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Flexible Alternating Current
Transmission Systems
Gabriela Glanzmann
EEH  Power Systems Laboratory
ETH Z¨ urich
14. January 2005
Increased demands on transmission, absence of longterm planning and the need to
provide open access to generating companies and customers have created tendencies
toward less security and reduced quality of supply. The FACTS technology is essential
to alleviate some but not all of these diﬃculties.
The FACTS technology opens up new opportunities for controlling power and en
hancing the usable capacity of present, as well as new and upgraded, lines. The
possibility that current and therefore power through a line can be controlled enables
a large potential of increasing the capacity of existing lines. These opportunities arise
through the ability of FACTS controllers to control the interrelated parameters that
govern the operation of transmission systems including series impedance, shunt im
pedance, current, voltage, phase angle and the damping of oscillations.
This report is an overview of the existing FACTS devices. It is mainly a summary
of [1], [2], [3] where more extensive elaborations on FACTS devices can be found. The
IEEE deﬁnition to these devices are given in italic in the corresponding sections.
1 Static Shunt Compensators
Shunt compensation is used to inﬂuence the natural electrical characteristics of the
transmission line to increase the steadystate transmittable power and to control the
voltage proﬁle along the line.
As static shunt compensators are known Static Var Compensators (SVC) and Static
Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM). The IEEEdeﬁnition of a SVC is as follows:
Static Var Compensator (SVC): A shuntconnected static var generator or absorber
whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to
maintain or control speciﬁc parameters of the electrical power system (typically
bus voltage).
1
2 FACTS
SVC is an umbrella term for several devices. The SVC devices discussed in the follow
ing sections are the TCR, TSR and TSC. The characteristics of a SVC are described
as
• based on normal inductive and capacitive elements
• not based on rotating machines
• control function is through power electronics.
The STATCOM which is discussed in Sect. 1.3 has the following characteristics
• based on voltage source synchronized to network
• not based on rotating machines
• control function is based on adjustment of voltage.
By placing the shunt in the middle of a line and therefore dividing the line into two
segments, the voltage at this point can be controlled such that it has the same value
as the end line voltages. This has the advantage that the maximal power transmission
is increased.
If the shunt compensator is located at the end of a line in parallel to a load it is
possible to regulate the voltage at this end and therefore to prevent voltage instability
caused by load variations or generation or line outages.
As shunt compensation is able to change the power ﬂow in the system by varying the
value of the applied shunt compensation during and following dynamic disturbances
the transient stability limit can be increased and eﬀective power oscillation damping
is provided. Thereby the voltage of the transmission line counteracts the accelerating
and decelerating swings of the disturbed machine and therefore dampens the power
oscillations.
1.1 ThyristorControlled and ThyristorSwitched Reactor (TCR
and TSR)
TCR: A shuntconnected, thyristorcontrolled inductor whose eﬀective reactance is
varied in a continuous manner by partialconduction control of the thyristor
value.
An elementary singlephase thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) is shown in Fig. 1.
The current in the reactor can be controlled from maximum to zero by the method
of ﬁring delay angle control. That is the duration of the current conduction intervals
is controlled by delaying the closure of the thyristor valve with respect to the peak
of the applied voltage in each halfcycle (Fig. 1). For α = 0
◦
the amplitude is at its
maximum and for α = 90
◦
the amplitude is zero and no current is ﬂowing during the
corresponding halfcycle. Like this the same eﬀect is provided as with an inductance
of changing value.
A thyristor switched reactor (TSR) has similar equipment to a TCR, but is used
only at ﬁxed angles of 90
◦
and 180
◦
, i.e. full conduction or no conduction. The reactive
current i
S
(t) will be proportional to the applied voltage. Several TSRs can provide a
reactive admittance controllable in a steplike manner.
1 Static Shunt Compensators 3
α = 0
α = α
1
α = α
2
α = α
3
α = α
4
i
S
(t)
i
S
(t)
u
S
(t)
u
S
(t)
t
Figure 1: ThyristorControlled Reactor
TSR: A shuntconnected, thyristorswitched inductor whose eﬀective reactance is var
ied in a stepwise manner by full or zeroconduction operation of the thyristor
value.
If a TSR or TCR is placed in the middle of the line to keep the voltage at this
place at the same value as at the ends of the line the maximal transmittable power is
doubled. This can be shown considering the diagram in Fig. 2
+ +
+
.
jXI
1
/2 jXI
2
/2
δ
δ/4
I
1
I
1
I
2
I
2
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
U
S
U
S
X/2 X/2
SVC
U
1
 = U
2
 = U
S
 = U
Figure 2: Two machine system with SVC in the middle
It is assumed that the end line voltages and the midline voltage all have the same
magnitude U. The phasor angle of U
2
is set to zero and therefore is used as reference
value for the other phasors.
U
2
= U, U
1
= Ue
jδ
, U
S
= Ue
jδ/2
(1)
With some trigonometry, I
2
can be calculated as
I
2
=
4U
X
sin δ/4 · e
jδ/4
(2)
The transmitted power results in
P = ℜ{U
1
· I
∗
1
} = ℜ{U
2
· I
∗
2
} (3)
= ℜ
_
4U
2
X
sin (δ/4)(cos(δ/4) −j sin(δ/4))
_
(4)
=
2U
2
X
sin(δ/2) (5)
4 FACTS
As the transmitted power without the SVC is
U
2
X
sin(δ) the maximal transmittable
power is doubled from
U
2
X
to 2
U
2
X
.
In the previous elaborations it was assumed that the SVC is able to provide the
voltage U
S
 = U at any transmission angle. If we look at the SVC as adjustable
susceptance B
SV C
, it is clear that their are limits on the value of this susceptance.
The larger the transmission angle the larger the necessary susceptance, because at the
same voltage a higher current has to be provided. If the susceptance value reaches the
upper limit Eq. 5 does not hold any more.
In Fig. 3 the impedance scheme of the system is shown as full lines. This scheme
can be transformed by “YD” transformation into the dashdotted system.
j(X −
B
SV C
X
2
4
)
j
X
2
j
X
2
jX
A
jX
B
1
jB
SV C
Figure 3: Equivalent network of the two machine system
The parallel reactances X
A
and X
B
do not play any role in this case because the U
1
and U
2
are assumed constant. Therefore, the transmitted power is
P = P
1
= P
2
=
U
1
U
2
X −
X
2
B
SV C
4
(6)
This results in a transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic as shown
in Fig. 4.
As long as the SVC is able to provide the same voltage as the end line voltages the
characteristic follows the U
S
 = U line up to the point where this line crosses the line
of the maximal possible B
SV C
. From this point the characteristic follows the line of
the maximal possible B
SV C
. For example, if the maximal value for B
SV C
is 4X · 0.4,
the characteristic corresponds to the U
S
 = U line up to δ
c
and then continues on the
B
SV C
= 4X · 0.4 line. For the other SVC the characteristic looks the same as they all
are based on the same concept of inserting a shunt reactance into the line.
From Fig. 1 it can be seen that the ﬁring angle control results in a nonsinusoidal
current waveform in the reactor. Thus, in addition to the wanted fundamental current,
also harmonics are generated. If the positive and negative current halfcycles are
identical, only odd harmonics are generated and the amplitudes are
I
Sn
(α) =
U
ωL
4
π
_
sin αcos(nα) −ncos αsin(nα)
n(n
2
−1)
_
(7)
where n = 2k + 1, k = 1, 2, 3, ...
In a threephase system, three singlephase thyristorcontrolled reactors are used,
usually in delta connection. Under balanced conditions, the triplen harmonic currents
1 Static Shunt Compensators 5
P
P
max
2P
max
0 π/2 π δ
U
S
 = U
−0.4
−0.2
0
0.2
0.4
B
SV C
= 4/X·
δ
c
Figure 4: Transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic for a SVC
(3rd, 9th, 15th, etc.) circulate in the delta connected TCRs and do not enter the power
system. The magnitudes of the other harmonics generated by the thyristorcontrolled
reactors can be reduced by various methods.
One method employs m parallelconnected TCRs, each with 1/m of the total rating
required (Fig. 5). The reactors are sequentially controlled, i.e. only one of the m
reactors is delay angle controlled, and each of the remaining m− 1 reactors is either
fully “on” or fully “oﬀ” depending on the total reactive power required. Like this the
amplitude of every harmonic is reduced by the factor m with respect to the maximum
rated fundamental current.
u
S
u
S
u
S
u
S
u
S
i
S1
i
S1 i
S2
i
S2
i
S3
i
S3
i
S4
i
S4
t
t
t
t
t
I
Sdemand
Figure 5: Method for controlling four TCR banks to achieve harmonic reduction
6 FACTS
Another method employs a 12pulse TCR arrangement. In this, two identical three
phase delta connected thyristorcontrolled reactors are used, one operated from wye
connected windings, the other from deltaconnected windings of the secondary of a
coupling transformer. Because of the 30degree phase shift between the related volt
ages of the two transformer windings, the harmonic currents of order 6(2k − 1) and
6(2k − 1) + 1, k = 1, 2, 3, ... cancel, resulting in a nearly sinusoidal output current at
all delay angles.
Further harmonic cancellation is possible by operating three or more delta connected
TCRs from appropriately phase shifted voltage sets. In practice, these 18 and higher
pulse circuit arrangements tend to be too complex and expensive.
If the TCR generated harmonics cannot be reduced suﬃciently by circuit arrange
ments, such as the fourreactor system or the 12pulse structure, harmonic ﬁlters are
employed. Normally, these ﬁlters are series LC and LCR branches in parallel with the
TCR and are tuned to the dominant harmonics.
1.2 ThyristorSwitched Capacitor (TSC)
TSC: A shuntconnected, thyristorswitched capacitor whose eﬀective reactance is var
ied in a stepwise manner by full or zeroconduction operation of the thyristor
value.
In Fig. 6, a singlephase thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) is shown. The TSC
branch can be switched out at a zero crossing of the current. At this time instance the
capacitor value has reached its peak value. The disconnected capacitor ideally stays
charged at this peak value and the voltage across the nonconducting thyristor varies
in phase with the applied ac voltage.
i
S
i
S
u
C
u
C
u
SW
u
SW
u
S
u
S
u
L
TSC on TSC oﬀ
t
t
Figure 6: ThyristorSwitched Capacitor
Normally, the voltage across the capacitor does not remain constant during the
time when the thyristor is switched out, but it is discharged after disconnection. To
minimize transient disturbances when switching the TSC on, the reconnection has to
take place at an instance where the AC voltage and the voltage across the conductor
1 Static Shunt Compensators 7
are equal, that is when the voltage across the thyristor valve is zero. However, there
will still be transients caused by the nonzero du
S
/dt at the instant of switching, which,
without the reactor, would result an instant current in the capacitor (i
S
= C· du
S
/dt).
The interaction between the capacitor and the current (and di
S
/dt) limiting reactor
produces oscillatory transients on current and voltage.
From these elaborations it follows that ﬁring delay angle control is not applicable
to capacitors; the capacitor switching must take place at that speciﬁc instant in each
cycle at which the conditions for minimum transients are satisﬁed. For this reason,
a TSC branch can provide only a steplike change in the reactive current it draws
(maximum or zero). Thus, the TSC is a single capacitive admittance which is either
connected to or disconnected from the AC system. The current through the capacitor
varies with the applied voltage. To approximate continuous current variations, several
TSC branches in parallel may be used.
1.3 Static synchronous compensator: STATCOM
STATCOM: A static synchronous generator operated as a shuntconnected static var
compensator whose capacitive or inductive output current can be controlled in
dependent of the AC system voltage.
A STATCOM is a controlled reactivepower source. It provides voltage support by
generating or absorbing reactive power at the point of common coupling without the
need of large external reactors or capacitor banks. The basic voltagesource converter
scheme is shown in Fig. 7.
Coupling
Transformer
U
U
T
I
q
Voltage
Source
Converter
U
dc I
dc
DC Energy
Source
C
dc
Figure 7: Static Synchronous Compensator
The charged capacitor C
dc
provides a DC voltage to the converter, which produces
a set of controllable threephase output voltages with the frequency of the AC power
system. By varying the amplitude of the output voltage U, the reactive power exchange
8 FACTS
between the converter and the AC system can be controlled. If the amplitude of the
output voltage U is increased above that of the AC system U
T
, a leading current is
produced, i.e. the STATCOM is seen as a conductor by the AC system and reactive
power is generated. Decreasing the amplitude of the output voltage below that of the
AC system, a lagging current results and the STATCOM is seen as an inductor. In
this case reactive power is absorbed. If the amplitudes are equal no power exchange
takes place.
