dialog box appears showing a list of all open part files, which currently are ***_intro_1 and ***_new_1 part files.

List of open part files

***_intro_1 ***_new_1

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Select the ***_intro_1 part file and choose MB2.

Since the part was not changed since it was last saved, it is immediately closed.

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Activity 4 - Closing Part Files and Exiting Unigraphics

Getting Started

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If the part had been changed, the system displays a warning message letting you know that the part has been modified since it was last saved.

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***_intro_1

Closing the part file does not save the part, it only clears the part file from the local memory in the workstation. Changes that have been made to the part file will be lost if the close operation is continued. Step 2 Learn how to end the Unigraphics work session.
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Choose File→Exit. A dialog box displays.

If part file(s) are still open and have been modified, a message displays:

To end Unigraphics, from either Exit message window, you would choose OK.
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Choose Cancel to dismiss the message and keep the session open. Do not Exit Unigraphics at this time.

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Getting Started

This activity will establish an efficient toolbar working environment in the Modeling application for this course. Other toolbars can be added as needed. Step 1 Change the displayed part to ***_new_1 (HINT: Window from the menu bar) Step 2 Display the Application toolbar in the Gateway Application.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and check ON the Application toolbar.

Click MB3 within toolbar area.

Locate the Application toolbar in the Unigraphics window, it may be docked or undocked.

NOTE: Icons may vary.

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Activity 5 - Establish Toolbar Environment in Modeling

Getting Started

Step 3 Customize the Application toolbar.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize.

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Select the Commands tab and highlight Application in the Toolbars column.

Select these options

A listing with the commands for the Application toolbar is displayed. The commands displayed on the toolbar are checked in the Commands column.

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Getting Started -

Scroll down here

Note that the display of the toolbar changes immediately upon selection of commands.
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Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box. Locate the Application toolbar as shown below.
Locate here

These toolbar settings will be retained for the Gateway application for the rest of the course.

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Scroll down to see all of the options in the Commands column. Turn ON the Modeling, Drafting and Assemblies commands and turn OFF all others options. Also, turn ON the Separator above the Assemblies command.

Getting Started

Step 4 Enter the Modeling Application. Select the Modeling icon in the Application toolbar.

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Entering a different application will introduce a new set of toolbars. The toolbars that were established in the Gateway application may move and have different commands in them. Step 5 Display the common toolbars from the Gateway application.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and verify that the Standard, View, Selection, Utility and Application toolbars are checked ON. Turn OFF all other toolbars. Other toolbars will be turned ON throughout the course as they are needed.

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Getting Started -

Step 6 Customize the toolbars.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize. Select the Commands tab and adjust the toolbars to match the commands in the table below. View Refresh Fit Zoom Selection Utility Application Select Work Drafting General Layer Objects Select Layer Assemblies Features Settings Select Separator Gateway Components Separator WCS Dynamics Type Filter Orient WCS Reset Separator Select All

Toolbars

Standard New Open Save Separator

Zoom In/Out Delete Rotate Commands Undo Pan Separator Separator Information Wireframe Settings Shaded Deselect All Settings Wireframe Separator View Up One Orientation Level
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Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 7 Close the part file, do not save.
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Choose File"Close"All Parts. Choose OK in the Question window.

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Dock the toolbars in similar locations as defined in the Gateway application.

Getting Started

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SUMMARY In this lesson you:
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Started Unigraphics and were made aware that the user interface appearance may be slightly different on UNIX and NT platforms. Executed Menu Bar Pull Down Menus and saw how these tools can save time. Created, retrieved, and saved parts. By performing these functions you were made aware of that parts are only loaded into memory and are not saved until performing a save" or save as" operation. Copied a Part File. Closed a Part File. Were introduced to the layer system in Unigraphics, and saw how this convention aids in part file organization. Exited Unigraphics. Activated toolbars and adjusted the commands within them.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Introduction to Solid Modeling
Lesson 2

PURPOSE This lesson is a fundamental introduction to the Unigraphics Modeling application. Subsequent lessons will reinforce and extend the student's understanding. OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D D D D D

Define the Absolute Coordinate System (ABS). Define the Work Coordinate System (WCS). Manipulate the WCS. Define Points for Locations. Create and Edit a Primitive Block. Create a direction vector. Create a primitive cylinder.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Coordinate Systems in Unigraphics
Before any portions of the solid model may be defined, it is important to understand the options Unigraphics offers for location and orientation of objects. Since solid modeling takes place in a 3 dimensional environment, model space is defined as the infinite extension of a 3 dimensional field represented in the views of your graphics area.

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Start here and go this direction."

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+Z -X -Y -Z +Y +X
Origin D D D

There are many coordinate systems in Unigraphics, all are right hand, Cartesian coordinate systems, made up of a set of X, Y, and Z axes, 90° apart from each other. A three axis symbol is used to identify a coordinate system. The intersection of the axes is called the origin of the coordinate system. The origin has the coordinate values of X=0, Y=0, and Z=0. The figure below illustrates that, starting at the origin, each axis has a positive direction and a negative direction.

This manual will primarily discuss the following different coordinate system types used in Unigraphics modeling. Absolute Coordinate System (ABS) Work Coordinate System (WCS) Feature Coordinate System (Discussed in Form Features Lesson)

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Absolute Coordinate System
The Absolute Coordinate System (ABS) is not mobile. It defines a fixed point and orientation in model space. The Absolute Coordinate System is necessary to relate location or orientation between any two objects, solid models, Unigraphics part files, or even a Unigraphics part file to any other CAE system. An object positioned at Absolute X= 1, Y=1, and Z=1 in one part file is the exact same absolute position in any other part file.

Since the ABS is not mobile, Unigraphics uses the Work Coordinate System (WCS) to establish a mobile coordinate system to facilitate geometry construction in different orientations. The WCS can be located and oriented manually anywhere in model space. The WCS is not a selectable entity. Most solid modeling operations in Unigraphics do not require manipulation of the WCS, since features are added to a model relative to existing geometry of the model, not relative to positions and directions in model space. In those cases, the WCS is handled automatically by Unigraphics. However, certain functions are dependent on the WCS, and require the WCS to be positioned prior to performing the operation. Curve and Primitive creation are two functions dependent on the WCS.

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Work Coordinate System

Introduction to Solid Modeling

Manipulating the WCS
The WCS options are accessed by choosing WCS on the menu bar or from the Utility toolbar (a part file must be displayed). In general, there are four ways to manipulate the WCS. They are origin, rotation, orientation and dynamics. WCS Dynamics will be the focus in this lesson. WCS Dynamics: Provides a dynamic interface to control the location and orientation of the WCS by entering values or dragging handles of the WCS in the graphics screen. After choosing WCS Dynamics, the WCS displays with handles. The Point Constructor icon also appears in the upper left hand corner of the graphics window.

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Handles Point Constructor

NOTE: WCS Dynamics may also be accessed by double-clicking directly on the WCS on the graphics screen. When the cursor is placed directly over the WCS there will be a temporary display of rotation planes shown to indicate that the WCS can be directly selected. If there is another object coincident with the WCS the temporary display of rotation planes may not appear. In cases where the WCS cannot be double-clicked, WCS Dynamics can be accessed from the Menu bar or the Utility toolbar (as shown below).

WCS Dynamics

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Dynamic WCS Handles
Vertex Handle: If the square handle is selected the WCS can be relocated to any point on the graphics screen (e.g. control point, cursor position, arc center, etc.) and help indicators will display next to an object to help you predict where the WCS will relocate to. option is also available on the graphics window to The Point Constructor position the WCS, when selected this option will bring the Point Constructor dialog box up. This handle will also allow the coordinate system to be dragged in any direction.

Vertex Handle

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Defining Points for Location
To determine the location of the WCS, Primitives or any other geometry, the definition of specific points in space is necessary, and is a common function in any CAE system. Unigraphics offers a standard dialog box that provides multiple point methods to define location. Using the Point Constructor dialog box, you can define origin points, start points, endpoints, etc. based on existing geometry or coordinate values.
Existing Point End Point Control Point Intersection Point Inferred Point Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center Angle on Arc/Ellipse Quadrant Point None Rectangular Cylindrical Restores Base Point values to zero and Offset to none Spherical Vector Along Curve Point on Surface Point on Curve/Edge

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Cursor Location

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NOTE:

For more information on Point types, see Appendix B.

Axis Handle: If one of the three axis handles is selected a Dynamic Input Field appears on the graphics window next to the WCS, which allows input of specific distances or snap increments. This handle will also allow the coordinate system to be dragged along its axis.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Rotation Handle: If one of the three rotation handles is selected a Dynamic Input Field also appears next to the WCS, which allows input of specific angles or snap increments. This handle will also allow the coordinate system to be rotated about the axis.

Rotation Handle Dynamic Input Field

Axis Handle

Distance/Angle: When the Dynamic Input Field appears next to the WCS the Distance/Angle fields display the offset distance or rotation that results from a dragging operation. You can also use these fields to directly enter a distance or rotation angle. Snap (Angle/Distance): Using a Rotation handle, you can snap the WCS 45 degrees when you rotate within the Snap (angle) tolerance. The default value for a tolerance is 45°, but you can change the Snap field to adjust the tolerance. For example, if the Snap (angle) tolerance is set to 5° and you rotate the WCS anywhere between 40 and 50° from its original position, it will snap to 45°. The Angle field will update to the angle moved as the handle is dragged. Using an Axis handle, you can snap the WCS incremental distances when you drag the handle. The default value for a Snap (distance) is 0 (zero), but you can change the Snap field to adjust the tolerance. The Distance field will update to the distance moved as the handle is dragged. Finished Moving: Use the middle mouse button (MB2) to confirm the location or orientation of the WCS and exit WCS Dynamics.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

NOTE: Undo is available and can be used during WCS movement to restore the WCS to a previous location or orientation.

Utility Toolbar
The WCS options may also be accessed through the Utility toolbar.

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WCS Dynamics Orient WCS Display WCS Save WCS

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Orient WCS: Allows the location and the rotation of the WCS to be altered in one step. The menu shown below contains the various options to accomplish WCS orientation.

Before
Using the X axis, Y axis option to change origin and rotation in the same step.

X axis Y axis

After

NOTE: The Orient option is commonly used to move the WCS back to the Absolute origin and orientation.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 1 - Manipulating the WCS
In this activity, the WCS will be moved to different positions on a model. By default, the WCS location and orientation in a new part file coincides with the Absolute Coordinate System. During model construction, Unigraphics usually manages the WCS automatically. However, some construction and Info functions depend on the WCS, so it is helpful to learn how to manipulate the WCS.

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Step 1 Open part file pau_wcs_1 and start the Modeling Application.

Step 2 Change the Work Coordinate System origin.

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Choose the WCS Dynamics icon toolbar.

from the Utility

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Select the various points shown. Do not select any of the WCS handles.
Select this elliptical edge (Quadrant Pt. or Ellipse Ctr.) Select here (End Pt.)

Select this circular edge (Quadrant Pt. or Arc Ctr.)

Select this elliptical edge (Quadrant Pt. or Ellipse Ctr.) Select here (End Pt.)

Select here (End Pt.)

The vertex is selected by default when entering WCS Dynamics, therefore you can simply pick points in the graphics window to move the WCS. The relocated WCS has the same XC, YC, ZC directions as the prior WCS location.
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Choose MB2 when finished moving the WCS to exit WCS Dynamics.

Step 3 Change the direction of the Work Coordinate System axes.

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Choose the WCS Dynamics icon.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling -

Move the WCS to the arc center shown below.

Select this circular edge when the center is high lighted.

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Select the Rotation Handle shown below.

Select this handle

The Dynamic Input Field appears allowing an angle or snap (angle) to be entered.

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Enter -905 in the Angle text entry field and press Enter.
After
The origin of the WCS is unchanged, the coordinate system is rotated about the XC axis, from the ZC axis toward the YC axis 90_

Before

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Choose MB2 when finished rotating the WCS.

Step 4 Change the orientation of the WCS. The image below has be rotated for clarity. Feel free to shade and rotate the view for better viewing of the part.

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Choose the WCS Dynamics icon. Move the WCS to the location shown below.

Select this corner

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The direction of rotation is based on the Right Hand Rule.

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Select the XC Axis Handle as shown below.

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Select this Handle

Orient the XC Axis Handle to the edge shown below.

Arrow should point in this direction

Select here

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Select the YC Axis Handle.

Select this Handle

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Orient the YC Axis Handle to the edge shown below.

Arrow should point in this direction Select here

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Choose MB2 when finished orienting the WCS.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Step 5 Move the WCS back to the Absolute CSYS.
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Choose the Orient WCS icon as shown below.
Orient WCS

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The following menu appears, listing the various ways to specify a new location and orientation for the WCS.

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Choose the Absolute CSYS icon.

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Choose OK.

Step 6 Choose File"Close"All Parts and choose OK in the Question dialog.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Primitives
A Primitive is a solid object that is analytic in nature. A Primitive may be thought of as raw stock", to which material will be added or removed to achieve the finished part. There are multiple ways of defining each of the four Primitive types. Primitives may be used as the basic shape at the start of the solid modeling process. Using one of the Primitive types as the base feature eliminates the need to create and sweep curve geometry. When a Primitive is created, its type and its size must be specified as well as its location and orientation in model space. The four types of Primitives are:
D D D D

Block Cylinder Cone Sphere

NOTE: Although Unigraphics continues to allow the use of multiple Primitives in one solid body, the practice is not recommended because of the advantages and associativity of other solid modeling functionality. If a Primitive is used in a part file, the Primitive should be used as the initial solid feature. NOTE: Primitives are positioned explicitly. Their origins are set by a specified point in model space. However, they can be moved manually by either Transforming or, preferably, using Move Feature. A primitive's creation parameter values may be edited and made associative to each other. This lesson will concentrate on the Block feature. Another type of Primitive will be discussed later.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Block
A Primitive block may be created by specifying the size and location of the block in model space. The orientation will be implied from the orientation of the WCS. There are three different methods that may be used to create a block. The middle portion of the dialog and the Selection Steps change depending on the type of block creation method you choose. This manual will discuss the first method, Origin, Edge Lengths.
Two Points, Height Origin, Edge Lengths

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Two Diagonal Points

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Origin, Edge Lengths Method
D D D D

Choose the Block icon.

(Insert→Form Feature→Block)

Choose the creation method of Origin, Edge Lengths Define the length for each edge. Define the Point Method for the corner's origin.

NOTE: When no solid exists, no selection will place the corner at Absolute 0,0,0. The corner used for the origin is the vertex of the edges used to define the size of the block.
D

Choose the desired boolean operation (Although Unigraphics continues to allow the use of multiple Primitives in one solid body, the practice is not recommended because of the advantages and associativity of other solid modeling functionality. If a Primitive is used in a part file, the Primitive should be used as the initial solid feature.).

NOTE: All of the X, Y, and Z values of the edge lengths are measured relative to the WCS, and must be positive values since they are used as the length, width, and height parameters of the block.
D

Choose OK or Apply.

Once the block has been created, its size may be changed by editing the values that were used for edge lengths during creation.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 2 - Additional Toolbars in Modeling Application
This activity will establish additional toolbars in the Modeling application for this lesson and future lessons. Step 1 Create a new inch part file and name it ***_prim_exp_1 and choose the Modeling icon.

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Step 2 Display additional toolbars in the Modeling application.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and turn ON the Form Feature, Feature Operation, Edit Feature and Modeling Toggles toolbars.

Form Feature

Feature Operation

Edit Feature

Modeling Toggles

NOTE: Icons may vary for each toolbar

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Dock the toolbars horizontally or vertically in the locations defined below.
Edit Feature Modeling Toggles

Feature Operation

Form Feature

Step 3 Customize the toolbars.
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Click MB3 in the toolbar area and choose Customize. Select the Commands tab and adjust the toolbars to match the commands in the following table.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Toolbars

Form Feature Sketch Extruded Body Revolved Body

Feature Operation Taper Edge Blend Edge Chamfer Hollow Instance Feature Offset Face Separator Unite Subtract Intersect

Edit Feature Edit Feature Parameters Edit Positioning Move Feature Separator Suppress Feature Unsuppress Feature Separator Delay Update on Edit Update Separator Feature Playback

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Modeling Toggles Form Feature Toolbar Feature Operation Toolbar Edit Feature Toolbar

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Commands
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Sweep along Guide Separator Hole Boss Pocket Pad Slot Groove Separator Datum Plane Datum Axis Datum CSYS Separator Block Cylinder
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Choose Close to dismiss the Customize dialog box.

Step 4 Continue to the next activity.

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Activity 3 - Creating a Primitive Block
In this activity, a Primitive Block will be created using the Origin, Edge Lengths method. Only numerical values will be used for the size of the block. Continue with the previous part file ***_prim_exp_1. Step 1 Orient the WCS.

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Choose the Trimetric icon

from the View toolbar.

Place the cursor over the WCS and double-click on it to enter WCS Dynamics. Select the YC-ZC Rotation Handle and drag the WCS to to orientation shown below.

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Select this handle

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Choose MB2 when finished rotating the WCS.

Step 2 Create a Block.

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Choose the Block icon.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

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If necessary, choose the Origin, Edge Lengths icon. Key in the following parameters: Length (XC) = Length (YC) = Length (ZC) = 8 (Tab) 6 (Tab) 6/2 (an example of algebraic entry)

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Choose MB2.

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Choose the Fit icon

from the View toolbar.

Step 3 Move the WCS back to the Absolute CSYS orientation. Choose Orient WCS icon .

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Choose the Absolute CSYS icon. Choose MB2.

Notice the WCS rotated back to the absolute orientation but the block stays in the same orientation. The WCS is only referenced when creating primitives and is not created associative to it. Step 4 Change the size of the block. Ensure the Select Features icon Selection toolbar. is ON in the

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Place the cursor over the block an double-click on it to enter Edit Parameters.

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Select the parameter shown below to edit.

Select this parameter

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Change the parameter value to 4 and choose MB2 twice.

Step 5 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Defining Vectors
Some of the primitives require a direction vector to define in what direction the primitive will be created. The direction, reference, and destination vectors may be defined using the Vector Constructor dialog box shown below.
At Angle Between Two Points Edge/Curve Vector On Curve Vector Face Normal

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Inferred Vector

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Datum Plane Normal

ZC Axis

Datum Axis XC Axis YC Axis

NOTE: The XC, YC, and ZC Axis options are sufficient for the purpose of this course.

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Cylinder
A Primitive cylinder may be created by specifying the orientation, size and location of the cylinder. The methods to create cylinders are shown in the next figure.

Diameter, Height Method
This method is used to create a cylinder by specifying the diameter and height values. The location and axis direction vector must also be specified. After choosing this method:
D D D

Define the cylinder axis vector using the Vector Constructor. Enter the diameter and height. Define the cylinder origin using the Point Constructor.

In the example below, the direction vector is the ZC Axis. The origin is shown with the cylinder being created at the specified height in the direction of the vector.
Direction vector Origin ZC

YC XC

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

Activity 1 - Creating a Primitive Cylinder
In this activity, a primitive cylinder will be created utilizing the direction vector menu. Step 1 Open the part pau_seedpart_mm.

Step 2 Choose Modeling.

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Step 3 Create the Cylinder. Choose the Cylinder icon. Choose the Diameter, Height method. Choose the YC Axis direction icon from the Vector Constructor. Choose OK. Enter the following Values: Diameter = 75 Height = 200
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-

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Choose OK. Locate the cylinder at XC=0, YC=0, ZC=0. Choose Reset in the Point Constructor menu if needed and choose OK. Choose Cancel. Choose Fit from the third mouse button Pop Up Menu.

-

ZC

YC XC

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Step 4 Edit the size of the cylinder.
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Place the cursor over the cylinder and double-click on it to enter Edit Parameters. Choose Feature Dialog. Change the values as follows: Diameter = Height = 15 150

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Choose MB2 twice.

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Choose File"Close"All Parts, do not save the part.

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Introduction to Solid Modeling

SUMMARY

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In this lesson you:
D

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Were taught that the Absolute Coordinate System is a stationary coordinate system that defines a fixed point in model space. Were taught that the Work Coordinate System is a mobile coordinate system that may be moved and reoriented as necessary to support other Unigraphics functions. Relocated, rotated, and reoriented the WCS. Created a Block. You were also taught that if using a Primitive feature, it should be the base feature and that Primitives should be limited to one in a part file because they cannot be associatively positioned. Changed the size of a Primitive after creation. Created a Primitive Cylinder. Edited a Primitive Cylinder Reviewed the Vector Constructor dialog.

D

D D

D D D D

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Form Features

Form Features
Lesson 3

PURPOSE

To introduce Form Features.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D

Position Boss, Pocket, Hole, and Slot Form Features . Create a Rectangular Pad.

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Create Boss, Pocket, Hole, and Slot Form Features.

Form Features

Form Features
Form features are used to add detail to the model during creation. These features include holes, slots, bosses, pads, pockets and grooves. Form features are fully associative to the geometry and parameter values used to create them.

The Placement Face
All form features require a placement face. For a groove, the placement face must be cylindrical or conical. For all other form features, the placement face must be planar. This planar placement face defines the X Y plane of the coordinate system for the feature being created. Features are created normal to the placement face. A datum plane may be used as the planar placement face. The creation and use of datum planes is covered in a later lesson.

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Datum Plane used as Planar Placement Face for Hole feature through cylindrical face of boss.

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Form Features

The Horizontal and Vertical Reference
The Horizontal Reference defines the X axis of the feature coordinate system. Any linear edge, planar face, datum axis, or datum plane that may be projected onto the planar placement face may be selected to define the horizontal direction. The Horizontal Reference is required to define the length direction of form features having a Length parameter (slot, rectangular pocket and pad). If no edge in a true horizontal direction is available the user can specify a vertical reference from which the system will infer horizontal as perpendicular to the selected vertical direction.

X+ Vector

The Horizontal Reference is also required to define horizontal or vertical types of positioning dimensions for features that do not initially require a Horizontal Reference (holes bosses, and cylindrical pockets).

Feature Coordinate System
During creation of features of a Unigraphics model, the system will manipulate the WCS automatically to facilitate creation of the feature specified based on the user input provided. The manipulated coordinate system is called a Feature Coordinate System (FCS) and is stored as part of the feature definition. Unigraphics will manipulate the WCS back to the FCS orientation during subsequent feature editing.

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Form Features

Positioning Form Features
Positioning Dimensions are distance values measured along the planar placement face. They may be used to place the form feature at the proper location on the placement face. These dimensions should be considered as constraints, or rules, that the geometry must obey. There are nine different positioning methods available on the Positioning dialog box, as shown below.
Vertical Horizontal Angular Parallel Perpendicular Parallel at a Distance

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Point onto Point Point onto Line

Line onto Line

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NOTE: When positioning a form feature, only applicable dimension types will be displayed. It is not necessary to add positioning dimensions to form features, but it is recommended that positioning dimensions be added at the time of creation for ease of later editing.

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Form Features

Positioning Terminology
D

Fully Specified -The feature is uniquely located by the positioning dimensions specified. Underspecified - The feature is not yet uniquely located. Overspecified - The feature has had more positioning dimensions applied to it than are necessary. Target Solid - The solid body that a Boolean operation acts upon. In the context of a Form Feature it is the solid body that the Hole, Slot, Pocket or Groove will subtract from, or a Boss or Pad will unite with. Tool Solid -The solid representation of the feature being defined by the current operation. In the context of a Form Feature it is the representation of the Hole, Slot, Pocket, Pad, Boss, or Groove that will be subtracted from or united with the Target Solid.

D D

D

D

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Form Features

Positioning Methods

Horizontal - Specifies the horizontal distance between two points, one point on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. Horizontal is measured along the X axis of the feature coordinate system (i.e. the Horizontal Reference). As edges are selected, the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).

Feature Coordinate System

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Target edge

Horizontal reference (datum plane) 1.50

Tool edge Horizontal positioning dimension

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Form Features

Vertical - Specifies the vertical distance between two points, one point on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. Vertical is measured along the Y axis of the feature coordinate system (i.e. perpendicular to the Horizontal Reference). As edges are selected, the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).
Feature Coordinate System Vertical positioning dimension 1.50 Target edge (arc center)

Tool edge (arc center) Horizontal reference

Angular - Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be at a given angle to each other. The angle is measured in a counter clockwise direction (with respect to the feature coordinate system), from the ends of the edges nearest to where they are selected.

Feature Coordinate System

Tool edge (center line) 30 Angular positioning dimension

Horizontal reference

Target edge

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Form Features

Examples of Horizontal, Vertical and Angular Positioning Dimensions

Fully Specified by Horizontal, Vertical and Angular Positioning Dimensions

15 .500

Target edge for Horizontal and Vertical Dimension

.500

Tool edge for Horizontal and Vertical Dimension

Horizontal reference

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Fully Specified by Horizontal and Vertical Positioning Dimensions

1.00

Tool edge (arc center)

Target edge for Horizontal and Vertical Dimension (arc center)

1.00

Horizontal reference

NOTE: When positioning Holes, Bosses, and Cylindrical Pockets the Tool Edge is automatically selected and defined as the arc center.

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Form Features

Parallel - Specifies the shortest distance between two points, one point on the target solid and the other point on the tool solid. As edges are selected, the nearest valid point is selected (midpoints are not selectable).
Tool edge (arc center) 1.375 Parallel positioning dimension Target edge (arc center) Feature Coordinate System

Target edges 1.50 Perpendicular positioning dimension Feature Coordinate System

Tool edge (arc center) 2.00

In the above example the feature (hole) can be fully specified with two Perpendicular dimensions. Features with length, such as slot, pocket and pad, will require an additional positioning dimension to control rotation.

TIP

Using Perpendicular positioning instead of Horizontal or Vertical can save time since no horizontal or vertical reference is needed.

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Perpendicular - Specifies the shortest (normal) distance between a linear edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a point on the tool solid. The linear target edge is always the first pick.

Form Features

Parallel at a Distance - Specifies that a linear edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid must be parallel and at a given distance. This is typically used for features with length (slot, pocket or pad).

Feature Coordinate System

Parallel positioning dimension

2.00 Tool edge (center line)

Target edge

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Horizontal reference

These two edges are constrained parallel

Using Parallel at a Distance will solve two of the three degrees of freedom necessary to fully specify a feature with length, rotational and distance in one direction. Adding another Parallel at a Distance or Line onto Line dimension would overspecify the location of the feature. To fully specify the feature in the above example an additional positioning dimension is required to solve the final degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Point onto Line).

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Form Features

Point onto Point - Specifies that the distance between a point on the target solid and a point on the tool solid is zero. This is most commonly used to align arc centers of cylindrical or conical features and fully constrain their location since rotation is not a degree of freedom for cylindrical or conical features.
Point on tool solid

Point on target solid

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Point onto Point is the same as the Parallel positioning dimension only the value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a non-zero value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.

Form Features

Point onto Line - Specifies that the distance between an edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a point on the tool solid is zero.

Point onto Line positioning dimensions

0 0

Feature Coordinate System

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Target edges (Datum Planes)

Tool edge (arc center)

Point onto Line is the same as the Perpendicular positioning dimension only the value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a non-zero value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.

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Form Features

Line onto Line - Specifies that the distance between a linear edge on the target solid (also datum planes or axis) and a linear edge on the tool solid is zero and they are constrained parallel to each other. This is typically used for features with

length (slot, pocket or pad).

Point onto Line positioning dimensions

Horizontal reference

0

Feature Coordinate System

Target edge (Datum Plane)

Tool edge (center line of slot)

Using Line onto Line will solve two of the three degrees of freedom necessary to fully specify a feature of length, rotational and translation in one direction. Adding another Line onto Line or Parallel at a Distance dimension would overspecify the location of the feature. To fully specify the feature in the above example an additional positioning dimension is required to solve the final degree of freedom (i.e. Horizontal, Perpendicular, or Point onto Line). Line onto Line is the same as the Parallel at a Distance positioning dimension only the value is automatically set to zero. This zero value can be edited to a non-zero value through the Edit→Feature→Positioning dialog.

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Form Features

Hole
This option is used to create simple, counterbore, and countersink holes in an existing solid. The middle portion of the dialog window changes depending on the hole type that is selected.
Simple Placement face Counterbore Thru face Countersink

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Hole Creation Method
D D D

Choose Insert→Form Feature→Hole (or the Hole icon.) Choose the hole type. Select the placement face. If a datum plane is selected choose the Reverse Side button as required. Select the thru face if applicable. Key in the required values (or statements). Choose OK or Apply. Create positional dimensions as required.

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Form Features

Simple

Hole Depth

Hole Diameter

Counterbored
C Bore Diameter

Hole Depth C Bore Depth Tip Angle

Countersunk
C Sink Angle C Sink Diameter

Hole Depth

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Form Features

Activity 1 - Creating Hole Form Features
This activity will show the creation of a thru hole feature.
Simple Thru Hole Diameter = 1.50

Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_in.

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3-16

-

Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

Step 2 Create a Block. Choose the Block icon.

-

-

If necessary, choose the Origin, Edge Lengths icon. Key in the following parameters: Length (XC) = Length (YC) = Length (ZC) = 10 (Tab) 4 (Tab) 2

-

Choose MB2.

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Form Features

-

Choose the Fit icon

from the View toolbar.

Step 3 Create a simple thru hole.

-

Choose the Hole icon.

-

Ensure the Simple hole icon

is selected.

Select the top face of the block as shown below. Confirm the selection if necessary.
Select top face here

If incorrect geometry is selected, select the Placement Face icon and then reselect the correct geometry.
-

again

Select the bottom face as the Thru Face.
Select thru face with one pick in this region or select and confirm

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Form Features -

Enter 1.5 for the diameter and choose OK.

The hole is temporarily represented as a long tool solid that extends beyond the thru face, as shown in the figure below.

Step 4 Position the hole feature. The Positioning dialog box is displayed.

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-

The system defaults to the Perpendicular icon the Cue line prompts you to select a Target Edge.

and

Select this edge as the Target Edge

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Form Features -

Key in the name of the expression (dim_1) and the value (2) as shown below.

NOTE: The system applied expression names may be accepted, however, it is a good practice to give expressions a meaningful name, doing so will make interrogation of the part easier.

-

Choose the Perpendicular icon. Select the left edge of the top face as shown in the figure below.

Select this edge as the Target Edge

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Form Features -

Key in the name of the expression and the value as shown below.

-

Choose OK.

Since the location of the hole is completely specified, it is moved to the new position and the Boolean operation is performed. The part now looks like the following figure.

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Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Form Features

Slot
This option allows you to create a slot in a solid body as if cut by a milling machine tool. In each case, the shape of the imaginary cutting tool corresponds to the slot type and dimensions. The slot feature will be created so that the axis of the imaginary cutter tool is normal to the face or datum plane selected. The path of the slot will be parallel to the horizontal reference selected. The system prompts for all necessary slot parameters, depending upon the specific type of slot feature chosen. The slot types are shown in the dialog box illustrated below.

For all slot types, the Thru slot option extends the slot length along the placement face in the direction of the horizontal reference through the faces, specified by the user.

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Form Features

Rectangular
This option allows creation of a slot in an existing solid body using a tool that has cylindrical end faces and will leave sharp edges along the bottom of the slot. Rectangular slot parameters are Slot Width, Slot Depth, Slot Length, as shown below.
ZC YC XC

Width Depth

Length

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The width of the rectangular slot represents the diameter of the cylindrical cutting tool. The depth of the slot is measured in a parallel orientation to the tool axis, from the origin point of the slot to the bottom of the slot. Depth values must be positive. The length is measured parallel to the horizontal reference (X in the feature coordinate system). Length values must be positive. NOTE: The system will not prompt for slot length if the Thru option has been toggled on. Instead, it prompts for selection of the two thru faces.

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Form Features

The figure below illustrates a T-slot using the Thru option.
Placement Face

Second Thru face

Centerline First Thru face

The four other available slot profiles are illustrated below.
Depth Width Depth

Ball Diameter

Ball End Slot

Corner Radius

U Slot

Top Width Bottom Depth

Top Depth

Width Angle

Bottom Width

T Slot

Dovetail Slot

NOTE: The value of the corner radius of the U-Slot must be less than 1/2 the width of the slot.

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Form Features

Activity 2 - Creating Slot Form Features
In this activity, you will create two different types of slots in the top of a solid. Step 1 Open the part file pau_slot_1.
-

Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

Step 2 Create a rectangular slot. Use the information provided in the figure below for your work.
Rectangular slot width = 2.00 depth = 0.50 length = 3.00

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-

Choose the Slot icon. Then choose the Rectangular option.

The Cue line prompts you to select the planar placement face.
-

Select the top of the block at the approximate position shown in the figure below. The top edges change to the system color.
Select top face here

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Form Features -

If the Cue line asks for a selection confirmation, and the top edges are highlighted, choose the correct number from the QuickPick dialog box.

If the wrong face is highlighted, select the Back button in the active dialog box. The Cue line asks for a horizontal reference. The object selected can be a linear edge, solid face, datum axis, datum plane. Or, a vertical reference could be specified instead using any of the fore mentioned objects. The horizontal direction selected will determine the direction in which the slot length will be placed in the part.
-

Select the bottom front edge of the block, as shown in the following figure, or any edge parallel to it.

Select this edge as the horizontal reference

A conehead displays the direction of the length of the slot.

-

Enter the parameters for the rectangular slot: Width= 2

Depth= .5 Length= 3
-

Choose OK.

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Form Features

The rectangular slot will appear and be placed at the location of the screen pick on the top of the block.

-

Choose the Parallel at a Distance icon. Select the target edge as shown below.
Select this edge.

-

Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected edge. Key in 2 and choose OK.

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-

-

Choose the Perpendicular icon. Select the target edge as shown below.

Select this edge.

-

Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected edge. Key in 3.5 and choose OK.

-

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Form Features

The Boolean operation is performed. The finished rectangular slot should now look like this.

Step 3 Create a T slot.
-

Select Back. Toggle the Thru option ON. Choose the T-Slot option. Select the planar placement face as shown.
Select top face here

-

Select the horizontal reference.

Select this edge

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Form Features -

Select the thru faces for the T-slot.

Starting thru face -

Ending thru face

Enter the following values for the parameters: Top width = Top depth = .5 .5

Bottom width = .75 Bottom depth = .5
-

Choose OK.

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-

Choose the Parallel at a Distance icon. Select the target edge as shown below.
Select this edge.

-

Select the slot's centerline that is parallel to the selected edge. Key in 2 and choose OK.

-

Since thru faces have been defined the slot does not need to be positioned along its length.

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Form Features -

Choose OK.

Your part should look like the following figure.

Step 4 Optional: Add a third slot, a dovetail Thru slot, that intersects both of the other slots. Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Form Features

Pocket
The pocket feature is used to create a cavity in a solid body. There are three types of pockets:
D D D

Cylindrical Rectangular General

The Rectangular Pocket will be discussed in this lesson.

Rectangular Pocket
This option allows a rectangular pocket to be defined to a specified depth, with or without a floor and/or corner radius, having either straight or tapered sides. The following parameters may be specified:
X Length Positioning Centerlines Origin point

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Y Length

Horizontal Reference

Corner Radius Taper Angle

Z Length Floor Radius

Pocket features may be positioned from a tool edge, or from the centerlines provided for this purpose.

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Form Features

Activity 3 - Creating Pocket Form Features
In this activity, a rectangular pocket will be created on the block. The finished part will look like the figure below.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_pocket_1.
-

Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

Step 2 Create a rectangular pocket.

-

Choose the Pocket icon. Choose Rectangular. Select the placement face as shown in the figure below.

Select placement face here

Select this face as horizontal reference -

Select the horizontal reference as shown in the same figure.

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Form Features -

Enter the parameter values as follows: X Length = Y Length = Z Length = Corner Radius = Floor Radius = Taper Angle = 3 1.5 1 .5 .25 0

-

Choose OK.

The rectangular pocket appears at the location where the planar placement face was selected.
-

3

Fully position the pocket using your own methods, and parametric values.

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Step 3 Use a similar method to create the second pocket shown at the beginning of the activity. Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Form Features

Boss
The Boss feature allows the addition of a cylindrical shape to a specified height, having either straight or tapered sides. The parameters of the boss are diameter, height and taper angle.
Diameter

Height Z Y Tapered boss Z Y X X

Diameter is the distance across the required boss. Height is measured from the placement face. Taper angle is the angle at which the cylinder wall of the boss inclines. A positive or negative value may be entered depending on which way the wall is to incline. A zero value results in a vertical cylinder wall.

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Form Features

Activity 4 - Creating Boss Form Features
In this activity, two bosses will be created and positioned on a cover plate for a modular telephone jack as shown below.

Before
Boss diameter=0.20 Boss height=0.075

After

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Step 1 Open the part file.
-

Choose File→Open. Select pau_coverplate_1.

NOTE: The dimensions shown are from the outside of the part, be sure to select the proper edges to dimension from.
-

Save the part as ***_coverplate_1 where *** represent your initials.

Step 2 Create a boss feature.
-

Ensure that the Modeling Application is active.

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Form Features

-

Choose the Boss icon. Select and accept the planar placement face as shown below.
Select top inside face approximately here

-

Enter the parameters for the boss: Diameter = Height = .2 .075

Taper Angle = 0
-

Choose Apply.

The boss is temporarily placed on the face where you selected it. The Positioning dialog box is displayed.

Step 3 Position the boss.
-

The system defaults to the Perpendicular icon the Cue line prompts you to select a Target Edge.

and

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Form Features -

Select a right side edge on the outside of the part for a target edge for the perpendicular dimension, as shown below.

Front

Select either of the right outside edges as the target edge.

A temporary display appears that shows the distance from the center of the boss to the target edge.
-

Enter 1.5 for the new value.

-

Choose the Perpendicular icon again. Select a front edge on the outside of the part for the target edge for the second perpendicular dimension, as shown below.

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Target edge -

Enter 1 for the new value and choose OK.

The boss is moved into the correct location and the Boolean operation is performed.

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Form Features

Step 4 Create the second boss and position it.
-

Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 for the second boss. Use the same positioning values, this time use the back, outside edge to locate the boss.

Step 5 Choose File"Save. Do not close the part.

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Form Features

Pad
This option allows a raised pad on a solid body to be created, with or without taper and corner radii. The parameter values of the pad feature are X, Y, and Z lengths, corner radius, and taper. The two types of pads are:
D D

Rectangular General (Not covered in this course)

Rectangular Pad
The Length, Width, and Height values of the Pad feature relate directly to the displayed vector indicating the Horizontal direction. Length is measured along the displayed vector, Width is measured perpendicular to the displayed vector, and Height is measured normal to the Placement face. The Corner Radius specifies the blend radius for the vertical edges of the pad feature (along the Height). This number may be positive or zero. A zero radius results in sharp corners on the pad feature. The Taper Angle is the angle at which the four walls of the pad feature incline inward, and must be positive or equal to zero. A zero value results in vertical walls.
Tapered Pad Positioning Centerlines Width

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Length

Height Corner Radius

Horizontal reference

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Form Features

Activity 5 - Creating and Positioning a Pad
In this activity, two pads will be centered with respect to the two existing bosses. When complete, the part should appear as shown below. Step 1 Continue working with ***_coverplate_1.
Rectangular pad length 2.9 width 0.1 height 0.0375

Step 2 Create the first rectangular pad.
-

Choose the Pad icon. Choose Rectangular from the dialog box. Select the top surface at a location which approximates the position shown.

Location for pad

It is now necessary to define the horizontal reference. This determines the direction of the Length parameter of the pad as well as the direction for a horizontal Positioning Dimension.

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Form Features -

Select one of the edges or faces shown below to establish the horizontal direction of the feature coordinate system.
Select back edges or face for Horizontal Reference

Select front edge or face for Horizontal Reference

A vector arrow displays the horizontal direction of the pad.
-

If the vector is not pointing in the desired direction, choose Back and respecify the horizontal reference. Enter the parameters for the pad: Length = Width = Height = Corner Radius = Taper Angle = 2.9 .1 .0375 0 0

-

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-

Choose OK.

The pad is temporarily positioned at the location selected for the placement face. Step 3 Position the pad. Choose the Line onto Line icon Method dialog box. on the Positioning

-

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Form Features -

Select the target edge (an inside edge as shown below).

Tool edge

Target edge

-

Select a tool edge (the small edge at the top end of the pad)

The position is specified in one direction, another positioning dimension is required to fully specify the feature's location.

-

Select the target edge (circular edge of the boss) as shown in the figure below.

Target edge

-

Choose Arc Center. Select the pad's horizontal center line as the Tool Edge. Enter a new value of 0. Choose OK.

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-

Choose the Vertical icon.

Form Features

The pad moves into position and the Boolean operation is performed. The part should look as shown below:

Step 4 Create the second pad and position it in the same way to the other boss. When completed the part should look like the figure shown below.

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Step 5 Save and close the part file.
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Form Features

SUMMARY

In this lesson you were introduced to Form Features. Form features are used to add detail to the model during creation. Form features are fully associative to the geometry and parameter values used to create them. The different form features are: Hole Boss Pocket Pad Slot Groove This lesson you:
D D D D D D D D D

Identified a Placement Face. Identified a Horizontal Reference. Identified Target and Tool Solids Applied Positioning dimensions to a form feature. Created a Hole Form Feature. Created Slot Form Features. Created Pocket Form Features. Created Boss Form Features Created a Rectangular Pad.

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Form Features

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Expressions

Expressions
Lesson 4

PURPOSE

This lesson is a fundamental introduction to Expressions.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D

Create Expressions. Edit Expressions.

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Expressions

Expressions
Expressions are algebraic or arithmetic statements used to control the characteristics of a part. Expressions define the dimensions and relationships of a model. Unigraphics automatically creates expressions when:
D D D

a feature is created. a sketch is dimensioned. a feature or sketch is positioned.

Understanding Expressions
All expressions have a name, a statement, and a value. NOTE: The total number of characters allowed for the name, equal sign, statement, and comments in an expression is 132. The name is the portion of the expression on the left side of the equal sign. Expression names are alphanumeric strings of text that begin with a letter. Expressions are case sensitive. The statement is the portion displayed on the right side of the equal sign. The statement may be a numeral or an algebraic function and may contain pre existing expression names.

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The value is the result of the evaluation of the statement portion of the equation within the expression. Example of an Expression Length=.5+2*cos(60) 1.5

Name

Statement

Value

Length is the name of the expression and represents the value 1.5.

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Expressions

Creating and Editing Expressions
To work with expressions, choose Tools→Expression.

The Name Filter

Name Creation order Reverse creation

Expression List

Expressions editor and calculator

Used By

Saving changes to the expressions

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Expressions

Creating Expressions
There are three methods to create expressions:
D D D

System generated expressions (p#). User defined expressions created during text input (Rad=5.00). Predefined, user created expressions (Thk=0.60, Thk used as a text entry in a parameter field). Click in the expression editor field and key in the entire expression (for example: rad=1.5). Press the <Enter> key. The expression is then added to the Expression List. Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

Procedure:
D D D

Editing Expressions
Procedure:
D D

Choose the expression to modify from the expression list. It is displayed in the expression editor field. In the expression editor field, modify the statement (right side of the equal sign). If the name (left side of the equal sign) is modified, a new expression will be created. Press the <Enter> key. Choose Apply or OK to save the expression.

D D

Using Information→Feature
Many times there is a need to determine what expressions control what features in the model. By choosing Information→Feature, and selecting the feature(s) in question, a listing window will show information about the selected feature(s).

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4-4

Used by
The Used by option provides a means of finding out if an expression is referenced in another expression and what feature(s) use the expression. To use this option, choose Tools→Expression, select the expression and then choose the Used by icon.

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Expressions

Activity 1 - Getting Familiar with Expressions
This activity will demonstrate how expressions were created when the block was created in the previous activity. The same block will then be created with the same dimensional values. However, this time logical names for the expressions will be used.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_prim_exp_1 and save as ***_prim_exp_1. Start the Modeling application. Step 2 Examine the Expressions for the Block created in the previous activity.
-

Choose the Tools→Expression option.

The Edit Expression dialog box shown above lists all of the expressions in the part file. Notice the p0, p1, and p2 expressions. These are default expression names given to the block. Step 3 Delete the Block. Choose the Delete icon from the Standard toolbar.

-

Select the block in the graphic window and choose OK.

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Expressions

Step 4 Create a new Block.

-

Choose the Block icon.

-

Choose Origin, Edge Lengths. Key in the following expressions: Length (XC) = Length (YC) = Length (ZC) = Length=8 (Tab) Width=6 (Tab) Height=6/2

-

Choose OK.

Step 5 Examine the Expressions for the newly created Block.
-

Choose the Tools→Expression option.

The display on the Edit Expression dialog box should be similar to the one shown below. Notice the expressions Height, Length, and Width. These expressions were created during the creation of the block.

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Expressions

Step 6 Find information about the newly created Block.
-

Choose the Information→Expression→List All option or select the Information icon Expressions dialog window. at the bottom of the

The graphic shows the listing window with the information about the feature selected.

Notice that the Height is tied to the numeric value 6/2. This is not the true intent of the design. The true intent is that the Height grows proportionally with the Width. This relationship could not be established upon creation as the Width expression was not in existence. Step 7 Change the expression.
-

Close the Information window. Select the Height expression from the Expressions window. The expression is displayed in the expression text editor field.

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Expressions -

Place the cursor in the text editor field just to the right of the numeral 6 in the 6/2 expression field.

Text Editor Field

-

Backspace once to delete the numeral 6 and replace it with Width and press Enter.

The value for the expression Height is now changed to Width/2. Any time that the Width changes the value will change accordingly.

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Step 8 Change the Width value.
-

Select the Width expression. Backspace once to delete the numeral 6, replace it with 4 and press Enter.

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Expressions -

Choose OK.

Step 9 Save and Close the part.

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Expressions

SUMMARY

Expressions are algebraic or arithmetic statements used to control the characteristics of a part. Expressions define the dimensions and relationships of a model. Expressions are created when: a feature is created. a sketch is dimensioned. a feature or sketch is positioned. All expressions have a name, a statement, and a value. In this lesson you:
D D D

Created Expressions. Edited Expressions. Retrieved information through Information→Expression.

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Face Operations

Face Operations
Lesson 5

PURPOSE

To introduce the Hollow face operation.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D

Hollow a solid body.

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Face Operations

Face Operations
Face Operations are available to provide additional definition to the faces of a model. The Face Operations are Taper, Hollow, and Offset Face .

In this lesson, the Hollow operation will be discussed.

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Face Operations

Hollow
The Hollow operation creates a cavity inside, or a shell around an existing solid, based upon a specified thickness. The entire solid body is hollowed during this operation. In the figure below, the top face has been selected as the face to be pierced.
Face to be pierced Thickness

Before

After

Wall Thickness Value
Positive or negative values may be used as follows:
D

Positive values will hollow the existing solid so that the wall thickness is measured inward from the original faces of the solid. Negative values for the wall thickness will result in a hollow that forms a shell of the specified value around the original solid.

D

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Face Operations

Choosing Insert"Feature Operation"Hollow from the main menu will display the following dialog box for hollow creation.
Region

Face

Body

Pierced face Type Filter

Offset face Default Thickness Alternate Thickness

A hollow may be created in three different ways:
D D

D

The "Face" button may be chosen to select pierced faces individually. The "Region" button may be selected to quickly select a region of faces to be pierced. Since a region of the body is pierced rather than individual faces, any changes in the region are automatically reflected in the hollow. The "Body" button may be selected to create a void region in a body without piercing any faces.

A unique thickness may be assigned for each face with the Offset Face option. When Offset Face is selected the Alternate Thickness text box becomes active. Using variable thickness hollows reduces the number of features in the part, as the offset features are not required, and results in more compact models that are easier to comprehend.

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Face Operations

Activity 1 - Performing a Hollow Operation
In this activity the Hollow operation will be used to take material away from the model of a plastic molded part. Step 1 Open the Part File.
-

Open the part file pau_hair_dryer_1, and start the Modeling application.

The figure below illustrates the solid that will be hollowed.

Right

Step 2 Inspect the Part.
-

Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part to verify that the solid requires hollowing.

Step 3 Hollow the solid and pierce the proper faces.
-

Set the display mode back to Wireframe the view (third mouse button).

and Restore

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Face Operations

-

Choose the Hollow icon toolbar.

from the Feature Operation

-

Enter a Default Thickness of 2. Select the right, and back side faces to pierce. After both of the desired faces are selected to be pierced, choose OK twice. The finished part is shown below.

Back side face

Right face

Step 4 Inspect the Part.
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Set the Display Mode to Shaded and Rotate the part (third mouse button).

5

Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Face Operations

Activity 2 - Hollow and Selection Practice
In this activity the Hollow operation will be used to create a sheet metal part. Step 1 Open the Part File.
-

Open the part file pau_hollow_1, and start the Modeling application.

The figure below illustrates the solid that will be hollowed.

Front

Step 2 Create a hollow feature. Choose the Hollow icon. Enter a Default Thickness of .12. Select the 5 following faces to pierce: front, back, left, right, and bottom.

-

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Face Operations -

After all the desired faces are selected to be pierced, choose OK twice. The finished part is shown below.

-

Choose Edit→Undo List→Hollow. Repeat the operation with a thickness of -.12 and examine the result.

Step 3 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Face Operations

Activity 3 - Creating a Hollow Feature with an Offset
This simple activity will demonstrate the application of a hollow feature with an offset face. Step 1 Open the Part File.
-

Open the part file pau_hollow_2, and start the Modeling application.

Step 2 Hollow the solid.

-

Choose the Hollow icon. Enter a Default Thickness of 4. Select the faces to pierce as shown below.
Select the 3 faces that are NOT shaded.

-

Key in an Alternate Thickness of 8.

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Choose the Offset Face icon.

Face Operations -

Select the face to offset as shown below.

Select this face to offset. -

Choose OK.

Step 3 Close the part, do not save.

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Face Operations

SUMMARY

The Hollow operation creates a cavity inside, or a shell around an existing solid, based upon a specified thickness. In addition, selected faces may be assigned various offset thickness. In this lesson you:
D D D D D

Specified a Default Thickness. Specified a Alternate Thickness. Specified Faces to be Pierced. Specified Faces to be Offset. Created a Hollow Feature.

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Face Operations

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Edge Operations

Lesson 6

PURPOSE

To introduce Blend and Chamfer edge operations.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D

Create Blends. Create Chamfers.

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Edge Operations

Edge Operations

Edge Operations
Edge Operations are available to provide additional definition to the edges of a model. The Edge Operations are Edge Blend and Chamfer.

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Edge Operations

Edge Blend
This option creates cylindrical or conical faces in place of an edge on a solid body. The system adds or subtracts material depending on the topology of the solid body and shortens the faces intersecting at the edge selected.
Blend radius

Selected edge

Blend radius

Shortened faces

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Edge Operations

Edge Blends Using Dynamic Input Field
With the cursor selection set to General Objects, an edge may be blended by first selecting the edge(s) in the graphics window, then the third mouse button is used to access a pop-up menu. From this menu, the Blend operation is chosen and a Radius value may be input directly on the graphics screen. The edge blend is automatically created as a preview.

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When you achieve the desired radius value, choose the checkmark in the upper left corner of the graphics screen.

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You can also access the full Blend Dialog by choosing the Blend Dialog icon at the upper left corner of the graphics screen. By choosing the Blend Dialog, you may make changes to the Blend default settings.

Edge Operations

Activity 1 - Creating Edge Blends with Dynamic Input Fields
In this activity you will create Edge Blends using the MB3 pop-up menu and on screen Dynamic Input Fields. Step 1 Open the part pau_edge_blend_1 and choose the Modeling application. You will create Edge Blends using the new functionality.

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Step 2 Create the first Edge Blend. Ensure the Select General Objects icon Selection toolbar. is ON in the

-

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Choose the edge shown above, click MB3 and choose the Blend option.

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Edge Operations -

.75

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Choose the Checkmark at the upper left corner of the graphics window to apply the radius.

Step 3 Create the second Edge Blend.
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Choose the edge shown below , click MB3 and choose the Blend option.

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Highlight the Dynamic Input Field and enter .75. Watch the previewed radius to make sure it looks as desired.

Edge Operations -

6

Highlight the Dynamic Input Field and enter .5 . Watch the previewed radius to make sure it looks as desired.

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Notice that the tangent edges were automatically selected. That is because the Add Tangent Edges toggle is on in the Blend dialog.

.5

If you chose OK at this point, only part of the edge would be blended. Instead you would like to blend the entire left side of the part. To do this, you must manually select the additional edges. Note: At this point, if you wanted to make changes to the Edge Blend default settings, you could choose the Blend Dialog icon from the upper left corner of the graphics screen and make the desired changes.

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Edge Operations -

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Choose the Checkmark icon

to apply the blends.

Step 4 Close the part without saving.

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Select the two additional edges at the left side of the part. If Enable Blend Preview is toggled ON in the dialog, you will see a preview of each blend as the edge is selected. If Blend Preview does not display, you can choose the Blend Dialog icon in the upper left corner of the graphics screen and toggle Enable Blend Preview ON.

Edge Operations

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Chamfer
This option bevels the edges of a solid body by defining the desired chamfer dimensions. There are five methods of creating a chamfer:
D D D D D

Single Offset Double Offset Offset Angle Freeform Single Offset (Outside scope of class) Freeform Double Offset (Outside scope of class)

The system adds or subtracts material depending on the topology of the solid body and shortens the faces intersecting at the edge selected. Outside Chamfer Inside Chamfer

Shortened faces Selected edge Selected edge

Chamfer Shortened faces

Chamfer

Removes Material

Adds material

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Edge Operations

This option allows a chamfer to be placed with an offset that is the same along both faces, as shown in the figure below (offset 1 and offset 2 have the same value). This value must be a positive value.
Selected edge Offset 1

Face 2 Offset 2

Face 1

The single offset shown below is measured along the path of the curved face and is not necessarily a linear distance.
Offset

Selected edge

Face 2

Chamfer Face 1

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Single Offset

Edge Operations

Double Offset
This option allows different offsets to be placed along the faces. Both of the offset values must be positive and applied as shown below.
Second offset Face 1 First offset

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Selected edge

Chamfer

Face 2

Offset Angle
This option allows an offset value and the chamfer angle to be entered. Note that the chamfer angle is measured from the second face selected. NOTE: The option of flipping the chamfer is available if the display is not what is desired.

Angle

Selected edge

Face 1 Offset Chamfer

Face 2

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Edge Operations

In this activity, a chamfer will be placed on different edges of the model. Step 1 Open the part file.
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Open pau_chamfer_1 and make sure you're in the Modeling application.

Step 2 Create a chamfer using offset and angle.

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Choose the Chamfer icon. Choose Offset Angle option. Select Edge 1 as shown below.

Edge 1

-

Choose OK. Key in the following parameters: Offset = 1.75 Angle = 30

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Choose OK.

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Activity 2 - Performing a Chamfer Operation

Edge Operations

The model should appear as shown below.

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Edge 2

Step 3 Create a double offset chamfer.
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Choose the Double Offset option. Select Edge 2 as shown above. Choose OK. Key in the following parameters: First Offset = .25

Second Offset = .5
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Choose OK and note the option to Flip Last Chamfer.

Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Edge Operations

SUMMARY

The Edge Blend and Chamfer Operations are available to provide additional definition to the edges of a model. In this lesson you:
D D D D D

Blended different edges. Chamfered edges using Offset Angle Chamfered edges using Double Offset. Became aware of the Flip Last Chamfer option. Became aware that all blended edges or chamfered edges created in a single operation are considered one feature.

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Edge Operations

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Model Construction Query

Model Construction Query
Lesson 7

PURPOSE To demonstrate different methods available to query a part file. Querying a part file is useful in that a user may gain an understanding of the part's design intent and how the part was created. OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D D D D D D

Retrieve Layer Information. Open and close the Model Navigator. Retrieve Feature Information. Retrieve Expression Information. Playback the model construction. Suppress & Unsuppress Features. Identify where expressions are used. Measure the distance between objects.

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Model Construction Query

Visually Inspect the Part
Visual inspection of the solid model may be accomplished by rotating the model to view the different features. At times this is very beneficial in order to see clearly what is displayed on the screen. The model may be rotated by using the middle mouse button or the Rotate icon in the View toolbar. Depending upon the graphics driver being used, this may be done with the model shaded or displayed as wireframe. These display modes may also be controlled using the View toolbar.

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Refresh

Fit

Zoom

Zoom Rotate In/Out

Pan

Wireframe Settings

Shaded Settings

Wireframe

View Orientation

Inspect the Layers
Layers are used to organize a part file. They work like invisible containers to house the different objects used to create a Unigraphics solid model. Things to look for:
D

Object Count: Enabling Show Object Count using the checkbox will change the display in the Layer/Status listing window to a Layer/Status/Count listing window that shows the number of objects contained on each layer. Category Names: Unigraphics offers the ability to name layers or groups of layers using Categories. The Category Names are listed in the Category listing window on the Layer Settings dialog box as well as in the Layer/Status listing window next to assigned layers when Show Category Names is enabled. Layer Listing: There is a filtering option menu at the bottom of the dialog box that allows the Layer/Status listing window to display All Objects, Layers with Objects, or All Selectable Layers.

D

D

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Model Construction Query

Model Navigator
The Model Navigator may be used to identify the different features of the model. Selecting a feature from the Model Navigator window will highlight the selected feature in the graphics area and will also highlight the parent and/or child features of the selected feature in different colors. Conversely, selecting a feature from the graphics area will highlight the selected feature and its parents/children in the Model Navigator window. The Model Navigator allows the display of features to be temporarily removed (suppressed) from the graphics screen by selecting the check box associated with the feature name. When a check is displayed in the box, the feature is displayed in the graphics area. The Model Navigator also allows various editing functions to be performed from a central location. Holding down the third mouse button causes a feature specific pop up menu to be displayed offering pertinent editing options. To access the Model Navigator in UNIX use the Navigator toolbar and to access the Model Navigator in Windows use the Resource bar. Both, by default, are located vertically on the right side of the Unigraphics window.

UNIX: Icon from Navigator toolbar

Windows: Icon from Resource Bar

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Model Construction Query

Information
The Information pull down from the main menu offers a number of options for obtaining information about the model. Some of the most useful menu options when trying to interrogate a model are listed below with a brief description of what they do.

Information→Feature
Information→Feature may be used to identify Parent/Child relationships between the selected feature and the other features in the model. In addition, expressions that control the feature may be displayed in the graphic screen by toggling Display Dimensions on.

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TIP

When using Information→Feature, the feature may also be selected in the graphics window. The feature will then be highlighted in the Feature Browser window. Choose OK or Apply to bring up the Information window which will display the relative expressions.

Information→Expression→List All
Examining the expressions may reveal associativity that is built between features or the expressions associated to them.

Information→Expression→List All by Reference
Information→Expression→List All by Reference allows expressions that reference other expressions to be identified, as well as identifying to what features these expressions belong. The Edit→Find option within the Information Window allows easy navigation through the listing.

Playback & Suppress/Unsuppress
In regards to investigating how a model was created, the Playback and Suppress/Unsuppress functions (found under Edit→Feature from the Menu Bar or in the Edit Feature toolbar) will allow the user to reconstruct the model and watch the progress graphically. On very large models, users will have to weigh the invested time vs. the amount of information that can be learned to determine if it is an acceptable practice for a particular model. The main differences between these two methods is that Playback does not suppress reference features or sketches. However, Playback does allow editing of features during update, where Suppress/Unsuppress does not.

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Model Construction Query

Expression Used by option
Features may be identified that have an association to a particular expression by using the Used by" option found in the Expressions dialog window. To use:
D D

Choose Tools→Expressions Select the expression. Choose the Used by icon.

D

An Information window pops up identifying the features that are using the selected expression.

Identified feature

Used by

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Model Construction Query

Analysis Distance
The Analysis→Distance function obtains the minimum distance between any two Unigraphics objects such as points, curves, planes, bodies, edges, and/or faces. The system calculates the three-dimensional distance and the two-dimensional distance relative to the XC, YC plane. In addition, it returns the closest point on each object and the delta distances in absolute and work coordinate systems. The graphics window will indicate the distance measured by a temporary line.

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All data in the Information window is converted to the current units. You can change the units of measure in the Information window using Analysis→Units, and then choosing OK. Once the Information window has displayed the results, you can verify the distance between one of the selected objects and a new object. Just select a new first object, and then select one of the previously selected objects. The new distance is then displayed in the Information window. You can continue verifying distances between one of the selected objects and any other object as long as you specify the new unselected object first.

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Model Construction Query

Start Points
In cases where multiple closest points exist, you may wish to specify a point to indicate the region of the selected object in which you'd like the system to calculate the distance. Use Start Point lets you indicate a start point for a selected curve or face object. Use Start Point toggles from No to Yes. When you set the toggle to Yes and select a curve or face, the system displays the Point Subfunction menu, which allows you to select the desired start point for the curve or face. Use this option to distinguish between multiple points on an object when the selection of more than one is possible. For example, if there exists more than one pair of points that are normal to both objects, the system may not produce the desired results unless you indicate a start point to use, as shown below.

In this case, you want to specify the minimum distance between point A and a certain area of spline B. If no start point is specified, the system may indicate the minimum distance here. Point A

But if you specify a start point as shown, the system knows which minimum distance you are looking for,

Spline B

:

Specified start point

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Model Construction Query

Activity 1 - Model Construction Query
This activity deals with identifying different feature relationships and design intent. Although detailed instructions are supplied, it may be beneficial to attempt to navigate through the interface without using them. Step 1 Open pau_arm_1 and start the Modeling application.

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Step 2 Visually Inspect the Model. Inspect the model. As the part is rotated, try to identify different features and the possible methods used to create them.
-

Rotate the model (hold down MB2 and drag in graphics window).

-

Choose the Shaded icon. Rotate the model (MB2).

(View toolbar)

Orient the view back to trimetric using the Trimetric icon in the View toolbar.

Step 3 Inspect the Layers. Viewing the layers may help gain an understanding of how complex a model may be. If there is only 1 object on a solids layer and just a few objects on a curves layer, the model may be a simple extrusion.

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Model Construction Query

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Choose the Layer Settings icon.

(Utility toolbar)

Toggle ON the Show Category Names options. Review the listing for category names and object count.

Notice that there is 1 object on a Solids layer, 8 objects on a Sketches layer and 3 objects on a Datums layer. Step 4 Identify the Different Features using the Model Navigator. Choose the Wireframe icon interior features (View toolbar). if required to better view

-

-

Make layers 1, 21, and 61 selectable so that the construction aids may be seen. Choose OK in the Layer Settings dialog box.

-

-

Choose the Fit icon

in the View toolbar.

-

Choose the Model Navigator icon from the Navigator toolbar (UNIX) or from the Resource Bar (Windows) and size as required. Either option should be located vertically on the Right side of the graphics window.

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Model Construction Query

-

Windows ONLY: Choose the tack icon in the upper left hand corner to permanently display the Model Navigator. This will also adjust the graphics window to fit the part within the viewing area. Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select the first feature with MB1. The corresponding feature will be highlighted in the graphic window as well as the parent (pau_arm_1) and its children (S21_SKETCH(3)). Continue through all features to see which is which.

-

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Step 5 Review the model construction using Playback.

-

Choose the Feature Playback icon Feature toolbar.

from the Edit

Feature Playback

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Model Construction Query

All of the solid features are suppressed except the reference features and the sketch. The Edit during Update dialog box informs you that the FIXED_DATUM_PLANE(0) feature has been updated, this is the base feature of the model.

-

Choose the Step icon.

The next feature, FIXED_DATUM_AXIS(1), is updated. You may have to move the slider to read the entire message displayed in the Edit during Update dialog box.

-

Choose the Step icon again.

The next feature , FIXED_DATUM_AXIS(2), is updated.
-

Continue to Step through until the model has been completely updated.

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Model Construction Query

Step 6 Review the model construction using Suppress/Unsuppress.
-

Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select the checkbox in front of the first feature with MB1 to suppress the feature.

7

Note that all of the features in the list, except for two fixed datum axes, become suppressed. This is due to all of the other features in the model sharing some sort of associativity with these reference features. To get a better idea about direct associativity to features we will change the listing method of the Model Navigator.
-

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Place the cursor over the Feature Name header in the Model Navigator, select MB3 and choose the Quick Look option from the drop-down list.

Click MB3 here

Notice that all of the features in the list, except for the two fixed datum axis, branch out under the first feature in the list. The Quick Look option shows the parent/child relationships in a tree structure format.
-

Suppress the two Fixed Datum Axis by selecting the checkboxes to remove the checkmark.

Before unsuppressing the features we will change the listing method back to Timestamp Order. This will give us a true creation order listing and will show what features where created from first to last.

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Model Construction Query -

Place the cursor over the Feature Name header in the Model Navigator, select MB3 and choose the Timestamp Order option from the drop-down list. Starting at the top of the Model Navigator feature list, select the empty" checkbox in front of the first feature with MB1 to unsuppress the feature. Continue down the list and unsuppress the remaining features, one at a time, by selecting on each of the empty checkboxes with MB1.

-

-

TIP

You can also use the Shift and CTRL keys to select multiple features from the Model Navigator and then use MB3 one any of the selected features to Suppress/Unsuppress them together. Step 7 Find the values that control the Thickness of the Web Extrusion.
-

In the Model Navigator, place the cursor on WEB_EXTRUSION(4), press MB3 and select Information. Scroll through the Information window to see the various parameters and controlling expressions.

-

The expressions p8 and p9 are identified as limits 1 and 2, these expressions control the start and end distances from the generator geometry for the extrusion. The values of -.125 and .125 produce a web thickness of .25. Note that the Parent of this feature is the sketch S21:SKETCH (3).
-

Close the Information window.

Step 8 Identify the Expression that Controls the Distance from the Large Hole Center to the Small Hole Center. Since the web feature was generated from the sketch geometry, the obvious place to look for the expression that controls the hole to hole distance is in the sketch.

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Model Construction Query -

In the Model Navigator, place the cursor on S21:SKETCH(3), press MB3 and select Edit Parameters. Orient the view to the Front using the View toolbar.
Click here and select the Front icon

-

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The expression in question can clearly be identified, arm_length=8.5
-

Orient the view back to the Trimetric using the View toolbar. Choose Cancel in the Edit Sketch Dimensions dialog box.

Step 9 Close the Model Navigator. Choose the Model Navigator icon again (UNIX) to

-

close the Model Navigator or select the tack icon again (Windows) and drag the cursor off the Model Navigator to collapse it. Step 10 Determine how the Large Hole Feature is located. To find the answer to this question, you will select a feature directly from the graphics screen rather than from a list, which can take more time when trying to identify a specific feature.

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Model Construction Query -

Choose Information→Feature. Select the Large Thru Hole feature in the graphic window and accept it if necessary. You can zoom, pan or rotate the part to get a better look at the feature. Choose MB2.

-

This finding can be further confirmed by the following actions.
-

Close the Information window.

-

Choose the Edit Positioning icon Feature toolbar.

from the Edit

-

Select LARGE_THRU_HOLE(7) and choose MB2.

The p17 expression appears at the arc center of the extrusion and hole. If you don't see the expression, rotate the part.
-

Cancel the Edit Positioning dialog box.

Step 11 Identify where an expression is used.
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Choose Tools→Expression. Select the expression, small_dia=1.25.

-

Choose the Used by icon.

The information window appears and the expression is identified as one used on an object A2 in the S21:SKETCH(3) feature.

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The information window pops up. It can be seen that p17 is a parallel positioning dimension with a value of 0 (zero). The logical assumption can be made that the hole is located Point to Point relative to the Large Knuckle extrusion.

Model Construction Query -

Close the Information window and cancel the Expression dialog box. Choose Information→Feature. Select S21:SKETCH(3). Choose the Object Dependency Browser button.

-

The child objects of the sketch are listed; notice that A2 is present.

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Select Arc A2.

The arc is highlighted in the graphic window. The expression's associated feature and object has now been identified.
-

Cancel the Object Dependency Browser dialog box.

Step 12 Measure a distance.
-

Using the Layer Settings icon layer and all other layers invisible.

, make layer 21 the work

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Model Construction Query -

Choose Analysis"Distance. Choose the Point Constructor button.

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Choose the Quadrant Point icon. Select the arc as shown below.

Select the arc here.

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Choose the Point Constructor button again.

The Quadrant Point is still selected.
-

Select the other arc as shown below.

Select the arc here.

The Information window appears and the 3 D and 2 D distances should report a value of 10.625. Step 13 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Model Construction Query

SUMMARY

7

In this lesson you were instructed on how to query a model to determine creation method and design intent. These skills are important because of the need to review part files that have been created by other users. In this lesson, you:
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Opened the Model Navigator. Identified Expressions. Reviewed the model construction using Playback. Reviewed the model construction using Suppress & Unsuppress. Identified where an expression was used. Measured a distance.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Introduction to Assemblies
Lesson 8

PURPOSE

To introduce the Unigraphics Assembly Modeling application.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D D

Set your Load Options. Add Components to an assembly. Reposition Components in an assembly.

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Activate the Assemblies application.

Introduction to Assemblies

Definitions and Descriptions
Assembly
An assembly is a part file which contains component objects. It is a collection of pointers to piece parts and/or sub assemblies. In the figure below, the toy laser gun is an assembly consisting of many components.

8

Sub Assembly
A sub assembly is an assembly used as a component within a higher level assembly. The figure below shows the sub assembly of the Integrated Circuit board for the toy laser gun. A sub assembly has components of its own.

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Component Objects
A component object is the entity that contains the pointer that links the assembly back to the master component part. A component object can also be a sub assembly made up of other component parts and/or component objects. Shown below are component objects of the sub-assembly. Every piece of the Integrated Circuit board is a separate component object.
Component Object Component Objects

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Introduction to Assemblies

Component Parts
A component part is a part file pointed to by a component object within an assembly. The actual geometry is stored in the component part and is referenced, not copied, by the assembly. The term piece part is used to refer to master geometry as it exists outside of an assembly.

Top level assembly

component piece part

component piece part

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Sub assembly This is a component part of the top level assembly.

component piece part
Component parts of the sub assembly

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Introduction to Assemblies

General Assembly Concepts
There are two basic ways to define an assembly model.
D D

Top Down Modeling Bottom Up Modeling (Demonstrated in this manual)

Top Down Modeling
As the name suggests, an assembly is created at the top level hierarchy and parts are filed down the hierarchy, creating sub assemblies and components.

Bottom Up Modeling
A Bottom Up assembly modeling approach starts by identifying the lowest level piece parts that will make up the assembly. Component parts and sub assemblies are created as the process moves up the assembly level hierarchy.

Combining Both Approaches
It may be more practical for the methods to be combined. For example, purchased or existing hardware for the assembly may be added using the bottom up method, new subassemblies and piece parts may be defined in a top down mode as the design progresses, and finally existing fasteners may be added in a bottom up mode from a standard parts library.

Designing in Context
The ability to make a component of an assembly the work part while leaving the assembly itself as the displayed part allows the assembly to be designed in context. All new geometry that is created is added to the work part. Edits can be made to the features and expressions residing within the work part. If a component exists several times in the assembly (i.e. a fastener), any change to the component while it is the work part will affect all the other occurrences as well.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Bottom Up Design
In the Bottom Up approach, component parts are designed separate from the assembly and later added to the assembly. This approach applies to purchased parts or existing parts.
First, the pin is created in a separate part file outside the assembly. Then, the pin is added to the assembly as a component.

locator_pin.prt

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All assemblies are automatically updated, when opened, to reflect changes made to the component parts. If hole features are added to the solid in a component part they will be seen in all occurrences of the components in the assembly when it is opened.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Introduction to Load Options
When an assembly part file is opened using File→Open, the system must find and load any component parts that are referenced by that assembly. Load Options establish how and from where the system loads the component parts. The Load Options dialog box is accessed by choosing File→Options→Load Options.

Where to look for component parts Which components will be loaded

Controls whether components are fully or partially loaded

Controls what to do if a component is not found

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Introduction to Assemblies

Load Method
The Load Method determines where the system will search for the component parts when an assembly is opened. There are three possible settings.
D

The As Saved method looks for each component part in the same directory it was in when the assembly was last saved. The From Directory method looks for each component in the same directory as the assembly part. The Search Directories method looks for each component in directories specified in a user defined list.

D

D

Load States
The Load Options also controls whether component parts will be fully loaded, partially loaded, or unloaded when an assembly is opened. These are referred to as load states.

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Fully Loaded
A part is fully loaded if all of its data is loaded into system memory. All components can be fully loaded by changing the Load Components option to All Components and toggling Use Partial Loading to off before opening the assembly.

Partially Loaded
When a part is partially loaded, the system pulls only the data required to display the part into memory. Components will be partially loaded if Partial Loading is toggled on when the assembly is opened. Partially loading components reduces the memory requirements and improves performance. This is beneficial when working with large assemblies.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Unloaded
A component part is unloaded if it is not loaded when the assembly is opened. Component parts may be refrained from loading by changing the Load Components option to No Components before opening the assembly. This will drastically reduce the amount of memory required and improve system performance but no component geometry will be seen. Individual components or subassemblies may be opened as desired to work on them using File→Open.

Load Failure
The Abort Load on Failure option controls how the system behaves if a component part is not found based on the current load method.
D

When toggled On, the system will not load any parts unless all of the components are found. The first component it is unable to find will be listed in an Open Error window. When toggled Off, the system will open the assembly and load any of the components that it can find. Those components that are not found will be listed in an Open Warning window and left unloaded.

D

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Introduction to Assemblies

Component Editing
A component part may be added to an assembly by choosing the Add Existing Component icon from the Assemblies toolbar or the Add Existing button in the Components Pull Down menu under Assemblies. Turn ON the Assemblies application to access the Assemblies toolbar or the Components Pull Down menu. This toolbar/menu contains most of the functions that affect the hierarchical structure of the assembly and the relationships between components. The Assemblies toolbar and the Components Pull Down menu will be available as long as the Assemblies application is turned ON.

1 3 4 5

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or 1

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Introduction to Assemblies

The component part to add is specified in the Select Part dialog box.

There are several ways to identify the part in this dialog box:
D D D D D

Select the Choose Part File button to retrieve an unopened part. Select a previously loaded part from the list. Enter the name of a previously loaded part. Select an existing component in the graphics window. Select an existing component in the Assembly Navigator display.

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Introduction to Assemblies

After the part is identified, the Add Existing Part dialog box appears so that it may be established how the existing part will be added as a component object to the assembly and what information is stored with it. At this time, the only change from defaults will be the placement of the part on the Original layers.

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Reference Set Allows you to control the amount of data that is loaded from each component and viewed in the context of an assembly.
D D

Default reference sets are, Empty and Entire Part. Reference sets may be manually created or automatically created.

NOTE: In order for a BODY" reference set to be created automatically the following line must be set in the ug_english.def and ug_mectric.def environment files. Assemblies_ModelReferenceSet: BODY Layer Options - Defines which layer the objects in the new component will be added to in the current work part.
D D D

Work - Places all objects from the component part on the current work layer. Original - Places each object from the component part on the same layer in which it resides in the component part file. As Specified - Places all objects from the component on the layer specified in the Specified Layer entry field.

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Introduction to Assemblies

The Displayed Part
Unigraphics allows multiple part files to be open at the same time either implicitly as a result of being referenced by a loaded assembly or explicitly through the use of File→Open. The part file, whether it be an assembly or component, that is currently displayed in the graphics window, is called the Displayed Part. The Displayed Part can be changed by:
D D D D

Using the Selection toolbar and the Select Components option. Choosing Window→More Parts (Change Displayed Part dialog box) Choosing the Window Loaded Part List, which contains up to the last ten loaded parts for selection to be the displayed part. Using the Assembly Navigator pop-up menu. (this will not be covered in this manual)

Selection Toolbar
The selection toolbar may be used anytime the selection of a component for modification or the extraction of data is required. This method of editing uses an Object/Action approach, where the object needing editing is selected first from the graphic window and then the necessary action is defined. This lesson will focus on the use of the Select Components option.

Select Components

Depending on which category the user has selected, the Type Filter may be used to narrow the band of selectable objects.

Components

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Introduction to Assemblies

The remaining options of the toolbar may be used to further discriminate in the selection of objects.

Reset All icons not shown

Select All

Deselect All

Up One Level

Once an object has been selected from the graphic window, mouse button 3 (MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object. NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the selected object for the pop-up dialog to appear.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Window
Choosing Window→More Parts will activate the Change Displayed Part dialog box, listing all loaded parts except the one currently displayed.

When this dialog box is active, a part may be selected by:
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Choosing it from the list of loaded parts. Entering the name in the Part Name entry field. Selecting geometry from the graphics area (if the current displayed part is an assembly).

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Introduction to Assemblies

The Work Part
The part in which geometry is created and edited is termed the Work Part. The Work Part may be the displayed part or any component part which is contained in the displayed assembly part. When a part file is opened, it will initially be both the displayed and the work part. The displayed part and the work part do not need to be the same. In a case where the displayed part is not the work part, the work part will be displayed in color and the other component parts will be de emphasized. The Work Part can be changed by:
D

Using the Selection toolbar and the Select Components option. Choosing the Make Work Part icon on the Assemblies tool bar.

D D

Choosing Assemblies→Context Control→Set Work Part. Using the Assembly Navigator pop up menu. (not covered in this manual).

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NOTE: When a component is made the work part, the component's reference set is changed to Entire Part. When the component is no longer the work part, the reference set is returned to its original condition.

Selection Toolbar

Select Components

Once an object has been selected from the graphic window, mouse button 3 (MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object.

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NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the selected object for the pop-up dialog to appear.

Make Work Part icon
Choosing the Make Work Part icon dialog box. will activate the Set Work Part

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Introduction to Assemblies

When this dialog is active, a part may be identified by:
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Choosing it from the list of loaded parts. Selecting geometry from the graphics screen. Entering the part name in the Part Name entry field.

Choosing the Displayed Part button changes the work part back to the whole assembly. This makes the displayed part and the work part the same.

Repositioning Components
To access the Reposition Components dialog, the Assemblies application must first be turned ON. The Reposition Components dialog can be accessed by:
D D

Choosing Reposition Component icon

on the Assemblies tool bar.

Choosing Assemblies→Components→Reposition Component.

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Introduction to Assemblies

After Reposition Component is chosen and a component object is selected the repositioning dialog appears and a dynamic repositioning coordinate system appears in the graphic window.
Rotate About A Line Rotate About A Point Rotate Between Two Axes

Translate

Point to Point

Reposition

Rotation Handle

Vertex Handle

Axis Handle

Dynamic Repositioning Coordinate System

Component objects may be repositioned by using the six options at the top of the dialog window or interactively dragged using the dynamic coordinate system.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Dragging Components Objects
Component objects may be dragged three different ways:
D D D

Left Right Up Down Along an Axis of the coordinate system Rotated about an axis of the coordinate system.

Left Right Up Down
After the component object has been selected, it may be dragged left or right and up or down, simply by placing the cursor any where in the graphic window and holding MB1 down. If one of the coordinate system's axis or rotation handles is currently selected, you must first select the vertex handle to deselect the other handles. To move the component in the third dimension, while the object is selected, rotate the part using your spaceball or MB3 Rotate (F7), exit the rotation mode and continue to drag the object.

Dragging along an axis of the coordinate system
After a component object has been selected, it may be dragged along an axis of the coordinate system by selecting on one of the axis handles. In addition the Distance and Snap Increment text fields become active.
Axis Handle Distance field Snap Increment field

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Snap Increment toggle

Keying in a positive or negative value in the distance text field and pressing return will cause the object to be moved that distance value along the selected axis. The Snap Increment value acts as a detent, which causes the object to snap to the incremental value as the object is dragged along the axis. The Snap Increment option may be toggled off and on as desired.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Rotation about an axis of the coordinate system
After a component object has been selected, it may be dragged about an axis of the coordinate system by selecting on one of the rotation handles. In addition the Angle and Snap Increment text fields become active.
Rotation Handle Angle field Snap Increment field

Snap Increment toggle

Point to Point
Point to Point allows a component to be translated by indicating a first point and a second point. The orientation of the translated component with respect to the second point will be identical to that of the original component with respect to the first point.
Second Point (arc center) First Point (arc center)

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Keying in a positive or negative value in the angle text field and pressing return will cause the object to be rotated that value about the respective axis. The Snap Increment value acts as a detent, which causes the object to snap to the incremental value as the object is dragged about the axis. The Snap Increment option may be toggled off and on as desired.

Introduction to Assemblies

Translate
Translate provides a means to move a component a delta value with respect to the reposition coordinate system. Translated components maintain the original orientation relative to other parts.

Rotate About a Point

8

This option may be used to rotate components about a vector parallel to the ZC axis and passing through a specified reference point, as shown below. A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise.
Component being repositioned Axis of Rotation

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Reference Point
ZC YC XC

Angle = 90 degrees

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Rotate About a Line
This option allows components to be rotated about a defined vector which is not necessarily parallel to the ZC axis. To use this method:
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Define a point that the vector is to pass through. Define the vector using the Vector constructor. Key in the desired value of rotation. Choose Apply.

A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise relative to the defined vector.
Component being repositioned Defined vector

Axis of Rotation

Angle=90 degrees

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Introduction to Assemblies

Saving the Work Part
After editing, the work part must be saved to keep the modifications. The File→Save option allows the saving of the work part without saving all of the parts in the displayed assembly.
D

If the work part is a piece part (lowest level component), only that part will be saved. If the work part is an assembly or subassembly, any modified component parts below it are also saved. Higher level assemblies will not be saved even if they were modified. File"Save All saves all loaded parts in the session that have been modified regardless of the work part designation.

D

TIP

TIP

Open files for which the user does not have write privilege may not be saved.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Activity 1 - Adding and Repositioning a Component
In this activity components will be added to an assembly. These components will then be repositioned to the proper locations. The Load Options must be set properly before loading the assembly. Step 1 Set the Load Options.
-

Choose File→Options→Load Options. Ensure Load Method is set to From Directory. Ensure Use Partial Loading is turned ON. Choose OK.

Step 2 Open the test stand assembly. Choose the Open icon. From the laser_gun subdirectory, open the part pau_test_assm_1. Save the part as ***_test_assm_1 where *** represent your initials.

-

-

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Choose the Modeling icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies

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Choose the Assemblies icon.

Step 3 Add the test stand to the assembly. The test stand is the part that the circuit board fits in for assembly and circuitry testing. Choose the Add Existing Components icon Assemblies toolbar. Choose Choose Part File. From the laser_gun subdirectory, select pau_mounting_block. Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and choose OK. Choose Reset and OK. Choose Cancel in the Select Part dialog box. Fit the view. from the

-

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The illustration below shows how the mounting block is to be oriented to the circuit board. The next step will direct you through the repositioning of the mounting block.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Step 4 Reposition the mounting block.

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Choose the Reposition Component icon. Select the mounting block and choose MB2. Select the rotation handle shown below.
Select this rotation handle.

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Change the Snap Increment to 15. Ensure that Snap Increment is toggled ON. Drag the selected rotation handle with MB1 until the angle text field indicates -90.

-

Choose the Point to Point icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies -

Select the first and second points as directed by the CUE line and shown below.

Second point

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First point

The mounting block moves to the new position.
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Choose OK.

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Introduction to Assemblies

Step 5 Add a new component to the subassembly.
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In the graphic window, select the pau_ic_board_13 as shown below and confirm if necessary. (Verify the component name in the Status line)

Select here -

Place the cursor over the component and select MB3. Choose Make Work Part from the Pop-Up menu.

-

Choose OK to acknowledge the Read Only warning. Choose the Add Existing Component icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies -

Choose Choose Part File. Select the part pau_c2_13 and choose MB2. Change the Positioning method to Reposition. Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and choose OK. Press Reset in the Point Constructor dialog box, followed by OK to locate the part at Zero.

-

-

Fit the view.

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Newly added component.

Choose the Point to Point icon.

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Choose the Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center icon.

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Introduction to Assemblies -

Reposition the component as shown below. It may be necessary to rotate and zoom in on the view so that the proper arc centers are selected (Remember: Holding down MB2 and dragging the cursor on the graphic window rotates the view).

Select this arc center as the Second point

Select this arc center as the First point

The component moves to the new position.
-

Choose OK. Choose Cancel.

Step 6 Save the subassembly. Since you do not presently have write access to the subassembly you will perform a save as on it.
-

Choose File→Save As. In your home directory save the circuit board assembly by keying in ***_ic_board_13 and choose OK.

The system now prompts you to perform a save as on the top level assembly. You already own this part file, so this step is not necessary.

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Introduction to Assemblies -

Choose Cancel. Choose OK to continue the Save As. Choose OK to acknowledge the Save As Report. Close the Information window.

Step 7 Make the Work Part the Displayed Part. Choose the Make Work Part icon toolbar. Choose Displayed Part. from the Assemblies

-

-

Step 8 Save and close the assembly.

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Choose File→Close→Save All and Close. Choose OK to confirm the close.

Step 9 Reopen the saved assembly. This step will demonstrate the importance of Load Options.
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Choose File→Recently Opened Parts→***_test_assm_1.

A warning message appears. Currently the load options are set to look for the component parts in the same directory as the assembly part file. Your assembly file is saved in your home directory while the component parts are stored in the course parts directory.
-

Choose OK to accept the warning. Choose File→Close→All Parts. Choose OK.

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Step 10 Set the Load Options.
-

Choose File→Options→Load Options. Toggle the As Saved option ON. Choose OK.

Step 11 Reopen the saved assembly.
-

Choose File→Recently Opened Parts→***_test_assm_1.

This time all of the components are opened. Step 12 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Introduction to Assemblies

SUMMARY

An assembly is a part file which contains component objects. It is a collection of pointers to piece parts and/or sub assemblies. Assemblies may be created using the Top Down, Bottom Up, or a combination of the two methods. Assemblies provides the ability to design in context. In this lesson you:
D D D

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Activated the Assemblies application. Set your Load Options. Added and repositioned a component in an assembly.

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The Master Model

The Master Model
Lesson 9

PURPOSE

To introduce the Master Model concept.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D

Review an existing Master Model. Create a new Master Model.

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The Master Model

The Assembly Modeler
The Unigraphics assembly is a file containing stored links to the part files that are pieces of the assembly. The geometry that defines the piece parts of the assembly resides in the original part file only, there is no duplication in the assembly file. A link in the assembly file is referred to as a component object. A component object stores information about the piece part such as its location, attributes, origin, orientation, permissions, degree of display, and its relationship to other parts.

The Master Model Concept
Applying the Master Model Concept in a Drafting situation is simply the creation of an assembly consisting of one component part. It is valuable as a means of promoting concurrent engineering. The person responsible for the design of a part is not the same person responsible for all of the downstream applications performed on the part. These downstream applications may include drafting, manufacturing, analysis, etc. The Master Model Concept is also valuable in protecting the design intent of the part from inadvertent corruption by a downstream user. The downstream user will have write privileges to the assembly file, but only read privileges to the model. The solid model is referenced for the application work, but the downstream user will not have the ability to change it. Because the application information in the assembly or non-master file is referencing the original master model part, edits to the master model will be updated in the non-master part file. Implementing Master Model theory allows diverse yet dependent design processes to access the same master geometry during development. Therefore, the entire part creation process becomes more efficient allowing many disciplines to work at the same time and allowing master model edits to be automatically updated in non-master parts.

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The Master Model

The power of implementing a Master Model is that the independent design processes are dependent on the same master geometry during development.

Drafting

Assembly

Master Model

Analysis

N/C

Each application uses a separate assembly file. When the Master Model is revised, the other applications will automatically update with minimal or no associativity loss. The design intent of the various design applications can be maintained through protection of the Master Model.

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The Master Model

Master Model Example
Manufacturing engineers have the need to design fixture devices, define machining operations, and designate cutter tools and save this data in their models. By creating a manufacturing assembly" and adding a component to it, they can then generate their application specific geometry or data in a separate part file which references the master geometry:
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This avoids duplication of model geometry Different users can work in separate files simultaneously
(owned by manufacturing engineer)

abcd1234_mfg.prt

Contains manufacturing data and a component object which references master model part

(owned by designer)

abcd1234.prt

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Contains master model geometry

The manufacturing engineer has ownership of the assembly file without necessarily having write access to the master model which is owned by the designer.

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The Master Model

Master Model Drawing Guidelines
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1. Create the 'drawing' file (Open seedpart_mm or seedpart_in, FILE→SAVE AS, xxxxxxx_dwg) 2. Start the Assemblies application (APPLICATION→ASSEMBLIES) 3. Add the part to be detailed as a component (ASSEMBLIES→COMPONENTS→ADD EXISTING) 4. Change to the Drafting Application (APPLICATION→DRAFTING) 5. Adjust the paper; name, units, size, projection angle (DRAWING→EDIT) 6. Add the drawing formats; title block, border, revision block, standard notes (Site dependent) 7. Set View Display Preferences; hidden line removal, section backgrounds, threads (PREFERENCES→VIEW DISPLAY) 8. Add the first 'Imported' view; typically top or front (DRAWING→ADD VIEW→IMPORT VIEW) 9. Add more views; orthographic, detail, auxiliary, section, isometric, exploded (DRAWING→ADD VIEW→ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW) 10. Adjust the views; scale, move, align, remove (DRAWING→EDIT VIEW) 11. Adjust the View Display Preferences, per view (PREFERENCES→VIEW DISPLAY) 12. Clean up individual views with view dependent edits; erase object, edit entire object, edit object segment (EDIT→VIEW DEPENDENT EDIT) 13. Add the Utility Symbols; centerlines, target symbols, intersection symbols (INSERT→UTILITY SYMBOL) 14. Add the dimensions (INSERT→DIMENSION) 15. Add the notes, labels, and GD&T's (INSERT→ANNOTATION)

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D D D

D

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Activity 1 - Exploring a Master Model Assembly
This activity will demonstrate the advantages of a Master Model Assembly. Step 1 Choose File"Options"Load Options and ensure that the Load Method is From Directory.

Step 2 Open the part file pau_tapedisp_dwg. Make sure that you are selecting pau_tapedisp_dwg.

Step 3 Choose Drafting. Step 4 Inspect the drawing for dimensional values.
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Zoom in on section view A-A and note the slot width of .88 and the corner radius of .12. Both dimensions have been rounded from the model dimensions to two decimal places.
Slot Width

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Corner Radius

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Restore the view and note the drawing name, SH1, at the lower left corner.

Step 5 Investigate the model.

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Choose Modeling. Choose Information→Feature and note that there are no features. Choose Tools→Expression and note that there are no expressions. Choose Assemblies→Reports→List Components.

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An information window appears showing the assembly file structure for the file pau_tapedisp_dwg and indicates that there is one component named pau_tapedisp. This part contains the Master Model definition.

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Close the information window.

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Step 6 Examine the display.
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Choose Information→Object. Place the cursor over the solid body. When the cursor changes to the cross with the ellipsis (+...) select once. Pass the cursor over the numbers in the QuickPick window until the solid body is highlighted, then select it. Choose OK.

-

An information window appears with information regarding the solid, its owning part, and confirmation that it is a component.

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Dismiss the information window.

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Step 7 Retrieve the Master Model file.

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Choose Open. Choose pau_tapedisp from the list box.

Step 8 Edit the expression for Roll_width to .75
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Choose Tools→Expression.

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Select the Roll_width expression.

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Replace the .875 value with .75 and choose OK.

The opening for the tape roll changes in width to accommodate the modified dimension. Step 9 Edit the blend on the inside of the spool cavity.
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Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters.

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Select the Blend(21) feature at the bottom of the list. Confirm the selection with OK.

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In the Radius Dynamic Input Field, key in a new value of .06.

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Choose OK. Choose OK.

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Step 10 Change Displayed Part to pau_tapedisp_dwg.
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Choose Window→pau_tapedisp_dwg to change the Displayed Part.

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Choose Drafting.

Notice the drawing name now shows (OUT-OF-DATE) to remind you the views are not updated.

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Step 11 Update the drawing.
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Choose Drawing→Update Views. Choose All in the Update Views dialog box and choose OK.

Step 12 Zoom in on section A-A again to see the changes to the master model reflected on the drawing
Slot Width

Corner Radius

Step 13 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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The Master Model

Activity 2 - Creating a Master Model Assembly
This activity will demonstrate creation of a Master Model Assembly. Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_in. Step 2 Save the part as ***_dwg_1 where *** represent your initials. Step 3 Add the part pau_dwg_1 to the discipline specific assembly file.
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Check to see the Assemblies application is toggled on (Choose Application→Assemblies, if it is not on). Choose the Add Existing Component icon. Choose the Choose Part File button. Choose pau_dwg_1 from the parts directory, then OK. Change the Positioning option to Absolute. Choose BODY from the Reference Set pull down and choose OK. Press Reset in the Point Constructor dialog box, followed by OK to locate the part at Zero.

-

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Step 4 Choose Save. Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.
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The Master Model

SUMMARY

This Master Model approach offers many benefits to Unigraphics customers. If these two files were read protected by different departments, distinct responsibilities would be enforced by the protection and yet all of the appropriate model data is shared by each of the departments concerned. Users can access whatever they want, whenever they want with full confidence that no data or revision work can be lost without active confirmation by the users.

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The Master Model

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Introduction to Drafting

Introduction to Drafting
Lesson 10

PURPOSE This lesson will introduce the fundamentals of the Unigraphics Drafting application. OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
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Edit drawings. Add Views to Drawings. Modify Preferences. Create Utility Symbols. Create Dimensions. Create Annotations.

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Introduction to Drafting

Uses of the Drafting Application
The Drafting application can be used to rapidly create drawings of solid parts. Some of the features of the Drafting application are:
D

Views may be added to the drawing just by indicating their location with the cursor. As orthographic views are added, they will automatically be aligned with the parent view. Every view is fully associated with the solid. If the solid is updated, the views will also update. Drafting annotations (dimensions, labels, and symbols with leaders) are placed directly on the drawing. Drafting annotations are fully associative to the geometry selected and will update automatically to changes in the solid part. Fully associative view boundaries automatically calculated when the drawing is updated.

D

D

D

D

D

Drawing Display
Drawings may be displayed two different ways, full color or monochrome. Full color is the default setting. In this mode objects are displayed in the color that they appear in the modeling application and the background is the color set by the Preferences"Visualization"Color Pallet"Edit Background dialog. Monochrome Display provides a means for a drawing to appear more like an actual drawing (black-on-white). Monochrome is toggle on or off by choosing Preferences"Visualization"Color Pallet"Color Settings and then toggling Monochrome Display. The foreground and background colors may be set in this dialog. Show Widths may also be set here but only applies to drawings. When Monochrome Display is toggled off, drawings will be displayed in full color.

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Introduction to Drafting

Editing a Drawing
The Drawing"Edit option may be chosen to change the creation parameters of a current drawing such as name, size, scale, units of measure, or projection angle.

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The current state of the displayed drawing affects the edit options available. The following are things to be aware of:
D

The projection angle can only be changed if no projected views exist on the current drawing being modified. The drawing may be edited to a larger or smaller size. However, if the drawing is edited to a size so small that a view falls entirely outside the boundary of the drawing, an error message will appear.

D

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Activity 1 - Editing a Drawing
In this activity, the current drawing name, size and scale will be modified. Step 1 Open the file pau_edit_1.

Step 2 Choose Drafting. Step 3 Choose Drawing"Open and select 93A12345-5 from the listing as the drawing to open and choose OK.

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Introduction to Drafting

Step 4 Rename the current drawing.
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Choose Drawing"Edit.

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Change the drawing name in the Selection text field to 93A12345 6. Choose Apply and notice the drawing name update in the graphics area.

-

Step 5 Change the current drawing size.

10

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Change the values so that Height= 594, Length= 1100. Choose Apply and notice the drawing size update.

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Step 6 Change the current drawing scale.
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Enter a new drawing scale in the text fields (1/1) and choose OK.

93A12345–6 (DWG) WORK

Multiple drawing edits may be performed before choosing Apply or OK. Step 7 Choose File"Close"All Parts. NOTE: In order to save the drawing information or edits, the part file must be saved.

Adding a View to a Drawing
The first view added is based on the view orientation selected from the list box in the upper portion of the Add View dialog. Once this view is added to the drawing, it determines scale, layer settings, as well as the orthographic space and alignment of subsequent orthographic views. It also establishes the part orientation on the drawing.

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Any modeling view may be used as the first view placed on a drawing.

View direction

ZC YC XC

Choosing Drawing"Add View displays the following dialog.

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View Type Icons

View Creation Steps

Viewpoint Selection List

View Specific Options

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Create Centerline
When toggled ON, this option automatically creates linear, cylindrical, and bolt circle centerlines (with a circular instance set) for views where the hole or pin axis is perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawing view.

Removing Views From a Drawing
You can use the Drawing"Remove View option to remove one or more views from a drawing.

Once a view is removed from a drawing, all drafting objects or view modifications associated to that view are deleted.

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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 2 - Adding a View to a Drawing
In this activity, a view will be added to the drawing previously created. Step 1 Add a view to the drawing.
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Choose File→Options→Load Options and select As Saved. Open the part ***_dwg_1 or open pau_drawing_1_assm and save as ***_drawing_1_assm.

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Choose Drafting. Choose Drawing→Edit; select B" size drawing. Choose OK.

-

Choose Add View to Drawing.

The Top viewpoint is the default view orientation. Any one of the listed viewpoints could be imported as the first view on the face of the drawing.
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Ensure that the Create Center Line option is toggled On.

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Introduction to Drafting -

Use the first mouse button to indicate a location near the lower left corner of the drawing as shown.

View View Center View bounds are ghosted to assist in view placement

DWG1 (DWG) WORK

If there is a need to reposition the view after placement, choose the Move button from the dialog box, then specify a new view center. Note that the Top viewpoint of the part as it relates to model space is being placed on the drawing such that it depicts an orthographic front view of the part. This flexibility assures that the drawing views necessary to depict the part may be placed on the drawing independent of the orientation of the part in model space. Notice the creation of the centerline. Step 2 Place an orthographic View on the Drawing.

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Choose the Orthographic View Icon.

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Select the imported view as the parent view.

View bounds are ghosted to assist in view placement

Orthographic View Parent View

DWG1 (DWG) WORK

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Use the first mouse button to indicate a location above the parent view.

The location of the cursor relative to the base view determines the Orthographic view projection from the parent view. Step 3 Choose File"Save, do not close the part.

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Introduction to Drafting

Setting the View Display Preferences
Choosing Preferences"View Display produces the View Display dialog box. The View Display dialog box may be used to define and edit the display of such things as hidden lines, silhouettes, smooth edges, etc..

View Selection Box

View Option Buttons

Button Specific Options

Global View Options

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The View Display dialog box may be used to preset preferences for subsequent views added to the drawing, or this dialog box may be used to edit the settings of existing drawing views. To edit the View Display preferences of an existing view, select the view(s) from the drawing, or choose the view(s) from the selection box.

Button Specific Options
The Button Specific Options area of the dialog box varies to support the different View Option Buttons available. When each View Option Button is selected the appropriate choices for the option are displayed in this area.

View Option Buttons
Hidden Lines If the Hidden Line option is toggled Off, Hidden Line removal is not performed and all hidden lines in the view will appear. If the Hidden Line option is toggled On, the color, font and width of the hidden line display is determined by the settings in the Color, Font, and Width option menus.

Hidden Lines=Dashed

Hidden Lines=Invisible

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Smooth Edges Smooth edges are those edges that their adjacent faces have the same surface tangent at the edge where they meet. If the Smooth Edges option is toggled to the On position, the Color, Font and Width option menus may be used to determine the appearance of the smooth edges. The End Gaps option may be used to vary the edge intersection appearance.
Smooth Edges=On Smooth Edges=Off

Smooth Edges=Dashed

Visible Lines The appearance of visible objects may be determined by using the Color, Font, and Width option menus.

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Virtual Intersections Virtual Intersections are the theoretical sharp intersections that occur where blended faces would intersect, where the display of smooth edges may cause confusion. If the Virtual Intersections option is toggled to the On position, the Color, Font and Width option menus may be used to determine the appearance of the virtual intersection display. The End Gaps option may be used to vary the edge intersection appearance.
Virtual Intersections

Extracted Edges The Extracted Edges option allows the edges of an assembly to be shown without loading all of the component parts. Edges are extracted at the component level and remain associative to the component. Automatic Update The Automatic Update option may be used to control whether a drawing view is updated after the model has been changed. If Automatic Update is turned on, hidden lines, smooth edges, and silhouettes are updated after changes are made to the model. If Automatic Update is toggled off, these edges are not updated. This option does not affect section views, or detail views made from section views. These views always automatically update after the model is changed. NOTE: If the Preferences"Drafting"Suppress View Update option is turned On, no automatic update will occur during the return to the Drafting application.

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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 3 - Setting View Display Preferences
In this activity, you will practice setting the view display preferences. Step 1 Continue using the part ***_dwg_1 or ***_drawing_1_assm, whichever is applicable. Step 2 Change the view display preferences for the imported view added to the drawing.
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Choose Preferences→View Display. Select the imported view. With the Hidden Lines View Option Button depressed, make sure Hidden Line is toggled on. Set the Hidden Line Font to Dashed. With the Smooth Edges View Option Button depressed, toggle the Smooth Edges option off. Choose OK.

-

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Step 3 Save and close the part file.

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Introduction to Drafting

Creating Utility Symbols
The Utility Symbols option creates various centerlines, offset center points, target points, and intersection symbols. The utility symbol dialog is activated by choosing Insert→Utility Symbol in the Drafting application. The Utility Symbols dialog box consists of four distinct areas: symbol icons, position options, symbol display parameters and preference options. Symbol Display Parameters control the creation of each utility symbol as it is placed. These parameters may also be used to modify existing drafting symbols.

Symbol Icons

Point Position Options

Symbol Display Parameters

Preference Options

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Automatic Centerline
This option automatically creates centerlines in any existing view(s) where the hole or pin axis is perpendicular or parallel to the plane of the drawing view. If a series of holes in a circle (bolt hole circle) are not a circular instance set, then a linear centerline is created for each hole. The following views are not supported:
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Faceted representation view Unfolded section view Revolved section view

Associativity of Utility Symbols
A utility symbol's placement is controlled by a position on an object. The system will automatically size the symbol components to the objects used to create it, based upon the symbol display parameters.

Deleting a Utility Symbol
A utility symbol may be deleted by choosing Edit→Delete and selecting the symbol to delete. The symbols may be selected at any position.

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Introduction to Drafting

Creating a Cylindrical Centerline
A cylindrical centerline that conforms to ASME Y14.5M-1994 standards may be created through points, arcs, or cylindrical faces. The point position options allow a centerline associated to objects other than cylinders to be created. The following associativity rules apply to cylindrical centerlines:
D D

A cylindrical centerline must be associated to two point positions. A cylindrical centerline is updated when the data to which it is associated is moved or re sized. If one of the objects to which a cylindrical centerline is associated is deleted, the centerline will conform to the Retain Annotations setting setting found under Preferences→Drafting.

D

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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 4 - Creating a Cylindrical Centerline
In this activity, cylindrical centerlines will be created using both the arc center and cylindrical face options. Step 1 Open the part pau_symbols_1.

Step 2 Rename the part ***_symbols_1 where *** represent your initials. Step 3 Create a Cylindrical Centerline symbol.

-

Choose Drafting. Choose Insert→Utility Symbol

-

Select the Cylindrical Centerline icon.

-

Set the Point Position option to Arc Center.

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Select two positions, indicated below, for placement of a single centerline symbol. Repeat for the other two pairs of positions.

Select this pair of edges.

Select this pair of edges.

Select this pair of edges, confirming your selections if needed.

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Introduction to Drafting

The resulting cylindrical centerlines are shown.

Step 4 Create a centerline symbol using the Cylindrical Face option.

-

Continue using the Cylindrical Centerline icon. Change the Point Position option to Cylindrical Face.

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Introduction to Drafting -

Place the cursor over the cylindrical face as shown and select the face using the first mouse button.

-

Indicate end points 1 and 2 of the cylindrical centerline, using cursor locations as shown. The indicated end points are projected to the axis of the cylindrical face, and two drafting points are created that are associated to the selected face.

1*

*2

Step 5 Repeat the procedure for the two counterbored holes in the orthographic view. This time, the face selection will need to be confirmed, as the system will select the main, or outside face first. This face will highlight in the view that the face was selected, as well as in the adjacent view.
-

Toggle Multiple Centerlines to On.

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Introduction to Drafting -

Use the numbers from the QuickPick window to select the inner cylindrical face.

Select this face

-

Indicate end points 1 and 2 of the cylindrical centerline, using cursor locations as shown.
1* *2

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Make a similar centerline through the lower counterbored hole by selecting the counter bored face shown below.

Select this face

Notice how you did not have to select the endpoints for this centerline, this is because Multiple Centerlines was turned on. The completed centerlines are shown below.

-

Choose File"Close"Reopen Selected Parts.

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Step 6 Create Automatic Centerlines.

Introduction to Drafting -

Choose ***_symbols_1. Choose OK twice. Dismiss the Information window. Choose Insert"Utility Symbol.

-

Choose Automatic Centerline. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the following views from the list: FRONT@16 ORTHO@26 RIGHT@10 SX@25 Choose Apply.

-

Step 7 Choose File"Save, do not close the part.

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Creating Dimensions
The various dimensions types may be accessed two different ways. One way is by choosing Insert→Dimension and then selecting the desired dimension. The other way is by choosing the dimension from the customizable Dimension toolbar.

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Introduction to Drafting

Dimension Dialog
Whenever a dimension type is selected a dimension dialog specific to that type of dimension is displayed.
Second selection Fold Location

Name of dimension type

First selection

Origin Line and point type definitions for Cylindrical dimensions

Point type Vector definitions for Angular dimensions

Annotation editor for appended text

Local Preferences

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Vector Definition for Angular Dimensions
The Vector Definitions options are only available when creating an angular dimension. An angle dimension is the measurement between two vectors. The various options provide a means of defining the vectors

Existing Line Two Points Extension Line Arc Center Enter Angle Horizontal Right Vertical Up Horizontal Left Vertical Down

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Line and Point Definition for Cylindrical Dimensions
These options are only available when creating a cylindrical dimension. The various options provide a means of defining the lines or points that the dimension measures.

Existing Line Inferred Point Control Point Intersection Point Arc Center Tangent Point Baseline

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Dimension Local Preferences
The Dimensions dialog box contains options that control the display and placement of dimensions. These local preference settings may be changed with each dimension created.

Local Preferences

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Appended Text Controls
Text or symbols may be added to dimensions via the Annotation Editor and toggling on Use Appended Text.

Annotation Editor

To create appended text:
D D D

Select the desired dimension type. Choose the Annotation Editor button. In the annotation editor select the required position button. One or all four positions may be used on the same dimension.

Before D

After

Above

Below

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Enter the desired text for the different positions as required and choose OK.

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Introduction to Drafting

NOTE: If the position arrow displays solid, that is an indicator that text is present and will be displayed in the dimension. If that text is not desired, select the position button and delete the text.
D D

Toggle Use Appended Text on. Dimension the object.

Any text entered in the appended text fields will continue to be added to any new dimensions created unless the Use Appended Text option is toggled off.

Precision Options
The Precision button activates the Dimension Precision dialog box which is used to independently control the precision of both dimension values and tolerance values. Both single (Primary) and dual (Secondary) dimensional precision is supported. If the dimension display format is set to fractional values (instead of decimal values) then the Dimension Precision dialog box will show fractional values for the nominal precision option.
This pull down is active when using dual dimensions.

OR

For decimal precision

For fractional precision

Example: X.XXX R 2.195

Example: X.X R 2.2

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Introduction to Drafting

Tolerance Type and Tolerance Value Options
The display of tolerance values may be controlled using the Tolerance Types shown below.

Click here Bilateral Unilateral+ UnilateralBilateral No tolerance +Limit, 2 Lines Tolerance Types -Limit, 2 Lines +Limit, 1 Line -Limit, 1 Line Basic Reference Diameter Reference Not to Scale

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Tolerance Value Options
The Tolerance Value fields are active in respect to the units button, Inches or Millimeters, that has been selected. The units buttons are active depending on the dual dimension format that has been selected by Preferences→Annotation→Units. Use the Tolerance Value fields to enter upper and lower tolerance values for both Inch and SI units. Any value entered in these fields will be interpreted as positive unless a negative (-) value is specified.

Tolerance Values

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Introduction to Drafting

Some examples of different tolerance values and displays are shown below.
nominal size= 5.50 inches upper tolerance = .030 lower tolerance = -.010 Equal Bilateral Only the upper tolerance value is used; the lower value is ignored.
5.50 ".03

nominal size= 5.50 inches upper tolerance = .030 lower tolerance = -.010 Unilateral The negative limit below (-TOL) will show value while the positive limit above (+.000) will be zero.

5.50 ) .00 * .01

nominal size = 5.50 inches upper tolerance = .030 lower tolerance = -.010 + Limit 1 Line Limits are calculated by adding the positive tolerance value to the dimension value for the upper limit of your dimension, and subtracting the negative value for the lower limit

5.53 – 5.49

Basic Displays a basic dimension enclosed in a rectangular box around the dimension. No tolerance values are displayed.

5.50

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Placement Options
Dimensions placement on the drawing may be controlled using the options shown below.

Auto Placement

Manual Placement, Arrows In Manual Placement, Arrows Out

Auto placement automatically centers the dimension between the extension lines if space allows, or moves the text outside the extension lines if necessary. Auto placement also controls whether the leader lines come from left or right. When using the Manual Placement, Arrows In or Arrows Out options, the dimension is placed at the cursor location specified. The leader line placement is controlled manually using the Leader From option.

Initial Position

Cursor Movement cursor position

Initial Position

Cursor Movement
Final Position

cross hairs

In Auto" placement, the cursor is insensitive to the horizontal direction

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Final Position

cursor position

In Manual" placement the cursor is sensitive to cursor position

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Introduction to Drafting

Arrow Line and Extension Line Options
The display of arrow lines and extension lines for dimensions may be controlled using the Arrow Line Display and Extension Line Display options shown below.
Display Arrow on Side 1 Display Extension Line on Side 1 Display Arrow on Side 2 Display Extension Line on Side 2

Example: 2 Arrows & 2 Extension Lines 8.0000 Example: Arrow 1 & Extension 2 8.0000

NOTE: Side 1 refers to the first object selected and Side 2 refers to the second object selected.

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Leader Direction Options
The dimension leader direction may be controlled by selecting one of the three leader options. The leader option may be set prior to creating the dimension or changed during placement of the dimension.

Example: Left
Infer From Left From Right

R 2.000

Example: Right

R 2.000

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Introduction to Drafting

Text Justification Options
Text justification may be controlled using the Horizontal and Vertical Justification options. These are used when there is more than one line of dimension text and/or symbols, such as appended text or GD&T symbols.
Vertical Justification Options

Horizontal Justification Options

6.000 12 Places 6.000 12 Places 6.000 12 Places

Left/Top Justification

Center/Middle Justification

Right/Bottom Justification

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The origin of the dimension may be changed simply by selecting it and dragging to the new position. The dimension will drag within the constraints that it was created, i.e. if Automatic Placement was used during creation, the dimension will remain centered between the arrows.

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Introduction to Drafting

In addition to the Dimension Local Preferences, there are Global Preferences governing drafting views and entities. These are the Preferences found in the Preferences pull down menu shown below.

Global Drafting Preferences

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Introduction to Drafting

Activity 5 - Creating Dimensions
In this activity, several dimensions will be created using various local settings on the Dimensions dialog. Step 1 Continue using the part ***_symbols_1. Step 2 Set the work layer to 111 (category DIMS).
-

Choose Format→Layer Settings. Choose layer 111. Choose Make Work and OK.

NOTE: It will be necessary to set Dimension local preference settings and the Global preferences to create each of the following dimensions. Step 3 Create a Horizontal dimension.
-

Choose Preferences→Annotation→Lettering. Set the Lettering Types option menu to Dimension, and the Character Size to .25. Choose OK. Choose Insert"Dimension"Horizontal. In the Horizontal dialog window choose the Annotation Editor icon.

-

-

Choose the Appended Text Below icon.

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Enter 6 EQ SPACES in text field and choose OK.

Notice that Use Appended Text was automatically toggled on.
-

Set the Precision for 2 decimal places. Set the alignment methods to Center and Middle. Set the Placement option menu to Auto Placement. Select the two centerlines as shown in the figure below. Select a cursor location to place the dimension on the drawing.

Notice the extension lines are spaced from the linear centerlines, not the arc centers. Step 4 Create a Vertical dimension.
-

Choose Insert"Dimension"Vertical.

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Toggle Use Appended Text off. Set the tolerance type to Equal Bilateral Tolerance.

Accept the default value in the Upper Tolerance field (.005).
-

Set the Precision to 3 decimal places. Select the objects shown below.

-

Place the dimension on the drawing.

Step 5 Create a Cylindrical dimension.
-

Choose Insert"Dimension"Cylindrical. Set the Precision to 1 decimal place. Set the tolerance type to No Tolerance. Select the outer edges of the cylinder to dimension as shown below.
Select this edge

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Select this edge

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Place the dimension on the drawing.

Step 6 Create a Radius NOT to Center dimension.
-

Choose Insert"Dimension"Radius. Set the Precision to 2 decimal places. Set the Placement Option to Manual Placement, Arrows Out. Select the arc and place the dimension on the drawing as shown below.

-

Step 7 Create a Hole dimension.
-

Choose Insert"Dimension"Hole. Set the Precision to 3 decimal places. Select the arc and place the dimension on the drawing as shown below.

Step 8 Choose File"Save, do not close the part.

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Annotation Editor
The Annotation Editor is used to place other information on the drawing such as notes, labels, GD&T symbols, and User Defined Symbols. Any of these symbols can be placed on the drawing with a leader or as a standalone note without a leader.

Tool Bar

Text Entry Window

Preview Window

Symbol Display and Text Preference Options

Placement Options

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As text and symbols are entered, the text and control characters appear within the Text Entry Window. In this window the formatting options available within the Tool Bar may be used to customize the appearance of the text. The preview window displays the text as it will appear when it is placed on the drawing.

The Tool Bar
The Tool Bar contains several buttons that allow various text formatting operations to be performed.
Insert from File Reset Text and Dialog Preferences

Clear

Copy

Delete Text Attribute

Preview

Save As

Cut

Paste

Select Next Symbol

Fit to Preview Window

Font

Bold

Underline

Superscript

Text Justification

Character Scale Factor

Italic

Overline

Subscript

TIP

To reveal the function of any button, hold the cursor over the icon until the name of the button appears.

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Placing the Text
Notes and labels may be placed on the drawing either with or without a leader line, depending on the placement option chosen.

Create with Leader

Create without Leader

Creating text Without a Leader
When the Create without Leader option is selected, the Origin Tool dialog box is displayed. This dialog box allows you to specify the placement and alignment method for the text.

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Creating Text with a Leader
To create text with a leader line, choose the button to display the Create Leader dialog box. This dialog box allows one or more leaders to be specified as well as the display characteristics of each leader.

Plain Plain with All Around Symbol Plain with Aligned Arrow Plain with Aligned Arrow and All Around Symbol Extension Line ASME 1994 / ISO 1983 Datum Feature ASME 1994 / ISO 1983 Datum Feature With Extension Line Options Available For ASME Y14.5M-1994 ASME 1994 / ISO 1983 Standards Datum Feature On Dimension

Text Alignment Options Top Middle Bottom

Datum on Annotation Datum on Stub

Below Bottom, Extend to maximum Below Bottom, Extend to maximum, Underline Below Bottom Below Bottom, Underline Below Top, Extend to maximum Below Top, Extend to maximum, Underline Below Top Below Top, Underline

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To create a leader, simply select the reference geometry for the leader end point, indicate up to seven intermediate leader points (if necessary), select the preferred leader type, leader side placement, and leader/text alignment. Once all selections are made for the Create Leader dialog box, choosing OK will proceed to the Place Annotation dialog box discussed earlier. Drafting objects may be created with more than one leader by selecting the New Leader button anytime during the leader creation process. The default placement method is Drag, but the Point Constructor option may be used to tie the text location to a control point, arc center, or intersection point. Text may also be aligned either horizontally or vertically with an existing drafting object using the Align Text option. The Offset Distance option may be used to indicate an origin position offset from an existing drafting object. A horizontal and vertical distance is given as multiples of the current character size when using the Offset Character option.

Editing Text
Text may be edited in a previously created note or label by selecting it from the drawing. When a note or label is selected, it is captured in the Text Entry Window so that changes may be made. When editing is completed, simply choose the Apply button to accept and display the changes on the drawing.

Editing Existing Dimension Preferences
The Annotation Preferences of existing dimensions may be edited simply by double clicking on the dimension. The Annotation Preferences dialog will appear and the following types of preferences may be edited.
D D D D

Dimension Line/Arrow Lettering Units Radial

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Activity 6 - Using the Annotation Editor
In this activity, the Annotation Editor will be used to create a label. Step 1 Continue using the part ***_symbols_1. Step 2 Make layer 101 the Work Layer.
-

In the Utility tool bar, key in 101 for the work layer.

Step 3 Create the Label Shown to define the chamfer.

-

Choose Insert→Annotation. Ensure that Drafting Symbols is selected.

-

Enter the text, as shown in the illustration above, in the text entry area using the appropriate degree symbol.

-

Choose the Text Justification button from the Control Character Area.

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Introduction to Drafting -

Choose Left Justify.

Left Justify Center Justify Right Justify -

Choose the Create with Leader option. Select the edge shown to place the arrow leader.
Select this edge

-

Choose OK to indicate that no intermediate points are required. Locate the Label in the proper location.

-

Step 4 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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SUMMARY

The Drafting Application provides for the creation of drawings. Views and dimensions that are placed on a drawing are associative to the solid model and update when changes are made to the model. In this lesson you:
D D D D D D

Modified a drawing. Added views to a drawing. Created Utility Symbols. Created Cylindrical Centerlines. Created Dimensions. Added annotation to a drawing.

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(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Lesson 11

PURPOSE

This lesson will define datum plane reference features.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D

Create a Datum Plane. Create a hole feature on a tangent datum plane. Move a hole feature location by changing a datum plane angle.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Reference Features

Reference Features
Reference features are construction tools that assist in the creation of features and sketches in locations and orientations where planar placement faces do not exist, or as associative linear objects. Reference Features are theoretically infinite in size, but the display is limited to a size slightly larger than that of the solid model. Reference Features may be created relative to an existing solid model or fixed in model space. This lesson will only discuss relative datum planes. In the case where a hole must pierce a cylinder to a certain depth from the outside of the cylinder, construction tools are necessary. These tools are needed because the hole feature requires a planar placement face for creation rather than the cylindrical face of the base solid. The amount of control desired over placement of a feature sometimes dictates the number of reference features required. Two examples below show a hole in the side of a cylinder, normal to the axis of the cylinder. The example on the right requires an additional datum plane to position the hole perpendicular to the slot.
Plane 1A Plane 3B Plane 1B

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Plane 2A

Plane 2B

parameter

Example A

Example B

In example A above, Plane 1A defines a position through the cylinder axis, while Plane 2A defines a placement plane that is tangent to the cylindrical face and perpendicular to Plane 1A. This allows the hole to be placed on the tangent datum and be relative to both the cylinder and Plane 1A. Datum Plane reference features are accessible by choosing Insert"Form Feature"Datum Plane from the menu bar while in the Modeling application.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane
The datum plane option allows a planar reference feature to be created that may be used:
D D D D D D D D D D

To define a sketch plane. To act as the planar placement face for the creation of form features (ie: hole, slot, pad, boss, pocket, etc.). As a target edge for positioning features. As a horizontal or vertical reference. For the mirror plane in Mirror Body and Mirror Feature. To act as the 'trim to' face (extruded and revolved bodies). To trim a body. In assemblies, as mating TO or FROM object. In Drafting, as a hinge line for a section or auxiliary view. To help define a relative Datum Axis.

Relative Datum Planes
Relative datum planes are constrained (associated) to other geometric objects. A constraint is a restriction on a datum that positions it relative to some existing plane, face, or feature. Many constraint combinations can be used to create relative datum planes.

Creating Datum Planes by Inferred Selection
Relative datum planes are created by selecting an existing object. The constraint type is determined (inferred) by the objects selected. Generally, whatever is necessary to describe the relationship of the plane to other objects determines the constraint type(s) to be used. One, two, or three constraints may be necessary. Simply selecting the objects will present the applicable constraint types.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

11

A Single Constraint associates the datum plane to the target solid using either one of the following creation methods:
D D

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Offset From Face or Datum Plane (Select a face or Datum Plane) Through Face Axis (Select cylinder, cone or revolved feature)

Using Dual Constraints means that the constraints must be specified in pairs to create the datum plane. The possible combinations of selections are shown on the next page. The Triple Constraint method is inferred by selecting three points on a single solid body. The Datum Plane is associative to the body and constrained to the selected points. Only Endpoints and Midpoints on linear edges are selectable.

Datum Plane User Interface
Most of the datum planes created in this course can be created with the Static Datum Plane Dynamic Input Field by inferred methods.

The Datum Plane Dialog may be used to create datum planes that are more specific than those you can create with the Inferred method.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

First Constraint (selection) Offset From Face

Second Constraint (selection) Offset From Face (Center Plane) Through Edge Through Datum Axis Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis Parallel to Face/Datum Plane Tangent to Face Tangent/Normal/Binormal to a Curve/Edge Through Point Through Edge Through Datum Axis Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis Angle to Face/Datum Plane Through Point Through Edge Through Datum Axis Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis Angle to Face/Datum Plane Through Point Through Edge Normal to Edge Normal to Datum Axis Through Datum Axis Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis Angle to Face/Datum Plane Through Edge Through Datum Axis Through Point Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis Tangent to Face Through Point Angle to Face/Datum Plane (Angle is 0, 90) 0 Tangent to Face Through Point

Through Point

Through Edge

Through Datum Axis

Through Cyl/Con/Rev Face Axis

Angle to Face/Datum Plane Angle is 0 Angle is 0 or 90 Tangent to Face Through Curve

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Dual Constraints

Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Types
The following is a list of the datum planes that will be covered in this lesson:
D D D D D D

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Offset Center Angle Tangent Through Control Points Point and Direction

Offset Datum Plane
To create an offset datum plane
D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the face to offset from. Do one of the following:
D

Choose OK to accept a value of 0 (zero). Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK. Select the base of the normal, drag the datum plane to the desired location and choose OK.

D D

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To create a center datum plane

D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select two parallel faces or datum planes. Choose OK.

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Center Datum Plane

Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Through Cylindrical Axis
To create a datum plane through a cylindrical axis:

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D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the cylindrical axis symbol. Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

To create a datum plane at an angle through a cylindrical axis, an additional datum plane must be created.

D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the cylindrical axis symbol. Choose OK. Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the cylindrical axis symbol. Select the previously created datum plane. Do one of the following:
D D D

D D D D

Choose OK to accept the default value of 90. Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK. Select the rotation drag handle and drag the datum plane to the desired location and choose OK.

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Datum Plane at an Angle Through a Cylindrical Axis

Datum Plane Reference Features

11

Datum Plane at an Angle to a Face or Datum Plane Through an Edge
To create a datum plane at an angle through an edge, do the following:

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D D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the edge that the datum plane is to pass through. Select the planar face or datum plane that the angle will reference. Do one of the following:
D D

Key in a value, press Enter, and choose OK. Select the rotation drag handle and drag the datum plane to the desired angle and choose OK.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

To create a datum plane tangent to a cylindrical face, an additional datum plane must be created.

D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the cylindrical axis symbol. Choose OK. Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the cylindrical face (not on the axis). Select the previously created datum plane. Choose Alternate Solution from the Datum Plane toolbar until the correct tangent datum plane is previewed.

D D D D

D

Choose OK.

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Datum Plane Tangent to a Cylindrical Face

Datum Plane Reference Features

Datum Plane Through Three Points
To create a datum plane through 3 points, do the following:

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D D D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon. Select the control points as desired (edges or curves). Tab through and set the U Parameter as required. Choose OK.

NOTE: The U Parameter is a value that indicates a position along a theoretical infinite curve. Values between 0 (zero) and 1 define locations on the selected edge or curve. Values less than 0 (zero) or greater than 1 may also be used.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

To create a datum plane defined by a point and direction, do the following: Choose the Datum Plane icon. Choose Datum Plane from the Datum Plane toolbar.

D D

D D D

Choose Point & Direction. Select a point through which the datum plane should pass. Define the normal of the datum plane using Inferred Vector or Vector Constructor.

D

Choose OK twice.

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Datum Plane Defined by Point and Direction

Datum Plane Reference Features

Activity 1 - Creating Relative Datum Planes
In this activity, three relative datum planes will be created. The datum planes created are shown below.
Datum plane 1 Datum plane 2

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Datum plane 3

Step 1 Open the part pau_ref_1.

Step 2 Choose Modeling. Step 3 Create a Datum Plane Offset at a distance of 1 inch above the upper face of the block.
-

Choose Datum Plane. Select the top face of the block and confirm the selection if necessary.
Pick this top face.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

-

Key in 1 and press Enter.

-

Choose OK.
Datum plane

Datum planes have infinite bounds even though they are displayed with visible boundaries. Step 4 Create a second datum plane through three points. The second datum plane will be created diagonally through the block.

-

Choose Datum Plane.

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The top face highlights and a direction vector points normal to the face, in this case, the positive ZC direction. The vector displays the positive offset direction.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

11

Select the first point and confirm any of the edges. Any of the edges are acceptable because they share the end point.

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First Point

Third Point Second Point -

Carefully select each of the two midpoints.

-

Choose OK.

The datum plane is created and positioned through the three selected points. The relationship of this datum plane through the points will remain if the block parameters are changed.

Step 5 Create the third datum plane midway between the left and right faces.

-

Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Plane Reference Features -

Right Face -

Select the left planar face.

Left Face

-

Choose OK.

The datum plane is created and located at the center of the part and is parallel to the faces selected.

Step 6 Edit the block to verify the parametric relationship of the datum planes to the block.
-

Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters.

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Select the right planar face.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

Select BLOCK(6) and choose OK. Choose Feature Dialog. Change the Block Dimensions values to: X Length = Y Length = Z Length = 2 2 5

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-

Choose OK.

The revised values are displayed in the graphics area. Again a dialog box displays options to edit the feature. The feature may still be modified without updating the model.
-

Choose OK in the dialog box.

If there were more features that needed to be edited, those features could be selected at this time. In this case, there are no more edits desired.
-

Choose OK in the Edit Parameters dialog box to complete the change.

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Datum Plane Reference Features -

Notice that the constraints applied to the datum planes at the time of creation continue to control the positioning of the datum planes after the block is edited. Step 7 Close the part, do not save.

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Fit the view.

Datum Plane Reference Features

Selecting and Using Datums
Selecting Datum Planes - When selecting a datum plane in the graphics area, one of its displayed boundaries must be selected. Creating Features using Datum Planes - Form Features created using datum planes for the planar placement face are created normal to the datum plane. These features are positioned in the center of the datum plane as a default if no positioning dimensions are specified. When a datum plane is selected for the planar placement face, the system will display a direction vector showing the side of the datum plane on which the feature will be created. The side shown can be accepted by selecting the Accept Default Side option. If it is desired that the feature be created in the opposite direction of the default vector, the Flip the Default Side option must be selected.

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Editing Datum Planes
Datum planes may be edited three different ways:
D

Select the datum plane, and with the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and choose Edit Parameters. Double click on a datum plane. Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters and select the datum plane.

D D

Deleting Datum Planes
D D

Use Edit→ Feature→Delete Select the datum plane. With the cursor over the selection click MB3 and choose Delete from the pop up menu.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

This activity will demonstrate the creation of relative datum planes as they apply to a cylindrical face. Step 1 Open the part pau_ref_2. Step 2 Save the part as ***_ref_2 where *** represent your initials.

A hole is required through the cylindrical face at the bottom of the part, centered in the feature. Relative reference features are required to accomplish this task.

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Activity 2 - Cylindrical Faces and Datum Planes

Datum Plane Reference Features

Step 3 Start the Modeling Application.

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11-22

Step 4 Choose Datum Plane. Step 5 Create a Datum Plane through the feature axis, at an angle to the existing plane of 90 degrees.
-

Move the cursor over the outside cylindrical face of the feature at the bottom of the part. Select the cylindrical axis symbol.

-

Select the existing Datum Plane.

-

Choose OK

to accept the default value of 90.

Step 6 Create a datum plane tangent to the outside of the same cylindrical face to use as a placement face for the hole feature. Choose Datum Plane.

-

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Datum Plane Reference Features -

Select the cylindrical face of the feature at the bottom of the part.

-

Choose Alternate Solution until the new tangent datum plane is in the orientation shown below.

-

Choose OK.

Step 7 Create a center datum plane.

-

Choose Datum Plane.

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Select the original Datum Plane.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

Select the two faces shaded below.

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-

Choose OK.

Step 8 Create a hole feature. Choose Hole. Choose Simple. Specify a diameter of 10. Select the tangent datum plane as the placement face. Ensure that the direction arrow is pointing into the part. Choose the cylindrical face of the hole through the center of the bottom of the part as the thru face.

-

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Datum Plane Reference Features -

Location Datum Placement Datum

Thru Face

Location Datum

-

Use Point onto Line positioning to locate the hole centered on the two datum planes shown above.

Step 9 Move the datum planes to another layer.
-

Choose Format"Move to Layer. Select all the datum planes. Choose OK. Key in 62 and choose OK.

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Choose OK.

Datum Plane Reference Features

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The newly created hole will remain centered in the part due to its relationship with the datum planes that are constrained to the solid body.

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Step 10 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

In this activity, a relative datum plane will be created, which is to be used as a placement plane for a hole at an angle to, and through a block. Design Intent Create a simple hole that will have its angle parametrically controlled.

Step 1 Choose File"Recently Opened Parts and select the part pau_ref_1. Recently Opened Parts allows switching back and forth between parts opened recently, in the current Unigraphics session or previous sessions. The Recently Opened Parts list may contain up to ten parts. Step 2 Create a datum plane through an edge and at an angle to a face/plane.
-

Choose Modeling.

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Activity 3 - Feature on a Relative Datum Plane

Datum Plane Reference Features

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11-28

-

Choose Datum Plane. Select the right edge (not the mid point) and confirm the selection if necessary.
Edge

-

Select the top face, and confirm the selection if necessary.
Face

-

In the Angle Dynamic Input Field, key in 20 and press Enter. Choose OK.

-

A datum plane is created at a 20 degree angle from the top of the block and passes through the selected edge.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

Now a Simple Thru Hole will be created using the datum plane. The hole will be normal to the datum plane, but will pass through the block at an angle because the datum plane is angled to the block.

-

Choose Hole. Choose Simple for the hole type. Key in .5 for the diameter. Select the boundary of the newly created datum plane for the placement face. Select the bottom face of the block as the Thru Face.

-

Bottom Face

-

Choose OK.

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Step 3 Create the hole perpendicular to the datum plane.

Datum Plane Reference Features

11

Features are initially positioned in the center of the datum plane. If no other positioning dimensions are specified, the hole will stay in this position. In this case the hole will be positioned to the front and right edge of the model.

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The Perpendicular icon dimension.
-

is already selected for the first positioning

Select the edge of the block shown as the target edge.

Select Edge

-

Key in -.75 as the positional expression value.

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Select edge

-

Accept the value of 2.0 by choosing OK.

The hole is positioned to the newly constrained location.

Step 4 Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.
-

Double click on the datum plane. Change the angle from 20 degrees to 75 degrees.

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Select the edge of the block shown as the target edge.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

Choose OK.

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11-32

-

Try 80 and 90 degrees. Can you explain the results?

Step 5 Close the part, do not save.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

In this activity, you will create a relative datum plane using the Point and Direction option. The intent is to create a hole feature that goes through one corner of a block and comes out the opposite corner and maintains associativity.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_seedpart_mm and save it as ***_hole_corners, where *** represent your initials.

Step 2 Choose Modeling. Step 3 Create a block that is 200 x 100 x 100 on layer 1. Step 4 Change the work layer to layer 61. Step 5 Create a datum plane with the point and direction method.

-

Choose Datum Plane. Choose Datum Plane Dialog from the toolbar.

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Activity 4 - Creating a Hole Corner to Corner

Datum Plane Reference Features

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11-34

-

Choose Point and Direction. Select the end point as shown to define a point on the datum plane.

Select this end point.

-

Change the Inferred Vector to Vector Constructor.

-

Set the Vector Method to Two Points.

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Datum Plane Reference Features Select this end point.

Select this end point.

-

Choose OK twice.

Step 6 Create a simple hole perpendicular to the datum plane, through the block.

-

Choose Hole. Choose Simple for the hole type. Key in a diameter value of 25.

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Select the end points shown below.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

Select the datum plane as the placement face.

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Thru Face

Placement Face

-

If the hole is not going into the block, choose Reverse Side. Select the far side of the block as the thru face and choose OK. Choose Point onto Point as the positioning dimension.

-

Point to Point

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Datum Plane Reference Features -

Select this end point

-

Change the work layer to 1 and make layer 61 invisible.

Step 7 Modify the size of the block.
-

Select the block. With the cursor on the block, click MB3.

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Select the end point as shown.

Datum Plane Reference Features -

Choose Edit Parameters.

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-

Click on p2=100.000. Key in 400. Choose OK twice. Fit the view and note the associativity of the features.

Step 8 Save and close the part.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

SUMMARY

Datum planes are reference features that are used as construction tools to assist in the creation of features and sketches in locations and orientations where planar placement faces do not exist. Reference Features are theoretically infinite in size, but the display is limited to a size slightly larger than that of the solid model. In this lesson you:
D D D

Created associative datum planes. Created a hole feature from an associative datum plane. Created an associative datum plane by defining a point and direction.

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Datum Plane Reference Features

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Reference Feature
Lesson 12

PURPOSE datum axis.

This lesson will define another type of reference feature, the

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D

Create a Datum Axis. Locate a hole feature using a datum axis.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis
This option allows a linear reference feature to be created that may be used as a(n):
D D D D D

Axis of rotation for revolved features. Axis of rotation for circular arrays. Pivot axis for datum planes. Directional reference. Dimensional reference for feature position.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

User Interface
When you first open the Datum Axis option, the Datum Axis static toolbar displays in the upper left corner of the graphics window. The static toolbar uses the Inferred method to let you quickly create a datum axis based on your object and constraint selections.

The main Datum Axis dialog is used to create datum axes that are more complex than those you can create with the Inferred method. To open the main Datum Axis dialog, click its icon on the Datum Axis Static toolbar.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Relative Datum Axis
The four relative datum axis methods that will be covered in this lesson are:
D D D D

Through Two Points Through Edge Through Cylindrical, Conical or Revolved Face Axis Intersection of Two Faces/Datum Planes

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The important function of these Reference Features is that they are associative to existing geometry.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through Two Points
To create a datum axis through 2 points, do the following:

D D D

Choose the Datum Axis icon. Select the control points as desired (edges or curves). Tab through and set the U Parameter as required. Choose OK.

D

NOTE: The U Parameter is a value that indicates a position along a theoretical infinite curve. Values between 0 (zero) and 1 define locations on the selected edge or curve. Values less than 0 (zero) or greater than 1 may also be used.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through an Edge or Curve
To create a datum axis through an edge or curve, do the following:

D D

Choose the Datum Axis icon. Select the edge or curve. Choose OK.

12

D

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through a Cylindrical face
To create a datum axis through a cylindrical face, do the following:

D D

Choose the Datum Axis icon. Select the face. Choose OK.

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D

Datum Axis Reference Feature

Datum Axis Through the Intersection of two Faces
To create a datum axis through the intersection of two faces, do the following: Choose the Datum Axis icon. Select the faces. Choose OK.

D D

D

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12 TIP
There is no option to create a datum plane at the intersection of two faces/planes from the datum plane dialog box. This requires creation of an associative linear reference feature (datum axis) at the desired intersection to serve as the pivot position. A datum plane may then be created through the axis using whatever other constraint that applies.
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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Editing Datum Axes
To edit datum axes parameters, use any of the following methods:
D

Select a datum axis, and with the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and choose Edit Parameters. Double-click a datum axis in the graphics window. Use Edit→Feature→Parameters.

D D

Deleting Datum Axes
D D

Use Edit→ Feature→Delete Select a datum axis. With the cursor over the selection, click MB3 and choose Delete.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Activity 1 - Constraining Locations using Datums
In this activity, a datum axis and datum planes will be added to constrain the pivot location of a hole feature. Design Intent A 0.5 inch diameter hole is to be located in a block. The origin of the hole will be on the top face and located from the right face. The hole is to remain centered in the block along the YC axis. The angle of the hole shall be editable in a plane parallel to the front face.

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ZC YC XC

A/2 A

Step 1 Open the part file.
-

Choose File→Recently Opened Parts. Select pau_ref_1.

-

Choose Modeling.

Step 2 Create the Reference Features.
-

Change the work layer to 61.

-

Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature -

Select the right face on the block as shown.

ZC YC XC

Right Face -

In the Offset Dynamic Input Field key in -2 and press Enter. Choose OK. Choose Datum Plane. Select the back face of the block as shown and confirm.
Back Face

-

-

ZC YC XC

Front Face

-

Select the front face of the block as shown and confirm. Choose OK.

-

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

A center datum plane is created.

-

Choose Datum Axis. Select the top face as shown below. Select the datum plane as shown below.

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ZC YC XC

Top Face

Datum Plane

-

Choose OK.

A datum axis is created at the intersection of the top of the block and the associative datum plane.

-

Choose Datum Plane.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature -

Select the right face of the block as shown.

ZC YC XC

Right Face -

Select the Datum Axis. In the Angle Dynamic Input Field key in 45 and press Enter. Choose OK.

-

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

-

Choose Datum Plane. Select the newly created datum plane. In the Offset Dynamic Input Field key in 1 and press Enter. Choose OK. Fit the view.

-

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Step 3 Create a Thru Hole.
-

Choose Hole.

-

Choose the Simple icon.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature -

Enter .5 for the Diameter. Select the edge of the datum plane as shown.

The tool solid for the hole appears in the display.

Datum Plane

ZC YC XC

Bottom Face

-

Select the bottom face of the block as the Thru Face, confirm and choose OK.

-

Choose Point onto Line. Select the datum axis as the target edge.

A positioning dimension appears in the graphics area with a value of 0.

-

Choose the Point onto Line.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature -

Select the center datum plane as shown and choose OK.

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12-16

ZC YC XC

Select this Datum Plane

The hole is located. The hole will always remain on the datum axis and stay centered in the block.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Step 4 Modify the angle parameter of the datum plane.
-

Double click on the datum plane indicated below.

ZC YC XC

-

Change the angle from 45 degrees to 20 degrees. Choose OK.

The angle of the hole changes, but the point of entry remains the same.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Step 5 Change the Location of the Datum Axis.
-

Double click on the datum plane indicated below.

ZC YC XC

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-

Change the Offset from -2 to -3 and choose OK.

ZC YC XC

Step 6 Choose File"Close"All Parts. Do not save the part file.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

Activity 2 - Relative Datum Axes
This activity will demonstrate the difference in positional associativity between Point Direction and Datum Axis when either is used to define the rotation axis of an instance array. Step 1 Open the part pau_datumaxis_1 and start the Modeling application.

Step 2 Investigate the model.
-

Use the third mouse button pop up menu to change the Display Mode to Wireframe. Choose Format"Layer Settings and make the display of ALL layers Selectable.

-

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

The model contains two identical hole patterns. The central hole in each pattern is located associatively to the relative datum planes in the part. The hole pattern on the left in the graphic was created by specifying a point in space and a vector to revolve the pattern about. The pattern on the right was created by specifying the relative datum axis to revolve the pattern about.

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Step 3 Modify the model.
-

Choose Edit"Feature"Parameters from the main menu bar. Select the BLOCK(0) feature and choose OK. Choose the Feature Dialog button. Change the X Length to 5 and press Tab. Change the Y Length to 10 and choose OK. Choose OK to dismiss the feature Edit Parameters dialog box.

-

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Datum Axis Reference Feature -

Choose OK to update the model.

The model updates to reflect the change. Notice that the hole pattern on the left does not update as expected. This is due to this hole pattern being created with a non associative reference point and direction vector.

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Datum Axis Reference Feature

The left hole pattern maintained its relationship to the objects used to define it, but the non associative specified point in space does not change. The hole pattern on the right that depends on the relative datum axis to define the rotation point and vector updates as expected.

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Step 4 Choose File"Close"All Parts. Do not save the part file.
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Datum Axis Reference Feature

SUMMARY

In this lesson you:
D D

Created a Datum Axis. Positioned features using a Datum Axis.

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A Datum Axis is a linear reference feature that is used as an aid in the construction of other features.

Datum Axis Reference Feature

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Sketching

Sketching
Lesson 13

PURPOSE

To introduce the method of creating a sketch and free hand sketching of curves.

OBJECTIVES
D D D D D D

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:

Create a sketch. Create sketch curves. Apply dimensional constraints to sketches. Apply geometric constraints to sketches. Identify constraints. Convert a sketch curve to reference.

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Sketching

What is a sketch?
A sketch is a feature that is intended to contain a collection of two dimensional curves. Using a set of rules applied by the user, a sketch parametrically controls the two dimensional profile. These rules, called constraints, constitute the essence of constraint based modeling, a very powerful portion of Unigraphics solid modeling. Profiles may be used to produce extruded or revolved features, or to define sections for free form features such as a swept feature or a through curves lofted surface. A profile may contain some, all, or none of the constraints required to fully capture the design intent. Dimensional and geometric constraints may be used to establish a design intent as well as provide the ability to perform parameter driven changes. Geometric relations may be established between the curves within a profile as well as with curves in other profiles and model geometry such as edges or datums.

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Sketching

Why sketch?
Sketched profiles possess a higher level of control over features, thus automating the propagation of changes. The most obvious reason for sketching is when a design intent is well known and constraints can be quickly applied to capture that intent. Another reason is when there is a need to iterate through a number of various solutions to validate a certain design intent. Once a sketch is placed on a face or datum plane, it will automatically move when the position of the placement face/datum is changed. Since sketches do not require constraining, this approach is the quickest way to build features and still have a sufficient level of associativity. The inherent ability to solve a sketch in real time means that, as rules are applied, the sketch objects change and move to reflect the effect that the assigned rule has on the geometry. This gives the user the ability to quickly change profiles of features created using sketch curves.

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Sketching

When should a sketch be used?
Unigraphics users should sketch whenever they have a need for parametrically controlled curves. Most features of solid models can be created using combinations of form features. The Unigraphics sketcher gives the user the ability to sketch shapes that are not available as standard form features. This could be accomplished with explicit curves, but there would be no parametric control over the shape. The user might also consider sketching when a combination of features used to create the desired shape makes the shape difficult to edit.

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Sketching

When there is a commonly used shape that varies in size from part to part, a sketch as part of a user defined feature should be considered.

Sketches may be used as base features of a model if the shape lends itself to extruded or revolved geometry.

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Sketching

Sketches may be used in a number of different ways. Consider them for guide paths for swept features, or as section curves for free form features.

The added advantage of being able to quickly and easily change the geometry based on rules that the designer applies should be a large part of the determination of when to sketch.

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An important aspect of modeling that helps the user decide when to use a sketch is defining the design intent of the model. The design intent consists of two items:
D

Design Considerations - The geometric requirements on the actual part, including engineering and design rules that determine the detail configuration of the part. Potential Areas for Change - Known design changes or iterations, and their effects on the part configuration.

D

As a general rule, the more design considerations and potential areas for change, the more likely there are benefits from sketching.

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Sketching

Sketches and the Model Navigator
Since sketches are features of the solid model, they are listed in the Model Navigator and any edits supported by the Model Navigator that are germane to sketches are available.

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Sketching

Sketches and Layers
Organizing part files is a very important part of modeling. The sketcher helps in this endeavor by automating layer control as sketches are activated and deactivated. This automated layer management is designed to ensure that the user does not accidentally construct objects in the active sketch across multiple layers. Unigraphics assigns the current work layer at creation to the sketch. As the user subsequently activates the sketch, the work layer is set to the layer assigned to the sketch.

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Sketching

Creating a New Sketch
Choosing the Sketch icon starts the sketch function.

The Sketch Plane
The first thing that needs to be defined is the plane that the sketch curves will be placed on. But, before this can be done you must consider the state of the model. Since our goal is to develop a parametric model, all of the features need to be associative. Is the sketch going to define the base feature or has a base feature already been created? The tool bar shown below is used to define the sketch plane.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 Sketch Plane 2 XC-YC Plane 3 YC-ZC Plane 4 XC-ZC Plane

5 Datum Plane 6 Datum CSYS 7 OK 8 Cancel

Sketch to Define the Base Feature
If the sketch is going to define the base feature then you may define the plane of the sketch by choosing one of the following:
D D D D

XC-YC Plane ZC-YC Plane ZC-XC Plane Datum CSYS

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Sketching

After the plane is chosen the plane is highlighted in the graphic window. You to accept and enter the sketcher function. The sketch then chose OK plane is then oriented normal to the graphics screen.

Sketch Associative to Existing Base Feature
If a base feature already exists, then you will define the sketch plane on a planar face or a datum plane of the base feature. The datum plane may already exist or may be created on the fly. If you are choosing a face or an existing datum plane: Choose the Sketch Plane icon. Select the face or datum plane. Define the horizontal or vertical reference Choose OK.

D D D

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D

If you are defining a datum plane on the fly:

D D

Choose the Datum Plane icon Select the required objects to define the datum plane. Choose OK. Define the horizontal or vertical reference Choose OK.

D D

D

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Sketching

Defining the Reference Direction
The reference direction is used to specify the horizontal direction on the sketch plane. There are times when no linear object is pointing in the desired horizontal direction. At these times a vertical reference may be defined, because vertical is by definition ninety degrees from horizontal; the system is able to interpret where the desired horizontal direction is when using a vertical reference.

Desired Horizontal Direction

YC ZC XC

Vertical Reference Planar Placement Face

The direction of an axis may be changed as follows:
D D

To flip the direction of an axis, double click on it. To specify a new direction, select the axis to redirect then select a straight edge. The straight edge is projected to the sketch plane to define the new direction.

In addition, the normal of the sketch plane may be changed by double clicking on the ZC axis. This only applies when the sketch plane is being defined by a datum plane.

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Resultant Sketch Orientation

Sketching

Naming a Sketch
The system requires a unique name for each sketch, and therefore will select the next available sketch name in the queue as the default. The system default from Unigraphics is SKETCH_###" where the pound signs are replaced by the next available number counting up from 000 (SKETCH_000, SKETCH_001, etc.). A sketch name may be defined during or after the sketch has been created by clicking on the default sketch name and then typing in the new name.

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The sketch can also be renamed by:
D D

Choosing Task→Sketch Properties Using the Model Navigator

TIP

It is highly recommended that sketches be named in a descriptive manner rather than accepting the default. This allows downstream users to understand the function of the sketch at a glance.

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Sketching

The Active Sketch
In any given part there may be numerous sketches of different features at different orientations. When using the sketcher, only one sketch may be worked on at a time. This sketch is called the active sketch. Curves created while a sketch is active become associated with the active sketch. When returning to a sketch to add to or modify a profile, the sketch must be activated. There are three ways to activate a sketch:
D D D

Double clicking on a sketch curve. In the Model Navigator double click on the sketch feature node. Select the Sketch icon and from the Sketch Name pull down, select the desired sketch.

There are two ways to deactivate an active sketch as follows:

D

Choose Task→Finish.

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D

Select the Finish icon.

Sketching

Sketch Creation Steps
Sketch for a Base Feature
D

Set the work layer for the sketch. Choose the Sketch icon. Define the sketch plane by one of the following.
D D D D

D D

XC-YC Plane ZC-YC Plane ZC-XC Plane Datum CSYS

D

Name the sketch. Choose OK.

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D

Sketch on an Existing Face or Datum Plane
D

Choose the Sketch icon. Choose the Sketch Plane icon. Select the face or datum plane. Define the horizontal or vertical reference Name the sketch. Choose OK.

D D D D

D

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Sketching

Activity 1 - Sketch Creation
In this activity you will practice the creation of a sketch for a base feature, a sketch that is to be defined on an existing face and a sketch where the datum plane is created on the fly. Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and start the modeling application. Step 2 Create a sketch for a base feature.
-

Make layer 21 the work layer. Choose Sketch. Choose the YC-ZC Plane. Click on the sketch name, key in base and press Enter. Choose OK.

-

-

-

The sketch is created. Unigraphics created a fixed Datum Plane on the specified sketch plane and two fixed Datum Axes along its major axes to support the new sketch. Notice the WCS. The system has manipulated it so that XC is parallel to the horizontal direction and YC is vertical.
-

Choose Finish.

Step 3 Close the part do not save. Step 4 Open pau_skt_creation and start the modeling application. Step 5 Create a sketch on an existing face.
-

Make layer 21 the work layer.

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Sketching

-

Choose Sketch.

The Sketch Plane
-

icon is already selected. Select the Face shown below.

Select this face.

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13-16

Horizontal Reference

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X Axis is active (highlighted).
-

Select the horizontal reference at the location shown above. Click on the sketch name, key in skt1 and press Enter.

-

Choose OK.

Step 6 Create a curve on the sketch plane.

-

Choose Line.

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Sketching -

Create the line as shown below.

Click here . . .

then

Click here.

-

Choose Finish.

-

Choose Tools"Expression. Select the expression, Change_Me=1, and change the value to 3.5. Choose OK. Rotate the part and notice how the line remained associative to the face.

-

Step 8 Create a sketch on a datum plane.
-

Replace the view with the TFR TRI view. Make layer 22 the work layer, layer 21 invisible, and layer 1 selectable. Choose Sketch.

-

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Step 7 Change the orientation of the face that defines the sketch plane.

Sketching

-

Choose Datum Plane. Select the 2 shaded faces shown below.

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13-18

-

Choose OK.

A center datum plane is created.

The 2D sketch plane indicator appears and the X Axis is active (highlighted).

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Sketching -

Select the horizontal reference at the location shown below.

Horizontal Reference -

Click on the sketch name, key in skt2 and press Enter.

-

Choose OK.

-

Choose Finish.

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Sketching

Step 9 Activate existing sketches. This step will demonstrate 2 ways of activating existing sketches.
-

Make layer 21 selectable. Double click on the sketch curve (1) shown below.
1

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-

Fit the view (MB3).

Sketch SKT1 is activated and oriented in the graphic window.

-

Choose Finish.

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Sketching

-

Choose Sketch. Choose SKT2 from the sketch name pull down.

Sketch SKT2 is activated and oriented in the graphic window.

-

Choose Finish.

Step 10 Close the part, do not save.

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Sketching

Sketch Curve Creation
Sketch curves are created via the Sketch Curve tool bar. As curves are created geometric constraints are assigned to the curves relative to the Infer Constraint Settings.

Sketch Curve Tool Bar
Profile Line Arc

Circle

Infer Constraints Setting Dialog
Vertical Midpoint Horizontal Perpendicular Tangent Parallel

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Collinear

Coincident

Point on Curve

Equal Radius

Point on String

Concentric

Equal Length

As you create the curves a symbol will appear near the curve being created to represent the constraint that will be applied, if any.

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Sketching

Locking a Constraint
When a constraint symbol appears during curve creation you may lock in that constraint by pressing MB2. For example, you are creating a line and the parallel symbol appears, you press MB2. Now as you move the cursor, the new line that is rubber banding, is doing so parallel to the reference curve.

Snap Angle
The snap angle is a global preference set in the Sketch Preferences dialog box that is applied any time curves are being created. It is used to snap" a line to horizontal or vertical. When creating lines outside of the sketcher, snap angle is only applied when using inferred cursor location. The default snap angle is set to 3° and is user definable between 0° and 20°. This angular tolerance is defined on either side of horizontal or vertical from the first specified location, effectively creating a 6° tolerance zone by default.

Snap Angle

The Infer Point Tool Bar
The Infer Point tool bar is displayed when creating most of the curve types in the sketcher, so that you have more control over the selection of locations.

When the Infer Point toolbar is active, regardless of the point types turned on, Cursor Location is always available.

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Sketching

Alignment Lines While Creating Curves
In the process of creating a curve, if you are horizontally or vertically opposite a control point, the system will display an alignment line.
New curve being created.

Existing Curve

Alignment Lines

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Profile Tool
The Profile tool allows creation of a string of lines and arcs, without having to specify a start for each curve after the first curve is created. Profile is accessed by choosing the Profile icon on the Sketch Curve tool bar.

The icons at the upper left corner of the graphics screen allow you to switch between lines and arcs, and allow you to switch between entering X-Y locations and entering parameters.
Line Arc

XY

Parameters

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Sketching

The default settings are:
D D

Line creation X-Y location

Once you have created the first curve (line or arc), the system will revert to creating a line. You can change this any time you wish. You can also switch to arc creation by using press-drag-release with MB1. The circle-X" symbol controls the direction in which the arc will be created.

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Sketching

If the desired arc is in the wrong direction, re-cross the end of the line (with the cursor), and exit in a different quadrant of the symbol.
Circle-X Symbol Arc originating from top quadrant

Arc originating from Left quadrant

Arc originating from right quadrant

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Arc originating from bottom quadrant

As you are creating curves with the profile tool, the string mode can be broken by clicking MB2.

Creating Lines

Line creation is accessed by choosing the Line icon tool bar.

on the Sketch Curve

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Sketching

Once in line creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen give you two options: Location (by cursor location or entering an X-Y location), and entering parameters.

There are several combinations of methods for creating a line:
D D D D

Locate the start, and then locate the end. Locate the start, and then enter the length and angle parameters. Locate the start, enter one parameter, and then locate the end. Enter the parameters and then locate the start.

Once you indicate a start location, the system will switch to the Parameters mode. But you can still give an end location without changing back to XY.

Arc creation is accessed by choosing the Arc icon tool bar.

on the Sketch Curve

Once in arc creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen give you two sets of options. The first is creation method, and the second is for the XY-Location/Parameters choice.

For Arc by 3 Points: creating the arc:
D D D

there are several combinations of methods for

Locate the start, locate the end, and then locate a point on the arc. Locate the start, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the end point and then determine which of the 4 options you wish to create. The same as the previous, but enter the radius value after locating the end point, but before the point on arc.

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Creating Arcs

Sketching

For Arc by Center and End Points: methods for creating the arc:
D D D

there are also several combinations of

Locate the center, locate the start point, and locate the end point. (The start point location determines the radius.) Locate the center, locate the start point, enter a radius value and press Enter, locate the end point. Locate the center, enter radius and sweep angle values and press Enter, locate the start of the sweep, and locate the direction for the sweep.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to the Enter Parameters mode. But you can still give a location without changing back to XY.

Creating Circles
Circle creation is accessed by choosing the Circle icon Curve tool bar. on the Sketch

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Once in circle creation, the icons in the upper left corner of the graphics screen give you two sets of options. The first is creation method, and the second is for the location/parameters choice.

For Circle by Center and Radius: circles:
D D

there are several methods for creating

Locate the center, and then locate a point on the circumference of the circle. Locate the center, enter a radius, and press Enter. The circle is created. You are then in multiple circle creation mode - just indicate another location for a circle center. Locate the center, drag the radius until you get the size you want. Press Enter. The circle is created, and you are in multiple circle creation mode. Indicate another center.

D

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Sketching

For Circle by 3 Points:
D D

there are also two methods for creating the circle:

Locate three points on the circumference of the circle. Locate two points on the circumference of the circle, enter a radius value and press Enter, then choose which of the two options you want by cursor location.

Once you indicate a first location, the system will switch to the enter Parameters mode. But you can still give a location without changing back to XY.

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Sketching

Activity 2- Using the Sketch Profile Tool
Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and save it as ***_skt_profile_1 where *** represent your initials. Step 2 Change the Work Layer to 21. Step 3 Create a sketch on the XC-YC plane.

-

Start the Modeling application.

-

Choose the Sketch icon.

-

Choose OK

to accept the XC-YC Plane.

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Step 4 Set the Infer Constraints Setting. You are going to set the Infer Constraints Setting to make available only the constraints that you may want to apply during curve creation.

-

Choose Infer Constraints Settings.

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Sketching -

Set the dialog as shown below.

-

Choose OK.

Step 5 Create a Profile. In this step you will create the sketch curves shown below using the Profile tool.

-

Choose the Profile tool the graphics window.

and then move the cursor into

-

Key in -4 for the XC value and press Tab.

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Sketching -

Key in -2 for the YC value and press Enter. Move the cursor so that the rubber banding line snaps to the horizontal orientation as shown below.
Horizontal Symbol

Notice the horizontal symbol indicating the constraint that is going to be applied to the line.
-

Press MB2 to lock in the horizontal constraint.

Now notice that as you move the cursor around the rubber banding line remains horizontal.
-

Move the cursor to a position that defines a Length of approximately 3 inches and click MB1.

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-

Next, you are going to create the first arc. Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor straight up from the end point of the last line and then release.

You are now in arc creation mode. Create the arc by indicating a location with MB1 as shown below. Notice the alignment line that aligns the center point and end points.

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Sketching -

Create a horizontal line approximately 2 inches long by indicating the end point with MB1.

Next you will create another arc just like the first one, but you will use a different method.
-

Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor up and to the right from the end point of the last line and then release.

-

Key in .5 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times. Key in 180 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the graphic window to apply. Create a horizontal line approximately 1 inch long by indicating the end point with MB1.

-

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Sketching -

Create the line as shown below.

-

Start the creation of an arc in the orientation shown below by holding MB1 down, drag and release.

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-

Key in 1.875 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times. Key in 145 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the graphic window to apply.

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Sketching -

With MB1 indicate a cursor location, as shown below, so that horizontal and tangent constraints will be applied to the line. The line should also be approximately 2 inches long.

-

Start the creation of an arc in the orientation shown below by holding MB1 down, drag and release.

-

Key in 1.5 for the Radius and press Tab 2 times. Key in 90 for the Sweep Angle and press Enter. Click in the graphic window to apply.

The next line to be created is to have a perpendicular constraint relative to the 35° angle line.

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Sketching -

Move the cursor over the line indicated below.

Move the cursor over this line.

-

With MB1 indicate a cursor location as shown below. Note the alignment lines and the perpendicular constraint symbol.

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Sketching -

Create a horizontal line approximately 1.5 inches long as shown below.

-

Move the cursor over the lines indicated below.

Move the cursor over these lines.

-

With MB1 indicate a cursor location as shown below. Note the alignment line and the parallel constraint symbol.

-

Close the profile by selecting the end point of the first line.

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Sketching

-

Choose Finish.

Step 6 Save and close the part.

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Sketching

Creating Fillets
Fillet creation is accessed by choosing the Fillet icon tool bar. on the Sketch Curve

Once in fillet creation, there is a single icon in the upper left corner of the graphics screen. It is for controlling whether or not the original curves are trimmed.

You can create fillets between lines, arcs or conics. You can also create a fillet between two parallel lines. There are several methods for creating Fillets:
D

Select two curves with a single selection (at their intersection), and then drag the size and quadrant. Select two curves individually, and drag the size and quadrant. Select one curve, enter a radius value, and select the second curve. Select two curves individually, enter a radius value, and the indicate the desired quadrant. Drag (with MB1) across the two curves you want to fillet. The size of the fillet is governed by where the curves are selected.

D D D

D

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Sketching

Quick Trim and Quick Extend
Quick Trim

Quick Trim will trim any curve to the closest curve in the sketch. The system will preview the results in pre-selection color.

13

You can also trim multiple curves at one time, by using the crayon" select method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the portion of curves you want to trim away.

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You can also select a specific curve to trim to, by using ctrl-select to select the desired boundary curve. You can also select more than one bounding curve using the ctrl-select method.

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Sketching

In the example below, both the arc on the left and the spline on the right were control-selected as boundary curves. With the cursor on the top line, (between the two boundary curves), the center section is previewed as the portion to be removed.

When a curve is trimmed, appropriate constraints are automatically created. In the example above, two Point on Curve Constraints, and one Colinear constraint would be added. If one of the boundary curves is later trimmed to the line, the Point on Curve constraint would change to Coincident.

If you trim an arc to a line that is tangent. . .

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Sketching

the tangency constraint will be retained.

Quick Extend

Quick Extend will extend lines, arcs and conics to the closest curve in the sketch. The system will preview the results in pre-selection color. The curve being extended must extend to an actual intersection with the boundary curve.

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You can extend multiple curves at one time, by using the crayon" select method. Hold down MB1 and drag across the ends of curves you want to extend.

Before

After

You can also select specific boundary curves by using the control-select method. As with Quick Trim, when you use Quick Extend, appropriate constraints are automatically created.

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Sketching

Activity 3 - Creating Fillets
Step 1 Open the part file pau_skt_fillet_1, and start the Modeling application.

You will be using this sketch geometry to create fillets. Step 2 Activate the sketch.
-

Double-click with MB1 on any of the sketch curves.

Step 3 Choose the Fillet icon. You first want to create 4.0 millimeter fillets in the upper left and lower left corners of the sketch. Step 4 Make sure Trim Inputs is on (depressed). Step 5 Create a 4 millimeter fillet using lines L16 and L20, trimming the lines, and do it with a single select.
-

Enter 4 in the Radius field on the graphics screen, and press Enter.

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Sketching -

Select both lines at the same time, by selecting at their intersection.

-

Drag the cursor around the screen and notice that you can select which quadrant you want. Select in the lower right quadrant to place the fillet in the desired quadrant.

-

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Step 6 Create a four millimeter fillet using lines L16 and L17, with a single select, and this time do not trim the lines being filleted.
-

Turn off Trim Inputs. Select the two lines at their intersection.

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Sketching -

Select in the upper right quadrant.

Step 7 Create a 4 millimeter fillet between lines L17 and L18. Select by dragging across the two lines. The 4.0 Radius value should still be in the text field on the graphics screen.
-

Notice that the 4 millimeter radius was used.

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With MB1 held down, drag across the two lines as below: (This is another method of selecting the curves to be filleted. The curves crossed with the crayon" are the curves selected.)

Sketching

Step 8 Create another fillet between lines L18 and L20 by using the crayon", but his time do NOT use a radius value.
-

Use Backspace to erase the 4 in the text field.

-

Drag (with MB1), as shown below:

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It used the selection location of the curves to determine the radius.

Step 9 Create a fillet between lines L18 and L19, and drag the size and quadrant.
-

Individually select the lines L18 and L19. Drag the cursor around the screen.

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Sketching -

Select a location to create an arc similar to the one shown below.

-

Choose Finish.

Step 10 Close the part file.

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Sketching

Activity 4 - Sketching a Gasket
Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in and save it as ***_gasket_1 where *** represent your initials. Step 2 Change the Work Layer to 21 so that the part file will be compliant with class standards. Step 3 Create a sketch.
-

Enter the Modeling application.

-

Choose Sketch. Click on the sketch name; key in s21_profile and press Enter.

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-

Choose OK

to accept the XC-YC Plane.

Step 4 Set the Infer Constraints Setting. In this sketch we do not want to apply any constraints at this time, so you will toggle all constraints off.

-

Choose Infer Constraints Settings.

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Sketching -

Set the dialog as shown below.

-

Choose OK.

Step 5 Create the sketch curves to define the main profile.

-

Choose Profile. Create the 4 lines as shown below.

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Sketching

-

Choose Fillet.

-

Turn on Trim Inputs. Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1, 2, and then a cursor location at 3.

2 3

1

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A fillet is created and the lines are trimmed to the tangent points. The system also displays tangent symbols at the 2 tangent points.

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Sketching -

Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1, 2, and then a cursor location at 3.

3 1 2

-

Key in 1 for the Radius value and press Enter. Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1 and 2.

1

2

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Sketching

The 1 inch radius fillet was created and the lines trimmed to the tangent points.

-

Select the lines, as shown below, at positions 1 and 2.

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Step 6 Define the holes of the gasket.
-

2

1

Choose Infer Constraints Settings. Toggle Coincident Choose OK. on.

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Sketching

-

Choose Circle. At the approximate center of the profile, click and drag to create a circle similar to the one shown below.

-

Move the cursor over and along the arc on the left side of the profile, until the arc center symbol (1) appears, then click and drag to create a circle with a diameter of approximately 0.75.

1

The system now will infer a constraint of coincident between the arc and the circle.

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Sketching -

Create the circle for the opposite side using the same method.

13

The sketch of the profile is now complete. The shape and design intent will be further refined in a later activity with the application of dimensional and geometric constraints.

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-

Choose Finish.

Step 7 Move the reference features to the appropriate layer to conform with class standards.
-

Choose Format→Move to Layer from the main menu. Select the datum plane and 2 datum axes. Choose OK. Enter layer number 61 as the destination layer to move the objects to and choose OK.

Step 8 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Sketching

Activity 5 - Using Quick Trim and Quick Extend
Step 1 Open the part file pau_skt_quick_1, and start the Modeling application.

Step 2 Trim curves with Quick Trim.
-

Double click on one of the sketch curves to activate the sketch.

-

Choose Quick Trim.

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Sketching -

Select the line where the arrow is pointing in the illustration below.

-

13

Hold MB1 down and drag the cursor across the 2 curves as shown below.

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Sketching -

Ctrl Select the curves labeled 1 and 2 for boundaries. Select on curves 3 and 4 to trim the center portion.

1

3 4 2

-

Choose Quick Extend. Place the cursor on the arc at location 1 as labeled below.
1

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Step 3 Extending curves with Quick Extend.

Sketching

The status line informs you that the system cannot extend the curve. This is because there is no other curve that would intersect with the arc.
-

Place the cursor on the arc at location 2 as labeled below.

2

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This time notice how the system provides a preview of the extension.
-

Select the arc at location 2 to create the extension.

Step 4 Continue to experiment with Quick Trim and Quick Extend until the instructor is ready to continue.

-

Choose Finish.

Step 5 Close the part file.

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Sketching

Sketch Points
Sketch objects are defined by theoretical points. A line, for instance, is defined by two points. The sketcher attempts to mathematically solve for the location of the points by analyzing the constraints (rules) that are placed on objects. The points that the sketch solver analyzes are referred to as sketch points. By controlling the locations of these sketch points the line itself may be controlled. There are various ways to control these points. The sketch points associated with different types of curves are illustrated in the graphic below.

Line

Fillet Arc Circle

Ellipse

Degree of Freedom Arrows (DOF)
Degree of freedom arrows occur at sketch points to indicate that the solver is unable to fully define where the sketch point exists on the sketch plane. DOF arrows are only displayed during the creation of dimensions or constraints; they are yellow, and their base emanates at the sketch point with arrowheads pointing in both the horizontal or vertical directions (when the sketch point has no constraints). An arrow pointing to the right means that the sketch point in question is free to move in the horizontal direction, both to the right and left. An arrow pointing up means that the sketch point in question is free to move in the vertical direction, both up and down. Should there be DOF arrows at a given point in both directions, the point is free to move in both directions.

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Spline

+ Point

Sketching

These arrows provide visual feedback to the user while in the process of constraining the sketch.

(no display) Undefined in X and Y Directions Undefined in Y Direction only Undefined in X Direction only Defined in X and Y Directions

The system removes DOF arrows as rules are written that define the location of the sketch points.
D

Arc - Arcs have sketch points at the center and at either end. These sketch points as well as the radius of the arc may be defined if the user so desires. Circle - Circles may have the center point as well as a radius or diameter defined. Ellipse -An ellipse may have the location of its center defined; also, the parameters for the size and orientation of the ellipse are stored for future editing. Fillet - Fillets are a specialized case of arc; by definition a fillet is tangent to the objects with which it is associated. The system applies this rule as the fillet is created. Fillets may have the same information defined as other arcs, and in some cases the tangency that is assigned will define the endpoints. Line - Lines may have the sketch points at either end defined. Point - Points may be defined relative to other objects or at specific locations in space. Spline - Degree three splines may have their defining points located. Slopes of the spline at the defining points may also be defined. Splines that are of a degree other than three may be added to sketches; however, since their defining points are not located at their knot points, there is no way to locate their defining points using constraints.

D

D

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D

D D

D

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Sketching

Constraining Sketches
Design Intent
The power in sketching is derived from the ability to capture design intent. This is accomplished by setting up rules that dictate how sketch objects will react to changing input. These rules are called constraints. As many or as few constraints as necessary may be applied to cause the sketch profile to update in the manner desired. Unigraphics sketches are not required to be fully constrained. A group of these rules may be thought of as a constraint set. The constraint set is comprised of two types of constraints, dimensional and geometric and are accessed from the Sketch Constraints tool bar.

The Sketch Constraints Tool Bar

Create Constraints Dimensions

Creating Dimensional Constraints
A dimensional constraint establishes the size of a sketch object (such as the length of a line or radius of an arc) or the scalar relationship between two objects (such as the distance between two points). Dimensional constraints appear in the graphics window. Unlike drafting dimensions, changing the value of the dimensional constraints changes the shape and or size of the sketch objects that are controlled by the sketch points. This changes the feature of the solid model that the sketch curves control.

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Sketching

The Dimensions icon

accesses the Dimensions dialog.

You can use the dialog to create and edit dimensions, as well as change some of the preferences. There are nine icons located near the top of the dialog box. The top left hand icon is the most useful as it infers the dimension type based on the objects that are selected and where their dimension text is located. It is also the default icon. The other eight icons are supplied for times when the system is unable to infer the desired dimension type. These different options are filters" that when selected will only allow a specific dimension type to be created. Because of this, certain types of geometry may not be selectable if they do not coincide with the dimension type selected. As dimensional constraints are being created, the dimension, its extension lines, and arrows are displayed as soon as the geometry has been selected. Drag the dimension to the desired location and place it by clicking the left mouse button. During some dimensioning the system infers a dimension type before all of the geometry has been selected. In these instances continue to select geometry until the correct dimension type is displayed, or select the icon for the dimension type desired and reselect the geometry.

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As dimensional constraints are being created, the system creates an expression. This expression's name and value are displayed in the current expression fields of the Constraints dialog box. This places the value field in overstrike mode so the user may enter the desired dimensional constraint. A slider is also provided below the value text and may be used to change the value.
Enter new name Enter new statement or numeric value

Use slider bar to change value

Below the value slider are two option menus for manipulating the appearance of the dimensional constraint. The left hand option menu is for defining how the text and arrows of the dimensional constraint will be displayed. Options are for automatic text placement where the system decides the appearance, manual text placement with the arrows inside the extension lines, or manual text placement with the arrows outside the extension lines.
Auto Placement

Manual Placement, Arrows In Manual Placement, Arrows Out

The right hand option menu is for defining whether the dimension's leader is attached to the right or left of the dimension text.
Leader From Left

Leader From Right

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Sketching

Both of these option menus may be used before, during or after dimension creation.

Text Height
The display height of the dimension text is controlled by the text entry field at the bottom of the dialog box. This value may be changed any time the Dimensions dialog box is active. The default value is .150 inches. There are no limits to values for this field. Modifying this value changes all the dimensional constraints in the active sketch.

Dimensional Constraint Types
Inferred - Allows the system to select any of the dimension types listed below, (except perimeter) based on object selection and cursor location. Points, points on sketch curves (including spline knot points), edges, lines, arcs, datum planes, and datum axes are selectable using this method. Horizontal - Used to filter the system to specify a distance constraint between two points with respect to the X axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketch curves (including spline knot points), edges, lines, and arcs are selectable using this method.

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YC ZC XC

.500

4.000

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Vertical - Used to filter the system to specify a distance constraint between two points with respect to the Y axis of the sketch coordinate system. Points, points on sketch curves (including spline knot points), edges, lines, and arcs are selectable using this method.

YC

2.000

ZC

XC

.500

Arcs selected for 1.23 dimension

1.23

.500

Line endpoints selected for .500 dimension

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Parallel - Used to filter the system to specify a distance constraint directly between two sketch entities. The parallel dimension is the shortest distance between the two points. All sketch objects are selectable using this method. The points selected will be inferred from the objects selected.

Sketching

Perpendicular - Used to filter the system to specify a distance constraint measured perpendicular to a selected line and a point or the normal distance. The first object selected using this method must be linear; the second will be a point inferred from the next object selected.

.8502

.6302

Angular - Used to filter the system to specify an angular dimensional constraint between two lines. The angle is measured counterclockwise from the ends of the lines nearest the cursor upon selection. Only linear objects may be selected with this method.

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Radius - Used to filter the system to specify a radial size constraint for an arc or circle. Only arcs and circles may be selected with this method.

R p4=0.250

Diameter- Used to filter the system to specify a diametral size constraint for an arc or circle. Only arcs and circles may be selected with this method.
p1=2.568

Perimeter- The Perimeter constraint is used to constrain the collective lengths of lines and arcs to a desired value. After the desired curves are selected the user chooses OK, a dimensional constraint is created and its name is prefixed with Perimeter, i.e. Perimeter_p7=6.456. There is no graphical representation of this constraint on the graphics screen.

Editing Dimensional Constraints`
The editing of dimensional constraints may be achieved as follows:

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Sketching D D

To edit the value, simply double click on the dimension and edit the value in the text box and press Enter. To edit the position, simply drag a dimension's location.

Additional editing that may be done with the Dimensions dialog as listed below:
D D D D D D

Name - Enter a new name in the text entry field. Value - Enter a new value in the text entry field or use the slider. Position - Click and hold the left mouse button to drag the dimension to its new position. Text placement method - Select a different option from the option menu. Leader side - Select a different option from the option menu. Text height - Enter a new text size in the text entry field.

NOTE: The name and value of a dimensional constraint may also be edited by using the Expression Editor. As dimensional constraints are edited, the constraints are evaluated and the geometry is modified.

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Delay Evaluation
At times it is advantageous not to have the geometry change until all of the dimensional constraints have been modified. The Delay Evaluation is a toggle on the Sketch tool bar that controls this condition.

Evaluate Sketch
The Evaluate Sketch button is provided so that the user may control sketch evaluation when the Delay Evaluation toggle is on. Sketches are evaluated automatically when the Constraints dialog box is exited.

Update Model
The Update Model icon located on the Sketch tool bar may be used to force the model to update without leaving the sketch function.

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Sketching

When a sketch is deactivated the display of the dimensional constraints is disabled. A toggle switch labeled Retain Dimension is supplied on the Sketch Preferences dialog box to enable the display should there be a need to display dimensions without an active sketch (such as to reference expression names between sketches, plotting, etc.).

Creating Geometric Constraints
A geometric constraint establishes a geometric characteristic of a sketch object (such as defining a line as being horizontal) or the type of relationship between two or more objects (such as requiring that two lines be parallel or perpendicular, or that several arcs have the same radius). Geometric constraints have no editable numeric values; a constant angle constraint, for instance, simply dictates that the line stay at the angle it is at when the constraint is applied.

The Create Constraints icon There is no dialog.

activates the process of creating constraints.

Constraints are created by selecting the geometry, and then choosing the desired constraint icon from the upper left corner of the graphics screen. Only icons for constraints that are possible for the selected curves will be displayed.

If you wish to assign multiple constraints at one time, you can control-select the objects. Then the icons for constraints will remain on the screen after you choose the first constraint. You can use MB2 to cancel creation of constraints .

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Sketching

Listed below are all the possible constraints and their respective icon.

Fixed Collinear Horizontal Vertical Parallel Perpendicular Equal Length Constant Length Displaying Constraint Symbols

Constant Angle Concentric Tangent Equal Radius Coincident Point on Curve Midpoint Point on String

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Constraint symbols are displayed when a sketch is active. Symbols for Coincident, Point on Curve, Midpoint, Tangent, and Concentric are always displayed. The other symbols are not displayed at all times.

The Show All Constraints icon constraints in the active sketch.

will display the symbols for all the

Sometimes, when the curves are very small on the screen (the view is zoomed out), the symbols may not be displayed. You may need to zoom in to see them. The following is a definition of each of the available geometric constraints: Coincident - Defines two or more points as having the same location. Collinear - Defines two or more linear objects as lying on or passing through the same theoretical straight line.

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Concentric - Defines two or more arcs as having the same center. Constant Angle - Defines a line as having a constant angle. Constant Length - Defines a line as having a constant length. Equal Length - Defines two or more lines as being the same length. Equal Radius - Defines two or more arcs as having the same radius. Fix - Defines fixed characteristics for geometry, depending on the type of geometry selected, as follows:
D D D D D D D D D D

Arc or circle - defines the radius and the location of the centerpoint. Arc center, elliptical arc center, circle center, or ellipse center - locates the centerpoint. Arc or elliptical arc endpoint - locates the endpoint. Ellipse - locates the centerpoint and defines the radii. Ellipse center - locates the centerpoint. Elliptical arc - locates the centerpoint and defines the radii. Line - defines the angle and length. Point - defines the location. Spline - removes all of its rigid DOFs (it cannot be rigidly rotated or rigidly dragged). Spline control point - locates the control point.

Horizontal - Defines a line as horizontal. Midpoint of Curve - Defines the location of a sketch point as coincident with the midpoint of a curve.
For the Midpoint of Curve constraint, select the curve anywhere other than at its end points.

NOTE:

Mirror - Defines two objects as being mirror images of each other. This constraint is automatically created when the mirror function is used. It cannot be created manually.

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Sketching

Parallel - Defines two or more linear objects as being parallel to each other. Perpendicular - Defines two linear objects as being perpendicular to each other. Point on Curve - Defines the location of a sketch point as lying on a curve. Point on String - Defines the location of a sketch point as lying on an extracted string. Slope of Curve - Defines a spline, selected at a defining point, and another object as being tangent to each other at the selected point. Scale, Non Uniform - Thus constrained, a spline will scale in the horizontal direction while keeping the original dimensions in the vertical direction during modification. Scale, Uniform - A spline will scale proportionally in both the horizontal and vertical when the horizontal length changes. A Scale constraint may not be mixed with fixing of an internal spline point as the uses of the two different constraint types are mutually exclusive. Tangent - Defines two objects as being tangent to each other. Vertical - Defines a line as vertical.

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Sketching

Show/Remove Constraints
The Show/Remove Constraints is a tool that aids you in the management of constraints. The constraints may be listed by object/s or all of the constraints of the active sketch may be listed at once.
Determines which objects will have their constraints listed. Determines what type of constraints will be listed.

Determines what category of constraints will be listed.

Actions that can be taken on the listed constraints.

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Determines if the filtered constraint will be included or excluded in the list.

Sketching

Constraint Interrogation
One way to determine what geometric constraints are present is to pass the selection ball over a sketch object. If the object has a constraint associated with it, the sketch object will be pre highlighted as well as other sketch objects that share the constraint and the constraint marker will appear next to the sketch objects. If the selection ball passes over an object which has no constraints associated with it, pre highlighting does not occur. The constraint types and their markers are shown in the figure below.

Fix Concentric Coincident Colinear Point on Curve Point on String Midpoint on Curve Horizontal Vertical Parallel

Perpendicular Tangent Equal Length Equal Radius Constant Length Constant Angle Mirror Slope of Curve Scale, Uniform Scale, Non Uniform

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Constraint Categories
There are two major categories of geometric constraints, Explicit and Inferred. Explicit constraints are constraints that the user has created by assignment using the constraints dialog or by virtue of the creation method. Inferred constraints are the Coincident constraints that the system has inferred and assigned. The user has the option to list only the Explicit, or Inferred constraints, or both may be listed at the same time.

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Sketching

Constraint Listing
The constraints may also be listed in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog by selecting one of the three options at the top of the dialog window. They are: Selected Object Once an object is selected, the associated constraints, depending on the selected constraint category, are listed in the dialog box. To view constraints associated with a different sketch object, simply select the new object. Selected Objects Allows the selection of multiple objects; the associated constraints, depending on the selected constraint category, are listed in the dialog box. Objects may be deselected by holding the shift key down and selecting the object. All in Active Sketch List all the constraints of the active sketch, depending on the selected constraint category.

Any time there are constraints listed in the list box they may be browsed by selecting the constraint to highlight it. When the constraint is highlighted in the list box, the sketch object(s) that is associated with it is also highlighted in the graphics area. The Step Up the List and Step Down the List buttons allow easy navigation through the various constraints. The Up and Down arrows on most keyboards will mimic this behavior.

Removing Constraints
Constraints may be deleted 3 ways:
D

Highlight them in the Show/Remove Constraints dialog List box and select Remove Highlighted Constraint(s). Turn on Select Constraints (on the Selection tool bar), select the constraint symbol on the graphics screen, and then choose the Delete icon. Turn on Select Constraints, select the constraint symbol on the graphics screen, and then use MB3→Delete to delete selected constraint.

D

D

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Listing Box

Sketching

Undo
The user may access undo from the edit pulldown on the main menu, the third mouse button pop up menu, or the accelerator keys. Undo takes the creation procedure back one step at a time.

Dragging Geometry
Under constrained geometry can be dragged by simply holding down and dragging MB1 while on the selected curve(s) or point(s).

Selection
When in the Sketcher Task Environment, the selection toolbar changes. It has two icons that are only available in the Sketcher.

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Select Sketch Objects curves and dimensions.

allows selection of all objects in the sketch -

Select Constraints screen.

allows selection of constraint symbols on the graphics

Deselect All

deselects all objects that are currently selected.

Constraint Conditions
When the Constraints dialog box is active, the status line lists the constraint condition for the active sketch. A sketch may be fully constrained, under constrained, or over constrained. When the sketch is under constrained the status line will indicate the number of constraints needed.

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Sketching

A sketch is evaluated each time a constraint is placed upon the sketch. Each time a sketch is evaluated, the system attempts to solve the set of constraints that describe how the geometric objects are positioned and their relationships with each other.

In order to completely capture the design intent of a particular profile, it may be beneficial to fully constrain the sketch. This occurs when the solver is able to completely define all sketch geometry. It is important to remember that there is no requirement to fully constrain a sketch. The design intent has been captured sufficiently when the constraint set applied to the profile causes it to update in the intended manner. A sketch is under constrained when there is insufficient information to completely locate each sketch point. Degree of freedom arrows are displayed at each point that could not be solved to identify the direction in which that point remains free to move.

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Sketching

Constraining Example
Lines constrained to be horizontal

LINE A

Lines constrained to be vertical

In the profile above, some elements are partially constrained due to system applied constraints, such as the 3 degree snap angle default for horizontal and vertical lines. Line A has a system applied vertical geometric constraint. The bottom point of line A has a fixed geometric constraint applied by the user. The degree of freedom arrow at the top of line A now points in the Y axis direction. This indicates the point is constrained in the X axis direction but not in the Y axis direction. Degree of freedom arrows may assist in the constraining process; however, until the location of at least one object is defined, no degree of freedom arrows will be removed. Defining the location of an object may be accomplished in a number of ways. Sketch objects may be located relative to edges of a solid model, datum planes, or to datum axes using geometric constraints, dimensional constraints, or positioning dimensions. Fixing the location of a point fully defines the location of that point to the solver. It is important to remember that there is no numeric input in fixing an object. An object must be created in the proper location or be otherwise located prior to fixing in order for the fix constraint to be properly applied. A sketch is over constrained when too much constraint information is supplied to the solver. For instance, specifying a geometric constraint on two lines that identifies them as being equal in length, then placing a dimensional constraint on each to identify their length would cause the sketch to be over constrained.

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Sketching

The system highlights in yellow the geometry and dimensional constraints that are causing the over constrained condition in order to prompt for the over constrained situation to be corrected. An unwanted constraint must be removed before the system will change the geometric configuration. The sketch is displayed in the last solved condition. Dimensional constraints that are not related to the over constrained condition are displayed in green. Geometry that is not related to the over constrained condition is displayed in cyan. Dimensional constraints that are in conflict in the current configuration with the current constraint set are displayed in pink. Geometry that is not solvable in the current configuration with the current constraint set is displayed in gray. At times the system displays all geometry in gray and all dimensional constraints in pink. This indicates that the constraint set that has been supplied is not solvable with the geometry in its current configuration. Constraints may need to be added or removed in order for the sketcher to be able to solve the constraint set.

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Sketching

Activity 6 - Constraining a Profile
Constrain the pipe vise profile sketch to satisfy the stated design intent. Design Intent Apply constraints to the curves so that the following may be controlled: The outside envelope of the part. The included angle of the angled lines. The angled lines must remain centered in the part horizontally. The width of the slot at the bottom of the angled lines is controlled by the radius at the bottom of the slot. Step 1 Open pau_pipevise_1 and start the Modeling application.

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Step 2 Activate the sketch S21_PROFILE.
-

Double click on a sketch curve.

Step 3 View the system applied constraints. Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon.

-

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Sketching

The Show/Remove Constrains dialog box is displayed.
-

Choose the radio button in the List Constraints For: area for All In Active Sketch. Ensure that the Show Constraints category to Explicit.

-

The system created constraints are now displayed in the list box. The dialog box should look similar to the graphic shown at right.

-

Choose the first constraint in the list.

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Sketching

The object referred to in the list is highlighted in the graphics area. There should be one horizontal line highlighted in the graphics window. Let the instructor know if this is not the case.
-

Use the UP and DOWN arrow buttons located to the right of the list box to browse through the constraint list. Cancel the Show/Remove Constraints dialog box.

-

Step 4 View the degree of freedom arrows. Choose the Create Constraints icon.

-

Notice that there are degree of freedom arrows at each of the sketch points. Even though most of the objects in the sketch have constraints associated with them, the sketch points are free to move in all directions. This is because the system cannot locate any of the points relative to model space.

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Step 5 Constrain the location of a point.
-

Select the lower endpoint of the left vertical line. Select the vertical datum axis. In the upper left corner of the screen choose the Point on Curve icon.

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Sketching

The geometry now changes to follow the constraint. The point at the bottom of the left vertical line is now constrained in the horizontal direction.

-

Select the left endpoint of the bottom horizontal line. Select the horizontal datum axis. Choose the Point on Curve icon.

-

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Sketching

The geometry now changes to follow the new constraint. The shared sketch point at the bottom of the left vertical line is now constrained in both the horizontal and vertical directions. The degree of freedom arrows go away at this point, and, due to the horizontal and vertical constraints on the lines that share the sketch point, one of the arrows on the opposite end of those lines has disappeared.

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Step 6 Move the datum planes and axes to layer 61. The datums have served their purpose of locating the sketch. You will now move them to ease selection of objects and clean up the screen display.
-

Choose Finish. Choose Format→Move to Layer Choose Type. Choose Datums and choose OK. Choose Select All and OK. Enter 61 in the dialog box layer field and press Enter.

Step 7 Continue adding constraints to satisfy the stated design intent.
-

Double click on a sketch curve to activate the sketch.

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Sketching

-

Choose Create Constraints. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the two horizontal lines at the top of the profile. Choose Collinear and Equal Length.

-

Now Equal Length

-

Choose Deselect All. Select the arc at the bottom of the slot taking note on which side you choose. Select the end of the short vertical line on the same side of the arc. Choose Tangent. Repeat the process for the other side of the slot. Hold the Ctrl key down and select the bottom horizontal line and the lower endpoint of the line originating from the arc center. Choose Point on Curve.

-

-

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Sketching

-

Choose Midpoint.

-

Choose Deselect All. Select the line between the midpoint and the arc center. Choose Vertical.
Now vertical

-

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Adding dimensional constraints to satisfy the controlling portions of the design intent will allow the profile to be changed by modifying the numerical values.

-

Choose the Dimensions icon. With the constraint type set to infer, select the bottom horizontal line. Drag the dimension to position it and select with MB1 to place it. Type in a value of 5 and press Enter. Fit the view if necessary. Select the left vertical line and place the dimension for it. Change the value to 3.75.

-

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Sketching -

Select the top left horizontal line and place the dimension. Change its value to .5. Fit the view if necessary. Select the lower end (over half way, not endpoint) of the left angled line. Select the right end of the top left horizontal line, avoiding its control points. Place the angular dimension and change its value to 45°.

-

Select here first Select here second

-

Select the left end of the top right horizontal line, avoiding its control points. Select the bottom end of the right angled line. Place this angular dimension and change its value to the 'p' number assigned to the other angular dimension.

-

Select the arc at the bottom of the slot. Place the radius dimension and change its value to .25. Select the line connecting the arc center and the midpoint and place this vertical dimension. Change its value to 1.5 and choose OK.

-

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The Status line now informs you that the sketch is fully constrained. Remember that there is no need to fully constrain the profile if it is updating in the manner desired.

Step 8 Change the constraints on the sketch to alter the included angle in the notch.
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Double click on the first angular dimensional constraint that was created and change it from a 45° to 30°.

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Notice that the depth of the notch is unchanged as a result of this change. Should that have not been our intent, we would have to constrain the sketch in a different manner. Choose Finish.

Step 9 Choose File "Close"All Parts.

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Activity 7 - Constraining the Gasket
In this activity you will fully constrain the sketch that was created earlier. Step 1 Open ***_gasket_1 where *** represent your initials or open pau_gasket_1 and save as ***_gasket_1a. Step 2 Make Layer 61 Selectable in order to view the reference features.

Step 3 Activate the sketch containing the profile.
-

Ensure that the Modeling application is active. Double click on a sketch curve to activate the sketch. Fit the view.

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Use the steps on the following pages to constrain the profile as shown below.

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Step 4 Review the existing constraints.

-

Choose Show/Remove Constraints. Choose All in Active Sketch. Set Show Constraints to Explicit.

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Review the constraints by clicking on each one in the listing and observe which curves are highlighted in the graphic window. Notice how each curve in the profile is tangent to its adjacent curve. This is due to the creation method that was used.

-

In the Show/Remove Constraints dialog, choose Selected Objects. Select one of the circles. Notice that there are no constraints listed.

-

-

Set Show Constraints to Inferred. Now observe that a Coincident constraint is listed.

-

Select the circle on the other side and notice how the system indicates an arc to which it is coincident. Choose Cancel.

-

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Toggle Show All Constraints

on.

Notice the two Equal Radius symbols.

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-

Choose the Select Constraints icon toolbar.

from the Selection

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Place the cursor over one of the Equal Radius symbols.

The arcs that share this constraint are highlighted.
-

Place the cursor over one of the Coincident symbols.

The circle and arc that share that point of incidence are highlighted.

-

Choose the Select Sketch Objects icon.

Step 5 Constrain the sketch.

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-

Choose Create Constraints.

Notice the Degree Of Freedom markers associated with the sketch points, remember that these are supplied to give feedback on the constraint condition of the sketch. These markers will be removed from the display as the sketch points are explicitly located.
-

Select the center circle and the bottom arc, avoiding control points along the way.

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Choose Concentric.

Step 6 Locate the profile in space.
-

Select the arc center of the center circle and the horizontal datum axis. Choose Point on Curve.

-

The entire profile moves to follow the constraint just applied.

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Sketching -

Select the arc center of the center circle again and the vertical datum axis. Choose Point on Curve.

-

Note that the degree of freedom markers at the large arc center have been removed, this point is now explicitly located.

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Step 7 Apply Point on Curve design intent. The design intent is that the arc center of all three circles lie on the same horizontal centerline.
-

Select the arc center of the left circle and the horizontal datum axis. Choose Point on Curve. Repeat the above actions for the right circle, constraining it to fall on the centerline" represented by the datum axis.

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Note how the profile changes shape to obey the constraints as they are applied. Also note that the Degree Of Freedom markers at the selected points have been removed in the vertical direction. These points has been constrained in the vertical direction but are still free to move in the horizontal direction.

Step 8 Applying equal radius design intent. The upper and lower center arcs are intended to be the same radius. The circles on either end are intended to be the same size as shown by the dimension.
-

Select the upper and lower arcs of the profile. Be sure not to include control points in the selection process, points and curves have a different constraint set than those of two curves. Choose Equal Radius.

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Repeat the process for the two small circles.

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Step 9 Apply dimensional constraints to define the size of the profile. Choose the Dimensions icon.

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-

Use the Inferred dimension type to create all of the dimensions shown below.
-

Change Auto Placement to Manual Placement, Arrows In.

-

Select the center circle and place the dimension.

Location of the dimension is not as important as being able to read it.
-

Change the value of the dimension to 2 and press Enter. Create a horizontal dimension between the arc center of the left circle and the arc center of the center circle. Place the dimension.

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Change the value of the dimension to 2.625. Create a horizontal dimension between the arc centers of the two smaller circles and place the dimension. Change the value of the dimension to 5.25.

-

The status line indicates that the sketch needs 5 constraints in order to be fully constrained.
-

Select one of the end circles and place the dimension. Change the value of the dimension to .5. Select one of the end arcs and place the dimension. Change the value of the dimension to .5. Select the lower arc and place the dimension. Change the value of the dimension to 1.5.

The status line indicates that the sketch needs 2 more constraints. Notice that we forgot to create a concentric constraint between the upper arc and the center circle.

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Sketching

-

Choose Create Constraints. Select the center circle and the upper arc, avoiding control points. Choose Concentric.

-

The status line now states that the Sketch is fully constrained.

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-

Choose Create Constraints

to exit that function.

Step 10 Change the design intent by making the gasket longer.
-

Double click on the dimension with the value 5.25.

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Sketching -

Edit the value to 7.25.

Notice that the profile updates and the tangent condition is maintained.

-

Choose Finish.

Step 11 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Sketching

Convert To/From Reference
At times it is nice to be able to see what the effects of a change are numerically, but adding a dimensional constraint to do this causes the sketch to be over constrained. Additionally, sketch curves may need to be associated to other sketch curves that are not intended to represent a portion of the swept feature. To support these needs, Unigraphics allows Reference objects within sketches. These reference objects may be either curves or dimensional constraints. The Convert To/From Reference icon is located in the sketch management area of the Sketch Tools dialog box.

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To change the status of the objects, set the radio button to the status desired, select the object(s) and choose OK or Apply. An option menu is provided to filter for All (the default), Curve, or Dimension. Reference curves are displayed in gray color and phantom line font. Reference curves are ignored during sweep operations. Reference dimensional constraints are shown in white color and only the value portion of the expression is shown, regardless of the preference setting. The value for this reference dimension will be updated as the sketch is changed, but it does not control the sketch geometry with which it is associated.

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Activity 8 - Constraint Conditions
In this activity, you will constrain and edit a simple sketch to change the design intent. This configuration is not one that you would likely sketch, but its simplicity allows the concept of over constrained to be easily shown. Design Intent Apply constraints to control the length and width of the sketch. The shape of the sketch should remain rectangular.

Width

Length

Step 1 Open pau_seedpart_in. Step 2 Create a sketch on Layer 21.
-

Start the Modeling application. Change the work layer to 21.

-

Choose Sketch.

-

Choose OK.

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Step 3 Create a rectangle.
-

Choose the Rectangle icon. Select a cursor location, then drag and select a second cursor location to create the rectangle. Choose Cancel.

-

Step 4 Interrogate the constraints that currently exist on this sketch.

-

Choose the Show/Remove Constraints icon. Choose the radio button for All In Active Sketch. Set the Show Constraints to Explicit. Highlight the top constraint in the list and use the down arrow button to browse through the constraints. Choose Cancel.

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-

Step 5 Apply constraints to locate the sketch on the sketch plane. Choose the Create Constraints icon. Select an endpoint of the left vertical line and the vertical datum axis. Choose Point on Curve. Select an endpoint of the bottom horizontal line and the horizontal datum axis.

-

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Choose Point on Curve.

Step 6 Move the reference features to the proper layer.

-

Choose Finish. Choose Format→Move to Layer Select the reference objects and choose OK. Type 61 in the destination layer field and choose OK. Double click on a sketch curve.

p3=2.750

p2=4.500

-

Choose the Dimensions icon. With the dimension type set to Infer, select the bottom horizontal line and place the dimension. Change the value to 4.5.

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Step 7 Apply dimensional constraints to control the length and width of the part as per the design intent.

Sketching -

Select the left hand vertical line and place the dimension. Change the value to 2.75. Choose OK.

-

As dimensional constraints are being created, the degree of freedom arrows are eliminated. The sketch is fully constrained using one vertical and one horizontal dimensional constraint, along with the geometric constraints of horizontal and vertical that the system applied to the lines due to the manner of construction. Design Change Modify the sketch so that it can be controlled by the angle and length of a diagonal line.

p5=5.274

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-

p4=31.430

Step 8 Create a diagonal line in the sketch and convert it to reference. Choose the Line icon. Select the lower left endpoint and the upper right endpoint to define the line.

Choose the Convert To/From Reference icon ensure that Reference is toggled On.

and

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Select the diagonal line and choose OK.

Step 9 Apply an angular dimensional constraint. Choose the Dimensions icon. Select the right end of the lower horizontal line and the right end of the diagonal line, and indicate a location for the angular dimension.

-

The angle will be applied to the ends of the lines closest to the cursor position in a counter clockwise manner. At this point the system has more information than is required. The sketch is over constrained. The system changes the color of the sketch objects that have constraints applied to them that are associated to the over constrained condition. In this case all of the active sketch curves and dimensional constraints are displayed in yellow. To correct the over constrained condition, one or more of the offending constraints must by removed. Remember, the new design intent is to drive the sketch with angular and diagonal length dimensions. Step 10 Apply a parallel dimensional constraint.
-

Select the diagonal line and place a parallel dimension. Change the value of the dimension to 6.5.

Notice that the sketch configuration does not change when the value is modified. The system leaves the geometry in its last solved state until the over constrained condition is resolved.

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Sketching -

Choose Cancel.

p5=6.500

p3=2.750

p4=35.000

p2=4.500

Step 11 Convert sketch dimensions to reference.

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-

Choose the Convert To/From Reference icon. Select the horizontal and vertical dimensions, and choose OK.

The sketch is returned to a fully constrained condition. The reference dimensional constraints are shown to reflect the value only. Reference dimensions do not apply rules to the geometry to which they are attached. Another method of resolving the over constrained condition would have been to delete the horizontal and vertical dimensions.

-

Choose Finish.

Step 12 Choose File "Close"All Parts.

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Sketching

SUMMARY

This lesson introduced the concept of sketch creation. Sketches may be used to define a base feature, guide paths, and additional associative features to the base feature. A sketch parametrically controls curves and captures design intent. To do this constraints are applied to sketch objects in order to capture the design intent. The level of constraint, partial or full, is determined by the design intent and what is necessary to capture it. In this lesson you:
D D D D D D D D

Created a sketch on a fixed datum plane. Created a sketch on an existing solid face. Freehand sketched curves in a sketch. Constrained Sketches Created Dimensional Constraints Edited Dimensional Constraints Created Geometric Constraints Created Inferred Geometric Constraints

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(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Swept Features and Boolean Operations
Lesson 14

PURPOSE

To introduce Swept Features and Boolean Operations.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D D D

Extrude a body. Extrude a body with offsets. Create a Body of Revolution. Create a solid by sweeping a profile along a guide curve.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Types of Swept Features
Swept features/bodies are created by extruding, revolving, or sweeping a section string. The section string may be composed of explicit curves, sketch curves, solid edges, solid faces, and sheet bodies. An Extruded Body is one that is swept in a linear direction for a specified distance.
Section string Resulting feature

Direction

A Body of Revolution is one that has been rotated around a specified axis.
Section string

Axis

Resulting feature

A Sweep Along Guide body is one that has been swept along a guide string.

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Guide string

Section string

Resulting feature

The features/bodies that are created will be associated with both the section string and the guide string.

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Creating Swept Features from Sketches
When sweeping a sketch you may or may not want to sweep all of the sketch curves. By default the system selects the entire sketch when any sketch curve is selected. When using a sketch to define the section string do one of the following:
D

To select all the curves in a sketch - select any one curve belonging to the sketch. To select individual curves within a sketch - choose the Curve or Chain Curves option, and then select the desired curves.

D

Sweeping a partial sketch is a technique that is used when one sketch may define multiple features.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Extrude
The Insert"Form Feature"Extrude option allows a solid body/feature to be created by sweeping planar, section string geometry in a linear direction for a specified distance.

Rules for Extruding Section String Objects
The Body Type switch found under Preferences→Modeling, controls whether a solid body or a sheet body is created when extruding section string geometry. When set to Solid" the following rules will apply:
D D

Extruding a set of closed planar connected curves creates a solid body. Extruding a set of closed planar connected curves with another closed set within the boundary of the first creates a solid with an interior hole. Extruding a curve or set of planar connected curves which are not closed creates a sheet body unless extrude with offsets is used.

D

Extrusion Options
Direction & Distance option allows specification of the extrusion direction and the start and end distances of the extrusion relative to the plane of the selected section string. The extrusion does not need to start at the plane of the section string.

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Trim to Face/Plane option allows the end distance of an extrusion to be associated to an existing solid face or datum plane. The extrusion starts at, and is normal to, the plane of the section string. Trim Between Two Faces/Plane option allows the start and end of the extrusion to be associated with specified faces or planes of the same body regardless of the location of the section string geometry. The extrusion will be normal to the plane of the section string.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Activity 1 - Swept Features
In this activity you will start to create the draglink part. As you work through this lesson and learn new sweep skills, you will continue to develop the draglink by applying those skills. Step 1 Open part file pau_draglink_2, save as ***_draglink_2, and start the modeling application.

Step 2 Extrude the curves.

-

Choose Extrude. Select all of the curves and choose OK. Choose Direction & Distance. Choose Cycle Vector Direction so that the vector points down and choose OK. Key in the following: Start Distance . End Distance . First Offset . . . . Second Offset . Taper Angle . . . 0 152.5 0 0 0

-

-

Choose OK. Fit the View.

Step 3 Save the part.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Boolean Operations
Boolean operations are used to create a single solid body out of two or more existing solid bodies. Unigraphics senses when a solid already exists in a file and another is being created, the following menu appears for the Boolean Operation.

The new solid may be created as a separate solid using Create, or a Boolean operation (Unite, Subtract, or Intersect) may be performed on the two solids during creation to make one resultant solid. The Boolean Operations may also be created as a separate feature using the Insert"Feature Operation options shown in the menu below. When using these operations, a Target Solid and a Tool Solid need to be specified to perform the boolean operation.

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NOTE: Creation of Booleans as separate features allows for future editing of the Boolean operations.

Defining Target and Tool Solids
The Target solid is the solid body on which operations are executed. In the figure below, to unite the two cylinders to the block, the block is chosen as the target solid. The Tool solid is the solid body that operates upon the target solid.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

NOTE: The target solid passes its attributes on to the Boolean operation result. Therefore, the resultant solid inherits the layer, material density, etc. of the Target Solid.
Target solid

Tool solids

The Boolean Operations are described below.

Unite
This option allows two or more solid bodies to be combined into one.
Target solid Completed solid

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Tool solids

Before

After

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Subtract
This option allows material to be removed from a solid body (Target Body) by using another solid body as the Tool Solid, leaving empty space where the Tool body existed.
Tool solid Target solid

Before

Tool solid

After

Intersect
This Boolean allows a new solid to be created from two solids. The resultant solid will be that portion which is common to both of the selected solids.
Before After

Target solid Tool solid

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Swept Feature Errors
If you attempt to unite a tool solid within a target solid and there is no change in topology, the system would warn you with the following message.

If you attempt to unite, subtract, or intersect a tool solid with a target solid and the two solids do not touch, the system would warn you with the following message.

If you attempt to subtract a tool solid from a target solid and the operation would produce a zero thickness, the system would warn you with the following message.

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Zero thickness

Generator Curves

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Rules for Extruding With Taper

D

The Taper Start radio buttons determine if the taper starts At Defining String or At Start Distance when a taper is specified. A positive taper angle creates an inward taper. A negative angle creates an outward taper. If the section string included interior holes, the holes would be tapered in the opposite direction to the outside objects.
Positive Taper Angle
Normal vector

D D D

Negative Taper Angle

Plane of selected objects

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Extruding With Offsets
Once an extrusion method has been specified, arrows are displayed in the graphics area to relay information. The arrow displayed in solid font is the Extrusion Direction arrow, indicating the direction that positive values will be extruded. The arrow displayed in dashed font is the Offset Direction arrow, indicating the direction that positive offset values will be applied. The extrusion values as well as the offset values may be entered in the Parameters menu.

Positive Extrusion Direction Positive Offset Direction
ZC YC XC

Using positive values in the First Offset or Second Offset field will offset the extrusion in the direction of the arrow. Using negative values in the First Offset or Second Offset field will offset the extrusion in the opposite direction of the dashed arrow.

Offset

Offset Examples
Section Geometry

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Offset on arrow side (Positive)
Section Geometry

Offset on opposite side (Negative)

Offset on both sides (One offset neg., one offset pos.)

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Activity 2 - Extruding with Offsets
In this activity, additional extruded features will be added to complete the part. Step 1 Open the part pau_extrude_1. Step 2 Save the file as ***_extrude_1 where *** represent your initials.

Step 3 Create a tube by extruding with an offset.
-

Choose Extrude. Select the inside, large circle as the section geometry. Choose OK. Choose Direction Distance. Choose OK to accept the default direction (vector pointing up). Enter the following values: Start Distance = End Distance = First Offset = Second Offset = Taper Angle = 0 2.5 0 .25 0

-

If the offset vector is pointing away from the center of the part, use a negative value for the Second Offset. If it is pointing to the center use a positive value for the Second Offset.

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Press Enter. Choose Create. Choose Insert"Feature Operation"Unite. Select the base as the target body. Select the tube as the tool body. Choose OK. Choose Fit from the third mouse button Pop Up Menu.

The selected curve is extruded from its origin, normal to its creation plane as was indicated by the solid arrow, to a distance 2.5 units from the start distance. The solid feature created to this length is also defined as being .25 units thick inside the generator curve. This thickness was defined by the value entered in the Second Offset field due to the direction of the dashed arrow. The current model should look like the figure below.

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Step 4 Create a flange at the top of the cylinder. Choose Extrude.
-

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Select the top outer edge of the cylindrical extrusion.
Select this edge

-

Choose OK. Choose Direction Distance. Choose Cycle Vector Direction so that the vector points down and choose OK.

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Key in: Start Distance = End Distance = First Offset = Second Offset = Taper Angle = 0 .25 0 .25 0

-

Choose OK. Choose Create. Choose Insert"Feature Operation"Unite. Select the main body as the target body. Select the feature that was just created as the tool body. Choose OK.

The selected edge is extruded from its origin, normal to its creation plane as was indicated by the solid arrow, to a distance .25 units from the start distance. The solid feature created to this length is also defined as being .25 units thick outside the generator edge. This thickness was defined by the values entered in the First and Second Offset fields relative to dashed arrow.

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Step 5 Subtract an extrusion from the flange.
-

Choose Extrude.

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Select the edge as shown to extrude.
Select this edge

-

Choose OK. Choose Direction Distance. Choose Cycle Vector Direction so that the vector points down and choose OK.

The edge must be extruded with the offsets in the proper direction to create the groove shown below.

-

Key in: Start Distance = End Distance = First Offset = Second Offset = Taper Angle = 0 .075 .15 .275 0

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Choose OK. Choose Subtract.

Step 6 Save and close the part.

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Sweep along Guide
The Insert"Form Feature"Sweep along Guide option allows features to be created by sweeping a section string along a guide string.

Rules for Sweeping Section String Objects Along a Guide
D

Just like other sweep types, solid or sheet bodies are created based on the current Modeling Preferences Body Type setting and the closure condition of the curves (i.e. open string or enclosed string). An open section string swept along a guide path that forms an enclosed loop will automatically cap the end faces, providing the Modeling Preferences Body Type is set to Solid. Open section strings will always be swept into a solid body when using the sweep with offset option. Only one Section String and only one Guide String may be selected.

D

D

D

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Guide Strings Containing Sharp Corners
When using Sweep along Guide where the guide string contains sharp corners, it is recommended that the section string be placed away from a sharp corner. The section string also needs to be located on an end point of one of the guide string objects.
Guide string Two separate line entities

Section string here located on an endpoint

Do not put Section string here

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Activity 3 - Sweeping Along a Guide
In this activity, use the third method of sweeping, Sweep along Guide to create a solid body. Step 1 Open part file pau_sweep_1 and start the Modeling application. The curves are displayed in two colors. Sweep the section string along the guide string to create a shape that could be used as a base or platform.

Guide string

Section string

-

Choose Insert"Form Feature"Sweep along Guide. The Cue prompts to Select section string. Select the orange curves and confirm the selections as necessary. Choose OK.

-

-

Select the yellow guide string and confirm the selections as necessary. Choose OK. Choose OK to accept the direction.

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The cue prompts to Specify Sweep offsets and a dialog box displays for First Offset and Second Offset. Offsets work the same way as for extrusions, but they will not be used here.

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The cue prompts to Select guide string.

Swept Features and Boolean Operations -

Ensure that the First and Second Offsets are set to 0 (zero). Choose OK on the dialog box to create the solid body.

The base is created. Shade the display if desired to better view the model. The open section string was swept along the full length of the guide string and the system automatically caps the open ends to produce a solid body.

The Sweep along Guide function may be used to sweep any section string along a guide string.
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Optional Challenge - Undo the solid and create it again, this time use a .25 single offset toward the outside of the curves. The part should resemble the figure shown.

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Step 2 Close the part, do not save.
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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Defining a Sweep Region
In some cases when sweep generator geometry is selected, there is a possibility that multiple sweep areas may exist. At these times you will be prompted by the system to define a region to sweep. The system will prompt you to define a region when the selected generator geometry is made up of one of the following:
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Noncontiguous geometry that makes up a closed loop. Geometry that provides more than one possible sweep area.

Example of noncontiguous curves. Noncontiguous closed loop made up of 4 curves.

Region 1

Region 2

Selecting these six curves produces two possible sweep regions.

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Activity 4 - Defining a Sweep Region
In this activity you will continue to develop the draglink part. Step 1 Make ***_draglink_2 the active part.

Step 2 Create a feature by sweeping curves along a path.
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Make layer 42 the work layer and all other layers invisible.

Notice that there is no top to the I Beam shape.

Generator geometry.

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Feature to be created.

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Make layer 41 selectable.

These curves will be used to define the sweep cross section. -

Choose Insert"Form Feature"Sweep along Guide. Select the curves shown above for the section string and choose OK. Indicate the region by selecting inside the I Beam shape. Make layer 1 the work layer and layer 43 selectable. Fit the view. Define the guide string by selecting the yellow curves and choose OK. Key in the following: First Offset . . . . 0 Second Offset . 0

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-

-

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Choose Create. Choose Insert"Feature Operation"Unite. Select the first body created as the target body. Select the I Beam body as the tool body. Choose OK. Fit the view.

Step 3 Save the part.

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Choose OK.

Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Revolve
The Insert"Form Feature"Revolve option allows you to create a feature by rotating a section string around an axis through a specified angle.

Rules for Revolving Section String Objects
Just like with extruded section strings, a solid or sheet body is created based on the closure condition of the curves and current Body Type setting found under Preferences→Modeling. Exceptions apply as follows:
D

Revolving open section strings will cause the system to automatically cap the end faces to produce a solid body however, the rotation must be a full 360° and the Modeling Preferences Body Type switch must be set to Solid. The Right Hand rule determines direction of swept.

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Body of Revolution Options
Axis & Angle - This option allows creation of a single feature by revolving the section curves about a specified axis.
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The amount of rotation is determined by entering a Start Angle and End Angle. The total number of degrees cannot exceed 360. The plane of the selected curves is considered zero degrees. The angles entered determine the number of degrees the system revolves the selected curves about the selected axis. Entering a Start Angle which is greater than the End Angle causes the system to sweep in the direction of negative rotation. First Offset and Second Offset function in the same manner as the offsets discussed in extruded bodies.

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Trim To Face/Plane - This option allows creation of a feature on the target solid by revolving the section geometry to a trimming face or datum plane. Trim Between Two Faces/Planes - This option allows creation of a feature on the target solid by revolving section curves between two trimming faces or datum planes.

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Activity 5 - Creating a Body of Revolution
In this activity, you will create revolved features using a variety of methods. Step 1 Open part file pau_revolve_1. Step 2 Select and Revolve the Section String.
-

Choose Revolve.

The Chain Curves option is an easy way to select a group of contiguous curves.
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Choose Chain Curves from the dialog box.

If the loop is closed, pick any one curve and choose OK, the entire string is then selected. If the loop is open as below, the start of the chain must be defined as well as the chain direction. The cue line will prompt you to Select Start Curve of Chain. Care must be taken to select the first object such that the system may chain toward the last object.
Select this end of this object first Select this object second or choose OK.

Select the curves as shown below.

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Choose OK twice. Choose Axis Angle.

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Chain Direction

Swept Features and Boolean Operations

The cue prompts you to Enter Direction - Select object or enter I,J,K values to define vector
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Select the Datum Axis and choose OK.

A dialog box displays fields for the Start Angle, End Angle, and Offsets.
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Key in the following: Start Angle . . . End Angle . . . . First Offset . . . . Second Offset . 0 360 0 0

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Choose OK.

A solid revolved body has been created from an open section string. Remember, if a solid body is desired through a sweep of less than 360° the section string must be closed, or an open section string may be revolved with offsets to form a solid shell using any angle values.

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Shade the part to check the shape of the solid body.

Step 3 Revolve a closed section string with an Offset. Now use the same section string as before to create a new revolved body using an offset and an angle to form a shell.
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Choose Cancel and then Undo (third mouse button pop up).

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Choose Revolve. Select the section string again and confirm the selection. Choose Axis Angle as the method of revolution. Select the Datum Axis and choose OK. Key in the following: Start Angle . . . End Angle . . . . First Offset . . . . Second Offset . 0 180 0 .25

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Choose OK.

Plane of curves

Notice that the revolution starts at the plane of the curves and revolves in a CCW direction with respect to the positive axis of rotation. (Datum Axis). The Right Hand Rule for Positive Rotation applies. Step 4 Revolve a solid face using Axis and Angle option. Now close one end of the solid without creating any new section string geometry by revolving an existing face. The cue line should still be prompting to Select section string.

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Choose Solid Face from the dialog box. Select the solid face as shown and confirm the selection. Choose OK twice.

Select this face

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Choose Axis Angle as the method of revolution. Choose XC Axis and choose OK. Select the far end point of the edge, as shown below, as the rotation point.

Select left end of the top linear edge of the selected face

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Key in the following: Start Angle . . . End Angle . . . . First Offset . . . . Second Offset . 0 -90 0 0

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Choose OK.

The cue line prompts to Choose boolean operation from the dialog box that is to be performed with the revolved feature.
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Choose Create. Choose Insert"Feature Operation"Unite. Select the target and tool solids as shown below.

Target solid Tool solid

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Choose OK.

The model should now appear as shown with one end enclosed.
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Optional Challenge - This shell is one of two molded parts that must fit together. Add a lip to the outside edge of the part by extending the outside edges of the top planar face with an offset value and height value equal to half the shell thickness.

Step 5 Close the part do not save.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Activity 6 - Adding a Body of Revolution
In this activity you will continue to develop the draglink part. Step 1 Make ***_draglink_2 the active part and start the modeling application.

Step 2 Create a body of revolution.
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Make layer 44 selectable and all other layers invisible. Layer 1 will remain the work layer.

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Generator geometry.

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Feature to be created.

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Choose Insert"Form Feature"Revolve. Select section string as shown below and choose OK.

Section String

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Choose Axis Angle. Define the axis direction by choosing ZC Axis and choose OK. Choose Reset and OK to define the revolution point. Key in the following: Start Angle . . . End Angle . . . . First Offset . . . . Second Offset . 0 360 0 0

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Choose Create. Choose Insert"Feature Operation"Unite. Select the main body as the target body. Select the last feature created as the tool body. Choose OK.

Step 3 Save the part.

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Choose OK.

Swept Features and Boolean Operations

Trimming Face Options
When using the Trim to Face/Plane or Trim Between Two Faces/Plane options, the following dialog will appear. This dialog controls how the trimming face/plane will interact with the cross section string.

Do not Extend Trim Face option will only allow the operation to succeed if the cross section geometry or a portion of the cross section geometry intersects the trimming face/plane. If only a portion of the cross section geometry intersects the trimming face/plane, it must be the portion that the boolean operation effects. Extend Trim Face option extends the face/Plane infinitely.

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Activity 7 - Revolving and Trimming to a Face
In this activity you will revolve a small area on the top of the face shown below, to create a curved open shape on the top edge of the bracket.

Step 1 Open part file pau_revolve_2. Step 2 Create the Body of Revolution. Choose Revolve.

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Remember, a section string may be composed of any combination of solid faces, solid edges, curves, or sheet bodies by selecting it in the graphics area. Filtering for specific object types may be accomplished by choosing an option from the dialog box.
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Choose Solid Edge to filter for solid edges. For the first part of the section string, select the front top edge of the solid and, if necessary, confirm the selection.
Select this edge.

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The entire edge will highlight.
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Select the other two edges as indicated below, confirming the selections if necessary.
Select these two edges.

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Choose OK to complete the edge selection, resetting the filter to all types. Without filtering, select the orange line, confirming it if necessary.
Select this line.

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Choose OK to confirm that all objects have been selected for the section string.

The Cue line prompts to Define Region Point for Cut Section. The region (area) to be revolved must be specified.

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Select the region surrounded by the highlighted objects.
Select region

:

The rectangular region will highlight in a cyan color. The Cue prompts to Choose revolution method.
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Choose the Trim To Face option.

Now the defined region may be revolved and trimmed to a specified face.
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Filter for Solid Face and choose the solid face as shown, choose OK.
Select face

:
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A datum axis has been created to use as the axis of rotation.
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Choose the Datum Axis and then choose OK. Ensure that the both Offset values are set to 0 and choose OK on the Revolved Body dialog box to create the revolution without offsets.

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The rotation will occur around the specified axis. The Cue prompts to Choose boolean operation from the dialog box (Unite, Subtract,Intersect).
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Choose Unite to unite the revolved feature to the solid model. Fit the view.

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Step 3 Close the part, do not save.

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Activity 8 - Extruding to a Face
In this activity you will complete the development of the draglink part. Step 1 Make ***_draglink_2 the active part and start the modeling application.

Step 2 Extrude a section string to a face.
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Make layer 45 the work layer, layer 1 selectable, and all other layers invisible.
Generator geometry.

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Choose Extrude.

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Select the section string as shown below and choose OK.

Section String

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Choose Trim to Face/Plane. Choose Cycle Vector Direction so that the vector points down and choose OK. Toggle Do not Extend Trim Face on. Select the shaded face shown below.

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Select this face.

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Choose OK. Key in the following: First Offset . . . . 0 Second Offset . 0 aper Angle . . . . 0

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Choose OK.

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Choose Subtract. Choose Cancel.

Step 3 Save and close the part.

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Swept Features and Boolean Operations

SUMMARY

Swept features are created by extruding, revolving, or sweeping a section string. The section string may be composed of explicit curves, sketch curves, solid edges, solid faces, and sheet bodies. Boolean operations are used to create a single solid body out of two or more existing solid bodies. In this lesson you:
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Extruded a body. Extruded with offsets. Extruded to a face. Created a Body of Revolution. Created a Swept Feature Along a Guide. Applied boolean operations.

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Editing the Model

Editing the Model
Lesson 15

PURPOSE

To manipulate solid body features by editing their parameters.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
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Playback the construction of a model. Edit feature parameters during playback. Move a Feature. Delete a Feature. Edit a feature's parameters and position. Suppress a feature. Unsuppress a feature. Rename a feature. Reattach a feature to a different face.

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Editing the Model

Common Features of the Edit Pull Down Menu
The Edit pull down menu offers common choices that relate to changing existing solid bodies and features. Some of the Edit options are outside the scope of this class. Those that are within the scope are documented here.

Edit Feature Toolbar

All icons not shown

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Delayed Update on Edit
When enabled, the Delayed Update on Edit option allows the user to control when the system performs the display updates based on the edits performed. This option is a toggle between ON and OFF.

Delayed Update on Edit

If Delayed Update on Edit is OFF, the part is updated after the completion of each edit function. Off is the default setting. If Delayed Update on Edit is ON, feature updates are delayed while edits are made. For example, a feature move, followed by an edit to another feature may be accomplished without updating the model until after both edits are complete. This saves time on complex models with many features. NOTE: Delayed Update on Edit may not be used to delay a delete, suppress or unsuppress feature operation.

Update
This option allows the user to control when the solid model is recalculated and the display updated with the edits previously made when Delayed Update on Edit is enabled.

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Editing the Model

To view the effects of edits on the model, choose the Update icon in the Edit Feature toolbar or Edit"Update in the Menu bar and the feature updates are performed. The Status Line tracks and reports the update activity. NOTE: The system will automatically update the model when the part file is saved.

Update

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Editing Features
Using the Edit Feature toolbar or the Edit→Feature option allows existing solid bodies and features to be altered and manipulated while maintaining any implied or predefined associativity.

Edit Feature Toolbar

Edit Parameters

Edit Move Positioning Feature

Suppress

Unsuppress

Playback

All icons not shown

Edit Feature Pull Down Menu

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Editing the Model

Suppress
The Suppress Feature option simulates the temporary removal of one or more features from the solid body and its display.

After the Suppress Feature icon is selected, a list of all features is displayed in the Suppress Feature dialog box. Select the feature(s) to be suppressed then choose Apply or OK. Suppressed features still actually exist within the math model, but are temporarily removed from the model and display. Since the suppressed features still exist, their display may be restored using Unsuppress Feature. Suppressing features facilitates:
D D D

Temporary reduction in the size of the model, making it easier to work with. This speeds up the creation, object selection, edit, and display time. The removal of non critical features, such as small holes and blends, from the model for other applications. Creation of features in locations where conflicting geometry exists. For example: if there is a need to position a feature using an edge that has already been blended, the blend need not be deleted. Suppress the blend, create and position the new feature, and then unsuppress the blend.

When a feature that has associated features is suppressed, the associated features are also suppressed.

Unsuppress
This option restores previously suppressed features.

15

After the Unsuppress Feature icon is selected, a list of all suppressed features is displayed in the Unsuppress Feature dialog box. Select the feature(s) to be unsuppressed then choose Apply or OK. When features are unsuppressed, other features may also be unsuppressed by association.

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Editing the Model

Move
Choosing Move Feature allows a feature that is not associatively positioned to be moved to a new position. This option excludes all extruded and revolved features as well as features whose location has been constrained using positioning dimensions. Features whose position is determined via associative positioning methods must be moved using the Edit"Feature"Positioning option.

When you select the Move Feature icon , the Move Feature dialog box will appear. Once you select a feature, a second Move Feature dialog box will present four methods available to move the feature:
D D D D

Delta XC, YC, ZC To a Point Rotate Between Two Axes CSYS to CSYS

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Editing the Model

Delta X, Y, Z
This option allows the feature to be moved by specifying a distance and direction using rectangular coordinates, based upon the Work Coordinate System. (Delta XC, Delta YC, and Delta ZC)

To a Point
This option allows the feature to be moved from a reference point to a destination point. The Point Constructor will become available during the operation to assist in the move.

Rotate Between Two Axes
This option allows the selected feature to be moved by rotating that feature from a reference axis to a destination axis. The figure below is an example of this, where the negative X axis is the Reference axis and the negative Y axis is the Destination axis.
Reference axis ZC YC XC

Destination axis

Before

After

CSYS to CSYS
This option allows the selected feature to be repositioned from its current coordinate system to the desired coordinate system. The current or Reference Coordinate System must be defined as well as the desired or Destination Coordinate System using the Coordinate System Subfunction dialog.

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Editing the Model

The newly relocated feature will maintain the same relative position to the Destination Coordinate System as it had with the Reference Coordinate System.

Deleting Features
Deleting features is accomplished through the use of the Delete icon in the Standard toolbar or Edit"Delete from the Menu bar. Selecting the delete icon introduces the Class Selection dialog box. Selecting the Features button within the Class Selection dialog box option allows the selection of features of a solid model to be deleted.

Allows the selection of Features

When a feature is deleted from a body, the space it occupied or voided is filled in exactly as it was before the feature was created. If a feature is mistakenly deleted, the Undo function may be used immediately after the deletion to restore the feature. NOTE: Any features whose placement, not position, is dependent on the deleted feature will also be deleted. For example, if a hole has been created using a datum plane for its placement face, and the datum plane is deleted, the hole will also be deleted.

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Editing the Model

Playback
Playback allows the creation of the model to be reviewed feature by feature. The model may also be edited as it is reviewed. When the Playback Feature icon is chosen, the Edit during Update dialog appears and starts with the first feature created.

Features may be browsed through forward or backward. Once the intended feature has been reached, its defining parameters may be interrogated or edited. Once a feature has been dealt with, a different feature may be browsed to. At any time a trigger may be set to update the model starting at the current feature and continuing until the model is complete, or until a feature fails to update. The Message window shows any applicable error or warning messages, as well as whether the current feature updated successfully or failed.

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Editing the Model

Show Failure Area temporarily displays failed geometry. This option is available only if an object involved in the failure, such as a tool body, is available for display. Show Current Model displays the part of the model that has been successfully rebuilt. NOTE: Some features, such as instances in an array, may not appear in the current model until the last related feature is rebuilt. NOTE: Most options outside the Edit During Update dialog are disabled while the model is being reviewed or edited. The Post Recovery Update Status options specify what should happen when the icon option chosen is completed.
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Continue restarts the automatic update process from where it left off. Pause lets the user choose other Edit during Update options, rather than automatically resuming update.

The Edit during Update dialog also contains icons for the review and edit options that are available for the model. The first row of icons always appear, but are grayed out if not applicable. The remaining icons may or may not appear depending on the circumstances.

Update Tool
Should the model fail to update after an edit, the Edit during Update dialog will be presented. The possible options are:

began.

Undo undoes the last modification made to the model before updating

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Step Back To allows backward navigation through the model to a selected feature that may be chosen from the Update Selection dialog. (The dialog contains a list of the features created before the current one, in order of creation.)

Editing the Model

Step Back allows backward navigation through the model one feature at a time.

Step advances one feature at a time through the model.

Step To allows forward navigation through the model to a selected feature. In this case, the Update Selection dialog lists the features that have not yet been rebuilt.

Continue triggers the update process, which continues until the model is completely rebuilt or until a feature fails. If Continue is chosen when a failure occurs, that feature is skipped.

Accept is used to acknowledge a single warning message about a failed feature (but not an error message) to allow the update to continue. The feature that fails is marked out of date". The status of features may be viewed by choosing Information"Feature" Update Status Report, listing out of date" features with either update or dependant failure reasons. Editing the failed feature to resolve the problem automatically removes the out of date" mark from the Update Status Report.

Accept Remaining, similar to accept, is used to acknowledge multiple warning messages about failed features to allow the update to continue. This is useful for messages that will recur, or to ignore a number of messages.

Delete allows deletion the of the feature that failed to update.

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Suppress suppresses the feature currently being updated.

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Editing the Model

Suppress Remaining suppresses the feature currently being updated and all subsequent features.

Review the model allows investigation, but not editing, of the rebuilt model with options from the menu bar or the third mouse button pop up menu. (The options available are the same as those in the Gateway application.)
Review the model cannot be used to review features that failed during update or that have not yet been rebuilt.

Edit allows you to change the parameters of the feature currently being updated. A sub menu will display with the Edit Parameters, Remove Unused References and Edit Position options.
Removed Unused References

Edit Parameters

Edit Position

Edit Parameters allows modification of the parameters of the feature currently being updated. See the Edit Parameters section of this lesson for more information about this option.

Edit Position allows the selected or failed feature to be repositioned. See the Edit Positioning section of this lesson for more details about repositioning features. NOTE: An editing option must be selected before any work may be performed outside the Edit during Update dialog.

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Editing the Model

If a failure occurs, the options that allow advance through the model (Step, Step To, and Continue) are grayed out until the failure is resolved and the feature successfully updates. NOTE: Edits are not permanent until the model is completely rebuilt. If a feature is edited, and then rethought, making it necessary to return to the beginning of that feature's rebuilding, or to the rebuilding of an earlier feature, the edits will be lost. This may happen if Undo, Step Back, Step Back To, Edit Parameters, or Edit Positioning Dimension is chosen on the same or an earlier feature. When Playback is chosen, all of the solids in the model that will be updated disappear from the graphic window. If Step is chosen to re create the model one feature at a time, the display updates each time a feature is rebuilt. The display does not update if other options such as Step Back To, Step Back, Go To, or Continue are chosen. If these options are being used, and it is desirable to see what the model looks like at this stage of its rebuilding, choose Show Current Model. NOTE: For performance reasons, the display does not change during update when an update method other than Show Current Model is used. After the model update has finished, the display is updated.

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Editing the Model

Selection Toolbar
The selection toolbar may be used anytime the selection of a feature for modification or the extraction of data is required. This method of editing uses an Object/Action approach, where the object needing editing is selected first from the graphic window and then the necessary action is defined. This lesson will focus on the use of the Select Features option.

Select Features

Depending on which category the user has selected, the Type Filter may be used to narrow the band of selectable objects.

Features

The remaining options of the toolbar may be used to further discriminate in the selection of objects.

Reset All icons not shown

Select All

Deselect All

Up One Level

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Once an object has been selected, mouse button 3 (MB3) may be used to select an available operator for that object. NOTE: When depressing MB3 the cursor must be on top of the selected object for the pop-up dialogs to appear.

Various Feature options

Sketch options

NOTE: selected.

Options may vary based upon application and feature

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Editing the Model

Activity 1 - Playback, Move & Delete Features
In this activity, the Playback function will be used to gain an understanding of how a model was constructed. The skills required to move a feature that is not located by positioning dimensions will also be demonstrated. Step 1 Open part file pau_edit_feature_1 and start the Modeling application.

Step 2 Review the model construction. Choose the Feature Playback icon Feature toolbar. from the Edit

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All of the solid features are suppressed except the base solid feature which is BLOCK(2).

Step 3 Move forward to the next feature. Choose the Step icon.

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Editing the Model

The next solid feature, EXTRUDED(3), is updated.

Step 4 Examine the extruded feature. The next set of actions will demonstrate how a feature may be examined to see how it was constructed.

-

Choose the Edit icon box.

in the Edit during Update dialog

-

Choose the Edit Parameters icon.

The EXTRUDED(3) feature is highlighted in the graphic window because it is the current feature.
-

Choose Feature Parameters.

Examine the dialog box window and the graphic window to see that the edge of the BLOCK(2) feature, where the arrows begin, was extruded with an offset value to create this feature. Each solid feature may be examined in a similar manner as it is updated.

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Choose Back twice and then Cancel to return to the Edit During Update dialog.

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The defining parameters of the feature could also have been redefined using this option. Step 5 Move forward to the next feature.

-

Choose the Step icon.

The next feature, T_SLOT(4), is updated.

-

Try to Fit the view using the Fit icon toolbar.

in the View

Most options outside the Edit During Update dialog are disabled while the model is being reviewed or edited. The next action will allow the graphic window to be refreshed.

-

Choose the Review the model icon.

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Fit the view using the Fit icon.

Review the model allows view options to be accessed during the review/edit process.
-

Choose OK. Continue to Step through until the model has been completely updated.

Step 6 Move a feature relative to the WCS. The pad illustrated below is a form feature that was not located with positioning dimensions. The pad will be moved using the Move Feature function.

Non-Positioned Pad

Z X Y

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Choose the Move Feature icon toolbar.

from the Edit Feature

The dialog box window shows a partial list of the features of the model. BLOCK(2) is the base solid on which all of the other features are constructed. RECTANGULAR_PAD(12) is a feature located without positioning dimensions. All of the other features of the model are located associatively to the model using positioning dimensions and therefore not eligible for the Move Feature option, and not listed.
-

Choose RECTANGULAR_PAD(12). Choose OK. Enter the following parameters: DXC = DYC = DZC = .75 -.5 0

-

Choose OK.

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The RECTANGULAR_PAD is moved a distance of .75 in the positive X direction of the WCS and .5 in the negative Y direction of the WCS. Step 7 Rotate a feature Between Two Axes.

-

Choose the Move Feature icon again. Choose RECTANGULAR_PAD(12). Choose OK. Choose Rotate Between Two Axes. The Cue Line is prompting you to define a pivot point. Select the Mid Point of the Rectangular Pad edge as shown below.

Z X Y Mid Point -

Choose XC Axis as the reference axis and choose OK.

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Choose YC Axis as the destination axis and choose OK.

The RECTANGULAR_PAD is rotated 90° about the specified point from the XC axis toward the YC axis. Step 8 Move a Feature from CSYS to CSYS.

-

Choose the Move Feature icon again. Choose RECTANGULAR_PAD(12). Choose OK. Choose Csys to Csys.

-

Choose the X Axis, Y Axis icon.

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Select the edges as illustrated below to define the X axis and Y axis of the Reference coordinate system.

Select X-Axis Here

Z X Y Select Y-Axis Here -

Choose OK.

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Choose the Offset from CSYS icon as the method to define the Destination coordinate system. Select the yellow Existing Coordinate System at its origin. Choose OK.

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The RECTANGULAR_PAD is moved such that its relationship to the Reference coordinate system is maintained relative to the Destination coordinate system

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Step 9 Delete a Feature using the Object/Action approach.

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Verify the Selection toolbar has Select Features ON.

turned

Select Features -

In the graphic window select the rectangular pad that was just moved and confirm if necessary. Place the cursor over the feature and select MB3. Select Delete from the Pop-Up window.

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The RECTANGULAR_PAD is removed from the model. Step 10 Do not save or close the part.

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Parameters
This option allows the redefinition of the parameter values of any parametric feature and causes the model to update to reflect the new values. To edit a feature's parameters:

D

Choose the Edit Parameters icon from the Menu bar.

or Edit"Feature"Parameters

D

Select the feature from the graphic area or choose the feature name from the list in the Edit Parameters list dialog box and choose OK to confirm the selection. The Edit Parameters dialog box listing the different types of parameters valid for the selected feature is presented. Some parameters which may be edited will display on the screen where they can be selected and edited directly, or . . . Any of the valid parameter types may be selected from the Edit Parameters dialog box to display the original creation dialog box with the current parameter values. Parameters may be edited in the creation dialog boxes. Choose OK to complete editing at each of the creation dialog boxes. Choose OK to complete the feature edit. Choose OK again to complete the model edit.

D

D

D

D D D D

NOTE: The Select Features option in the Selection toolbar may also used to select features from the graphic window and edit parameters using MB3.

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Positioning
This option allows a feature to be moved by editing its positioning dimensions. In addition, this option allows the addition of positioning dimensions to features that are either underspecified or were not given any positioning dimensions at the time of creation. Once the feature to edit has been selected, the system will offer the following option choices based upon the positioning status of the selected feature.

NOTE: If the selected feature has no positioning dimension associated with it, the Add Dimension option is automatically selected. To edit a feature's positioning: Choose the Edit Positioning icon from the Menu bar. Select the feature to be edited. Choose the type of dimension edit (add, edit, or delete) as required. Select the dimension or dimension type. Complete the edit, then choose OK. or Edit"Feature"Positioning

D

D D D D

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NOTE: The Select Features option in the Selection toolbar may also used to select features from the graphic window and edit positioning using MB3.

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Editing the Model

Add Dimension
This option may be used to add a positioning dimension to a feature. When adding positioning dimensions, any object that is the intersection between the feature being positioned and the target solid's face may not be selected as the dimensioning geometry.
Select feature to be positioned

Target solid

This curve is the intersection between the feature and the target solid.

The intersection curve is a child product of the tool and target solid's face, it is defined by the boolean operation associated with the feature type being created. The boolean operation does not occur until after the position of the feature has been defined. Therefore, the intersection curve is not a valid selection to specify location. When adding positioning dimensions to a Thru hole, no edge will be selectable as the target edge because both edges are intersection curves.
Identify Solid Face may be used to position to the center of the cylinder.

Target solid

Valid target edges for positioning purposes must belong to features existing in the feature creation list of the model before the feature being positioned.

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For example, in the figure below the features are numbered in the order in which they were created. Feature #2 may not be positioned using any face or edge from feature #3.
2

3

1

Edit Dimension Value
Features may be moved by changing the values of the feature's positioning dimensions. To use this option:
D

Select the dimension to edit (if there is only one positioning dimension, it is selected automatically). Enter the new value.

D

Continue editing as many dimension values as desired. Once all the desired dimension values have been edited, choose OK.

Delete Dimension
Use this option to delete a positioning dimension from a feature. The feature will then remain in its current location as its position is no longer associated to the model.

Error Messages

15

If the new location of the feature causes it to miss the target solid, the Edit during Update dialog box will be presented, this dialog box provides several options for dealing with the failed update as discussed in the Playback section.

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Activity 2 - Edit Features and Positioning Dimensions
In this activity, you will edit the creation parameters of a feature and then capture one aspect of the design intent by editing a feature's positioning dimensions to be associative to the creation parameters of another feature. Step 1 Edit a Feature's Parameters.
-

Continue to work with pau_edit_feature_1.

-

Choose the Edit Parameters icon. Choose BLOCK(2). Choose OK.

The parametric values for the block are displayed on the graphic window. A parameter may be chosen by selecting an expression in the graphic screen or by choosing Feature Dialog. Also, note the expression that controls the width, p8=3.120; this will be used in the next few steps.
-

Choose Feature Dialog from the Edit Parameters dialog box. Change the X Length to 2.75. Choose MB2 to approve the parameter change. Choose MB2 again to approve the change to the indicated feature. Choose MB2 a final time to approve the change to the model.

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Notice that after the part updated, the pad on the bottom is no longer in the center. Assume that the design intent is that the pad should always remain in the center of the part. This situation will be remedied in the next step.

Z Y X Y

Z X

Before

After

Step 2 Edit the Pad's Positioning Dimensions using the Object/Action approach. Verify the Selection toolbar has Select Features ON. turned

-

-

In the graphic window select the rectangular pad shown in the above figure and accept if necessary. (Status line should read RECTANGULAR_PAD(7)) Place the cursor over the feature and select MB3. Select Edit Positioning from the Pop-Up window.

-

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The positioning dimensions for the feature are displayed in the graphic window.

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Choose Edit Dimension Value. In the graphic screen select the p39=1.560 expression. To see the pad feature and expressions better, the view may need to be rotated and updated (MB3). Since the pad should always stay in the center of the part, entering a simple equation will capture this aspect of the design intent.

-

Enter p8/2. The expression p8 controls the width of the part.

-

Choose MB2 to approve the dimension edit. Choose MB2 again to signify the end of dimension editing for this feature. Choose MB2 again to signify the end of positioning editing for this feature. Choose MB2 a final time to signify the end of positioning editing for the model. At this point another feature could have been selected for editing.

-

-

The part should update and the pad is now located in the center of the block.

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Step 3 Edit the Block Width using the Object/Action approach.
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In the graphic window select the base block feature as shown in the figure below. You will need to wait for the ellipsis (+...) to appear, then select with MB1 and use Quick Pick to step through the multiple candidates. Watch the Status line, when it reads BLOCK(2), accept the feature with MB2.

Place cursor here and wait for the ellipsis to appear (+...). -

Place the cursor over the feature and select MB3. Select Edit Parameters from the Pop-Up window. Select the p8=2.75 dimension from the graphic window. Change the value to 5.00 . Choose MB2 twice to complete the edit.

-

Choose the Fit icon.

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Notice that the pad feature remained in the center of the block.

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Activity 3 - Using the Update Tool
In this activity, you will edit a feature that causes a feature to be positioned completely outside the target body. Using Edit during Update, you will rectify the problem and continue the modeling process. Step 1 Edit a Feature's Parameters.
-

Continue to work with pau_edit_feature_1.

-

Choose the Edit Parameters icon.

-

Choose BLOCK(2) and select MB2. Select the p8=5.00 dimension from the graphic window. Change the value to 1.75 . Choose MB2 three times to complete the edit.

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The Edit during Update dialog box appears.

The feature that has caused the failure to occur is shown in the graphic window.
-

Choose Show Current Model.

The model appears in the graphic window relative to the new 1.75 width value.
-

Choose Show Failure Area.

The reason for the failure may now be clearly seen; the hole falls outside the bounds of the body.

-

Choose the Edit icon window

in the Edit During Update

-

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Choose the Edit Position icon. Choose Edit Dimension Value.

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Select the p45=1.625 dimension from the graphic window. Enter p8-1 and choose MB2 four times.

The hole now falls within the solid model, correcting the failure. The model updates correctly. Step 2 Close the part, do not save.

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Editing the Model

Model Navigator
The Model Navigator is a special window that allows investigation of, as well as actions to be performed on a feature. Holding down the third mouse button on a feature causes a feature specific pop up menu to be displayed offering pertinent editing options. To access the Model Navigator in UNIX use the Navigator toolbar and to access the Model Navigator in Windows use the Resource bar. Both, by default, are located vertically on the right side of the Unigraphics window.

UNIX: Icon from Navigator toolbar

Windows: Icon from Resource Bar

The options on the pop up menu may vary depending on what feature is selected, and what operation may be pending at the time. Also, most of the options are not available if the Modeling application is not active.

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The following options appear on this pop up menu for Feature nodes:
D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

Display Dimensions Show/Hide Select Make Current Feature Edit Parameters Edit Positioning Suppress/Unsuppress Reorder Before Reorder After Group Replace Rename Delete Object Dependency Browser Information Properties

The following options appear on the pop up menu for Work Part nodes:
D D D

Expand/Collapse All (with Quick Look listing only) List Interpart Children List Interpart Parents

Work Part nodes are not discussed in this text. For more information about these topics consult the technical documentation.

Display Dimensions
Choosing Display Dimensions causes the feature's parameter values to be displayed (just as they are with Edit Parameters). The temporary display remains until a Refresh is done.

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Show/Hide
Allows the body or parents for the selected feature to be hidden or displayed. This function blanks/unblanks the object(s) and their display can be brought back by using the Show/Hide options or by using the blanking functions found under the Edit"Blank options in the Menu bar. The Hide Body option blanks" the solid body that the feature is applied to. The Hide Parents option is more applicable to swept features. If the Hide Parents option is used on a swept feature, the system will hide (blank) the parent curves which generated the swept feature. If the swept feature is derived by a solid edge(s) then the Hide Parents option will hide (blank) the parent solid body. This option is not effective in showing or hiding "resulting curves," which are produced directly from a curve feature operation, such as with Offset Curve.

Select
Allows the parents or children of a feature to be selected in the Model Navigator. This option also allows for all descendants/ancestors to be selected. For example, if a pad feature is placed on a block feature, the pad is a child of the block. If a hole is placed on the pad feature, then the hole becomes a direct child to the pad, however the hole is also a descendant of the block. The ancestors of the hole are the pad and the block features.

Make Current Feature
Provides a quick and easy method for inserting features into a part. This option may be used to make an existing feature the current feature of the solid body, and then add more features at that point in the model hierarchy. If this option is used on a feature whose time stamp positions it in the middle of the build hierarchy, making it the current feature, all of the features after it are marked inactive. As new features are created they are inserted into the build hierarchy before the inactive features. NOTE: If feature creation is not currently applicable, such as from the Gateway application, the Make Current Feature option is unavailable.

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NOTE: When a pre-V16 part file is loaded, the last feature in that part is the current feature.

Edit Parameters
Same as Edit Parameters as discussed previously in this lesson. Double clicking on a feature name in the Model Navigator will bring up the Edit Parameters dialog box.

Edit Positioning
Same as Edit Positioning as discussed previously in this lesson.

Suppress and Unsuppress Feature
Choosing Suppress causes the feature to be suppressed and an immediate update to the model to be performed. Suppress works with the checkbox associated with the feature node. When the feature is suppressed, the check is removed from the checkbox. When the feature is unsuppressed the check is displayed in the checkbox. The option on the pop up menu changes to Unsuppress, which may be used to unsuppress the feature.

Reorder Before/After
Allows the construction order of the features in the model to be altered by positioning the selected feature before or after other features in the build hierarchy. Choose the feature that the selected node is to be reordered relative to from the Reorder Before or Reorder After cascade menus. Nodes may also be dragged and dropped in the Model Navigator window to perform a feature reorder. Multiple features may be selected by holding the Ctrl key down during selection.

Group
Same as Format"Group Features (see technical documentation for more information).

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This option lets you group features into a special collection called a Feature Set. Members of a Feature Set can be controlled together during suppress, delete and move feature operations. Choosing Group causes the Sets of Features dialog box to appear. The features included in the Feature Set can also be hidden so they do not show in the Model Navigator and can only be accessed under the Feature Set Name. NOTE: If you delete a Feature Set, all of its member features are also deleted. To delete a Feature Set without deleting its members, first remove its members.

Replace
The replace option allows a feature's definition to be replaced or redefined" by another feature. For example, a surface that is used as a trim face could be replaced for a different surface without having to delete or redefine several other features. For more information on replace see the technical documentation.

Rename
Features are named by the system on creation, such as BLOCK(1). The rename option allows user defined names to be assigned in place of the system assigned names.

Delete
Same as Edit→Delete as discussed previously in this lesson.

Object Dependency Browser
The Object Dependency Browser allows the parent and child relationships of a feature to be interrogated.

Information
Provides information about the selected feature in the Information window.

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Properties
The properties option provides access to General and Attribute information for the feature selected. General properties include the feature name, which can be edited similarly to the Rename function. Attributes can be added to any feature to include information which could be called out in a specified column of the Model Navigator. For more information on feature attributes and Model Navigator columns see the technical documentation.

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Activity 4 - Reordering with the Model Navigator
This activity will show how reordering a feature impacts the design of the part. Step 1 Open part file pau_edit_feature_2 and start the Modeling application. Step 2 See how the part was constructed. Another way of reviewing the construction of a model, is by suppressing all the features and then unsuppressing each feature one at a time.

-

Choose the Model Navigator icon from the Navigator toolbar (UNIX) or from the Resource Bar (Windows) and size as required. Windows ONLY: Choose the tack icon in the upper left hand corner to permanently display the Model Navigator. Click on the checkmark to the left of BLOCK(0).

-

-

The block feature is suppressed as well as all of the other features. This is because the subsequent features possess a child relationship to the block.
-

In the Model Navigator, unsuppress each feature by clicking in the checkbox to restore the display. Start with BLOCK(0) and work down.

This should afford a better understanding of how the part was constructed. Step 3 Reorder the Hollow feature.
-

Select the Hollow feature in the Model Navigator. Place the cursor over the node for HOLLOW(1), press and hold down MB1, drag the feature on top of EXTRUDED(3).

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The hollow feature is reordered after the extruded feature and the graphic window reflects the edit.
-

Press and hold down MB1 on HOLLOW(2) and drag the feature on top of BLEND(5).

Notice the sharp corners on the inside radii.
-

Press and hold down MB1 on HOLLOW(5) and drag the feature on top of BLEND(6).

Now there is a radius on the inside corners. Step 4 Identify and Rename a Feature.
-

Select the node name BLEND(4) using the first mouse button.

The corresponding feature highlights in the graphic window. Since the feature has been identified, it can now be renamed with a description that is more meaningful to the user.
-

Place the cursor over the node name BLEND(4), use the third mouse button pop up menu to choose Rename.

The Rename dialog box appears.
-

Enter THROAT_BLEND and press Enter.

The new name is reflected in the Model Navigator. Notice that the time stamp [(4)] was added.
-

Close the Model Navigator Window. (Windows users remember the tack)

Step 5 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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Reattaching a Feature
One of the feature parameters available for editing under Edit Parameters is Reattach. Reattach allows the feature references of the feature to be redefined. A feature reference may be an attachment face, a thru face, an edge, etc. Objects that may have their references redefined include most features (holes, pockets, grooves, pads, slots, and bosses), and linear instance sets of these features, trim faces of extruded and revolved features, and user defined features (UDFs). In the figure below, a slot feature is reattached from the original placement face to a new face.
Original slot feature

Slot feature is reattached to a new placement face

Using the Reattach Menu dialog box
The Reattach Menu dialog box only enables the options pertaining to redefining the selected feature. For example, the model must include a thru feature for either of the Specify Thru Face options to be enabled, or include a UDF for the Specify Tool Placement Face option to be enabled.

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When an option icon is chosen, the system highlights the existing references of the type in question. For example, if the Specify First Thru Face icon is chosen, the system highlights the current thru face for the selected feature.

Current positioning dimensions

Reference direction type Use to change direction of the normal direction Specify location of feature

Use to change reference direction

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Reattach Menu dialog box Options
The following options are available to redefine feature references: Specify Target Placement Face allows a new attachment face for the feature being edited to be specified. Specify Reference Direction allows a new horizontal reference to be specified for the feature being edited. Redefine Positioning Dimensions allows new positioning dimensions to be specified for the feature being edited. Specify First Thru Face allows the first through/trim face of the feature being edited to be redefined. Specify Second Thru Face allows the second through/ trim face of the feature being edited to be redefined. Specify Tool Placement Face allows the tool face of a User Defined Feature (UDF) to be redefined. In addition, while using any of these redefine feature options, the following options on the Reattach Menu dialog box are available: Filter allows filtering of selectable object types. The default is All Types. The following object types are available:
D D D D D

All Types Face Datum Plane Edge Datum Axis

15

The above list of filter options is dependent on the specific Reattach option icon chosen. For example, for Specify Target Placement Face, Specify First Thru Face, Specify Second Thru Face, and Specify Tool Placement Face, only faces and datum planes are selectable. For Specify Horizontal Reference, faces, edges, datum planes, and datum axes are selectable.

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A list window displays the types of positioning dimensions currently on the selected feature. If the first mouse button is used to select a dimension in this list, its available references are highlighted in the graphic window. Double clicking with the first mouse button on a dimension in the list allows it to be redefined. The Direction Reference options, Horizontal and Vertical, allow the definition of a new horizontal or vertical feature reference. The default is always set for the existing reference type. Reverse Direction allows the feature's reference direction to be reversed. Reverse Side allows the feature's normal direction to be reversed when reattaching that feature to a datum plane. Specify Origin allows quick relocation of the reattached feature by moving it to a specified origin. This option is useful when reattaching features to datum planes. Since features are initially placed at the center of a plane, the update may fail since the plane's center may not be near the feature's actual position. This option may be used with all features. Delete Positioning Dimension allows deletion of a selected positioning dimension. If a feature does not have any positioning dimensions, this option is grayed out.

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Activity 5 - Reattaching a Feature
In this activity, you will move a feature from one face to another.

Step 1 Open the part file pau_reattach_1 and start the Modeling application. Step 2 Reattach the extruded feature.
-

In the graphic window select the rectangular pad and accept if necessary. (Status line should read RECTANGULAR_PAD(7)) Place the cursor over the feature and select MB3. Select Edit Parameters from the Pop-Up window. Choose Reattach from the Edit Parameters dialog box.

-

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A Reattach dialog box displays icons for the selection steps and other options for reattaching the feature.

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The icon for Specify Target Placement Face is highlighted. Also, notice that the current placement face for the Rectangular Pad feature is highlighted in the graphic window. The Cue Line prompts to select a Target face to define the new placement face for the feature.
-

Select the right face of the solid, and accept the selection.

Now the second icon, Specify Reference Direction highlights, the current horizontal reference vector is displayed in the graphic window, and the cue prompts you for selection of a new horizontal reference.
-

Select the lower edge of the face as the horizontal reference, and accept the selection.

Target Face

Horizontal Reference

Now the third icon, Redefine Positioning Dimensions, highlights and the Cue Line prompts you to select a Dimension to Redefine.
-

Select the vertical positioning dimension (2.500). Choose the lower front edge of the solid as the target object as shown below.

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Select the bottom outside edge of the pad feature as the tool edge.

Tool edge

Target object -

Select the horizontal positioning dimension (1.000). Select the right vertical edge of the solid as the Target Object as shown below. Select the right outside edge of the pad feature as the tool edge.

-

Tool edge Target Object

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Choose MB2 twice to complete the reattachment of the feature.

Step 3 Choose File"Close"All Parts.

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SUMMARY

The Edit Features functions in Unigraphics provides an efficient and robust capability to change design, form, fit, and function. Because parametric values can be accessed and edited, investment of parametric design time is not wasted when the need for design changes occur. The good designer will possess good modeling skills that keep in mind downstream editing requirements. This lesson introduced:
D D D D D D D D D D D

Delayed Update on Edit Suppress a Feature Unsuppress a Feature Move a Feature Delete a Feature Use the Playback Function Edit Feature Parameters Edit Feature Positioning Edit During Edit The Model Navigator Reattach a Feature to a Different Face

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Instance Arrays

Lesson 16

PURPOSE

To introduce Instance Arrays.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
D D

Create a Rectangular Array. Create a Circular Array.

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Instance Arrays

Instance Arrays

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Instance
Using Insert"Feature Operation"Instance from the main menu bar, duplicates existing features, eliminating repetitive efforts in the creation of models.

Choosing Insert"Feature Operation"Instance yields the following dialog box which supports Rectangular and Circular Instance Arrays as well as the ability to Mirror Features or Mirror an entire solid Body.

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Instance Arrays

This option allows Instance arrays from an existing feature to be created. An instance is a shape linked feature, similar to a copy. The Instance not only duplicates the feature but preserves the parameters of the feature. Since all instances of a feature are associated, the parameters of the feature may be edited and those changes are reflected in every instance of the feature. The instance itself is also a parametric feature; that is, the parameters of the Instance Array itself may be edited. The following Instance options are available:
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Rectangular Circular Mirror Body (Not covered in this course) Mirror Feature (Not covered in this course) Pattern Face (Not covered in this course)

There are three methods of creating Instance arrays:
D D D

General Simple Identical

In most cases the General method is the best practice. However, in very complex models, system performance may be affected. In these cases, using the Simple method may increase performance and in a worst case scenario the Identical method may be required. NOTE: Most Feature Operations may not be instanced.

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Instance

Instance Arrays

Rectangular Instance Array
This function allows the creation of a linear array of instances from the selected feature(s). These arrays may be in either the XC or YC direction or both. All rectangular arrays will be created in a plane parallel to the XC YC plane. The WCS can be redefined while in the process of creating arrays. The position of the rectangular array will remain relative to the location of the feature that the array is based on. If the feature position is edited, the array position will also update. After the feature(s) to be instanced is selected, the following parameters must be entered:
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Number Along XC: The total number of instances in the XC direction, including the original feature to be Instanced. XC Offset: The spacing between the instances in the XC direction. Number Along YC: The total number of instances in the YC direction, including the original feature to be Instanced. YC Offset: The spacing between the instances in the YC direction.

The Offset values can be either positive or negative. The direction will be relative to the current orientation of the WCS. The total Number of Instances for both the XC and YC must be a whole number greater than zero.
Parameter Settings: Number Along XC = 3 XC Offset = .75 Number Along YC =4 YC Offset = 1 Hole selected for Instance 1.00

.75

Solid block

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Instance Arrays

Allows a circular array of instances from selected features to be created. After selecting the feature to be instanced in a circular array, the parameters for the circular array must be supplied. Parameters include the method for creating the instance array plus the following values:
D D

Number: The number of instances to be created in the circular array, including the existing feature. Angle: The angular spacing between instances, about the reference point.

Once the feature is selected and the parameters specified, a rotation axis must be selected. The plane in which the circular instance array will be created will be normal to this rotation axis, regardless of WCS orientation. A rotation axis may be defined by specifying a Point & Direction (Vector Constructor dialog box) or by specifying a Datum Axis. NOTE: Defining a point and direction will not maintain positional associativity. If the defined point moves, the circular array will not move with it. Defining the rotation axis by a datum axis will maintain positional associativity. Using Point & Direction, after specifying the rotation axis, the following information must be entered:
D

Reference Point: Defines the location that the instanced feature will be rotated about, relative to the rotation axis.
Hole selected for instance array Rotation axis +ZC

Reference point Y

45_ Parameter Settings: Number = 8 = +ZC = arc center

Z

X

Angle

= 45_

Rotation Axis Reference Point

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Circular Instance Array

Instance Arrays

Activity 1 - Rectangular Instance Array
In this activity, a rectangular instance array will be created from a hole feature. Design Intent The finished part will have six holes. There will be two holes in the XC direction and 3 holes in the YC direction. The figure below illustrates the model to be used for this activity and an illustration of the finished part.

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Before

After

Step 1 Open the part file.
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Open pau_array_1, and start the Modeling application. Save the part as ***_array_1.

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Instance Arrays

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Choose Hole. Use Simple Hole type. Select that Planar Placement Face and the Thru Face as shown.

Select the outside face as the Planar Placement Face.

Select the inside face as the Thru Face.

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Enter .257 as the diameter of the hole and choose OK.

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Step 2 Create a hole feature.

Instance Arrays -

Position the hole as shown below.

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Step 3 Manipulate the WCS. The WCS must be in the proper orientation in order to create the instance array.
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Choose WCS→Orient.

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Choose X Axis, Y Axis.

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Instance Arrays -

Y-Axis

X-Axis

The proper WCS orientation is shown below.

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Choose OK.

Step 4 Create a rectangular array of the hole feature.
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Choose Instance. Select Rectangular Array. Choose the SIMPLE_HOLE(14). The feature may be selected from the graphics area or from the Instance dialog.

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Select the Axes as shown.

Instance Arrays -

Choose OK. Enter the Parameters for the Instance as shown below: Method Number Along XC XC Offset Number Along YC YC Offset General 2 1.25 3 .687

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Choose OK.

A temporary display of the instance array will appear in the graphics area. Choosing Yes will create the instance as it is shown in the graphics area. Choosing No will return to the Enter Parameters dialog box.
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Choose Yes.

Step 5 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Instance Arrays

In this activity, a circular instance array will be created from multiple features.

Design Intent
The finished part will have four legs that are identical and are to be equally spaced about center of the cylinder. The figure below illustrates the model to be used for this activity and an illustration of the finished part. Step 1 Open pau_array_2, and start the Modeling application.
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Save the part as ***_array_2.
Before

After

Step 2 Create the Instance Feature.
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Choose Instance.

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Activity 2 - Circular Instance Array

Instance Arrays -

Choose Circular Array. Select the following five features from the Instance dialog: EXTRUDED(5) BOSS(6) BOSS(7) EXTRUDED(9) SIMPLE_HOLE(13)

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NOTE: Multiple features may be selected by pressing MB1, dragging over their names in the Instance dialog box, and releasing MB1.
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Choose OK to confirm the selections. Enter the Parameters for the Instance as shown below. Method General. Number 3 Angle 120

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Choose OK.

The axis of rotation must be selected. Using a Datum Axis maintains positional associativity.

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Instance Arrays -

Select the Datum Axis Method. Select the Datum Axis as shown.

Select this Datum Axis

A temporary system display previews the arrangement of the instances to be created. To speed up the display process, only the first feature selected will be previewed.
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Choose Yes if the temporary display looks correct. Save the part file.

Step 3 Add a chamfer to an instanced hole feature.

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Choose the Chamfer. Choose the Single Offset option. Select the circular edge of any one of the instanced holes. Confirm the selection if necessary and choose OK. Key in the Offset value of 1.5 and choose OK.

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Make layer 61 selectable.

Instance Arrays

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Notice that there is a choice to apply the chamfer only to the selected feature or to apply it to all instances.

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Choose Chamfer all instances.

Step 4 Edit the Instance array parameters.
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Choose Edit→Feature→Parameters. Select the first instanced feature from the Feature Selection dialog box list and choose OK.

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Instance Arrays

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Choose Instance Array Dialog. Accept the default Method of General and enter the new parameters: Total Number = 4 Angle = 360/4 Radius = 75

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All options available for editing the selected feature are displayed in the dialog box that appears. The options in the dialog box may vary depending on which feature is selected.

Instance Arrays -

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Choose OK three times to complete the edit. The part should now have four legs and appear as shown below.

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Step 5 Choose File"Close"Save and Close.

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Instance Arrays

SUMMARY

The Instance functionality duplicates existing features, eliminating repetitive efforts in the creation of models. In this lesson you:
D D

Created a Rectangular Instance Array. Created a Circular Instance Array.

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Additional Projects

Appendix A

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Point Constructor Options

Point Constructor Options
Appendix B

This appendix describes the various Point Constructor methods that may be used. The Point Constructor dialog box provides a standard way to specify points throughout Unigraphics. It allows the creation of point objects as well as the determination of locations in three dimensional space.

Points may be specified in one of two ways: either choose one of the provided, icons at the top of the dialog box, or directly enter the X-Y-Z coordinates in the fields provided.

Creating Points vs. Specifying Locations
When you choose the Point icon, the Point Constructor lets you create point objects. Points appear on the screen as plus signs (+). When you use the Point Constructor in any other option, you are only specifying temporary locations. These locations are displayed as asterisks (*). Choose Refresh to remove the asterisks.

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Point Constructor Options

Points have many uses in Unigraphics. Points may be used to locate other objects, such as the title block on a drawing. Points may also be used to construct curves or surfaces. Locating positions with the Point Constructor dialog box is also valuable. For example, the end of a line or the center of a circle may be specified to locate objects in model space. The positions of the control points of a curve may also be specified.

Icon Methods To Specify a Point
The top of the Point Constructor dialog box displays icons representing various methods for specifying a point. As the cursor is passed over these icons, the icon block displays the name of the method. The icon methods are described below.

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Inferred Point
Depending on where you select when using this option, one of the following single selection options will be used: cursor location, existing point, end point, mid point or arc center. This option does not require a selection of the particular point type for each selection.

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Point Constructor Options

Cursor Location
Use this option to construct points anywhere on the screen by positioning the cross hairs and indicating a location. The location defined lies on the WCS Work plane. To locate points quickly and precisely, use a grid (see Preferences→Work Plane "Show Grid). When Snap to Grid is on, points snap to the nearest grid position. The grid spacing may be set as desired. The spacing in the X-direction does not need to be the same as the spacing in the Y-direction. For example, if the smallest increment on the part is in eighths of an inch (.125), then the grid spacing would be set to .125. A point at exactly one inch in X and two inches in Y could be created by counting over eight grid points in X and up sixteen in Y and indicating a screen position.

Existing Point
Use this option to specify a location by selecting an existing point. Remember that the point constructor allows locations in model space to be specified. In the instance where an existing point is being selected it is generally a case of using that point to aid in the construction of another object such as a the endpoint of a line, or the location of an object, such as placement of a drawing border.

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Point Constructor Options

End Point
Use this option to specify locations at the end points of existing lines, arcs, conics, and splines.
Lines Conics Arcs Splines

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When selecting geometry, place the selection ball near the end point you wish to select. The point is located at the end of the curve nearest to where it was selected (see below). Closed curves, such as complete circles, have only one endpoint because the two ends are at the same coordinate location.
Selection Position

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Point Constructor Options

Control Point
Use this option to locate points at the control points of geometric objects. The control points, which vary for each object type, include: Existing points, End points of conics, End points and Mid points of open arcs, Center points of circles or arcs, Mid points and End points of lines, and End points or Knot points of splines. Use the cursor to select objects. Since some objects have more than one control point, place the cross hairs near the control point desired. The system locates the control point nearest the position where the curve is selected.
Open Arcs Lines

Conics Circles Splines

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Point Constructor Options

Intersection Point
Use this option to locate a position at the intersection of two curves or at the intersection of a curve and a surface or plane. If the curves intersect more than once, the system creates the point nearest to where the second curve was selected.
Two Possible Intersections 1 Select second curve nearest the intersection you want

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When the two selected curves are not coplanar with the XC-YC plane, an apparent intersection occurs and the system creates the point on the first curve selected. The system calculates an apparent intersection by projecting the curve parallel to the ZC axis, and the point will be defined on the first object selected (see below). Projections are always done along the ZC-axis.
Second Curve ZC YC XC First Curve Point

Positions may be indicated at the intersection of any two non parallel curves. Implied intersections may be located even if the objects do not actually touch (see below).

Intersection point of line and arc

Implied intersection of two lines

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Point Constructor Options

Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center
Use this option to specify a position at the center of an arc or ellipse by selecting the arc along its circumference.

In the example below, selecting with the circumference of the large circle within the selection ball defines the center point of the large circle.

Selection Point Center Point

Selecting near the center of the large circle (see below) will not select the center of the large circle since the selection ball touches the circumference of the small circle.

Selection Point

Center Point

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Point Constructor Options

Angle on Arc/Ellipse
Use this option to locate a position at an angular location on an arc or an ellipse.
Position on Arc 105°

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The angle value is entered in degrees. The angle is referenced from the positive XC axis and is measured counterclockwise in the WCS. The angular position on the arc or ellipse may also be defined on the unconstructed portion (or extension) of an arc or ellipse (see below).
Position on Arc 225°

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Point Constructor Options

Quadrant Point
Use this option to locate positions at the quarter points of an arc or an ellipse.

Select Here Quadrant Point is Located

Points may be located at the starting point of the arc or ellipse and then at quarter distance intervals along the object. The point located is the quadrant point nearest to the position selected. The quadrant position may also be defined on the unconstructed portion (or extension) of an arc (see below).

Select Here

Quadrant Point is Located

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Point Constructor Options

Choosing a Coordinate System
Choose WCS or Absolute to specify which coordinate system the system references when locating positions using the Base Point text entry fields. The WCS (Work Coordinate System) is the default. The WCS may be moved to any location and placed in any orientation. The absolute coordinate system is a fixed coordinate system.

Offset

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This option allows the specification of a position in model space offset from a reference position in model space. The offset location may be specified relative to the reference position using either the absolute or the work coordinate system.

Once an offset method has been specified, it remains in effect until another offset method is selected. The default setting is None (no offset). Offset allows a position to be specified away from a specified reference, or base position in one of the five ways discussed below. This is a useful tool if the desire is to specify many positions where each position is offset from the previous position, or when the position that is being specified is relative to another position most easily defined by selecting a pre existing point.

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Point Constructor Options

In the example below, the need is to specify a quick row of points, offset in the X direction and Y direction. The first point could be specified, the offset would be set to rectangular and the values entered, OK could then be chosen a number of times (7) to offset the remaining points from each previous point. Each alternating OK specifies the next base position, then the next offset position based on the values.

Offset 4 Offset 3 First Point Offset 2 Offset 1

Exiting the Point Constructor menu when using an offset requires the return of the offset setting to NONE. This may be accomplished by choosing the RESET button, or by manually changing the offset type back. If The NONE setting is not reset, the Point Constructor continues to offset positions from the last specified position.

Reset
Use the Reset button to quickly set the X-Y-Z coordinate fields to 0.0, and to set the Offset option to None.

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Point Constructor Options

Rectangular Offset
This option allows a position to be offset by entering values that represent the X, Y, and Z directions relative to the coordinate system specified from a reference point (see below). The direction of the offset is determined by the coordinate system selected and the orientation of that coordinate system. The origin of the coordinate system has no effect on the offset.
Offset Offset Point

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X = 2.0 Y = 0.5 Z = 1.5
Reference Point

Z Y X Coordinate System

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Point Constructor Options

Cylindrical Offset
This option allows an offset position to be specified by entering cylindrical coordinates (see below). The offset values for Radius, Angle, and Delta ZC are defined relative to the specified coordinate system and applied as illustrated below. The radius and the angle always lie in the X Y plane of the coordinate system specified. A cylindrical offset may reference either the absolute coordinate system or the work coordinate system.
Offset

Radius Angle Delta-ZC

Radius

Offset Point

ZC YC XC Reference Point

Distance Along ZC-axis (Delta - ZC)

Angle

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Point Constructor Options

Spherical Offset
This option allows specification of an offset position using spherical coordinates, two angles and a radius (see below). Angle 1 always lies in the X-Y plane, and Angle 2 defines the elevation of the offset point from the X-Y plane. The radius defines the distance between the base point and the offset point. A spherical offset may reference either the work coordinate system or the absolute coordinate system.

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Vector Offset
Z Y X

Offset

Radius Angle 1 Angle 2
Z Y X

Offset Point Radius Angle 2

Reference Point

Angle 1

This option allows specification of an offset position by indicating a direction and entering a distance in that direction (see below). The direction is defined by selecting a line. The point is offset toward the end of the line that is closest to where the line was selected.

Entered Distance

Offset Point Direction of Offset

Reference Point

Line Selected Here Line Selected to Define Vector

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Point Constructor Options

Offset Along Curve
This option allows an offset position to be defined along a curve by a specified arc length distance or a percentage of the total curve path length (see below). Note that lines may also be used as the curves" for this offset.

Offset Point
Direction of Offset Reference Point

Offset Point

Direction of Offset Reference Point

How the curve is selected determines the direction in which the offset will occur. Select the curve away from the reference position on the side of the curve you want to specify the position (see below).

Select Here . . . Reference Point

Select Here . . . For this Offset Direction

For this Offset Direction

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Point Constructor Options

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Transformations

Transformations
Appendix C

This appendix discusses the fundamentals of transformations. The following topics are covered.
D D D D D D D

Transformation procedure Terminology Translate Scale Rotate about a point Mirror through a line Rotate about a line

There are no activities.

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Transformations
The Edit→Transform option allows objects to be translated, rotated, and scaled. Transformations may be used to create multiple copies of selected objects, make multiple moves, scales, etc.. NOTE: Views, layouts, drawings, or the current WCS are not translatable objects. There are separate options from the main menu bar to deal with these items.
Transformation Procedure
D D

Choose Edit→Transform. Select the objects for transformation. The Class Selection Subfunction dialog box may be used to select the objects. Choose a transformation type from the dialog box shown below.

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Transformations

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Complete the additional selections and choices from dialog boxes. Then complete the choices on the dialog box shown below, and choose OK.

Transformation Options Terminology
Destination Layer allows you to select a layer on which to place the transformed objects. Choose one of the following options:
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Work Orig Specify

Places the transformed objects on the current work layer. Keeps the transformed objects on their original layer. Moves the transformed objects to the specified layer.

Trace Status on creates connecting curves between the original objects end points and their transformed copies. When trace status is off, connecting lines are not created between the original object and the transformed copies.

Original object Transformed Object Trace Curves
Before After

Trace Status may be used with Translate, Scale, Rotate, Mirror, or Reposition to create closed wireframe shapes. Trace Status is not applicable to solid bodies, surfaces, or boundary objects. Trace curves are independent of the
Destination Layer setting, and are always created on the current Work layer.

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Transformations

Subdivisions allows the transformation distance to be divided into a number of equal parts. The subdivision factor is equal to the number of these parts. Use Subdivisions to translate, scale via uniform method, or rotate an object. In translation, the distance is divided by the subdivision factor. In rotation, the angle of rotation is divided by the subdivision factor. In scale, the subdivision distance is the nth root of the transformation, where n is equal to the subdivision factor. NOTE: Subdivisions only divides the transformation distance into equal parts. It does not display selected objects at each subdivided segment. After the number of subdivisions has been entered, the Transform Type dialog box redisplays. Multiple Copies may be selected to enter a desired number of copies. Move allows transformation of an object from its original location to a new location. The selection in this option is object based. A feature of a solid body may not be selected for this operation.

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When a solid body is moved, its positioning features and their associated dimensions are moved. All associated datum planes and axes are also moved with their solid body. All sketch features (when sketched on a face or datum plane) are moved with the solid body as well. When a solid body containing swept features is moved, the sweep outlines, or paths, move as well. Other features or solid bodies sharing those sweep outlines are also moved. NOTE: A solid body cannot be moved with the transformation type set to scale. Use the Scale operation to accomplish this. Copy allows an object to be duplicated at a new location, while keeping the original intact in its initial position. Multiple Copies allows duplication of objects a specified number of times during certain transform operations. Undo Last cancels any immediately preceding transform operation. Use Undo Last after a transformation via Move, Copy, or Multiple Copies. Undo Last remains available until you choose Reselect Objects.

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Transformations

Changes in Transform Type, Destination Layer, Trace Curves, or Subdivisions made after a transformation, but before it is undone, occur during the next transformation operation. They will not affect the execution of Undo Last. Objects originally selected for transformation remain selected at the completion of the Undo Last, and ready for the next transformation operation. Move, Copy, or Multiple Copies selected immediately following Undo Last, regenerates the objects in a state that preceded Undo Last.

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Transformations

Translate
Objects may be Translated (moved) to a point, or by a distance of delta. Translated objects maintain the original orientation.

To a Point allows the selected objects to be translated by indicating a reference and a destination point. Delta allows the selected objects to be translated by specifying a new location in terms of the work (delta XC, delta YC, and delta ZC) coordinates.

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Transformations

Scale
This option affects the size of an object and the distance between the object and its reference point. A non uniform scale method may be specified with the values relative to the WCS..

Scale allows the selected objects to be proportionately resized. Care must be exercised in choosing a reference point for the scale operation because the scale factor is applied to the geometry equally relative to the reference point. The results of different reference point positions are illustrated below.
Reference Point

Reference Point

Reference Point

Reference Point

Scale Factor=1/2

NOTE: A solid body may not be scaled by copying it without losing its parametric information.

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Transformations

Non Uniform Scale allows objects to be resized independently with respect to the XC, YC, and ZC axes. An example of where this option might be useful is to incorporate variable shrinkage factors in mold design.

The figure below illustrates an example of Non Uniform Scale.

ZC YC XC Before Scale Factors

ZC YC XC After

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XC Scale = .75 YC Scale = .5 ZC Scale = 1.25

NOTE: Non Uniform Scale will not allow a Move operation on a solid body. Use Copy instead. However, analytic face geometry (for example, a block feature) cannot be non uniform scaled via Copy. If you wish to non uniform scale a solid body containing analytic surfaces, first convert those sheet bodies into b surfaces using the Convert function, then sew them together into a new solid body valid for non uniform scaling. With the Non Uniform Scale method, Undo Last is available even if the rescaled object had been converted to a different kind of object.

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Transformations

NOTE: Once an arc is converted into a spline, it can no longer be restored to its original object type.(See figure below)
Arc Spline

YC

YC

ZC

XC

Scale Factors XC Scale = 1.35 YC Scale = 1.02 ZC Scale = 1.00

Before

ZC

When an object is transformed into a different type, some or all of the original object data may be lost (for example, attributes, view modifications, drafting objects, dimensions, tool paths, and offset sheet bodies). Subdivisions may not be used in Non Uniform Scale.

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Transformations

Rotate About a Point
Use this option to move objects around a line parallel to the ZC axis, and passing through a specified reference point. A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise. After the reference point for rotation has been selected, a rotation and angle dialog box displays.

The figure below illustrates Rotation About a Point, with multiple copies.
Original Object Number of Copies: 3 Subdiv Factor: 4 Rotation Angle: 270_ Reference Point

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ZC YC XC Line Parallel To ZC

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Transformations

Mirror Through a Line
A mirror image of an object may be created on the opposite side of a reference line. Three options are available for line selection.

The figure below illustrates an example of Mirror Through a Line.
Transformed Object

ZC Original Object Reference Line

XC

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YC

Transformations

Rotate About a Line
This option allows objects to be moved around a reference line which is not necessarily parallel to the ZC axis. Three options are available for line selection: Two Points, Existing Line, and Point and Vector. A positive rotation direction is counterclockwise. The figure below illustrates an example of Rotate About a Line, multiple copies.
Original Hole

Reference Point

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Y Number Of Copies: 7 Rotation Angle: 315_ Reference Point: Arc Center X

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Transformations

Using Transformations for Symmetrical Geometry
For swept solids using explicit curves that have common geometrical subsets, the use of Mirror Through a Line and Mirror Through a Plane can save users considerable creation time. Consider the example below, which shows a combination of Offset Curves and curves Mirrored Through a Line:

Associative Offset Curves

No Associativity

Parent Curves

Mirrored Curves (Not Mirrored)

TIP

Careful consideration of the curves used as parents for the Offset Curves is necessary. Remember, except for the offset distance, editing of the Offset Curves is accomplished only by editing the parents. The Offset Curves are handled as a complete set. Also, note that the circle and arc at the bottom were not mirrored, but the lines at the top were.

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Curve Creation

Curve Creation
Appendix D

PURPOSE

To introduce Basic Curves.

OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this appendix, you will be able to:
D D D D D

Create Lines Create Arcs Create Circles Create Fillets Trim Curves

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Curve Creation

Explicit Curves
The intent of this appendix is to teach 2D generator and guide geometry for the purposes of sweeping through space to create solid bodies. NOTE: In Unigraphics, a curve is considered to be a point, line, arc, spline or conic. The Curve creation options are brought up by choosing Insert→Curve.

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The Work Coordinate System
When creating curves, the orientation or direction can be based on the WCS. The term horizontal appearing in any dialog box or Cue line is meant as parallel to the XC axis, vertical is parallel to the YC axis, and normal is parallel to the ZC axis, regardless of the work view or perspective on the screen. Any 2D curve, except the 2 curve fillet, will be created on the XC-YC plane or a plane parallel to it.

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Curve Creation

Basic Curves
When the Basic Curves icon is chosen, the Basic Curves dialog box is displayed. The icons on this dialog box are displayed below.
Circle Fillet Edit Curve Parameters

Line

Arc

Trim

The portion of the Basic Curves dialog box below the icons is different for each of the options selected. The Basic Curves dialog box is used to create lines, arcs, circles, and fillets. While creating these curves, there is also quick access to the Trim Curve and Edit Curve Parameters functions.

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Curve Creation

The Dialog Bar
The Dialog Bar is a series of text fields that appear at the bottom of the graphics window when in the Basic Curves function. The text fields in the Dialog Bar will vary depending on which type of curve is being created and which options have been selected. For example, the Dialog Bar below is what will appear when creating lines.
The Dialog Bar

Location Fields
D

Parameter Fields

Location fields - XC, YC, and ZC. These fields track the location of the cursor, or they can be used to input a coordinate location in the WCS. Parameter fields - These fields control parameters of the curve, such as length of a line, or radius of an arc.

D

To give a text field focus, the <Tab> key may be used or click the first mouse button in the fields desired. Select once in the field to insert text in the existing string, or select twice for overstrike mode.
D

When the XC, YC, or ZC field has focus, and <Enter> is pressed, the location specified is accepted and an asterisk will appear in the graphics area indicating that point. When a parameter field (such as length, radius, etc. - any field other than the three mentioned above) has focus and <Enter> is pressed, the values in all parameter fields are accepted and applied to the curve being constructed. As soon as a line, arc, or circle is finished being created, new values may be entered in the parameter text fields and the newly created object will be updated accordingly (unless String Mode is turned on.).

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In Preferences→User Interface the number of decimal places displayed in the fields may be controlled as well as whether or not the fields track the current location of the cursor.

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Curve Creation

Pre Selection Highlighting
When the Basic Curves dialog box is active, and the Point Method is Infer, an object on which the Selection Ball is placed will always be pre highlighted, regardless of the setting of the Preselection option in the Selection Preferences dialog box. This includes all Control points (see below) of the highlighted objects. The preselection color is determined by the setting in the Selection Preferences dialog window.

Control Points
Each type of curve has its own unique set of control points (endpoints and midpoints). This table shows the control points for some common curve types.
Curve Line Arc Complete Circle Control Points Endpoints, midpoint Endpoints, midpoint Center of circle, Endpoint

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TIP

The endpoints of a circle are at 0 and 360 degrees, at the 3 0'clock position. There are 2 endpoints at the same exact location.

Curve Creation

Inferred Point Selection
In line and arc creation, the position of the cursor or Selection Ball as geometry is selected is very important. When the Infer point method is being used, the system infers the following:
D

Cursor Location (when a control point, arc center, or object is not in the Selection Ball) Control points (when inside the Selection Ball) An entire curve (when an object is selected where a control point is not encircled)

D D

Status Line Feedback
While Basic Curves are being created, valuable feedback will be given in the Status line. It will tell what kind of point or object is highlighted. It will also display the type of line or arc being created, as well as other useful information.

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Curve Creation

Inferred Selection Chart

Contents of Selection Ball Nothing

Selected Geometry A screen position

Examples

An existing point

The existing point The control point The line, arc, conic, or spline

An endpoint or midpoint of a line, arc, or partial ellipse A line, arc, conic, or spline, but not one of its control points

or

A complete circle or ellipse, (selection ball not over a control point) An arc center of a circle or ellipse A complete circle or ellipse, (selection ball over the control point) A knot point of a spline (splines are covered in the Freeform Modeling Course)

The circle or ellipse

The control point (end point) The knot point

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The center of the circle or ellipse

Curve Creation

General Curve Creation Options
This section discusses some of the options in the center of the Basic Curves dialog box which apply to many different curve creation situations. The options include Delta, Point Method, and String Mode. We will discuss Point Method and String Mode in this appendix.

Point Method
The Point Method option menu, shown below, allows points to be specified relative to existing geometry by specifying a cursor location or by using the Point Subfunction. The options on this menu (other than Inferred Point and Select Face) work similarly to those in the Point Constructor dialog box.
Inferred Point Cursor Location Existing Point End Point Control Point Intersection Point Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center Quadrant Point Select Face Point Constructor (See page Appendix B for more information)

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When using a point method other than Infer, several things change:
D D D

The cursor location is no longer tracked in the Dialog Bar. Pre selection highlighting reverts to the Selection Preferences dialog box status. Control points are no longer highlighted.

NOTE: A Cursor Location, sometimes called Screen Position, is simply projected onto the XC-YC plane. The ZC value of the point will be 0.

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Curve Creation

The Select Face option allows the selection of a face for use as the limiting object for a line. When in any other curve creation mode (arc, circle, spline, etc.) this option is not available. This option can also be used to create a line normal to a face. If the Point Constructor method is chosen, the Point Constructor dialog box is displayed. When Back is chosen from that dialog box, the Basic Curve dialog box returns.
Existing Point Cursor Location End Point Control Point Intersection Point Inferred Point Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center Angle on Arc/Ellipse Quadrant Point

None Rectangular Restores Base Point values to zero and Offset to none Cylindrical Spherical Vector Along Curve

String Mode
When this option is ON, the end of one object becomes the beginning of the next. To stop string mode, turn the button OFF. To stop string mode and start it again with the next object created, choose Break String or press the middle mouse button. NOTE: When String Mode is turned on, the entering of new values in the parameter text fields as soon as a line or arc is finished being created will not update the previously created curve.

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Curve Creation

Line Creation Methods
Between Two Points
Simply define the two points (see below). The points may be a combination of screen positions and control points selected in the graphics area, or values established by entering numbers in the XC, YC, and ZC fields in the Dialog Bar and pressing <Enter>.
YC ZC XC

Second point

First point

NOTE: If a screen position is specified as the second point, and the Angle Increment value is not zero, the line will snap to the nearest increment of that angle.

Through a Point and Horizontal or Vertical
When the second point of a line is defined using a screen position, and this selection defines a line that is within the Snap Angle of being vertical or horizontal from the first point, the line will snap to vertical or horizontal. (The Snap Angle is controlled in the Sketch Preferences dialog box.) Snap Angle is only applicable when using the Inferred point method.
YC ZC XC

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Snap angle is set to 3_

:
First point 3°
:

Second point

3° Second point :

First point

:

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Curve Creation

Through a Point and at an Angle to the XC Axis
D D

Define the start point. Enter the desired angle in the Angle text field in the Dialog Bar and press the <Tab> key. A line at this angle or at this angle plus 180 degrees (depending on where the cursor is relative to the start point) will rubber band in the graphics area. See the illustration below. The value in the Angle text field will also update to reflect the start/cursor locations. Establish the length by specifying a screen position, selecting geometry, or entering a length value in the Dialog Bar.

D

NOTE: Angles are measured counter clockwise from the XC axis.
YC ZC XC

Cursor location

Angle from XC Axis

Start location

Start location Cursor location

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Angle from XC Axis plus 180 degrees

Curve Creation

Through a Point and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle to an Existing Line
D D

Define the start point of the new line. Select the existing line, being careful not to select one of its control points.

NOTE: The first two steps may be completed in either order. Move the cursor around. Depending on where the cursor is, the parallel, perpendicular, or angled line (see below) may be previewed. The Status line shows which mode is being previewed.
Parallel line Line at an angle

Defined point

Perpendicular line Selected line

D

If it is desired to create a line at an angle to the selected line, enter the desired value in the Angle text field in the Dialog Bar and press tab. When the line is displayed, establish the length by: specifying a screen position, selecting geometry, or immediately after the line is created, entering a new value in the Dialog Bar.

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Curve Creation

Parallel to An Existing Line at a Distance
Parallel at Distance From - This option affects line creation when a series of parallel lines are being created. When this option is set to Original, each new line is created at the specified distance from the line that was originally selected. When it is set to New, each new line is created at the specified distance from the last line created.
D D D D

Make sure String Mode is Toggled to Off. Select a line. Enter the Offset Distance in the Dialog Bar. Choose Apply. The new line is offset from the line selected and equal in length. The direction of the offset is dependent on how the original line was selected.
The offset line is created on the side where the center of the selection ball is when the original line is selected. Offset distance

Selected line

New line

If Apply is continually chosen, additional parallel lines will be created. The Offset Distance value may be changed at any time.

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Curve Creation

Through a Point and Tangent or Perpendicular to a Curve
D D

Define the start point of the new line. Select the existing curve, being careful not to select one of its control points.

NOTE: The curve may be selected first, then the point may be defined, if a tangent line is being created. If a perpendicular line is being created, the point must be defined first. The line rubber bands tangentially to the selected curve. There are times that the rubber banding line is on the wrong side of the curve. Move the cursor inside, then outside the curve until the line snaps to the other side.
D

When the desired line is displayed, select the highlighted geometry.

The example below shows two examples of creating a line through a point and tangent or perpendicular to an arc or circle. (Notice that the dashed line shows the line that would be created with the dashed cursor in that position, or by selecting the object in that position.) The same is true for the solid line and cursor.

Defined point (the endpoint of the arc)

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Tangent line

Tangent line Perpendicular line Defined point

Perpendicular line

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Curve Creation

Tangent to a Curve and Tangent or Perpendicular to Another Curve
D

Select the first curve, being careful not to select one of its control points.

The line rubber bands tangentially or perpendicularly to the selected curve, depending on the cursor position.
D

Select the second curve, again being careful not to select one of its control points. When the desired line is displayed, select the highlighted geometry.

D

The illustration below shows the creation of 2 lines; one is tangent to a circle and the other is perpendicular to a circle.
Tangent line Second curve

Perpendicular line First curve

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Curve Creation

Tangent to a Curve and Parallel, Perpendicular, or at an Angle to an Existing Line
D D

Select the curve, being careful not to select one of its control points. Select the line, again being careful not to select one of its control points.

The rubber banding line will be shown parallel, perpendicular, or at an angle to, the selected line.
D

When the desired line is displayed, establish the length by specifying a screen position or selecting geometry. A specific length may also be established immediately after the line is created by entering the value in the Dialog Bar.

NOTE: If selecting geometry to specify the length of the line would result in the line type being changed, press the middle mouse button to choose Lock Mode, then select the limiting geometry.

Second object First object

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Select the curve and line as shown

The parallel, perpendicular, and angled lines will appear individually as the cursor is moved around

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Curve Creation

Line Creation Chart

Line between two points

Select two points

Line through a point and horizontal, vertical, or at an angle to the WCS

Y

1

X

S Define the first point S Define second point within the Snap Angle setting or S Enter the desired angle, press <Tab>, and define second point. S Define a point S Select a line S Select limiting point/object
[Can also select line, then point]

Line through a point and parallel, perpendicular, or at an angle to a line

1 2

1

2

Line through a point and tangent or normal to a curve

2 1

S Select a point S Select a curve S Select limiting point/object (if necessary)

Line tangent or perpendicular to two curves

Select two curves

Line tangent to a curve and parallel or perpendicular to a line A bisector line

2 1

S Select two curves S Select limiting point/object

Select two lines

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Curve Creation

Activity 1 - Creating Lines
In this activity lines will be created using the methods previously discussed. Create the lines as described in the steps only. Additional curves will be created in subsequent activities to further increase understanding. Step 1 Open part file pau_curves_1 and start the Modeling application. Note the location and orientation of the WCS. Step 2 Save the part file as ***_curves_1. Step 3 Choose Insert"Curve"Basic Curves. Step 4 Create Lines Between Two Cursor Locations.
-

Choose the Line icon if not already selected.

The snap angle is set to the default of 3°. Therefore, when cursor locations are specified within 3° of vertical or horizontal, the line will snap to a truly vertical or horizontal orientation.
-

Toggle String Mode to Off. Create a horizontal and vertical line by clicking at two different screen positions each time as shown:

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First selections here

Second selections here

TIP

If a start position was erroneously selected, choosing the icon again will reset the line creation process. There is no need to cancel out of the Basic Curve dialog box.

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Curve Creation

-

Create a diagonal line as illustrated below.

Select here

Select here

Notice that the line remains highlighted.
-

Double click in the Length text box on the Dialog Bar in overstrike mode and enter 4, then press Enter.

The line is edited to that length.
-

Tab to the Angle text box on the Dialog Bar, enter 45, and press Enter.

The line is edited to that angle. Step 5 Create Lines From Endpoints or Midpoints of One Line to Another.
-

Change the work layer to 2 and make layer 1 invisible. Turn Fit All before Displaying to On and choose OK. Choose Refresh (third mouse button).

-

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Curve Creation -

Select the two lines at their midpoints as shown. A line will be created point to point regardless of the snap angle.

Select this line here

Select this line here

Before
-

After

Select the same two lines at their endpoints on the right. A line will be created point to point regardless of snap angle.

Select this line here

Select this line here

Before

After

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Step 6 Create a Line Through a Point and Parallel to Another Line.
-

Select the bottom diagonal line with the cross hairs on the endpoint as shown below. The endpoint highlights before selection. Select the base line at the top as shown, avoiding control points. (The order does not matter - the line could have been selected before the endpoint.)

-

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Curve Creation

A line appears rubber banding from the first point at 90° angles from the base line, relative to the cursor position.

Select this line as a base line Select this endpoint

-

Move the cursor to the right so the rubber band image is parallel to the base line and select the middle mouse button to lock in the construction mode of parallel.

A trim point or object now needs to be selected.
-

Choose the line created on the right, avoiding its control points. This line and the line being created define the intersection point to which the line being created is trimmed.

Choosing this line causes the new line to be trimmed to a point that the two lines have in common (intersection point).

Step 7 Create a Line Parallel to an Existing Line at a Distance.
-

Change the work layer to 3 and make layer 2 invisible.

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Curve Creation -

Select the line as illustrated below (avoid the line's control points).

-

In the Dialog Bar, key in an Offset Distance of 2 and press Enter. A line the same length as the existing line is created.

Notice that the line was created on the side of the base line that the selection ball was on at the time of line selection.
-

Select third mouse button→Cancel. Choose third mouse button→Undo.

The last line created is removed. Step 8 Create a Line Through a Point at a Specified Angle.

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This line will be started at the WCS origin and its angle defined relative to the WCS.
-

Insert→Curve→Basic Curves. Put focus in the XC text box located in the Dialog Bar. Enter 0 (zero) and press the Tab key. In the YC text box, key in 0 (zero) and press the Tab key. In the ZC text box, key in 0 (zero) and press Enter.

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Double click in the Angle text box of the Dialog Bar, type 200, and press the Tab key to lock in that value. Moving the cursor around displays the intended rubber banded line (or a line at 20° if the cursor is in the upper right area).

-

Position the cursor in the lower left to display the 200° line. Instead of selecting a trim line as in Step 6, select a screen position. A theoretical trim line was projected off of the current cursor position and perpendicular to the line created, defining the endpoint of the line.
200°

Theoretical trim line

Step 9 Create a Line Through a Point and Tangent to an Existing Arc/Circle.
-

Change the work layer to 5 and make layer 3 invisible. Ensure that Unbounded is Off. Select the left endpoint of the horizontal line. Select on the right side of the arc, not on a control point.

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Curve Creation

As you do this, the Status line will indicate Tangent.

Step 10 Create a Line at an Angle from a Line and Tangent to a Curve. To create a line at a specific angle from a base line and tangent to an existing curve, both objects must be coplanar. The angle is measured counterclockwise from the base line.
-

Select the last line created avoiding its control points. This defines the base line. In the Dialog Bar, double click in the Angle text box and key in 20. Press Tab to lock in the angle value. Select the circle on the upper left side. Move the selection ball around until the status line reads Angle, then use the middle mouse button to select Lock Mode. Select the horizontal line away from its control points.

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Curve Creation

A line is created tangent to the arc, at an angle of 20° from the base curve and trimmed to the horizontal line.

20°

Step 11 Save the part.

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Curve Creation

Creating Arcs and Circles
Arcs and circles are created with different icons and minor differences in functionality. Both provide immediate display feedback and rely on the simple definition of arc center, size, and start and end points. As a matter of definition, circle means a complete circle, and an arc is a portion of a circle.

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Curve Creation

Creating Arcs
When creating arcs, there are several things to keep in mind:
D

Arcs have four control points: two endpoints, a midpoint, and the arc center. If an arc is chosen such that one of its four control points lies within the Selection Ball, its control point will be selected. If an arc is chosen with none of its control points within the Selection Ball, the arc itself will be selected, inferring tangency or a trim location.

D

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Creation Method
There are two methods for creating arcs:
D

Start, End, Point on Arc With this method, an arc may be created that passes through three points, or which passes through two points and is tangent to a selected object.

D

Center, Start, End With this method, the center point, then the start and endpoints of the arc are defined, which can be adjusted by entering angle values in the Dialog Bar.

Dialog Bar Fields
Radius Diameter Start Angle End Angle

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Curve Creation

Creating Circles
Circle creation simply requires the definition of a center location and a size. That information can be defined by numerical entry or selections from the screen.

Center Point, Point on Circle
D D

Define a point. This becomes the center of the circle. Define a second point. The circumference of the circle passes through this point. A value may be entered in the Dialog Bar to establish an exact radius or diameter.
Second point First point

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Curve Creation

Activity 2 - Creating Arcs and Circles
In this activity, different methods will be used to create arcs and circles. Continue working with the ***_curves_1 file. Step 1 Create an Arc through three points. Three points will be used to create an arc. The arc will start at the first point, end at the second, and pass through the third.
-

Change the work layer to 7 and make layer 5 invisible. Choose Insert→Curve→Basic Curves. Choose the Arc icon. Turn String Mode Off. Choose the Start, End, Point on Arc Creation Method (if necessary). Create an arc by selecting the screen positions in order as shown:
First selection (for start point)

-

Second selection (for end point)

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Third selection (for arc size)

Curve Creation -

Zoom out, if necessary, to see the entire arc.

Step 2 Create an Arc through two points and tangent to another arc.
-

Select the ends of the 45° line, as shown below. Select the arc just created. Do not select on a control point.

An arc is created that is tangent to the first arc created.
Third selection (for arc size) First selection (for start point)

Second selection (for end point)

Step 3 Create an Arc by defining the size and end angles.
-

Choose the Center, Start, End method. Double click in the XC text box on the Dialog Bar and enter 0, press Tab, in the YC text box enter 0, press Enter Select the upper right endpoint of the 45° line again. An arc displays in preview and the Cue Line prompts for an end point or object.

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Curve Creation

-

Select the right endpoint of the horizontal line as shown:
First selection (for start point)

Second selection (for end point)

-

Choose Fit.

The arc is created starting at the diagonal line endpoint and ending at a point that is in line with the arc center and the end of the horizontal line endpoint. Step 4 Save the part.

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Curve Creation

Arc/Circle Creation Chart

Start point, end point, point on arc

2 1

3

S Define first point S Define second point S Define third point

Start point, end point, tangent object
1

2

3

S Define first point S Define second point S Select tangent object S Define start point S Select tangent object S Define end point

Start point, tangent object, end point

1 2 3

Arc center, start point, end point

3 1

2

S Define first point S Define second point S Define third point

Circle center, point on circle

2 1

S Define first point S Define second point

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Circle center, tangent object
1 2

S Define point S Select tangent object

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Curve Creation

Fillets
Fillets are arcs that have tangent relationships with one or more curves. They are editable as fillets, meaning the tangent relationships will be maintained as the fillet radius or arc center is changed. This section contains a brief explanation of Fillet creation functionality. At the end of this section, you will find a summary of Fillet creation methods. There are three Fillet creation methods: Simple, 2 Curve, and 3 Curve, the latter two methods allow manual trimming options. When the Fillet icon is chosen on the Basic Curves dialog box, the Curve Fillet dialog box is displayed, as shown below:

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Curve Creation

Procedure
D D

Choose the type of fillet desired. Indicate the desired trim methods for the objects (two and three curve only). Enter the radius of the fillet. Select the objects. Specify the approximate center of the fillet (two and three curve only).

D D D

When creating 2 and 3 Curve Fillets, trim options for each of the selected curves may be specified. If no trimming options are selected, none of the curves are trimmed. Select from the following trim options: Trim First Curve Trim/Delete Second Curve Trim Third Curve The Delete Second Curve and Trim Third Curve options are applicable to the 3 Curve Fillet only. When creating 2 and 3 Curve Fillets the approximate center must be indicated; this is accomplished by using the cursor or the Point Constructor. Using the cursor location method in Point Constructor selects a position in the X Y plane of the WCS. If a fillet is created other than desired, Undo may be selected to delete the fillet and restore the selected curves.

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Curve Creation

Simple Fillet
Simple Fillet creates a fillet between two coplanar non parallel lines. The size of the fillet is determined by entering a value for the radius first. The lines are automatically trimmed to the points of tangency. NOTE: The trim options and Point Constructor are not available. The fillet that is created is directly related to where the lines were selected. The Selection Ball must be positioned in such a manner as to include both lines. If the Selection Ball contains only one line, an error message displays.
Crosshairs L1 L1

Selected quadrant

L2

L2

BEFORE

AFTER

Before

After

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As both lines are selected, the crosshairs determine which fillet is created; it indicates the center of the arc. Position the crosshairs in the quadrant formed by the lines to define the desired fillet center. Each line extends or trims to the arc.

Curve Creation

2 Curve Fillet
The 2 Curve Fillet constructs a fillet between two curves, including points, lines, circles, conics or splines. A two curve fillet is generated in the counterclockwise direction from the first curve to the second.
Curve 1 Curve 2

Approximate fillet center

Curve 2

Curve 1

If the two selected curves are in different planes, the fillet plane is the plane containing the tangent of the first curve. The plane is normal to the vectors that are normal to both tangents and is totally independent of the WCS. (See below.)
Curve 1 Fillet plane

Fillet

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Vectors normal to both tangents Curve 2

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Curve Creation

3 Curve Fillet
This option creates a fillet between three curves, which can be any combination of points, lines, arcs, conics, and splines. The Radius entry box is not available because it is determined by the geometry selected. A three curve fillet is a circular arc generated in a counterclockwise direction from the first curve to the third curve. The system constructs the fillet in such a manner that the center of the arc is equidistant to all three curves. The three curves do not have to lie in the same plane.
Curve 3

Curve 1

Curve 2 Before After

The system trims curves, based on the selected options, to the tangent point of the fillet. If any one of the curves selected is an arc, the system prompts for additional information to create the fillet:
D D D

Tangent Outside Fillet Within Circle Circle Within Fillet.

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Curve Creation

Curve 1

Curve 1 Before After Fillet

Curve 2 Curve 3 Curve 3

Tangent Outside

Curve 1 Curve 1

Fillet

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Curve 2 Before Curve 3 After

Curve 3

Fillet Within Circle

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Curve Creation

Curve 1

Curve 1

Curve 2

Fillet

Curve 3 Before After

Curve 3

Circle Within Fillet
The Point Constructor selections may be used to create a cliff edge fillet, where the fillet is contiguous with a selected curve, but not tangent to it.
1

:

2

3

:
2

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1

Curve Creation

Fillet Creation Methods Chart
Note: Numbered steps indicate this is not the only way the arc/circle can be created. Simple fillet (lines only) S Select both lines simultaneously (both must intersect the selection ball)

2 curve fillet
2

S Select first object S Select second object
3 1

If the objects extend beyond their intersection point, you must also specify a quadrant for the center of the fillet. S Select first object S Select second object S Select third object

3 curve fillet
3 1 2

To edit a fillet, use the Edit "Curve"Fillet option. This concludes discussion of the creation functions found on the Basic Curves dialog box.

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Curve Creation

Activity 3 - Creating Fillets
Step 1 Create a Simple Fillet.
-

Open part file pau_fillet_1 and select the Modeling application. Choose Insert"Curve"Basic Curves. Choose the Fillet icon. Choose the Simple Fillet icon.

-

Remember, only two lines are used to create a Simple Fillet.
-

Enter a radius of .75.

Practice placing fillets in 4 different line configurations.
-

In Area #1, select the fillet lines in each of the four corners as shown below. Keep both lines inside the Selection Ball when selecting. Cursor placement is critical.

Before

After

To restore the lines to their original state, choose Undo (using the third mouse button). Step 2 Create a 2 Curve Fillet (Trimming Only One Curve). For this step create a fillet with two curves, but trim just one of the curves.

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Curve Creation -

Choose the 2 Curve Fillet icon.

Define which object will be trimmed. In this case trim the line but not the arc. (See below.)
-

Ensure that Trim First Curve is turned on. Choose the Trim Second Curve button to turn the option off. Ensure that the system retained .75 for the radius. In area #2, select the yellow line (first object), then select the arc (second object). Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown below.

-

Select second Indicate here

Select first

Before

After

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Step 3 Create a 2 Curve Fillet (and Use a Point for One of the Curves). Notice that the fillet process is modal, that more fillets may be created without reselecting any icons.
-

Enter 1.5 for the radius. In area 2, select the cyan line. Choose Point Constructor.

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Curve Creation

-

Select the endpoint at the left end of the white line.

Indicate here Select point Select first

Before
-

After

Choose Back to return to the Create Fillet dialog box. Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown above.

Step 4 Create a 3 Curve Fillet. Trim the first and third curves and delete the second.
-

Choose the 3 Curve Fillet icon. Ensure that Trim First Curve is turned on. Choose the Delete Second Curve button to turn it on. Ensure that Trim Third Curve is turned on. Select the 3 curves in a counterclockwise order as shown.

Select first

Select second Indicate here

Select third

Before

After

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Curve Creation -

Indicate the approximate center of the fillet as shown above.

Step 5 Close all part files and do not save.

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Curve Creation

Editing Curves
The options on the Edit Curve option allows the modifications of existing curves. To display the dialog box, choose Insert→Curve→Basic Curves to display the Basic Curves dialog box, then choose the Edit Curve Parameters icon.

Edit Curve Parameters Trim

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Curve Creation

Edit Curve Parameters
When this icon is active and a curve is selected, the edit mode for that type of curve appears. The following types of curve edits are discussed in this section:
D D

Editing a Line Editing an Arc or Circle

Editing a Line
A line may be edited by changing its endpoints or its parameters (length and angle). To change a line's endpoint:
D

Select the line end to be modified. The line now rubber bands from the fixed end. Specify a new position using any of the Point Method options on the dialog box.

D

A line may also be Stretched to move its endpoint. To change a line's parameters:

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D D

Select the line, avoiding its control points. Enter new values for the length and/or angle in the Dialog Bar, then press <Enter>. The direction that the line is extended is dependent on which side of the center control point selected.

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Curve Creation

Editing an Arc or Circle
The two methods used to edit an arc or circle are Parameters and Dragging. The arc's or circle's parameters may be changed by entering new values in the Dialog Bar, or changing them by dragging to a new location.

Moving an Arc or Circle to a New Location
An arc or circle may be moved to a new location, regardless of the editing mode that is active, as follows:
D D

Select the center of the arc or circle. Drag the arc or circle to a new location, or enter a new XC, YC, ZC location in the Dialog Bar.

Using Parameters Mode
To change an arc or circle using Parameters mode:
D D

Enter new values in the radius, diameter, start angle, and/or end angle fields in the Dialog Bar and press <Enter>.

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Select the arc or circle, avoiding its control points.

Curve Creation

Using Dragging Mode
There are two ways to change an arc or circle using Dragging mode:
D

To change the radius of the arc or circle, select it, avoiding its control points, and drag it. When it is the size desired, press the first mouse button.

Other geometry may also be selected to control the size of the arc. For example, a line may be selected to make the arc tangent to it, or the endpoint of another arc may be selected to make the selected arc pass through it.
D

To change the start or end angle of the arc or circle, select it at the desired endpoint and drag it. When the angle is correct, press the first mouse button.

Other geometry may also be selected to control the start and/or end angles of the arc. A line may be selected to stop the arc at its intersection with the line, or an endpoint of another object may be selected, and that endpoint will be projected onto the arc to determine its start angle.

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Curve Creation

Trim
When a curve is trimmed, it is trimmed to its intersection with one or two bounding objects. A bounding object can be a curve, face, point, plane, or view point. Caution must be taken when selecting the curve to trim. The portion of the curve being trimmed determines which end is trimmed. The segment of the object that is selected is always removed or extended (see below). If there are multiple intersection points, select near the desired intersection, the system will prompt for the selection of the desired intersection point to be used as the bounding point.
Bounding Arc Bounding Arc

Intersection Point If the line is selected here BEFORE TRIM

Intersection Point The left part of the line is trimmed AFTER TRIM

One bounding object must be specified, and not more than two, when trimming a curve. Once the bounding objects have been specified, multiple curves may be specified and they will all be trimmed to the bounding objects.

D D D

Select the bounding objects. Define the type of trim to perform. Select the curve to trim.

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Procedure

Curve Creation

Activity 4 - Trimming Curves
Step 1 Trim Curves to One Bounding Object.
-

Open the part file pau_editcurve_1. Select the Modeling application. Choose Insert"Curve"Basic Curves. Choose the Trim icon.

Step 2 Trim the Three lines to an Arc.
-

Select the arc as the first bounding object.
LINE1

Select the arc as the bounding object

LINE2

LINE3

-

Click MB2. In this case, it is not necessary to have a second bounding object, so the selection may be skipped by clicking MB2. Select LINE1 as shown below as the curve to trim.
LINE1 LINE2

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Select the first line to be trimmed

LINE3

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Curve Creation

The bounding curves don't change, so continue trimming.
-

Select the lower end of the second line.
LINE1 LINE2

LINE3

The second line is trimmed to the defined bounding line.
-

Select the lower end of the third line.
LINE1 LINE2

LINE3

The system will trim LINE3 by the combination of the side of the midpoint of LINE3 and the side of the bounding curve. Step 3 Close the part.

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Curve Creation

(This Page Intentionally Left Blank)

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WCS Options

WCS Options
Appendix E

This appendix describes additional WCS manipulation options. WCS Origin: Allows the location of the WCS to be altered using the Point Constructor, while the rotation of the axes remains unchanged.

Defining Points for Location
To determine the location of the WCS, Primitives or any other geometry, the definition of specific points in space is necessary, and is a common function in any CAE system. Unigraphics offers a standard dialog box that provides multiple point methods to define location. Using the Point Constructor dialog box, you can define origin points, start points, endpoints, etc. based on existing geometry or coordinate values.
Existing Point Cursor Location Inferred Point Arc/Ellipse/Sphere Center Angle on Arc/Ellipse Quadrant Point None Rectangular Cylindrical Restores Base Point values to zero and Offset to none Spherical Vector Along Curve Point on Surface Point on Curve/Edge End Point Control Point Intersection Point

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WCS Options

NOTE: For more information on Point types, see Appendix B.
Endpoint selected as new WCS origin

Before

After

Rotate WCS: Allows the rotation of the WCS to be altered, while the location of the axes remains unchanged. The top line of the following menu could be read Rotate about ZC, XC to YC".

The figure below illustrates an example of Rotate about ZC: XC to YC
Before
About the ZC axis, from the XC axis toward the YC axis 90_

After

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Hot Keys

Appendix F

This appendix describes the various short cuts via Hot Keys

Hot Key Ctrl A Ctrl B Ctrl C Ctrl D Ctrl E Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl F G H I J K L M

Function Assembly Navigator Edit, Blank Copy Delete Tools, Expression Fit View Grip Execute Information, Object Edit, Object Display Format, Layer Settings Application, Modeling

Hot Key Ctrl N Ctrl O Ctrl P Ctrl Q Ctrl R Ctrl S Ctrl T Ctrl U Ctrl V Ctrl W Ctrl X Ctrl Y Ctrl Z

Function File, New File, Open File, Plot View, Operation, Rotate (full menu) File, Save Edit, Transform Execute User Function Paste Application, Gateway Cut Edit, Undo

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F

Hot Keys

Hot Keys

F

Ctrl Shift A Ctrl Shift B Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Shift Shift Shift Shift C D E F

Ctrl Shift G Ctrl Shift H Ctrl Shift I Ctrl Shift J Ctrl Shift K

File, Save As Ctrl Shift N Edit, Blank, Reverse Blank Ctrl Shift O All View, Curvature Graph Ctrl Shift P Ctrl Shift Q Ctrl Shift R Format, Layout, Fit All Ctrl Shift S Views Debug Grip Ctrl Shift T High Quality Image Ctrl Shift U Ctrl Shift V Ctrl Shift W Ctrl Shift X Ctrl Shift Y Ctrl Shift Z

Format, Layout, New Format, Layout, Open Tools, Macro, Playback Quick Shaded Image Tools, Macro, Record Toolsm Macro, Step Preferences, Selection Edit, Blank, Unblank All Of Part Format, Visible In View

ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ

Preferences, Object Edit, Blank, Unblank Se lected

Ctrl Shift L Ctrl Shift M Model Navigator

View, Operation, Zoom (full menu)

Alt Tab Alt F4 F1 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7

Toggles Application Closes Active Window Help on Context View Current Dialog Information Window Refresh Quick Zoom Quick Rotate

Ctrl Alt B Ctrl Alt C Ctrl Alt M Ctrl Alt N Ctrl Alt W Ctrl Alt X

Tools, Boundary Tools, CLSF Application Manufactur ing Tools, Unisim Application Assemblies Tools, Lathe Cross-Sec tion

F-2

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Glossary

Glossary

ABS - Absolute coordinate system. Absolute Coordinate System - Coordinate system in which all geometry is located from a fixed or absolute zero point. active view - One of up to 49 views per layout in which you can directly work. angle - In Unigraphics, an angle measured on the X Y plane of a coordinate system is positive if the direction that it is swept is counterclockwise as viewed from the positive Z axis side of the X Y plane. An angle swept in the opposite direction is said to be negative. arc - An incomplete circle; sometimes used interchangeably with the term circle." ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a set of 8 bit binary numbers representing the alphabet, punctuation, numerals, and other special symbols used in text representation and communications protocol. aspect ratio - The ratio of length to height which represents the change in size of a symbol from its original. assembly - A collection of piece parts and sub assemblies representing a product. In Unigraphics, an assembly is a part file which contains components. assembly part - A Unigraphics part file which is a user defined, structured combination of sub assemblies, components and/or objects. associativity - The ability to tie together (link) separate pieces of information to aid in automating the design, drafting, and manufacture of parts in Unigraphics. attributes - Pieces of information that can be associated with Unigraphics geometry and parts such as assigning a name to an object.

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ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ
GL

Glossary

block font - A Unigraphics character font which is the default font used for creating text in drafting objects and dimensions. body - Class of objects containing sheets and solids (see solid body and sheet body). bottom up modeling - Modeling technique where component parts are designed and edited in isolation of their usage within some higher level assembly. All assemblies using the component are automatically updated when opened to reflect the geometric edits made at the piece part level.

ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ
GL
GL-2

boundary - A set of geometric objects that describes the containment of a part from a vantage point. CAD/CAM - Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing. category, layer - A name assigned to a layer, or group of layers. A category, if descriptive of the type of data found on the layers to which it is assigned, will assist the user in identifying and managing data in a part file. chaining - A method of selecting a sequence of curves which are joined end to end. circle - A complete and closed arc, sometimes used interchangeably with the term arc." component - A collection of objects, similar to a group, in an assembly part. A component may be a sub assembly consisting of other, lower level components. component part - The part file or master" pointed to by a component within an assembly. The actual geometry is stored in the component part and referenced, not copied, by the assembly. A separate Unigraphics part file that the system associates with a component object in the assembly part. cone direction - Defines the cone direction using the Vector Subfunction. cone origin - Defines the base origin using the Point Subfunction. half angle - The half vertex angle defines the angle formed by the axis of the cone and its side.

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Glossary

constraints - Refer to the methods you can use to refine and limit your sketch. The methods of constraining a sketch are geometric and dimensional. construction points - Points used to create a spline. Construction points may be used as poles (control vertices), defining points, or data points. See POLES, DEFINING POINTS, and DATA POINTS. control point - Represents a specific location on an existing object. A line has three control points: both end points and the midpoint of the line. The control point for a closed circle is its center, while the control points for an open arc are its end and midpoints. A spline has a control point at each knot point. A control point is a position on existing geometry. Any of the following points: 1. Existing Points 2. Endpoints of conics 3. Endpoints and midpoints of open arcs 4. Center points of circles 5. Midpoints and endpoints of lines 6. Endpoints of splines. convert curve - A method of creating a b curve in which curves (lines, arcs, conics or splines) may be selected for conversion into a b curve. Coordinate System - A system of axes used in specifying positions (CSYS). counterclockwise - The right hand rule determines the counter clockwise direction. If the thumb is aligned with the ZC axis and pointing in the positive direction, counterclockwise is defined as the direction the fingers would move from the positive XC axis to the positive YC axis. current layout - The layout currently displayed on the screen. Layout data is kept in an intermediate storage area until it is saved. curve - A curve in Unigraphics is any line, arc, conic, spline or b curve. A geometric object; this may refer to a line, an arc, a conic, or a spline. defaults - Assumed values when they are not specifically defined. defining points - Spline construction points. Splines created using defining points are forced to pass through the points. These points are guaranteed to be on the spline. degree of freedom arrows - Arrow like indicators that show areas that require more information to fully constrain a sketch. design in context - The ability to directly edit component geometry as it is displayed in the assembly. Geometry from other components can be selected to aid in the modeling. Also referred to as edit in place.

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GL-3

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Glossary

dimensional constraint - This is a scalar value or expression which limits the measure of some geometric object such as the length of a line, the radius of an arc, or the distance between two points. directory - A hierarchical file organization structure which contains a list of filenames together with information for locating those files. displayed part - The part currently displayed in the graphics window. edit in place - See design in context. emphasize work part - A color coding option which helps distinguish geometry in the work part from geometry in other parts within the same assembly. endpoint - An endpoint of a curve or an existing point. expression - An arithmetic or conditional statement that has a value. Expressions are used to control dimensions and the relationships between dimensions of a model. face - A region on the outside of a body enclosed by edges. feature - An all encompassing term which refers to all solids, bodies, and primitives. file - A group or unit of logically related data which is labeled or named" and associated with a specified space. In Unigraphics, parts, and patterns are a few types of files. filtering - See object filtering. font box - A rectangle or box" composed of dashed line objects. The font box defines the size, width and spacing of characters belonging to a particular font. font, character - A set of characters designed at a certain size, width and spacing. font, line - Various styles of lines and curves, such as solid, dashed, etc.

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Unigraphics NX

Glossary

free form feature - A body of zero thickness. (see body and sheet body) generator curve - A contiguous set of curves, either open or closed, that can be swept or revolved to create a body. geometric constraint - A relationship between one or more geometric objects that forces a limitation. For example, two lines that are perpendicular or parallel specifies a geometric constraint. grid - A rectangular array of implied points used to accurately align locations which are entered by using the screen position" option. guide curve - A set of contiguous curves that define a path for a sweep operation. virtual intersection - Intersection formed by extending two line segments that do not touch to the position that they cross. The line segments must be non parallel and coplanar. inflection - A point on a spline where the curve changes from concave to convex, or vice versa. interactive step - An individual menu in a sequence of menus used in performing a Unigraphics function. isometric view (Tfr ISO) - Isometric view orientation - one where equal distances along the coordinate axes are also equal to the view plane. One of the axes is vertical. knot points - The defining points of a spline. Points along a B spline, representing the endpoints of each spline segment. layer - A layer is a partition of a part. Layers are analogous to the transparent material used by conventional designers. For example, the user may create all geometry on one layer, all text and dimensions on a second, and tool paths on a third. layout - A collection of viewports or window areas, in which views are displayed. The standard layouts in Unigraphics include one, two, four or six viewports.

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GL-5

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Glossary

layouts - Standard layouts are available to the user. These include: L1 - Single View, L2 - Two Views, L3 - Two Views, L4 - Four Views, L6 - Six Views. Information window - The window used in listing operations, such as Info. loaded part - Any part currently opened and in memory. Parts are loaded explicitly using the File→Open option and implicitly when they are used in an assembly being opened. menu - A list of options from which the user makes a selection. model space - The coordinate system of a newly created part. This is also referred to as the absolute coordinate system." Any other coordinate system may be thought of as a rotation and/or translation of the absolute coordinate system. name, expression - - The name of an expression is the single variable on the left hand side of the expression. All expression names must be unique in a part file. Each expression can have only one name. See expression. objects - All geometry within the Unigraphics environment. offset face - A Unigraphics surface type created by projecting (offsetting) points along all the normals of a selected surface at a specified distance to create a true" offset. options - A number of various alternatives (functions, modes, parameters, etc.) from among which the user can choose. origin - The point X = 0, Y = 0, Z = 0 for any particular coordinate system. parametric design - Concept used to define and control the relationships between the features of a model. Concept where the features of the model are defined by parameters. part - A Unigraphics file containing a .prt extension. It may be a piece part containing model geometry, a sub assembly, or a top level assembly.

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Glossary

part or model - A collection of Unigraphics objects which together may represent some object or structure. partially loaded part - A component part which, for performance reasons, has not been fully loaded. Only those portions of the component part necessary to render the higher level assembly are initially loaded (the reference set). point set - A distribution of points on a curve between two bounding points on that curve. Point Subfunction Menu - A list of options (methods) by which positions can be specified in Unigraphics. read only part - A part for which the user does not have write access privilege. real time dynamics - Produces smooth pan, zoom, and rotation of a part, though placing great demand on the CPU. Refresh - A function which causes the system to refresh the display list on the viewing screen. This removes temporary display items and fills in holes left by Blank or Delete. right hand rule, conventional - The right hand rule is used to determine the orientation of a coordinate system. If the origin of the coordinate system is in the palm of the right fist, with the back of the hand lying on a table, the outward extension of the index finger corresponds to the positive Y axis, the upward extension of the middle finger corresponds to the positive Z axis, and the outward extension of the thumb corresponds to the positive X axis. right hand rule for rotation - The right hand rule for rotation is used to associate vectors with directions of rotation. When the thumb is extended and aligned with a given vector, the curled fingers determine the associated direction of rotation. Conversely, when the curled fingers are held so as to indicate a given direction of rotation, the extended thumb determines the associated vector. screen cursor (cursor) - A marker on the screen which the user moves around using some position indicator device. Used for indicating positions, selecting objects, etc. Takes the form of a full screen cross. sheet - A object consisting of one or more faces not enclosing a volume. A body of zero thickness. Also called sheet body.)

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GL-7

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Glossary

sketch - A collection of geometric objects that closely approximates the outline of a particular design. You refine your sketch with dimensional and geometric constraints until you achieve a precise representation of your design. The sketch can then be extruded or revolved to obtain a 3D object or feature. Sketch Coordinate System (SCS) - The SCS is a coordinate system which corresponds to the plane of the sketch. When a sketch is created the WCS is changed to the SCS of the new sketch. solid body - An enclosed volume. A type of body (see Body).

GL

spline - A smooth free form curve. stored layout - The last saved version of a layout. stored view - The last saved version of a view. string - A contiguous series of lines and/or arcs connected at their end points. sub assembly - A part which both contains components and is itself used as a component in higher level assemblies. surface - The underlying geometry used to define a face on a sheet body. A surface is always a sheet but a sheet is not necessarily a surface (see sheet body). The underlying geometry used to define the shape of a face on a sheet. system - The Unigraphics System. temporary part - An empty part which is optionally created for any component parts which cannot be found in the process of opening an assembly. top down modeling - Modeling technique where component parts can be created and edited while working at the assembly level. Geometric changes made at the assembly level are automatically reflected in the individual component part when saved. trim - To shorten or extend a curve. trimetric view (Tfr Tri) - A viewing orientation which provides you with an excellent view of the principal axes. In Unigraphics II, the trimetric view has the Z axis vertical. The measure along the X axis is 7/8 of the measure along Z, and the measure along the Y axis is 3/4 of the measure along Z.

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Glossary

Unigraphics - A computer based turnkey graphics system for computer aided design, drafting, and manufacturing, produced by UGS. units - The unit of measure in which you may work when constructing in Unigraphics. Upon log on, you may define the unit of measure as inches or millimeters. upgraded component - A component which was originally created pre V10 but has been opened in V10 and upgraded to remove the duplicate geometry. version - A term which identifies the state of a part with respect to a series of modifications that have been made to the part since its creation. view - A particular display of the model. View parameters include view orientation matrix; center; scale; X,Y and Z clipping bounds; perspective vector; drawing reference point and scale. Eight standard views are available to the user: Top, Front, Right, Left, Bottom, Back, Tfr ISO (top front right isometric), and Tfr Tri (top front right trimetric). view dependent edit - A mode in which the user can edit a part in the current work view only. view dependent modifications - Modifications to the display of geometry in a particular view. These include erase from view and modify color, font and width. view dependent geometry - Geometry created within a particular view. It will only be displayed in that view. WCS - Work Coordinate System. WCS, work plane - The WCS (Work Coordinate System) is the coordinate system singled out by the user for use in construction, verification, etc. The coordinates of the WCS are called work coordinates and are denoted by XC, YC, ZC. The XC YC plane is called the work plane. Work Coordinate System - See WCS. work layer - The layer on which geometry is being constructed. You may create objects on only one layer at a time.

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GL-9

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Glossary

work part - The part in which you create and edit geometry. The work part can be your displayed part or any component part which is contained in your displayed assembly part. When displaying a piece part, the work part is always the same as the displayed part. work view - The view in which work is being performed. When the creation mode is view dependent, any construction and view dependent editing that is performed will occur only in the current work view. XC axis - X axis of the work coordinate system.

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YC axis - Y axis of the work coordinate system. ZC axis - Z axis of the work coordinate system.

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Index

Index

A
ABS, 2-3, GL-1 Absolute Coordinate System, GL-1 Active View, GL-1 Activities Blend Solid Edges, 9-6, 9-12 Chamfer Edges, 6-13 Circular Array, 16-11 Datum Plane - Dual Constraints, 11-27 Exit Unigraphics, 1-41 Form Feature Boss Creation, 3-34 Hollow Solid, 5-5, 5-7 Manipulating the Work Coordinate System, 2-10 Opening an Existing Part File, 1-16 Save Part As, 1-39 Angle, GL-1 Annotation Editor editing text, 10-52 placing the text, 10-50 tool bar, 10-49 Apparent intersection point, B-6 Arc, GL-1 dialog bar fields, D-27 edit, D-47 ASCII, GL-1 Aspect Ratio, GL-1 Assemblies, GL-1 bottom-up , 8-6 designing in context, 8-5 Work Part, 8-16 Assembly, definition of, 8-2 Associativity, GL-1 Attribute, GL-1 Automatic Centerline, 10-20 Automatic Update, 10-17

Body, GL-2 Boolean Operations, 14-6 Intersect, 14-9 Subtract, 14-9 Unite, 14-8 Boss, 3-33 Bottom-Up Modeling, GL-2 Bottom-Up modeling, 8-5 Boundary, GL-2 Break String, during curve creation, D-9

C
Cartesian, 2-2 Category, Layer, GL-2 Chaining, GL-2 Chamfer, 6-10 Circle, D-28, GL-2 creation method, center point, point on circle, D-28 edit, D-47 Circular Array, 16-5 Class selection subfunction filter methods, 1-37 color, 1-37 features, 1-37 type, 1-37 name, 1-37 up one level, 1-38 Close, 1-41 Part File, 1-41 Component, GL-2 Part, GL-2 Component Object, definition of, 8-3 Component Part, definition of, 8-4 Components, add existing part , 8-12 Cone Direction, GL-2 Origin, GL-2 Constraints, GL-3 Geometric, 13-59, 13-64, 13-69, 13-76

B
Blend, 6-3 Block, 2-18

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IN-1

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IN

Index geometric displaying, 13-73 removing, 13-73 Construction Points, GL-3 Control Point, GL-3 Control points, D-5 Convert, Curves to B Curves, GL-3 Coordinate Systems, GL-3 Absolute, 2-2 Cartesian, 2-2 moving of WCS, 2-4 Sketch, GL-8 Work, 2-2 reorienting of, 2-16, 2-24 Copy, transform, C-4 Counterclockwise, GL-3 Create Expressions, 4-3 Part, 1-9 Create Centerline, 10-10 Creating Dimensions, 10-29 Creating Utility Symbols, 10-19 Current Layout, GL-3 Cursor, GL-7 Curve, GL-3 edit, D-45 trim, D-49 Curve parameters, edit, curve, D-46 Curves, basic, D-3 Cylinder, 2-27 Designing in Context, 8-5 Destination layer, C-3 original, C-3 specify, C-3 work, C-3 Dialog bar during arc creation, D-27 in curve creation, D-4 Dimension Constraints, GL-4 Dimension Local Settings, 10-33 Dimensions, 13-61 creating dimensions, 10-29 local settings, 10-33 appended text controls, 10-34 arrow line display, 10-40 extension line display, 10-40 leader direction options, 10-41 placement options, 10-39 precision options, 10-35 text justification options, 10-42 Direction, Cone, GL-2 Directory, GL-4 Displayed Part, 1-15, 8-13, GL-4 Double Offset Chamfer, 6-12 Drafting Application, uses of, 10-2 Drawing Operations modifying a drawing, 10-3 removing drawing views , 10-10 Drawings adding a view, 10-7 setting the view display preferences, 10-14 automatic update, 10-17 hidden line removal, 10-15 silhouettes, 10-17 smooth edges, 10-16, 10-17 uses of the drafting application, 10-2 Dual Constraints, 12-4

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IN

D
Datum Axis, 12-2 Datum Plane, 11-3 Dual Constraints, 12-4 Defaults, GL-3 Defining Points, 2-4, GL-3 Degree of freedom Arrows, 13-59, GL-3 Delayed Update, 15-3 Delete, Feature, 15-9 Delete positioning dimension, 15-30 Design in Context, GL-3

E
Edge Blends, 6-4 Edit Expressions, 4-3 Feature, 15-2, 15-5 transform, C-2 Edit - Undo, 1-26 Edit curve, line, D-46 Edit curve parameters, curve, D-46

IN-2

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Index Edit dimension value, positioning dimension, feature, 15-30 Edit in Place, GL-4 Edit Parameters, 15-27 Move Feature, 15-7 Editing Features, 15-2, 15-5 Emphasize Work Part, GL-4 Endpoint, GL-4 Expression Editor, 4-4 Expressions, GL-4 Creating and Editing, 4-3 Names, GL-6 Filter Box, 1-18 Filter methods, 1-37 color, 1-37 type, 1-37 Filtering, GL-4 Font Box, GL-4 Character, GL-4 Line, GL-4 Form Features, types of, 3-2 Free Form Feature, GL-5

G
Generator Curve, GL-5 Geometric Constraint, GL-5 Grid, GL-5 Guide Curve, GL-5

F
Face, GL-4 Feature Creation Block, 2-18 Boolean Operations, 14-6 Boss, 3-33 Chamfer, 6-10 Cylinder, 2-27 Datum Axis, 12-2 Hole, 3-14 Hollow Solid, 5-3 Instance, 16-3 Pad, 3-38 Pocket, 3-30 Primitives, 2-17 Slot, 3-21 Subtract, 14-9 Unite, 14-8 Features, GL-4 Edit, 15-2, 15-5 Hole, 3-14 Intersect, 14-9 unsuppress, 15-6 File, GL-4 close, 1-41 Close Part, 1-41 New, 1-9 Open, 1-17 Quit, 1-42 Save Part As, 1-39 Fillet create, two curve fillet, D-36 feature, create simple fillet, D-35 three curve fillet, D-37

H
Half Angle, GL-2 Hidden Line Removal, 10-15 Hole, 3-14 Hollow Feature, 5-3 Wall Thickness, 5-3

I
Implementation of Design Standards, class standards, -3 Implied intersection point, B-6 Infer, point method, D-6 Inflection, GL-5 Instance, 16-2, 16-3 Circular Array, 16-5 Rectangular Array, 16-4 Intersect, 14-9 Intersection point apparent, B-6 implied, B-6 Introduction, -1 terminology, -6

K
Knot Points, GL-5

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IN-3

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IN

Index

L
Layer, GL-5 Layout, GL-5, GL-6 List information, Model Navigation Tool, 15-43 Listing Window, GL-6 Loaded Part, GL-6 Locking a Constraint, 13-23

rectangular, B-12 spherical, B-14 vector, B-14 Offset Angle, Chamfer, 6-12 Offset Surface, GL-6 Open, Part File, 1-17 Origin, Cone, GL-2

P
Pad, 3-38 Parametric Design, GL-6 Part, GL-6, GL-7 Partially Loaded Part, GL-7 Parts fully loaded, 8-8 partially loaded, 8-8 unloaded, 8-9 Pocket, 3-30 Rectangular, 3-30, 3-38 Point Set, GL-7 Point Subfunction, GL-7 Point subfunction angle on arc/ellipse, B-8 arc/ellipse center, B-7 control point, B-5 copying a point to work layer, B-3 cursor location, B-2, B-3 end point, B-4 existing point, B-3 intersection point, B-6 offset, B-10 along curve, B-15 cylindrical, B-13 rectangular, B-12 spherical, B-14 vector, B-14 quadrant point, B-9 reset, B-11 using screen position with a grid, B-3 Pre-selection highlighting, during basic curve creation, D-5 Primitives, 15-1 Procedures Body of Revolution, Trim to Face, 14-37 Toolbox-Curve, Fillets, D-41 Toolbox-Curve, Line, D-10 Toolbox-Curve, Trim Curve, D-50

M
MB1, 1-24 MB2, 1-24 MB3, 1-24 Menu, GL-6 Message, Part File Saved, 1-40 Millimeters, 1-9 Mirror through a line, transform, C-11 Model, GL-7

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IN

Model Navigation Tool, pop up menu options, List Information, 15-43 Model Space, 2-2, GL-6 Modeling Operations, 5-2, 6-2 Modifying a Drawing, 10-3 Move Feature, 15-7 transform, C-4 Multiple copies, transform, C-4

N
Non uniform scale, transform, C-8 Notes and Labels editing text, 10-52 placing the text, 10-50 creating text with a leader, 10-51

O
Object, GL-6 Offset along curve, B-15 cylindrical, B-13

Q
Quit Unigraphics, 1-42

IN-4

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Index

R
Read Only Part, GL-7 Real Time Dynamics, GL-7 Rectangular Pocket, 3-30, 3-38 Slot, 3-22 Reference Feature Datum Axis, 12-2 Datum Plane, 11-3 types of, 11-2 Refresh, GL-7 Removing Drawing Views , 10-10 Reposition, 8-18 rotate about a line, 8-23 rotate about a point, 8-22 translate, 8-21, 8-22 Respecify Parameters, 15-27 Right Hand Rule, 2-2, GL-7 Rotate, the WCS, 2-11 Rotate about a line reposition, 8-23 transform, C-12 Rotate about a point reposition, 8-22 transform, C-10 Rotation, GL-7

Smooth Edges, 10-16, 10-17 Snap Angle, 13-23 Snap angle, D-10 Solid Body, GL-8 Specify, destination layer, C-3 Spline, GL-8 Stored Layout, GL-8 Stored View, GL-8 String, GL-8 Sub assembly, GL-8 Sub-assembly, definition of, 8-2 Subdivisions, transform, C-4 Subtract, 14-9 Surface, GL-8 Symbols, creating utility symbols, 10-19 associativity of utility symbols, 10-20 deleting a utility symbol, 10-20 System, GL-8

Target Solid, 14-7 Temporary Part, GL-8 Tfr ISO, GL-5 Tfr Tri, GL-8 Three curve fillet, create, D-37 Tool Solid, 14-7 Top-Down Modeling, GL-8 Top-Down modeling, 8-5 Trace status, transform, C-3 Transform copy, C-4 destination layer, C-3 edit, C-2 mirror through a line, C-11 move, C-4 multiple copies, C-4 non uniform scale, C-8 rotate about a line, C-12 rotate about a point, C-10 scale, C-7 subdivisions, C-4 trace status, C-3 translate, C-6 delta, C-6

S
Save Part As, 1-39 Scale, transform, C-7 SCS, GL-8 Selection Toolbar, 1-27, 8-13, 8-16, 15-15 Sheet, GL-7 Silhouettes, 10-17 Simple fillet, create, D-35 Single Offset Chamfer, 6-11 Sketch, GL-8 constraining of, 13-61 Coordinate System, GL-8 Sketch Curve Creation, 13-22 Slot, 3-21 Rectangular, 3-22

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IN-5

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IN

T

Index to a point, C-6 undo last, C-4 Translate reposition, 8-21, 8-22 transform, C-6 Trim, GL-8 Trim curve, D-49 Two curve fillet, create, D-36 View, GL-9 Isometric, GL-5 Trimetric, GL-8 Work, GL-10

W
WAVE, definition of, 3-8 WCS, 2-3, 3-3, GL-9 Dynamics, 2-10 Origin, 4-5 WCS Dynamics, 2-4 Work, destination layer, transform, C-3 Work Layer, GL-9 Work Part, 1-15, 8-16, GL-10

U
Undo, 1-26 Undo last, transform, C-4 Unigraphics, GL-9 Unite, 14-8 Units, GL-9 Inches, 1-9 Millimeters, 1-9 Unsuppress feature, 15-6 Update, 15-3 edit during update, 15-10 Upgrade, Component, GL-9

X
XC Axis, GL-10

Y
YC Axis, GL-10

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IN

V
Vectors, Defining of, 2-26 Version, GL-9

Z
ZC Axis, GL-10

IN-6

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Reference Chart Tear Outs
These tear out reference charts are provided for your convenience.

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Student Profile
Practical Applications of Unigraphics
Name Employer U.S. citizen? Yes / No When is your planned departure time?________________am/pm Please answer the following questions as honestly as you can. We are concerned about providing training that meets your needs. If you have any additional comments please write them on the back of this form. 1. Job title: 2. Current responsibilities: 3. How long have you held these responsibilities? Years ______ Months ______ 4. How long have you been working with CAD/CAM/CAE systems? Years ______ 5. What other CAD/CAM/CAE systems are you familiar with? 6. Are you currently using Unigraphics? _______ Version _______ Hours per week? 7. What is the function of your CAD/CAM/CAE system (documentation, modeling, analysis, translation interface, etc.)? 8. What do you model in your Unigraphics part files (castings, assemblies, floor plans, etc.)? Date

9. Please list other completed CAD/CAM/CAE courses and the provider including Unigraphics CBT and CAST:

Course

Provider

10. Please check the box that best describes your current skill level in the various Unigraphics disciplines listed below. none Wireframe Modeling Solid Modeling Parametric Modeling Drafting Assemblies Manufacturing novice intermediate advanced future use

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Additional Comments

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Practical Applications of Unigraphics Course Agenda

Day 1

Monday Morning
D Introduction & Overview D Lesson 1. Getting Started D Lesson 2. Introduction to Solid Modeling

Afternoon
D Lesson 3. D Lesson 4. D Lesson 5. Form Features Expressions Face Operations

D Lesson 6. Edge Operations D Workbook Section 1 Project Description & Rear Differential Modeling

Day 2

Tuesday Morning
D Lesson 7. Model Construction Query D Lesson 8. Introduction to Assemblies D Workbook Section 2 Rear Differential Assembly D Lesson 9. Master Model

Afternoon
D Lesson 10. Intro to Drafting D Workbook Section 3 Rear Differential Drafting

Day 3

Wednesday Morning
D Lesson 11. Datum Planes D Lesson 12. Datum Axes D Workbook Section 4 Rear Axle Modeling, Assembly, and Drafting

Afternoon
D Lesson 13. Sketching

Day 4

Thursday Morning
D Lesson 14. Swept Features & Boolean Operations D Workbook Section 5 Power Pack Sketching

Afternoon
D Workbook Section 6 D Workbook Section 7 Left Pinion Modeling, Assembly, and Drafting Rear Drive Gear Modeling

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Day 5

Friday Morning
D Lesson 15. Editing the Model D Workbook Section 8 Part and Assembly Editing D Lesson 16. Instance Arrays

Afternoon
D Workbook Section 9 D Workbook Section 10 Rear Drive Gear Completion Assembly Completion

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Class Layers and Categories
The following layer and category standards will be followed in this class.

Model Geometry
Object Type Solid Geometry Inter part Modeling Sketch Geometry Curve Geometry Reference Geometry Sheet Bodies Layer Assignment 1-20 15-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 Category Name SOLIDS LINKED_OBJECTS SKETCHES CURVES DATUMS SHEETS

Drafting Objects
Object Type Drawing Borders Layer Assignment 101-110 Category Name FORMATS

Engineering Disciplines
Object Type Mechanism Tools Finite Element Meshes and Engr. Tools Manufacturing Quality Tools Layer Assignment 121-130 131-150 151-180 181-190 Category Name MECH CAE MFG QA

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Line, Arc, and Circle Creation Methods
Line Creation
Note: When numbered picks are shown, this is usually not the only way the line may be created. Line between two points Select two points

Line through a point and horizontal, vertical, or at an angle to the WCS

Y

1

X

S Define the first point S Define second point within the Snap Angle setting or S Enter the desired angle and press <Tab>. S Define a point S Select a line S Select limiting point/object
[May also select line, then point]

Line through a point and parallel, perpendicular, or at an angle to a line

1 2

1

2

Line through a point and tangent or normal to a curve

2 1

S Select a point S Select a curve S Select limiting point/object (if necessary)

Line tangent or perpendicular to two curves

Select two curves

Line tangent to a curve and parallel or perpendicular to a line A bisector line

2 1

S Select two curves S Select limiting point/object

Select two lines

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Arc and Circle Creation
Note: When numbered picks are shown, this is usually not the only way the arc or circle can be created. Start point, end point, point on arc
2 1 3

S Define first point S Define second point S Define third point
3

Start point, end point, tangent object
1

2

S Define first point S Define second point S Select tangent object S Define start point S Select tangent object S Define end point

Start point, tangent object, end point

1 2 3

Arc center, start point, end point

3 1

2

S Define first point S Define second point S Define third point

Circle center, point on circle

2 1

S Define first point S Define second point

Circle center, tangent object
1 2

S Define point S Select tangent object

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Hot Key Chart
Hot Key Ctrl A Ctrl B Ctrl C Ctrl D Ctrl E Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl F G H I J K L M Function Assembly Navigator Edit, Blank Copy Delete Tools, Expression Fit View Grip Execute Information, Object Edit, Object Display Format, Layer Settings Application, Modeling Hot Key Ctrl N Ctrl O Ctrl P Ctrl Q Ctrl R Ctrl S Ctrl T Ctrl U Ctrl V Ctrl W Ctrl X Ctrl Y Ctrl Z Function File, New File, Open File, Plot View, Operation, Rotate (full menu) File, Save Edit, Transform Execute User Function Paste Application, Gateway Cut Edit, Undo

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Practical Applications of Unigraphics Student Manual

Ctrl Shift A Ctrl Shift B Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Ctrl Shift Shift Shift Shift C D E F

Ctrl Shift G Ctrl Shift H Ctrl Shift I Ctrl Shift J Ctrl Shift K

File, Save As Ctrl Shift N Edit, Blank, Reverse Blank Ctrl Shift O All View, Curvature Graph Ctrl Shift P Ctrl Shift Q Ctrl Shift R Format, Layout, Fit All Ctrl Shift S Views Debug Grip Ctrl Shift T High Quality Image Ctrl Shift U Ctrl Shift V Ctrl Shift W Ctrl Shift X Ctrl Shift Y Ctrl Shift Z

Format, Layout, New Format, Layout, Open Tools, Macro, Playback Quick Shaded Image Tools, Macro, Record Toolsm Macro, Step Preferences, Selection Edit, Blank, Unblank All Of Part Format, Visible In View

Preferences, Object Edit, Blank, Unblank Se lected

Ctrl Shift L Ctrl Shift M Model Navigator

View, Operation, Zoom (full menu)

Alt Tab Alt F4 F1 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7

Toggles Application Closes Active Window Help on Context View Current Dialog Information Window Refresh Quick Zoom Quick Rotate

Ctrl Alt B Ctrl Alt C Ctrl Alt M Ctrl Alt N Ctrl Alt W Ctrl Alt X

Tools, Boundary Tools, CLSF Application Manufactur ing Tools, Unisim Application Assemblies Tools, Lathe Cross-Sec tion

Practical Applications of Unigraphics Student Manual

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Unigraphics NX

Practical Applications of Unigraphics Training Course Evaluation
Name (Optional) Instructor Location Date Unigraphics NX

Please give your honest opinion about the training you have received during this class. Provide additional comments on the reverse side of this evaluation form. Please check the box if you would like your comments, regarding the training you just received, featured in our training publications. We will contact you if more information is needed. Hotel Accommodations (if applicable) Hotel name What was your overall impression of this hotel? Facilities - How would you rate the training facilities? Instruction - How would you rate the instruction? Was the instructor knowledgeable of the subject? Comments Poor 2 Poor 2 Poor 2 Poor 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7

1. Were the course objectives clearly defined and were they met? Please explain:

Yes

No

2. Were concepts effectively communicated so that you understand how to apply the software? No Please explain:

Yes

3. How well prepared do you now feel to use the functions covered in this course in your day to day activities? Please explain:

4. Were the student activities effective in learning Unigraphics? Please explain:

Yes

No

over

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Practical Applications of Unigraphics Student Manual

5. Was the workbook activity effective in reinforcing the concepts taught? Please explain:

Yes

No

6. What additional topics related to parametric design would you like to see covered in this course? Please explain:

7. Do you have any other suggestions on how the course could be improved? Please explain:

Yes

No

8. In order to continually improve our courseware a post class survey is conducted; would you be willing to participate in this survey. j (If you checked this box, make sure that your name is on this sheet.) Course - What was your overall impression? Additional Comments Poor 2 3 4 5 6 7

Practical Applications of Unigraphics Student Manual

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Unigraphics NX

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