All you need to know ...

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

First edition 2001
The information provided in this handbook is given in good faith, but Alfa Laval is not able to accept any responsibility for the accuracy of its content, or any consequences that may arise from the use of the information supplied or materials described.

Inside view
This pump handbook has been produced to support pump users at all levels, providing an invaluable reference tool. The handbook includes all the necessary information for the correct selection and successful application of the Alfa Laval ranges of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. The handbook is divided into fifteen main sections, which are as follows:

1 Introduction 2 Terminology and Theory 3 Pump Selection 4 Pump Description

9 10 11 12

Motors Cleaning Guidelines Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Installation Guide Troubleshooting Technical Data Glossary of Terms

5 Pump Materials of Construction 13 6 Pump Sealing 14 7 Pump Sizing 15 8 Pump Specification Options

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1

Contents
Section 1: Introduction
Introduction of the Pump Handbook. 1.1 What is a Pump? 5 5

Section 5: Pump Materials of Construction
Description of the materials, both metallic and elastomeric, that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges. 5.1 5.2 5.3 7 Main Components Steel Surfaces Elastomers

61 61 63 65

Section 2: Terminology and Theory
Explanation of the terminology and theory of pumping applications, including rheology, flow characteristics, pressure and NPSH. 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 Product/Fluid Data Rheology Viscosity Density Specific Weight Specific Gravity Temperature Flow Characteristics Vapour Pressure Fluids Containing Solids Performance Data Capacity (Flow Rate) Pressure Cavitation Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer)

Section 6: Pump Sealing
8 8 8 12 12 13 13 13 17 17 18 18 18 30 31 35 Explanation of pump sealing principles with illustrations of the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. A general seal selection guide is included, together with various operating parameters. 67 6.1 6.2 6.3 Mechanical Seals - General 70 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges 80 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) 82

Section 7: Pump Sizing
How to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/fluid and performance data given, supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. 85 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.6.4 7.6.5 7.6.6 7.6.7 7.6.8 7.6.9 7.7 7.8 General Information Required 85 Power 86 Hydraulic Power 86 Required Power 87 Torque 88 Efficiency 88 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps 92 Flow Curve 92 Flow Control 96 Alternative Pump Installations 100 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 102 Example 1 102 Example 2 106 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US Units) 109 Example 1 109 Example 2 113 Rotary Lobe Pumps 116 Slip 116 Initial Suction Line Sizing 118 Performance Curve 119 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) 124 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) 125 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors 125 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish 126 Guidelines for Solids Handling 127 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media 128 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric Units) 129 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US Units) 143

Section 3: Pump Selection
Overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. 3.1 3.2 3.3 General Applications Guide Pumps for Sanitary Applications PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool

39 40 41 43

Section 4: Pump Description
Description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design, principle of operation and pump model types. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 Centrifugal Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Liquid Ring Pumps General Principle of Operation Design Pump Range Rotary Lobe Pumps General Principle of Operation Pump Range 45 45 45 46 46 48 52 52 52 53 55 56 56 56 57

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 2

Section 8: Pump Specifications Options
Description of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges, such as port connections, heating/cooling jackets, pressure relief valves and other ancillaries. 157 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.2.7 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Port Connections Heating/Cooling Jackets Pump Casing with Drain Increased Impeller Gap Pump Inlet Inducer Rotary Lobe Pumps Rotor Form Clearances Port Connections Rectangular Inlets Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles Pump Overload Protection Ancillaries 157 157 158 159 159 159 160 160 162 164 165 166 167 169

12.2 12.2.1 12.2.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.5.1

Flow Direction Centrifugal Pumps Rotary Lobe Pumps Baseplates Foundation (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps Pipework

201 201 202 203 204 204 204

Section 13: Troubleshooting
Advises possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. 205 13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 13.2.6 13.2.7 13.3 General Common Problems Loss of Flow Loss of Suction Low Discharge Pressure Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive Power Rapid Pump Wear Seal Leakage Problem Solving Table 205 206 206 206 207 207 208 208 208 209

Section 9: Motors
Description of electric motors, including information on motor protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control. 173 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 Output Power Rated Speed Voltage Cooling Insulation and Thermal Rating Protection Methods of Starting Motors for Hazardous Environments Energy Efficient Motors Speed Control Changing Motor Nameplates - Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only 175 175 176 176 176 177 179 180 182 184 186

Section 14: Technical Data
Summary of the nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook. Various conversion tables and charts are also shown. 213 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.3.1 14.3.2 14.3.3 14.3.4 14.3.5 14.3.6 14.3.7 14.3.8 14.3.9 14.3.10 14.3.11 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.7.1 14.7.2 14.7.3 14.7.4 14.8 14.9 14.10 14.11 Nomenclature Formulas Conversion Tables Length Volume Volumetric Capacity Mass Capacity Pressure/Head Force Torque Power Density Viscosity Conversion Table Temperature Conversion Table Water Vapour Pressure Table Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities Equivalent Tube Length Table ISO Tube Metric ISO Tube Feet DIN Tube Metric DIN Tube Feet Moody Diagram Initial Suction Line Sizing Elastomer Compatibility Guide Changing Motor Name Plates 213 214 219 219 219 219 220 220 220 220 221 221 222 224 225 226 227 228 228 230 232 234 236 237 238 243

Section 10: Cleaning Guidelines
Advises cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle. 189

Section 11: Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
Description of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges. 193

Section 12: Installation Guide
Advises guidelines relating to pump installation, system design and pipework layout. 12.1 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 General System Design Pipework Weight Electrical Supply 199 199 199 200 200 200

Section 15: Glossary of Terms
Explains the various terms found in this handbook. 249

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 3

supplying Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps world-wide to various key application areas such as food..if pumps are the question Alfa Laval is an acknowledged market leader in pumping technology. .. brewery and pharmaceutical..

This is illustrated below transferring fluid from tank A to spray nozzles B.Introduction 1. 1.1a Typical pump installation Pump types generally fall into two main categories . The Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps are types of rotodynamic pump. Fig. which directly displaces the pumped fluid from pump inlet to outlet in discrete volumes.1 What is a Pump? There are many different definitions of this but at Alfa Laval we believe this is best described as: ‘A machine used for the purpose of transferring quantities of fluids and/or gases. Introduction This section gives a short introduction of the Pump Handbook. The Rotary Lobe pump is a type of positive displacement pump. The Rotodynamic pump transfers rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. 1. 1. of which there are many forms as shown in Fig. which utilise centrifugal force to transfer the fluid being pumped. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 5 .Rotodynamic and Positive Displacement.1b. from one place to another’.

1.1b Pump classifications 6 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Introduction Pumps Positive Displacement Rotodynamic Rotor Reciprocating Multi-Stage Single Stage Multi-Rotor Single Rotor Diaphragm Plunger End Suction Double Entry Screw Circumferential Piston Gear Internal External Piston Archimedian Screw Flexible Member Peristaltic Vane Simplex Multiplex Process Rubber Lined Submersible General Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Progressing Cavity Fig.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 7 . flow characteristics. pressure and NPSH. flow characteristics. • Different fluids have varying characteristics and are usually pumped under different conditions. temperature.Terminology and Theory 2. including explanations of rheology. Performance data which includes capacity or flow rate. In order to select a pump two types of data are required: • Product/Fluid data which includes viscosity. vapour pressure and solids content. Terminology and Theory This section explains the terminology and theory of pumping applications. density/specific gravity. It is therefore very important to know all relevant product and performance data before selecting a pump. and inlet/discharge pressure/head.

Kinematic Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity. 8 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The SI unit of absolute viscosity is (mPa. Absolute viscosity is usually designated by the symbol m. The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is (mm2/s) in the so-called MKS (metre. Two basic viscosity parameters are commonly used.2 Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid can be regarded as a measure of how resistive the fluid is to flow. kilogram.s or 1 cP. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centistoke (cSt). absolute (or dynamic) viscosity and kinematic viscosity. while in the cgs (centimetres.1. High viscosity fluids require greater shearing forces than low viscosity fluids at a given shear rate. Kinematic viscosity is usually designated by the symbol n. it is comparable to the friction of solid bodies and causes a retarding force. A value can be obtained directly from a rotational viscometer which measures the force needed to rotate a spindle in the fluid. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mPa.Terminology and Theory 2. whereas water has a relatively low viscosity and pours quite readily. while in the cgs (centimetres. second) system. It follows therefore that viscosity affects the magnitude of energy loss in a flowing fluid. Water at 1 atmosphere and 20°C (68oF) has the value of 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt. This retarding force transforms the kinetic energy of the fluid into thermal energy.s = 1 cP.1 Product/Fluid Data 2. kilogram. seconds) system this is expressed as 1 centipoise (cP) where 1 mPa. where 1 mm2/s = 1 cSt. grams. The ease with which a fluid pours is an indication of its viscosity.1. cold oil has a high viscosity and pours very slowly. grams.1 Rheology The science of fluid flow is termed ‘Rheology’ and one of its most important aspects is viscosity which is defined below. Absolute (or Dynamic) Viscosity This is a measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. 2. while timing its flow. For example.s) in the so-called MKS (metre. Kinematic viscometers usually use the force of gravity to cause the fluid to flow through a calibrated orifice. second) system.

3). Typical fluids are: • Water • Beer • Hydrocarbons • Milk • Mineral Oils • Resins • Syrups Shear rate Fig. At a constant temperature the viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation.viscosity should always be quoted at the pumping temperature.1.2b Newtonian Fluids Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 9 . = Absolute Viscosity (cP) Specific Gravity Viscosity Temperature Fig. In a pumping system it can be advantageous to increase the temperature of a highly viscous fluid to ease flow. In the cgs system this translates to: Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) or Absolute Viscosity (cP) = Kinematic Viscosity (cSt) x SG A viscosity conversion table is included in 14. These fluids are named Newtonian fluids.10. 2.2a Viscosity variation with temperature Viscosity Newtonian Fluids In some fluids the viscosity is constant regardless of the shear forces applied to the layers of fluid. it increases with falling temperature.3.1.1. 2.Terminology and Theory Relationship Between Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity Absolute and Kinematic viscosity are related by: n=m r where r is the fluid density (see 2. Viscosity Variation with Temperature Temperature can have a significant effect on viscosity and a viscosity figure given for pump selection purposes without fluid temperature is often meaningless . Generally viscosity falls with increasing temperature and more significantly.

When working with Non-Newtonian fluids we use Effective Viscosity to represent the viscous characteristics of the fluid as though it was newtonian at that given set of conditions (shear rate.1. there are many fluids which do not follow this linear law. graphs and ‘handbook’ information. but initial viscosity may be so high as to prevent start of flow in a normal pumping system. However. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Clay Slurries • Paper Coatings Shear rate Fig. This effective viscosity is then used in calculations. It is not unusual to find the effective viscosity as little as 1% of the value measured by standard instruments. Psuedoplastic Fluids Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases.2f Dilatant Fluids 10 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1. 2.Terminology and Theory It is not always obvious which type of viscous behaviour a fluid will exhibit and consideration must be given to the shear rate that will exist in the pump under pumping conditions. ? Viscosity Viscosity ? ? Shear rate Normal Viscometer Reading Typical Shear Rate in Pumping System Shear Rate Fig.2d Viscosity against shear rate Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids There are a number of different type of non-newtonian fluids each with different characteristics.2e Psuedoplastic Fluids Dilatant Fluids Viscosity increases as shear rate increases.1.1.2c Viscosity against shear rate Fig. 2. Effective viscosity at set conditions will be different depending on the fluid being pumped. Non-Newtonian Fluids Most empirical and test data for pumps and piping systems has been developed using Newtonian fluids across a wide range of viscosities. 2. This can be better understood by looking at the behaviour of viscous fluids with changes in shear rate as follows. charts. Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Blood • Emulsions • Gums • Lotions • Soap • Toothpaste • Yeast Shear rate Fig. 2. temperature). these fluids are named Non-Newtonian fluids.

1.the time for recovery will vary with different fluids. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value . Viscosity Typical fluids are: • Natural Rubber Latex • Natural Yoghurt Time Fig. 2. Stress Y Where Y = Yield Stress Typical fluids are: • Barium X-ray Meal • Chocolate • Tomato Ketchup Shear rate Fig.2g Thixotropic Fluids Anti-thixotropic Fluids Viscosity increases with time under shear conditions. After shear ceases the viscosity will return to its original value .Terminology and Theory Viscosity Thixotropic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions.1.1. Fluid structure is irreversibly destroyed.1.2j Plastic Fluids It should be noted that some fluids would have both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 11 . 2.2i Rheomalactic Fluids Plastic Fluids Need a certain applied force (or yield stress) to overcome ‘solid-like structure’. As the name suggests anti-thixotropic fluids have opposite rheological characteristics to thixotropic fluids. 2. Time Viscosity Fig. before flowing like a fluid.2h Anti-thixotropic Fluids Typical fluids are: • Vanadium Pentoxide Solution Rheomalactic Fluids Viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover. Typical fluids are: • Cosmetic Creams • Dairy Creams • Greases • Stabilised Yoghurt Time Fig. 2.the time for recovery will vary with different fluids.

4 Specific Weight The specific weight of a fluid is its weight per unit volume and is usually designated by the symbol g.e.Terminology and Theory Density in gases varies considerably with pressure and temperature but can be regarded as constant in fluids.Mass should not be confused with weight.1.807 m/s2 g = 32. i.1. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg. usually expressed as kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m3) or pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3).1. 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 1 ft .2 lb/ft3. 2. The units of weight per unit volume are N/m3 or lbf/ft3. Weight is the force produced from gravity acting on the mass.4 lbf/ft3 Note! . Density = 0.174 ft/s2 The specific weight of water at 20oC (68oF) and 1 atmosphere is as follows: g =9790 N/m3 = 62.2 lb. Density = 49. Density is usually designated by the symbol r.3 Density The density of a fluid is its mass per unit of volume.2lb 1 m Fig.789 kg/m3. i.e. 1 m 1 1 m ft 1 ft Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of ethyl alcohol 49. 2. It is related to density as follows: g =rxg where g is gravity. 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49. Standard gravity is as follows: g = 9.3a Density 2.

If the water tap is opened wider.3.5a Specific gravity 1 m Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 789 kg/m³ 1000 kg/m³ = 0.7 Flow Characteristics When considering a fluid flowing in a pipework system it is important to be able to determine the type of flow. Thus a cooling of the product in the discharge line could have a significant effect on the pumping of a fluid.1. The connection between the velocity and the capacity of a fluid (similar to water) in different tube sizes is shown in table 14.4 lb .2 lb .1.its density is 62. Other fluid properties such as viscosity and density can also be affected by temperature changes. 2. 1 m³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 789 kg .1. This type of flow is called laminar flow. 1 m³ of water has a mass of 1000 kg .its density is 49.its density is 789 kg/m³. 2. This can be illustrated by opening a water tap slowly until the flow is smooth and steady. it does not have any units of measure.Terminology and Theory 2. 1 ft³ of water has a mass of 62.11.6. Under some conditions the fluid will appear to flow as layers in a smooth and regular manner. Temperature is a measure of the internal energy level in a fluid. The temperature of a fluid can also have a significant affect on the selection of any elastomeric materials used. a point will be reached whereby the Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 13 .4 lb/ft³.4 lb/ft³ = 0. usually expressed in units of degrees Centigrade (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F). Mass of ethyl alcohol 789 kg Mass of water 1000 kg 1 m Fig. allowing the velocity of flow to increase. As this is a ratio.5 Specific Gravity 1 m 1 m 1 m 1 m The specific gravity of a fluid is the ratio of its density to the density of water.8).1.2 lb/ft³.789 or 1 ft³ of ethyl alcohol has a mass of 49.789 This resultant figure is dimensionless so the Specific Gravity (or SG) is 0. 2.789.1. Specific Gravity of ethyl alcohol is: 49.its density is 1000 kg/m³.2 lb/ft³ 62.6 Temperature The temperature of the fluid at the pump inlet is usually of most concern as vapour pressure can have a significant effect on pump performance (see 2. A temperature conversion table is given in section 14.

but appears to be moving in a chaotic manner. 14 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6 D² where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or Velocity V = Q x 0. In these instances. This type of flow is called turbulent flow.489 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) Fluid velocity can be of great importance especially when pumping slurries and fluids containing solids. Velocity Velocity is the distance a fluid moves per unit of time and is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Velocity V =Q A where V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m³/s) A = tube cross sectional area (m²) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Velocity V = Q x 353. which could impact on pump performance. which could result in blockages and changes in system pressure as the actual internal diameter of the pipe is effectively decreased.Terminology and Theory stream of water is no longer smooth and regular. The type of flow is indicated by the Reynolds number.409 D² where V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or Velocity V = Q x 0. a certain velocity may be required to prevent solids from settling in the pipework.

1.s) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 15 . This is a ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces. Turbulent Flow This is sometimes known as unsteady flow with considerable mixing taking place across the pipe cross section. 2.7a Laminar flow Laminar Flow This is sometimes known as streamline.7b Turbulent flow Transitional Flow Between laminar and turbulent flow there is an area referred to as transitional flow where conditions are unstable and have a blend of each characteristic. and as such. Turbulent flow generally appears at relatively high velocities and/or relatively low viscosities.7b. decreasing to zero at the pipe wall.1. 2. viscous or steady flow. a useful value for determining whether flow will be laminar or turbulent. The velocity profile is more flattened than in laminar flow but remains fairly constant across the section as shown in fig. V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig. Reynolds Number (Re) Reynolds number for pipe flow is given by equation as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Re = DxVxr m where D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (Pa. The velocity profile is parabolic. The fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with the maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe.1. the gradient of which depends upon the viscosity of the fluid for a set flow-rate. 2.Terminology and Theory V = velocity u max = maximum velocity Fig.

low system losses) Re in range 2300 to 4000 Re greater than 4000 - Where transitional flow occurs.high system losses) Transitional Flow (Critically balanced forces) Turbulent Flow (Inertia force dominates . frictional loss calculations should be carried out for both laminar and turbulent conditions.Terminology and Theory Other convenient forms of this equation are: Re = DxVxr m where D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 21230 x Q Dxm where D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Since Reynolds number is a ratio of two forces. when calculating Reynolds numbers. For a given set of flow conditions. it has no units. 16 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Re less than 2300 Laminar Flow (Viscous force dominates . such as above. and the highest resulting loss used in subsequent system calculations. the Reynolds number will not vary when using different units. It is important to use the same set of units.

Size of solids is also important.006 bar a (0. In pump sizing. the size and concentration. operating speed and shaft seals. Each fluid has its own vapour pressure/temperature relationship.013 bar a (14.2. Concentration is normally expressed as a percentage by weight (W/W) or volume (V/V) or a combination of both weight and volume (W/V). In general terms Pvp: Is dependent upon the type of fluid. 2.7 psia) 20o C (68o F) 100o C (212o F) Water will boil (vaporise) at a temperature of: 0° C (32o F) if Pvp = 0.087 psia). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 17 .1.2.087 psia) 0. as when pumping large particles the pump inlet should be large enough for solids to enter the pump without ‘bridging’ the pump inlet. vapour pressure can be a key factor in checking the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system (see 2.7 psia) (atmospheric conditions at sea level). Temperature 0 C (32 F) o o Vapour pressure (bar) 0.334 psia). Also the pump should be sized so the cavity created in the pump chamber by the pump elements is of sufficient size to allow satisfactory pump operation. The vapour pressure of a fluid is the pressure (at a given temperature) at which a fluid will change to a vapour and is expressed as absolute pressure (bar a or psia) . 2. Should be determined from relevant tables.023 bar a (0.2.9 Fluids Containing Solids It is important to know if a fluid contains any particulate matter and if so.006 bar a (0.023 bar a (0.1.013 bar a (14.8 Vapour Pressure Fluid (liquid form) Pvp = Vapour pressure (external pressure required to maintain as a fluid) Fig. The Pvp for water at various temperatures is shown in section 14.see 2.4. 100° C (212o F) if Pvp = 1.1. 20° C (68o F) if Pvp = 0. Special attention should be given regarding any abrasive solids with respect to pump type and construction.334 psia) 1.8a Vapour pressure Fluids will evaporate unless prevented from doing so by external pressure.Terminology and Theory 2. Increases at higher temperature.4). Is of great importance to pump inlet conditions.

43 psi gauge (psig). pounds per square inch (lb/in²) or psi.2. Pressure measured relative to a perfect vacuum is called ‘absolute pressure’. 2. For fluids the most common units of capacity are litres per hour (l/h).2a Pressure 1 In the SI system the standard unit of force is the Newton (N) and area is given in square metres (m²). Atmospheric Pressure The actual magnitude of the atmospheric pressure varies with location and with climatic conditions. 2. Different Types of Pressure For calculations involving fluid pressures.1 Capacity (Flow Rate) The capacity (or flow rate) is the volume of fluid or mass that passes a certain area per time unit.013 bar a or 14.Terminology and Theory 2.2.2 Pressure F = Force Pressure is defined as force per unit area: P= F A where F is the force perpendicular to a surface and A is the area of the surface.5. This is usually a known value dependent on the actual process. A 1 Fig. 18 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Conversion factors between units of pressure are given in section 14. tonne per hour (t/h) and pounds per hour (lb/h). In practice Pascals are rarely used and the most common units of force are bar.2 Performance Data 2.3. and kilogram per square centimetre (kg/cm²). Normally the reference is that of the atmosphere and the resulting measured pressure is called gauge pressure. At sea level the standard atmospheric pressure is 1. This derived unit is called the Pascal (Pa). For mass the most common units of capacity are kilogram per hour (kg/h). cubic metres per hour (m³/h) and UK or US gallons per minute (gall/min). Pressure is expressed in units of Newtons per square metre (N/m²).96 to 15. the measurements must be relative to some reference pressure.2.7 psi absolute (bar a or psia).05 bar absolute (bar a) or 13.95 to 1. The range of normal variation of atmospheric pressure near the earth’s surface is approximately 0.

For inlet pressures above atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by subtracting the inlet pressure from the outlet pressure. gauge pressure is the pressure within the gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Outlet (Discharge) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid leaves the pump. Absolute Pressure Is the total pressure exerted by a fluid. Power requirements are to be calculated on the basis of differential pressure. The reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump inlet as possible. The reading is expressed in units of gauge bar (psig). This is a measure of the difference between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure expressed in units of mercury (Hg) or units of psia. It equals atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. For inlet pressures below atmospheric pressure the differential pressure is obtained by adding the inlet pressure to the outlet pressure. indicated in units of bar a (bar absolute) or psia (psi absolute). Again this reading should be taken whilst the pump is running and as close to the pump outlet as possible.9 in Hg). It is a measure of the force per unit area exerted by a fluid. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 19 . commonly indicated in units of barg (bar gauge) or psig (psi gauge). 0 psia = 760 mm Hg (29. Differential Pressure This is the difference between the inlet and outlet pressures. 14. This is expressed in units of absolute bar a (psia) or gauge bar g (psig) depending upon the inlet conditions. It is therefore the total pressure reading and is the pressure against which the pump will have to operate.7 psia = 0 mm Hg (0 in Hg). Inlet (Suction) Pressure This is the pressure at which the fluid is entering the pump.Terminology and Theory Gauge Pressure Using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. Absolute Pressure = Gauge Pressure + Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum This is a commonly used term to describe pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure.

75 = 36.5 = 2.2.7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.013 bar a (72.7 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.013 .21. 2.013 bar a (14.1.7 psi a) 0.013 bar a 0 bar g (0 psi g) (14.5 bar or = 58 .Terminology and Theory Example: Inlet Pressure above Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.013 bar a (14.25 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) Differential + = = 4 + (1.45 psi Fig.7 psi a) - = Differential = 4 .2b Differential pressure 20 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .013 bar a (14.25) = 65.75 psi g) 1.5) = 4.5 bar g (21.7 psi a) 0 bar g (0 psi g) 1.0.7 psi a) 0 bar a (0 psi a) 1.5 bar a (7.513 bar or = 58 + (14.25 psi Example: Inlet Pressure below Atmospheric Pressure Outlet Inlet Differential 4 bar g (58 psi g) 5.013 bar a (72.7 -7.

The same vertical height will give the same pressure regardless of the pipe configuration in between.Terminology and Theory The relationship of elevation equivalent to pressure is commonly referred to as ‘head’.2. Fig. 2. This pressure difference is due to the weight of a ‘column’ of fluid and can be calculated as follows: In dimensionally consistent SI units Static Pressure (P) = r x g x h where P = Pressure/head (Pa) r = density of fluid (kg/m3) g = gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) Other convenient forms of this equation are: Static Pressure (P) = h (m) x SG 10 (bar) or Static Pressure (P) = h (ft) x SG 2.2c Relationship of pressure to elevation The Relationship Between Pressure and Elevation In a static fluid (a body of fluid at rest) the pressure difference between any two points is in direct proportion only to the vertical distance between the points.31 (psi) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 21 .

7 Fig. Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115 ft).2. Flooded Suction This term is generally used to describe a positive inlet pressure/head.5 bar (50 psi) 35 m (115ft) 4. SG 1.5 bar (50 psi) 25 m (82 ft).0 3. 2. 22 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 SG 0. SG 0. Static Discharge Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump. SG 1.5 bar (50 psi) 50 m (165 ft).0 SG 1.Terminology and Theory A pump capable of delivering 35 m (115 ft) head will produce different pressures for fluids of differing specific gravities. Static Suction Head This is the difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump.7 3.2.2. 2. Static Head The static head is a difference in fluid levels.9 bar (70 psi) 35 m (115ft) 2.5 bar (50 psi) Fig.2e Relationship of elevation to pressure Below are terms commonly used to express different conditions in a pumping system which can be expressed as pressure units (bar or psi) or head units (m or ft). Water Slurry Solvent 35 m (115ft).5 bar (35 psi) SG 1.2d Relationship of elevation to pressure A pump capable of delivering 3.4 3.5 bar (50 psi) pressure will develop different amounts of head for fluids of differing specific gravities. 3.3). whereby fluid will readily flow into the pump inlet at sufficient pressure to avoid cavitation (see 2.

= Total suction head. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 23 . = Static suction head.Terminology and Theory Total Static Head The total static head of a system is the difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. or where the dynamic head is greater than the static head. It can be calculated by means of different formulas if the installation conditions are specified.The head is often a known value. Total Suction Head The total suction head is the static suction head less the dynamic head.(± Hs) ht + hft + pt hs . = Pressure drop in discharge line. = Total discharge head. = Pressure drop in suction line. Total Discharge Head The total discharge head is the sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads. this implies the fluid level will be below the centre line of the pump inlet (ie suction lift). Friction Head This is the pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow. = Static discharge head. Where the static head is negative. Total head H Total discharge head Ht Total suction head Hs Where: H Hs Ht hs ht hfs hft Ps Pt = = = Ht . = Pressure in a tank on discharge side. = Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side. Total Head Total head is the total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. Dynamic Head This is the energy required to set the fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion.hfs + (± ps) = Total head.

p = 0 for open tank. usually have data available for pressure drop.75 2001 .2f Flooded suction and open discharge tanks Fig. heat exchangers.100000 0.see Example 2. 2. if necessary.20000 20001 .2a Viscosity . 2. p < 0 for vacuum. internal surface finish of tube and tube length.cP Correction Factor 1 .100 1. hs < 0 for suction lift. hs > 0 for flooded suction.2.2i Suction lift and closed discharge tanks Pressure drop is the result of frictional losses in pipework. fittings and other process equipment etc. static mixers etc. viscosity. the pressure drop can be determined referring to the Pressure Drop Curve (see 14.2h Suction lift and open discharge tanks Fig.25 24 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Terminology and Theory In general terms: p > 0 for pressure. For higher viscosity fluids.0 101 . Pressure Drop Manufacturers of processing equipment.2. These losses are affected by fluid velocity.2. 2. tube diameter. The different losses and consequently the total pressure drop in the process are.2000 0.2. Table 2. Fig. 2. For calculations on water like viscosity fluids.2.5) as shown in Example 1. determined in practice by converting the losses into equivalent straight length of tube which can then be used in subsequent system calculations.2g Flooded suction and closed discharge tanks Fig. a viscosity correction factor is applied to the tube fittings by multiplying the resultant equivalent tube length by the figures shown below .5 0.

C: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100.2. SRC seat valve. 63.5 in). 51 mm (2 in). dia. E-F: 46 m (151 ft) tube dia.5 in). The conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to section 14. B-E: 3 off bend 90 deg. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC. 38 mm (1. 63.5 in).2b Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 38 mm 51 mm 63. Tubes.5 mm (2.5 mm (2. 51 mm (2 in). 38 mm (1.5 mm (2. E: Seat valve type SRC-W-51-21-100. E-F: 4 off bend 90 deg.5 in).2j Example Table 2. D: Non-return valve type LKC-2.5 Tube Bend 90 deg. pos 3 Bend 90 deg. so that the total pressure drop can be calculated. pos. A-B: 4 m (13 ft) tube dia. 51 mm (2 in).2.7. The pressure drop through the tubes. seat valve. B-C Tube C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tube SRC seat valve. 63. A-B: 1 off bend 90 deg.Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Pumping milk from tank A to tank G. valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length. B-C: 20 m (66 ft) tube dia.3 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 25 . Q = 8 m3/h (35 US gall/min).5 in). 51 mm (2 in). dia. dia. C-E: 15 m (49 ft) tube dia. valves and fittings: A: Tank outlet dia.5 mm 1 (estimated) 4 1x1 20 15 10 3x1 12 14 46 4x1 4 54 74 6 A Tank outlet A-B Tube A-B Bend 90 deg. F: Seat valve type SRC-W-38-21-100. This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different equipment as shown in the following tables: C Fig. 2. pos.

pos.5 mm is determined by means of the following curve. 2.3 Bend 90 deg.Terminology and Theory Table 2.2.5 mm (2. pos.5.3 As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different equipment corresponds to the following equivalent tube length.2 ~ 3.2.2c Equipment Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 1.1 Q = 8 m3/h Fig. Length = 74 m (242 ft). 51 mm and 63. SRC seat valve. LKC-2 non-return valve SRC seat valve.5 in) tube: Length = 54 m (176 ft). The pressure drop through 100 m of tube for sizes 38 mm. Length = 6 m (19 ft). also shown in 14. ~ 13.0 ~ 1.5 Tube Bend 90 deg.2k Pressure drop curve 26 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 in 2 in 2.5 in 3 (estimated) 13 1x3 66 49 33 3x3 39 46 151 4x3 13 176 242 19 A A-B A-B B-C C-E C-E B-E D E E-F E-F F Total Tank outlet Tube Bend 90 deg. pos. Tube Tube SRC seat valve.5 in) tube: 51 mm (2 in) tube: 63. 38 mm (1.

2 = 7. 3 off Tee (out through side port) 51 mm (2 in).4 ft 328 DH = 19 x 4 = 0.22 + 0. 4 off Bend 90 deg.5 in: DH = 176 x 43 = 23.4 m (» 1 bar) or 1.07 = 9. 76 mm (3 in). valves and fittings: 30 m (98 ft) tube dia.0 = 2.7 ft » 31 ft (» 14 psi) Example 2: Process: Pumping glucose with a viscosity of 5000 cP from a flooded suction through discharge pipeline as follows. The pressure drop through the tubes.4 + 0.07 m 100 51 mm: 63. 6 off Bend 90 deg.22 m 100 DH = 6 x 1. 20 m (66 ft) tube dia. Tubes.5 mm: DH = 7. 2 off Non-return valves 51 mm (2 in).1 + 7. 51 mm (2 in).2 ft 328 2 in: 2.13 m 100 DH = 74 x 3.5 in: DH = 23.42 m » 9.1 ft 328 DH = 242 x 10 = 7. 51 mm (2 in). 76 mm (3 in).13 + 2.2 = 30. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 27 . valves and fittings is determined as equivalent tube length so that the total pressure drop can be calculated.1 = 0.Terminology and Theory The total pressure drop DH in the process is consequently calculated as follows: 38 mm: DH = 54 x 13. dia. dia.

Bend 90 deg. and subsequently used in calculating the discharge pressure at the flow rate required. Applying the viscosity correction factor for 5000 cP the equivalent tube length is now: Tube dia. 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft).2.Terminology and Theory For the pipe fittings the conversion into equivalent tube length is carried out by reference to tables 14. 76 mm (3 in): 20 m (66 ft) + 2 m (6 ft) = 22 m (72 ft) 28 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 76 mm (3 in): Length = 4 m (12 ft) x 0.5 m (63 ft) = 49. Tube dia. 51 mm (2 in): 30 m (98 ft) + 19. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft).5 m (63 ft) Tube dia.2. Tube dia.2d Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (m) 51 mm 76 mm 2 x 12 6x1 4x1 3x3 39 4 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg.2e Fittings Equivalent ISO Tube Length (ft) 2 in 3 in 2 x 39 6x3 4x3 3 x 10 126 12 Non-return valve Bend 90 deg.5 m (161 ft) + Tube dia. 51 mm (2 in): Length = 39 m (126 ft) x 0.5 = 19.5 m (63 ft) and 2 m (6 ft) would be added to the straight tube lengths given as shown below.7. Bend 90 deg.5 = 2 m (6 ft) These figures of 19. This results in the following equivalent tube length for the different fittings as shown below: Table 2. Tube dia. Tee Total As viewed from the tables above the pressure drop through the different fittings corresponds to the following equivalent tube length. Tee Total Table 2.

= Darcy friction factor.1. In the case of turbulent flow.7.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG = pressure loss due to friction (psi). Friction Loss Calculations Since laminar flow is uniform and predictable it is the only flow regime in which the friction losses can be calculated using purely mathematical equations. = density of fluid (kg/m3). = fluid velocity (m/s). This co-efficient is known as the Darcy friction factor (fD). = fluid velocity (ft/s). = specific gravity. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 29 . = Darcy friction factor. = tube length (m). In dimensionally consistent SI units: Pf = fD x L x r x V2 Dx2 Where: Pf fD L D V r = pressure loss due to friction (Pa). = tube length (m). = specific gravity. Pf = 0. = tube diameter (m). = tube diameter (mm). The Reynolds number (Re) is used to determine the flow characteristic. The Miller equation given below can be used to determine the friction losses for both laminar and turbulent flow in a given length of pipe (L). Other convenient forms of this equation are: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf fD L D V SG or = pressure loss due to friction (bar). = Darcy friction factor. but these are multiplied by a co-efficient that is normally determined by experimental methods. = tube diameter (in). see 2. = tube length (ft). = fluid velocity (m/s).Terminology and Theory The friction losses in a pipework system are dependent upon the type of flow characteristic that is taking place. mathematical equations are used.