A practical converter is not lossless. In the case of the DC capacitor, the energy
stored in this capacitor would be consumed by the internal losses of the converter. By
making the output voltages of the converter lag the AC system voltages by a small
angle, the converter absorbs a small amount of active power from the AC system to
balance the losses in the converter.
The mechanism of phase angle adjustment can also be used to control the reactive
power generation or absorption by increasing or decreasing the capacitor voltage U
dc
,
and thereby the output voltage U.
Instead of a capacitor also a battery can be used as DC energy. In this case the
converter can control both reactive and active power exchange with the AC system.
The capability of controlling active as well as reactive power exchange is a signiﬁ
cant feature which can be used eﬀectively in applications requiring power oscillation
damping, to level peak power demand, and to provide uninterrupted power for critical
load.
The derivation of the formula for the transmitted active power employs considerable
calculations. Using the variables deﬁned in Fig. 8 and applying Kirchoﬀs laws the
following equations can be written
I
2
=
U
T
−U
2
jX
2
=
(U
1
−jI
1
X
1
) −U
2
jX
2
(8)
I
2
= I
1
−I
q
(9)
a) b)
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
I
1
I
2
X
1
X
2
I
q
U
T
U
T
(U
2
−U
1
)X
1
X
1
+X
2
(U
2
−U
1
)X
2
X
1
+X
2
β
δ
α
U
R
Figure 8: Two machine system with STATCOM
By equalling righthand terms of (8) and (9), a formula for the current I
1
is obtained
I
1
=
U
1
−U
2
j(X
1
+ X
2
)
+ I
q
X
2
(X
1
+ X
2
)
(10)
1 Static Shunt Compensators 9
From this, the voltage U
T
is derived as
U
T
= U
1
−jI
1
X
1
(11)
= U
1
−
(U
1
−U
2
)X
1
(X
1
+ X
2
)
−jI
q
·
X
1
X
2
(X
1
+ X
2
)
(12)
= U
R
−jI
q
·
X
1
X
2
X
1
+ X
2
(13)
where U
R
is the STATCOM terminal voltage if the STATCOM is out of operation,
i.e. when I
q
= 0. The fact that I
q
is shifted by 90
◦
with regard to U
R
can be used to
express I
q
as
I
q
= jI
q
·
U
R
U
R
. (14)
Equation (13) is then rewritten as follows
U
T
= U
R
+ I
q
U
R
U
R
·
X
1
X
2
(X
1
+ X
2
)
= U
R
_
1 +
I
q
U
R
·
X
1
X
2
(X
1
+ X
2
)
_
(15)
Applying the sine law to the diagram in Fig. 8, the following two equations result
sin β
U
2
=
sin δ
U
1
−U
2

(16)
sin α
U
1
−U
2

X
1
(X
1
+X
2
)
=
sin β
U
R
(17)
from which the formula for sin α is derived
sin α =
U
2
sin δX
1
U
R
(X
1
+ X
2
)
. (18)
The formula for the transmitted active power can be given as
P = P
1
= P
2
=
U
T
U
1
X
1
sin α =
U
1
U
2
sin δ
(X
1
+ X
2
)
·
U
T
U
R
(19)
To dispose of the term U
R
the cosine law is applied to the diagram in Fig. 8 b).
Therefore,
U
R
= U
R
 =
¸
¸
¸
¸
U
1
X
2
+ U
2
X
1
(X
1
+ X
2
)
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
_
U
2
1
X
2
2
+ U
2
2
X
2
1
+ 2U
1
U
2
X
1
X
2
cos δ
(X
1
+ X
2
)
(20)
Substituting this and (15) into (19) and performing some algebraic calculations, the
ﬁnal formula for the transmitted active power is obtained
P =
U
1
U
2
sin δ
(X
1
+ X
2
)
·
¸
¸
¸U
R
_
1 +
I
q
U
R
·
X
1
X
2
X
1
+X
2
_¸
¸
¸
U
R
=
U
1
U
2
sin δ
(X
1
+ X
2
)
_
1 +
I
q
U
R
·
X
1
X
2
(X
1
+ X
2
)
_
(21)
The resulting characteristic of the transmitted power versus transmission angle is
given in Fig. 9.
10 FACTS
P(p.u.)
1.0
0 π/2
δ
I
q
(p.u.) = 1.0
0.5
0
−0.5
−1.0
Figure 9: Transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic of a STATCOM
1.4 Comparison of Shunt Compensators
SVC and STATCOM are very similar in their functional compensation capability,
but the basic operating principles are fundamentally diﬀerent. A STATCOM func
tions as a shuntconnected synchronous voltage source whereas a SVC operates as
a shuntconnected, controlled reactive admittance. This diﬀerence accounts for the
STATCOM’s superior functional characteristics, better performance, and greater ap
plication ﬂexibility than those attainable with a SVC.
In the linear operating range the VI characteristic (Fig. 10) and functional com
pensation capability of the STATCOM and the SVC are similar. Concerning the
nonlinear operating range, the STATCOM is able to control its output current over
the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range independently of AC system voltage,
whereas the maximum attainable compensating current of the SVC decreases linearly
with AC voltage. Thus, the STATCOM is more eﬀective than the SVC in providing
voltage support under large system disturbances during which the voltage excursions
would be well outside of the linear operating range of the compensator. The ability of
the STATCOM to maintain full capacitive output current at low system voltage also
makes it more eﬀective than the SVC in improving the transient stability.
The attainable response time and the bandwidth of the closed voltage regulation
loop of the STATCOM are also signiﬁcantly better than those of the SVC.
In situations where it is necessary to provide active power compensation the STAT
COM is able to interface a suitable energy storage (large capacitor, battery, ...) from
where it can draw active power at its DC terminal and deliver it as AC power to the
system. On the other side, the SVC does not have this capability.
2 Static Series Compensators 11
(a) STATCOM
U
T
I
C
I
Cmax
Capacitive Inductive
I
L
I
Lmax
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
(b) SVC
U
T
I
C
I
Cmax
Capacitive Inductive
I
L
I
Lmax
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
Figure 10: VI characteristics of the STATCOM (a) and the SVC (b)
2 Static Series Compensators
The variable series compensation is highly eﬀective in both controlling power ﬂow in
the line and in improving stability. With series compensation the overall eﬀective series
transmission impedance from the sending end to the receiving end can be arbitrarily
decreased thereby inﬂuencing the power ﬂow (P = U
2
/X sin δ). This capability to
control power ﬂow can eﬀectively be used to increase the transient stability limit and
to provide power oscillation damping.
2.1 ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor (TSSC)
The basic element of a TSSC is a capacitor shunted by bypass valve shown in Fig. 11.
The capacitor is inserted into the line if the corresponding thyristor valve is turned
oﬀ, otherwise it is bypassed.
i
i
u
C
u
C
SW is allowed to turn on at u
C
= 0
u
C
= 0 u
C
= 0
SW “on”
C
SW
t
Figure 11: Course of capacitor voltage for a basic element in a TSSC
A thyristor valve is turned oﬀ in an instance when the current crosses zero. Thus,
the capacitor can be inserted into the line by the thyristor valve only at the zero
crossings of the line current. On the other hand, the thyristor valve should be turned
on for bypass only when the capacitor voltage is zero in order to minimize the initial
12 FACTS
surge current in the valve, and the corresponding circuit transient. This results in a
possible delay up to one full cycle to turn the valve on.
Therefore, if the capacitor is once inserted into the line, it will be charged by the
line current from zero to maximum during the ﬁrst halfcycle and discharged from
maximum to zero during the successive halfcycle until it can be bypassed again. This
is illustrated in Fig. 11.
A ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor is built from several of these basic elements in
series (Fig. 12). The degree of series compensation is controlled in a steplike manner
by increasing or decreasing the number of series capacitors inserted. Thus, a TSSC
can only provide discrete capacitor values for series compensation. A TSSC can be
applied for power ﬂow control and for damping power oscillations.
i
u
C1
u
C2
u
Cm−1
u
Cm
C
1
C
2
C
m−1
C
m
Figure 12: ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor
The TSSC can be considered as a controllable reactance in series with the line
reactance as shown in Fig. 13 a). The ratio of the inserted TSSC reactance to the line
reactance
K = −
X
TSSC
X
(22)
is a measure for the compensation degree of the line.
+ +
P(p.u.)
1.0
δ 0 π π/2
K = 0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4
U
2
U
1
X
TSSC
X
a)
b)
I
Figure 13: a) Two machine system with TSSC and b) corresponding transmitted power
versus angle characteristics
The transmitted active power is calculated from the general formula for transmitted
active power on a line and is given as
P =
U
1
U
2
X + X
TSSC
sin δ =
U
1
U
2
X(1 −K)
sin δ. (23)
2 Static Series Compensators 13
Thus, the transmitted active power versus angle characteristic for a TSSC is shown in
Fig. 13 b). It can be seen that the value of K determines the maximal transmittable
power.
The inﬂuence of a change in K on the change of transmitted active power P at
diﬀerent values of P, can be derived from the derivative of (23) with respect to K
∂P
∂K
=
U
1
U
2
X(1 −K)
2
sin δ (24)
=
P
1 −K
(25)
Thus,
∂P
∂K
is proportional to P resulting in the graphic in Fig. 14 a) where it is assumed
that K is ﬁxed. The slope of the curve depends on the compensation, i.e. on K
according to (25).
The assumption of a ﬁxed K is not exactly correct, because
∂P
∂K
is a ﬁgure for how
much the transmitted power changes if K changes. Therefore, the elaborations above
are only true for small changes in K. Further considerations can be done by
∂P
∂K
=
P
1 −K
= P ·
P
P
0
(26)
where
P
0
=
U
1
U
2
X
sin(δ). (27)
Therefore,
∂P
∂K
is proportional to the square of the transmitted power P. Assuming a
ﬁxed P
0
the graph in Fig. 14 b) results.
P P
∂P
∂K
∂P
∂K
K = K
3
K
2
K
1
∼ P
2
a) b)
Figure 14:
∂P
∂K
versus P for a) ﬁxed K and b) ﬁxed P
0
2.2 ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
TCSC: A capacitive reactance compensator which consists of a series capacitor bank
shunted by a thyristorcontrolled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable
series capacitive reactance.
14 FACTS
The scheme of a ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor is given in Fig. 15. A para
meter to describe the TCSC main circuit is λ which is the quotient of the resonant
frequency and the network frequency resulting in
λ =
_
−X
C
X
L
, (28)
where X
C
= −
1
ωC
and X
L
= ωL. Reasonable values for λ fall in the range of 2 to 4.
i
u
C
i
C
= i −i
L
i
L
L
C
Figure 15: ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
The operating modes of a TCSC are characterized by the socalled boost factor
K
B
=
X
TCSC
X
C
, (29)
where X
TCSC
is the apparent reactance (X
TCSC
= ℑ
_
U
C
I
_
).
1. Blocking mode: The thyristor valve is not triggered and the thyristors are
kept in nonconducting state. The line current passes only through the capacitor
bank (X
TCSC
= X
C
). Thus, the boost factor is equal to one. In this mode the
TCSC performs like a ﬁxed series capacitor.
2. Bypass mode: The thyristor valve is triggered continuously and therefore the
valve stays conducting all the time. The TCSC behaves like a parallel connection
of the series capacitor and the inductor. As
X
TCSC
=
X
L
X
C
X
L
+ X
C
=
−X
C
1 −λ
2
(30)
the voltage is inductive and the boost factor is negative. When λ is considerably
larger than unity the amplitude of u
C
is much lower in bypass than in blocking
mode. Therefore, the bypass mode is utilized to reduce the capacitor stress
during faults.
3. Capacitive boost mode: If a trigger pulse is supplied to the thyristor having
forward voltage just before the capacitor voltage crosses the zero line a capacitor
discharge current pulse will circulate through the parallel inductive branch. The
discharge current pulse adds to the line current through the capacitor bank. It
causes a capacitor voltage that adds to the voltage caused by the line current.
The capacitor peak voltage thus will be increased in proportion to the charge
2 Static Series Compensators 15
u
C
(t)
u
C
(t)
u
C
(t)
β
1
β
2
β
3
i(t) i(t) i(t)
i
L
(t)
i
L
(t)
i
L
(t)
t
t
t
t
t
t
Figure 16: Waveforms at various boost factors in capacitive boost mode
that passes through the thyristor branch. The charge depends on the conduction
angle β (Fig. 16).
For the boost factor, the mathematical formula is (without giving the derivation)
K
B
= 1 +
2
π
λ
2
λ
2
−1
_
2 cos
2
β
λ
2
−1
(λtan λβ −tan β) −β −
sin 2β
β
_
. (31)
Due to the factor tan(λβ) this formula has an asymptote at β
∞
=
π
2λ
. The TCSC
operates in the capacitive boost mode when 0 < β < β
∞
. An example boost
factor versus conduction angle characteristic is given in Fig. 17.
4
2
0
−2
30 60 90
K
B
β
Capacitive
boost
Inductive boost
Figure 17: Boost factor versus conduction angle
4. Inductive boost mode: If the conduction angle is increased above β
∞
the
mode changes from conductive to inductive boost mode (Fig. 17). In the induc
tive boost mode, large thyristor currents may occur. The curves of the currents
and the voltage for three diﬀerent conduction angles are given in Fig. 18. The
capacitor voltage waveform is very much distorted from its desired sinusoidal
shape. Because of this waveform and the high valve stress, the inductive boost
mode is less attractive for steady state operation.
16 FACTS
u
C
(t)
u
C
(t)
u
C
(t)
β
4
β
5
β
6
i(t)
i(t) i(t)
i
L
(t)
i
L
(t)
i
L
(t)
t
t
t
t
t
t
Figure 18: Waveforms at various boost factors in inductive boost mode
Because a TCSC is based on the same idea as the TSSC, namely to introduce
additional reactances, the characteristics of the transmitted power versus transmission
angle looks alike the one of the TSSC in Fig. 13 and also the
∂P
∂K
is the same (Fig. 14).
2.3 GTO ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (GCSC)
An elementary GTO ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor consists of a ﬁxed capacitor
with a GTO thyristor valve that has the capability to turn on and oﬀ upon command.
The structure is given in Fig. 19. The objective of the GCSC scheme is to control
the AC voltage u
C
across the capacitor at a given line current i. When the GTO
is closed u
C
is zero and when it is open u
C
is at its maximum. For controlling the
capacitor voltage, the closing and opening of the valve is carried out in each halfcycle
in synchronism with the AC system frequency. The GTO valve is stipulated to close
automatically whenever the capacitor voltage crosses zero. The turning oﬀ of the valve
is controlled by a delay angle γ with respect to the peak of the line current. Therefore,
the adjustment of the capacitor voltage can only take place once in each halfcycle.
This is shown in Fig. 19. Like this the eﬀect of a capacitor with controllable reactance
is introduced.
i
i
u
C
SW
u
C
(γ)
γ = 0 γ = γ
1
γ = γ
2 γ = γ
3
γ = γ
4
t
Figure 19: GTOControlled Series Capacitor
It can be seen from Figs. 1 and 19 that the waveforms for the current through the
inductance of a TCR is identical to the waveform of the conductor voltage of the
2 Static Series Compensators 17
GCSC and visualizes the duality of TCR and GCSC. Thus, it is obvious that the
turnoﬀ delay angle control of the GCSC generates harmonics like the turnon delay
angle control of the TCR. The amplitudes of the harmonics are
U
Ln
(α) =
I
ωC
4
π
_
sin γ cos(nγ) −ncos γ sin(nγ)
n(n
2
−1)
_
(32)
where n = 2k +1, k = 1, 2, 3, .... The magnitudes of these harmonic frequencies can be
attenuated eﬀectively by the complementary application of the method of “sequential
control” introduced in Sect. 1.1 to reduce the harmonics generated by a TCR. Thus,
m GCSC are connected in series each rated with 1/m of the total voltage rating. All
but one of these m capacitors are “sequentially” controlled to be inserted or bypassed.
The single capacitor is turnoﬀ delay angle controlled to enable continuous voltage
control over the total operating range.
In contrast to the TCR arrangement, where for economic reasons only a small
number of parallel branches would be applied, it might even be a technical preference
to break a single highvoltage valve into four or more series connected modules to
realize practical GCSC.
For the transmitted active power versus transmission angle characteristic the same
holds as for the TCSC, i.e. it is alike the one for the TSSC in Fig. 13.
2.4 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)
StaticSynchronous Series Compensator (SSSC): A static synchronous generator
operated without an external electric energy source as a series compensator whose
output voltage is in quadrature with, and controllable independently of, the line
current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage
drop across the line and thereby controlling the transmitted electric power. The
SSSC may include transiently rated energy storage or energy absorbing devices to
enhance the dynamic behavior of the power system by additional temporary ac
tive power compensation, to increase or decrease momentarily, the overall active
(resistive) voltage drop across the line.
A SSSC is a voltagesource converterbased series compensator. The principle of a
SSSC is shown in Fig. 20 for a two machine system.
+ +
U
L
U
L
U
q
U
q
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
I
δ
X
Figure 20: Synchronous voltage source for compensation
The phasor diagram shows that the voltage source increases the magnitude of the
voltage across the inductance, i.e. the line, and therefore also increases the magnitude
18 FACTS
of the current I resulting in an increase in the power ﬂow. This corresponds to the
eﬀect of a capacitor placed in series. By making the output voltage of the synchronous
voltage source U
q
a function of the current I, the same compensation as provided by
the series capacitor is accomplished:
U
q
= −jX
C
I, (33)
where X
C
is the reactance of the capacitor. However, with a voltage source it is
possible to maintain a constant compensating voltage in the presence of variable line
current because the voltage can be controlled independently of the current, i.e. the
voltage source can also decrease the voltage across the line inductance having the
same eﬀect as if the reactive line impedance was increased. Thus, the SSSC can
decrease as well as increase the power ﬂow to the same degree, simply by reversing the
polarity of the injected AC voltage. The series reactive compensation scheme, using
a switching power converter as a synchronous voltage is termed Static Synchronous
Series Compensator.
The SSSC injects the compensating voltage in series with the line irrespective of
the line current. As it is a reactive source, the phasor U
T
is perpendicular to the
throughput current. Therefore, the current I results in
I =
U
1
−U
q
−U
2
jX
(34)
=
1
jX
_
(U
1
−U
2
) −U
q
·
(U
1
−U
2
)
U
1
−U
2

_
(35)
=
j(U
2
−U
1
)
X
_
1 −
U
q
U
1
−U
2

_
. (36)
The term (U
1
− U
2
) represents the phasor diﬀerence between U
1
and U
2
. Without
source this would be the voltage drop on reactance X. The injected voltage U
q
phasor
has the same direction as it is a reactive voltage source. This direction is determined by
the term (U
1
−U
2
)/U
1
−U
2
. Multiplication with the injected voltage magnitude U
T
mathematically describes the phasor U
T
. Choosing U
2
as reference phasor, i.e. U
2
=
U
2
, U
1
= U
1
(cos δ +j sin δ), the transmission characteristic can be obtained from the
following equation
P
1
= P
2
= P = ℜ{U
1
I
∗
} = ℜ{U
2
I
∗
} = U
2
· ℜ{I} (37)
Taking into consideration that
U
1
−U
2
 =
_
U
2
1
+ U
2
2
−2U
1
U
2
cos δ (38)
the following formula results for the transmitted active power
P =
U
1
U
2
sin δ
X
_
1 −
U
q
_
U
2
1
+ U
2
2
−2U
1
U
2
cos δ
_
. (39)
Therefore, the transmitted power P is a function of the injected voltage U
q
. The
transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic is given in Fig. 21.
2 Static Series Compensators 19
P(p.u.)
1.0
0.5
0
π/2
π
δ
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4
U
q
(p.u.) =
−0.6
Figure 21: Transmitted power versus transmission angle provided by the SSSC
If the magnitudes of the end line voltages are equal, i.e. U
1
= U
2
= U, (39) results in
P =
U
2
X
sin(δ) −
U
X
U
q
cos(δ/2) (40)
The derivative of (40) with respect to U
q
shows the inﬂuence of a change in U
q
on
the change of transmitted active power at diﬀerent values of P:
∂P
∂U
q
=
P −P
0
U
q
= −
U
X
cos(δ/2) (41)
where
P
0
=
U
2
X
sin(δ) = P
max
0
· sin(δ). (42)
With the trigonometric transformation
cos(δ/2) =
_
1 + cos(δ)
2
=
¸
1 +
_
1 −sin
2
(δ)
2
(43)
and (42),
∂P
∂U
q
results in
∂P
∂U
q
= −
U
X
·
¸
1 +
_
1 −sin
2
(δ)
2
= −
P
max
0
U
·
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 +
_
1 −
_
P
0
P
max
0
_
2
2
(44)
Assuming that U and P
max
0
are ﬁxed, the graph for
∂P
∂U
q
is given in Fig. 22.
20 FACTS
P
0
∂P
∂U
q
P
max
0
1
2
P
max
0
0
−0.7
P
max
0
U
−0.97
P
max
0
U
Figure 22:
∂P
∂U
q
versus P for a SSSC
2.5 Phase Angle Regulator (PAR)
Phase Angle Regulators are able to solve problems referred to the transmission angle
which cannot be handled by the other series compensators. Even though these regula
tors, based on the classical arrangement of tapchanging transformers, are not able to
supply or absorb reactive power they are capable of exchanging active power with the
power system. Additionally, modern voltage and phase angle regulators are used to
improve the transient stability, to provide power oscillation damping and to minimize
the postdisturbance overloads and the corresponding voltage dips.
In Fig. 23 the concept of a Phase Angle Regulator is shown. Theoretically, the Phase
Angle Regulator can be considered a sinusoidal AC voltage source with controllable
amplitude and phase angle. The angle of the voltage U
σ
relative to U
1
is stipulated
such that the magnitudes of U
1
and U
1eﬀ
are equal.
U
L
U
L
U
1eﬀ
U
1eﬀ
U
1
U
1
U
2
U
2
σ δ
U
σ
U
σ
X
Phase
Angle
Regulator
Figure 23: Phase Angle Regulator
The basic idea is to keep the transmitted power at the desired value independent of
the prevailing transmission angle δ. If δ exceeds π/2 the amplitude of the voltage U
σ
is chosen such that the eﬀective phase angle δ +σ between the sending and receiving
end voltages stays at π/2. This is visualized in Fig. 24. The formulae for active and
2 Static Series Compensators 21
reactive power are
P
σ
=
U
1
U
2
X
sin(δ + σ) (45)
Q
σ
=
U
1
U
2
X
(1 −cos(δ + σ)) (46)
P
P
max
δ 0 π π/2
σ = 60
◦
30
◦
0
◦
−30
◦
−60
◦
Figure 24: Transmitted power versus angle characteristics for a Phase Angle Regulator
To investigate the inﬂuence of a change in σ on the change of transmitted active
power P at diﬀerent values of P, the derivative of (45) with respect to σ is taken
∂P
∂σ
=
U
1
U
2
X
cos (δ + σ) =
U
1
U
2
X
_
1 −sin
2
(δ + σ) (47)
=
¸
_
U
1
U
2
X
_
2
−P
2
(48)
From this and the assumption that
U
1
U
2
X
is constant the graphic in Fig. 25 is drawn.
P
U
1
U
2
X
U
1
U
2
X
∂P
∂σ
Figure 25:
∂P
∂σ
versus P
This shows that for larger P the inﬂuence of a change in σ is rather small compared
to the inﬂuence for a low transmitted active power.
22 FACTS
2.6 Comparison of Series Compensators
The SSSC is a voltage source type and the TSSC, TCSC and GCSC are variable
impedance type series compensators. Resulting from the diﬀerent structures there are
essential diﬀerences in characteristics and features of these devices [1]:
• The SSSC is capable of internally generating a controllable compensating voltage
over an identical capacitive and inductive range independently of the magnitude
of the line current. The compensating voltage of the GCSC and TSSC over a
given control range is proportional to the line current. The TCSC can maintain
maximum compensating voltage with decreasing line current over a control range
determined by the current boosting capability of the thyristorcontrolled reactor.
• The SSSC has the ability to interface with an external DC power supply to
provide compensation for the line resistance by the injection of active power
as well as for the line reactance by the injection of reactive power. The vari
able impedance type series compensators cannot exchange active power with the
transmission line and can only provide reactive compensation.
• The SSSC with an energy storage increases the eﬀectiveness of power oscilla
tion damping by modulating the series reactive compensation to increase and
decrease the transmitted power and by concurrently injecting an alternating vir
tual positive and negative real impedance to absorb and supply active power
from the line in sympathy with the prevalent machine swings. The variable
impedance type compensators can damp power oscillation only by modulated
reactive compensation aﬀecting the transmitted power.
Series reactive compensation can be highly eﬀective in controlling power ﬂow in the
line and in improving the dynamic behavior of the power system. But certain problems
related to the transmission angle cannot be handled by series compensation. For ex
ample, the prevailing transmission angle may not be compatible with the transmission
requirements of a given line or it may vary with daily or seasonal system loads over
too large a range to maintain acceptable power ﬂow in some aﬀected lines. To solve
these problems, phase angle regulators (PAR) or phase shifting transformers (PST)
are employed.
3 Combined Compensators
In the preceding sections shunt controllers and series controllers have been considered.
They both have diﬀerent inﬂuences on the line. In this section, the shunt and series
compensator are compared ﬁrst and then two compensators which are combinations
of series and shunt controllers are discussed: the uniﬁed power ﬂow controller and the
interline power ﬂow controller.
3.1 Comparison of Shunt and Series Compensators
The seriesconnected controllers impact the driving voltage and hence the current and
power ﬂow directly. Therefore, if the purpose of the application is to control the
3 Combined Compensators 23
current/power ﬂow and damp oscillations, the series controllers are several times more
powerful than the shunt controllers.
The shunt controllers are like current sources. They draw from or inject current
into the line. Thus, shunt controllers are applied to control voltage at and around the
point of connection through injection of reactive current. Because STATCOMs have
the capability to inject active as well as reactive current they are able to provide an
even more eﬀective voltage control and damping of voltage oscillations.
This does not mean that the series controllers cannot be used for voltage control.
Because the voltage ﬂuctuations are largely a consequence of the voltage drop in
series impedances of lines, transformers and generators, inserting a series compensator
might be the most costeﬀective way of improving the voltage proﬁle. Nevertheless, a
shunt controller is much more eﬀective in maintaining a required voltage proﬁle at a
substation bus. That is because the shunt controller serves the bus node independently
of the individual lines connected to the bus.
From the above consideration it can be followed that a combination of the series
and shunt controllers can provide the best of both, i.e. an eﬀective power/current ﬂow
and line voltage control.
3.2 Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller (UPFC): A combination of static synchronous com
pensator (STATCOM) and a static series compensator (SSSC) which are cou
pled via a common dc link, to allow bidirectional ﬂow of active power between
the series output terminals of the SSSC and the shunt output terminals of the
STATCOM, and are controlled to provide concurrent active and reactive series
line compensation without an external electric energy source. The UPFC, by
means of angularly unconstrained series voltage injection, is able to control, con
currently or selectively, the transmission line voltage, impedance, and angle or,
alternatively, the active and reactive power ﬂow in the line. The UPFC may also
provide independently controllable shunt reactive compensation.
The UPFC was developed for the realtime control and dynamic compensation of
AC transmission systems. It is able to control all the parameters aﬀecting power ﬂow
in the transmission line. Alternatively, it can independently control both the active
and reactive power ﬂow in the line.
The UPFC is conceptually a synchronous voltage source with controllable magni
tude U
pq
and angle ρ placed in series with the line (see Fig. 26). The voltage source
exchanges both active and reactive power with the transmission system. But the volt
age source can only produce reactive power, the active power has to be supplied to it
by a power supply or a sink. This power supply is one of the end buses.
Presently, a UPFC consists of two voltagesource converters which are placed back
toback and operated from a common DC link (DC storage capacitor). This imple
mentation is shown in Fig. 27. The active power can freely ﬂow in either direction
between the AC terminals of the converters and each converter can generate or absorb
reactive energy independently. Converter 2 injects the voltage U
pq
, which is control
lable in magnitude and phase (ρ), in series with the line and therefore acts as the
24 FACTS
U
pq
U
1
U
2
I
U
1eﬀ
= U
1
+U
pq
U
L
X
Q
pq
P
pq
Figure 26: Concept of the UPFC in a twomachine power system
voltage source shown in Fig. 26. The reactive power exchanged at the AC terminal
is generated by the converter internally. Opposed to this, the active power is con
verted into DC power which appears at the DC link as a positive or negative active
power demand. This DC power demand is converted back to AC power by converter
1 and coupled to the transmission line bus via the supply transformer. Additionally,
converter 1 can also exchange reactive power with the line, if necessary and provide
independent shunt reactive compensation for the line.
U
pq
Supply
transformer
Series
transformer
I
Transmission line
Converter 1 Converter 2
Control
U
U +U
pq
AC AC
U
dc
Figure 27: Implementation of a UPFC
For the system given in Fig. 28 a) the transmitted active power can be calculated
as
P
1
= P
2
= P = ℜ{U
2
· I
∗
} (49)
With
I =
U
1eﬀ
−U
2
jX
=
U
1
e
jδ
+ U
pq
e
jρ
−U
2
jX
(50)
3 Combined Compensators 25
(49) results in
P = ℜ
_
U
2
·
U
1
(cos δ −j sin δ) + U
pq
(cos ρ −j sin ρ) −U
2
−jX
_
(51)
=
U
1
U
2
X
sin δ
. ¸¸ .
P
0
+
U
2
U
pq
X
sin ρ
. ¸¸ .
∆P
(52)
U
pq
U
1
U
1
U
1eﬀ
U
1eﬀ
U
pq
X
U
2
U
2
a) b)
ρ
α
δ
UPFC
ρ −δ
Figure 28: UPFC in two machine system
For a maximal inﬂuence of U
pq
on the transmitted power, the angle ρ is equal
to 90
◦
. In Fig. 29, the corresponding transmitted power versus transmission angle
characteristic is shown. Thus, the transmission characteristic is shifted up and down
depending on the magnitude of the voltage of the UPFC.
P(p.u.)
1.0
δ 0 π/2 π
−0.6
−0.3
0
0.3
U
pq
(p.u.) = 0.6
Figure 29: Transmitted power versus transmission angle for UPFC (ρ = 90
◦
)
The inﬂuence of a change in U
pq
on the change of transmitted active power P at
26 FACTS
diﬀerent values of P, is
∂P
∂U
pq
=
U
2
X
sin ρ =
P
max
0
U
1
sin ρ (53)
where
P
max
0
=
U
1
U
2
X
. (54)
Thus, for constant P
max
0
, U
1
and ρ , it is the same for all P. This can also be seen in
Fig. 29 where the lines for diﬀerent U
pq
are equidistant.
The same considerations can be done for the angle ρ. The derivative of P with
respect to ρ is
∂P
∂ρ
=
U
2
U
pq
X
cos ρ = P
max
0
U
pq
U
1
cos ρ (55)
Therefore, assuming that P
max
0
, U
1
and U
pq
are constant, also
∂P
∂ρ
is the same for all
P.
3.3 Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC): The combination of two or more Static Syn
chronous Series Compensators which are coupled via a common dc link to facili
tate bidirectional ﬂow of active power between the ac terminals of the SSSCs, and
are controlled to provide independent reactive compensation for the adjustment
of active power ﬂow in each line and maintain the desired distribution of reactive
power ﬂow among the lines. The IPFC structure may also include a STATCOM,
coupled to the IPFC’s common dc link, to provide shunt reactive compensation
and supply or absorb the overall active power deﬁcit of the combined SSSC’s.
The IPFC addresses the problem of compensating a number of transmission lines at a
given substation. Series capacitive compensators are used to increase the transmittable
active power over a given line but they are unable to control the reactive power ﬂow
in, and thus the proper load balancing of the line. With IPFC active power can be
transferred between diﬀerent lines. Therefore, it is possible to:
• equalize both active and reactive power ﬂow between the lines,
• reduce the burden of overloaded lines by active power transfer,
• compensate against resistive line voltage drops and the corresponding reactive
power demand,
• and increase the eﬀectiveness of the overall compensating system for dynamic
disturbances.
The general form of a IPFC is shown in Fig. 30. It employs a number of DCtoAC
converters, namely SSSC, each providing series compensation for a diﬀerent line.
With this scheme the converters do not only provide series reactive compensation
but can also be controlled to supply active power to the common DC link from its
own transmission line. Like this active power can be provided from the overloaded
lines for active power compensation in other lines. This scheme requires a rigorous
maintenance of the overall power balance at the common DC terminal by appropriate
control action: the underloaded lines provide appropriate active power transfer for the
overloaded lines.
4 Use of FACTS 27
.
.
.
. . .
HV 1
HV 2
HV n
SSSC 1 SSSC 2 SSSC n
Control
DC bus
Figure 30: Interline Power Flow Controller
4 Use of FACTS
Shunt compensators, series compensators as well as combinations of these two types
of compensators have been discussed. The application of these devices depends on the
problem which has to be solved. In Table 4, an overview of problems occurring in the
grid and which FACTS to be used to solve these problems are given.
Subject Problem Corrective action FACTS
Voltage limits Low voltage at
heavy load
Supply reactive power SVC, STAT
COM
Reduce line reactance TCSC
High voltage at low
load
Absorb reactive power SVC, STAT
COM
High voltage fol
lowing an outage
Absorb reactive power,
prevent overload
SVC, STAT
COM
Low voltage follow
ing an outage
Supply reactive power,
prevent overload
SVC, STAT
COM
Thermal limits Transmission cir
cuit overload
Increase transmission ca
pacity
TCSC, SSSC,
UPFC
Load ﬂow Power distribution
on parallel lines
Adjust line reactances TCSC, SSSC,
UPFC
Adjust phase angle UPFC, SSSC,
PAR
Load ﬂow reversal Adjust phase angle UPFC, SSSC,
PAR
Short circuit
power
High short circuit
current
Limitation of short cir
cuit current
TCSC, UPFC
Stability Limited transmis
sion power
Decrease line reactance TCSC, SSSC
Table 1: Examples of use for FACTS
28 FACTS
5 HighVoltage DirectCurrent Transmission (HVDC)
Another option to control power ﬂow is HighVoltage DirectCurrent transmission
(HVDC). HVDC devices convert AC to DC, transport it over a DC line and then con
vert DC back to AC. This has advantages over AC transmission in several applications
[4]:
• Underwater cables: Cables have a large capacitance. For AC cables this results
in a high charging current. If the cable is longer than about 5060 kilometers
the charging currents will fully load the cable and no real power transmission
is possible. A solution to the problem would be to place shunt inductors every
50 kilometers. But to do so, land is required. DC cables do not have these
drawbacks.
• AC system connection: To connect two AC systems of diﬀerent frequencies, the
power from one system can be converted to DC power, transported over the DC
line and then fed into the other AC system with diﬀerent frequency. Also, not
synchronized networks can be connected like this.
• Long distance overhead transmission: If the transmission line is long (typically ≥
600km) the savings in line capital costs and losses with a DC line may countervail
the investment costs for two converters and therefore a HVDC may be more
favorable.
There are three categories of HVDC links
• Monopolar links (Fig. 31)
• Bipolar links (Fig. 32)
• Homopolar links (Fig. 33)
A monopolar link has only one conductor which is usually of negative polarity. The
return path is provided by ground, water or, if the earth resistivity is too high or
interference with underground metallic structures is possible, a metallic return may
be used.
A bipolar link consists of two conductors, one of positive and one of negative polarity.
Normally the currents in the two conductors are equal such that no ground current
results. Nevertheless the two poles are independent of each other. Often there exist
switches to bypass the converters in case a converter is faulted (dotted lines in Fig. 32).
When such a fault is registered, these switches are shut and the faultless conductor
can operate with this bypassed line. There would also be the possibility to operate
with ground but mostly ground resistivity is very high or ground currents cannot be
tolerated.
The homopolar link has two or more conductors. They all have the same polarity,
usually negative because radio interference due to that the corona is then less intense.
Ground is used as return path. In case of a faulted conductor, the converter is able to
feed the other conductors which can carry more than normal power.
5 HighVoltage DirectCurrent Transmission (HVDC) 29
Metallic return
(Optional)
AC
system
AC
system
Figure 31: Monopolar HVDC link
AC
system
AC
system
Figure 32: Bipolar HVDC link
AC
system
AC
system
Figure 33: Homopolar HVDC link
The converters are a major part of the HVDC. They perform AC/DC conversion
and provide the possibility to control the power ﬂow through the HVDC link. The
basic module of an HVDC converter is the threephase, fullwave bridge circuit. In
ﬁgure 34 such a circuit is given. The AC system, including the converter transformer
is represented by ideal voltage sources
e
a
= U
m
cos(ωt + 60
◦
) (56)
e
b
= U
m
cos(ωt −60
◦
) (57)
e
c
= U
m
cos(ωt −180
◦
) (58)
To simplify the considerations, the commutation reactances L
c
are neglected. There
fore, commutation occurs instantaneously without overlap, i.e. no more than two valves
conduct at any time. Another assumption is that the direct current i
d
is constant which
is justiﬁed because of the large smoothing reactor L
d
.
30 FACTS
replacemen
e
a
e
a
e
a
e
b
e
b
e
c
e
c
e
c
u
a
u
b
u
c
i
d
e
ab
e
ab
e
ac
e
ac
e
ba
e
bc e
ca
e
cb
u
d
u
d
u
d
i
1
i
2
i
3
i
4
i
5
i
6
0
◦
180
◦
360
◦
L
d
= ∞
ωt
L
c
L
c
L
c
Figure 34: Circuit and waveforms for threephase fullwave bridge converter
A valve conducts when the anode is at higher potential than the cathode and when
a control pulse is applied to the gate. Considering the bridge in Fig. 34, always one
valve of the upper row and one of the lower row is conducting. It depends on the
phasetoneutral voltages u
a
, u
b
and u
c
and on the gate control, which valves these
are. In the lower graph in Fig. 34, constant pulses are applied to all valves. If u
a
is
more positive than u
b
and u
c
, valve 1 conducts. The common potential of the valves
in the upper row is then equal to that of the anode of valve 1 and therefore the valves
3 and 5 block. The considerations for the lower row is very similar. The valve whose
corresponding phasetoneutral voltage is more negative than the voltages of the other
two valves conducts and determines the value of the common potential. Thus, the
curve in the graph in Fig. 34 results for the voltage u
d
.
The direct voltage u
d
across the bridge is composed of 60
◦
segments of the linetoline
voltages. Therefore, the average direct voltage U
d0
is
U
d0
=
3
π
_
0
◦
−60
◦
e
ac
dθ = 1.65 · U
m
(59)
The gate control can be used to delay the ignition of the valves and therefore to
control the voltage, respectively the power on the DC line (Fig. 35). With the ﬁring
References 31
delay angle α the average direct voltage U
d
is given as
U
d
= U
d0
cos ·α (60)
α has to lie between 0
◦
and 180
◦
.
e
a
e
a
e
b e
c
e
c
e
ab e
ab
e
ac
e
ac
e
ba
e
bc e
ca
e
cb
0
◦
180
◦
360
◦
ωt
α
Figure 35: Waveforms for threephase fullwave bridge converter with ignition delay
References
[1] N.G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi. Understanding FACTS concepts and technology of
ﬂexible AC transmission systems. IEEE Press, New York, 2000.
[2] R.M. Mathur and R.K. Varma. Thyristorbased facts controllers for electrical trans
mission systems. IEEE Press, Piscataway, 2002.
[3] Y.H. Song. Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS). The Institution of Elec
trical Engineers, London, 1999.
[4] P. Kundur. Power system stability and control. McGrawHill, New York etc., 1994.
2
FACTS
SVC is an umbrella term for several devices. The SVC devices discussed in the following sections are the TCR, TSR and TSC. The characteristics of a SVC are described as • based on normal inductive and capacitive elements • not based on rotating machines • control function is through power electronics. The STATCOM which is discussed in Sect. 1.3 has the following characteristics • based on voltage source synchronized to network • not based on rotating machines • control function is based on adjustment of voltage. By placing the shunt in the middle of a line and therefore dividing the line into two segments, the voltage at this point can be controlled such that it has the same value as the end line voltages. This has the advantage that the maximal power transmission is increased. If the shunt compensator is located at the end of a line in parallel to a load it is possible to regulate the voltage at this end and therefore to prevent voltage instability caused by load variations or generation or line outages. As shunt compensation is able to change the power ﬂow in the system by varying the value of the applied shunt compensation during and following dynamic disturbances the transient stability limit can be increased and eﬀective power oscillation damping is provided. Thereby the voltage of the transmission line counteracts the accelerating and decelerating swings of the disturbed machine and therefore dampens the power oscillations.
1.1 ThyristorControlled and ThyristorSwitched Reactor (TCR and TSR)
TCR: A shuntconnected, thyristorcontrolled inductor whose eﬀective reactance is varied in a continuous manner by partialconduction control of the thyristor value. An elementary singlephase thyristorcontrolled reactor (TCR) is shown in Fig. 1. The current in the reactor can be controlled from maximum to zero by the method of ﬁring delay angle control. That is the duration of the current conduction intervals is controlled by delaying the closure of the thyristor valve with respect to the peak of the applied voltage in each halfcycle (Fig. 1). For α = 0◦ the amplitude is at its maximum and for α = 90◦ the amplitude is zero and no current is ﬂowing during the corresponding halfcycle. Like this the same eﬀect is provided as with an inductance of changing value. A thyristor switched reactor (TSR) has similar equipment to a TCR, but is used only at ﬁxed angles of 90◦ and 180◦ , i.e. full conduction or no conduction. The reactive current iS (t) will be proportional to the applied voltage. Several TSRs can provide a reactive admittance controllable in a steplike manner.
1 Static Shunt Compensators
3
iS (t) uS (t) iS (t) uS (t)
t
α=0
α = α1 α = α2 α = α3
α = α4
Figure 1: ThyristorControlled Reactor TSR: A shuntconnected, thyristorswitched inductor whose eﬀective reactance is varied in a stepwise manner by full or zeroconduction operation of the thyristor value. If a TSR or TCR is placed in the middle of the line to keep the voltage at this place at the same value as at the ends of the line the maximal transmittable power is doubled. This can be shown considering the diagram in Fig. 2
I1
+
X/2
+
X/2
I2
+
jXI 1 /2 U2 U1 US δ/4 I1 δ I2
jXI 2 /2 .
U1
US
SVC
U2
U1  = U2  = US  = U
Figure 2: Two machine system with SVC in the middle It is assumed that the end line voltages and the midline voltage all have the same magnitude U . The phasor angle of U2 is set to zero and therefore is used as reference value for the other phasors. U 2 = U, U 1 = U ejδ , U S = U ejδ/2 With some trigonometry, I 2 can be calculated as I2 = The transmitted power results in P = ℜ {U 1 · I ∗ } = ℜ {U 2 · I ∗ } 1 2 4U 2 sin (δ/4)(cos(δ/4) − j sin(δ/4)) = ℜ X 2U 2 = sin(δ/2) X (3) (4) (5) 4U sin δ/4 · ejδ/4 X (2) (1)
4 line. From Fig. 2. Under balanced conditions.. 5 does not hold any more. 3 the impedance scheme of the system is shown as full lines. In Fig. 4. For example. This scheme can be transformed by “YD” transformation into the dashdotted system. only odd harmonics are generated and the amplitudes are ISn (α) = U 4 ωL π sin α cos(nα) − n cos α sin(nα) n(n2 − 1) (7) where n = 2k + 1.4. X X In the previous elaborations it was assumed that the SVC is able to provide the voltage US  = U at any transmission angle. For the other SVC the characteristic looks the same as they all are based on the same concept of inserting a shunt reactance into the line. If the positive and negative current halfcycles are identical. also harmonics are generated. three singlephase thyristorcontrolled reactors are used. As long as the SVC is able to provide the same voltage as the end line voltages the characteristic follows the US  = U line up to the point where this line crosses the line of the maximal possible BSV C . 1 it can be seen that the ﬁring angle control results in a nonsinusoidal current waveform in the reactor. Therefore. Thus. in addition to the wanted fundamental current. . If we look at the SVC as adjustable susceptance BSV C .4 2 FACTS As the transmitted power without the SVC is U sin(δ) the maximal transmittable X 2 2 power is doubled from U to 2 U . the characteristic corresponds to the US  = U line up to δc and then continues on the BSV C = 4X · 0. if the maximal value for BSV C is 4X · 0.. the triplen harmonic currents . k = 1. In a threephase system. From this point the characteristic follows the line of the maximal possible BSV C . 3. because at the same voltage a higher current has to be provided. it is clear that their are limits on the value of this susceptance. usually in delta connection. the transmitted power is P = P1 = P2 = U1 U2 X− X 2 BSV C 4 (6) This results in a transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic as shown in Fig. j(X − jX 2 BSV C X 2 ) 4 jX 2 jXA 1 jBSV C jXB Figure 3: Equivalent network of the two machine system The parallel reactances XA and XB do not play any role in this case because the U1 and U2 are assumed constant. If the susceptance value reaches the upper limit Eq. The larger the transmission angle the larger the necessary susceptance.
only one of the m reactors is delay angle controlled.e. 15th.2 0 −0.4 5 0 π/2δc π δ Figure 4: Transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic for a SVC (3rd. i. The magnitudes of the other harmonics generated by the thyristorcontrolled reactors can be reduced by various methods.1 Static Shunt Compensators P 2Pmax US  = U BSV C = 4/X· 0. Like this the amplitude of every harmonic is reduced by the factor m with respect to the maximum rated fundamental current. each with 1/m of the total rating required (Fig. One method employs m parallelconnected TCRs. ISdemand t iS1 uS t iS1 iS2 iS3 iS4 iS2 uS t iS3 uS t iS4 uS t uS Figure 5: Method for controlling four TCR banks to achieve harmonic reduction . 5).2 −0. 9th.) circulate in the delta connected TCRs and do not enter the power system. and each of the remaining m − 1 reactors is either fully “on” or fully “oﬀ” depending on the total reactive power required. The reactors are sequentially controlled. etc.4 Pmax 0.
Because of the 30degree phase shift between the related voltages of the two transformer windings. To minimize transient disturbances when switching the TSC on.or zeroconduction operation of the thyristor value. The disconnected capacitor ideally stays charged at this peak value and the voltage across the nonconducting thyristor varies in phase with the applied ac voltage. the voltage across the capacitor does not remain constant during the time when the thyristor is switched out. cancel.. Further harmonic cancellation is possible by operating three or more delta connected TCRs from appropriately phase shifted voltage sets. At this time instance the capacitor value has reached its peak value.6 FACTS Another method employs a 12pulse TCR arrangement. the other from deltaconnected windings of the secondary of a coupling transformer. k = 1. Normally..2 ThyristorSwitched Capacitor (TSC) TSC: A shuntconnected. harmonic ﬁlters are employed. the harmonic currents of order 6(2k − 1) and 6(2k − 1) + 1. 2. 3. 1. iS iS uC uC uS uSW uSW uL t TSC on TSC oﬀ t uS Figure 6: ThyristorSwitched Capacitor Normally. The TSC branch can be switched out at a zero crossing of the current. In practice. In Fig. but it is discharged after disconnection. these 18 and higher pulse circuit arrangements tend to be too complex and expensive. In this. a singlephase thyristorswitched capacitor (TSC) is shown. If the TCR generated harmonics cannot be reduced suﬃciently by circuit arrangements. 6. resulting in a nearly sinusoidal output current at all delay angles. thyristorswitched capacitor whose eﬀective reactance is varied in a stepwise manner by full. two identical threephase delta connected thyristorcontrolled reactors are used. the reconnection has to take place at an instance where the AC voltage and the voltage across the conductor . . such as the fourreactor system or the 12pulse structure. these ﬁlters are series LC and LCR branches in parallel with the TCR and are tuned to the dominant harmonics. one operated from wyeconnected windings.
