LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous

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Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous

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1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.

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He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. I (be). as usual. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 12. as I (not want) to miss the first act. 18. but he is late. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 13. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. 11. You (write) to John now? Yes. 15. except Saturdays and Sundays. 9. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. You (like) this book? 8. I always (write) to him on his birthday. of course. 4 . You (go) to work every day? Yes.6. 7. I (dream) every night. 10. 16. You (dream) at night? Yes. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. I always (have) a rest after lunch. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. 14.

Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. 2. You (know) what time is it? 4. Iarna ninge. 17. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. forma II. 6. Eu nu studiez seara. 7. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Ce carte citesti? 10. 4. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Ea isi face bagajul. Ex. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Adesea citesc carti englezesti. merge pe jos. Ex. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat.Paste Tense.19. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . forma III – participiul trecut. 3. 8. 16. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. B. 9. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. 19. 14. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. 20. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata.

Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. This time yesterday. cu imperfectul. terminata. Yesterday I went for a walk.) Last year I travelled to England. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. Se traduce. Se traduce. terminata. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia. Este timpul de naratiune.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). de obicei.) 6 . de obicei. cu perfectul compus. I was watching TV. Ex. Ex.

Ex. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. 2. 8. 7 . Este. (In timp ce John citea. I sold my car. 9. I hated him. They drank all the wine. I play football. We worked very hard. He thought about you. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. 1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. While John was reading. Ex. I like to have a coffee in the morning. 5. 10. You ask too many questions. in plina desfasurare. 3. 7. I met John. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). In acest caz. 3. He forbade her to do this. 6. In aceasta situatie. You speak English well. 1. He came home late. He translated the text. 7. 4. de asemenea. 8. I enjoyed travelling. He changed his library book every day. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. I own two umbrellas. That sounds interesting. sora lui privea la televizor. his sister was watching TV. He meets John on Sundays.Adesea. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). You drink too much. 9.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. in aceeasi fraza. intr-un moment trecut. While I was crossing the street. 6. 2. 5. I always make cakes on Sundays. ele aratând actiuni paralele. 10. 4.

Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. someone (ring up). Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. he (have) an accident. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. 6. 1. This time last Sunday. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. I talk on the phone. 20. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. 5. 1. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 15. 2. When I first (meet) him. 3. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. When I (arrive). Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. 4. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. 8 . 12. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. When you (come in). 9. 16. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. 2. he (work) in a bank. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. 5. 11. 18. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. As I (write). When I (enter) the classroom. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. 10. 7. 9. 4. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. 10. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. 8. While he (learn) to drive. she (have) dinner. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. 19. I (watch) a film on TV.

(Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. timp de). this week. • Ex.) arata o actiune trecuta.) I have known John since 1990. incepând din) si for (de. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. this month. C.) I have known John for two years. this year. 9 . 22. I haven’t seen John for two months. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua.) I haven’t seen John since September. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent.21. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. I have seen two films this week. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. • Ex. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. In acest caz.

Ex. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. Ex. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. I haven’t got up early this morning.m. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. ora 2 p. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". I must buy a new one. dintr-un motiv sau altul. se foloseste Past Simple. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella .) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". I lost my umbrella yesterday.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. terminata. I didn’t get up early this morning. Ex. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. just. De asemenea. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. intereseaza in prezent. already. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. • Ex. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . In acest caz. seldom. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. never. arata o actiune trecuta. always. I must buy a new one.m. ever. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. ora 10 a. Ex. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week.

Daca nu se opreste in curând. Yes. It has been raining for three hours. we shall have floods. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. sa continue si in viitor. 11 . If it doesn’t stop soon. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. Ex. fie cu perfectul compus. cu accent pe durata. He hasn’t returned home yet.No. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. I am tired because I have been working all day. I have often been to England.) Dupa cum se poate observa. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. intre un moment trecut si prezent. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul.) De asemene. in functie de context. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. (Ploua de trei ore. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. I have never been to England. He has not (hasn’t) been working. vom avea inundatii. yet (in propozitii negative). (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. Ex. Ex. care continua in prezent.) I haven’t seen him lately.