= internal pipe diameter (mm). rotary or reciprocating. the Darcy friction factor (fD) can be calculated directly from the equation: fD = 64 Re The relative roughness of pipes varies with diameter. centrifugal. When sizing pumps on highly viscous fluids care must be taken not to select too higher pump speed so as to allow sufficient fluid to enter the pump and ensure satisfactory operation.due to local pressure reduction part of the fluid may evaporate generating small vapour bubbles. Where: Î =k D = relative roughness which is the average heights of the pipe internal surface peaks (mm).3 Cavitation Cavitation is an undesirable vacuous space in the inlet port of the pump normally occupied by fluid. It occurs with all types of pumps. 2. k D The term cavitation is derived from the word cavity.2.8). increased corrosion and erosion when cavitation is present. excessive pump speed and/or adverse suction conditions will probably be the cause and reducing pump speed and/or rectifying the suction condition will usually eliminate this problem. type of material used and age of the pipe. which is the absolute roughness of clean commercial steel or wrought iron pipes as given by Moody. the Darcy friction factor (fD) has to be determined by reference to the Moody diagram (see section 14. It is usual to simplify this by using an relative roughness (k) of 0. cavitation is the most commonly encountered. Cavitation should be avoided at all costs. These bubbles are carried along by the fluid and implode instantly when they get into areas of higher pressure.Terminology and Theory For laminar flow. For turbulent flow. The life of a pump can be shortened through mechanical damage. If cavitation occurs this will result in loss of pump efficiency and noisy operation. 30 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The lowest pressure point in a pump occurs at the pump inlet . When found.045 mm. It is first necessary to calculate the relative roughness designated by the symbol Î. For all pump application problems. meaning a hollow space.

there will be a positive suction pressure. > N.I.A. When selecting a pump it is critical the net positive suction head available (NPSHa) in the system is greater than the net positive suction head required by the pump. (Net Inlet Pressure Available) and NPSHr is also referred to as N. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 31 . Pump manufacturers supply data about the net positive suction head required by their pumps (NPSHr) for satisfactory operation. the condition at the inlet of a pump is critical.A. A simplified way to look at NPSHa or N.P. (Net Inlet Pressure Required).P.I.P. 2. This is called the Net Positive Suction Head.R.4a NPSH balance For + Providing the factors acting for the pump outweigh those factors acting against.P. The system on the inlet side of the pump must allow a smooth flow of fluid to enter the pump at a sufficiently high pressure to avoid cavitation.2.A. Against Fig. NPSHa is also referred to as N. is to imagine a balance of factors working for (static pressure and positive head) and against (friction loss and vapour pressure) the pump. generally abbreviated NPSH.I.P.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) In addition to the total head. For satisfactory pump operation: NPSHa > NPSHr N.I.2. power and efficiency requirements.Terminology and Theory 2. capacity.I.R.

in the system is dependent upon the characteristic of the fluid being pumped.2.P. the location of the suction vessel.4b NPSH calculation NPSHa or N. +ve -ve +ve -ve + Static suction head (hs) Pressure drop (hfs) Vapour pressure (Pvp) hs Fig. the total figures should be in m or ft. It is important the units used for calculating NPSHa or N.Terminology and Theory The value of NPSHa or N. 32 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .A.A. = Static suction head (m).I.A. It is important to note. = Pressure absolute above fluid level (psi). = Pressure drop in suction line (m).e. = Vapour pressure (bar a). 2. and the pressure applied to the fluid in the suction vessel. This is the actual pressure seen at the pump inlet. For low temperature applications the vapour pressure is generally not critical and can be assumed to be negligible.P.Pvp Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp or Where: Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (bar).P. = Vapour pressure (psia).hfs . = Pressure drop in suction line (ft).A. inlet piping. = Static suction head (ft). are consistent i.P.I. it is the inlet system that sets the inlet condition and not the pump. = Pa ± hs .I.I. It is calculated as follows: NPSHa = Pressure acting on or surface of liquid (Pa) N.

5 m hs hfs Pvp Fig.4c Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.5 .9 .5 m) (11.5 m) (5 ft).8 m = 13.5 m) (5 ft). = Vapour pressure (0.hfs . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 33 .5 m Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14.3.hfs .9 m) (5.Pvp = 5 + 1.13 (ft) = 5 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr.7 psi = 33.1. Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level (0. 3.39 bar a = 3.11. NPSHa = Pa + hs . 2.1. = Static suction head (3. 1. = Pressure drop in suction line (1.2 (m) or = 33.9 ft).5 .6 m = Pa + hs .Terminology and Theory Example 1: Process: Water at 50 °C (122o F). no cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.Pvp = 10 .hs .hfs .3 .0 m (10 ft).5 .5 ft). NPSHa = Pa .4 ft As NPSHa is greater than NPSHr.9 (m) = 1.4d Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.5 m Fig. = Vapour pressure (0.0 m (10 ft).Pvp or = 16 + 5 .8 psia = 4 ft).hfs .7 psia = 13 ft).5 .5 bar Process: Water at 75 °C (167o F).2. Example 2: 0. cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.Pvp = Pa .5 .0 .1. 2.5 bar = 5 m) (7 psi = 16 ft).3. 1.2 m) (1.12 bar a = 1.2. = Static suction head (1. = Pressure drop in suction line (1.4 (ft) = 3.0 m) (3 ft).hs .

= Static suction head (1.4k Negative effect 34 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . From the NPSHa formula it is possible to check and optimise the conditions which affect NPSHa.2. = Vapour pressure (assumed negligible = 0 m) (0 ft).Pvp = 10 + 1. = Pressure drop in suction line (9.0 (m) = 2. Fig.0 m) (30 ft). 2.2. 2.4g Positive effect Fig. 2. 2. cavitation will occur under the conditions stated.hfs .9 + 5 . 2.5 m = Pa + hs .9 ft).hfs .4j Negative effect Fig.2. 2.2.0 m (10 ft).Pvp or = 33.Terminology and Theory Example 3: Process: Glucose at 50 °C (122o F).9 ft As NPSHa is less than NPSHr.9.5 m) (5 ft).0 . 2.2.4h Negative effect Vapour pressure (Temperature dependent) Fig.2.2. NPSHa = Pa + hs .0 (ft) = 8.5 . Pa hs hfs Pvp = Pressure absolute above fluid level (1 bar = 10 m) (14.4i Negative effect Fig.30 . The effects are shown as follows: Fig.4f Positive effect Fig.4e Example NPSHr of pump selected = 3.7 psi = 33.

When designing pipework systems it is important to keep the natural frequency of the system as high as possible by using rigid pipework and as many pipework supports as possible. Velocity of propagation The velocity of propagation of the pressure wave depends on: • Elasticity of the tubes. length of line as short as possible.e. • Pumps are started or stopped. valves and other equipment. • Changes in flow direction. The major pressure wave problems in process plants are usually due to rapidly closed or opened valves. • Changes in tube dimensions.2.5 Pressure ‘Shocks’ (Water Hammer) The term ‘shock’ is not strictly correct as shock waves only exist in gases. 2. Pumps. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 35 . • The tubes support. • Resistance in process equipment such as valves. can also cause some problems. The following causes changes in fluid velocity: • Valves are closed or opened. valves etc.Terminology and Theory Suggestions for avoiding cavitation: • Keep pressure drop in the inlet line to a minimum i. which are rapidly/ frequently started or stopped. etc. diameter as large as possible. Pressure waves are the result of rapid changes in the velocity of the fluid in especially in long runs of piping. thereby avoiding the excitation frequency of the pump. • Elasticity of the fluid. thereby increasing pressure drop. often up to 1400 m/s for steel tubes. meters. • Maintain a static head as high as possible. filters. The pressure shock is really a pressure wave with a velocity of propagation much higher than the velocity of the flow. Effects of pressure waves: • Noise in the tube. although caution is needed as this may have an effect of increasing fluid viscosity. and minimal use of pipe fittings such as tees. • Damaged tube. • Cavitation. • Reduce fluid temperature. • Damaged pump.

This is due to the low fluid velocity which results in a relatively small damping of the pressure waves. A pressure wave induced as a result of a pump stopping can result in negative pressure values in long tubes.5a and 2. Correct flow direction Incorrect flow direction through valves can induce pressure waves particularly as the valve functions. 2.5a Correct flow direction through seat valve Fig. A pressure wave as a result of a pump stopping is more damaging than for a pump starting due to the large change in pressure which will continue much longer after a pump is stopped compared to a pump starting. These reflections are in theory continuing but in practice the wave gradually attenuates cancelled by friction in the tube.2. it is important to reduce the speed of these changes. i. values close to the absolute zero point which can result in cavitation if the absolute pressure drops to the vapour pressure of the fluid. Figs 2.2. Precautions Pressure waves are caused by changes in the velocity of the liquid in especially long runs of tube. a valve is closed. There are different ways to avoid or reduce pressure waves which are briefly described below.5b specify the correct and incorrect flow direction for this type of valve.5b Incorrect flow direction through seat valve 36 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.Terminology and Theory When for example. Correct flow directions in the process plant can reduce or even prevent pressure wave problems. Rapid changes in the operating conditions of valves and pump are the major reasons to the pressure waves and therefore. 2.2. the pressure wave travels from the valve to the end of the tube. Correct Incorrect Fig.e. With air-operated seat valves incorrect direction of flow can cause the valve plug to close rapidly against the valve seat inducing pressure waves. The wave is then reflected back to the valve.

2. The motor is controlled by means of a soft starter or a frequency converter so that the pump is: • • Started at a low speed which is slowly increased to duty speed. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 37 .2. Stopped by slowly decreasing from duty speed down to a lower speed or zero. The risk of power failure should be taken into consideration when using speed control against pressure waves. Damped or undamped non-return valves. Pressure towers. may not be suitable for hygienic processes and further advice may be required before they are recommended or used in such installations. Equipment for industrial processes There is various equipment available to reduce pressure waves such as: • • • Pressure storage tanks. 2.Terminology and Theory Damping of valves The pressure wave induced by a seat valve can be avoided or minimised by damping the movement of the valve plug. 2.5c). These however. The damping is carried out by means of a special damper (see fig. Fig.5c Oil damper for seat valve Speed control of pumps Speed control of a pump is a very efficient way to minimise or prevent pressure waves.

Terminology and Theory 38 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Some pump problems can be: • The correct type of pump for the right application. • Gentle treatment of the fluids/products. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 39 . In view of this. operation and maintenance.Pump Selection 3. The pump must be able to carry out various duties under differing conditions. • Correct selection of drive units. • Correct selection of shaft seals. • The correct selection of pump with regard to inlet and outlet conditions. Pump Selection This section gives an overview of the pump ranges currently available from Alfa Laval and which particular pumps to apply within various application areas. product data. • Overcome different losses and pressure drops in the system. • Ensure easy and safe installation. the correct selection of a pump is of great importance. Some of these are as follows: • Transfer various types of fluids/products. operating conditions etc. major factors evolve such as the quality of products and process profitability. It is therefore necessary to be aware of the various problems that might be encountered when selecting a pump. • Provide hygienic. • The correct design of pump. economical and long lasting operation. As demands on processes increase. As pumps are used in different locations and stages of a process the need for the correct pump in the right place has become increasingly important.

Capacity .20°C (-4oF) Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended 40 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .US gall/min Max.1 General Applications Guide The table shown below gives a general guide as to the various types of Alfa Laval pump that may be required to suit the application.psig Ability to vary flow rate Suction Lift capability (primed wet) Suction Lift capability (unprimed .dry) Drive Availability Air motor Diesel engine Electric motor Hydraulic motor Petrol engine Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 3-A FDA EHEDG Table 3. Viscosity Max. Discharge Pressure .10°C (14oF) Not recommended Recommended Not recommended Not recommended Recommended Recommended Recommended o 1000000 cP 200°C (392oF) .Pump Selection 3.10°C (14oF) Not recommended Not recommended Fair Fair Recommended Recommended Recommended o Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe 200 cP 140°C (284 F) .m³/hr Max.1a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 440 1936 20 290 Fair Recommended Not recommended 80 352 5. General Requirements Product/Fluid Requirements Max. Capacity .5 80 Not recommended Recommended Recommended 115 506 20 290 Recommended Recommended Fair 1000 cP 140°C (284 F) . Pumping Temperature Ability to pump abrasive products Ability to pump fluids containing air or gases Ability to pump shear sensitive media Ability to pump solids in suspension CIP capability (sanitary) Dry running capability (when fitted with flushed/quench mechanical seals) Self Draining capability Performance Requirements Max. Pumping Temperature Min.bar Max. Discharge Pressure .

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 41 Water Dairy . Generally. rotary lobe pumps with their gentle pumping action are ideally used handling yeast containing delicate cells.Pump Selection 3. During the fermentation process. 3.2a The Liquid Ring pump is used in most of these sanitary application areas dedicated for CIP and tank emptying duties. such as liquid sugar tanker offloading and malt syrups. Pump Type Pump Range Application Area Soap and Detergent Pharmaceutical Confectionery Other Food Soft Drink Brewery Sugar Centrifugal LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Rotary Lobe Table 3. Brewery Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps are used in most process stages of brewing from wort handling to beer pasteurisation and filling. are mostly carried out using centrifugal pumps.2 Pumps for Sanitary Applications Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Pump Ranges from Alfa Laval Centrifugal Liquid Ring Rotary Lobe LKH LKHP High Pressure LKHI LKH Multistage LKHSP LKH Ultra Pure MR SRU SX Fig. whereas low fluid viscosity applications. such as beer and water chilling. A detailed description of these pump ranges is given in section 4.2a Pump ranges The following table illustrates which Alfa Laval pump ranges can be used in various sanitary application areas. rotary lobe pumps best perform high fluid viscosity applications.

Confectionery products that contain particulate matter. with their ability to handle highly viscosity abrasive products. such as high boiled sugars. Other Food ‘Other Food’ means other than Confectionery. Dairy Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps. bakery. sulphonic acid. Sugar Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps. Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pumps are mainly used on applications handling high viscosity fruit juice concentrates. dishwash liquid. liquid detergent and surfactants. Soft Drink Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps are mainly used on applications handling thin liquid sugar solutions. providing pumps to all the major confectionery companies. Centrifugal pumps can be commonly found on fat and vegetable oil applications. shampoo and blood products. can be handled with the rotary lobe pump. such as cosmetic creams. 42 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . cream and cultured products such as yoghurt. glucose. water and flavourings. fatty acid. lauryl ether sulphate. Rotary lobe pumps being used on high viscosity products such as chocolate. with their hygienic construction and conforming to 3-A standards (see section 11). can be found within many areas of sugar refined products requiring hygienic handling. Pharmaceutical Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry where hygiene and corrosion resistance is paramount. glucose solutions and sugar syrups used in confectionery. brewing and carbonated soft drinks. Dairy and Sugar generally Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on general transfer duties handling products such as petfood. protein solutions.Pump Selection Confectionery Alfa Laval is a major supplier of pumping equipment to this industry. Soap and Detergent Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe pumps can be found on many applications within this industry. handling products such as neat soap. such as fruit pie fillings. fabric conditioner. perfume. sauces and flavourings. toothpaste. are used extensively throughout the dairy industry on milk processing. biscuit cream and fondant.

This will include additional options such as pressure relief valves. The program selects both centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps and provides the user with a comparison of features enabling the most appropriate technology to be chosen. the user will be assisted to complete a detailed pump unit specification. connection specifications etc. maximum speed. PumpCAS will also provide detailed parts list for the pump with item numbers with all recommended spare parts identified and priced. and recommend an alternative solution. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 43 . heating or cooling devices. generic or specific performance curves. PumpCAS also extracts data from a comprehensive liquids database enabling it to suggest viscosity. for which the price of the pump and its configuration code (item number) will be automatically generated aiding the quotation and/or ordering process. If one or other technology is not suited to a specific application (this could be due to physical limitations and or fluid characteristics) the program will advise the user. SG. elastomer compatibility and primary seal configuration. A link to all technical information that may be required to accompany the quotation such as Operation manuals.Pump Selection Water Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps provide a low cost effective solution for high purity water and water like applications. This program prompts the user to enter pump duty information and selects the pump from the product range most suited to their specific application. If you would like a copy of the Alfa Laval PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool please contact your local Alfa Laval sales company. 3.3 PumpCAS Selection and Configuration Tool Pump selection for both Centrifugal and Rotary Lobe Pumps can be made by the use of Alfa Laval’s PumpCAS selection program. and technical data sheets will also be provided. After the pump has been selected. along with direct access to this Alfa Laval Pump Handbook for any additional supporting information that may be required. In addition. As well as performing the pump selection. Dimensional details in the form of general arrangement drawings can also be generated.

recommended spares lists can be extracted based on an existing configuration code or direct access to technical information relating to a specific pump technology is possible. and will be continually added to as additional products are tested. 44 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The liquids database contained within PumpCAS is based on rheological tests performed over many years on end users liquids at Alfa Laval’s chemical laboratory. All information is offered for guidance purposes only.Pump Selection Flexibility has been built in to the software to enable specific enquiries to be answered without the need to complete a full pump selection. For example.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 45 . principle of operation and pump model types. beverage. • Low power consumption. • Easy maintenance. pharmaceutical and light chemical industries.1 Centrifugal Pumps 4. 4. Pump Description This section gives a description of Alfa Laval pump ranges including design. • Low NPSH requirement.1.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Centrifugal Pumps has been designed specially for use in the food.Pump Description 4. dairy. Centrifugal pumps can provide the most cost effective solution. Centrifugal pumps including multi-stage designs and those for high inlet pressure. • Low noise level. Attributes include: • High efficiency. can handle most low viscosity applications.

The impeller diameter and width will vary dependent upon the duty requirements.3a Semi-open impeller The impeller has two or multiple vanes depending on the type of centrifugal pump.1.Pump Description 4. The principle of the multi-stage centrifugal pump is the same as the conventional centrifugal pump.2b Multistage centrifugal pump 4.2a Principle of operation Fig.1.e. i. 4. 4.1.1. of several impellers (several stages) which increase the pressure from one stage to another but flow rate is unchanged. This type allows visual inspection of the vanes and the area between them. 46 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . with the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor. which is formed by the impeller vanes. 4. A semi-open impeller is also available which is easy to clean and suitable for polishing. Fig. As a result of this rotation. The velocity of the fluid is also partly converted into pressure by the pump casing before it leaves the pump through the outlet. the impeller vanes transfer mechanical work to the fluid in the impeller channel. however.1. The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft which is housed in a pump casing and back plate – these components are described below: Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture and open type.2 Principle of Operation Fluid is directed to the impeller eye and is forced into a circular movement by the rotation of the impeller vanes. The multi-stage centrifugal pump operates as if several conventional centrifugal pumps are connected in series. The pump consists. Fig. The fluid is then pressed out of the impeller by means of centrifugal force and finally leaves the impeller channel with increased pressure and velocity.3 Design In general the Alfa Laval centrifugal pump does not contain many parts. the impeller vanes are open in front.

1.3e Pump with shroud and legs Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 47 .3c 360o flexibility Back Plate The back plate is of pressed steel manufacture. which together with the pump casing form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller.1.1. 4. 4. Fig. Fig. 4. Shroud and Legs Most pump types are fitted with shrouds and adjustable legs. Fig. complete with male screwed connections and can be supplied with fittings or clamp liners.3b Pump casing Fig. The pump casing is designed for multi position outlet. which is described in section 6.3d Back plate Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal.Pump Description Pump Casing The pump casing is of pressed steel manufacture. The shroud is insulated to keep noise to a minimum and protect the motor against damage. Please note Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds.1. 4. with 360° flexibility.

Fig.5 bar (165 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 440 m3/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressure up to 16 bar (230 psig). Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 440 m³/h (1936 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 11. -35. 4. yet secure method of drive that reduces vibration and noise.3g Adapter 4.Pump Description Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings. Pumps supplied with direct coupled motors have no adaptors. -40.1.1.3f Compression coupling Adaptor Most pumps are fitted with a standard IEC electric motor. -10. meeting sanitary requirements with gentle product treatment and chemical resistance. -25. -60. -20. The stub shaft assembly design provides a simple. eliminating the use of keyways. 4.1.4a LKH Fig. 48 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . -50. Fig.1. 4.1. Fig. -70 and -80. 4.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Centrifugal Pump portfolio comprises of different ranges as follows: LKH Range The LKH pump is a highly efficient and economical centrifugal pump. which can be attached to any standard IEC or C-frame electric motor. The connection between the motor and back plate is made by means of an adaptor.4b LKH (USA version) The LKH range is available in twelve sizes: LKH-5. -45. On the multistage centrifugal pump the length of the pump shaft will differ depending upon the number of impellers fitted. -15.

reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration.4e LKHP-High Pressure Fig.e. Application areas include reverse osmosis mono-filtration and ultra-filtration. Fig. Fig. Pump Size LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 Number of Stages 2 3 4 2 3 4 Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 75 m³/h (330 US gall/min) and discharge pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig) with boost pressures up to 19 bar (275 psig) and for 60 Hz up to 80 m3/h (352 US gall/min) and boost pressures up to 26 bar (375 psig).1. The pumps are available as two. LKHP-High Pressure Range These pumps are designed to handle high inlet pressures built with reinforced pump casing and back plate.Pump Description LKH-Multistage Range These pumps are primarily used in applications with high outlet pressure and low capacity requirements such as breweries.1. three or four stage models (i. For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust.4f LKHP-High Pressure (USA version) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 49 .1. pumps fitted with two. 4.1. 4.4c LKH-Multistage Fig. three or four impellers respectively). 4.4d LKH-Multistage (USA version) The LKH-Multistage range is available in six sizes. 4.

For 60 Hz. -20. Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig). -15. -40. -25. -25. The pump is capable of creating a vacuum of 0. -35.-25. a non-return valve (normally closed) on the inlet side. depending upon pump size. -20. -45.4g LKHSP 50 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . -15. For 60 Hz. The LKHSP range is available in five sizes. -50 and -60. The pump can withstand this high inlet pressure due to being fitted with an internal shaft seal.Pump Description The LKHP-High Pressure range is available in nine sizes. These pumps can be used for tank emptying or as a CIP return pump where there is a risk of air or gas mixing with the fluid in the suction line. LKHSP Range The LKHSP self-priming pump is specially designed for pumping fluids containing air or gas without loosing its pumping ability. LKHI Range This pump range is similar to the LKH range but is suitable for inlet pressures up to 16 bar (230 psig). Flow rates for 50 Hz up to 240 m³/h (1056 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 8 bar (115 psig). 4. a tee and a non-return valve (normally open) on the bypass line. LKHP-10. -35 and -40. -40. Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz. pharmaceutical and other similar industries. 11 bar (160 psig). -20 .6 bar. The pump is supplied complete with a tank. LKHSP-10. chemical. flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig).1. For these high inlet pressures a ‘special’ motor with fixed angular contact bearings is used due to axial thrust. -35. Fig. The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 40 bar (580 psig). LKHI-10. -50 and -60. The pump is for use in food. The LKHI range is available in nine sizes. flow rates up to 275 m3/h (1210 US gall/min) with differential pressures up to 11 bar (160 psig).

-35 and -40.1. 4. Flow rates up to 90 m³/h (396 US gall/min) and differential pressures for 50 Hz up to 8 bar (115 psig) and for 60 Hz.1. -25.4j C-Series Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 51 .4h LKH-UltraPure Fig.Pump Description For inlet pressures greater than 10 bar (145 psig) a ‘special’ motor is used incorporating fixed angular contact bearings due to axial thrust. Another feature of this pump is self-venting. all-purpose Alfa Laval centrifugal pump for less demanding applications. 4. 11 bar (160 psig). LKH-UltraPure-10.1. The range is designed for meeting sanitary requirements and can be Cleaned-In-Place. C328 and C4410. -20.4i LKH-UltraPure (USA version) The LKH-UltraPure range is available in five sizes. C – Series range The C-Series is the original. Fig. due to the pump casing outlet being turned 45°. The pump is fully drainable supplied with associated pipework. LKH-UltraPure Range These pumps are designed for high purity applications such as water-for-injection (WFI). fittings and valves. C216. C218. 4. C114. The C-series is produced mainly for the USA and is available in five sizes. Fig. Flow rates for 60 Hz up to 227 m3/h (1000 US gall/min) and differential pressures up to 10 bar (145 psig).

Pump Description 4. it is capable of pumping from a suction line partly filled with air or gases. The discharge line should be routed 1 to 2 metres vertically upwards from the pump outlet connections to maintain the liquid ring in the side channels (see 12.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Liquid Ring Pumps are specially designed for use in food. The self-priming capability is a result of the impeller design. small tolerances between the impeller and the pump casing.2a Principle of operation The sequence of a section between two impeller vanes during one revolution is described in the following: a) There is a certain fluid volume in the gap between the vanes which is not in contact with the channel.2. 4.1). self-priming when half filled with fluid. Attributes include: • Self-priming (when pump casing is half filled with fluid).5.2. The centrifugal force pushes the fluid outwards and consequently forms a vacuum at the centre of the impeller. As the liquid ring pump is self-priming when half filled with fluid.2 Principle of Operation The liquid-ring pump is in principle a centrifugal pump. Fig. which gradually becomes deeper. 4.2. however. • Minimal maintenance. • High efficiency. they are ideally used as return pumps in CIP systems. and due to a side channel made in the pump casing and/or the front cover. As these pumps are self-priming.2 Liquid Ring Pumps 4. 52 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The pump is. chemical and pharmaceutical industries where pumping liquids containing air or gases. • Suitable for aerated fluids. a) to b) The gap is in contact with the channel. Part of the fluid between the vanes fills the channel.

3a Impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 53 . The same volume of air that was induced through the inlet is now expelled through the outlet at “e” due to the pressure increase at the centre of the impeller. (60Hz). 4. The cycle described above is continuously repeated as the impeller has several sections and rotates at approx. 1500 rev/min. The pump now operates as a fluid pump. When all the air is removed from the suction line the described cycle is repeated for the fluid.2. Impeller The impeller is of cast manufacture with straight radial impeller vanes. The volume between the vanes is gradually reduced as the depth of the channel is reduced and consequently pressure is build up at the centre of the impeller. e) to a) The section between the vanes will be refilled with fluid when it has passed the channel as only air and no fluid has yet been pumped. d) to e) Air and fluid are circulated with the impeller until the depth of the channel begins to decrease.Pump Description b) to c) The depth of the channel is still increased. the liquid ring pump does not contain many parts – the pumphead being connected to a standard electric motor. 4. (50 Hz) or 1800 rev/min.3 Design As for centrifugal pumps. e) The fluid is still forced outwards and the air remains at the centre of the impeller. d) The vacuum created induces air from the suction line through the inlet at “d”. Fig. There is only one impeller size for each type of liquid ring pump.2. The impeller is fixed onto the pump shaft housed in a pump casing and casing cover. The fluid volume is still forced outwards and consequently the fluid-free volume between the vanes is increased until it reaches a maximum where the channel has maximum depth.

similar to that used on Centrifugal pumps. which is described in section 6. Please note Alfa Laval Liquid Ring pumps for the USA market are supplied without shrouds. The pump casing and casing cover form the actual fluid chamber in which the fluid is transferred by means of the impeller. Shroud and Legs Pumps fitted with standard IEC motors utilise the shrouds and legs used on the LKH centrifugal pump range. as used on Centrifugal pumps. the connection between the motor and pump casing is made by means of an adaptor. The pump casing cover is also of cast manufacture. 4.3c Pump with two channels Mechanical Seal The connection between the motor shaft/pump shaft and the pump casing is sealed by means of a mechanical seal. 54 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .3b Pump with one channel Fig.Pump Description Pump Casing and Casing Cover The pump casing is of cast manufacture complete with male screwed connections and fittings or clamp liners. Fig.2. with or without a channel depending upon pump type/size. 4. Fig.2.3d Pump with IEC standard motor Pump Shaft/Connections Most pumps have stub shafts that are fixed to the motor shafts by means of compression couplings. 4.2. Adaptor For pumps fitted with a standard IEC electric motor (not MR-300 model).

MR-185S and MR-200S Fig. MR-166S.2. 4.2.4 Pump Range The Alfa Laval Liquid Ring Pump range is designated the MR range. 4. MR-200S and MR-300.4a MR-166S.2. Flow rates up to 80 m³/h (350 US gall/min) and differential pressures of 5 bar (73 psig) for 50 Hz and 6 bar (87 psig) for 60 Hz.4c MR pump (USA version) The pump range is designed for inlet pressures up to 4 bar (60 psig). MR Range The MR range is available in four sizes.Pump Description 4.4b MR-300 Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 55 . 4. MR-185S.2. Fig.

each dwell forms a cavity. • Ability to pump shear sensitive media.1 General The Alfa Laval range of Rotary Lobe Pumps with its non-contact pump element design has the ability to cover a wide range of applications in industry. dairy and pharmaceutical industries. the motion of the counter rotating rotors creates a partial vacuum that allows atmospheric pressure or other external pressures to force fluid into the pump chamber. The pumping principle is explained with reference to the following diagram. beverage. As the rotors rotate an expanding cavity is formed which is filled with fluid. The rotors contra-rotate within the pump head carrying fluid through the pump. • Compact size with high performance and low energy input. 4. • Easy maintenance. The meshing of the rotor causes a diminishing cavity with the fluid being displaced into the outlet port. which shows the displacement of fluid from pump inlet to outlet. As the rotors separate.3. anti-corrosive stainless steel construction and smooth pumping action have long established these pumps in the food.3. The rotors are driven by a gear train in the pump gear gearbox providing accurate synchronisation or timing of the rotors. In hydraulic terms. • Bi-directional operation.2 Principle of Operation Alfa Laval ranges of Rotary Lobe pumps are of conventional design operating with no internal contacting parts in the pump head. in the cavities formed between the dwell of the rotor and the interior of the rotorcase. 56 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Description 4. Attributes include: • Gentle transfer of delicate suspended solids. The hygienic design.3 Rotary Lobe Pumps 4.

air motor. Duplex stainless steel material used for higher pressures. and diesel or petrol engine (see 8.3 Pump Range Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe Pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or complete with drive such as electric motor. Fig.3a SRU • Displacement is the theoretical amount of fluid the pump will transfer per revolution. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 57 . The SRU range is available in six series each having two pumphead displacements and two different shaft materials.3.3.2a Principle of operation 4. 4. 4.Pump Description Horizontally ported pump (top shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Vertically ported pump (left hand shaft drive) 1 2 3 4 Fig.3. Ranges primarily as follows: SRU Range The SRU pump range has been designed for use on general transfer duties throughout the brewing.7).2. dairy. food and chemical manufacturing processes.

65 30.16 1.Pump Description The SRU pump range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 .Duplex Stainless Steel Table 4.64 20.26 bar 8 5 10 15 7 10 10 15 7 10 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 10 20 7 15 psig 115 75 145 215 100 145 145 215 100 145 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 145 290 100 215 rev/min 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 L H S D 005 008 013 013 018 018 027 027 038 038 055 055 079 079 116 116 168 168 260 260 353 353 L or H L or H L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H D D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D .15 10.128 0.60 3.38 4.19 17.95 57.98 3. Speed Pump head code Gearbox Shaft Litres/ rev SRU1/005/LD or HD SRU1/008/LD or HD SRU2/013/LS SRU2/013/LD SRU2/018/LS SRU2/018/LD SRU3/027/LS SRU3/027/LD SRU3/038/LS SRU3/038/LD SRU4/055/LS SRU4/055/LD SRU4/079/LS SRU4/079/LD SRU5/116/LS SRU5/116/LD SRU5/168/LS SRU5/168/LD SRU6/260/LS SRU6/260/LD SRU6/353/LS SRU6/353/LD or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or or HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD HS HD 0.70 68.181 0.87 2.266 0.65 US gall/ 100 rev 1.384 0.38 17. either horizontal or vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is achieved by using dedicated gearbox castings.95 36.03 10.Stainless Steel .45 8.266 0.52 25.79 0. maximising inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSH characteristics.39 44.38 3.4.39 68.98 5.64 14. The SRU range conforms to USA 3A requirements.17 1.26 93.38 25.554 0.03 7. Flow rates up to 106 m³/h (466 US gall/min) and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).Horizontal Porting .181 0.70 93.53 3.52 36.87 20.4 2.20 57.68 1.85 8. This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.60 2.Vertical Porting .65 77.128 0.15 14. Pump Nomenclature SRU Series Build Selection SRU Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max.053 0.87 30.16 1.65 44.384 0.085 0.68 2.19 12.554 0.45 12.20 77.82 2.85 5.53 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.78 4.3a 58 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .82 3.78 7. This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position.79 1. For the larger series 5 and 6.25 3.3.

99 50.80 41.05 0.82 3.15 1.12 13.65 21. Pump Nomenclature SX Series Build Selection Gearbox SX Model Displacement Differential Pressure Max.4.85 3. This pump range also incorporates full bore through porting complying with international standards BS4825/ISO2037.85 7.38 4.181 0.266 0.Universal mounting (not EHEDG approved) Table 4.20 66. 6 and 7.35 0.07 0. maximising the inlet and outlet efficiency of the pump and the NPSH characteristics.67 30. All media contacting elastomers are controlled compression joints to prevent pumped media leaking to atmosphere (see section 6. The SX range is available in seven series each having two pumphead displacements. fine chemical and speciality food industries.86 18.128 0.Vertical Port (EHEDG approved) .25 12. In addition to being EHEDG compliant. Flow rates up to 115 m³/h (506 US gall/min) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig).70 10. suited to applications in the pharmaceutical.46 0.04 25.40 bar 12 7 15 7 15 7 15 10 15 10 15 10 15 10 psig 175 100 215 100 215 100 215 145 215 145 215 145 215 145 rev/min 1400 1400 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 600 600 500 500 500 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 H U 005 007 013 018 027 035 046 063 082 115 140 190 250 380 H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H or U H H H H H H .90 2.38 36.00 83.60 US gall/ 100 rev 1. the SX pump also conforms to the USA 3A standard and all media contacting components are FDA compliant.30 30.Pump Description Fig.40 1.05 100. The SX range has been certified by EHEDG (European Hygienic Equipment Design Group) as fully CIP cleanable to their protocol. This pump range like the SRU range incorporates a universally mounted gearbox on series 1 .54 2.2). Speed Pump head code Litres/ rev SX1/005/H or U SX1/007/H or U SX2/013/H or U SX2/018/H or U SX3/027/H or U SX3/035/H or U SX4/046/H or U SX4/063/H or U SX5/082/H SX5/115/H SX6/140/H SX6/190/H SX7/250/H SX7/380/H 0.3.32 1.80 UK gall/ 100 rev 1.50 3.3b Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 59 . For the larger series 5.03 9. only vertical plane inlet and outlet porting is available by using a dedicated gearbox casting.15 16.80 55.98 5.78 7.3b SX SX Range The SX pump range is designed to be used where ultra-clean operation is critical. biotechnology.82 1.11 1.3.63 0. 4. This gives the flexibility of mounting pumps with the inlet and outlet ports in either a vertical or horizontal plane by changing the foot and foot position.

Pump Description 60 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1. 5.1a Product Wetted Parts Non-product Wetted Parts AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1. Metallic and elastomeric parts in contact with the fluid being pumped).1 Main Components Pumps today can be manufactured from a number of different materials dependent upon the product being pumped and its environment. 5. Metallic and elastomeric parts not in contact with the fluid being pumped).4404 AISI 304 or Werkstoff 1.Pump Materials of Construction 5.e.e. For Alfa Laval pump ranges this is generally stainless steel and can be split into two main categories: • Product Wetted Parts (i.1a Centrifugal pump Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 61 . both metallic and elastomeric.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.4301 Shroud Adaptor Fig. Pump Materials of Construction This section describes the materials. Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Main Pump Component Adaptor Backplate Impeller Pump Casing Pump Shaft Shroud and Legs Casing AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.4404 AISI 316L or Werkstoff 1.4301 Table 5. • Non-product Wetted Parts (i. that are used in the construction of Alfa Laval pump ranges.

Non-galling alloy or rubber covered BS 3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L BS EN 10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 or 316L. 5.4462) Shaft Table 5.4404 BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1. For mechanical seal components see 6.4404 or 316L or duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4404 or 316L BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.1.3. 62 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4404 Duplex stainless steel (AISI 329 or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.4462) Metallic Product Wetted Parts SX Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Gearcase Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover BS3100:1991 316 C12 or 316L or BS EN10088-3:1995 grade 1.1b Product seal area Rotorcase Drive shaft Gearbox Rotorcase cover Fig.1b Rotary lobe pump Ports For description of elastomers used see 5.Pump Materials of Construction Rotary lobe pumps Main Pump Component Metallic Product Wetted Parts SRU Models Metallic Non-product Wetted Parts BS EN 1561:1977 grade 250 cast iron Werkstoff 1.

For Alfa Laval centrifugal stainless steel pump components. Electropolishing This is an electro-chemical process in which the stainless steel component is immersed into a chemical bath and subjected to an electrical current.2 Steel Surfaces The ‘standard’ machined surface finish on pumps can be enhanced by the following methods: • • • • Rumbling. The appearance is ‘Semi bright’. Electropolishing. Shotblasting This method involves blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force to achieve the surface finish required. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 63 . pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries where hygiene and cleanability are of paramount importance. A controlled amount of metal is removed from all surfaces evenly. Mechanical (Hand) polishing. and to reach any awkward areas. 5.Pump Materials of Construction Surface finish of product wetted steel components has become a major factor in the food. Mechanical (Hand) This is required when it is necessary to improve the surface finish beyond that achieved by electropolishing only i. fine particles of stainless steel are used in this process to avoid contamination. Brushing using bristle brushes and compound to remove any cutting marks left from fine grinding. Shot blasting. a ‘Mirror finish’. Rumbling This is achieved by vibrating the pump components with abrasive particulate such as stones and steel balls. Polishing using mops and compound to obtain a mirror polished effect.e. It typically involves: • • Fine grinding using felt and compound.

5 (20 Ra) < 1. The surface roughness can alternatively be specified by a Grit value.3 (250 Ra) < 0.6 (64 Ra) £ 3.8 Ra Electropolishing 0. rotorcase. The approximate connection between the Ra value and the Grit value is as follows: Ra = 0. 5. For Alfa Laval Stainless Steel Rotary Lobe Pumps the surface roughness on product wetted parts such as rotors.6 µm (64 Ra) » 100 Grit.6 (64 Ra) < 3.2a Surface roughness For Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps see table below: Pump surfaces Standard surface roughness Ra (mm) by Rumbling method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by Mechanical (Hand) method Optional surface roughness (3A finish) Ra (mm) by shot blasting (Hand or Electropolished) < 0. Fig.2 (125 Ra) £ 6.8 µm (32 Ra) » 150 Grit (3A standard). Ra = 1.6 (64 Ra) £ 3.8 Ra.2a < 1.3 (250 Ra) Alfa Laval Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps supplied in the USA have all product wetted surfaces and external exposed surfaces to 0.3 (250 Ra) Product wetted surfaces External exposed surfaces Cast surfaces Other surfaces Table 5.2 (125 Ra) £ 6. Ra is measured in micron (µm).6 (64 Ra) < 1.8 Ra Mechanical (Hand) 0.2 (125 Ra) £ 6.8 (32 Ra) < 1. rotor nuts and rotorcase covers is as follows: ‘Standard’ 0.5 Ra 64 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . The Grit value specifies the grain size of the coating of the grinding tool used.Pump Materials of Construction Surface Roughness The most commonly used surface roughness measurement is Ra and is defined as ‘the arithmetic mean of the absolute value of the departure of the profile from the mean line’.

• Temperature range . • Used as static or dynamic seals. acid and alcohol’s being pumped hot.g.minus 20°C min to 200°C max.minus 40°C min to 100°C max. A selection guide is shown in section 14. • Temperature range . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 65 . • Used as static or dynamic seals. lye. temperature. steam. NBR (Nitrile) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). • Resistant to most chemicals and ozone. e.g. oil and grease. • Temperature range . • Sufficiently resistant to diluted lye and diluted nitric acid. • Resistant to most products used within the food industry. Various elastomer types are specified below. (minus 40oF to 302oF max. • Often used when other rubber qualities are unsuitable. FPM (Fluorinated rubber) . EPDM (Ethylene Propylene) • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type). • Resistant to most hydrocarbons. (minus 4oF to 392oF max. • Is attacked by ozone. It is difficult to predict the lifetime of elastomers as they will be affected by many factors. (minus 40oF to 212oF max.3 Elastomers Alfa Laval pump ranges incorporate elastomers of different material and characteristics dependent upon application within the pump and the fluid being pumped.10. mechanical wear etc. chemical attack.Pump Materials of Construction 5.alternatively known as Vitonâ • Available as O-rings or Quad-rings (depending on pump type).minus 40°C min to 150°C max. • Used as static or dynamic seals.).). • Not resistant to organic and non-organic oils and fats. e.). • Not suitable for fluids such as water. • Resistant to ozone and radiation.

• Resistant to almost all products.). • Not resistant to steam. • Not elastic. alcohol’s.). • Elastic. • Resistant to almost all products. • Temperature range . • Temperature range – minus 20°C min to 250°C max. 66 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Resistant to ozone. MVQ (Silicone) • Used as static or dynamic seals.minus 50°C min to 230°C max. glycol’s and most products used within food industry. • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Suitable for temperatures up to approx. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to almost all products.). 200°C (392oF). Chemraz® (Perfluroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. • Resistant to ozone. Kalrez® (Perfluoroelastomer) • Used as static or dynamic seals. • More elastic than PTFE covered EPDM. (minus 58oF to 446oF max. • Used as static or dynamic seals. (minus 4°F to 482°F max.Pump Materials of Construction PTFE (Polytetrafluoro Ethylene) • Can be used as “cover” for O-ring seals of EPDM (i. • Temperature range – minus 30°C min to 250°C max. • Resistant to ozone. • Resistant to almost all products. (minus 22oF to 392oF max. (minus 22°F to 482°F max. FEP (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene) • FEP covered (vulcanised) FPM or MVQ O-rings.). tendency to compression set. mineral oils. • Temperature range .minus 30°C min to 200°C max. inorganic acids.e. or most organic solvents. • Elastic. encapsulated).

Double ‘back to back’ with the inboard seal externally mounted for flush. that are available to the pump manufacturer. together with various operating parameters. “A Pump is only as good as it’s shaft seal” A successful pump application largely depends upon the selection and application of suitable fluid sealing devices. Single internally mounted.3). Single externally mounted. This section covers the shaft sealing devices used on Alfa Laval Centrifugal. Both with and without lantern rings for flush. both mechanical and packed gland. • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 67 . Single internally mounted for product recirculation or external flush. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe Pumps. A general seal selection guide is included. the same can be said of fluid sealing devices.2). other proprietary seals not detailed in this section. Shaft sealing devices used in Alfa Laval Centrifugal. Just as we know that there is no single pump that can embrace the diverse range of fluids and applications whilst meeting individual market requirements and legislations. such as ‘o’ rings and lip seals can be found on the pumphead and gearcase. Single externally mounted for external flush.Pump sealing 6. In addition to shaft seals. Packed Glands (see 6. Pump Sealing This section describes the principle of pump sealing and illustrates the different sealing arrangements used on Alfa Laval pump ranges. This is clearly illustrated by the large range of shaft seal arrangements. Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pumps include: • Mechanical Seals (see 6.

such as Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps. The majority of proprietary mechanical seals available from seal manufacturers have been designed for single shaft pump concepts. single and single flushed seals are most frequently specified. The application of double mechanical seals is increasing to meet both process demands for higher sanitary standards and legislation requirements. 68 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . resulting in the pressure gradient being reversed. the maximum diameter of the seal must be less than the shaft centres. The exceptions will be single internally mounted or double seals where the product recirculation (single internally mounted only) or flush pressure is greater than the pump pressure. Mechanical seals meet the majority of application demands and of these. Generally all shaft seals are under pressure with the pressure gradient across the seal being from pumped fluid to atmosphere.because shafts on a rotary lobe pump are in the same plane. If this were extended. This is not done to take any commercial advantage but it is as a consequence of the rotary lobe pump design concept. However on Rotary Lobe type pumps the need to minimise the shaft extension beyond the front bearing places significant axial constraints. the shaft diameter would increase introducing a radial constraint . particularly those related to emissions. Most designs therefore can only accommodate ‘bespoke’ or ‘customised’ seal design. These pump types do not impose any radial or axial constraints on seal design.Pump sealing Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps only have one shaft seal whereas Rotary Lobe pumps employ a minimum of two shaft seals (one per shaft).

Pump sealing

There is often more than one solution and sometimes no ideal solution, therefore a compromise may have to be considered.

Selection of shaft seals is influenced by many variables: • • Shaft diameter and speed Fluid to be pumped Temperature Viscosity

-

Fluid behaviour

Solids

-

Thermal stability Air reacting • Pressure

effect on materials? can interface film be maintained? drag on seal faces? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? stiction at seal faces? does product shear, thin, thicken or ‘work’ - balling/carbonise? can interface film be established and maintained? size? abrasiveness? density? clogging of seal restricting movement? can interface film be established and maintained? what, if any change? what, if any change? within seal limits? fluctuations? peaks/spikes? cavitation? flush? pressure? temperature? continuity? toxic? flammable? explosive? corrosive? irritant? carcinogenic?

Services

Health and Safety

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 69

Pump sealing

6.1 Mechanical Seals - General
Mechanical seals are designed for minimal leakage and represent the majority of Centrifugal, Liquid Ring and Rotary Lobe pump sealing arrangements. Mechanical seal selection must consider: • • • The materials of seal construction, particularly the sealing faces and elastomers. The mounting attitude to provide the most favourable environment for the seal. The geometry within which it is to be mounted.

A mechanical seal typically comprises of: • • • • A primary seal, comprising of stationary and rotary seal rings. Two secondary seals, one for each of the stationary and rotary seal rings. A method of preventing the stationary seal ring from rotating. A method of keeping the stationary and rotary seal rings together when they are not hydraulically loaded i.e. when pump is stopped. A method of fixing and maintaining the working length.

The Primary Seal Comprises of two flat faces, one rotating and one stationary, which support a fluid film, thus minimising heat generation and subsequent mechanical damage. Commonly used material combinations are: Carbon Carbon Carbon Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide

70 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump sealing

The Secondary Seal This is required to provide a seal between the primary seal rings and the components with which they interface. Also it can provide a cushion mounting for the seat ring to reduce any effects of mechanical stress i.e. shock loads. Types of secondary seal are: • ‘O’ rings • Cups • Gaskets • Wedges For Alfa Laval pump ranges the ‘O’ ring is the most commonly type of secondary seal used. It’s simple and versatile concept is enhanced with the following comprehensive material options: • NBR • EPDM • FPM • PTFE • MVQ • FEP • Kalrez® • Chemraz® These are fully described in section 5.3. Mechanical Seal Face/’O’ Ring Material Availability
Rotary Seal Face
Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide

Stationary Seal Face
Tungsten Carbide Stainless Steel Silicon Carbide

Seal ‘O’Ring

Pump Type

Pump Range
Carbon

Carbon

EPDM

PTFE

MVQ

FPM

NBR

Centrifugal/ Liquid ring

LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP-High Pressure LKHSP LKHI LKH-Ultra Pure MR SRU SX (see note)

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü

ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

ü ü ü ü ü

Rotary Lobe

Note: SX1 pump has tungsten carbide seal faces, not silicon carbide seal faces. Table 6.1a

Stationary Seal Ring Anti-Rotation Ideally the selected device listed below will also allow for axial resilience. • Flats • Pins • Elastomer resilience • Press fit • Clamps Rotary Seal Ring Drive Ideally the selected device listed below will allow for a degree of axial movement. • Spring • Bellows • Physical positioning • Elastomer resilience

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 71

FEP

Pump sealing

One of the main causes of seal failure is for the seal working length not being correctly maintained.
Fig. 6.1a Typical single mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps

Working Length The ideal design should eliminate/minimise possibilities for error by incorporating: • Physical position i.e. step on shaft • Grub screws
7

Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Working length

Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Grub screw

Fig. 6.1b Typical single mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps
Drive ring

2 3

Impeller

4

Item 1 2 3 4 5

Pump shaft

5

1

Description Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Spring Stationary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring O-ring

Interface film

Aprox. 1 mm Fig. 6.1c Principle of mechanical seal operation

Principle of Mechanical Seal Operation The function of the assembly is a combination of the extreme primary seal face flatness and applied spring force. Once the pump is operational, hydraulic fluid forces combine with seal design features i.e. balance, which push the seal faces together. This reduces the fluid interface thickness to a minimum whilst increasing pressure drop, therefore minimising pumped fluid leakage.

72 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump sealing

Fig. 6.1d Principle of mechanical seal operation

Spring force Fluid pressure Stationary seal ring Rotating seal ring

The gap between the seal ring surfaces is enlarged to clarify the principle of mechanical sealing. Mechanical Seal Mounting Most mechanical seals can be mounted externally or internally. External Mechanical Seals The majority of mechanical seals used on Alfa Laval pump ranges are mounted externally, meaning that all the rotating parts of the mechanical seal (i.e. part of the rotary seal ring, spring, drive ring etc) are not in contact with the fluid to be pumped. The externally mounted mechanical seal is considered easy to clean, as only the inside of the stationary and rotary seal rings and there associated ‘o’ rings are in contact with the fluid being pumped. The R00 type mechanical seals used on the SX rotary lobe pump range, described in 6.2, are an exception to this, as it is the outside and not the inside of the seal components that is in contact with the fluid being pumped. Externally mounted seals have a lower pressure rating than the equivalent seal mounted internally.
Fig. 6.1e Typical external shaft seal

Rotating parts

Fluid

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 73

This seal arrangement is generally used for fluids that do not solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere and other non-hazardous duties. which may cause excessive seal leakage. Also the pump must not be allowed to run ‘dry’. • Alcohol • Animal Fat • Aviation Fuel • Beer • Dairy Creams • Fish Oil • Fruit Juice • Liquid Egg • Milk • Shampoo • Solvents • Vegetable Oil • Water • Yoghurt 74 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1f Typical internal shaft seal Rotating parts Fluid For the Alfa Laval pump ranges. 6.Pump sealing Internal Mechanical Seals Some mechanical seals are mounted internally. which has already been described previously in this section. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. Typical applications are listed below. The internal mechanical seal is designed with sufficient clearance around the rotating parts so that it can be cleaned as efficiently as possible and can withstand relatively high fluid pressures. The typical single. thus avoiding damage to the seal faces. meaning that most of the rotating parts are in contact with the fluid being pumped. both the externally and internally mounted types of mechanical seal are available as single and single flushed versions. The externally mounted mechanical seal on Alfa Laval pump ranges is also available as a double flushed mechanical seal for some pump models. For satisfactory operation it is imperative the seal is not subjected to pressures exceeding the maximum rated pressure of the pump. Fig. single flushed and double flushed mechanical seal arrangements are described as follows: Single Mechanical Seal This is the simplest shaft seal version.

with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes and a lip seal. For the majority of pump models the flushed seal comprises of the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal. This seal arrangement is generally used for any of the following conditions: • where the fluid being pumped can coagulate. Fig. 0. sometimes referred to as quench.1g Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Spacer O-ring Spacer Gasket Seal housing Lip seal Grub screw 12 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 75 . fire. Consideration should be given to any temperature limitations that may apply to the flushing liquid to ensure that hazards are not created (i. etc). This most basic flush system. • This seal arrangement used on externally mounted seals requires the supply of liquid to the atmospheric side of the mechanical seal to flush the seal area. provides liquid to the atmosphere side of the mechanical seal thereby flushing away any product leakage. The flushing liquid is allowed to enter the seal housing at low pressure i. The characteristics of the fluid being pumped and the duty conditions will normally determine if a flush is necessary. when cooling of the seals is necessary dependent upon the fluid pumping temperature. When selecting a flushing liquid you must ensure that it is chemically compatible with the relevant materials of pump/seal construction and fully compatible with the fluid being pumped.e.Pump sealing Single Flushed Mechanical Seal The definition of ‘flush’ is to provide a liquid barrier or support to the selected seal arrangement. solidify or crystallise when in contact with the atmosphere. 6.e.5 bar max (7 psi max) to act as a barrier. explosion.

This results in the interface film being the flushing liquid and not the pumped liquid. Special attention is required in selecting seal faces and elastomers.Pump sealing Fig. and the seal employed for the flushing liquid is referred to as the ‘outboard seal’.1i Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in rotary lobe pumps 14 Rotorcase Gearcase Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Description Stationary seal ring O-ring Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Rotary seal ring O-ring Wave spring Drive ring Wave spring Rotary seal ring O-ring Rotary seal ring Stationary seal ring Gasket Stationary seal ring O-ring Seal housing Grub screw 76 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Adhesive • Caramel • Detergent • Fruit Juice Concentrate • Gelatine • Jam • Latex • Paint • Sugar Syrup • Toothpaste • Yeast Double Flushed Mechanical Seal This seal arrangement is generally used with hostile media conditions i.e. 6. with the addition of a seal housing having a flushing connection and/or flushing tubes (dependent upon pump type). fluid is hazardous or toxic. The arrangement in contact with the pumped fluid is referred to as the ‘inboard seal’. 6. The double flushed seal used on Alfa Laval pump ranges is basically two single mechanical seals mounted ‘back to back’. A compatible flushing liquid is pressurised into the seal housing at a pressure of 1 bar (14 psi) minimum above the discharge pressure of the pump. This seal generally comprises of the same stationary and rotating parts as the single seal for the majority of pump models. high viscosity.1h Typical externally mounted single flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 Description Seal housing Lip seal Flushing tubes Typical applications are listed below. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. For Alfa Laval Centrifugal pumps the design of the outboard seal differs to the inboard seal. Fig.

Pump sealing Fig. which should be noted when selecting a mechanical seal. but full product/fluid and performance data must be referred to the seal supplier for verification. Table 6.1j Typical double flushed mechanical seal used in centrifugal pumps Item 1 2 3 4 Description Seal housing Flushing tubes Stationary seal ring Rotary seal ring Typical applications are listed below. • Abrasive Slurries • Chocolate • Glucose • Hazardous Chemicals • PVC Paste • Photographic Emulsion • Resin General Seal Face Operating Parameters Tables below show general parameters regarding viscosity and temperature.1b Viscosity up to 4999 cP Seal Face Combination Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Solid Carbon v Silicon Carbide Solid Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Consider Double Seals up to 24999 cP up to 149999 cP above 150000 cP Table 6. 6.1c Temperature up to 150°C (302 F) o Seal Face Combination Inserted Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide Silicon Carbide v Silicon Carbide Tungsten Carbide v Tungsten Carbide Solid Carbon v Stainless Steel Inserted Carbon v Silicon Carbide Inserted Carbon v Tungsten Carbide up to 200°C (392oF) Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 77 .

1k Typical flushing pipework layout for a rotary lobe pump *Pressure gauge *Control valve Pressure gauge Control valve Suggested visible indication of flow * Double mechanical seal only Flush inlet Check valve Isolation valve Flush outlet to waste Fig. Usually water is used for cooling and any water soluble products.Pump sealing Flushing Pipework Layout The suggested arrangement below is for single mechanical seals only. 6. If the pump is fitted with double mechanical seals or packed glands the pressure gauges and control valves should be fitted on the outlet side of the system. The choice of flushing liquid is dependent upon compatibility with the pumping media and overall duty conditions i. 6. pressure and temperature. Fig.e.1l Typical flushing pipework layout for a centrifugal pump Free outlet Inlet 78 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Fig.1b). .Pump sealing Mechanical Seal Selection Process The illustration below describes the mechanical seal selection process with relevant questions to be answered. .Check viscosity limitations (see table 6.1c).Check elastomer compatibility (see guide in section 14. . 6. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 79 . as actual seal selections should be verified by the seal suppliers.Check temperature limitations.Check temperature limitations (see table 6.Is fluid abrasive? . Select Seal Type - Does fluid crystallise? Is cooling required? Will pump run dry? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Single Flushed Seal No - Is fluid hazardous? Is fluid abrasive? Is fluid viscosity high? Is temperature high? Is aseptic barrier required? Yes Use Double Flushed Seal No Use Single Seal Select Seal Materials Select Seal Faces Select Elastomers .Check chemical compatibility.10).1m Seal selection process Obtain all Product/Fluid and Performance data This should be used for guidance purposes only. .

2b Mechanical Seal Type Seal Name Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Single externally mounted R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R00 Hyclean R90 R90 R00 Single flushed externally mounted Single flushed internally mounted Double flushed R90 Type Mechanical Seals The basic working principles of the R90 type mechanical seals have previously been referred to in 6. Hyclean Type Mechanical Seals This seal arrangement is generally used for food and other hygienic applications. The design of this seal incorporates a self-cleaning feature.1.2a ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü External Mounting Single Flushed ü Double Flushed ü ü ü ü ü Internal Mounting Single Single Flushed Seal Option Availability for Rotary Lobe Pumps Table 6.2 Mechanical Seal Types in Alfa Laval Pump Ranges Seal Option Availability for Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps Pump Range Single LKH LKH-Multistage LKHP LKHSP LKHI LKH-UltraPure MR-166S.Pump sealing 6. 80 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . -200S MR-300 Table 6.

Specialised seal setting of the mechanical seal is not required as the seal is dimensionally set on assembly. All seals have controlled compression joint elastomers at fluid/atmosphere interfaces. 6.2c R00 single mechanical seal R00 Type Mechanical Seals The R00 type mechanical seals specifically designed for the SX rotary lobe pump range are fully front loading seals and fully interchangeable without the need for additional housings or pump component changes. 6.2a Hyclean single mechanical seal 7 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Description Rotorcase O-ring Wave Spring Shaft O-ring Stationary Seal Ring Rotary Seal Ring Washer Clip Front cover compression joint Cup seal Spline sealing cup seal Squad ring Fig.2b SX pumphead sealing Fig. Seal faces positioned in the fluid area minimise shear forces.Pump sealing Fig. 1 2 3 4 5 Item 1 2 3 4 5 Description Wave Spring Squad Ring Rotary Seal Ring Cup Seal Stationary Seal Ring Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 81 . 6.

if fitted. and easy to maintain controlled leakage sealing arrangement. When packed glands are specified.Pump sealing 6. Packed Gland The grade of packing used depends on the product being handled and operating conditions. These are specified for many ‘dirty’ applications. as they are less hygienic than mechanical seals. or at least inhibit. Provided the liquid being sealed contains no abrasive particles or does not crystallise.3a Packed gland Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models. In the case of liquids which coagulate. Pumps provided with a packed gland seal are normally fitted with rubber slingers mounted between the gland followers and the gearcase front lip seals. The slingers will reduce the possibility of the product contacting the gearcase lip seals. 6. Packed Gland with Lantern Ring With fluids containing very abrasive particles or fluids that will coagulate. solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere the flushing liquid acts as a dilutant and barrier in the gland area preventing the pumped fluid from coming in contact with the atmosphere. the entry of abrasives into the very small clearances between the shaft and packing. which may be easily replaced when worn. When correctly assembled and adjusted.3 Other Sealing Options (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) This is a simple. the pumps should be fitted with hard coated shaft sleeves. 82 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . a packed gland with lantern ring may be used. thereby overcoming any undesirable operating conditions that could arise in this area. 9 Fig. In such circumstances a compatible liquid is supplied to the chamber formed by the lantern ring at a pressure of at least 1 bar (14 psi) above the pump pressure. In instances of moderately abrasive fluids. low cost. such as brine solutions being handled. The function of this liquid is to prevent. solidify or crystallise in contact with the atmosphere. should always be avoided for sanitary duties. a slight loss of product should occur so as to lubricate the packing and shaft or sleeve. gland packings will function satisfactorily on plain stainless steel shafts or renewable stainless steel shaft sleeves. using polyamide or PTFE packings will satisfy the majority of duties. but when possible.

6.3b Packed gland with lantern ring 10 Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Description Shaft sleeve O-ring Shaft sleeve Spacer Packing rings Lantern ring Gasket Gland housing Gland follower Ring slinger Grub screw This seal arrangement is available on all SRU pump models.Pump sealing A disadvantage with this seal arrangement is that the flushing liquid will pass into the product causing a relatively small degree of dilution/ contamination. Fig. which cannot always be accepted. In common with all packed gland assemblies slight leakage must occur but in this instance it will basically be a loss of flushing liquid as opposed to product being pumped. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 83 .

Pump sealing 84 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

• Viscosity. If electric . diesel. • Is product hazardous or toxic? • Does fluid crystallise in contact with atmosphere? • Is CIP required? Performance Data • Capacity (Flow rate). • Seal flushing fluid. In an ideal situation all the above criteria should be known before sizing a pump . • Vapour pressure. • Fluid behaviour (i. as they could be critical to satisfactory installation and operation. • Solids content (max. in many instances not all of this information is known and made available. size and concentration). Newtonian or Pseudoplastic etc.1 General Information Required In order to correctly size any type of pump some essential information is required as follows: See section 2 for detailed descriptions of Product/Fluid data and Performance data. 7. supported by relevant calculations and worked examples with a simple step by step approach. • Suction condition (flooded or suction lift).Pump Sizing 7. air. In such cases to complete the sizing process. Site Services Data • Power source (electric.however.). • Pumping temperature. • Discharge head/pressure. petrol or hydraulic). Product/Fluid Data • Fluid to be pumped. Pump Sizing This section shows how to size an Alfa Laval pump from product/ fluid and performance data given. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 85 . some assumptions may need to be made based upon application knowledge. experience etc.motor enclosure and electrical supply.e. • SG/Density. These should be subsequently confirmed.

1 Hydraulic Power The theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head is known as hydraulic power. i.e. The rate of energy input needed is defined as power and is expressed in watts (W) . watts x 10³.2. hydraulic horse power or water horse power.2 Power All of the system energy requirements and the energy losses in the pump must be supplied by a prime mover in the form of mechanical energy. power within this handbook is expressed in kilowatts (kW). 7.for practical purposes.Pump Sizing 7. This can be calculated as follows: Hydraulic Power (W) = Q x H x r x g where: Q H r g = = = = capacity (m3/s) total head/pressure (m) fluid density (kg/m³) acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Other forms of this equation can be as follows: Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity H = total head/pressure k = constant (dependent upon units used) Therefore Hydraulic Power (kW) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head/pressure (bar) k = 600 86 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

2. 7. pressure loss.Pump Sizing or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1715 or Hydraulic Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head/pressure (psi) k = 1428 7.2.2 Required Power r = radius The required power or brake horsepower is the power needed at the pump shaft.0) V= velocity Fig. This is always higher than the hydraulic power due to energy losses in the pump mechanism (friction loss. Generally this will be the nearest prime mover rated output power above the required power. seals etc) and is derived from: Required Power = wxT where: w = shaft angular velocity T = Shaft Torque Shaft angular velocity w = V x r And is related to Hydraulic power by: Required Power = Hydraulic Power Efficiency (100% = 1.2a Shaft angular viscosity The appropriate prime mover power must be selected. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 87 .

7.2. Mechanical Efficiency (hm ) and Volumetric Efficiency (hv ) which are described below: Hydraulic Efficiency The term hydraulic efficiency is used on centrifugal and liquid ring type pumps to describe one of the three elements of centrifugal and liquid ring pump total efficiency as described above. This is particularly important for variable speed drives which should be selected initially on torque rather than power.4 Efficiency Total Efficiency Total efficiency is typically used on centrifugal and liquid ring pumps to describe the relationship between input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. 88 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Kgfm (Kilogram metres) or ftlb (foot pounds).3 Torque Torque is defined as the moment of force required to produce rotation and is usually expressed in units of Nm (Newton metres). 7. Hydraulic Efficiency (hh).Pump Sizing The power requirements for mechanical devices such as pumps and pump drives are best expressed in terms of torque and speed. The term ‘mechanical efficiency’ can also be used to describe this ratio. friction loss in the impeller blade and circulation loss at the outlet side of the impeller blades.2. where Hydraulic Efficiency (hh)= Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m) The pump head losses comprise of the shock loss at the eye of the impeller. Torque can be calculated as follows: Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) It should be noted that rotary lobe pumps are basically constant torque machines and therefore it is important that the transmission chosen is capable of transmitting the torque required by the pump. designated by symbol h. comprises of three elements. Total efficiency.

Q L = Fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances. Volumetric Efficiency (hv) = Q x 100% Q + QL where: Q = Pump capacity. where accurate geometric data is available. For rotary lobe pumps. Volumetric Efficiency (hv) = Q x 100% q where: Q = Pump capacity. liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types. and is typically used to describe the losses associated with the transfer of energy from the prime mover through a mechanical system to the pumped liquid. It is most commonly used to compare the performance of a number of pump types. seals and other contacting areas within the pump. The displacement calculation (q) per revolution for rotary lobe pumps involves calculating the volume of the void formed between the rotating element and the fixed element of the pump. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 89 .Pump Sizing Mechanical Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal. Volumetric Efficiency This term is used on all centrifugal. q = Pump displacement. For centrifugal and liquid ring pumps. liquid ring and rotary lobe pump types. This is then multiplied by the number of voids formed by a rotating element per revolution of the pump’s drive shaft and by the number of rotors in the pump. where Mechanical Efficiency (hm ) = 1 – Pump mechanical losses x 100% Required power Pump mechanical losses refers to the friction losses associated with bearings. For rotary lobe pumps the term volumetric efficiency (hv) is used to compare the displacement of the pump against the capacity of the pump.

Pump Efficiency hp = Water horse power x 100% Required power or Pump Efficiency hp = QxHxrxg wxT where: Q H r g w T = capacity (m³/s) = total head/pressure (m) = fluid density (kg/m³) = acceleration due to gravity (m/s²) = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) = shaft torque (Nm) 90 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (US gall/min) = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) = vol. volumetric efficiency can be as high as 95 .99%. n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (m³/h) = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) = vol.0) Pump Efficiency The term pump efficiency is used on all types of pumps to describe the ratio of power supply to the drive shaft against water horsepower. At lower viscosities and/or higher pressures the volumetric efficiency will decrease due to slip as described in 8. efficiency (100% = 1. efficiency (100% = 1. Above 1000 cP.Pump Sizing Rotary lobe pumps are generally highly efficient and even at viscosity of 100 cP the volumetric efficiency of most pumps is approximately 90% for low pressure duties. to select a pump speed the following formulas can be used as a general guide.6. For these high viscosity duties. efficiency (100% = 1.1.0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where n Q q hv = pump speed (rev/min) = capacity (UK gall/min) = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) = vol.

Pump Sizing Overall Efficiency Overall efficiency is a term used to describe and compare the performance of all types of pump. Overall Efficiency hoa = Water horse power x 100% Drive power Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 91 . Overall efficiency considers the efficiency of both the prime mover and the pump. and is sometimes known as the wire to water/liquid efficiency where the prime mover is an electric motor.

which decreases at a higher capacity (see fig. Fig.1a Hydraulic losses The connection between the capacity and actual head is consequently specified by means of a curve which varies depending on the design of the impeller. A pump flow curve specifies the connection between capacity Q. Most pump flow curves are based on tests with water. These fulfil different requirements and are well suited for flow control where only one parameter is to be changed (see 7.1b Curves for Q and H 92 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .b).2). pressure loss and slip. required power P.3 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps In general the theory regarding sizing of centrifugal and liquid ring pumps is similar. Curve 1 covers a wide range of heads without large changes to capacity.1a). 7.3. Fig. which are friction loss.3.3. Hydraulic Losses The connection between the capacity and the theoretical head of the pump is shown by means of a straight line. Curve 3 covers a wide range of capacities without large changes to head. 7.Pump Sizing 7.3. 7. The actual head of a pump is.3. It is difficult to determine general curves for fluids with viscosities different from water and therefore in these instances it is recommended to use a pump selection program. 7. however.1 Flow Curve A centrifugal or liquid ring pump should always be sized from a pump flow curve or a pump selection program.1. Different Pump Characteristics The capacity Q and head H curve of a centrifugal pump will vary depending upon the impeller vane design (see fig. head H. 7. required NPSH and efficiency h.3. lower than the theoretical head due to hydraulic losses in the pump.

1d).3. H and h Density Effect Fluid density will affect the head and required power which both increase proportionally at higher density (see fig.3. Fig. 7. The efficiency is usually highest near the centre of the curve. H. This should be used to assertain the NPSHr of the pump.3. 7.1d NPSHr curve Viscosity Effect Fluid viscosity will affect capacity. It is important that NPSHr of the pump exceeds the NPSHa of the system.1c Curves for Q. 7.3.1f Effects on Q. Fig.1e). The power curve of the liquid ring pump decreases at a higher capacity. Power P and Efficiency h In principle the duty point of a pump can be situated at any point on the Q-H curve. 7. 7. head and efficiency will decrease at higher viscosities. efficiency and power (see fig. • Required power will increase at higher viscosities.3.1f). Fig. head. Head H. The efficiency of the pump will vary depending on where the duty point is situated on the Q-H curve. • Capacity. NPSHr Curve The NPSHr curve increases at higher capacity (see fig.1e Effects on Q. H and h Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 93 . Fig. 7.Pump Sizing Curves for Capacity Q.3. 7. P and h The power curve of the centrifugal pump increases at a higher capacity.3.

H and Q . 25 m.NPSHr curve). This is not applicable to the LKH-Multistage pump and Liquid Ring pumps as the impeller diameters cannot be reduced. The Q . Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total head Electrical supply - Water. 1 cP.P curves are specified for different standard impeller diameters so that a correct duty point can be determined. 50Hz.2 when the duty point is known. 94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • Required power as a function of capacity (Q . • Required NPSH as a function of capacity (Q . 25 m). It is recommended to select the pump by means of a pump selection program if the fluid to be pumped has other physical properties. 15 m³/h.Pump Sizing How to use the Flow Curve The flow curve consists of three different curves: • Head as a function of capacity (Q .P curve). 220/380v. 1.H curve). Although illustrated here the efficiency is not shown on the published flow curves but can be determined from the required power on the flow curve and formula in 7. The optimum is to select the smallest pump possible which is suitable for the required duty point (15 m³/h.0 20°C. The curves on the flow curve are based on tests with water at 20°C (68oF) with tolerances of + 5%.

thus satisfactory. in this case 150 mm.Look at Q .Pump Sizing Step 1 . • Start from this point and follow the vertical line upwards until it intersects with the horizontal line indicating the required head (25 m) on the H-scale.1g Example 28 Step 2 . Therefore. 7. For this particular example a flow curve of a centrifugal pump type LKH-10 with 3000 rev/min synchronous speed at 50Hz is selected. • The selected head (28 m) should be checked regarding the lower tolerance of the curve to ensure that it is at least the required 25 m. the nearest larger size impeller diameter should be selected. • In this case the head should be reduced by 5% being the curve tolerance.6 m greater than 25 m. Fig. • This duty point does not contact any curve corresponding to a certain impeller diameter.H curve • Locate the capacity (15 m³/h) on the Q-scale.3. • The head will then be a minimum of 26.Find Appropriate Curve Locate a flow curve for the required pump type that covers the duty point. • The head will then be 28 m. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 95 .

Process curve . filters etc. Capacity: Pressure drop: Q1 DH1 Q2 DH2 Q3 DH3 Q4 DH4 Q5 DH5 Q6 DH6 The duty point of a pump can change due to changes in the conditions of the process plant (changes in head.).this specifies the connection between the total pressure drop (DH) in the process plant and the capacity (Q) (see fig.2a). The pump will automatically regulate the capacity to meet the new conditions (see fig.P curve • The next step in selecting the pump is to follow the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) downwards until it intersects with the power curve for the 150 mm impeller.Pump Sizing Step 3 . Step 4 .8 m. 7.3.2 Flow Control Duty Point The duty point of a pump is the intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve.Look at Q .2 kW motor can be used. Fig. • The intersection corresponding to the 150 mm impeller is located.1). • For a LKH centrifugal pump a safety factor of 5% for motor losses must be added.3.3.2c). The shape of the process curve will depend on the process design (i.e.). valves.NPSHr curve • Finally the vertical capacity line (15 m³/h) is followed up to the NPSHr curve.3. 7. 7. Pump curve .3.1 kW. • Consequently a 2.Look at Q .2a Process curve 96 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . layout.3. 0. 7. The process curve is determined by varying the capacity so that different pressure drop (DH) values are obtained.2b and 7. • A horizontal line to the left of the intersection indicates a required power of 2. • A horizontal line to the right of the intersection indicates that NPSHr is approx. pressure drops etc.this specifies the connection between head H and capacity Q (see 7.0 kW. resulting in a total required power of 2.

7. 7. Before reducing. • Controlling the pump speed. This will reduce the capacity and the head. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 97 .3.2c Changes in required head It is possible to compensate for the change of duty point by means of flow control that can be achieved as follows: • Reducing the impeller diameter (not for liquid ring pumps). After reducing .2d Reducing impeller diameter 1.3.Pump Sizing Fig. Centrifugal Pump The connection between impeller diameter (D).3.the duty point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller diameter.2b Changes in pressure drop Fig. 7. Reducing Impeller Diameter Reducing the impeller diameter can only be carried out for centrifugal pumps and multi-stage centrifugal pumps. 7.3.2d: Fig. • Throttling the discharge line. 2. capacity (Q) and head (H) is shown in fig. Due to flow control it is possible to achieve optimum pump efficiency at the required capacity resulting in the most economical pump installation.

Consequently the exact duty point will be between the curves of two pump sizes. The connection between impeller diameter (D). the pump efficiency will decrease.2e Reducing impeller diameter 98 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . which is situated at the pump outlet (nearest to the back plate).Pump Sizing If the impeller speed remains unchanged. c b Fig. capacity (Q). 7. the connection between impeller diameter (D).3. head (H) and required power (P) is shown by the following formulas: Diameter/capacity: Q1 Q2 = D13 D 3 2 Þ D2 = D1 x Ö Q [mm] 3 Q2 1 Diameter/head: H1 H2 = D12 D 2 2 Þ D2 = D1 x ÖH 5 H2 1 [mm] Diameter/power: P1 P2 = D15 D25 Þ D2 = D1 x Ö H [mm] H2 1 Most pump flow curves show characteristics for different impeller diameters to enable the correct impeller diameter to be selected. If the reduction in impeller diameter exceeds 20%.2e. 7. head (H) and type of pump is shown in fig. capacity (Q). The total head can be adjusted by reducing the diameter of the back impeller.3. Multi-stage Centrifugal Pump This pump has several impellers depending upon pump type. Reducing the impeller diameter by up to 20% will not affect the efficiency of the pump.

duty point. The working point moves towards point 2 when reducing the impeller speed.2f Throttling discharge line Throttling should not be carried out in the suction line as cavitation can occur.3.2g Controlling pump speed Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 99 . The impeller diameter is reduced to D2 by means of the following formula: D2 = D1 x Ö a-b [mm] c-b Where: D1 = Standard diameter before reducing.2f. which will increase the head and reduce the capacity.3.Pump Sizing The formula is for guidance purposes only. 1. therefore.2g.3. Also throttling will reduce the efficiency of the process plant DH shows the ‘waste’ of pressure at point 2. After reducing impeller speed. the capacity and the head will also change. duty point. The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when throttling is shown in fig. the duty point moves towards point 2. a = Max. 2. Throttling Discharge Line Throttling the discharge line will increase the resistance in the process plant. Controlling Pump Speed Changing the impeller speed will change the centrifugal force created by the impeller. recommended to add a safety factor of 10-15% to the new diameter. 7. 1. 7. Before throttling. Therefore. After throttling. Fig. 2. 7.3. The connection between capacity (Q) and head (H) when changing the impeller speed is shown in fig. c = Required duty point. Fig. 7. b = Min. It is. Before reducing impeller speed.

Fig. • Half speed results in head x 0. 7.3. • Half speed results in required power x 0.25.125. head (H) and required power (P) is shown by the following formulas: Speed/capacity: Q1 Q2 = n1 n2 Þ n2 = n1 x Q2 Q1 [rev/min] Speed/head: H1 H2 = n12 n 2 2 Þ n2 = n1 x ÖH ÖP 3 H2 1 [rev/min] Speed/power: P1 P2 = n13 n 3 2 Þ n2 = n1 x P2 1 [rev/min] As shown from the above formulas the impeller speed affects capacity. Pump 2 must be able to withstand the outlet head from pump 1. The capacity (Q) will always be constant throughout the pump series. The head can vary depending on the pump sizes.3.Pump Sizing The most common form of speed control is by means of a frequency converter (see 9.5. the connection between impeller speed (n). 7. capacity (Q).3a Principle of connection The outlet of pump 1 is connected to the inlet of pump 2. head and required power as follows: • Half speed results in capacity x 0. 100 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .10). If the impeller dimensions remain unchanged.3 Alternative Pump Installations Pumps Coupled in Series It is possible to increase the head in a pump installation by two or more pumps being coupled in series. Speed control will not affect the efficiency providing changes do not exceed 20%.

3b Head of pumps in series A multi-stage centrifugal pump is in principle several pumps that are coupled in series but built together as one pump unit. 7. 7. the pump with the lowest NPSH value should be installed as the first pump (for critical suction conditions). Otherwise there will be a pressure drop in the smallest pump. The capacity in the pump installation should not exceed the max.3. Fig. The capacity can vary depending on the pump sizes.3. the equipment and pressure drop in the installation must be determined according to the total capacity of the pumps.3c Principle of connection Fig. it is possible to install a non-return valve in the discharge line of pump 1 to avoid pump 2 pumping fluid back through pump 1. The pumps receive the fluid from the same source and have a common discharge line.3. For two different pumps. Fig. 7. Pumps Coupled in Parallel It is possible to increase the capacity in a pump installation by two or more pumps coupled in parallel. 7. capacity of the smallest pump. When the capacity is increased by means of pumps coupled in parallel.3f Connection of two different pump sizes Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 101 .3.3d Connection of two similar pumps Fig.3. Fig. 7.Pump Sizing If two different pumps are connected in series.3e Connection of two different pumps The head (H) will always be constant in the pump installation. If the capacity Q1 is smaller than the capacity Q2.

1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.1a Example 1 As described in 7.4 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (Metric units) 7.4. Performance data and Site Services data. The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel. 102 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 0.Pump Sizing 7.1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process.4.6 bar (pressure vessel) Cooling 21 m O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 80 m Fig. 7.

Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. plus a given number of bends.1b ht = 21 m. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. Before sizing a pump. The theory.4 m head.4.2 and 2. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel. via 80 m of 101.6 mm dia.2. 50 Hz.4.Pump Sizing All the data has been given by the customer. hft = 2 + 5 + 16 m. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 103 . pt = 0. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 0. 1 cP.6 bar.6 bar = 6 m. DpPHE is given as 1.2. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 1. 0. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 21 m. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. Dp is calculated to be 5 m. tube. 90°C. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort. plus a given number of bends and valves.5 = 2 m. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 21 + 23 + 6 m = 50 m (5 bar).6 bar. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14. 7.6 bar = 16 m. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel. Therefore Fig. = 23 m. Suction - 40 m³/h.

not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.4 m.15 bar). Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. NPSHa = 10 + 0. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank.1. ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-25. 63.3.4 – 1 – 7 (m) = 2. Calculated to be 1 m.e.5 m (5. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. 11 kW. Therefore hs = 0.4 m.4 m. 0.4a) = 7 m. 1. 51.4 – 1 + 0 m = – 0. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 50 – (– 0.70 bar a (from table 14.6 m (– 0.1%. 40 m³/h. 104 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .06 bar). however. hfs = calculated to be 1 m. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. viscosity) different from water. 202 mm. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7.6) = 50. 0. For this particular example.6 m » 51 m (5. The performance curves are. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used. ps = 0 (open tank).Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool.4 m. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.1 bar). NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank. 2930 rev/min.

If the required head is the exact value of the process. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. by means of a frequency converter.2.4 m > 1.e. 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase. so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible.Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr).3. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 202 mm. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7. 2.4 m.4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 105 . or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head). Consequently.3.e. i. 7.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained.2. i. there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. The flow control method is more specifically described in 7. no cavitation will occur. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve.e.

1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser.Pump Sizing 7. 5 cP. 7. Performance data and Site Services data.5 bar. plus a given number of bends and valves. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7. 106 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 bar Fig. 0.4. tube. plus a given number of bends.4.1 m head. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 1 bar. All the data has been given by the customer. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 1. Inlet pressure for the separator = 1. 5°C.2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data. Suction - 30 m³/h. via 5 m of horizontal 76 mm dia.

ps = 0 (open tank). hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.2. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. pt = 1.3 m » 27 m (2. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 107 . Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator.7 bar).3) = 27.1 m. Dp is calculated to be 0 m. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.4. The theory.4. hft = 2 + 0 + 10 m.3 m (– 0. Before sizing a pump. DpPHE is given as 1.03 bar).2. hfs = calculated to be 0.4 m.5 = 2 m. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 12 + 15 m = 27 m (2. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.4 + 0 m = – 0.7 bar). ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank).2b ht = 0 m (no static head .1 – 0. 7. = 12 m. Therefore hs = 0.2 and 2. pt = Pressure in Separator. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 27 – (– 0.5 bar = 15 m. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. 50 Hz. Therefore Fig.0 bar = 10 m.only horizontal tube).

i. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. no cavitation will occur. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. 9.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m.4 m. hs = Static suction head in Balance tank. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. 65.7 m. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program.7 m > 1. viscosity) different from water.71 bar).e. For this particular example.1 – 0.4 m.9%. 30 m³/h. the pump performance curves should not be used.1 m.e.e. 0 bar a = 0 m.1 m (2. 27. NPSHa = 10 + 0. 1. 2840 rev/min.4 m. 108 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 4 kW. at temperature of 5oC this is taken as being negligible i. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.4 – 0 (m) = 9. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i. 149 mm.e. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20. 0. Calculated to be 0.

Pump Sizing 7.5. Yeast CIP CO2 CO2 Fermentation CIP CO2 CO2 9 psi (pressure vessel) Cooling 69 ft O2 Wort pump Yeast pitching Whirlpool 262 ft Fig. The pump is required to handle Wort from the Whirlpool to the Fermentation vessel.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 109 .5.1a Example 1 As described in 7.1 Example 1 The following example shows a pump to be sized for a typical brewery process. some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.5 Worked Examples of Centrifugal Pump Sizing (US units) 7. 7. Performance data and Site Services data.

2. plus a given number of bends. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 69 + 75 + 20 ft = 164 ft (71 psi).4. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14. 1 cP. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.5. 7. 110 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . = 75 ft. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 23 psi. 1. Static head in Fermenting vessel = 69 ft. The theory.5 = 6 ft. Dp is calculated to be 16 ft. 176 US gall/min.1b ht = 69 ft.Pump Sizing All the above data has been given by the customer.2 and 2. DpPHE is given as 23 psi = 53 ft. Therefore Fig. pt = 9 psi = 20 ft. 194°F. Before sizing a pump. pt = Pressure in Fermentation vessel. via 262 ft of 4 in dia. plus a given number of bends and valves. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. tube. Suction - Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Wort. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in Fermentation vessel. 60 Hz.2. hft = 6 + 16 + 53 ft. Pressure in Fermenting vessel = 9 psi.5 ft head.

5) = 165. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.2%. however.5 ft.5 – 3 – 23 (ft) = 9.Pump Sizing Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool. hs = Static suction head in Whirlpool tank.9 + 1.1.5 ft. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program.2 ft (72 psi). NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.3. viscosity) different from water. For this particular example. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-20.50 in. 67. Therefore hs = 1. The performance curves are.5 – 3 + 0 m = – 1. ps = 0 (open tank).5 ft.5 ft (– 0. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Whirlpool tank.9 ft. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. NPSHa = 33. 3500 rev/min.4 ft. 166. hfs = calculated to be 3 ft. not suitable if the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.6 psi). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 111 .7 psi (open tank) = 33. 1. 6. In this particular example both the pump performance curves and pump selection program can be used.5 ft » 166 ft (72 psi). Total head H = Ht – Hs = 164 – (– 1. ps = Pressure in Whirlpool (open tank). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 1. 176 US gall/min.4a) = 23 ft. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. 15 hp. 7.e. 10 psia (from table 14. Calculated to be 3 ft.

The flow control method is more specifically described in 7.2.Pump Sizing Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. i.e. it is recommended to select the pump with a larger impeller diameter to ensure the required head is obtained. Cavitation can be avoided by reducing the pump speed (reducing NPSHr).50 in.5 ft. Consequently.e. The pump is sized with a standard impeller diameter if using the performance curve. 112 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 7. no cavitation will occur.4 ft > 7. or by throttling the discharge line (increasing head). 9. It may also be necessary to adjust to the required duty point by means of flow control due to the tolerance. It is important to note that the selected head has a tolerance of ± 5% due to the tolerance of the pump curve. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a double mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers.3. i. In this case it may be necessary to adjust the selected duty point by means of flow control. by means of a frequency converter.5.1c Special Note The discharge head (ht2) is lower when the pump starts filling the fermenting vessel compared to the discharge head (ht1) when the vessel is full. 1: Full vessel 2: Empty vessel ht1 1 2 ht2 Q2 Fig. If the required head is the exact value of the process. Flow control method is more specifically described in 7.3. Adjustment In this example the pump is sized by the pump selection program which results in exact impeller diameter of 6.e. so that the selected duty point is as close to the required duty point as possible. The reduction of the discharge head can result in cavitation and overloading of the motor due to a capacity increase. there is a risk that the pump will generate head which will differ from the selected head.2.

7. Inlet pressure for the separator = 22 psi.3 ft head. Pump ‘A’ is a Raw Milk pump in connection with a pasteuriser. plus a given number of bends and valves. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Raw Milk. plus a given number of bends. Suction - 132 US gall/min.5. CIP Milk out PHE Pump ‘A’ Balance Tank Standardised Milk P = 22 psi Fig. All the data has been given by the customer. valves and a plate heat exchanger with DpPHE 15 psi. 0.5. via 16 ft of horizontal 3 in dia. Performance data and Site Services data. The raw milk is pumped from a Balance tank to a Separator via the preheating stage in the plate heat exchanger. tube. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 113 . some essential information is required such as Product/Fluid data.2 Example 2 The following example shows a centrifugal pump to be sized for a typical dairy process. 5 cP.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump.Pump Sizing 7. 41°F.2a Example 2 Separator As described in 7.

2. 114 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .3 ft. DpPHE is given as 15 psi = 34 ft.4. Therefore hs = 0. 7.3 – 1. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head to Separator. Dp is calculated to be 0 ft. ps = Pressure in Balance tank (open tank).2. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp + Pressure drop in plate heat exchanger DpPHE Dptube from curve shown in 14.3 ft. Before sizing a pump. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 90 – (– 1) = 91 ft (39 psi). Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Balance tank. Therefore Fig. ps = 0 (open tank). The theory. hfs = calculated to be 1.Pump Sizing Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v.5 = 6 ft.5. = 40 ft. hft = 6 + 0 + 34 ft. pt = Pressure in Separator. pt = 22 psi = 50 ft.2 and 2. Ht = ht +hft +pt = 0 + 40 + 50 ft = 90 ft (39 psi). Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 0. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.4 psi). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. 60 Hz.3 + 0 m = – 1 ft (– 0.only horizontal tube). including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.2b ht = 0 ft (no static head .

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 115 .9 ft > 4. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.7%.59 in. 0. no cavitation will occur.e. For this particular example.3 – 1.7 ft. the pump performance curves should not be used. 132 US gall/min. 92 ft (40 psi). hs = Static suction head in Balance tank. viscosity) different from water. and actual pump sizing should be made using the pump selection program.3 ft.7 psi (open tank) = 33. 0 psia = 0 ft.e. 5. 4. at temperature of 41o F this is taken as being negligible i.3 ft. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single mechanical seal with carbon/silicon carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. 32.9 + 0. As the fluid to be pumped has physical properties (i.e. 5. pump sized would be as follows: Pump model Impeller size Speed Capacity Head Efficiency NPSHr Motor size LKH-10. Calculated to be 1.3 – 0 (ft) = 32. 64.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp Where Pa = Pressure absolute above level of fluid in Balance tank.0 hp. NPSHa = 33.9 ft. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14. i. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.7 ft.9 ft.e. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. 3500 rev/min.

1c Pressure effect 116 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .6.e.6.6. 7.6. The direction of slip will be from the high pressure to the low pressure side of the pump i. 7.6. Fig.1 Slip Slip is the fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances. To overcome this amount of slip it will be necessary to increase the pump speed to maintain the capacity required as shown in Fig 7.1b for a given pump speed the amount of slip can be seen as the capacity at ‘zero’ bar less the capacity at ‘X’ bar. In Fig 7. Capacity ‘0’ bar ‘0’ bar Required capacity Capacity at ‘0’ bar Capacity ‘X’ bar Slip ‘X’ bar Actual capacity at ‘X’ bar Speed rev/min Speed increase to maintain capacity Speed rev/min Fig. The size and shape of the rotor will be a factor in determining the amount of slip.1b Pressure effect Fig. Pressure effect The amount of slip will increase as pressure increases which is shown below.6. from pump outlet to pump inlet. 7.1a Slip Slip Inlet Slip Slip Outlet Low pressure High Pressure Clearance effect Increased clearances will result in greater slip.6 Rotary Lobe Pumps 7. The amount of slip is dependent upon several factors.Pump Sizing 7.1c.

7. 7.rev/min Capacity Speed .1f below. 7. 7.6. ‘0’ bar Viscosity = 1 cP Required capacity ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 10 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Viscosity = 50 cP Required capacity ‘0’ bar ‘X’ bar Capacity Capacity Speed . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 117 .6.6.1g Dead head speed The pump speed required to overcome slip is known as the ‘dead head speed’.1e Viscosity effect Fig. The pressure lines will continue to move towards the ‘zero’ pressure line as the viscosity increases. For example.6.rev/min Speed .1e and 7. the amount of slip at 400 rev/min pump speed will be the same as the amount of slip at 200 rev/min pump speed providing pressure is constant.6.1d Viscosity effect Fig. 7. 0 bar 7 bar Capacity Dead head Speed rev/min speed Fig.1f Viscosity effect Pump Speed effect Slip is independent of pump speed.rev/min Fig. The effect of viscosity on slip is shown in Figs 7.6. This factor must be taken into consideration when operating pumps at low speeds with low viscosity fluids. It is important to note that flow will be positive after overcoming the dead head speed.6.Pump Sizing Viscosity effect The amount of slip will decrease as fluid viscosity increases.1d.

6. 7. 7. 118 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Pump Sizing A summary of effects of different parameters on slip is shown below: Slip increases with pressure Slip Pressure Fig. the suction line can be initially sized using the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. It is important to note this is only an approximate guide and care should be taken not to exceed the pump’s viscosity/speed limit. 7. 7. for a flow rate of 10 m³/h on a fluid with viscosity 900 cSt.6.1h Slip increases with clearances Slip Clearances Fig.6.6.1j In general terms it is common to find the recommendation for the inlet pipe size to be the same diameter as the pump inlet connection. For example.1i SRU pump Slip decreases with viscosity Slip SX pump Viscosity Fig. a pump with 40 mm (1½ in) diameter suction line would be initially selected.2 Initial Suction Line Sizing For guidance purposes only on high viscosity duties.9) where the relationship between viscosity and flow rate provides an indication of pipe sizing.

2.2. • Speed as a function of viscosity.Pump Sizing 7. • Power as a function of speed. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8. related to pressure and viscosity.6. How to use the Performance Curve The performance curve consists of four different curves: • Capacity as a function of speed.e. 130°C (266oF) and 200°C (392oF). Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 119 . For convenience viscosity units are stated as cSt. • Power as a function of viscosity greater than 1 cSt. The curves are based on water at 20°C (68oF) but are shown with calculated viscosity correction data.3 Performance Curve Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps can be sized from published performance curves or a pump selection program. related to pressure and viscosity of 1 cSt. The SX pump range has only 150°C (302oF) rotor temperature rating. Example shown refers to the SRU pump range but the same sizing procedure is also used for the SX pump range. 70°C (158oF). different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings for rotors i.

8 bar (116 psig). a pump with a size 25 mm (1 in) inlet connection would be required.6.Pump Sizing Example: Product/Fluid Data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance Data: Capacity Total Pressure - Vegetable Oil.95 30°C. Due to the large number of curves available it is not practical to include all performance curves in this handbook. 7.3a. However. the sizing process would be as follows: From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. as shown in Fig.8 US gall/min). 0.6 m³/h (15. we therefore need to select a performance curve for the pump model SRU2/013/LS with 70°C (158oF) rotor clearances. 120 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve. should be considered. Curves can be obtained from the pump supplier. solids etc. 100 cSt.9). being the next appropriate pump size. However other factors such as fluid behaviour. Although the smallest pump models SRU1/005 and SRU1/008 have 25 mm (1 in) pump inlet connections. For this particular example. 3. Step 1 – Find Appropriate Curve Locate a curve for the required pump model that covers the performance data. The optimum is to size the smallest pump possible as hydraulic conditions dictate.

3a SRU2/013/LS curves Typical Performance Curve SRU2/013/LS or HS US GPM m 3/h Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 121 Pump Sizing 25 mm (1 in) Port 350 172 110 78 58 43 32 23 16 9 X 100 .Fig. 7.6.

From example .Find Power The power required by a pump is the summation of the hydraulic power and various losses that occur in the pump and pumping system. The losses being due to the energy required in effecting viscous shear in the pump clearances.0 Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 1.Find Viscosity and Pressure Begin with viscosity and find the intersection point with duty pressure.Find Speed Move vertically downward to determine necessary pump speed.Pump Sizing Step 2 . Step 4 .600 rev/min. Viscosity has a marked effect on pump energy losses.3 kW. Step 6 .36 kW 122 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .3 10000 = 1. Step 5 . • At viscosity 100 cSt the Pv factor is 1.Viscosity/Port Size Check Move vertically downward and check that maximum viscosity rating has not been exceeded against relevant inlet size. From example .100 cSt and 8 bar (115 psig). From example – 3.6 m³/h (15. Viscous power is the power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump (Pv factor). Step 3 . Typically curves are used in conjuction with equation as follows: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Hydraulic power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor From example: • At speed 600 rev/min the hydraulic power at 1 cSt is 1.0 x 600 + 1.maximum viscosity rating 4300 cSt.Find Flow Rate Move diagonally downward and find intersection with required flow rate.8 US gall/min). From example .

which in this instance would be 1. 50 100000 cSt 60000 cSt 45 30000 cSt 20000 cSt 40 10000 cSt 35 5000 cSt 30 25 2500 cSt 20 14.4 15 4. 7.at speed 600 rev/min the NPSHr is 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 123 . Step 7 .Find NPSHr NPSHr can be found by looking at the appropriate NPSH pump curve.3b SRU2 typical NPSHr curve based on water From example . this is the power needed at the pump shaft and the appropriate motor power must be selected. which is a function of speed and expressed in metres water column (mwc) or feet (ft).6.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power.Pump Sizing It should be noted.4 mwc (14.4 ft).4 1000 cSt 10 1 cSt 5 0 Feet Water Metres Water Speed rev/min Fig.

are mainly used on high viscosity products containing solids where the pumps volumetric efficiency is high.Pump Sizing 7. described in 8. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see table below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly. Table 7.4a SRU Pump Model %age Increase Required on Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed 40 40 40 40 30 30 30 25 25 10 10 10 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 124 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .1.6.6.2. When pumping such products optimum performance is obtained by using large slow running pumps. Applications on water like viscosity fluids would result in decreased efficiency over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors.4 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless Steel) These rotors.

6.2. Due to pumphead clearances described in 8.4a Performance curve interpolation Capacity 0 bar 7 bar 7 bar Required capacity Speed rev/min ‘X’ rev/min Dead head speed ‘X’ rev/min + % inc.3. The use of performance curves is as described in 7. Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program.6.5 Pumps fitted with Bi-lobe Rotors (Non Galling Alloy) These rotors.2. there is only one temperature rating of rotors i. The use of performance curves is as described in 7. 7. Pump sizing is achieved by referring to published performance curves or a pump selection program. described in 8. 70°C (158°F). have very small clearances resulting in increased volumetric efficiency over stainless steel rotors when used on fluids with viscosities up to 50 cP. Speed required for tri-lobe rotors Speed required for bi-lobe rotors 7. 70°C (158°F).6 Pumps fitted with Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors These rotors.6. different performance curves are used for the various temperature ratings of rotors i.e. described in 8.2.2.6. 130°C (266°F) and 200°C (392°F).2.e. Due to the minimal pumphead clearances described in 8.3. 95%. have minimal clearance and will therefore significantly improve the pumps volumetric efficiency to approx. 7.6. Fig. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 125 . Pump speed for bi-lobe rotors is found accordingly.2.Pump Sizing Example of How to Interpolate Performance Curve ‘X’ rev/min represents the ‘dead head speed’ for tri-lobe rotors to which a percentage increase is applied from the table shown.1.1.

6 5.8 21.0 47.7 6.8 38.7 5.0 45.7a Pump Model SRU range %age Increase Required on Stainless Steel Tri-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 17.9 2.1 10.3 17.3 8.0 15.8 2.6.0 15.0 1.0 11.7 Pumps with Electropolished Surface Finish Pump performance will be affected by electropolish surface finish to the pump head internals.2 1.0 3.7 28.0 4.0 9.2 5.Pump Sizing 7.5 6.5 4.0 18.9 38.5 12.8 19.3 7.7b Pump Model SX range %age Increase Required on Multi-lobe Rotor Dead Head Speed Electropolishing Mechanical and only Electropolishing 12.0 32.0 14.9 2.7 60.4 34.8 8.6.4 2. For sizing purposes a percentage increase on the ‘dead head speed’ (see tables below) should be applied to the performance curve for stainless steel tri-lobe rotors and interpolated accordingly.3 28.3 60.0 31.6 40.3 6.5 2. Table 7.6.8 1/005 1/007 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/035 4/046 4/063 5/082 5/116 6/140 6/190 7/250 7/380 126 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 1/005 1/008 2/013 2/018 3/027 3/038 4/055 4/079 5/116 5/168 6/260 6/353 Table 7.8 11.6 25.6 3.5 24.5 22.9 6.0 55.5 4.

6. Resilience.94 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 127 .59 0.06 1.31 0. providing the optimum conditions are met.44 0.63 0.44 0.63 0. Table 7.8 Guidelines for Solids Handling The following criteria should be considered when deciding the pumps ability to handle large solids in suspension. yet possess resilience and shear strength Solids form - Solids physical properties i.e.06 1. For non-optimum conditions these should be referred to Alfa Laval.Pump Sizing 7.51 0.88 1. hardness.34 0.59 0.51 0.31 0.88 0.72 0.24 0.47 6 6 6 9 9 11 11 15 15 18 18 24 0.24 0.6. shear strength Solids surface finish Fluid/solids proportion - Smooth Proportion of solids to fluid is small Equal Maintained such that solids in suspension are not damaged Bi-lobe Large as possible Relationship of fluid/solid SG Flow velocity (pump speed) - Rotor form Port size - Tables below show the maximum spherical solids size that can be satisfactory handled without product degradation. Optimum Conditions Spherical Soft.34 0.72 0.24 0.31 0.8a SRU Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Bi-lobe Rotors Tri-lobe Rotors mm in mm in 8 8 8 13 13 16 16 22 22 27 27 37 SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 0.

63 0.51 0.Pump Sizing Table 7.28 0.8b SX Model Maximum Spherical Solids Size Multi-lobe Rotors in mm 7 7 10 10 13 13 16 16 19 19 25 25 28 28 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/116 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380 0.10 1.39 0.98 0.6. in the range of 100 to 400 rev/min dependent upon the fluid being pumped. pump size/model and rotor form.98 1.63 0.6. 39 0.75 0.51 0. For these types of applications refer to Alfa Laval. Excess pump speed can irreversibly damage the cell structure.9 Guidelines for Pumping Shear Sensitive Media Special attention needs to be made to pumping shear sensitive media such as yeast and yoghurt where the cell structure needs to remain intact. Therefore pump speeds need to be kept relatively low.75 0.28 0. 128 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .10 7.

95°C. 80 cP. Performance data and Site Services data. tube. information is required such as Product/Fluid data. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in vessel = 8 m. and 1 non-return valve. tube. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig. Static head in tank = 2 m.example 1 bar 1m Feed tank 8m 1m 1m 1m 2m 6m 3m All the data has been given by the customer. Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite. As described in 7. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup.1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. plus 1 bend 90 deg. 7.29.Pump Sizing 7. plus 2 bends 90 deg. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 129 . Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup. Pressure in vessel = 1 bar. via 3 m of 51 mm dia.7a Pump 1 .7 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (Metric units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. 15°C. 1. via 10 m of 51 mm dia. 50 Hz. Suction - 9 m³/h.

130 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .22 m/s density r = 1290 derived from SG value 1. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below). including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2.2 and 2.29) = 10. absolute viscosity (cP). Q = capacity (m³/h). The theory. flow will be laminar. fluid velocity (m/s).5). velocity V = Q x 353.22 x 1290 80 = 1003 As Re is less than 2300. pt = Pressure in vessel.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump. Therefore Fig.2. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. D = tube diameter (mm). To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). 7.3 m.1. pt = 1 bar = 10 m.4.7b ht = 8 m x (SG = 1. Therefore Re = D x V x r m = 51 x 1.29 (see 2. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.2. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.6 where D² = 9 x 353.6 51² = 1. density (kg/m³).

hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.3 + 1.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.22² 51 = 0. 1 butterfly valve =3+6+1 = 1 x 1 x 1. tube diameter (mm).2).064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.0 (corr. Since flow is laminar.1.064 x 12 x 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 131 Therefore .6 m.29 x 0.0 (corr. specific gravity. fluid velocity (m/s). factor) Total equivalent length = 10 m =1m =1m = 12 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). (bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. tube length (m).7 m (2. factor) = 1 x 1 x 1.14 bar = 1. hfs = Calculated below. the viscosity correction factor is 1. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs + ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank.4 + 10 m = 21.7.4 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 10. ps = 0 (open tank). hs = 2 m x (SG = 1.29) = 2.0 (see 2.2.17 bar).

(bar) (bar) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1. Straight tube length 2 bend 90 deg.29 x 0.2).1 bar) 132 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . the viscosity correction factor is 1.1. factor) Total equivalent length =3m =2m = 12 m = 17 m = 64 Re = 64 1003 = 0. specific gravity. fluid velocity (m/s).Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. tube diameter (mm).6 = 21.064 x 1.22² 51 = 0.6 – 2 + 0 m = 0.1 – 0.7.2 bar = 2 m Hs = hs – hfs + ps = 2.064 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor.06 bar). factor) = 1 x 12 x 1 (corr. tube length (m).0 (see 2.6 m (0.1 m » 21 m (2. Since flow is laminar. 1 non-return valve =1+1+1 = 2 x 1 x 1 (corr.7 x 1. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 21.2.

SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 40 mm pump inlet connections. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 80 cP at speed 606 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures.e. 3. being the next appropriate pump size.3. hs = Static suction head in Tank. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 133 .6 – 2 – 0 m = 10. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port).e.6 m. a pump with a size 40 mm inlet connection would be required. at temperature of 15o C this is taken as being negligible i.6 m. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program. 10. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. 606 rev/min.6 m.6 m > 3. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2. 2. calculated to be 2 m.9). 40 mm. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 130°C rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line.6. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14.6 m. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS. 0 bar a = 0 m.Pump Sizing NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.

and the appropriate motor power must be selected.1 kW It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft.Pump Sizing Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor. The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. 134 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 606 + 0.1 bar.9 10000 = 1.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup. From example • At speed 606 rev/min and total head 2. the power at 1 cSt is 0. • At viscosity 80 cP (62 cSt) the Pv factor is 3.9 kW. which in this instance would be 1. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area.

plus 1 bend 90 deg. The theory.2 and 2.4. via 40 m of 76 mm dia. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 135 .2. tube. 25000 cP. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 1. 50 Hz. Before sizing a pump.7c Pump 2 . Site Services data: Electrical supply - 220/380v.6 mm dia. plus 2 bends 45 deg. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 20 m. 7. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.example 20 m 2m 1m 40 m All the data has been given by the customer.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig. tube. via 1 m of 101. and 1 butterfly valve.35 65°C. Static head in tank = 2 m.2. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite. Suction - 10 m³/h.

absolute viscosity (cP).7d ht = 20 m x (SG = 1. pt = Pressure in vessel. pt = 0 bar (open tank) = 0 m.6 where D² = 10 x 353. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). flow will be laminar. Q = capacity (m³/h). density (kg/m³). Therefore Re = D x V x r m = 76 x 0. 136 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .61 m/s density r = 1350 derived from SG value 1.Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. 7.35) = 27 m.6 76² = 0.61 x 1350 25000 = 2. D = tube diameter (mm). fluid velocity (m/s).5 As Re is less than 2300. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below).5). hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line.1. velocity V = Q x 353.35 (see 2. Therefore Fig.

1.35) = 2. hfs = Calculated below.6 x 41 x 0.2.5 = 25.7 m.25 (corr. specific gravity. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg. tube diameter (mm). (bar) (bar) = 2 x 1 x 0.5 m = 0. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 137 Therefore .5 m = 41 m = 64 Re = 64 2. Since flow is laminar.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. ps = 0 (open tank).6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.25 (corr.25 (see 2.7 bar = 347 m Ht = ht +hft +pt = 27 + 347 + 0 m = 374 m (37.61² 76 = 34.7. hs = 2 m x (SG = 1.35 x 25. tube length (m). 1 butterfly valve = 40 m = 0.4 bar). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Where hs = Static suction head in Tank. fluid velocity (m/s).2). the viscosity correction factor is 0. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD = 5 x 1.

34 x 1350 25000 = 1. the viscosity correction factor is 0.2.35 (see 2. fluid velocity (m/s). velocity V = Q x 353. D = tube diameter (mm).1.6 where D² = 9 x 353. = DxVxr m = 101. Since flow is laminar. absolute viscosity (cP).7.Pump Sizing To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = D x V x r m where D V r m = = = = tube diameter (mm). Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.6 101. flow will be laminar.6² = 0.34 m/s density r Therefore Re = 1350 derived from SG value 1.25 (see 2.5). 138 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2).9 As Re is less than 2300.1. density (kg/m³). Q = capacity (m³/h).6 x 0.

25 (corr. To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized.5 m = 0.2 m Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 2. Reduce capacity. Increase tube diameter.35 x 33.7 – 5. 4.52 bar = 5. Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity. Consider two or more pumps in series.7 bar) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 20 bar maximum working pressure of the pump. tube length (m).6 = 0.9 = 33.Pump Sizing Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.25 (corr. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 139 . (bar) = 5 x 1. factor) Total equivalent length =1m = 0.68 Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = (bar) pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. specific gravity. 1 butterfly valve = 1 x 2 x 0.5) = 376. 3.34² 101.5 m =2m = 64 Re = 64 1. tube diameter (mm).68 x 2 x 0. factor) = 1 x 2 x 0. fluid velocity (m/s). 2.2 + 0 m = – 2.5 m. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 374 – (–2.5 m » 377 m (37.

Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 133 – (–2.7. tube diameter (mm).5 m » 136 m (13. and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 101. tube length (m). Static suction head in Tank.34² 101. Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.6 bar) NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp. (bar) (bar) = 5 x 1. from 76 mm to 101.6 = 10.68 x 41 x 0.5) = 135.35 x 33.Pump Sizing Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i. Also note.7 m. by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14. calculated to be 5. 0 bar a = 0 m. and butterfly valves remain unchanged.6 mm diameter tube.6 bar = 106 m Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 27 + 106 + 0 m = 133 m (13. fluid velocity (m/s).e. Total pressure drop in suction line. The total head calculations are reworked.3 bar).1 the values for bends 45 deg.2 m. Vapour pressure of fluid.e. 2.6 mm. Where Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. at temperature of 65 oC this is taken as being negligible i. 1 bar (open tank) = 10 m. Therefore 140 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . specific gravity.

1 10000 = 5. Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes. 7. 100 mm (enlarged port). Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 25000 cP at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures.2 kW Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 141 .6 bar. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency.5 m > 2. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 130°C rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 13. • at viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt) the Pv factor is 110. Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor.1 kW.7 – 5. the power at 1 cSt is 4. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 4.5 m. 2.1 m.2 – 0 m = 7.e.Pump Sizing NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 10 + 2. The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program.1 m. 100 rev/min.

and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected. To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7. Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14.9.5 kW being the nearest motor output power above the required power. Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 100 mm dia. Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation.168 x 0. Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where: Q = capacity (m3/h) q = pump displacement (m3/100 rev) hv = vol. inlet port would be selected. The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers. a pump having a 100 mm dia.2.Pump Sizing It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft.99 x 60 = 100 rev/min 142 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . for the flow rate required of 10 m3/h with viscosity 25000 cP (18519 cSt). which in this instance would be 5.4). enlarged ports.99) = 10 x 100 0. If a sanitary port is a definite requirement the Model SRU6/260 pump would be selected. efficiency (99% = 0.

1 in order to correctly size any type of pump. tube. As described in 7. information is required such as Product/Fluid data. 59°F. 1.29. tube. via 33 ft of 2 in dia. via 9 ft of 2 in dia. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature CIP temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Sugar syrup. Static head in vessel = 26 ft. 7. Static head in tank = 6 ft. Pump 1 – Thin Sugar Syrup pump Fig.example 15 psi Feed tank 3 ft 26 ft 3 ft 3 ft 3 ft 6 ft 10 ft 20 ft All the data has been given by the customer. Suction - 40 US gall/min. and 1 butterfly valve. and 1 non-return valve.8a Pump 1 . 62 cSt. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. Pump 2 is a high viscosity example handling massecuite. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 143 . plus 1 bend 90 deg.8 Worked Examples of Rotary Lobe Pump Sizing (US units) The following examples show two different rotary lobe pumps to be sized for a typical sugar process. 203°F. Pressure in vessel = 15 psi. 60 Hz.Pump Sizing 7. Performance data and Site Services data. Pump 1 is a low viscosity example handling sugar syrup. plus 2 bends 90 deg.

8b ht = 26 ft x (SG = 1.2 and 2. pt = Pressure in vessel.5 ft. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in). it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa.Pump Sizing Before sizing a pump.2. Therefore Fig. Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel. 144 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Q = capacity (US gall/min). The theory. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. 7.4. hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. flow will be laminar. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below).29) = 33. = 3162 x 40 2 x 62 = 1020 As Re is less than 2300.2. pt = 15 psi = 35 ft. n = kinematic viscosity (cSt).

063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.2.1 ft/s Pf = 0.409 22 = 4.5 ft » 74 ft (32 psi). Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.1² 2 = 2.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min) D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor. (psi) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0. the viscosity correction factor is 1. Since flow is laminar.2).7. factor) = 1 x 3 x 1. specific gravity. tube diameter (in). Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 145 . factor) Total equivalent length = 33 ft = 3 ft = 3 ft = 39 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0.0 (corr.5 + 5 + 35 ft = 73. tube length (ft).0 (corr. 1 butterfly valve = 10 + 20 + 3 = 1 x 3 x 1. fluid velocity (ft/s).0823 x 1.063 x 39 x 4.29 x 0.0 (see 2.2 psi = 5 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 33.2.

409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0. ps = 0 (open tank). Since flow is laminar. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. specific gravity. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank). 1 non-return valve =3+3+3 = 2 x 3 x 1 (corr.7 ft.2. hfs = Calculated below. fluid velocity (ft/s).409 22 = 4. hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1.0 (see 2.29) = 7. Straight tube length 2 bend 90 deg. the viscosity correction factor is 1.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. (psi) Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.2.063 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0. Therefore Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14.2). factor) = 1 x 39 x 1 (corr.7. tube diameter (in).Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank. factor) Total equivalent length = 9 ft = 6 ft = 39 ft = 54 ft = 64 Re = 64 1020 = 0. tube length (ft).1 ft/s 146 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

0823 x 1.7 – 7 + 0 ft = 0. We have therefore selected a performance curve for the pump model SRU3/027/LS with 266°F rotor clearances due to the CIP requirement. The performance curve selection procedure is more specifically described in 7. Total head H = Ht – Hs =74 – 0. 0 psia = 0 ft.6.9 + 7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 147 .3 ft » 73 ft (32 psi). NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33. hs = Static suction head in Tank. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. 34.9 ft. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid. a pump with a size 1. 1. From the initial suction line sizing curve (see 14. at temperature of 59o F this is taken as being negligible i.e. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.7 psi (open tank) = 33. Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i.9). 11. the flow rate required would exceed the pumps speed limit on the performance curve.3 psi).5 in. 613 rev/min. Actual pump sizing can be made using pump performance curves or a pump selection program.7 = 73.3.6 ft > 11.5 in pump inlet connections.5 in inlet connection would be required.1² 2 = 3 psi = 7 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 7.9 ft.6 ft. being the next appropriate pump size. Pump sized as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU3/027/LS.7 – 7 – 0 ft = 34. Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. Although the smallest pump models SR1/008 (with enlarged port). calculated to be 7 ft.Pump Sizing Pf = 0.7 ft.29 x 0.063 x 54 x 4.9 ft.7 ft (0. 7. SRU2/013 (with enlarged port) and SRU2/018 (with sanitary port) have 1. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp.e.

and the appropriate motor power must be selected. From example • At speed 613 rev/min and total head 32 psi. Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 = 3 x 613 + 1. The recommended type of shaft seal based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a single flushed mechanical seal with tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide faces and EPDM elastomers. which in this instance would be 2 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power.4 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft. the power at 1 cSt is 1.2 10000 = 1.Pump Sizing Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 62 cSt at speed 613 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. 148 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Power calculation: Total Required Power (kW) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (kW) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor.2 hp. • EPDM elastomers for compatibility of both sugar syrup and CIP media. • Flushed version to prevent the sugar syrup from crystallising within the seal area. • At viscosity 62 cSt the Pv factor is 3. • Hard tungsten carbide seal faces due to the abrasive nature of sugar syrup.

Static head in tank = 6 ft. 7.Pump Sizing Pump 2 – Massecuite pump Fig.2 and 2. via 3 ft of 4 in dia.2. tube.4. including the different formulae regarding these parameters is more specifically described in 2. and 1 butterfly valve Static head in tank = 65 ft. Suction - 44 US gall/min.35 149°F. plus 2 bends 45 deg. 60 Hz. Product/Fluid data: Fluid to be pumped Viscosity SG Pumping temperature Performance data: Capacity Discharge - Massecuite. it will be necessary to determine the total head and NPSHa. 18519 cSt. tube. 1.8c Pump 2 . Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 149 .example 65 ft 6 ft 3 ft 130 ft All the data has been given by the customer. and 1 butterfly valve.2. The theory. Site Services data: Electrical supply - 230/460v. via 130 ft of 3 in dia. Before sizing a pump. plus 1 bend 90 deg.

150 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . hft = Total pressure drop in discharge line. 7. pt = Pressure in vessel. Q = capacity (US gall/min). pt = 0 psi (open tank) = 0 ft.35) = 88 ft.5 As Re is less than 2300. hft = Pressure drop in tube Dptube + Pressure drop in bends and valves Dp (calculated below). flow will be laminar. = 3162 x 44 3 x 18519 = 2. Therefore Fig. To ascertain hft the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in).8d ht = 65 ft x (SG = 1. n = kinematic visosity (cSt).Pump Sizing Total head Total discharge head Ht = ht +hft +pt Where ht = Static head in pressurised vessel.

409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 40 x 0. tube length (ft).0823 x 1.25 (corr. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0. (psi) = 2 x 3 x 0.7. Since flow is laminar.409 32 = 2 ft/s Pf = 0.35 x 25.2.6 x 133 x 2² 3 = 504 psi = 1163 ft (psi) Ht = ht +hft +pt = 88 + 1163 + 0 ft = 1251 ft (542 psi).25 (see 2. 1 butterfly valve = 130 ft = 1.Pump Sizing Equivalent Line Length – Discharge Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. Total suction head Hs = hs – hfs +ps Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 151 . tube diameter (in). specific gravity. the viscosity correction factor is 0. fluid velocity (ft/s).6 The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.5 ft = 1.5 = 25.2).25 (corr.75 ft = 133 ft = 64 Re = 64 2. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD Velocity V = Q x 0.2. Straight tube length 2 bend 45 deg.

Straight tube length 1 bend 90 deg.2. factor) = 1 x 7 x 0.68 = 1 x 7 x 0.9 As Re is less than 2300.5 ft = 64 Re = 64 1.35) = 8 ft. n = kinematic visosity (cSt).25 (corr. the viscosity correction factor is 0.Pump Sizing Where hs = Static suction head in Tank. factor) Total equivalent length Also as flow is laminar the friction factor fD 152 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2). hs = 6 ft x (SG = 1.2.75 ft = 6. = 3162 x 44 4 x 18519 = 1.25 (corr. ps = Pressure in Tank (open tank).25 (see 2. flow will be laminar. Q = capacity (US gall/min). hfs = Calculated below.7. Since flow is laminar. Therefore To ascertain hfs the flow characteristic and equivalent line length must be determined as follows: Flow Characteristic Reynolds number Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where D = tube diameter (in). hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. Equivalent Line Length – Suction Side The equivalent lengths of straight tube for bends and valves are taken from table 14. ps = 0 (open tank).9 = 33. 1 butterfly valve = 3 ft = 1.75 ft = 1.

Increase pumping temperature to reduce viscosity.409 42 = 1.0823 x 1. (psi) Velocity V = Q x 0.1² 4 = 7. tube diameter (in). Increase tube diameter.409 where Q = capacity (US gall/min)   D2 D = tube diameter (in) = 44 x 0.1 ft/s Pf = 0. Reduce capacity.4 psi = 17 ft (psi) Hs = hs – hfs +ps = 8 – 17 + 0 ft = –9 ft.5 x 1.68 x 6. specific gravity. fluid velocity (ft/s).0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hfs) friction factor. Total head H = Ht – Hs = 1251 – (–9) = 1260 ft (546 psi) In this example the total head required is in excess of the 290 psi maximum working pressure of the pump. consideration could be given to any or a combination of the following parameters: 1. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 153 .35 x 33.e. To reduce this head so as a pump can be suitably sized. 4. tube length (ft).Pump Sizing The Miller equation is now used to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0. Consider two or more pumps in series. Assuming the capacity is a definite requirement and the pumping temperature cannot be increased the customer should be advised to increase the discharge tube diameter i. 2. 3. from 3 in to 4 in.

Using the Miller equation to determine friction loss as follows: Pf = 0. Therefore Pa = hs = hfs = Pvp= 14.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D Where: Pf = fD = L = D = V = SG = pressure loss due to friction (hft) friction factor.9 + 8 – 17 – 0 m = 24. specific gravity. NPSHa NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp . and butterfly valves remain unchanged.2 the values for bends 45 deg. tube diameter (in). Where Pa = Pressure absolute above fluid level in Tank. Also note. hs = Static suction head in Tank. hfs = Total pressure drop in suction line. tube length (ft). 154 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .9 ft. 0 psia = 0 ft. by referring to the equivalent tube length table 14. calculated to be 17 ft.1² 4 = 150 psi = 346 ft Now Ht = ht + hft +pt = 88 + 346 + 0 ft = 434 ft (188 psi).9 ft.e.0823 x 1.35 x 33.Pump Sizing The total head calculations are reworked. NPSHa = Pa + hs – hfs – Pvp = 33. Pvp= Vapour pressure of fluid.7 psi (open tank) = 33. at temperature of 149o F this is taken as being negligible i. Now Total head H = Ht – Hs = 434 – (–9) = 443 ft (192 psi). 8 ft. fluid velocity (ft/s). (psi) (psi) = 0. and for this particular example the fluid velocity (V) and friction factor (fD) have already been established for 4 in diameter tube.68 x 133 x 1.7.

9 ft.5 10000 = 6. and for a fixed speed drive the appropriate motor power must be selected. 24. 6. 100 rev/min. The actual pump sizing can be made using a pump selection program. the power at 1 cSt is 5. which in this instance would be 7.5 hp being the nearest motor output power above the required power. From example • At speed 100 rev/min and total head 192 psi. Viscosity/Port Size check: The viscosity of 18519 cSt at speed 100 rev/min is well within the pump’s maximum rated figures. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 155 . Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 = 110 x 100 + 5. An approximate guide to pump sizing can be made by calculation using volumetric efficiency. 4 in (enlarged port). Cavitation check: NPSHa should be greater than NPSHr i. For this particular example a pump sized from the pump selection program using stainless steel tri-lobe rotors with 266° F rotor clearances would be as follows: Pump model Connection size Speed NPSHr SRU5/168/LD. Power calculation: Total Required Power (hp) = Pv x Pump speed (rev/min) + Power at 1 cSt (hp) 10000 where Pv = Power/viscosity factor.6 hp It should be noted that this is the power needed at the pump shaft.9 ft > 6. • At viscosity 18519 cSt the Pv factor is 110.e.5 hp.9 ft.Pump Sizing Due to the high viscosity it is not practical to use pump performance curves for sizing purposes.

4). To calculate pump speed for the SRU5/168 pump selected the following formula is used as a general guide with volumetric efficiency of 99% (see 7.2. Referring to the initial suction line sizing curve shown in 14. Pump speed (rev/min) n = Q x 100 q x hv where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) hv = vol. efficiency (99% = 0. Alternative Pump Sizing Guide Using Volumetric Efficiency Calculation.39 x 0. inlet port would be selected. Alternative shaft sealing could be a flushed packed gland or double flushed mechnical seal. a pump having a 4 in dia.9. For this example a Model SRU5/168 pump will be selected having 4 in dia.99 = 100 rev/min 156 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . enlarged ports. for the flow rate required of 44 US gall/min with viscosity 18519 cSt.99) = 44 x 100 44.Pump Sizing The recommended shaft seal type based upon Alfa Laval application experience and guidelines would be a packed gland arrangement with polyamide gland packing on hard coated shaft sleeves with EPDM elastomers. If a sanitary port is a definite requierement the Model SRU6/260 would be selected.

e.5 4 2.5 2 2.5 3 2. BS. DIN. pressure relief valves and other ancillaries.5 3 4 4 4 4 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 2. such as port connections.5 2. heating/cooling jackets.5 3 4 4 4 LKH-Multistage LKHP Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 157 . DS.5 4 2. i. DC and H-line.1. ISO. GC-clamp.5 3 2.5 2 2.1 Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps 8.Pump Specification Options 8.5 2. Pump Specification Options This section gives detailed descriptions of the various specification options available for the Alfa Laval pump ranges. bevel seat.5 3 3 4 3 4 1.5 3 3 4 2 2.5 1.: SMS. Pump Range Pump Model Inlet mm LKH LKH-5 LKH-10 LKH-15 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 LKH-45 LKH-50 LKH-60 LKH-70 LKH-80 LKH-112 LKH-113 LKH-114 LKH-122 LKH-123 LKH-124 LKHP-10 LKHP-15 LKHP-20 LKHP-25 LKHP-35 LKHP-40 LKHP-45 LKHP-50 LKHP-60 50 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 100 150 50 50 50 80 80 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 Nominal Connection Size Inlet Outlet mm in 40 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 80 100 40 40 40 65 65 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 Outlet in 1.5 2 3 2 2.5 2 3 2 2.1 Port Connections Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections of all major standards.5 2. 8.5 1.

Pump casing Jacket Fig.5 3 4 4 4 2. Alternatively it may be necessary to cool the fluid being pumped where heat is generated by means of the fluid repeatedly being passed through the pump.1a 8.5 3 2.Pump Specification Options Pump Range Pump Model Inlet mm Nominal Connection Size Outlet Inlet mm in 50 50 65 50 65 50 80 50 65 50 65 80 80 100 50 50 65 50 50 50 80 80 80 Outlet in 2 2 2.5 3 2 3 3 3 LKHI LKH-UltraPure MR Table 8.2a Heating/Cooling jacket 158 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 3 3 4 2 2 2.1.1.1.5 3 2.5 3 2.5 2 2 2 3 3 3 LKHSP LKHSP-10 LKHSP-20 LKHSP-25 LKHSP-35 LKHSP-40 LKHI-10 LKHI-15 LKHI-20 LKHI-25 LKHI-35 LKHI-40 LKHI-45 LKHI-50 LKHI-60 LKH-10 LKH-20 LKH-25 LKH-35 LKH-40 MR-166S MR-185S MR-200S MR-300 65 65 80 65 80 65 100 65 80 65 80 100 100 100 65 65 80 65 80 50 80 80 80 2.2 Heating/Cooling Jackets In some applications heating of the fluid being pumped may be required to reduce the fluid viscosity so that satisfactory operation is achieved. On such occasions some pump models can be fitted with heating/cooling jackets.5 3 2.5 2 3 2 2.5 2 2.5 2.5 4 2.5 2. 8.5 2 2.

1.5 mm to 2. there is a risk that a hard layer of proteins will slowly build up between the backside of the impeller and the back plate. Fig. The gap is achieved by machining the back of the impeller.4 Increased Impeller Gap Impeller In some applications. e. 8.1.3 Pump Casing with Drain In some applications it is a requirement that no fluid should be left in the pump casing.Pump Specification Options 8.1. The operating time of the pump can be increased by increasing the standard gap width between the back of the impeller and the back plate.Turning the pump outlet downwards . This has the effect of improving NPSH requirements for difficult applications and/or assisting the flow of a viscous fluid into the pump casing. from 0. 8. For this type of application it is recommended to select a motor size with an output power one step higher than the standard selection so as to avoid the motor thermal relay being constantly activated.5 mm.1.1. This increased gap reduces the head by approx.5a Inducer in pump inlet Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 159 . 8.4a Increased gap 8. when using a LKH centrifugal pump as a booster pump in a cream pasteurisation unit. This will activate the thermal relay of the motor after a few hours of operation so that the pump stops.1.5 Pump Inlet Inducer Inducer In some applications it may be necessary to improve the suction conditions by means of fitting the pump inlet with an inducer. This can be achieved by either: .3b Pump casing with drain Back plate Gap: 2 mm 8.g. 8.3a Turned pump casing Drain Fig.Fitting a drain connection to the bottom of the pump casing or Pump casing Fig. 5%.1. Impeller Inlet Fig.

2.1b Tri-lobe Fig.1 Rotor Form Table 8.1c Multi-lobe Tri-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) Most duties can be accomplished by pumps fitted with stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. 8. 8.2. high performance pumping action.2.2.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps 8. • up to 130°C (266oF).2. • up to 200°C (392oF).1a Rotor Form Material Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü Tri-lobe Tri-lobe Bi-lobe Bi-lobe Multi-lobe Stainless steel Rubber covered Stainless steel Non galling alloy Stainless steel Fig.1a Bi-lobe Fig. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). 8. The tri-lobe rotor with its mathematically correct profile and precision manufacture ensure interchangeability as well as smooth. 160 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig).Pump Specification Options 8.

leading to increased efficiencies.1d Bi-lobe rotors for solids handling Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 161 . This results in improved pump performance and suction lift capability over stainless steel tri-lobe rotors. Bi-lobe Rotors (Non galling alloy) Manufactured from non-galling alloy these rotors have an advantage over stainless steel. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). and due to the resilience of the rubber coating these rotors have a slight interference fit with the pump rotorcase when initially fitted. petfood. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). • up to 130°C (266oF). Multi-lobe Rotors This rotor is manufactured from stainless steel and as the name suggests has many lobes. and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psig). Rotors are suitable for temperatures up to 150°C (302oF) and pressures up to 15 bar (215 psig). • up to 200°C (392oF). • up to 200°C (392oF).2. reduce shear and provide a smooth pumping action. Gentle pumping action Fig. These are available on the SRU pump range with 3 temperature ratings: • up to 70°C (158oF). soups and sauces containing solid matter.2. • up to 130°C (266oF). Tri-lobe Rubber Covered Rotors This rotor has a stainless steel insert covered in NBR rubber. Typical applications are jam containing fruit pieces.2) can be used. and pressures up to 7 bar (100 psig). Rotors are suitable for continuous operation up to 70°C (158oF) and intermittent operation up to 100°C (212oF). sausage meat filling. 8. For the SX pump range these rotors have 4 lobes and are designed to maximise efficiency.Pump Specification Options Large fluid chamber Bilobe rotors Bi-lobe Rotors (Stainless steel) These are generally used for handling delicate suspended solids where minimum product damage is required. as smaller clearances (see 8.

The size of these clearances is related to the pressure and temperature of pump operation and rotor material. • Front clearance (between front of rotor and rotorcase cover). 8. which is the maximum differential pressure of the particular pump model.2.2b). which could result in contact between rotors. 162 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2.Pump Specification Options Clearances are necessary to avoid rotor to rotor. rotorcase and rotorcase cover. 8. This requires having the shaft support bearings to be mounted outside of the pumphead.2. The pressure effect is less significant on pumps fitted with rubber covered or non-galling alloy rotors.2 Clearances Within the pump head are clearances. • Back clearance (between back of rotor and back face of rotorcase). rotor to rotorcase and rotor to rotorcase cover contact. To allow for this pressure effect. clearances are built into the pumphead between surfaces that may contact. any contact between rotating and stationary parts would cause ‘galling’ and possible pump seizure. which are the spaces between rotating components and between rotating and stationary components. Fig. caused by the rotors fitted to the shafts (see Fig. The effect of pressure on the rotors will cause shaft deflection. As product wetted parts of the SRU and SX pump ranges are predominantly manufactured from stainless steel. Radial Back Mesh Front Pressure effect The design concept of the rotary lobe pump is to have no contacting parts in the pumphead. The key clearances are as follows: • Radial clearance (between rotor tip and rotorcase).2a Clearances 8. which results in an overhung load. • Mesh clearance (between rotors). For the SRU and SX pump ranges there is only one pressure rating.

to the rotorcase and gearcase components. pump mechanism. drive unit and/or the environment. the SRU pump range has increased clearances as shown below. SRU pumps are designed for various temperature ratings for rotors i.2. 8. The most significant result is movement between shaft and gearcase/rotorcase causing the rotors to move forward/backward in the rotorcase.e. thereby reducing the front clearance. On the SX pump range the design of the mechanical seal eliminates contact between the fluid being pumped and the shaft. 130°C (266°F) or 200°C (392°F).2c Increased clearance Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 163 . To compensate for this.2.Pump Specification Options Fig. 8. This results in the shaft not being subjected to the full temperature variation and therefore only one temperature rating of 150°C (302°F) is necessary. 70°C (158°F).2b Pressure effect Force due to pressure Support bearings Shaft Rotor Overhang length Outlet Inlet Rotorcase Rotor Shaft Standard clearance Standard rotor width Temperature effect Temperature change can be caused by the fluid being pumped. Changes in temperature will cause expansion upon heating or contraction upon cooling. Thermal expansion Increased clearance Decreased rotor width The clearance is exaggerated to show the temperature effect Fig. Any CIP operation required should also be taken into consideration (see section 10 for detailed explanation of CIP).

Pump Specification Options

8.2.3 Port Connections
Pumps are supplied with screwed male connections to all major standards as follows:
Table 8.2.3a Standard Screwed Connection Type 3A/Acme BSP BSPT DIN11851/405 ISS/IDF NPT RDG RJT SMS Tri-Clamp (BS4825) Pump Range SRU SX ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü

All models in the SRU and SX pump ranges are supplied with full bore through porting, conforming to International Sanitary Standards BS4825 / ISO2037. This provides effective CIP cleaning and maximises inlet and outlet port efficiency and NPSHr characteristics. The option of the enlarged port on the SRU pump range can be chosen for high viscosity applications.

Fig. 8.2.3a Sanitary port design

Fig. 8.2.3b Enlarged port design

The SRU pump range when having enlarged ports can also be supplied with flanged connections of all major standards i.e. ASA/ANSI125, ASA/ANSI150, ASA/ANSI300, BS10 table E, BS10 table F, BS4504/DIN2533 and JIS10K. Flanges for vertically ported pumps are not fitted directly to the discharge port. In this instance an elbow bend is included to which the flange is fitted.

164 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Specification Options

Pump Range

Pump Model Sanitary mm

Nominal Connection Size Enlarged in mm

in 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 3 3 4 4 6

SRU

SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353 SX1/005 SX1/007 SX2/013 SX2/018 SX3/027 SX3/035 SX4/046 SX4/063 SX5/082 SX5/115 SX6/140 SX6/190 SX7/250 SX7/380

25 25 25 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 100 100 25 40 40 50 50 65 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150

1 1 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2.5 3 4 4 1 1.5 1.5 2 2 2.5 2 2.5 2.5 3 3 4 4 6

40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 150

SX

For size 150 mm (6 in) screwed male connections, these are only available as DIN11851/405, SRJT or Tri-Clamp (BS4825).

Table 8.2.3b

8.2.4 Rectangular Inlets
Hopper Rectangular inlet

Outlet

For handling extremely viscous products and/or large solids that would naturally bridge a smaller port, SRU rotary lobe pumps can be supplied with a rectangular inlet. Usually the pump will be in vertical port orientation to allow the product to flow into the pumping chamber under gravity from a hopper mounted directly above or mounted with an adaptor to facilitate connection to large diameter pipework. As can be seen from the table below there is a significant percentage area increase when using a rectangular inlet compared to a sanitary port connection. This increases the pumps ability to handle highly viscous products.

Fig. 8.2.4a Rectangular inlets

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 165

Pump Specification Options

Table 8.2.4a

Pump Model

Sanitary port area (mm2)

Rectangular inlet area (mm2)

% area increase above sanitary port diameter 171 326 314 206 221 189 151 151 176 195 186 244

SRU1/005 SRU1/008 SRU2/013 SRU2/018 SRU3/027 SRU3/038 SRU4/055 SRU4/079 SRU5/116 SRU5/168 SRU6/260 SRU6/353

387 387 387 957 957 1780 1780 2856 2856 4185 7482 7482

660 1260 1216 1976 2112 3360 2688 4320 5032 8160 13888 18240

Connections for steam, hot/cold fluid

Saddle

8.2.5 Heating/Cooling Jackets and Saddles
Rotary Lobe pumps can be fitted with jackets to the rotorcase cover and saddles to the rotorcase. These are primarily used for warming the pumphead so as to prevent the fluid pumped being cooled and become viscous or allowed to solidify/crystallise. These can also be used for cooling purposes. The maximum pressure and temperature of heating/cooling fluid is 3.5 bar (50 psig) and 150°C (302oF) respectively. Heating/cooling jackets and saddles should be in operation approximately 15 minutes prior to pump start up and remain in operation 15 minutes after pump shut down. Typical applications include: • Adhesive • Chocolate • Gelatine • Jam • Resin Jackets are available on both the SRU and SX pump ranges, but saddles are only available on the SRU pump range.

Jacket Fig. 8.2.5a Heating/Cooling jackets and saddles

166 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Pump Specification Options

8.2.6 Pump Overload Protection
Due to the positive action of the rotary lobe pump any restriction on the outlet side of the pump, either partial or total, will result in excessive pressure developing in the pumphead. It is therefore essential that some form of overload protection be installed to protect pump, drive unit and also limit pressure build up within associated process equipment. This protection will normally take the form of an external spring-loaded pressure relief valve fitted to the outlet side of the pump which will open under high pressure and allow fluid to return to the inlet side of the pump via a by-pass loop. Other alternatives are to fit the pump with an integral relief valve as described below, or use of proprietary electronic devices. Pressure Relief Valves These can be supplied as an integral part of the pump and do not require external pipework. The assembly replaces the standard rotorcase cover and is intended to protect the pump from over pressurisation. It is suitable for bi-direction pump operation and can be retrofitted. The valve will provide full pump protection for fluids having viscosities below 500 cP, above this figure Alfa Laval should be consulted with regard to specific flow rates in relation to viscosity and differential pressures. The design is such that the valve mechanism is isolated from the pumped fluid. Valve closed
Rotors Rotor nuts Large slip path across rotorcase cover

Pressure relief valve

Fig. 8.2.6a Pressure relief valve

Valve open

Small slip path across rotorcase cover

Relief valve piston

Relief valve piston moves back against the springs

Fig. 8.2.6b Relief valve operation

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 167

Pump Specification Options

As it is a mechanical device the relief valve does not operate instantaneously due to mechanical response time. The valve will begin to relieve at a pressure less than the fully open pressure. This ‘accumulation’ will vary depending upon the duty pressure, viscosity and pump speed. The accumulation tends to increase as pressure or pump speed decrease, and as viscosity increases. The valve is set to relieve at the required pressure by the correct choice of springs and can be adjusted on site to suit actual duty requirements. The relief valve can be provided with the following options: Automatic with Pneumatic Override These valves may be pneumatically overridden for CIP conditions and they may be remotely controlled if required. Air supply should be clean and dry at pressures of 4 bar (60 psig) minimum and 8 bar (115 psig) maximum. Automatic with Manual Override This valve has a lever to enable manual override for CIP or certain tank filling applications.
Valve Type Pump Range - Availability Normal Operating Pressure Range psig bar 7-19 7-19 19 7-10 7 100-275 100-275 275 100-145 100

Standard Pneumatic override Manual override

SRU1-6 SRU1-6 SRU1-3 SRU4-5 SRU6

Table 8.2.6a

Pressure relief valves are only available for the SRU range pumps fitted with metal rotors. Pump Protection Unit (PPU) The Pump Protection Unit is a non-intrusive alternative to mechanical relief valves, conventional electronic shear pin or mechanical over-load protection devices. It is designed to protect Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps and incorporates micro-controller technology. The PPU is not a power meter or data-logging device but has the ability to monitor true consumption through continuous power monitoring. The PPU is not a pre-set device and requires a simple set-up procedure to be carried out to suit specific duty conditions of the pump to be monitored. After initial setting is completed the monitoring process is automatic and the pump is under the protection of the PPU.