1.3 Static synchronous compensator: STATCOM STATCOM: A static synchronous generator operated as a shuntconnected static var compensator whose capacitive or inductive output current can be controlled independent of the AC system voltage. For this reason. which produces a set of controllable threephase output voltages with the frequency of the AC power system. UT Coupling Transformer Iq U VoltageSource Converter Idc Udc DC Energy Source Cdc Figure 7: Static Synchronous Compensator The charged capacitor Cdc provides a DC voltage to the converter. the reactive power exchange . a TSC branch can provide only a steplike change in the reactive current it draws (maximum or zero). there will still be transients caused by the nonzero duS /dt at the instant of switching. By varying the amplitude of the output voltage U . To approximate continuous current variations. 7. that is when the voltage across the thyristor valve is zero. would result an instant current in the capacitor (iS = C · duS /dt). which. From these elaborations it follows that ﬁring delay angle control is not applicable to capacitors. It provides voltage support by generating or absorbing reactive power at the point of common coupling without the need of large external reactors or capacitor banks.1 Static Shunt Compensators 7 are equal. The current through the capacitor varies with the applied voltage. The interaction between the capacitor and the current (and diS /dt) limiting reactor produces oscillatory transients on current and voltage. the TSC is a single capacitive admittance which is either connected to or disconnected from the AC system. without the reactor. The basic voltagesource converter scheme is shown in Fig. However. Thus. A STATCOM is a controlled reactivepower source. several TSC branches in parallel may be used. the capacitor switching must take place at that speciﬁc instant in each cycle at which the conditions for minimum transients are satisﬁed.
e. a lagging current results and the STATCOM is seen as an inductor. If the amplitude of the output voltage U is increased above that of the AC system U T . a leading current is produced. A practical converter is not lossless. the energy stored in this capacitor would be consumed by the internal losses of the converter. i. 8 and applying Kirchoﬀs laws the following equations can be written I2 = I2 UT − U2 (U 1 − jI 1 X1 ) − U 2 = jX2 jX2 = I1 − Iq (8) (9) I1 X1 X2 I2 β UR UT U2 b) (U 2 −U 1 )X1 X1 +X2 U1 U1 UT Iq U2 α δ a) (U 2 −U 1 )X2 X1 +X2 Figure 8: Two machine system with STATCOM By equalling righthand terms of (8) and (9). and to provide uninterrupted power for critical load. The derivation of the formula for the transmitted active power employs considerable calculations. By making the output voltages of the converter lag the AC system voltages by a small angle. the converter absorbs a small amount of active power from the AC system to balance the losses in the converter. In the case of the DC capacitor. to level peak power demand. If the amplitudes are equal no power exchange takes place. Using the variables deﬁned in Fig. In this case reactive power is absorbed. and thereby the output voltage U .8 FACTS between the converter and the AC system can be controlled. Instead of a capacitor also a battery can be used as DC energy. Decreasing the amplitude of the output voltage below that of the AC system. In this case the converter can control both reactive and active power exchange with the AC system. The capability of controlling active as well as reactive power exchange is a signiﬁcant feature which can be used eﬀectively in applications requiring power oscillation damping. The mechanism of phase angle adjustment can also be used to control the reactive power generation or absorption by increasing or decreasing the capacitor voltage Udc . the STATCOM is seen as a conductor by the AC system and reactive power is generated. a formula for the current I 1 is obtained I1 = U1 − U2 X2 + Iq j(X1 + X2 ) (X1 + X2 ) (10) .
9. UR = U R  = U 1 X2 + U2 X1 = (X1 + X2 ) 2 2 2 2 U1 X2 + U2 X1 + 2U1 U2 X1 X2 cos δ (X1 + X2 ) (20) Substituting this and (15) into (19) and performing some algebraic calculations.e.1 Static Shunt Compensators From this. 8. The fact that I q is shifted by 90◦ with regard to U R can be used to express I q as U I q = jIq · R . . the ﬁnal formula for the transmitted active power is obtained Iq U1 U2 sin δ U R 1 + UR · P = · (X1 + X2 ) UR X1 X2 X1 +X2 = U1 U2 sin δ (X1 + X2 ) 1+ X1 X2 Iq · UR (X1 + X2 ) (21) The resulting characteristic of the transmitted power versus transmission angle is given in Fig. when I q = 0. the voltage U T is derived as U T = U 1 − jI 1 X1 (U − U 2 )X1 X1 X2 − jI q · = U1 − 1 (X1 + X2 ) (X1 + X2 ) X1 X2 = U R − jI q · X1 + X2 9 (11) (12) (13) where U R is the STATCOM terminal voltage if the STATCOM is out of operation. i. UR (X1 + X2 ) (18) (16) (17) The formula for the transmitted active power can be given as P = P1 = P2 = UT U1 U1 U2 sin δ UT sin α = · X1 (X1 + X2 ) UR (19) To dispose of the term UR the cosine law is applied to the diagram in Fig. the following two equations result sin δ sin β = U2 U 1 − U 2  sin β sin α = X1 UR U 1 − U 2  (X1 +X2 ) from which the formula for sin α is derived sin α = U2 sin δX1 . Therefore. (14) UR Equation (13) is then rewritten as follows U T = U R + Iq UR X1 X2 X1 X2 Iq · = UR 1 + · UR (X1 + X2 ) UR (X1 + X2 ) (15) Applying the sine law to the diagram in Fig. 8 b).
the SVC does not have this capability.0 0. A STATCOM functions as a shuntconnected synchronous voltage source whereas a SVC operates as a shuntconnected. This diﬀerence accounts for the STATCOM’s superior functional characteristics.) = 1. Thus. better performance..) from where it can draw active power at its DC terminal and deliver it as AC power to the system. and greater application ﬂexibility than those attainable with a SVC. In the linear operating range the VI characteristic (Fig.u.5 −1. the STATCOM is more eﬀective than the SVC in providing voltage support under large system disturbances during which the voltage excursions would be well outside of the linear operating range of the compensator. controlled reactive admittance. but the basic operating principles are fundamentally diﬀerent. the STATCOM is able to control its output current over the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range independently of AC system voltage.0 0 −0. In situations where it is necessary to provide active power compensation the STATCOM is able to interface a suitable energy storage (large capacitor.) Iq (p. whereas the maximum attainable compensating current of the SVC decreases linearly with AC voltage. . 10) and functional compensation capability of the STATCOM and the SVC are similar.u.4 Comparison of Shunt Compensators SVC and STATCOM are very similar in their functional compensation capability.. Concerning the nonlinear operating range.0 FACTS 0 π/2 δ Figure 9: Transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic of a STATCOM 1. .5 1. The attainable response time and the bandwidth of the closed voltage regulation loop of the STATCOM are also signiﬁcantly better than those of the SVC. On the other side. battery.10 P(p. The ability of the STATCOM to maintain full capacitive output current at low system voltage also makes it more eﬀective than the SVC in improving the transient stability.
7 0.0 0.0 0.3 0. 2.4 0.8 0. On the other hand. i uC i C SW “on” uC = 0 uC SW SW is allowed to turn on at uC = 0 uC = 0 t Figure 11: Course of capacitor voltage for a basic element in a TSSC A thyristor valve is turned oﬀ in an instance when the current crosses zero.5 0. With series compensation the overall eﬀective series transmission impedance from the sending end to the receiving end can be arbitrarily decreased thereby inﬂuencing the power ﬂow (P = U 2 /X sin δ). The capacitor is inserted into the line if the corresponding thyristor valve is turned oﬀ.6 0.4 0.2 IC ICmax Capacitive ILmax Inductive IL IC ICmax Capacitive ILmax IL Inductive Figure 10: VI characteristics of the STATCOM (a) and the SVC (b) 2 Static Series Compensators The variable series compensation is highly eﬀective in both controlling power ﬂow in the line and in improving stability. otherwise it is bypassed.1 11 (b) SVC UT 1.2 0. 11.2 Static Series Compensators (a) STATCOM UT 1. the thyristor valve should be turned on for bypass only when the capacitor voltage is zero in order to minimize the initial .8 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.1 ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor (TSSC) The basic element of a TSSC is a capacitor shunted by bypass valve shown in Fig. This capability to control power ﬂow can eﬀectively be used to increase the transient stability limit and to provide power oscillation damping.6 0. Thus. the capacitor can be inserted into the line by the thyristor valve only at the zero crossings of the line current.3 0.
12 FACTS surge current in the valve.4 0.0 0 −0. X + XT SSC X(1 − K) (23) . Therefore.) I + K = 0. a TSSC can only provide discrete capacitor values for series compensation. 12). 13 a). 11. A ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor is built from several of these basic elements in series (Fig.4 U2 a) 0 π/2 b) π δ Figure 13: a) Two machine system with TSSC and b) corresponding transmitted power versus angle characteristics The transmitted active power is calculated from the general formula for transmitted active power on a line and is given as P = U1 U2 U1 U2 sin δ = sin δ. Thus. The degree of series compensation is controlled in a steplike manner by increasing or decreasing the number of series capacitors inserted.2 X U1 XT SSC + 1. This is illustrated in Fig. i uC1 C1 uC2 C2 uCm−1 Cm−1 uCm Cm Figure 12: ThyristorSwitched Series Capacitor The TSSC can be considered as a controllable reactance in series with the line reactance as shown in Fig. The ratio of the inserted TSSC reactance to the line reactance XT SSC K=− (22) X is a measure for the compensation degree of the line. if the capacitor is once inserted into the line.2 −0. P (p. This results in a possible delay up to one full cycle to turn the valve on. it will be charged by the line current from zero to maximum during the ﬁrst halfcycle and discharged from maximum to zero during the successive halfcycle until it can be bypassed again.u. and the corresponding circuit transient. A TSSC can be applied for power ﬂow control and for damping power oscillations.
X (26) (27) ∂P Therefore.2 Static Series Compensators 13 Thus. 14 b) results. It can be seen that the value of K determines the maximal transmittable power. ∂P The assumption of a ﬁxed K is not exactly correct. can be derived from the derivative of (23) with respect to K ∂P ∂K U1 U2 sin δ X(1 − K)2 P = 1−K = (24) (25) ∂P Thus. Assuming a ﬁxed P0 the graph in Fig. ∂K is proportional to P resulting in the graphic in Fig. 14 a) where it is assumed that K is ﬁxed. because ∂K is a ﬁgure for how much the transmitted power changes if K changes. ∂K is proportional to the square of the transmitted power P . on K according to (25). i. the transmitted active power versus angle characteristic for a TSSC is shown in Fig. The slope of the curve depends on the compensation. The inﬂuence of a change in K on the change of transmitted active power P at diﬀerent values of P . .2 ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) TCSC: A capacitive reactance compensator which consists of a series capacitor bank shunted by a thyristorcontrolled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series capacitive reactance. the elaborations above are only true for small changes in K. ∂P ∂K ∂P ∂K K = K3 K2 K1 ∼ P2 P a) b) ∂P ∂K P Figure 14: versus P for a) ﬁxed K and b) ﬁxed P0 2. Therefore.e. 13 b). Further considerations can be done by P P ∂P = =P· ∂K 1−K P0 where P0 = U1 U2 sin(δ).
In this mode the TCSC performs like a ﬁxed series capacitor. the boost factor is equal to one. the bypass mode is utilized to reduce the capacitor stress during faults. where XT CSC is the apparent reactance (XT CSC = ℑ 1. Reasonable values for λ fall in the range of 2 to 4. The capacitor peak voltage thus will be increased in proportion to the charge . XC UC I (29) ). The line current passes only through the capacitor bank (XT CSC = XC ). The TCSC behaves like a parallel connection of the series capacitor and the inductor. When λ is considerably larger than unity the amplitude of uC is much lower in bypass than in blocking mode. Blocking mode: The thyristor valve is not triggered and the thyristors are kept in nonconducting state. XL (28) 1 where XC = − ωC and XL = ωL. 2.14 FACTS The scheme of a ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor is given in Fig. Therefore. The discharge current pulse adds to the line current through the capacitor bank. A parameter to describe the TCSC main circuit is λ which is the quotient of the resonant frequency and the network frequency resulting in λ= −XC . As XT CSC = −XC XL XC = XL + XC 1 − λ2 (30) the voltage is inductive and the boost factor is negative. 3. 15. It causes a capacitor voltage that adds to the voltage caused by the line current. Bypass mode: The thyristor valve is triggered continuously and therefore the valve stays conducting all the time. uC i C iL L iC = i − iL Figure 15: ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) The operating modes of a TCSC are characterized by the socalled boost factor KB = XT CSC . Thus. Capacitive boost mode: If a trigger pulse is supplied to the thyristor having forward voltage just before the capacitor voltage crosses the zero line a capacitor discharge current pulse will circulate through the parallel inductive branch.
The curves of the currents and the voltage for three diﬀerent conduction angles are given in Fig. large thyristor currents may occur. The charge depends on the conduction angle β (Fig. The TCSC operates in the capacitive boost mode when 0 < β < β∞ . 16). Because of this waveform and the high valve stress. the inductive boost mode is less attractive for steady state operation. 2−1 2−1 πλ λ β (31) π Due to the factor tan(λβ) this formula has an asymptote at β∞ = 2λ . KB 4 Capacitive boost 2 0 Inductive boost −2 30 60 90 β Figure 17: Boost factor versus conduction angle 4. Inductive boost mode: If the conduction angle is increased above β∞ the mode changes from conductive to inductive boost mode (Fig. . In the inductive boost mode. 18. The capacitor voltage waveform is very much distorted from its desired sinusoidal shape.2 Static Series Compensators uC (t) t β2 i(t) t iL (t) iL (t) i(t) t iL (t) β3 i(t) t t 15 uC (t) t β1 uC (t) Figure 16: Waveforms at various boost factors in capacitive boost mode that passes through the thyristor branch. the mathematical formula is (without giving the derivation) KB = 1 + 2 λ2 2 cos2 β sin 2β (λ tan λβ − tan β) − β − . An example boost factor versus conduction angle characteristic is given in Fig. 17). 17. For the boost factor.