I (not be) to the seaside this year. I (cook) all the morning. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. You ever (drive) a car? 17. 12. 1. 10. Ever since that woman came to work here. I (buy) a new house. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. thank you. she (try) to make trouble. I just (have) one. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. He just (leave) home. We (know) each other for several years. You must come and see it. It’s time we woke him up. 3. 6. I (live) here for one year. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. 10. 8. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. The radio (play) since 7 a. 18. I (not write) to my friend for three months. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. Would you like a cake? 7. 21. He (not go) to bed yet. 4. I already (see) this film. 7. 12 . I (lend) him some money today. I (water) the flowers. How long you (live) here? 22. When are you going to do it? 12. 15. 5.1. I’m tired of it. 16. 2. 11. It (not rain) since December.m. 4. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. No. 2. 11. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. He always (rely on) his friend. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. You (water) the flowers? 3. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. He (not come) home yet. 5. 9.

am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. 8. You (see) your mother this week? No. 8. 6. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. 3. 16. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. 1. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. Un copil a spart geamul. 13. 10. Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. 12. A fost un accident. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. 9. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. 1. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. Ninge de doua ore. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). When you (use) it last? 2. 9. I haven’t. I (lose) my pen. 18. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 11. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 .Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. You (be) out of work long? 5. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. El este ministru de doi ani. 6. 4. 11. 14. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. 7. 10. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. De când mi-am cumparat masina. You (not see) it anywhere? No. Nu am mers la vot. I am not out of work now. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. I (get) a job last month. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. 4. 7. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum.

a plecat acum o ora. (Când mi-ai telefonat. Da.19. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Este. I had finished writing my homework.) When you rang me up. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. l-am luat la ora 8. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. in acest caz. A plecat John? 20. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 21. D. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. Afirmativ I had worked. Afirmativ I had been working. un verb de relatie. dar. 23. Da. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. acum doi ani. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Ex. terminasem de scris temele. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. ca si Present Perfect. Da. am petrecut o luna aici.) Ca sens. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. 25.

Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. 4. 3. 1. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. When he entered the room. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. ea batea la masina de o ora. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. 9.) Dupa cum se observa. 15 . they drank some coffee. 1. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. When I arrived home. she (study) the subject for a week. De asemenea. 5. 8. 3.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. I (return) from school. it (rain) for one hour. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. When we met them. s-a plictisit. 2. she had been typing for one hour. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. 10. After they (finish) dinner. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. When I left home. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. 2. mother (cook) for two hours. When she sat for the exam. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. Ex. 7. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived.) He said it had been raining for three days. 4. he got bored. She said she already (be) to England. 6. (Când el a intrat in camera. At 3 o’clock on Friday.

El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. am mers la culcare. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. When we arrived at Sinaia. I realized she (have) a party. a inmânat-o profesorului. When we reached the top. we (realize) we (lose) our way. After John (leave). 1. 10. 3. 8. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. 4. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 6. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. When I (find out) he (get married). 6. When she decided to have a rest. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 2. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. she felt chilly. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. When I rang her up. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. 9. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 16 . 6. 4. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 7. 3. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 2. 1. 7. 10. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). When I called on her unexpectedly. 5. we (climb) for 7 hours. she (write) letters for one hour. 5. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. After we (walked) for an hour. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours.5. 8. 9.

Ex. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 8. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. Negativ 17 . We (shall) will be going. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. He/she/it will be going. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. You will be going. E. They will be going. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. I (shall) will meet him next week.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. You will be going.7. will la persoana II si III. 9. Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. 10. se foloseste numai „shall".

He/she/it will not be going.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 . You will not be going. Ex. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. You will not have gone. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. You will have gone. You will not have gone. They will have gone. You will have gone.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Ex. By three o’clock tomorrow. They will not be going. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. (have + forma III). He/she/it will not have gone. You will not be going. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. They will not have gone. I will have reached Predeal. We (shall) will not have gone.I (shall) will not be going. He/she/it will have gone. At three o’clock. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. We (shall) will have gone. I will be travelling to England. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. We (shall) will not be going.

He said that at 3 o’clock. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be".) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). When you come home. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. 19 . la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. I will have been studying for three hours. Este un timp rar folosit. Ex. (El a spus ca va intârzia. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. the next day. Ex. I should (would) be going. Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Când vei veni tu acasa. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. Ex. I (shall) will have been going. He said he would be late. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. he would be travelling to England.

You (be) in London tomorrow. la ora 3. Intr-un astfel de context. arata un program precis. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. 8.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. I (know) the results in three days’ time.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. I am sure you (like) this book. • Ex. 20 . I hope I (pass) the exam. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. 7. bine stabilit. 3. I am going to read this book. 10. • Ex. 6. Arata o intentie. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat.) It is going to rain. va calatori spre Anglia.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. • Ex. 5. I leave for London tomorrow. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. I am sure I (succeed). I am meeting John this morning. 1. He (be) pleased if you invite him. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. I (remember) this day all my life. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. 2.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth.

Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. 21 . 4. Next year. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. When I take the exam. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. She (watch) TV. we (take) our exam. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. 8. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. In a week’s time. Let’s hurry to the beach. 5. Don’t expect me home for dinner. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. He (study) all day tomorrow. Voi vizita târgul international. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. By 5 o’clock. I (work) on this paper for a month. I (work) at the office till late at night. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. 4. I am sure when I arrive home. 5. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. 6.1. This time next month. When you reach Sinaia. 8. I (have) breakfast. 9. it probably (rain). I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 6. 2. 7. Pâna la ora 1. the baby (cry). 2. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. 2. they (be married) for 25 years. 4. I (cook) for two hours. I (swim) in the sea. 6. 7. I (pay off) all my debts. 10. 10. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. 3. 3. 3. we (climb) the mountain. This time next day. By the beginning of next week. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. By the time you come home. 7. 4. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. By the end of the season. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. If we don’t hurry. 9. By the end of the month.m.

nu in propozitii.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. Vineri. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. 9. Present Perfect Simple. E un obiect frumos. 10. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. Present Tense Continuous.) He said he was going to school. mâine. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. ci in fraze.8. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. desigur. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. 11. intre orele 12 si 1. Past Tense Continuous. Propozitia principala 1. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Past Perfect Simple. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza.

(Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) 1. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 .) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. Ex. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data.) She promised her mother she would help her. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte.He said he had returned home a week before. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. Ex. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. care nu pot include un verb la viitor.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). He said he would come to see me when he had time.

Ex. Pentru moment insa. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. 3. Ex.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. 2. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.) b. sa ajunga regula. Last year I worked more than I have done this year.a. 1. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. Se poate intâlni. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Ex. cu timpul. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza.) I will have finished studying when you come home. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. de exemplu. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 .

They didn’t know that I (play) football. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. Looking out of the window. He just (leave) home when he came across John. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 7. I believed you (be) at the seaside. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. 2. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 1. 1. 1. She told me his name after he (leave). 10. 8. 7. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 8. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 9. 3. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. It was clear they (talk) business again. 4. I congratulated him. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. 5. the concert already (begin). 6. 25 . You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 5. When it started to rain. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. After I (hear) the news. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 6. When he finally reached London. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 3. 9. 4.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). 10. 2. I understood you (be) a painter. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. When I arrived.

As wages had gone up. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. 4. 3. 8. too. 3. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). As soon as the holidays (begin). I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 7. 10. 9. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). we supposed prices (go up). 12. 14. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 11.2. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. 17. When I heard the main actor was ill. 10. they will have been married for five years. 26 . 13. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. 5. I will lend it to you. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). she will take a job as a secretary. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. We all believed he (win) the competition. When I (finish) the book. 1. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 8. 16. I shall have typed all the letters. 9. When their first baby (be born). 6. 6. He promised he (drive) me home. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. 15. this beach will become very crowded. 7. 5. After he (repair) the car. He believed the strike (end) very soon. By the time you (finish) translating the text. After she (learn) to type. 2. 4. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. he will drive to Sinaia. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room.

When we (go) to see them last night. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. 9. After you (drink) a coffee. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. you will feel better. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married. precum si exceptiile: 1. 6. 6. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. 5. 27 . 5. they were listening to music. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. not before. In 1998. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). 10. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 4. 4. 19. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. I will do it when I (want) to. I (not decide) yet. 6.18. He was very upset because I (be) late. 3. 7. 7. 8. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. He told me he never (see) the sea. 5. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. 9. 8. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. 3. 2. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 20.

16. 6. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. 20. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. 11. 10. 7. 14. 19. When I finally arrived home. 9. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 5. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. After we have finished dinner. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. 12. 11. 13. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. we (drink) coffee and brandy. LECTIA III 28 . Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. After having visited Italy. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra.10. 4. 12. You will never know how much I (suffer). 17. 8. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 3. 7. A week ago. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. 18. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 2. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. he decided he (change) his job. 15.

Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 .MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ar merge etc. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. ai merge.). Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. wouldn’t.

(Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. cu exceptia verbului „to be". unde 30 .) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele. ai fi mers.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.) I would stay at home if it rained. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. ar fi mers etc.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine.) I will stay at home if it rains.).

we would be fined. este posibila 31 . should). supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. tell her I am out. were. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. If she should ring up. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. De asemenea. dar improbabila. Ex. daca s-ar intâmpla ca. If the police should find out the truth. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. What shall we do. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. noi am fi amendati. had. in loc de Present Simple. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. providing.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). in case. suppose. supposing. Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. Ex.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me.se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. In caz ca telefoneaza. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. In acest caz.

You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. 1.omiterea lui if. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. Should he have a headache. you (not pass) the exam. If I see him. If you don’t hurry. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I (greet) him. 8. If I tell you something. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. If I (give up) smoking. 10. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. you (not find) me at home. If I (move) to the country-side. 7. Were I in your place. If I (know) his phone-number. 9. you (be) late. If she finds out what has happened. you will have to look after it. would you visit me? 3. 8. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. 9. she (be) very angry. I would ring him up. 4. he (not make) so many mistakes. If I like the dress. 7. I (not do) this. 2. I (buy) it. Ex. If I won the lottery. Unless you come at 6. 5. Unless you study more. If it (go on) raining. 2. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. 3. 10. If you (take) a dog. 1. he (take) a pill. we shall have floods. I (buy) a car. If he were more careful. 5. I would be nervous. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar.