Fig. 8.2.6c Pump protection unit

168 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

1000 and 750 rev/min for 50 Hz (1800. The PPU will detect a rapidly increasing load such as that caused by a solid object entering the pump and becoming trapped between the rotors.7a Typical motorised rotary lobe pump unit Fixed Speed Rotary Lobe pumps generally operate at low to medium speeds i. and diesel or petrol engine dependent upon customer requirements and services available. One example of an over-load condition could result from a gradual increase in viscosity of the pumped media. a burst inlet or outlet pipe. even within the lines of the over-load trip threshold.2.Pump Specification Options The PPU will detect over-load and rapidly increasing load. are described in more detail in section 9. 8. the PPU will also respond to mechanical changes such as bearing or lubrication failure. One example of under-load could result from a blocked or closed valve in the inlet pipe. The resulting rapid power increase from this type of event. 1200 and 900 rev/min for 60 Hz). will cause an automatic shutdown if desired thereby limiting the degree of damage. or even an empty supply vessel.e. Electric motors being the most commonly used method of drive. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 169 . An alternative arrangement would be an electric motor with a wedge belt pulley drive reducing the motor speed to the pump output speed required. The PPU will detect under-load since this highlights a condition preventing optimum pump operating efficiency. Fig. As well as responding to system related transients. 8. This condition would in turn result in a higher discharge pressure. Another example could result from a partially closed valve in the discharge pipe also giving rise to excess pressure and therefore power consumption.7 Ancillaries Rotary Lobe pumps can be supplied bare shaft (without drive) or mounted on a baseplate with drive such as electric motor. and therefore some form of speed reduction is required from normal AC motor synchronous speeds of 1500. therefore increased power consumption. 25 to 650 rev/min.2. both of which could result in pump seizure if not detected and corrected. This is generally achieved by using a geared electric motor direct coupled to the pump drive shaft via flexible coupling. air motor.

to raise baseplate above floor level.3). The Alfa Laval mild steel baseplate is supplied painted to suit customer requirements and the stainless steel has a dull polish finish. Variable Speed To handle changing duty conditions or a number of different duties. This is a compact low cost unit. Other Drive Types Air motors.Pump Specification Options When exact flow is not critical a fixed speed drive is generally used. Baseplates can also be designed to meet specific customer standards when required. although not commonly used as pump drives. Baseplates The Alfa Laval ‘standard’ is a pressed mild steel or stainless steel design which is required to be bolted to the floor (see 12. which is easy to install. which are well suited to rotary lobe pump characteristics by offering the ability to adjust the pump speed to control flow and adjust for system conditions.10). Some pumps operate continuously for 24 hours per day and others operate intermittently. In some application areas such as dairy or brewing it is normal practice to hose down pump units and floorings – in these circumstances ball feet can be fitted to baseplates. can provide good low cost drive in certain applications. it may be necessary to use a variable speed drive or frequency converter to obtain correct pump duty speeds. How a pump operates will determine the choice of geared electric motor. thereby changing pump speed and controlling flow (see 9. Motor manufacturers give recommendations for their motors relating to the number of hours per day of operation and the frequency of starting and stopping. The frequency converter allows the operator to change the frequency of the electric motor. 170 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . In addition diesel or petrol engines can be used as pump drivers. as it only requires one coupling and a safety guard. The integral geared electric motor is the most commonly used type of fixed speed drive. An alternative is to mount the pump and drive unit on a portable trolley design baseplate complete with control gear and trailing lead as required. There are many types of mechanical and hydraulic variable speed drives available in a wide range of speeds. which can be a fixed or variable height. Complete ranges of drive speeds are available from the different manufacturers and usually one can be found within a few rev/min of the required speed.

Pump Specification Options

Guards All rotating machinery should be adequately guarded and when pumps are supplied complete with a drive, a guard is fitted over the transmission (flexible coupling or wedge belt) which links the pump drive shaft to the output shaft of the selected driver. The selection of guard material is important relative to its working environment. Non-sparking materials such as aluminium or brass are used with flameproof/explosion proof motors in hazardous areas. For non-hazardous applications mild steel or stainless steel is generally used.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 171

Pump Specification Options

172 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Motors

9. Motors
This section describes electric motors, including information on motor protection, methods of starting, motors for hazardous environments and speed control.

The electric motor is the most commonly used method of pump drive, due to the following: • • • Electrical power supply is usually readily available and easy to install. High efficiency due to low losses when transforming from electrical to mechanical power. The electric motor can absorb variations in the torque requirement of a pump, i.e. as a result of changes in product/ duty conditions, inertia in the bearings, frequent starts etc. Easy speed control.

All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be fitted with AC type Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) squirrel cage three phase electric motors complying with various international standards and regulations such as IEC, CENELEC, VDE, DIN and BS. Electric motors supplied in the USA are generally to NEMA standard. Single phase electric motors can also be fitted to Alfa Laval rotary lobe pumps.

Fig. 9a Electrical hazard

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 173

Motors

The standard design of an AC motor includes the following main parts: Item 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Description Stator housing. Ball bearings. Bearing housing. Fan. Fan cap. Housing for electrical connection. Iron core. Three phase windings. Rotor. Motor shaft.

Fig. 9b Exploded view of a typical AC motor

The motor is constructed as follows: • • • • • • • • The stator is fixed in the stator housing (1). The ball bearings (2) are fixed in the bearing housing (3), which close the stator housing. The ball bearings carry the rotor (9) and the motor shaft (10). The fan (4), which cools the motor, is fixed to the motor shaft. The fan is protected by means of the fan cap (5). The housing for electrical connection (6) is situated on the stator housing. There is an iron core (7) in the stator housing. The iron core consists of thin iron sheets with a thickness of 0.3 - 0.5 mm. The three phase windings (8) are situated in the grooves of the iron core.

The three phase windings and the stator core are designed to produce a magnetic field in pairs of poles. When the stator is connected to a three-phase supply voltage the magnetic fields of the individual phase windings form a symmetrically rotating magnetic field which is called the rotational field. The speed of the rotational field is called the synchronous speed.

174 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Motors

9.1 Output Power
The output power is always lower than the rated electrical power due to various losses in the motor. The ratio of output power to rated electrical power is known as the motor efficiency. The table below shows output power that is specified in standard ratings.
Frequency 50 Hz 60 Hz 50 Hz 60 Hz Table 9.1a 0.37 0.43 11 12.7 0.55 0.63 15 17.5 0.75 0.86 18.5 21 Output Power in kW 1.1 1.27 22 25 1.5 1.75 30 35 2.2 2.5 37 42 3 3.5 45 52 4 4.6 55 64 5.5 6.3 75 87 7.5 8.6 90 105

Frequency 60 Hz 0.5 15
Table 9.1b (Nema motors)

Output Power in hp 0.75 20 1 25 1.5 30 2 40 3 50 5 60 7.5 75 10 100

9.2 Rated Speed
The rated speed of the motor is always lower than the synchronous speed due to motor slip. The connection between synchronous speed, rated speed, frequency and poles is shown in the table below:
No. Poles No. Pairs of poles Synchronous speed at 50 Hz - rev/min Rated speed at 50 Hz - rev/min Synchronous speed at 60 Hz - rev/min Rated speed at 60 Hz - rev/min Table 9.2a 2 1 3000 2880 3600 3460 4 2 1500 1440 1800 1720 6 3 1000 960 1200 1150 8 4 750 720 900 860 12 6 500 480 720 690

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 175

3 Voltage Standard motors for use on 3 phase 50 or 60 Hz can be wound for any single voltage as follows: Up to 3 kW (4 hp) 4 kW (5. 400 to 690 volts.20°C (-68o F) to + 40°C (104o F) (class B temperature rise) and at altitudes up to 1000 metres above sea level. The most common is IC411 (Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated .Motors 9.5 hp) and over 230 to 400 volts. 176 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . no externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Air Over Motor (TEAOM) – motor cooled by airstream Totally Enclosed Forced Cooled (TEFC) – motor cooled by an independent fan 9.TEFV) where an externally mounted fan cools the motor.5 Insulation and Thermal Rating Standard motors will operate satisfactorily in an ambient temperature range of .4 Cooling Motor cooling is specified by means of the letters IC (International Cooling) in accordance with standards. Euronorm motors supplied at 400 volts will generally operate satisfactorily with voltage variations of ± 10% from the rated voltage. Motors operating in ambient temperatures higher than 55°C (131o F) will have class H insulation. Some derating of the motor may be necessary for high ambient temperatures and high altitude. Motors supplied with class F insulation system with only class B temperature rise (80°C) (176o F) ensure an exceptional margin of safety and longer life even in abnormal operating conditions such as withstanding ambient temperatures up to 55°C (131o F) or 10% overload or adverse supply systems.4a Arrangement Totally Enclosed Fan Ventilated (TEFV) – motor cooled by an externally mounted fan Totally Enclosed Non Ventilated (TENV) – self cooling. Methods of cooling are shown below: Code IC411 IC410 IC418 IC416 Table 9. 9.

Protection against the ingress of solid foreign bodies with a diameter greater than 1 mm.6 Protection The degree of motor protection is specified by means of the letters IP (International Protection) in accordance with standards.6a Tropic Proof Treatment Motors operating in tropical climates are invariably subjected to hot. wires or other objects of thickness greater than 1 mm. which will produce considerable amounts of condensation on internal surfaces. To overcome this motors can be supplied with special tropic proof treatment. but dust cannot enter in an amount sufficient to interfere with satisfactory operation of the machine. These heaters are normally 110 volts or 220 volts. 2nd Digit Protection against water Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. Table showing degrees of protection is shown below: Designation 1st Digit Protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies IP44 Protection against contact with live or moving parts by tools. These state the method of determining degrees of ingress protection for both dust and water. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. the first of which specifies the protection against contact and ingress of foreign bodies and the second digit specifies the protection against water. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 177 . Anti-Condensation Heaters Where the motor is to be left standing for long periods of time in damp conditions it is recommended that anti-condensation heaters are fitted and energised to prevent condensation forming in the motor enclosure. The ingress of dust is not totally prevented. Failure to include this treatment and the resulting corrosion can cause irreparable damage to stator windings and moving parts.Motors 9. Condensation occurs when the surface temperature of the motor is lower than the dew-point temperature of the ambient air. Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure. Protection against harmful deposits of dust. The letters IP are followed by two digits. IP56 IP65 Table 9. Water projected by a nozzle against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. IP54 IP55 Water splashed against the motor from any direction shall have no harmful effect. No ingress of dust. Motor protected against conditions on a ship’s deck or powerful water jets. humid and wet conditions.

being used with a frequency converter (see 9. 178 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .9).Motors Thermistors To protect the motor windings from overload due to high temperature. i. which are temperature-dependent semi-conductor devices embedded in the motor windings. Where motors can be allowed to operate at slow speed. motors can be fitted with thermistors.e. it is normal to fit thermistors to prevent the motor from overloading or to insufficient cooling from the motor fan.

7 Methods of Starting There are three starting methods: 1. be necessary to restrict the starting current by means of Y/D . therefore. Soft.Motors 9. In this case the starting time with high starting current is very low and it can consequently be ignored. Motors fitted to centrifugal and liquid ring pumps are normally directly started. 9. 3. as the starting current is limited. Star/Delta (Y/D) Starting If pumping viscous fluids the starting time with the high starting current is longer.O. Direct On Line (D. Star/Delta (Y/D). Direct On Line Starting The connection between supply voltage and rated current is very important with regards to motor starting. Fig. as the moment of inertia of the motor is low due to pump design and the fluids being pumped having low viscosities.). In many cases the soft starter saves energy by automatically adapting the motor voltage continually to the actual requirement. The magnitude of the starting current is directly dependent on the static torque requirement during a start and on the mass of the load that is to be accelerated. The current can be restricted by starting the motor in Y-connection and then changing to D-connection. 2. It can. often 5 to 8 times higher than the rated current. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 179 . Soft starting can also be achieved using a frequency converter.starting of the motor. The simplest way to start the motor is to connect directly the mains supply to the motor. This is particularly important when the motor runs with a light load. In this case the starting current is high.L.7a Connection of three-phase single speed motor Soft Starting The soft start provides a smooth start at the same time.

in which an explosive gas-air mixture is not likely to occur in normal operation and if it occurs it will only be present for a short time. To ensure equipment can be safely used in hazardous areas. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to occur in normal operation. 1 or 2 is deemed to be a non-hazardous or safe area.e. surface industries.Motors 9. Equipment for explosive atmospheres other than mines i. an area that is not classified Zone 0. Table 9. Hazardous areas are classified into three Zones as follows: By implication. Group II is subdivided according to the severity of the environment. its gas group must be known and its temperature class must be compared with the spontaneous ignition temperature of the gas mixtures concerned. in which an explosive gas-air mixture is continuously present or present for long periods – No motors may be used in this zone. Zone 1. permitted temperature of electrical equipment 450oC (842oF) 300oC (572oF) 200oC (410oF) 135oC (275oF) 100oC (212oF) 85oC (185oF) Group I Group II IIA IIB IIC Table 9.8a Temperature class T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 Ignition temperature for gas/vapour up to 450oC (842oF) 300 to 450oC (572 to 842oF) 200 to 300oC (410 to 572oF) 135 to 200oC (275 to 410oF) 100 to 135oC (212 to 275oF) 85 to 100oC (185 to 212oF) Max. IIC is the highest rating.8 Motors for Hazardous Environments Zones The degree of hazard varies from extreme too rare. 180 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . A motor from one of the higher categories can also be used in a lower category. Zone 0.8b Equipment for coal mines susceptible to methane gas. Zone 2.

arcs or dangerous overheating. without damage. Ex nA. arcs or hot spots in service. Increased Safety Design . arcs or dangerous surface temperatures. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 181 . Ex N These motors are designated for operation in Zone 2 hazardous areas. that could reach the self-ignition temperature of the surrounding.EEx d and EEx de These motors are designated for operation in Zone 1 hazardous areas. The British Standard is the type Ex N version. The motor is designed with an EEx d flameproof enclosure. The motor enclosure is designed in such a way that no internal explosion can be transmitted to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the machine. The most commonly used and recognised by the CENELEC European Standards is the EEx de variant. where EEx n = European standard for Ex product with protection ‘n’. The temperature of the motor’s external enclosure should not exceed the self-ignition temperature of the explosive atmosphere of the installation area during operation. any pressure levels caused by an internal explosion. Non-Sparking Design – EEx nA. No motor device outside the flameproof area shall be a potential source of sparks. A = for non-sparking equipment. but with special attention to eliminate production of sparks. The marking according to standard EN 50021 is EEx nA. Variants combining two types of protection usually combine ‘d’ and ‘e’ types of protection.Motors Flameproof Enclosure . Such design combines the superior safety degree of the ‘d’ type of protection with the less stringent electrical connection requirements of increased safety motors. The enclosure will withstand. potentially explosive atmosphere. The motor construction is similar to standard TEFV motors. while the terminal box features an EEx e increased safety protection. in all inner and outer parts of the machine.EEx e The design of this motor type prevents the occurrence of sparks.

primarily consumed by households and industry. This. For instance by increasing the efficiency of their production processes.Motors The classification parameters of motors for hazardous areas can be summarised as below: Fig.8a Overview of classification parameters Severe environments Reinforced protection Corrosive atmospheres Zone 2 Accidental presence Zone 1 Incidental presence Zone 0 Permanent presence Ex nA Ex N EEx e T6 85° C T5 100° C T4 135° C T3 200° C T2 300° C T1 450° C EEx d/EEx de EEx e EEx p Standards IEC BS EN Environment Mines Explosive atmospheres Other than mines IIC Group I IIA IIB Hydrogen Gas Methane Propane Ethane 9. the European Union and CEMEP (The European Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics) agreed to introduce three efficiency classes for electric motors. is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity. 182 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . in turn. industrial processes will consume less electricity. Industry will.9 Energy Efficient Motors In October 1998. therefore. will reduce the amount of electricity that must be generated to meet demand. and installing energy efficient devices. This agreement forms part of the European Commission’s aims to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. have a major part to play in reducing harmful emissions. 9.

6 93.5 to 125 hp) rated for 400 volts. 2 and 4 pole.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76.4 90.5 91.3 93.5 93.8 84.2 85.4 89. apply to TEFV.6 88.0 90. 50 Hz.0 93.9 EFF3 below 1. EFF2 and EFF3.5 7.0 90.4 92.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76.5 93.0 88.5 81. The three efficiency classes designated EFF1.0 94.6 95. squirrel cage induction motors in the power range 1. For intermittent usage.6 89.9 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 183 . the loading and the hours run.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.0 92.1 to 90 kW (1. An energy efficient motor produces the same output power (torque) but uses less electrical input power (kW) than a standard electric motor. Table 9.2 78. higher efficiency motors can play a significant part in reducing CO2 emissions.6 84.8 92.7 87. As such.9a Output Power hp kW 2 pole Motor EFF1 equal to or above 82.2 3 4 5.7 94.5 11 15 18. EFF3 class motors can be used and for continuous usage EFF1 or EFF2 motors should be used.0 93.0 82.2 85.5 90.7 87.1 1.5 91.4 89.0 92.1 85. Energy saving is dependent upon the kW rating of the motor.7 87.Motors Motors account for around 65% of the electric energy consumed in industrial applications. This higher efficiency is achieved by using higher quality and thinner laminations in the stator to reduce core loss and more copper in the slots to reduce current and resistance losses.6 86.4 92.0 82.2 78.5 2 3 4 5.3 91.5 91.6 84.5 81.2 92.0 88.9 93.5 7.6 93.5 2.4 90.

5 91.9 94.6 93.5 93.0 92.2 78.4 90.5 91.8 92.8 85.0 92.5 11 15 18. 184 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .2 3 4 5.0 91. Dual Wound Motors have two separate windings and can be supplied for any two speed combinations.2 92.6 84.6 93.9 EFF3 below 1.4 87.2 85. A combination of dual and pole change windings can give 3 or 4 speeds from one design.2 78.2 93.0 93. Speed control can be multi-speed.4 90.9b Output Power hp kW 4 pole Motor EFF1 equal to or above 83.0 90.0 88.7 87.0 Efficiency % EFF2 equal to or above 76.2 90. Multi-Speed Pole Change (Tapped or Dahlander) These have a single winding and two speeds in a ratio of 2:1 and can be supplied for constant torque or variable torque applications. variable voltage or frequency converter.6 84.2 94.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 76.0 93.0 90.0 82.1 1.5 2.0 88.2 85.5 7.4 88.5 81.5 2 3 4 5.6 93.4 89.7 95.7 87.0 82.5 93.5 7.3 89. PAM (Pole Amplitude Modulation) Similar to above except that pole variations can be 4/6 or 6/8.5 81.Motors Table 9.4 92.9 9.10 Speed Control The effective speed control of AC electric motors has long been regarded as an adaptable and economical means of reducing costs and saving energy.1 91.6 93.4 89.4 92.5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 1.0 86.

For applications using variable torque loads such as centrifugal pumps. • • • As well as motors being remotely controlled by frequency converters. e. These arrangements are generally available for motors up to 7. These motors are of special design – standard motors being unsuitable. Frequency Converter The use of a frequency converter will allow speed control of a standard AC motor by adjusting the frequency. The power or torque requirements throughout the entire speed range. Other limiting factors such as maximum motor speeds.Motors Variable Voltage Variable voltage control provides a low capital cost means of varying the motor speed on centrifugal pumps. field oriented control utilising closed loop feedback. as there are no extra connections between the frequency converter and motor. the effective speed range can be increased to 1000:1. Reduced cooling arising from motor speed reduction. the level of derating will depend on the speed range required. For applications using constant torque loads such as rotary lobe pumps. although some derating may be necessary. With increasing sophistication such as ‘vector’ control. altitude etc. The motor ratings must take into account the following: • Increased heating due to the harmonic content of the inverter waveforms. Basic frequency converters will permit operation over a typical speed range of 20:1. electric motors can be made available with the frequency converter already fitted to the motor.5 kW (10 hp) and have the advantage of not using any shielded motor cables. ambient temperature. Also providing room in a switch cabinet will not be necessary. very little derating will be required. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 185 .g. This form of speed control requires greater derating than for converter drives and is best suited to 4 pole machines of 2:1 speed reduction with close matching of motor output to absorbed pump load.

2 2. special attention should be given to the rated speed and output power.11 Changing Motor Nameplates .3 2.91 Table 9.8.5 4.7 8.90 0.3 Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3450 Power Factor Rated Current A 8.5 kW Non-standard supply voltage. 2.2 2. Motor Frame Size 90LB 90LB Frequency Hz Supply Voltage v Output Power kW 2.Motors 9. from the table above.91 0. the rated speed and output power will vary dependent upon the combination of supply voltage and frequency.90 0.85 0. 440-480vY. frequency and output power.5 2.11a Standard supply voltage. As viewed from table below which shows an example for a motor frame size 90LB. to correctly size the motor. frequency and required power.2 kW 60 Hz. frequency and output power is required.1 2.86 0. For example. 2. Examples of this are as follows using a motor frame size 90LB from the table above. It is therefore very important to specify supply voltage. if using a motor frame size 90LB.4 8.3 7. 186 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . When selecting a motor for a centrifugal or liquid ring pump. the motor can be used as standard as follows: 50 Hz. This is shown in section 9. frequency and output power combinations. frequency and output power If a non-standard combination of supply voltage.Centrifugal and Liquid Ring Pumps only In some instances there are non-standard electrical requirements regarding combinations of supply voltage. the standard motor with a new nameplate or a special motor with an appropriately stamped nameplate can be used.7 4.8 50 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 380Y Standard New Standard New New New 0. 220-240vD/380-420vY.1. frequency and output power The motors can be used in the standard version without any modifications for the standard supply voltage.1/4. For complete list see section 14.

2. 380vY.Motors Example 1 .2 kW. which is not sufficient. The motor will give an output power of 2. 3. Select the nearest larger standard motor i. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate.5 kW 1. Example 2 – For 60 Hz.2 kW 1. Use a standard motor frame size 90LB.3 kW.5 kW is required. which is sufficient. The standard motor frame size 90LB will only give 2. Alternatively select a specially wound motor to give the required 2.3 kW. 2. as 2.For 60 Hz. 2.2 kW is required. frame size 100LB. The appropriate electrical data must be changed on the motor nameplate.5 kW at the non-standard supply voltage and frequency combination. which is sufficient. as 2. 380vY. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 187 . 3. 2. This will give 3.e.

Motors 188 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Chemical Cleanliness This is defined as the removal of all visible dirt or contamination as well as microscopic residues. which are detectable by either taste or smell but not by the naked eye. The guidelines incorporate references to internationally recognised cleaning detergents. such as valves and fittings. Sterility Quite simply this is the destruction of all known micro-organisms. but have been specifically prepared to maximise the CIP effectiveness of our pumps. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 189 . The perception of the word clean will vary from customer to customer and process to process. The following recommendations for CIP will address the first three definitions. 3. 2. Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) Systems This section provides cleaning guidelines for use in processes utilising CIP (Clean In Place) systems. Interpretations of cleanliness are given and explanations of the cleaning cycle. Physical Cleanliness This is the removal of all visible dirt or contamination from a surface.Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems 10. The four most common interpretations of ‘Clean’ are given below: 1. This level of cleanliness is usually verified by a visual test only. Bacteriological Cleanliness This can only be achieved with the use of a disinfectant that will kill all pathogenic bacteria and the majority of other bacteria. 4. The following recommendations offer advice on how to maximise the CIP (Clean In Place) efficiency of the Alfa Laval ranges of centrifugal and rotary lobe pumps. velocities. temperatures and pressures used to clean other types of flow equipment.

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

In most installations it is important to ensure the maximum recovery of pumped product residues from the production line at the end of each production run. Where this is a requirement, consideration should be given to mounting rotary lobe pumps with ports in the vertical plane to maximise drainability. This will minimise any product loss, ease the cleaning of the system and reduce the requirement to dispose of or recycle the wash from the initial cleaning cycles. By maximising the recovery of product from the system both the efficiency of the production and cleaning processes will be increased. Rotary lobe pumps are rarely used as the supply pump for CIP fluids. Centrifugal pumps are generally used during CIP for each phase of the cleaning cycle. For the majority of CIP cycles it is recommended that a differential pressure of 2 to 3 bar is created across the pump to promote efficient cleaning, whilst it is rotating at it’s normal operating speed. In many cases a valve is employed in the discharge line of the system to create the differential pressure across the pump and a by-pass loop installed around the pump to divert any excess of CIP liquid that the pump is unable to transfer. The valve(s) setting may be fluctuated during the CIP cycle to promote pressure/flow variations that may enhance the cleaning process. During the CIP cycle there must always be sufficient flow of cleaning fluid being delivered by the CIP pump to make sure that the centrifugal or rotary lobe pump is neither starved of liquid at it’s inlet due to its own flow capability, or overpressurised at it’s inlet due to its tendency to act as a restriction if it is unable to transfer the full flow of the fluid being delivered to it. Internationally accepted protocol for CIP suggest that during all phases of the CIP cycle a pipeline velocity of between 1.5 m/sec and 3.0 m/sec is required. Velocities within this range have proven to provide effective cleaning of Alfa Laval pumps, although as a general rule the higher the velocity the greater the cleaning effect. Generally the most effective cleaning processes incorporate five stages: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An initial rinse of clean, cold water. Rinsing with an alkaline detergent. Intermediate rinse with cold water. Rinsing with an acidic disinfectant. Final rinse with clean cold water.

190 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

The cycle times, temperatures, cleaning mediums and concentrations of the detergents used will all influence the effectiveness of the cleaning cycle and care must be taken when defining these to ensure that they are suitable for use with the particular product being pumped. Of equal importance is the chemical compatibility between the cleaning detergents and the product wetted materials in the pump head and ensuring for rotary lobe pumps the correct temperature clearance rotors are fitted for the CIP cycle. Consideration should also be given to the disposal or recycling of used cleaning liquids and the potential requirement for handling concentrated detergents. Specialists suppliers should make the final selection of cleaning detergents/disinfectants. Within these guidelines a typical cleaning cycle would be as follows: 1. Rinse with clean water at ambient temperature to remove any remaining residue. 10 to 15 minutes are usually sufficient for this part of the cycle but this will depend on the condition and volume of the residue to be removed. Rinse with an alkaline detergent, typically a 2.5% solution of Caustic Soda (NaOH) at between 70 to 95°C (158 to 203oF) for a period of 20 to 30 minutes would be used. It is also common to add a wetting agent (surfactant) to lower the surface tension of the detergent and hence aid its cleansing ability. This phase of the cleaning cycle should dissolve and remove organic matter such as fats and proteins. Intermediate rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 5 to 10 minutes. This phase should remove any residual detergents. Rinse with an acidic disinfectant, typically a 2.5% solution of Nitric Acid (HNO3) at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes would be used. This phase of the cleaning cycle should remove proteins, mineral salts, lime and other deposits. Final rinse with clean water at ambient temperature for a period of 10 to 15 minutes or until all traces of the cleaning fluid have been removed.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 191

Cleaning Guidelines for use in Processes utilising CIP Systems

During the CIP cycles it is important that the required concentration of cleaning detergents is maintained consistently. A significant increase in concentration could cause damage to pumps and other components in the system. A significant decrease in concentration could effect the detergents cleaning efficiency. A facility for monitoring and adjusting the detergent concentration should be considered. Cautionary Notes: 1. Pumps and other equipment installed in CIP systems have components within them that will expand and contract at different rates. Care should be taken not to subject them to rapid temperature cycling. Products containing particulate such as fibre, seeds or soft fleshy matter have to be evaluated carefully and on an individual basis, as the nature of these will provide an increased cleaning challenge. These types of product may typically require increased cleaning cycle times and/or increased velocities and pressures during the cleaning cycle. CIP detergent liquids and the elevated temperatures typically used for CIP processes can cause a potential health risk. Always adhere to site Health and Safety regulations. Always store and dispose of cleaning agents in accordance with site Health and Safety regulations.

2.

3.

4.

After CIP cleaning and additional sterilisation in place process (SIP) may be required when highly sensitive products are handled, inactivating any micro-organisms which might be still present in the pump. The sterilisation can be carried out be means of chemicals, hot water or steam. In the dairy industry the sterilisation temperature is approximately 145oC (293oF).

192 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines

11. Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines
This section describes some of the international standards and guidelines applicable to Alfa Laval pump ranges.

In recent years there has been increasing concern over safety and hygiene in the bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. This has led to numerous standards and legislation being written.

A number of countries have national standards and/or directives applicable to food machinery but there are relatively few international standards. Those that exist are predominantly dairy based and are too general and developed on ‘experience’ rather than scientific data. In the USA, a number of guidelines in the form of third party approval schemes have been developed for the dairy industry (3-A standards) and food service equipment (NSF – National Sanitation Foundation). The structure of these schemes involves representatives of equipment manufacturers, end users and regulatory bodies in the implementation of recommendations. Unfortunately, however the 3-A standards have no benchmark of cleanability or test regimes to establish cleanability, and the NSF standards are not applicable to the hygienic design of general food processing equipment. Alfa Laval pump ranges are available to meet standards and legislation as follows: • • CE Compliance (Safety/Risk Assessment). 3-A Design and Material Specifications (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Lobe Pumps for Milk and Milk Products). FDA Material Requirements. USDA Regulating Biotechnology. EN 10204 3.1.B Certified Material Traceability. EN 10204 2.2 Certificate of Conformity. EHEDG Cleanability and Installation Guidelines.

• • • • •

Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 193

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines

Fig. 11a CE

CE The introduction of CE marking is to demonstrate to interested parties that goods or equipment with this mark comply with the appropriate directives of the European Community. The appropriate directives are those that are concerned with the design and manufacture of goods or equipment. Directives are intended to facilitate a Single Market in the European Union. With emerging European standardisation, conflicting national standards will eventually tend to disappear, as all EU member states will work to the same standard, with a few exceptions. Some national differences cannot be harmonised. In Europe many different languages are spoken, and some parts are prone to earthquakes, high winds, heavy snow and extremes of cold and heat. It is often uneconomic to design equipment that will withstand all these conditions. All Alfa Laval pump ranges are CE marked and conform to the machinery directive 89/392/EEC as amended by 91/368/EEC, 93/ 44/EEC and 93/68/EEC and other relevant directives i.e. ‘Electrical Equipment Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC’ and ‘Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive 89/336/EEC’. Other applicable standards/specifications which Alfa Laval pump ranges comply to are as follows: • EN292 Parts 1 and 2: 1991 Safety of Machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design. EN294: 1992 Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs. EN60204 Part 1: 1993 Safety of Machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - specification for general requirements. BS5304: 1988 Code of Practice for Safety of Machinery. ISO9001: 1994 Quality Management System.

• •

194 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook

The 3-A Sanitary Standards and 3-A Accepted Practices are voluntarily applied as suitable sanitary criteria for dairy and food processing equipment. write specific criteria for materials in product contact. The FDA’s primary purpose is to protect the public by enforcing this Act. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 195 . and sub-assemblies supplied by the manufacturer. In the USA. • • For all Alfa Laval pump ranges the product wetted parts can be made available with FDA compliance. assemblies. approve materials for use in pharmaceutical systems.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines Fig. write specific engineering or design requirements for systems. It is responsible for new material approvals. write general guidelines for good manufacturing processes. fabrication. and installation (where appropriate) requirements for the engineering design and technical construction files for all products. 11b 3-A 3-A (Centrifugal and Positive Rotary Pumps for Milk and Milk Products) This standard has the purpose of establishing and documenting the material. All Alfa Laval pump ranges conform to this 3-A standard. plant inspections and material recalls. drug and cosmetics manufacturing. the ‘Food. The FDA can: • approve plants for manufacturing. have certain expectations regarding design practices. • • • • inspect plants at random. The manufacturer has to be in compliance with the sanitary criteria found in 3-A Sanitary Standards or 3-A Accepted Practices. The FDA cannot: • approve equipment outside of a particular use within a specific system. drug and cosmetic manufacturers to prove that their products are safe. Drug and Cosmetic Act’ requires food. FDA The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA is the enforcement agency of the United States Government for food.

or modify plants. including genetic engineering. such as selective breeding. • • • 196 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines All Alfa Laval pump ranges can be supplied into process areas/plants that are controlled by USDA.and with greater ease and precision. scientists have been working to improve plants and animals for human benefit for hundreds of years. with some products being regulated under more than one agency. and micro-organisms. The agency regulates the field testing of genetically engineered plants and certain micro-organisms. along with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U. Modern techniques now enable scientists to move genes (and therefore desirable traits) in ways they could not before . While these agencies act independently. including animal vaccines that may be the product of biotechnology.S. primarily responsible for regulating biotechnology in the United States. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). improve. The Department of Health and Human Service’s Food and Drug Administration (FDA) governs the safety and labelling of drugs and the nation’s food and feed supply. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ensures the safety and safe use of pesticidal and herbicidal substances in the environment and for certain industrial uses of microbes in the environment. animals. excluding meat and poultry. USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) ensures the safety of meat and poultry consumed as food. that are used to create. APHIS also approves and licenses veterinary biological substances. Using conventional techniques. they have a close working relationship. Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques. USDA The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is one of three Federal Agencies. The Federal government has a well co-ordinated system to ensure that new agricultural biotechnology products are safe for the environment and to animal and human health. • USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is responsible for protecting American agriculture against pests and diseases. Products are regulated according to their intended use.

11c EHEDG EHEDG objectives are to produce hygienic design guidelines that can be verified by standard test procedures. EN 10204 2. sterilisability and aseptic capability. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 197 . The EN 10204 standard defines the different types of inspection documents required for metallic products. EHEDG aims to promote hygiene during the processing and packaging of food products. The Alfa Laval Rotary Lobe pump ranges and the LKH-UltraPure range of Centrifugal pumps can be supplied with material traceability if required. This takes the form of a certificate of conformity and can be applied to all Alfa Laval pump ranges.Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines • The Department of Health and Human Service’s National Institutes of Health have developed guidelines for the laboratory use of genetically engineered organisms. they are mandatory for any research conducted under Federal grants and they are widely followed by academic and industrial scientists around the world.2 This standard defines documents supplied to the purchaser.B With the stringent demands of hygiene within new food and pharmaceutical plants being built. material traceability of equipment supplied is increasingly important. 3. in accordance with the order requirements. This requires a range of test procedures for a variety of equipment parameters including cleanability.B of this standard refers to inspection documents being prepared at each stage of manufacture and supervised tests performed by authorised personnel independent of the manufacturer. With no European Community legislation available the European Hygienic Equipment Design Group (EHEDG) was formed. Fig.1. pasteurisability. While these guidelines are generally voluntary. for the supply of metallic products such as pumps.1. EHEDG We are now seeing increased public awareness surrounding food hygiene and food manufacturers desire to improve product safety. EN 10204 3. The Alfa Laval LKH range of centrifugal pumps and the SX range of rotary lobe pumps with its dedicated vertical port orientation meet EHEDG cleanability and comply with EHEDG installation guidelines. In particular.