3 GTO ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) An elementary GTO ThyristorControlled Series Capacitor consists of a ﬁxed capacitor with a GTO thyristor valve that has the capability to turn on and oﬀ upon command. the characteristics of the transmitted power versus transmission ∂P angle looks alike the one of the TSSC in Fig. The objective of the GCSC scheme is to control the AC voltage uC across the capacitor at a given line current i. 2. Like this the eﬀect of a capacitor with controllable reactance is introduced. the adjustment of the capacitor voltage can only take place once in each halfcycle. The turning oﬀ of the valve is controlled by a delay angle γ with respect to the peak of the line current. This is shown in Fig. the closing and opening of the valve is carried out in each halfcycle in synchronism with the AC system frequency. Therefore. 19. The structure is given in Fig.16 uC (t) t β4 β5 iL (t) t i(t) t FACTS uC (t) t uC (t) t β6 iL (t) i(t) t iL (t) i(t) Figure 18: Waveforms at various boost factors in inductive boost mode Because a TCSC is based on the same idea as the TSSC. SW i uC (γ) i uC γ=0 γ = γ1 γ = γ2 γ = γ3 γ = γ4 t Figure 19: GTOControlled Series Capacitor It can be seen from Figs. 1 and 19 that the waveforms for the current through the inductance of a TCR is identical to the waveform of the conductor voltage of the . 13 and also the ∂K is the same (Fig. When the GTO is closed uC is zero and when it is open uC is at its maximum. The GTO valve is stipulated to close automatically whenever the capacitor voltage crosses zero. namely to introduce additional reactances. For controlling the capacitor voltage. 14). 19.
. it is alike the one for the TSSC in Fig. m GCSC are connected in series each rated with 1/m of the total voltage rating. and controllable independently of. k = 1. The amplitudes of the harmonics are I 4 sin γ cos(nγ) − n cos γ sin(nγ) (32) ωC π n(n2 − 1) where n = 2k + 1. The SSSC may include transiently rated energy storage or energy absorbing devices to enhance the dynamic behavior of the power system by additional temporary active power compensation. The principle of a SSSC is shown in Fig. it might even be a technical preference to break a single highvoltage valve into four or more series connected modules to realize practical GCSC. The magnitudes of these harmonic frequencies can be attenuated eﬀectively by the complementary application of the method of “sequential control” introduced in Sect.2 Static Series Compensators 17 GCSC and visualizes the duality of TCR and GCSC. Uq I + UL X + Uq UL U1 U2 U1 δ U2 Figure 20: Synchronous voltage source for compensation The phasor diagram shows that the voltage source increases the magnitude of the voltage across the inductance. i. i. In contrast to the TCR arrangement.1 to reduce the harmonics generated by a TCR. Thus. . to increase or decrease momentarily. and therefore also increases the magnitude . The single capacitor is turnoﬀ delay angle controlled to enable continuous voltage control over the total operating range. Thus. the line current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and thereby controlling the transmitted electric power. the line. where for economic reasons only a small number of parallel branches would be applied.. A SSSC is a voltagesource converterbased series compensator. 13. 1.e. 2. the overall active (resistive) voltage drop across the line. ULn (α) = 2. it is obvious that the turnoﬀ delay angle control of the GCSC generates harmonics like the turnon delay angle control of the TCR. 20 for a two machine system.4 Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) StaticSynchronous Series Compensator (SSSC): A static synchronous generator operated without an external electric energy source as a series compensator whose output voltage is in quadrature with.e. For the transmitted active power versus transmission angle characteristic the same holds as for the TCSC. All but one of these m capacitors are “sequentially” controlled to be inserted or bypassed.. 3.
This corresponds to the eﬀect of a capacitor placed in series. i. the same compensation as provided by the series capacitor is accomplished: U q = −jXC I. The SSSC injects the compensating voltage in series with the line irrespective of the line current. the transmitted power P is a function of the injected voltage Uq . This direction is determined by the term (U 1 − U 2 )/U 1 − U 2 . The series reactive compensation scheme. simply by reversing the polarity of the injected AC voltage. the voltage source can also decrease the voltage across the line inductance having the same eﬀect as if the reactive line impedance was increased. Therefore. As it is a reactive source. By making the output voltage of the synchronous voltage source U q a function of the current I. However.e. the phasor U T is perpendicular to the throughput current.18 FACTS of the current I resulting in an increase in the power ﬂow. the SSSC can decrease as well as increase the power ﬂow to the same degree. The injected voltage U q phasor has the same direction as it is a reactive voltage source. (39) Therefore. Without source this would be the voltage drop on reactance X. using a switching power converter as a synchronous voltage is termed Static Synchronous Series Compensator. with a voltage source it is possible to maintain a constant compensating voltage in the presence of variable line current because the voltage can be controlled independently of the current. X U 1 − U 2  (34) (35) (36) The term (U 1 − U 2 ) represents the phasor diﬀerence between U 1 and U 2 . . 21. i. the transmission characteristic can be obtained from the following equation P1 = P2 = P = ℜ {U 1 I ∗ } = ℜ {U 2 I ∗ } = U2 · ℜ {I} Taking into consideration that U 1 − U 2  = 2 2 U1 + U2 − 2U1 U2 cos δ (37) (38) the following formula results for the transmitted active power P = U1 U2 sin δ X 1− Uq 2 2 U1 + U2 − 2U1 U2 cos δ . The transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic is given in Fig. the current I results in I = U1 − Uq − U2 jX (U − U 2 ) 1 (U 1 − U 2 ) − Uq · 1 = jX U 1 − U 2  j(U 2 − U 1 ) Uq = 1− . Multiplication with the injected voltage magnitude UT mathematically describes the phasor U T . (33) where XC is the reactance of the capacitor. Thus. U 1 = U1 (cos δ + j sin δ).e. U 2 = U2 . Choosing U 2 as reference phasor.
2 Static Series Compensators P (p.6 19 0 π/2 π δ Figure 21: Transmitted power versus transmission angle provided by the SSSC If the magnitudes of the end line voltages are equal.2 1.4 −0. i.u.e.0 0 0. U1 = U2 = U . the graph for is given in Fig. X (41) (42) With the trigonometric transformation 1 + cos(δ) = 2 1+ 1 − sin2 (δ) 2 cos(δ/2) = and (42). (39) results in P = U2 U sin(δ) − Uq cos(δ/2) X X (40) The derivative of (40) with respect to Uq shows the inﬂuence of a change in Uq on the change of transmitted active power at diﬀerent values of P : ∂P P − P0 U = = − cos(δ/2) ∂Uq Uq X where P0 = U2 max sin(δ) = P0 · sin(δ). 22. ∂P ∂Uq (43) results in 2 ∂P U =− · ∂Uq X 1+ 1 − sin (δ) =− 2 U 2 max P0 1+ · ∂P ∂Uq 1− 2 max P0 P0 (44) max Assuming that U and P0 are ﬁxed.5 0.) = −0.6 −0.) Uq (p. .2 0.4 0.u.
Even though these regulators. based on the classical arrangement of tapchanging transformers. Additionally. The formulae for active and .97 max P0 U max P0 U Figure 22: ∂P ∂Uq versus P for a SSSC 2.and receivingend voltages stays at π/2. Theoretically. The angle of the voltage U σ relative to U 1 is stipulated such that the magnitudes of U 1 and U 1eﬀ are equal. 23 the concept of a Phase Angle Regulator is shown.20 ∂P ∂Uq FACTS 0 1 max 2 P0 max P0 P0 −0. In Fig. modern voltage and phase angle regulators are used to improve the transient stability. the Phase Angle Regulator can be considered a sinusoidal AC voltage source with controllable amplitude and phase angle. 24.7 −0. If δ exceeds π/2 the amplitude of the voltage U σ is chosen such that the eﬀective phase angle δ + σ between the sending. to provide power oscillation damping and to minimize the postdisturbance overloads and the corresponding voltage dips.5 Phase Angle Regulator (PAR) Phase Angle Regulators are able to solve problems referred to the transmission angle which cannot be handled by the other series compensators. Uσ Phase Angle Regulator UL X Uσ UL U1 U 1eﬀ U2 U 1eﬀ σ δ U1 U2 Figure 23: Phase Angle Regulator The basic idea is to keep the transmitted power at the desired value independent of the prevailing transmission angle δ. This is visualized in Fig. are not able to supply or absorb reactive power they are capable of exchanging active power with the power system.
25 is drawn.2 Static Series Compensators reactive power are Pσ = Qσ U1 U2 sin(δ + σ) X U1 U2 = (1 − cos(δ + σ)) X 21 (45) (46) P Pmax σ = 60◦ 30◦ 0◦ −30◦ −60◦ 0 π/2 π δ Figure 24: Transmitted power versus angle characteristics for a Phase Angle Regulator To investigate the inﬂuence of a change in σ on the change of transmitted active power P at diﬀerent values of P . . U1 U2 X P Figure 25: ∂P ∂σ versus P This shows that for larger P the inﬂuence of a change in σ is rather small compared to the inﬂuence for a low transmitted active power. the derivative of (45) with respect to σ is taken ∂P ∂σ = = U1 U2 U1 U2 cos (δ + σ) = X X U1 U2 X 2 1 − sin2 (δ + σ) (47) (48) − P2 U1 U2 X From this and the assumption that ∂P ∂σ U1 U2 X is constant the graphic in Fig.
6 Comparison of Series Compensators The SSSC is a voltage source type and the TSSC. The compensating voltage of the GCSC and TSSC over a given control range is proportional to the line current. 3.22 FACTS 2. They both have diﬀerent inﬂuences on the line. To solve these problems. phase angle regulators (PAR) or phase shifting transformers (PST) are employed. Therefore. the shunt and series compensator are compared ﬁrst and then two compensators which are combinations of series and shunt controllers are discussed: the uniﬁed power ﬂow controller and the interline power ﬂow controller. But certain problems related to the transmission angle cannot be handled by series compensation. Series reactive compensation can be highly eﬀective in controlling power ﬂow in the line and in improving the dynamic behavior of the power system. For example. Resulting from the diﬀerent structures there are essential diﬀerences in characteristics and features of these devices [1]: • The SSSC is capable of internally generating a controllable compensating voltage over an identical capacitive and inductive range independently of the magnitude of the line current.1 Comparison of Shunt and Series Compensators The seriesconnected controllers impact the driving voltage and hence the current and power ﬂow directly. • The SSSC with an energy storage increases the eﬀectiveness of power oscillation damping by modulating the series reactive compensation to increase and decrease the transmitted power and by concurrently injecting an alternating virtual positive and negative real impedance to absorb and supply active power from the line in sympathy with the prevalent machine swings. TCSC and GCSC are variable impedance type series compensators. if the purpose of the application is to control the . • The SSSC has the ability to interface with an external DC power supply to provide compensation for the line resistance by the injection of active power as well as for the line reactance by the injection of reactive power. The variable impedance type compensators can damp power oscillation only by modulated reactive compensation aﬀecting the transmitted power. the prevailing transmission angle may not be compatible with the transmission requirements of a given line or it may vary with daily or seasonal system loads over too large a range to maintain acceptable power ﬂow in some aﬀected lines. In this section. 3 Combined Compensators In the preceding sections shunt controllers and series controllers have been considered. The variable impedance type series compensators cannot exchange active power with the transmission line and can only provide reactive compensation. The TCSC can maintain maximum compensating voltage with decreasing line current over a control range determined by the current boosting capability of the thyristorcontrolled reactor.
to allow bidirectional ﬂow of active power between the series output terminals of the SSSC and the shunt output terminals of the STATCOM. 3. impedance. the series controllers are several times more powerful than the shunt controllers.3 Combined Compensators 23 current/power ﬂow and damp oscillations. alternatively.2 Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Uniﬁed Power Flow Controller (UPFC): A combination of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static series compensator (SSSC) which are coupled via a common dc link. in series with the line and therefore acts as the . The UPFC may also provide independently controllable shunt reactive compensation. i. Nevertheless. the transmission line voltage.e. That is because the shunt controller serves the bus node independently of the individual lines connected to the bus. and angle or. and are controlled to provide concurrent active and reactive series line compensation without an external electric energy source. a shunt controller is much more eﬀective in maintaining a required voltage proﬁle at a substation bus. This does not mean that the series controllers cannot be used for voltage control. Converter 2 injects the voltage U pq . it can independently control both the active and reactive power ﬂow in the line. The UPFC. The shunt controllers are like current sources. 26). an eﬀective power/current ﬂow and line voltage control. Alternatively. They draw from or inject current into the line. Presently. The UPFC was developed for the realtime control and dynamic compensation of AC transmission systems. Because the voltage ﬂuctuations are largely a consequence of the voltage drop in series impedances of lines. This power supply is one of the end buses. But the voltage source can only produce reactive power. transformers and generators. the active and reactive power ﬂow in the line. concurrently or selectively. which is controllable in magnitude and phase (ρ). a UPFC consists of two voltagesource converters which are placed backtoback and operated from a common DC link (DC storage capacitor). is able to control. inserting a series compensator might be the most costeﬀective way of improving the voltage proﬁle. The voltage source exchanges both active and reactive power with the transmission system. This implementation is shown in Fig. by means of angularly unconstrained series voltage injection. The UPFC is conceptually a synchronous voltage source with controllable magnitude Upq and angle ρ placed in series with the line (see Fig. The active power can freely ﬂow in either direction between the AC terminals of the converters and each converter can generate or absorb reactive energy independently. Because STATCOMs have the capability to inject active as well as reactive current they are able to provide an even more eﬀective voltage control and damping of voltage oscillations. It is able to control all the parameters aﬀecting power ﬂow in the transmission line. Thus. From the above consideration it can be followed that a combination of the series and shunt controllers can provide the best of both. the active power has to be supplied to it by a power supply or a sink. shunt controllers are applied to control voltage at and around the point of connection through injection of reactive current. 27.
28 a) the transmitted active power can be calculated as P1 = P2 = P = ℜ {U 2 · I ∗ } With I= U 1 ejδ + U pq ejρ − U2 U 1eﬀ − U 2 = jX jX (50) (49) .24 U pq Qpq I UL X U1 Ppq U 1eﬀ = U 1 + U pq U2 FACTS Figure 26: Concept of the UPFC in a twomachine power system voltage source shown in Fig. 26. if necessary and provide independent shunt reactive compensation for the line. This DC power demand is converted back to AC power by converter 1 and coupled to the transmission line bus via the supply transformer. the active power is converted into DC power which appears at the DC link as a positive or negative active power demand. Transmission line Supply transformer Converter 1 I U U pq U + U pq Converter 2 Series transformer AC Udc AC Control Figure 27: Implementation of a UPFC For the system given in Fig. The reactive power exchanged at the AC terminal is generated by the converter internally. Opposed to this. converter 1 can also exchange reactive power with the line. Additionally.
the transmission characteristic is shifted up and down depending on the magnitude of the voltage of the UPFC. the angle ρ is equal to 90◦ . In Fig. Upq (p.0 0 π/2 π δ Figure 29: Transmitted power versus transmission angle for UPFC (ρ = 90◦ ) The inﬂuence of a change in Upq on the change of transmitted active power P at .u.6 1. the corresponding transmitted power versus transmission angle characteristic is shown.3 −0.6 P (p.3 Combined Compensators (49) results in P = ℜ U2 · U1 (cos δ − j sin δ) + Upq (cos ρ − j sin ρ) − U2 −jX U1 U2 U2 Upq = sin δ + sin ρ X X P0 ∆P 25 (51) (52) U pq UPFC X U pq ρ − δ α U1 U 1eﬀ U2 U 1eﬀ U1 ρ δ U2 a) b) Figure 28: UPFC in two machine system For a maximal inﬂuence of Upq on the transmitted power.u. 29.) = 0.3 0 −0. Thus.) 0.
assuming that P0 . (54) X max Thus. This can also be seen in Fig. Like this active power can be provided from the overloaded lines for active power compensation in other lines. • compensate against resistive line voltage drops and the corresponding reactive power demand. namely SSSC. for constant P0 . The same considerations can be done for the angle ρ.3 Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC): The combination of two or more Static Synchronous Series Compensators which are coupled via a common dc link to facilitate bidirectional ﬂow of active power between the ac terminals of the SSSCs. each providing series compensation for a diﬀerent line. • reduce the burden of overloaded lines by active power transfer. it is the same for all P . 29 where the lines for diﬀerent Upq are equidistant. The derivative of P with respect to ρ is ∂P U2 Upq max Upq = cos ρ = P0 cos ρ (55) ∂ρ X U1 max Therefore. With IPFC active power can be transferred between diﬀerent lines. It employs a number of DCtoAC converters. This scheme requires a rigorous maintenance of the overall power balance at the common DC terminal by appropriate control action: the underloaded lines provide appropriate active power transfer for the overloaded lines. Therefore. U1 and Upq are constant. • and increase the eﬀectiveness of the overall compensating system for dynamic disturbances. to provide shunt reactive compensation and supply or absorb the overall active power deﬁcit of the combined SSSC’s. it is possible to: • equalize both active and reactive power ﬂow between the lines. and thus the proper load balancing of the line. coupled to the IPFC’s common dc link. and are controlled to provide independent reactive compensation for the adjustment of active power ﬂow in each line and maintain the desired distribution of reactive power ﬂow among the lines. is FACTS ∂P U2 P max = sin ρ = 0 sin ρ ∂Upq X U1 max P0 = (53) U1 U2 . The IPFC structure may also include a STATCOM. 30. The IPFC addresses the problem of compensating a number of transmission lines at a given substation. also ∂P is the same for all ∂ρ P. where 3. Series capacitive compensators are used to increase the transmittable active power over a given line but they are unable to control the reactive power ﬂow in.26 diﬀerent values of P . The general form of a IPFC is shown in Fig. . U1 and ρ . With this scheme the converters do not only provide series reactive compensation but can also be controlled to supply active power to the common DC link from its own transmission line.
PAR TCSC. an overview of problems occurring in the grid and which FACTS to be used to solve these problems are given.4 Use of FACTS HV 1 HV 2 . series compensators as well as combinations of these two types of compensators have been discussed. UPFC UPFC. UPFC . STATCOM SVC. lowing an outage prevent overload Low voltage follow. UPFC TCSC.Decrease line reactance TCSC. STATCOM TCSC. . SSSC. In Table 4. SSSC sion power Table 1: Examples of use for FACTS FACTS SVC. ing an outage prevent overload Transmission cir. PAR UPFC. . . SSSC. .Supply reactive power. 27 HV n SSSC 1 SSSC 2 SSSC n DC bus Control Figure 30: Interline Power Flow Controller 4 Use of FACTS Shunt compensators. The application of these devices depends on the problem which has to be solved. SSSC. STATCOM SVC.Increase transmission cacuit overload pacity Power distribution Adjust line reactances on parallel lines Adjust phase angle Load ﬂow reversal Adjust phase angle Short circuit High short circuit Limitation of short cirpower current cuit current Stability Limited transmis. SSSC. STATCOM TCSC SVC. Thermal limits Load ﬂow Reduce line reactance High voltage at low Absorb reactive power load High voltage fol.Absorb reactive power. Subject Voltage limits Problem Low voltage heavy load Corrective action at Supply reactive power .
32). transport it over a DC line and then convert DC back to AC. There would also be the possibility to operate with ground but mostly ground resistivity is very high or ground currents cannot be tolerated. one of positive and one of negative polarity. A bipolar link consists of two conductors. For AC cables this results in a high charging current. There are three categories of HVDC links • Monopolar links (Fig. This has advantages over AC transmission in several applications [4]: • Underwater cables: Cables have a large capacitance. water or. • AC system connection: To connect two AC systems of diﬀerent frequencies. • Long distance overhead transmission: If the transmission line is long (typically ≥ 600km) the savings in line capital costs and losses with a DC line may countervail the investment costs for two converters and therefore a HVDC may be more favorable. these switches are shut and the faultless conductor can operate with this bypassed line. Nevertheless the two poles are independent of each other. Also. the power from one system can be converted to DC power. They all have the same polarity. . If the cable is longer than about 5060 kilometers the charging currents will fully load the cable and no real power transmission is possible. The homopolar link has two or more conductors. land is required. the converter is able to feed the other conductors which can carry more than normal power.28 FACTS 5 HighVoltage DirectCurrent Transmission (HVDC) Another option to control power ﬂow is HighVoltage DirectCurrent transmission (HVDC). Normally the currents in the two conductors are equal such that no ground current results. not synchronized networks can be connected like this. The return path is provided by ground. 32) • Homopolar links (Fig. DC cables do not have these drawbacks. usually negative because radio interference due to that the corona is then less intense. When such a fault is registered. Often there exist switches to bypass the converters in case a converter is faulted (dotted lines in Fig. transported over the DC line and then fed into the other AC system with diﬀerent frequency. HVDC devices convert AC to DC. 31) • Bipolar links (Fig. a metallic return may be used. A solution to the problem would be to place shunt inductors every 50 kilometers. if the earth resistivity is too high or interference with underground metallic structures is possible. But to do so. Ground is used as return path. In case of a faulted conductor. 33) A monopolar link has only one conductor which is usually of negative polarity.
Therefore. In ﬁgure 34 such a circuit is given. commutation occurs instantaneously without overlap.5 HighVoltage DirectCurrent Transmission (HVDC) 29 AC system Metallic return (Optional) AC system Figure 31: Monopolar HVDC link AC system AC system Figure 32: Bipolar HVDC link AC system AC system Figure 33: Homopolar HVDC link The converters are a major part of the HVDC. . They perform AC/DC conversion and provide the possibility to control the power ﬂow through the HVDC link. The AC system.e. Another assumption is that the direct current id is constant which is justiﬁed because of the large smoothing reactor Ld . The basic module of an HVDC converter is the threephase. the commutation reactances Lc are neglected. no more than two valves conduct at any time. including the converter transformer is represented by ideal voltage sources ea = Um cos(ωt + 60◦ ) eb = Um cos(ωt − 60◦ ) ec = Um cos(ωt − 180◦ ) (56) (57) (58) To simplify the considerations. i. fullwave bridge circuit.
The direct voltage ud across the bridge is composed of 60◦ segments of the linetoline voltages. The common potential of the valves in the upper row is then equal to that of the anode of valve 1 and therefore the valves 3 and 5 block. 35). If ua is more positive than ub and uc . always one valve of the upper row and one of the lower row is conducting. respectively the power on the DC line (Fig.30 replacemen Ld = ∞ id FACTS ea eb ec Lc Lc Lc i1 ua i3 ub i5 ud uc i2 i4 i6 eab eac ebc eba eca ecb eab eac ec ea eb ea ec ud ud 0◦ 180◦ 360◦ ωt Figure 34: Circuit and waveforms for threephase fullwave bridge converter A valve conducts when the anode is at higher potential than the cathode and when a control pulse is applied to the gate. 34. ub and uc and on the gate control. 34 results for the voltage ud . the curve in the graph in Fig. Considering the bridge in Fig. The considerations for the lower row is very similar. In the lower graph in Fig. constant pulses are applied to all valves. which valves these are. With the ﬁring . 34. Thus. The valve whose corresponding phasetoneutral voltage is more negative than the voltages of the other two valves conducts and determines the value of the common potential. Therefore. It depends on the phasetoneutral voltages ua . the average direct voltage Ud0 is Ud0 3 = π 0◦ eac dθ = 1.65 · Um −60◦ (59) The gate control can be used to delay the ignition of the valves and therefore to control the voltage. valve 1 conducts.
2000. Thyristorbased facts controllers for electrical transmission systems.G. IEEE Press. New York. Mathur and R. Understanding FACTS concepts and technology of ﬂexible AC transmission systems. . Power system stability and control.K. Song. Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS).M. [4] P. 2002. McGrawHill. Gyugyi.H. Kundur. [3] Y. α eab eac ebc eba eca ecb eab eac 31 (60) ec ea eb ea ec 0◦ 180◦ 360◦ ωt Figure 35: Waveforms for threephase fullwave bridge converter with ignition delay References [1] N. 1994.. Varma. The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Hingorani and L. [2] R.References delay angle α the average direct voltage Ud is given as Ud = Ud0 cos ·α α has to lie between 0◦ and 180◦ . IEEE Press. Piscataway. London. 1999. New York etc.
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