I would go home immediately. 7. 2. If you (drive) more carefully. Dacaar fi plouat. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 1. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. strazile ar fi fost ude. 5. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 4. I would speak to him. 6. 5. you (not get) into trouble. If you had taken my advice. 4. 1. I (answer) your question if I can. 3. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. If the child is good. 2. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. 9. you wouldn’t have an accident. If I (work) harder. 10. I would have succeeded. If I (see) him. I (answer) it. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. 3. 8. 8. 6. If I (be) you. strazile ar fi ude. 6. 2. 3. 7. he (get) a bar of chocolate. If he had written a letter to me. 33 . I (answer) the phone. You (be) sick if you eat so much. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. Had I been at home. 1. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 5. If I (not tell) him. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 9. he would never have known. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. he would have gone home. It (be) better if you had waited. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 4. strazile vor fi ude. Had I learned English grammar. Daca ar ploua. 10. 1. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. If you had known English. If he (realize) it was so late.

Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. voi mânca la un restaurant. 11. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. 1. mi-ar fi fost frig. 2. I-ai da? 3. 10. 9. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. 9. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 6. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 5. 1. 8. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 7. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. 10. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 . 8.7. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. 12. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo.

o He said „I was ill". He said she had given him a book. He said he would do the exercise. 2. Ex. Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. Ex. Se schimba pronumele. o He said „I will do the exercise". He said „I have been working hard. in functie de sens. o 1. He said he was ill. – He said „I am ill". He said: „She gave me a book". today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . He said he had been working hard.Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. He said he had been ill.

could. should. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta." He said if it rained he would stay at home. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.  He said he would be at home on that day. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". Ex.  He said he was going to do that translation the next day. I will stay at home. 36 . 3. He said: „I’ll be at home today". I would stay at home.next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. Verbele modale would. 1. I would have stayed at home. ought to. "If it had rained." He said if itrained he would stay at home." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late.

37 . 2. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. ceea ce este o greseala. 3. Ex. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. The weather was fine yesterday. 2. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. 5. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb.  He said (that) he was ill.  He told me to go out. I will go shopping right now. He asked me where I had been. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Where have you been? I’ve been away. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. 3. Ex. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". on holiday. He said „Go out".Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. 1. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. I saw this film a week ago. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. Ex. He asked me if I liked music. 4. Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. Ex. He said: „I am ill". Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca).

12. 8. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. John left for Sinaia two days ago. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door.6. 2. 7. 9. 10. Will you help me. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . 10. 2. please! Read the text. 4. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 7. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. 9. 3. 6. 5. ordered) me to come in. I went to England two years ago. 6. 8. 8. 7. 1. I am very busy today. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. I would have answered the phone. 11. 4. If I had been at home. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 5. 3. 1. 2. I will buy a car next year. If I have enough money.

please? 4. Ex. 10. I have been asked. Ex. In limba româna. in unele cazuri. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. 9. 6. 2. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. 11.9. 1. I am asked. I will be asked. I had been asked. I was asked. 7. 3. complementul indirect si. In limba engleza. 10. 8. complementul 39 . la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. 5. Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. 12. 4. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct.

de la sfârsitul propozitiei. se omite formularea by. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Someone has found the missing child. He has found your bag. In aceste situatii. 4. 8. 3. Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. Desigur. Activ: I gave him a book. The noise frightened me. de asemenea. 1. care. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. I will invite my friend to a party. Ex. 6. Activ: She looked after the child. A specialist will repair my TV set. While I was in hospital. In this office punctuality is insisted on. iar complementul indirect este him. His coworkers must do something for him. While I am in hospital. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). 5. 9. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense.prepozitional. Ex. Unde complementul direct este a book. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. 7. They are building a new house round the corner. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. Ex. 2. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today. People play football all over the world. my flat is being painted. 40 . In multe cazuri. my flat was being painted. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them).

They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. 2. 3. 9. 9. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 3.10. 5. Burglars broke into the house. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. 2. 7. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. The teacher asked me a difficult question. 10. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. 2. 4. when I passed by. 4. They will give me a reward. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 5. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. We laughed at John. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 7. 9. 7. 6. 6. We called for the doctor. 8. They set fire to the shed. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. I have lent John two of my books. I teach them English. 6. 3. 5. 8. He hasn’t slept in his bed. They didn’t look after the children properly. The policeman will show us the way. 8. They have given me a nice present. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. We objected to his proposal. 4. 4. 2. 3.

Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. 4. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. English is spoken all over the world. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea. 7. 3. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. This house has been built out of stone and cement. 3. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. 5. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. 15. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. LECTIA VI 42 . 10. 11. 2. 12. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. I was recommended a very good doctor. 2. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. These books mustn’t be taken away. This book will soon be forgotten. 14. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. The pupils will be told where to sit. 4. 9. 13. 8. A reception was held in his honour. 5. 8. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. 6. 6. 7. 10.10. He hates being made fun of. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. 9.

I cannot (can’t) make this translation. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". could.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. must. a fi in stare Ex. I can make this traslation. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. I can do this. Ex. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. Ex. prezent Negativ: cannot. may.VERBELE MODALE Can. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. • Nu au toate timpurile. would. (Pot sa fac aceasta. ought to. Can = infinitiv. need. might. can’t Ex. Ex. Ex. should. prezent. He can speak English. Can are sensul de a putea. Can is a model verb. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 . will.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. Se folosesc inlocuitori. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. shall.

The sun hasn’t set yet.) I can speak English. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. can I take your car? Tata. (Stiu sa inot. mayn’t 44 . Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. May 1. I will be able to come to you tomorrow.Ex. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Ex. Ex. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. He could have been here in time. 2. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. poti.). (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. Se traduce cu a sti sa. He is abroad. you may. nu e posibil sa. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. El e in strainatate. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. Ex. a avea permisiunea Ex. Ex. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. (Da. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. I can swim.) Negativ: may not. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. are sensul de a putea. Soarele nu a apus inca. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. Ex.) Cu acest sens. Father. 3. In vorbirea familiara. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week.

Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. I must go home. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. S-a facut târziu. Negativ: must not. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Ex. You may/might help me when I am in need. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Cu acest sens. Take your umbrella. se adauga infinitivul trecut. 45 . mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. Ex. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. 3. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. May/might pot exprima un repros. He may/might be at home now. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. Ex. Ia-ti umbrela. 1. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. It’s got late. Must A trebui Ex. It may/might rain. Ex. Trebuie sa plec acasa. Ring up John. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. to be permitted to. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. s-ar putea sa ploua.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Telefoneaza-I lui John. Ex. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. 2. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. He said I might smoke in that room. Ex.

Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
2.

De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:

Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.

Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie

Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.

Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

46

Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul

Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?

47

Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would

Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:

Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?

A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.

Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
o

in trecut

When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.

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5. You may not speak to your mother like that. Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. You may not smoke in this room. 8. 20. This child may have another cake. my mother used to read me fairy tales. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. 1. 12. She can lend you that book. 4. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . acolo unde este necesar: 1. You may leave earlier. 49 . Nota: In afara de „would". 3. 19.This girl looks very much like Jane. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. care are numai forma de trecut. When I was a child. 18. She can play the piano very well. 13. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". I cannot translate ten pages a day. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 9. O fi sora ei. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. 11. 2. 10. 15. He can swim very well. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. 17. 14. She will be her sister. I must look up the words in the dictionary. Ex. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 16. I must learn English. 7. I must go soon. 6.

11. You must have forgotten to lock the door. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. Man …travel through space now. You might change your mind about that. 19. Model: He probably speaks English well. 4. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 12. 8. He …even drive on its surface. 5. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 10. You probably forgot to lock the door. You might write to me more often. 17. 14. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 18. 20. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. He must be delayed at the office. 1. 3. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 7. John must be ill. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. 16. He needn’t buy milk. He ought to tell me the truth. there is plenty in the fridge. 50 . 1. He should go to school everyday. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 9. 6. He may be at home. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. It might rain. You needn’t do this. 2. 15. 2. 4. 13. 5. He must speak English well. John could be a winner. You might pay more attention to your work. holidays will be very different. 3. It can’t be too late. He …reach the Moon and walk there.

It is possible that I come home early. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 5. 2. She is probably a very good doctor. 9. 3. perhaps it is a good one. 8. I don’t believe you were right. You can’t have been right. 1. but I doubt it. He is probably older than he looks. I have bought his latest book. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. 10. 5. 4. You have probably forgotten his address.1. He was probably late. He probably came home very early. 10. 6. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 3. 51 . 7. 9. He probably thinks I am wrong. 5. Take your umbrella. perhaps it will rain. 7. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 6. You can’t be right. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 2. 4. It is possible for her to be very late. 8. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. I think she was angry with you. It may/might snow in the mountains. Don’t wait. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 6.

You …not expect everybody to obey you. I don’t believe she has got so fat. 4. 1. 9. 9. 10. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. You … worry about money. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. I … return the books before the 1st of September. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. 2. 2. I don’t think this is a true story. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. I …wear my hair long. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 8. 10. 9. 6. 1. The sky is clear. I’ll give you as much as you want. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. When I was young. 7. 6. He …read for hours on end. 7. 2. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. 3. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. I don’t believe it was his fault. 9. I …read one book a day. 6. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. When I was a teenager. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 5. 52 . 4.1. 3. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. … you help me solve this problem? 3. it will soon start raining. 10. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 4. 8. please? 7. You…water the flowers. I don’t believe it is his fault. 5. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. You …not go to bed so late at night. 8. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. You … take an umbrella. I don’t think the weather will change. 5. You … take sleeping pills too often. they are addictive. People … speak during the concert.

which would have saved me a lot of work. I …(be) in the garden. 8. You …(see) Anna yesterday. You …(lend) him so many books. I …(get up) so early today. 3. which was very convenient. I locked the door and took the key with me. he will never read them all. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. 8.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. he is a nice boy. … you correct my exercise. We …(wait) too long. It …(rain) here. 6. She …write an article for this magazine every week. 9. 5. 5. 7. 8. he is a very poor swimmer. 9. I …(answer) the questions. I am sorry you wasted your time. 3. 4. You …(wait) for me. you …re-type it. 2. He has one of his own. Go to sleep. 4. 7. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. 10. You…(lend) him your text – book. 10.2. John …(do) such a thing. he was back soon. The student …(write) such a long composition. the road is dry. If you win the contest. He …(swim) across the Danube. You …(buy) so much bread. 10. He …(be) at home. She is away. Completati spatiile goale cu must. I …(see) him for that. 11. I haven’t got my bag with me. 7. 2. 53 . 10. for once? This …be John’s house. I promise you not …be disturbed. 3. 9. This door … not unlock. I didn’t hear the phone. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. You …do this whether you like it or not. The light was on in his room. you…get a nice present. …you tell me the truth. 4. but I forgot it was Sunday. 6. The child … (leave) home. 6. please? This letter is full of mistakes. It’ll get stale. I …(leave) it on the bus. I wrote him a letter. I …(answer) the questions. 5. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all.

Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. 11. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. 4." Traduceti in limba engleza. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. 7. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 17. 16. 9. 6. Va trebui sa plec curând. am baut deja doua astazi. 19. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. 3." "His family consider he should. 18. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 2. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. 1. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. 10. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. 14. 8. Nu. Nu stiu sa crosetez." "Yes. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. 13. 5. 12. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. 20. but he himself believes he needn’t. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. 54 . Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal.12. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 21.

Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. Come what may. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. 27. 23. 1. Unde mergem acum? 28. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. o dorinta sau un blestem. in engleza contemporana.22. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. va rog. may. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. 26. might. exprimând o lozinca. o urare. Apare in propozitii exclamative. De asemenea. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. 29. Fie ce-o fi. o incuiasem chiar eu. in situatii in care. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. Vreti. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Ex. 24. Ex. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. would + infinitiv.

It is impossible that he do this. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Ex. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. it is necessary that. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. Somebody bring me a glass of water. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. to insist. • Ex. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. it is likely that.c. Ex. I wish I had been born in England. d. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. it is desirable that. It is necessary that you be present. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. to order Ex. to demand. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. apare ca were la toate persoanele. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. to recommend. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. I wish I were in England now. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. 56 . Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. • I wish (mi-as dori. 1. Ex. Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. to suggest. to urge. Everybody leave the hall. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent.

) Ex. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. (E timpul. d)It is time. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. a. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. It is impossible that he should do this.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. Ex. You speak English as if you had lived in England. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios.) It is high time. a. 57 . I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. se foloseste would. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. it is necessary that. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. I wish it would stop raining. Ex. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. In exemplul de mai sus. • Ex. It is necessary that you should be present. 1. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. (Era de mult timpul. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. I would sooner stay at home tonight. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. It is high time you began to study seriously. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. It is time the child went to bed.

in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. to urge. Ex.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. where. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. might 58 . to recommend. Dupa cum se observa. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. to demand.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. Intrebari introduse prin how. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. to insist. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Hurry up lest you miss the train.when. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. Ex. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. It is impossible that he should have done this. to suggest. why. • Ex. • Ex. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. De asemenea. a. fie in vorbirea direca. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. may. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul.

Dupa whoever. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. it was possible Ex. Whoever you may/might be. Oriunde as fi. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. whenever. in order that Ex. whichever. in secundara se foloseste might. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. iti voi telefona. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. It is possible that he may be here in time. • Dupa it is possible.Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. • Ex. I will ring you up. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Oricine ai fi. you have no right to do this. however. It was possible that he might be here in time. I hope that he may pass the exam. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. to be afraid Ex. etc. in secundara se foloseste may. • Dupa so that. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. no matter when. you have no right to do this. Wherever I may/might be. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. • Dupa to hope. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. 59 . wherever. No matter who you may/might be.

I regret I am not a student. I regret I have no children. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. 60 . 9. 10. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. iar in aceste cazuri. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. 6. I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry you had an accident. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. I am sorry books are so expensive. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. 1. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. 1. I regret I can’t go to the concert. Ex. 2. I am sorry my friend is ill. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. I regret I have only one child. 5. I am sorry it rains so often. I wish the weather were fine. 1. I wish I could speak English. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. 4. 8. 3. 7. I am sorry you live so far away. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1.

1. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original.2. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I am sorry I was late for the party. 8. 1. 10. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. I would rather you (close) that window. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. I was sorry you were out when I called. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 9. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. I was sorry you had got a fine. It’s time we (go) home. 5. 7. 9. I regret you didn’t win the competition. 11. 2. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. 6. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. You behave as if you (own) the place. 10. 2. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 7. 5. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 10. 1. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 3. 3. 4. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 4. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. 8. I wish he would take my advice. 4. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 6. 5. 3. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 61 . I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. 7. 9. 6. 8.

10. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. 16. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. 13. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 2. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. 14. 3. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. 62 . It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 14. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 15. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 16. am putea merge la plaja! 6. 17. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 20. 5. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 18. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 4. 13. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 9. 12. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 11. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. 17. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. If only I (become) a millionaire.

Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. 3. la tara. 2. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 7. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 6. 8. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 8. 20. 8. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector.19. 4. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. 9. 5. 3. 2. 8. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 5. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. 7. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. 6. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul.

6. Oricând te vei intoarce. 10. 8. Orice mi-ai spune. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 14. 1. 9. 2. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 4. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa.1. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. 11. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 2. nu te pot crede. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. 3. Oricare ar fi motivul. you should remember your own phone number. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). 7. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 5. 15. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. 13. 10. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). Oricât te-ai stradui. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 5. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 64 . 3. The road is wet. 7. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 9. 12. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 4. 6. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 8.

forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. All success (attend) you! 18. 17. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing. I wish I (find) another. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 .16. 19. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. I have such a boring job. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. I wish I (be) there when it happened. diateza si timpuri.

Ex. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. to hear. I saw him leave the room. to wish. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera.) He ordered the door to be locked. (Consider ca el este un bun student. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to expect. verbe exprimând un ordin.) I let him go out and play.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a.) c. in cazul verbelor neregulate. I’d like him to come with me. to watch. Ex. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to allow. I made him study English. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) I want John to do this. to dislike.) 66 . I consider him to be a good student. to consider.) b.) d. to suppose. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Ex. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. Ex. to hate. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want. to cause. I want you to go now. to understand. to like. to believe.Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. to order. Ex. to feel. to know.

to expect.) e. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. to turn out. I made him study English. He was declared to be the man of the year. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. verbe declarative: to state. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. He was made to study English. The news was considered to be false. He considered the news to be false. He is considered to be a good student. Ex. He admitted the news to be false. cu verbele: to happen. to believe. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. to know. He is said to be a good writer.) f. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. Ex. Ex. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. b. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. to seem. to declare. to make. to suppose. to say. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. to prove.) 1. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. to count upon/on . He proved to be a good journalist. to admit. I rely on you to do this.I expected him to come in time. They declared him to be the man of the year.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex.) They declared him to be the man of the year. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. to consider. I consider him to be a good student.) 67 . a. to hear.

Ex. (E usor sa fac asta.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. It is impossible that I (should) come. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex.I happened to meet him in the street. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. 1. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. She is sure to come in time. ii voi spune unde esti. It is necessary that I (should) go there. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see.) This remains for him to decide. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". Ex. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. de obicei. It is easy for me to do this. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc.) If I happen to meet him. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. a. I will tell him where you are. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. 68 . (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp.) It is impossible for him to come.) It is necessary for me to go there. 1.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului.

Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. 3. (Am auzit-o cântând. Ex. (Orele fiind terminate. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. we shall go to the beach. (El a fost vazut plecând.) Weather permitting. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. (Daca vremea va permite. we went home.) I heard her singing. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. (Ea a fost auzita cântând.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 .) I will have my hair done.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. am mers acasa.) 2. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare. Ex: The classes being over. to smell. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv.) I left / found her crying. vom merge la plaja. precum si cu verbele to find.to hear.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) She was heard singing. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. to leave. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. to watch.

Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. Ex. 4. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. I had my bedroom window broken. You should take it. We should have a heart to heart talk. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. 12. 8. This is a good book. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul.subiect. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. The people were impatient. 6. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. You should bear it in mind. 14. 13. This is a valuable piece of advice. I cam make it. 2. 4. She had two sons killed in the war. 15. This translation is easy for me to make. 11. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 9. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. This problem is too difficult. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. The time has come. 5. 7. 5. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 3. 2. The match was about to begin. 10. I-am privit jucând fotbal. I can’t solve it. 2. You should read it. 3. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. 6. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. 1. 70 . This fact is important.

6. 9. We should do it now. 9. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. It was proved that she was a liar. Expected that he would resign. 10. 1. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. They said she was ill. It is recommendable that you should read this book. I ordered a taxi. It’s time we met again. It is possible that I might buy a car. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. 3. 4. 1. 5. 8. 3. 8. It is sure they have had an argument. This is a strange thing. 4. 6. 3. 71 .7. 2. They heard him repeat it several times. at once. It is advisable that you should resign. 9. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. It is impossible that he should have said that. It is important that you should come to the office. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. It is important to know the truth. I can’t believe she said that. 8. 7. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 10. Everybody. It is necessary that he be present. I have closed the window. She was thought to be a gifted child. 7. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 2. 5. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. 4. I thought she was unable to win the contest. cold.

transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. The sun having risen. I went home relaxed. The plane having taken off. 6. 5. The dog was heard barking. I found her digging in the garden. I found the boy breaking the window. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. we hurried to the beach. 2. 9. 10. Weather permitting. The letter being written. I saw the plane landing. The rain having stopped. l. 3. I went shopping. She heard the baby crying. 3. 10. I had to change them.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. 10. 8. I saw her fainting. 4. The river having risen in the night. we sat down to dinner. I stopped smoking. The mud having ruined my shoes. I could hear her typing. 8. 2. Everybody being at home. the audience left the hali. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. I went to post it. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. The concert being over. 6. 7. we were seared about having floods. 5. I saw her lying on the beach. 5. 9. She heard the hunters shooting. 72 . 7. I saw the peasants working in the field. 6. The decision being taken in my favour. 4. I heard the child breaking the vase.

CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .

At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. They don’t live. 8. Does he have? 9. Is it raining? 2. Are we studying? 9. are you hurrying? I don’t want. 2. Do you smoke? 17. He doesn’t remember. write. Is my mother resting? 8. My friend isn’t wearing. What book are you reading? 10. 12. am. speaks. 7. Do you dream? I dream 9. are you waiting? I am waiting. I always have. 14. Is Ann knitting? 10. Is my friend wearing? 7. I don’t love. Why 74 . My mother isn’t resting. 1 am cooking. Do I trust? 10. do you do? 3. He doesn’t have. He doesn’t go to school by underground. 3. is drinking. Do I love? 2. don’t understand. 6. Does she talk? 3. 15. always borrow/is always borrowing. go. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. What do you do on your free days? 12. Do I understand? 4. it often rains. 7. Is he telling? 4. We aren’t studying. Do you go? 16. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. 1 don’t like. I don’t always believe. it is raining. Does he remember? 7. I don’t have. 6. Are they swimming? 6. he walks. 14. am taking.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. Now I am doing my homework in English. 20. remembers. 4. 10. he doesn’t get up early. Do you usually get. I don’t like coffee. are you thinking? I am thinking. 18. She doesn’t talk. The secretary is just typing a report. Are you writing. They aren’t swimming. You don’t play. 13. On Sundays. Do you like? 8. You aren’t typing. 19. I do not study in the evening. 5. he is having. 4. I don’t understand. Am I having? 3. Do they live? 8. She goes shopping on Saturdays. Whom are you ringing up? 13. drinks. It isn’t raining. I don’t trust. The child isn’t learning. I am not having. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. 2. 9. Do I always believe? 6. Are you typing? 5. He isn’t telling. It snows in winter. Do you play? 5. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. Ann isn’t knitting. I am not going. 11.

I always made. I slept. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 19. I was watching. you came in. Did I hate? 4. He didn’t come. 10. I was talking. I didn’t enjoy. Did he come? 8. I found this old photo. Did we work? 7. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. When did you buy this TV set? 12. I owned. 9. Last Sunday. He didn’t forbid. While I was looking for my passport. When did you return from the mountains? 11. You asked. 1 liked. my friends played chess. Last night. she was having. 6. When I go to the seaside. were you doing? 7. 9. She is packing her luggage. 3. 5. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. I arrived. That sounded.are you opening the window? I5. 7. He didn’t change. 10. 8. They didn’t drink. 1 first met. Did he think? 2. someone rang up. 8. He didn’t think. I met. 9. 3. 4. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. 6. were you going. he realized. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. I didn’t hate. I entered. 2. I often read English books. Yesterday. he wasn’t wearing. