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SU 3240 Chapter 6-Communication & Conflict

SU 3240 Chapter 6-Communication & Conflict

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Chapter 6

Communication, Conflict and Negotiation
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Communication
Questions for Consideration Questions for Consi derat ion 1. How does communication occur? 2. Are there barriers to communication? 3. How can communication be encouraged? 4. What are the current issues in communication? 5. What is conflict? 6. What are the sources of conflict? 7. How does a situation turn into a conflict? 8. What is negotiation and how does it help?

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Communication Problems
• People spend nearly 70 percent of their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening • WorkCanada survey of 2039 Canadians in six industrial and service categories found
– 61 percent of senior executives believed that they did a good job of communicating with employees. – only 33 percent of the managers and department heads believed that senior executives were effective communicators. – Only 22 percent of hourly workers, 27 percent of clerical employees, and 22 percent of professional staff reported that senior executives did a good job of communicating with them.

• Canadians reported less favourable perceptions about their company’s communications than did Americans
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Communication Terms
• • • • • • • Communication Sender Receiver Message Encoding Channel Decoding
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-1 The Communication Process Model
1. Choosesa message 2. Encodes the message 3. Chooses the channel

Sender

Receiver

5. Provides feedback

4. Decodes the message

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Choosing Channels
• Channels differ in their capacity to convey information. • Rich channels have the ability to
– Handle multiple cues simultaneously – Facilitate rapid feedback – Be very personal

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-2 Information Richness of Communication Channels
Formal reports, bulletins Prerecorded speeches Online discussion groups, groupware Live speeches Videoconferences

Low channel richness

High channel richness

Memos, letters

Electronic mail

Voice mail

Telephone conversations

Face-to-face conversation

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• • • •

Filtering Selective Perception Defensiveness Language

Barriers to Effective Communication

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• Mechanisms

Creating Effective Mechanisms for Communication

– The practices that bring what you stand for to life and stimulate change

• They are intended to demonstrate how the communication should be accomplished

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Nonverbal Communication
• Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver
– Kinesics – Proxemics

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• Men use talk to emphasize status, women use it to create connection • Women and men tend to approach points of conflict differently • Men and women view directness and indirectness differently • Men criticize women for apologizing, but women say “I’m sorry” to express empathy
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Communication Barriers Between Men and Women

• Sources of barriers
– Semantics – Word connotations – Tonal differences

Cross-Cultural Communication Difficulties

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• Assume differences until similarity is proven. • Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. • Practise empathy. • Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Cross-Cultural Communications: Helpful Rules

Effective Listening
• If you want to improve your listening skills, look to these behaviours as guides
– Make eye contact – Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions. – Avoid distracting actions or gestures. – Ask questions. – Paraphrase. – Avoid interrupting the speaker. – Don’t over talk. – Make smooth transitions between the roles of speaker and listener.
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Conflict
• A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect something that the first party cares about.
– Functional – Dysfunctional

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Types of Conflict
• Cognitive • Affective

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

How Structure Can Lead to Conflict
• Stimulating conflict
– Size, specialization, and composition of the group – Too much reliance on participation – Diversity of goals among groups – Ambiguity in precisely defining where responsibility for actions lies – Reward systems where one member’s gain is at another’s expense
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-4 How Conflict Builds
Conflict-handling Intentions
• • • • • Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating

Outcomes
• Functional: increased performance • Dysfunctional: decreased group performance

Behaviour

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Conflict handling intentions
• Two Dimensions
– Cooperativeness – Assertiveness

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-5 Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions
Assertive Competing Collaborating

Assertiveness

Compromising Unassertive

Avoiding Uncooperative

Accommodating Cooperative

Cooperativeness
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-7 Conflict Intensity Continuum
Annihilatory conflict Overt efforts to destroy the other party Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning or challenging of others No conflict Minor disagreements or misunderstandings

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Negotiation
• A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• Issues • Positions • Interests

Issues, Positions & Interests Re: Negotiation

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Types of Bargaining
• Distributive bargaining • Integrative bargaining

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-9 Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining
Bargaining Characteristic
Available resources

Distributive Bargaining
Fixed amount of resources to be divided I win, you lose

Integrative Bargaining
Variable amount of resources to be divided I win, you win Convergent or congruent with each other Long term

Primary motivations Primary interests Focus of relationships

Opposed to each other Short term

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

How to Negotiate
• Assess personal goals, consider other’s goals, develop strategy • Identify target and resistance points • Identify BATNA

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Applying Negotiating Skills
• • • • • Begin with a positive overture Address problems, not personalities Pay little attention to initial offers Emphasize win-win solutions Create an open and trusting climate

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Exhibit 6-10 Staking Out the Bargaining Zone
Party A’s aspiration range Settlement range Party B’s aspiration range

Party A’s target point

Party B’s resistance point

Party A’s resistance point

Party B’s target point

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• • • • •

Summary and Implications: Communication A common theme regarding the relationship between

communication and employee satisfaction Less distortion in communication equals: Ambiguity between verbal and nonverbal communiqués increase uncertainty and reduce satisfaction The goal of perfect communication is unattainable The issue of communication is critical to motivation

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

• Conflict can be either constructive or destructive to the functioning of a group. • An optimal level of conflict:
– – – – Prevents stagnation Stimulates creativity Releases tension And initiates the seeds for change

Summary and Implications

• Inadequate or excessive levels of conflict can hinder group effectiveness.

Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

Summary and Implications
• Don’t assume there's one conflicthandling intention that is always best. • Negotiation is an ongoing activity in groups • Intergroup conflicts can also affect an organization’s performance.
Chapter 6, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education Canada Inc.

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