Compliance with International Standards and Guidelines 198 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

bolts etc. 12.g.1 System Design To ensure optimum pump operation it is important that any pump unit is installed correctly. Discharge line • Plan view Suction line Fig. Avoid suction lifts and manifold/common suction lines for two rotary lobe pumps running in parallel.Installation Guide 12.1.1a). Fit suction and discharge pressure monitor points for diagnostic purposes.1. 12. pressure switches and current limiting devices. 12.1 General 12. Also protect the pump from accidental operation against a closed valve by using relief valves. as this is crucial for ensuring the smooth operation of the pump and preventing cavitation. as this may cause vibration or cavitation (see fig. When designing a pumping system the following should be taken into consideration: • Confirm the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) available from the system exceeds the NPSH required by the pump.1. system design and pipework layout.1a Avoid common suction lines • Protect the pump against blockage from hard solid objects e. Installation Guide This section covers guidelines relating to pump installation. if two pumps are to be used on manifold/common discharge lines. • • Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 199 . Fit valves. nuts.

Avoid bends. • Have short straight inlet pipework to reduce friction losses in the pipework thereby improving the NPSH available. • • 12.1. • • • 12. Include eccentric reducers on suction lines.Installation Guide • Make the necessary piping arrangements if flushing is required for the seal or if a media is required for heating/cooling jackets. Keep pipework horizontal where applicable to reduce air locks. 12.4 Electrical Supply Ensure that there is an adequate electrical supply close to the pump drive unit. This should be compatible with the electric motor selected.3 Weight The weight of the pump and drive unit should be considered for lifting gear requirements.2 Pipework All pipework must be supported. tees and any restrictions close to either suction or discharge side of pump.1.1. The pump must not be allowed to support any of the pipework weight and the following should be taken into consideration. Use long radius bends wherever possible. Do not subject rotary lobe pumps to rapid temperature changes. as pump seizure can result from thermal shock. 200 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Provide isolating valves on each side of the pump when necessary. Adhere to installation foundation instructions.

2 Flow Direction Outlet 12. 12.2.1c Pump without impeller screw fitted • • Start and stop the motor momentarily.2.Installation Guide 12. 12. Ensure that the direction of rotation of the stub shaft is anti-clockwise as viewed from the pump inlet. The pump should never be started if the impeller is fitted and the pump casing has been removed.2. Pump without impeller screw fitted With this method the impeller should always be removed before checking the direction of rotation. 12.1a Correct direction of flow 1.2. Fig. It is possible to check this in two ways as follows: Inlet Fig. Stub shaft Fig. Fig.1 Centrifugal Pumps A centrifugal pump should never be operated in the wrong direction of rotation with fluid in the pump.1b Pump with impeller screw fitted 2.1d Pump without impeller Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 201 .2. 12. • Ensure that the direction of rotation of the motor fan is clock-wise as viewed from the rear end of the motor. Pump with impeller screw fitted • Start and stop the motor momentarily (without fluid in the pump).

Outlet Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Outlet Fig.2. Reversing the direction of rotation will reverse the flow direction.2. 12.2 Rotary Lobe Pumps The direction of flow is dictated by the direction of drive shaft rotation.2a Flow direction Inlet 202 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Installation Guide 12.

12.3 Baseplate Foundations (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Rotary Lobe pumps when supplied with a drive unit are normally mounted on a baseplate. they can be studs embedded in the concrete either at the pouring stage as shown below.Installation Guide 12. Rag or waste paper can be used to prevent the concrete from entering the sleeve while the foundation is poured. 12. A minimum of 14 days is normally required to allow the curing of the concrete prior to pump unit installation. D = Diameter of foundation bolts Fig. Alternatively mechanical fixings can be used. The depth of the foundation should be proportional to the size of the complete pump unit. or by use of epoxy type grouts. The sleeve allows for ‘slight’ lateral movement of the bolts after the foundation is poured.3a Baseplate fixing Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 203 . To provide a permanent rigid support for securing the pump unit. strain or shock on the pumping unit.3b Foundations Baseplate fixing holes Fig. The drawing below shows two typical methods for foundation bolt retaining. The Foundation should be approximately 150mm longer and wider than the baseplate. a large pump unit foundation depth should be at least 20 times the diameter of the foundation bolts. a foundation is required which will also absorb vibration. For example. Methods of anchoring the baseplate to the foundation are varied. Alfa Laval standard baseplates have pre-drilled fixing holes to accept base retaining bolts.

5 Special Considerations for Liquid Ring Pumps 12.5.1a Installation of MR-166S/ -185S/-200S Fig. 12. 12. 2 m (6.5.3 ft) Fig.4a Parallel and angular misalignment 12. Parallel misalignment Angular misalignment Fig. Once the baseplate has been secured.1b Installation of MR-300 204 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook Min. 12.Installation Guide 12.4 Coupling Alignment (Rotary Lobe Pumps only) Before rotary lobe pump units are installed it is important to ensure that the mounting surface is flat to avoid distortion of the baseplate. the pump shaft to motor shaft coupling alignment should be checked and adjusted as necessary. 1 m (3.6 ft) . Min. This will cause pump/motor shaft misalignment and pump/motor unit damage.1 Pipework The pipelines on the discharge side of a liquid ring pump should be routed as shown below to ensure correct pump operation. This is achieved by checking the maximum angular and parallel allowable misalignments for the couplings as stated by the coupling manufacturers.5.

Was the system undergoing routine maintenance? Were any new or repaired components omitted to be fitted? When was the pump last serviced? What was the appearance and condition of the pump internal components? How long did the pump operate before the problem? Any changes in pump noise or vibration? The most common problems found are generally as follows and explained in 13. The problem is usually caused by inadequate control of the pumped fluid or a change in operating requirements of which the system or pump is not capable of handling or a component malfunction. What has changed in the process since operation was last satisfactory? i. • Rapid pump wear. fluid viscosity etc.2: • Loss of flow. pressure. 13. pumps are likely to be the most vulnerable components. • Excessive power usage. • Excessive noise or vibration. Troubleshooting This section offers possible causes and solutions to most common problems found in pump installation and operation. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 205 .1 General In most pumping systems. Before starting to correctly identify the problem it is important to gather as much information relating to the process as follows: • • • • • • • • Reconfirm original duty conditions.e. • Low discharge pressure. Diagnosis of problems will be greatly assisted by having pressure gauges fitted to both pump inlet and outlet. • Seal leakage. temperature. • Loss of suction. The symptoms frequently show the pump to be at fault regardless of what may be wrong.Troubleshooting 13.

Cavitation is caused by insufficient system inlet pressure to the pump. excessive fluid viscosity or excessive pump speed. its viscosity may be too high causing excessive friction (pressure loss) in the inlet piping system.2 Loss of Suction Loss of suction can be minor. Loss of flow can be caused by excessive discharge pressure and/or by a change in fluid viscosity.2 Common Problems 13. 13. This can be caused by an inlet system restriction.Troubleshooting 13. • For a centrifugal pump if the viscosity is increased. the pump’s rated flow will be reduced. causing little short term damage or sufficiently major to cause catastrophic damage. In general terms: • For a rotary lobe pump if the viscosity is significantly reduced. 206 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . vibration and significant increase in discharge pressure pulsation. Cavitation is frequently accompanied by noise. Loss of suction can be interpreted as the inability to prime. The surface of these components are typically perforated and pitted. which although obvious is often overlooked. This means that within limits. Loss of suction means fluid is not reaching the pumping elements or not reaching them at a sufficiently high pressure to keep the fluid being pumped in a fluid state. debris floating in the fluid supply that covers the inlet piping intake. more so for higher pressure operation. The liquid ring pump can also be classed as self-priming when the pump casing is half filled with fluid and the LKHSP centrifugal pump range is specially designed to be self-priming. Filling the inlet system with fluid or at least filling the pump (wetted pumping elements) will make a major improvement in the pump’s priming capability.2. or rags.2. the pump’s rated flow will be decreased. If the fluid is cooler than design temperature. cavitation or a gas content problem.1 Loss of Flow A simple cause of this could be incorrect direction of shaft rotation. The rotary lobe pump can be classed as ‘self-priming’. If a pump is allowed to cavitate over long periods this will cause damage to the pumphead components. Inlet restrictions can include dirty or clogged inlet strainers. it is capable of evacuating (pumping) a modest amount of air from the suction side of the pump to the discharge side of the pump.

especially on the discharge side of the pump can sometimes go into a hydraulic vibration mode caused by operating pressure. usually accompanied by noise and vibration.4 Excessive Noise or Vibration Excessive noise and/or vibration can be a symptom of cavitation. or the pump flow is bypassing rather than being delivered into the system as intended. the pump is not producing its rated flow (pump worn or damaged).2. if the tank and return lines are not adequately designed. such as a lubrication system where the fluid pumped is continuously returned to a supply source or tank. Mechanical causes of noise and vibration include shaft misalignment. In this instance it is quite likely that air is being drawn into the pipework through a loose pipe connection or pump casing joint. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 207 . Either the pump is not providing the flow expected or the system is not offering the expected resistance to that flow. mechanical damage to pump assembly. Lines returning flow to a supply tank should terminate below minimum fluid level. 13. Cavitation is especially true if the discharge pressure is fluctuating or pulsating. leaking inlet valve stem.Troubleshooting Gas in the inlet pipework has the same impact on pump operation and creates the same symptoms as cavitation. flow rate and the valve design. Valves. 13. located and sized. This can occur under other circumstances such as a pump operating at an inlet pressure below local atmospheric pressure. In recirculating systems.3 Low Discharge Pressure Low discharge pressure can only be caused by loss of flow. Pump discharge pressure is caused only by the system’s resistance to the flow provided by the pump. air is easily entrained in the oil and immediately picked up by the pump inlet system. loose couplings. Be sure fluid level at its source is at or above minimum operating levels. loose pump and/or driver mountings. Resetting or a change in an internal valve component is usually sufficient to solve the problem. worn or damaged driver or pump bearings or valve noise that seems to be coming from the pump. defective or otherwise damaged joint gasket in the pipework system. misalignment of drive or harmonics with other elements of the system.2. loose pump and/or driver guards. It is possible that flow is being restricted into the pump (cavitation).

• For a rotary lobe pump too high discharge pressure can cause the motor to overload. For a centrifugal pump too high capacity (too low discharge pressure) can cause the motor to overload. seal leakage can be due to pump cavitation. 13. 208 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Looking at the pump internal parts alone may not provide much help in identifying the cause. too high discharge pressure. loss of shaft support (bearing failure).7 Seal Leakage Mechanical seals fitted to centrifugal. thus the importance of knowing what was occurring in the time period immediately preceding detection of the problem. strainers or filters should be employed wherever possible and practical.e. mounting attitude. chemical corrosion. pumping elements rubbing which can lead to a pump seizure and poor shaft alignments. but really a catastrophic pump failure that occurred very quickly.2.2. excessively high pressure or high temperature. cavitation. Rapid wear is sometimes not wear in the sense of a non-durable pump. rotary lobe and liquid ring pumps can be seen as the weakest point for any pump leakage and special care should be taken to ensure the correct seal for the application is installed i.Troubleshooting 13.6 Rapid Pump Wear Rapid wear of pumphead components is either caused by abrasives being present in the fluid. Apart from mis-selection and poor servicing. seal face combination and elastomer selection.2.5 Excessive Power Excessive power consumption can be caused by either mechanical or hydraulic problems. • 13. or operation at a condition for which the pump is not suitable i. being allowed to run dry and unexpected solids in the fluid. Mechanical causes include imminent bearing failure.e. To avoid any abrasive foreign material entering the pump. Too high viscosity can result in the motor overloading.

3a on the following pages: Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 209 .Troubleshooting 13.e. In ( ) next to the particular solution given you will find annotation relating to what pump type the solution is for.3 Problem Solving Table The table shown offers probable causes and solutions to the most common problems encountered. ce liq rlp = Centrifugal Pump = Liquid Ring Pump = Rotary Lobe Pump See table 13. i.

rlp).liq) . liq. rlp). above rated figure. Increase fluid temperature (ce. rlp). liq. rlp). If solids cannot be eliminated. Increase pump speed (rlp). rlp). rlp).check effect of increased viscosity? ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Air entering suction line. Strainer or filter blocked. liq. Reverse motor (ce. ü ü ü ü üü ü ü Fluid viscosity below rated figure. liq) . liq. 210 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Check seal face and elastomer temperature limitations (ce. ü ü Insufficient NPSH available.liq. rlp). Decrease fluid temperature (ce. liq). rlp). Reduce fluid temperature (ce. Increase suction line diameter (ce. rlp). rlp). liq. rlp). rlp). rlp). rlp). Reduce pump speed (rlp). consider fitting double mechanical seals (ce. Clean the system (ce. Decrease fluid temperature (ce. Increase motor speed (ce. Service system and change to prevent problem recurring (ce. Increase suction head (ce. Unexpected solids in fluid.Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. Service fittings (ce. liq. liq. Decrease pump speed (rlp). liq. liq. ü ü ü ü ü ü Fluid viscosity above rated figure. Decrease fluid temperature (ce. liq. Check for obstructions i. Check seal face viscosity limitations (ce. Increase suction head (ce. Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. liq. rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ü ü ü ü üü ü Incorrect direction of rotation. rlp). liq = Liquid Ring. increased viscosity? Increase suction line diameter (ce. Simplify suction line configuration and reduce length (ce. Reduce pump speed (rlp). ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü üü ü ü ü Discharge pressure above rated figure. liq. (ce. closed valve (ce.e. Simplify discharge line to decrease pressure ü ü ü ü Gland over-tightened. Increase fluid temperature (ce. liq. liq. liq. below rated figure. Fit strainer to suction line (ce. rlp). rlp). Remake pipework joints (ce. Pump not primed. Cool the pump casing (ce. rlp). rlp). rlp). Fluid temp. Heat the pump casing (ce.rlp). liq. liq. Expel gas from suction line and pumping chamber and introduce fluid (ce. liq. ü ü ü üü ü ü Fluid temp.check effect of ü üü ü ü Fluid vaporising in suction line. rlp). rlp). Slacken and re-adjust gland packing (rlp). rlp). liq.

rlp). Pump speed below rated figure. Decrease pump speed (rlp). Fit new components (ce. rlp). . liq). ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Insecure pump driver mountings. rlp).check motor size (ce). Fit larger size impeller . Fit single or double flushed mechanical seals (ce. Support pipework (ce. liq.valve should lift approx. Examine and clean seating surfaces (rlp). liq. ü ü ü ü ü Flexible coupling misaligned. Reduce clearance between impeller and back plate/ casing (ce. Refer to pump maker for advice and replacement parts (rlp). Ensure discharge pipework higher than suction tank flow passing back through pump. Replace worn parts (rlp). Refer to pump maker (ce. Fit pumping element (ce. rlp). rlp). Adjust gland packing (rlp). Ensure system operation prevents this (ce. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pump speed above rated figure. liq. Check alignment and adjust mountings accordingly (rlp). rlp). liq = Liquid Ring.Troubleshooting Problem No flow Under capacity Irregular discharge Low discharge pressure Pump will not prime Prime lost after starting Pump stalls when starting Pump overheats Motor overheats Excessive power absorbed Noise and vibration Pump element wear Syphoning Seizure Mechanical seal leakage Packed gland leakage ce = Centrifugal. liq. Check pressure setting and re-adjust if necessary (rlp). No barrier in system to prevent Check for wear on sealing surfaces. Pump casing strained by pipework. 10% above duty pressure. rlp). ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Table 13. liq. rlp). Lower pump or raise fluid level (ce. ü ü ü Shaft bearing wear or failure. guides etc replace as necessary (rlp). Increase pump speed (rlp). Suction lift too high. Check alignment of pipes (ce. rlp). Rotorcase cover relief valve incorrectly set. Check that flush fluid flows freely into seal area (ce. Check and replace motor bearings (ce. rlp). rlp = Rotary Lobe Probable Causes Solutions ü ü ü ü ü Gland under-tightened. liq. Use optional materials (ce. Increase flush flow rate (ce. Pumping element missing i.3a Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 211 Faulty motor. ü ü Fluid pumped not compatible ü with materials used. Fit lock washers to slack fasteners and re-tighten (rlp). rlp). Refer to pump maker’s instructions (rlp). Fit flushed packed gland (rlp). liq. Metal to metal contact of pumping element. liq. ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Rotorcase cover relief valve chatter.e. Too small impeller diameter.rlp). Worn pumping element. ü ü Seal flushing inadequate. (rlp). Check rated and duty pressures (ce. Fit flexible pipes or expansion fittings (ce. rlp). rlp). ü ü Pump allowed to run dry. Rotorcase cover relief valve leakage. after service. liq. Too large clearance between impeller and back plate/casing. Re-adjust spring compression (rlp) . ü ü Insufficient gearcase lubrication.

Troubleshooting 212 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

1a Description Area Tube diameter Force Darcy friction factor Gravity Total head Total suction head Total discharge head Pressure drop in suction line Pressure drop in discharge line Static suction head Static discharge head Tube length Pump speed Pressure absolute above fluid level Pressure loss due to friction Vacuum or pressure in a tank on suction side Pressure in a tank on discharge side Power/viscosity factor Vapour pressure Capacity Symbol QL q r Ra Re SG T V D (Greek letter ‘delta’) h (Greek letter ‘eta’) hh hm hoa hv m (Greek letter ‘mu’) n (Greek letter ‘nu’) r (Greek letter ‘rho’) Description Fluid losses through impeller casing clearances Pump displacement Radius Surface roughness Reynolds number Specific gravity Shaft torque Fluid velocity g (Greek letter ‘gamma’) Specific weight Total Î (Greek letter ‘epsilon’) Relative roughness Total efficiency Hydraulic efficiency Mechanical efficiency Overall efficiency Volumetric efficiency Absolute viscosity Kinematic viscosity Fluid density w (Greek letter ‘omega’) Shaft angular velocity Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 213 .1 Nomenclature Symbol A D F fD g H Hs Ht hfs hft hs ht L n Pa Pf Ps Pt Pv Pvp Q Table 14. Various conversion tables and curves are also shown. Technical Data This section includes a summary of nomenclature and formulas used in this handbook.Technical Data 14. 14.

7 1 Poise = 100 cP 1 Stoke = 100 cSt 2.s) r = fluid density (kg/m3) or n=m SG where: n = Kinematic viscosity (cSt) m = Absolute viscosity (cP) SG = specific gravity or m = n x SG Flow Velocity V=Q A where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/s) A = tube area (m2) or V = Q x 353.6 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (m/s) Q = capacity (m3/h) D = tube diameter (mm) or 2.1.1.1.2 V = Q x 0.409 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (US gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) or V = Q x 0.7 Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) Re = D x V x r m Re = D x V x r m Re = 21230 x Q Dxm 214 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data 14.2 Formulas Designation Formula Comments Where to find Product Viscosity n=m r where: n = Kinematic viscosity (mm2/s) m = Absolute viscosity (mPa.s) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (cP) or where: D = tube diameter (mm) Q = capacity (l/min) m = absolute viscosity (cP) 2.489 D2 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/s) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) D = tube diameter (in) where: D = tube diameter (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = density (kg/m³) m = absolute viscosity (Pa.

2.2.2 Total head H = Ht – (± Hs) Total discharge head Ht = ht + hft + pt 2.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Reynolds number (ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces) or Re = 3162 x Q Dxn where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (US gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) or Re = 3800 x Q Dxn where: D = tube diameter (in) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) n = kinematic viscosity (cSt) Pressure/Head Pressure (total force per unit area exerted by a fluid) Static Pressure/Head (relationship between pressure and elevation) P=F A P=rxgxh where: F = Force A = Area where: P = pressure/head (Pa) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) h = height of fluid (m) or P = h x SG 10 or where: P = pressure/head (bar) h = height of fluid (m) 2.2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 215 .hfs + (± ps) 2.2 2.2 Friction loss (Miller equation) Pf = fD x L x r x V² Dx2 2.2.2 P = h x SG 2.2 Total suction head Hs = hs .2.2.31 where: P = pressure/head (psi) h = height of fluid (ft) where: Ht = total discharge head Hs = total suction head where: ht = static discharge head hft = pressure drop in discharge line pt > 0 for pressure pt < 0 for vacuum pt = 0 for open tank where: hs = static suction head > 0 for flooded suction < 0 for suction lift hfs = pressure drop in suction line ps > 0 for pressure ps < 0 for vacuum ps = 0 for open tank where: Pf = friction loss (Pa) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) r = fluid density (kg/m3) D = tube diameter (m) 2.2.

2.2.4 Power Hydraulic power (theoretical energy required) Power (W) = Q x H x r x g where: Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head (m) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) where: Q = capacity (l/min) H = total head (bar) k = 600 7.0823 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (psi) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (ft) V = fluid velocity (ft/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (in) where: fD = friction factor Re = Reynolds number where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (bar) hs = static suction head (m) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (m) Pvp = vapour pressure (bar a) or where: Pa = pressure absolute above fluid level (psi) hs = static suction head (ft) hfs = pressure drop in suction line (ft) Pvp = vapour pressure (psia) 2.2.2 Darcy friction factor fD = 64 Re NPSHa (Net Positive Suction Head available) NPSHa = Pa ± hs – hfs – Pvp (+hs for flooded suction) (– hs for suction lift) 2.1 or Power (kW) = Q x H k or Power (hp) = Q x H k where: Q = capacity (US gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1715 where: Q = capacity (UK gall/min) H = total head (psi) k = 1428 or Power (hp) = Q x H k 216 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Friction loss (Miller equation) or Pf = 5 x SG x fD x L x V² D where: Pf = friction loss (bar) fD = friction factor (Darcy) L = tube length (m) V = fluid velocity (m/s) SG = specific gravity D = tube diameter (mm) or Pf = 0.

4 Volumetric efficiency (Rotary Lobe pumps) hv = Q x 100% q 7.2.4 Pump efficiency (hp) Water horse power x 100% Required power or hp = Q x H x r x g wxT 7.2.2.2.2.4 Overall efficiency (hoa) Water horse power x 100% Drive power Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 217 .2.3 Efficiency Hydraulic efficiency (hh) Mechanical efficiency (hm) Volumetric efficiency (Centrifugal and Liquid Ring pumps) Pump head loss (m) x 100% Total head (m)3 1 .4 where: hp = pump efficiency Q = capacity (m3/s) H = total head/pressure (m) r = fluid density (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) w = shaft angular velocity (rad/s) T = shaft torque (Nm) 7.4 7.0) Torque (Nm) = Required power (kW) x 9550 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (Kgfm) = Required power (kW) x 974 Pump speed (rev/min) or Torque (ftlb) = Required power (hp) x 5250 Pump speed (rev/min) 7.Pump mech.2.4 7. losses x 100% Required power hv = Q x 100% Q + QL where: hv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity QL = fluid losses due to leakage through the impeller casing clearances where: hv = volumetric efficiency Q = pump capacity q = pump displacement 7.Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find 7.2.2 Required power (power needed at the pump shaft) Torque Torque Hydraulic power Efficiency (100% = 1.

Rotary Lobe Pump Pump speed n = Q x 100 q x hv x 60 where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) q = pump displacement (m³/100 rev) hv = vol.2 D2 = D1 x Ö Q2 Q1 7.0) Flow Control .Technical Data Designation Formula Comments Where to find Pump speed .4 n = Q x 100 q x hv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (US gall/min) q = pump displacement (US gall/100 rev) hv = vol.2a 7.2.2 7.3. efficiency (100% = 1.3.2 7.2 Connection between impeller speed and capacity Connection between impeller speed and head Connection between impeller speed and power Table 14. efficiency (100% = 1.3.2 n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x n2 = n1 x Ö Ö 3 H2 H1 P2 P1 where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) H = head (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) P = power (kW) 7.3.0) or n = Q x 100 q x hv where: n = pump speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (UK gall/min) q = pump displacement (UK gall/100 rev) hv = vol.2 7.3.2 218 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Centrifugal Pump Connection between impeller diameter and capacity Connection between impeller diameter and head Connection between impeller diameter and power Reduction of multi-stage impeller diameter D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x D2 = D1 x Ö Ö Ö 3 5 Q2 Q1 H2 H1 P2 P1 c-b a-b where: D = impeller diameter (mm) Q = capacity (m³/h) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) H = head (m) where: D = impeller diameter (mm) P = power (kW) where: D1 = standard diameter (mm) a = max.3. efficiency (100% = 1. working point (m) c = required working point (m) where: n = impeller speed (rev/min) Q = capacity (m³/h) 7.3.0) or 7. working point (m) b = min.

23 x 10-3 2.0254 0.53 x 10-5 0.0353 58 x 10-5 1.81 x 10 5.315 2.0610 61.0 26.201 1.48 91.0 10 x 107 0.2288 1.0033 3.0 0.1337 UK gall.0043 7.3.317 4.0 14.81 x 10 2.22 0.4805 1.01 0.3937 1.3a l/min 16.540 30.88 x 10 9.785 0.3.3 Conversion tables 14.64 x 10-5 00283 0.3.1605 0.10 100 1.3.3999 0.0 22 x 10-5 0.201 1.Technical Data 14.1189 3.0036 6.4 304.0278 0.387 28317 4546.73 13200 US gall/min 4.0833 1.0 ft³ 35.8 914.5315 9.0 0.3.060 0.8327 US gall.0 0.1a m 0.0011 1.026 1.4 Table 14.2832 1019.4 36000 UK gall/min 3.60 1.0 35.315 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 219 .6667 4.10 0.0 yd 0.001 1.2732 0.0 1000 10 25.7853 in³ 61024 0.3.0 0.315 3.0 0.370 0.0045 37.78 x 10-5 7.42 231.0 0.88 x 10-4 Table 14.0 1728 277.3667 1.0 1.2a cm³ 100 x 10 1.1 Length mm 1.546 3.667 1.6326 8.67 x 10 -3 -4 -4 -3 m³/s 2. 220.3048 0.0 2.83 15838 ft³/h 35.0010 1.2808 0.4 x 10-5 0.0283 1.2642 0.78 x 10-4 1.2642 0.2273 0.0 14.0283 101.31 x 10-5 7.0164 28.3333 1.2727 0.0394 39.1247 448.0 2.0328 0.3 Volumetric Capacity m³/h 1.0208 1.1038 373.0 1000 16.6667 0.7270 2.4 4 l 1000 10 x 10-4 1.1 3785.0 3.78 x 10-4 1.0 0.4719 1699 6 x 104 hl/h 10.1094 0.67 x 10-5 2.57 x 10-5 6.0 3600 127208 ft³/s 9.0 2.22 0.441 in 0.0 12 36 ft 0.86 x 10-6 0.94 3600 Table 14.2 Volume m³ 1.546 3.0936 0.4399 1. 264.0 0.9144 cm 0.8326 0.

06 735.959 2.10 0.3.9807 0.921 0.0193 0.102 1.0160 0.4335 1.0295 0.0 1.3.0833 lbin 8.113 kgfm 0.0109 24.3067 33.54 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-5 Table 14.3558 0.0 220 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .036 29.0 x 10-4 29.0345 10.4536 Table 14.6 Force Table 14.0968 13.0 9.4 x 10-5 44.07 6.422 0.715 760.5 x 10-4 kgf 101.3.7a Nm 1.2778 0.81 0.87 x 10-6 3.5 Pressure/Head bar kg/cm² lb/in² (psi) 14.3.6 0.8067 1.4a 3600 1.0 25.34 x 10-4 14.190 t/h (tonne/hour) 3.12 x 10-4 2.0 14.197 10 0.0 0.696 0.3.9878 0.859 2201.81 2.0 0.0 9.3.8508 86.0 0.0 0.1383 0.78 x 10-4 1.6116 1.0410 0.024 0.97 1.8827 2.4536 lbf 224.455 32.6 2.39 1.0197 1.0 22.504 14.3453 10.0305 0.0 0.223 1.2046 1.7031 10.9842 1.0 29.0014 0.420 73.889 1.3.1 41.133 3.78 x 10-4 0.2 x 10-5 750.808 2.0255 0.2046 6.89 101.0394 1.001 4.0703 1.9869 0.0 9.356 1.3 2.4 Mass Capacity kg/s kg/h lb/h UK ton/h t/d (tonne/day) 86.530 28.332 0.0417 1.6 x 10-5 1.2822 11.667 1000 1632.0 0.2 x 10-6 10.4536 1016.0 3.3.0136 0.0609 1.796 12.4912 14.0689 1.2330 1.385 1.0 0.0 24 39.0334 ft (water) 33.0 14.2808 0.2 x 10-4 0.0299 0.0 2.81 x 10-3 44.0133 0.7 Torque Table 14.57 x 10-3 0.0446 1.40 0.0339 1.0 2240 91.3 x 10-4 0.6222 0.56 51.99 9.5 x 10-5 atm (water) 0.6071 2.0332 0.0 1.26 x 10-4 0.5 x 10-5 100 98.0 0.8 3600 3.7376 7.5431 98.5a 1.896 0.2046 1.0 14.0981 13.0 0.0115 lbft 0.3048 1.9 7936.6a kN 1.6350 lb/s 1.1329 m mm Hg in Hg kPa 1.Technical Data 14.40 75.

34 x 10 0.8 Power W 1.3.0 73.9 Density Table 14.127 x 10-6 36.8 74.9a kg/m3 1 103 27.0 0.2 x 10-5 ft lbf/s 0.7376 7.3558 745.0 550.7 1355.428 x 10-3 62.8a kgfm/s 0.001 Table 14.6 x 10-4 1.3.102 1.0 14.019 3 g/cm3 10-3 1 27.0 13.578 70 x 10 -3 lb/ft3 62.Technical Data 14.0 9.680 x 10 16.3.0132 1.82 x 10-3 1.127 x 10-3 1 0.040 10.8067 1.8 x 10-5 hp 1.70 0.019 x 10 -3 lb/in3 36.728 x 103 1 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 221 .4 x 10-7 -3 kW 1000 9806.3.1383 76.680 16.2330 1.428 1.

2 3.50 0.2 4.2 4.4 3.4 1.15 0.0 1.90 1.80 0.8 5.6 4.0 2.2 2.04 0.01 0.8 4.0 9.30 0.5 6.0 7.2 3.0 5.6 3.20 0.02 0.6 4.20 0.5 6.0 4.0 3.10 0. then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise cP 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 Poise 0.0 Read Directly Across When SG is other than 1.0 Find cSt.04 0.10 Viscosity Conversion Table When SG = 1.3.0 7.4 1.30 0.25 0.07 0.6 1.Technical Data 14.0 10 Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 31 34 38 47 60 80 100 130 160 210 260 320 370 430 480 530 580 690 790 900 1000 1100 1200 1280 1380 1475 1530 1630 1730 1850 1950 2050 2160 2270 2380 2480 2660 2900 3380 3880 4300 4600 54 57 61 75 94 125 170 190 210 300 350 450 525 600 875 750 900 1050 1200 1350 1500 1650 1800 1950 2100 2250 2400 2550 2700 2850 3000 3150 3300 3450 3600 3750 4125 4500 5250 6000 8750 7500 29 32 36 44 52 63 86 112 138 181 225 270 314 364 405 445 492 585 670 762 817 933 1020 1085 1170 1250 1295 1380 1465 1570 1650 1740 1830 1925 2020 2100 2255 2460 2860 3290 3640 3900 Ford #3 Ford #4 Zahn #1 Zahn #2 Zahn #3 Zahn #4 Zahn #5 8 9 10 12 15 19 25 29 33 36 41 45 50 58 66 72 81 90 98 106 115 122 130 136 142 150 160 170 180 188 200 210 218 230 250 295 340 365 390 5 8 10 12 14 18 22 25 28 31 32 34 41 45 50 54 58 62 65 68 70 74 89 95 100 106 112 118 124 130 137 143 153 170 194 223 247 264 30 34 37 41 44 52 60 68 72 81 88 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 27 30 34 37 41 49 58 66 74 82 88 10 12 14 16 18 20 23 25 27 30 32 34 36 39 41 43 46 48 50 52 54 58 64 68 76 10 11 13 14 16 17 18 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 29 30 32 33 34 36 38 40 45 51 57 63 69 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 30 35 40 45 49 222 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .01 0.10 0.0 10 cSt 1 2 4 7 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 Stoke 0.70 0.0 5.2 2.4 4.02 0.70 0.25 0.2 1.0 8.2 1.40 0.8 5.4 4.6 1.0 4.8 3.0 3.6 2.8 2.50 0.4 2.15 0.4 2.90 1.0 9.8 2.8 4.0 8.40 0.60 0. then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke.6 3.07 0.8 3.80 0.60 0.4 3.0 2.0 1.6 2.

10a Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 223 .0 Read Directly Across When SG is other than 1.3.0 Find cSt.Technical Data When SG = 1. then mutiply Stoke x SG = Poise cP 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000 Poise 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 cSt 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 100000 125000 150000 175000 200000 Stoke 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Saybolt Redwood Universal Seconds Standard SSU Engler #1 5200 5620 6100 6480 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9400 9850 10300 10750 11200 11600 14500 16500 18500 21000 23500 26000 28000 30000 32500 35000 37000 39500 41080 43000 46500 69400 92500 138500 185000 231000 277500 323500 370000 415500 462000 578000 694000 810000 925000 8250 9000 9750 10350 11100 11850 12600 13300 13900 14600 15300 16100 16800 17500 18250 21800 25200 28800 32400 36000 39600 43100 46000 49600 53200 56800 60300 63900 67400 71000 106000 140000 210000 276000 345000 414000 484000 550000 620000 689000 850000 4410 4680 5160 5490 5940 6350 6780 7200 7620 7950 8350 8730 9110 9500 9830 12300 14000 15650 17800 19900 Ford #3 445 480 520 550 595 635 680 720 760 800 835 875 910 950 985 1230 1400 1570 Ford #4 299 323 350 372 400 430 460 490 520 540 565 592 617 645 676 833 950 1060 1175 1350 1495 1605 1720 1870 2010 2120 2270 2350 2470 2670 Zahn #1 Zahn #2 Zahn #3 Zahn #4 77 Zahn #5 55 59 64 70 75 80 85 91 96 Table 14. then mutiply cSt x SG = cP Find Stoke.

0 86 186.6 77 170 338 299 570 14.0 5.8 116.49 to 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 °F 32 33.490 to °F °C 500 .2 90 194.6 37.4 66.0 510 950 14 35.8 100 212.6 100 212 414 327 620 17.1 97 206.8 44.4 120.9 4.8 43 110 230 266 510 11.6 238 460 860 466 870 -130 31.6 96 204.3 56 132.2 50.6 154 310 590 382 720 -400 22.2 504 940 -4 35.8 3.4 5.6 182 360 680 410 770 -310 25.6 -10.2 249 480 896 477 890 -94 32.4 102.4 57.Technical Data 14.2 -11.8 516 960 32 36.6 127 260 500 354 670 20.0 66 150 302 288 550 13.1 -15.7 -11.9 9.1 6.9 57 134.7 98 208.0 93 200 392 316 600 16.4 243 470 878 471 880 -112 31.2 -1.11a 224 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .8 62.6 493 920 -40 33.4 20.0 227 440 824 454 850 -166 30.8 488 910 -58 33.4 160 320 608 388 730 -382 23. If in °F read °C equivalent in the left hand column.2 113.8 177 350 662 404 760 -328 25.7 -6.8 53.3 74 165.4 76 168.3 8.8 232 450 842 460 860 -148 30.4 0 .7 7.0 96.0 114.5556 °F = ( °C x 1.9 -13.8 89.6 109.4 216 420 788 443 830 -202 28.4 499 930 -22 34.8 149 300 572 377 710 -418 22.8 107.2 99 210.4 -8.9 -3.6 210 410 770 438 820 -220 28.6 78 172.8 -12.1 -10.2 104.0 143 290 554 371 700 -436 21.6 0.0 60.2 221 430 806 449 840 -184 29.7 62 143.6 69 156.0 69.1 70 158.1000 to °F 932 950 968 986 1004 1022 1040 1058 1076 1094 1112 1130 1148 1166 1184 1202 1220 1238 1256 1274 1292 1310 1328 1346 1364 1382 1400 1418 1436 1454 1472 1490 1508 1526 1544 1562 1580 1598 1616 1634 1652 1670 1688 1706 1724 1742 1760 1778 1796 1814 1832 10.9 84 183.3 3.2 193 380 716 421 790 -274 26.7 -1.0 -9.4 48.2 2.2 86.1 -0.8 91 195.0 50 122.2 138 280 536 366 690 -454 21.6 6.1 61 141.0 538 1000 Locate temperature in middle column.4 188 370 698 416 780 -292 26.6 -15.8 99 210 410 321 610 16.3 -12.2 59.3.2 81 177.11 Temperature Conversion Table minus 459.2 -16.7 53 127.6 521 970 36.8 -17.2 -6.1 -5. °C = ( °F .2 41.0 171 340 644 399 750 -346 24.8 98.7 -16.8 204 400 752 432 810 -238 27.4 104 220 428 332 630 17.9 93 199.2 95.4 67 152.2 88 190 374 310 590 15.8 -2.9 75 167.6 82.8 82 179.6 49 120 248 271 520 11.7 2.6 91.0 78.8 73 163.1 88 190.0 116 240 464 343 650 18.3 -7.0 0.9 66 150.0 68 154.6 55.4 85 185.4 527 980 37.2 63 145.6 1.8 8.4 -3.2 7.4 82 180 356 304 580 15.0 95 203.2 532 990 37.4 58 136.6 51 123.3 83 181.3 65 149.0 °C to °F -273 -268 -262 -257 -251 -246 -240 -234 -229 -223 -218 -212 -207 -201 -196 -190 -184 -179 -173 -169 -168 -162 -157 -151 -146 -140 -134 -129 -123 -118 -112 -107 -101 -96 -90 -84 -79 -73 -68 -62 -57 -51 -46 -40 -34 -29 -23 -17.0 77 170.4 94 201.4 39.1 79 174.3.6 118.2 72 161.0 254 490 914 482 900 -76 32.4 -13.8 35.7 89 192. If in °C read the °F equivalent in the right hand column.0 87.2 68.2 110 230 446 338 640 18.0 38 100 212 260 500 10.6 64.8 -7.0 105.8 121 250 482 349 660 19.0 -14.8 80.6 73.2 77.2 60 140 284 282 540 12.7 80 176.0 51.7 71 159.0 42.32 ) x 0.6 100.2 °C 50 .4 .100 to °F °C 100 .8 71 160 320 293 560 13.9 -8.6 -5.1 52 125.0 199 390 734 427 800 -256 27.3 92 197.8 64 147.4 132 270 518 360 680 -459.4 84.4 93.6 46.8 -459 -450 -440 -430 -420 -410 -400 -390 -380 -370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280 -273 -270 -260 -250 -240 -230 -220 -210 -200 -190 -180 -170 -160 -150 -140 -130 -120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 °C -17.8 ) + 32 Table 14.2 54 129.6 87 188.8 55 131.6 60 140.4 54 130 266 277 530 12.2 166 330 626 393 740 -364 23.8 71.4 75.1 1.0 -4.4 111.3 -2.0 59 138.

6 965.3 15.9 958.9 25.2 980.8 1000.7 983.7 994.2 988.25 5.0 999.8 968.7 101.9 971.1 995.3 Vapour pressure: 1 bar = 100 kPa = 105 N/m2 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 225 .7 19.62 7.Technical Data 14.2 38.3 961.2 997.38 9.5 57.7 999.0 985.40 4.33 3.9 70.1 84.23 1.4 Vapour pressure (Pvp) (kPa) 0.87 1.8 974.1 992.4 Water Vapour Pressure Table Table 14.60 12. (°C) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Density (r) (kg/m3) 999.1 998.6 47.2 990.71 2.4a Temp.6 977.1 31.61 0.

5 Pressure Drop Curve for 100 m ISO/DIN Tube 1 bar » 10 m (metre liquid column) Fig. 14.5a Pressure Drop Curve 226 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data 14.

14.Technical Data 14.6 Velocity (m/s) in ISO and DIN Tubes at various Capacities l/h 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 1 m3/h = 1000 l/h Fig.6a Connection between velocity and capacity at different tube dimensions Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 227 .

3. 6. 1.7. Aseptic seat valves 1. SRC-LS 2. 6. 5. SMO 2. 3.6 mm 228 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .5 mm 76 mm 101. Koltek MH 2. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 1. 7 1 1 1 10 1 2 2 12 1 3 4 21 1 5 6 20 2 6 9 26 2 7 10 7 5 4 4 6 5 8 8 6 8 13 9 10 8 18 15 15 15 10 17 28 21 20 15 37 28 20 20 18 44 43 27 32 29 61 50 55 36 55 39 88 75 7 5 4 3 5 5 6 4 10 4 14 10 7 3 7 5 8 7 12 6 12 7 27 21 12 8 8 4 13 10 21 14 15 12 32 22 11 7 9 6 13 11 30 19 29 26 50 39 8 6 14 11 19 17 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63. 3.1 ISO Tube Metric Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. 5.Technical Data 14. 4. 4. SRC. ARC. ARC-SB 2. AMO 2. 5. 4. 3. 4.7 Equivalent Tube Length Table 14. 6.

3. 1.4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. 3. 1. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. SMP-BC 2. Unique * 2. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. 1. 4. Bend 45 deg. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 229 . SMP-SC.5 mm 76 mm 101. SMP-BCA 2. 3.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. 3. 1. 1. SMP-SC 2. 4. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 25 mm Equivalent tube length in metres per unit 38 mm 51 mm 63. 4. 7. 6. 7. 5. 6. SMP-TO 2.2 1 1 1 0. 4.7. 3-body 2. 3.6 mm 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 14 14 4 4 8 8 27 27 6 7 17 16 4 5 14 16 4 11 7 13 13 34 34 4 18 16 30 20 41 34 5 8 5 25 25 5 7 32 25 5 5 27 29 3 8 7 15 14 25 23 3 29 29 41 27 41 38 26 26 4 5 55 41 5 14 45 52 6 18 11 32 31 101 101 6 84 81 104 75 152 146 6 23 24 3 3 3 7 6 9 6 2 5 3 6 5 5 6 3 6 5 11 10 12 12 3 10 9 18 12 14 14 0. 5.1a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug.3 0.

SRC. 5.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 23 3 3 3 33 3 7 7 39 3 10 13 69 3 16 20 66 7 20 30 85 7 23 33 23 16 13 13 20 16 26 26 20 26 43 30 33 26 59 49 49 49 33 56 92 69 66 49 121 92 66 66 59 144 141 89 105 95 200 164 180 118 180 128 289 246 23 16 13 10 16 16 20 13 33 13 46 33 23 10 23 16 26 23 39 20 39 23 89 69 39 26 26 13 43 33 69 46 49 39 105 72 36 23 30 20 43 36 98 62 95 85 164 128 26 20 46 36 62 56 1 in 1. 5. Seat valves 1. 5. 4. 4. 6. 6.2 ISO Tube Feet Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1. 4. Koltek MH 2. 3. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 6.5 in 3 in 4 in 230 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 1. SRC-LS 2. 4. AMO 2. 3. 1. SMO 2.7.Technical Data 14. ARC-SB 2. ARC. 3. 3.

Unique * 2. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 in 1.2a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 1. 3. SMP-BC 2. SMP-TO 2. 3. 1. 5. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 231 . 7. 4.5 in 3 in 4 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 46 46 13 13 26 26 89 89 20 23 56 52 13 16 46 52 13 36 23 43 43 112 112 13 59 52 98 66 135 112 16 26 16 82 82 16 23 105 82 16 16 89 95 10 26 23 49 46 82 75 10 95 95 135 89 135 125 85 85 13 16 180 135 16 46 148 171 20 59 36 105 102 331 331 20 276 266 341 246 499 479 20 75 79 10 10 10 23 20 30 20 7 16 10 20 16 16 20 10 20 16 36 33 39 39 10 33 30 59 39 46 46 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14.Technical Data Equipment for ISO tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1. 6. 5. 4. 3-body 2. 1. Bend 45 deg.7. SMP-BCA 2.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. SMP-SC 2. SMP-SC. 3. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 3. 3. 4. 4. 6. 1. 1. 7.

1. 14 2 2 2 14 1 2 2 15 1 5 5 32 2 9 9 36 2 10 14 30 2 8 13 2 1 8 6 5 5 7 6 10 10 6 9 15 11 13 9 20 17 21 21 11 21 42 28 26 22 54 40 34 34 24 64 64 44 46 44 98 77 64 40 57 43 94 84 8 6 4 4 6 6 7 6 11 6 18 15 9 4 9 8 11 10 15 9 18 12 44 34 19 10 13 7 19 16 28 21 27 23 54 36 21 14 18 12 24 22 33 23 33 28 57 43 9 7 17 13 22 18 18 22 29 27 49 38 44 72 72 69 150 89 DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 232 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 4.Technical Data 14. 5. AMO 2. 3. 3. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. 1. 3. 6. 6.7. 3. Aseptic seat valves 1. SRC. 6. 5. 4. 5. ARC.3 DIN Tube Metric Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Seat valves 1. SMO 2. 4. 4. Koltek MH 2. ARC-SB 2. SRC-LS 2.

SMP-SC. 1.7. 4.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 2 m/s) Mixproof valves 1. SMP-BCA 2. 7. 3. 1. SMP-TO 2. 3. 1. 1. SMP-BC 2. 1. SMP-SC 2. 5. 7. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 233 .4 2 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 2 1 7 5 Table 14. Bend 45 deg. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) DN25 DN40 Equivalent tube length in metres per unit DN50 DN65 DN80 DN100 DN125 DN150 14 14 5 6 14 14 4 5 15 14 4 4 9 9 27 27 6 7 24 22 6 6 22 25 5 13 11 22 22 52 52 5 32 25 46 30 62 54 7 11 8 25 25 5 7 54 41 6 6 44 54 5 15 12 24 23 44 44 5 51 49 72 46 67 64 26 26 4 5 64 50 6 15 54 64 7 21 20 40 37 114 114 6 97 94 124 84 174 167 8 28 30 4 38 31 8 78 61 49 53 7 7 89 133 22 22 3 4 4 9 7 10 9 3 6 3 9 6 8 9 4 7 6 17 13 15 15 4 13 12 24 15 20 21 0. 6.2 1 1 1 0. 3. 6. 3. 5. Unique * 2. 4. Tubes and fittings Bend 90 deg.3a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. 3. 4. 4. For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 3-body 2.3 0.

3. 3. SRC.4 DIN Tube Feet Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Seat valves 1. Other valves Non-return valve LKC-2 Butterfly valve LKB 1. AMO 2.Technical Data 14. 4. 4. ARC-SB 2. Koltek MH 2. 3. 5. 46 7 7 7 46 3 7 7 49 3 16 16 105 7 30 30 118 7 33 46 98 7 26 43 7 3 26 20 16 16 30 20 33 33 20 30 49 36 43 30 66 56 69 69 36 69 138 92 85 72 177 131 112 112 79 210 210 144 151 144 322 253 210 131 187 141 308 276 26 20 13 13 20 20 23 20 36 20 59 49 30 13 30 26 36 33 49 30 59 39 144 112 62 33 43 23 62 52 92 69 89 75 177 118 69 46 59 39 79 72 108 75 108 92 187 141 30 23 56 43 72 59 59 72 95 89 161 125 144 236 236 226 492 292 1 in 1. 1. 1. 4. 6. Aseptic seat valves 1. SMO 2.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 234 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . ARC. 3. SRC-LS 2.7.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 6. 6. 5. 4. 5.

7. 1.Technical Data Equipment for DIN tube (for water at 6 ft/s) Mixproof valves 1. Tee (out through side port) Tee (in through side port) 1 1 3 3 3 1 7 7 3 3 10 7 3 3 13 10 3 3 16 13 7 3 23 16 Table 14. 1. 4. SMP-BCA 2. 4. 3.5 in 3 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 46 46 16 20 46 46 13 16 49 46 13 13 30 30 89 89 20 23 79 72 20 20 72 82 16 43 36 72 72 171 171 16 105 82 151 98 203 177 23 36 26 82 82 16 23 177 135 20 20 144 177 16 49 39 79 75 144 144 16 167 161 236 151 220 210 85 85 13 16 210 164 20 49 177 210 23 69 66 131 121 374 374 20 318 308 407 276 571 548 26 92 98 13 125 102 26 256 200 161 174 23 23 292 436 72 72 10 13 13 30 23 33 30 10 20 10 30 20 26 30 13 23 20 56 43 49 49 13 43 39 79 49 66 69 Bend 90 deg. Bend 45 deg. 1. 1. SMP-SC.5 in Equivalent tube length in feet per unit 2 in 2. 5. 1. 3. SMP-SC 2. 6. 4. Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 235 . For other combinations use the CAS Unique configuration tool. 6. SMP-BC 2. 3-body 2. 3. Tubes and fittings 1 in 1.7. 5.4a * Pressure drop/equivalent tube length is for unbalanced upper plug and balanced lower plug. SMP-TO 2. 7. Unique * 2. 4. 3. 3.

Technical Data 14.8a Moody diagram for fD (after Miller) 236 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . 14.8 Moody Diagram Fig.

m3/h 100 Fig. 14.9a Initial suction line sizing Viscosity .Technical Data 14.9 Initial Suction Line Sizing Flow rate .cSt Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 237 .

COLOURING CARAMEL .TOFFEE CASTOR OIL CELLULOSE ACETATE DOPE CELLULOSE SUSPENSION CERAMIC SLIP ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) (‡) Name of Fluid Pumped 238 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .in some instances Pseudoplastic fluids can have Thixotropic tendencies. The fluid viscous behaviour type shown relates to general terms . NBR ACETIC ACID ACETONE ADHESIVE .If low concentration.WATER BASED ALUM SLUDGE AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE ANIMAL FAT BABY BATH BABY LOTION BABY OIL BATH FOAM BATTER BEER BENTONITE SUSPENSION BISCUIT CREAM BISULPHITE BITUMEN BLACK LIQUOR BLEACH BLOOD BODY LOTION BODY SCRUB BRINE BUTTER CALCIUM CARBONATE SLURRY CARAMEL .Technical Data 14. . (†) .Fluid can become Dilatant at high concentration and high shear rate. The elastomer compatibilty is for guidance purposes only as this maybe affected by temperature.SOLVENT BASED ADHESIVE . this can be Newtonian.10 Elastomer Compatibility Guide Listed below are fluids commonly pumped.

NONIONIC DIESEL OIL DODECYL BENZENE SULPHONIC ACID DRILLING MUD DYE EGG ENZYME SOLUTION ETHANOL ETHYLENE GLYCOL FABRIC CONDITIONER FATS FATTY ACID FERRIC CHLORIDE FERTILISER FILTER AID FININGS FIRE FIGHTING FOAM FISH OIL FONDANT FORMIC ACID FROMAGE FRAIS FRUCTOSE FRUIT JUICE CONCENTRATE FRUIT PUREE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic (‡) Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 239 .AMPHOTERIC DETERGENT .ANIONIC DETERGENT .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR CHEESE CHEWING GUM CHINA CLAY SLURRY CHOCOLATE CHROMIC ACID CHUTNEY CITRIC ACID COAL TAR COCOA BUTTER COCOA LIQUOR COCONUT CREAM COLLAGEN GEL CONDENSED MILK COPPER SULPHATE CORN STEEP LIQUOR CORN SYRUP COSMETIC CREAM COUGH SYRUP CRUDE OIL CUSTARD DAIRY CREAM DETERGENT .CATIONIC DETERGENT .

Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR FUDGE GELATINE GLUCOSE GLYCERINE GREASE GYPSUM SLURRY HAIR CONDITIONER HAIR GEL HAND CLEANSER HONEY HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE CREAM MIX INK .SOLVENT BASED ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic 240 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .PRINTING INK .WATER BASED ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL ISOCYANATE ISOPROPANOL JAM KEROSENE LACTIC ACID LACTOSE LANOLIN LATEX LECITHIN LIPSTICK LIQUORICE MAGMA MAIZE STARCH SLURRY MALT EXTRACT MANGANESE NITRATE MASCARA MASHED POTATO MASSECUITE MAYONNAISE MEAT PASTE METHANOL METHYL ETHYL KETONE SOLVENT METHYLATED SPIRIT METHYLENE CHLORIDE MILK MINCEMEAT MINERAL OIL MOLASSES MUSTARD NEAT SOAP NITRIC ACID PAINTS .

Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR PAINTS .VEGETABLE SAUSAGE MEAT SEWAGE SLUDGE SHAMPOO SHAVING CREAM SILICONE OIL SODIUM HYDROXIDE SODIUM SILICATE SORBIC ACID SORBITOL STARCH SUGAR PULP .BEET SUGAR PULP .CONFECTIONERY SAUCE .WATER BASED PAPER COATING .CANE SUGAR SYRUP SULPHURIC ACID TALL OIL TALLOW TITANIUM DIOXIDE TOBACCO FLAVOURING TOLUENE TOMATO KETCHUP TOMATO PUREE TOOTHPASTE TRUB UREA VARNISH VASELINE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic (†) Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 241 .STARCH PAPER PULP PEANUT BUTTER PERACETIC ACID PETFOOD PETROLEUM PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION PLASTISOL POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL POLYVINYL ALCOHOL POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE PROPIONIC ACID PROPYLENE GLYCOL QUARG RESIN RUBBER SOLUTION SAUCE .CLAY PAPER COATING .PIGMENT PAPER COATING .

10a Elastomer compatibility guide ü ü ü Elastomer Material EPDM FPM ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Viscous Behaviour Type PTFE ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü ü Pseudoplastic Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Newtonian Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic (†) Pseudoplastic (†) 242 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Name of Fluid Pumped NBR VEGETABLE GUM VEGETABLE OIL VITAMIN SOLUTION WATER WAX WHEY WHITE SPIRIT WINE WORT XYLENE YEAST YOGHURT ZEOLITE SLURRY ZIRCONIA SLURRY Table 14.

85 0.2 2.5 4.4 3.75 0.8 1.7 4.11 Changing Motor Name Plates Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 71 C 0.88 0.91 0.89 0.1 1.7 5.85 0.55 0.8 6.0 3.0 3.88 0.2 6.5 1.1/4.1 8.89 0.1 3.7 11.89 0.91 0.9 2.88 0.55 0.90 0.1 1.4 1.3 3.82 0.4 8.90 0.3 2.75 0.78 0.1 1.0 3.3 2.55 0.6 2.75 0.6 1.0 3.6 4.9 5.6 1.91 0.4/3.55 0.1 5.87 0.85 0.9 10.88 0.90 0.1 1.2 2.91 0.90 0.0 5.75 0.89 0.5 1.75 0.89 0.8 9.3/2.75 1.1 1.5 5.91 0.91 0.3 1.2 2.7/3.5 2.75 1.0 4.9/5.91 0.90 0.2 3.5 1.75 0.1 ABB 80 A ABB 80 C ABB 90 L ABB 90 LB ABB 100 LB Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 243 .91 0.83 0.81 0.1 5.8 6.86 0.1 1.2 3.1 1.0 3.5 3.82 0.3 3.2 3.1 2.88 0.1/1.0 3.3/1.85 0.5 4.91 2.2 50 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-480Y 200D 220D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2870 2810 3460 3370 3420 2860 2810 3490 3380 3430 3450 3420 2870 2840 3500 3400 3450 3460 3450 2920 2880 3510 3460 3490 3500 3490 2900 2860 3500 3430 3470 3470 3450 2920 2890 3520 3470 3490 3500 3490 2920 3520 3500 3490 0.7 8.1 2.86 0.5 3.89 0.88 0.91 0.8 3.3 2.7 10.55 0.5 3.3 5.3 7.Technical Data 14.88 0.92 0.3 2.2 2.5 4.5 2.90 0.6 1.2 3.3 5.91 0.90 0.

4 ABB 160 MA 11.91 0.89 0.4 7.4 5.1 13.4 14.0 3.91 0.5 14.89 13.5 7.7 13.5 8.91 0.9 25.5 12.3 10.4 14.7 7.89 0.92 0.8 10.89 0.89 0.90 0.8 7.5/20.0 12.89 0.8 ABB 132 SA 5.7 18.4 7.5 20.0 12.91 0.2 11.91 0.91 0.0 23.0 10.91 0.91 0.0 14.0 4.6 7.90 0.5 7.0 12.0 22.88 0.7 7.7 4.4 6.6 8.7 5.92 0.8 4.4 5.9 10.89 0.9/10.0 20.0 3.90 0.4 5.90 0.0 23.4 3.0 14.5 11.4 7.9 21.4 14.91 0.5 5.4 7.0 40.92 0.7/8.89 0.91 0.0 11.5 6.9/6.9 10.89 0.7 5.91 0.7 25.5/14.2 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2850 2790 3450 3360 3390 3400 3390 2850 3450 3400 3390 2855 2790 3455 3345 3395 3380 3370 2855 3455 3380 3370 2855 2825 3455 3365 3405 3415 3405 2855 3455 3415 3405 2930 2900 3515 3475 3485 3500 3485 2930 3515 3500 3485 0.88 0.88 0.4 5.89 0.4 14.0 22.4 5.88 0.90 0.91 0.8 4.0 40.8 7.2 12.0 7.6 7.89 0.89 0.5 12.0 20.8/4.4 ABB 132 SB 7.4 34.9 10.0 18.4 26.91 0.91 0.89 0.9 10.0 244 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 112 M 4.91 0.88 0.5/7.89 0.88 0.5 6.0 3.0 40.9 21.8 14.6 3.5 12.0/11.0 25.91 0.6 4.3 7.

6 6.3 27.0 25.5 34.0 59.89 0.89 0.0 25.5 21.0 27.89 0.5 1.89 0.0 25.0/32.0 22.5 19.0 40.75 1.0 14.88 0.4 18.0 38.91 0.1 3.9 0.5 17.3 3.91 0.0/38.86 0.89 0.0 33.91 0.89 0.0 80.86 0.0 22.5/15.91 0.5 76.5 77.91 0.91 0.0 55.0 34.9 0.9 0.0 16.0 30.0 15.5 44.7 15.0 25.91 0.2 6.8 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 2920 2890 3505 3470 3485 3500 3485 2920 3505 3500 3485 2920 2895 3510 3500 3490 3500 3490 2920 3510 3500 3490 2930 2920 3530 3505 3510 3520 3510 2930 3530 3520 3510 0.91 0.89 0.5 6.0 25.0 25.75 1.0/26.0 34.91 0.74 0.87 6.76 0.90 0.0 40.5 18.87 0.6 1.5 1.0/18.88 0.0 30.5 1.75 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y Standard New Standard New New New New 1440 1380 1730 1660 1680 1680 1660 0.0 52.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors ABB 160M 15.89 0.5 51.7 18.0 60.5 17.9 0.2/3.0 46.4 18.89 46.89 0.0 25.91 0.5 30.7 ABB 160 L 18.90 0.5 33.0 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 245 .91 0.5 ABB 180 M 22.5 15.90 0.5 59.5 53.7 16.9 0.0 19.0 44.9 0.0 46.91 0.0 4-pole motors ABB 90 L-4 1.0 26.0 67.0 17.6 3.5/22.0 32.0 14.0 16.0 34.2 21.0 22.86 0.5 15.0 30.

0 21.3/8.0 32.4 8.0 70.84 0.0 35.85 0.5 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 50 60 60 60 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 440-480Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 380-420D/660-690Y 440-480D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D 230D/400Y 200D 440Y 200D 220D 400Y 380Y 400D/690Y 440D 400D 380D Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New Standard New Standard New New New New Standard Standard New New 1440 1430 1750 1700 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1450 1440 1750 1720 1730 1735 1730 1450 1750 1735 1730 1455 1440 1745 1720 1730 1735 1730 1455 1765 1735 1730 1470 1460 1765 1750 1755 1755 1755 1470 1765 1755 1755 0.3 6.85 19.4 5.8 15.5 20.2 16.4 12.9/11.86 0.2 15.0 21.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 4-pole motors ABB 132 S-4 5.5 6.0 ABB 160 L-4 15.87 0.0 16.5 53.0/20.1 16.85 0.4 12.0 20.87 0.86 0.5 21.6 7.87 0.8 16.0 17.86 0.0 28.2 16.85 0.5/6.0 16.6 11.0 54.86 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.6 8.8 16.0 7.3 15.85 0.86 0.83 0.0 15.83 0.1 11.4 27.83 0.0 28.3 6.3 6.0 70.5 8.0 32.0/15.0 41.0 16.1 29.5 5.5 18.85 0.4 8.84 0.0 14.5 22.5 6.86 0.0 36.84 0.5 12.86 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.85 0.86 0.5 18.0/28.4 8.3 26.0 8.83 0.0 6.5 21.8 8.0 16.84 0.0 20.0 ABB 180M-4 18.0 5.0 40.0 40.5 12.0 17.83 0.0 14.87 0.0 41.84 0.0 71.5 6.87 0.0 61.86 0.0 18.0 ABB 132 M-4 7.0 36.5 21.2 49.83 0.84 0.5/16.83 0.0/35.0 32.83 0.4 11.0 30.5 30.0 246 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .4 6.0 32.85 0.85 0.5 21.85 0.0 55.

89 0.89 Brook Hansen 200 45.0 0.0 37.0 45.0 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 50 50 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D 220-240D/380-420Y 200D 380-420D/660-690Y 250-280D/440-480Y 200D 220D 440-480D 400D 380D Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New Standard New Standard Standard New New Standard New New 2950 2950 2950 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2940 2940 2940 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 3540 2955 2955 2955 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 3555 2960 2960 2960 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 3560 2965 2965 2965 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 3565 97/53 106 53/31 83/46 107 97 46 53 55 118/68 130 68/38 115/54 131 119 54 65 69 143/79 157 83/46 144/69 158 144 69 72 75 172/95 189 100/55 173/83 190 173 83 100 105 232/128 256 135/74 234/115 257 234 115 128 135 0.90 Table 14.0 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 Brook Hansen 37.90 Brook Hansen 250 75.0 55.0 0.0 75.0 30.90 Brook Hansen 250 55.Technical Data Manufacturer Frame Size Output Power kW Frequency Hz Supply Voltage V Motor Nameplate Rated Speed rev/min Power Factor Rated Current A 2-pole motors Brook Hansen 200 30.0 0.11a Changing motor name plates Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 247 .

Technical Data 248 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .

Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is between two layers of fluid in motion. discharge pressure minus suction pressure.e. Cleaning In Place . Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump. Total absolute pressure differences across the pump during operation i.ability to clean pump system without dismantling pump and system.Glossary of Terms 15. Connection piece between the motor and back plate on a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. which together with the pump casing forms the fluid chamber. Vacuous space in the inlet port of a pump normally occupied by fluid. Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Fluid viscosity increases with time under shear conditions. Pump speed required to overcome slip for a rotary lobe pump.e. Glossary of Terms This section explains the various terms found in this handbook. Absolute Viscosity Adaptor Anti-thixotropic Back Plate Cavitation Centrifugal CIP Dead Head Speed Density Differential Pressure Dilatant Discharge Pressure Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 249 . atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. Fluid viscosity increases as shear rate increases. Absolute Pressure Total pressure exerted by a fluid i. Fluids mass per unit of volume. Tending to move out from the centre.

Pressure within a gauge that exceeds the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Energy required to set fluid in motion and to overcome any resistance to that motion. Net Positive Suction Head required from a pump. Positive inlet pressure/head. A pump with more than one impeller mounted on the same shaft and connected so as to act in series. Net Positive Suction Head describing the inlet condition of a pump and system. Net Positive Suction Head available in a system. Measure of how resistive the flow of a fluid is under the influence of gravity. Pressure drop on both inlet and discharge sides of the pump due to frictional losses in fluid flow. decreasing to zero at the pipe wall. Method of surface finishing achieved by an electro-chemical process. Fluid viscosity is constant with change in shear rate or agitation. Flow characteristic whereby the fluid moves through the pipe in concentric layers with its maximum velocity in the centre of the pipe. Net Inlet Pressure Available in a system. using atmospheric pressure as a zero reference. Elastomer Electropolishing Flooded Suction Friction Head Gauge Pressure Hydraulic Power Impeller Inlet Pressure Kinematic Viscosity Laminar Flow Multi-stage Newtonian NPSH NPSHa NPSHr NIPA NIPR 250 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook .Glossary of Terms Duty Point Dynamic Head Intersection point between the pump curve and the process curve. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Pumping element of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Theoretical energy required to pump a given quantity of fluid against a given total head. Non-metallic sealing device that exhibits elastic strain characteristics. Net Inlet Pressure Required from a pump.

which together with the rotorcase forms the pump chamber. Outlet Pressure Positive Displacement Pressure Drop Pressure Shock Product Wetted Psuedoplastic Pump Casing Required Power Reynolds Number (Re) Rheology Rheomalactic Rotodynamic Rotor Rotorcase Rotorcase Cover Rumbling Shotblasting Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 251 .Glossary of Terms Non-Product Wetted Metallic and elastomeric components not in contact with the fluid being pumped. Science of fluid flow. fittings and other process equipment. Part of a rotary lobe pump. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions but does not recover. Part of a rotary lobe pump. Ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces giving a value to determine type of flow characteristic. Method of surface finishing achieved by vibrating components with abrasive particulate. Part of a centrifugal and liquid ring pump. Result of frictional losses in pipework. Power needed at the pump shaft. Pressure at which fluid is leaving the pump. Pumping element of a rotary lobe pump. A machine to transfer rotating mechanical energy into kinetic energy in the form of fluid velocity and pressure. Result of change in fluid velocity. Pump type whereby the fluid pumped is directly displaced. Method of surface finishing achieved by blasting finished components with small metallic particles at great force. Metallic and elastomeric components in contact with the fluid being pumped. Fluid viscosity decreases as shear rate increases. which together with the rotorcase cover forms the pump chamber. which together with the back plate forms the fluid chamber.

Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the discharge side of the pump. Fluid lost by leakage through the pump clearances of a rotary lobe pump. Fluid level is below the centre line of the pump inlet.ability to steam clean or sterilise pump system without dismantling pump and system. Difference in height between the fluid level and the centre line of the pump inlet on the inlet side of the pump. Flow characteristic whereby considerable mixing of the fluid takes place across a pipe section with velocity remaining fairly constant.Glossary of Terms SIP Steam or Sterilisation In Place . Rapid temperature change of pumphead components. Difference in height between the static discharge head and the static suction head. Static suction head less the dynamic head. Fluids weight per unit volume. Moment of force required to produce rotation. Ratio of a fluids density to the density of water. Flow characteristic combining both laminar and turbulent flow tendencies. Relationship between the input power at the pump shaft and output power in the form of water horsepower. Total pressure difference between the total discharge head and the total suction head of the pump. Fluid viscosity decreases with time under shear conditions. Pressure at which fluid is entering the pump. Slip Specific Gravity Specific Weight Static Head Static Discharge Head Static Suction Head Suction Lift Suction Pressure Thermal Shock Thixotropic Torque Total Discharge Head Total Efficiency Total Head Total Static Head Total Suction Head Transitional Flow Turbulent Flow 252 Alfa Laval Pump Handbook . Difference in fluid levels. Sum of the static discharge and dynamic heads.

Power loss due to viscous fluid friction within the pump. Velocity Viscosity Viscous Power Volumetric Efficiency Alfa Laval Pump Handbook 253 . Pressure at which a fluid will change to a vapour. Ratio of actual capacity against theoretical capacity. at a given temperature. Measure of how resistive a fluid is to flow. Distance a fluid moves per unit of time.Glossary of Terms Vacuum Vapour Pressure Pressure in a pumping system below normal atmospheric pressure.

foodstuff. We help them heat. systems and services are dedicated to assisting customers in optimizing the performance of their processes. PM66050GB1 2001 . Our equipment. Please visit www. cool. beverages. starch and pharmaceuticals. Time and time again. chemicals.Alfa Laval in brief Alfa Laval is a leading global provider of specialized products and engineering solutions. How to contact Alfa Laval Contact details for all countries are continually updated on our website. separate and transport products such as oil.alfalaval. Our worldwide organization works closely with customers in almost 100 countries to help them stay ahead.com to access the information. water.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.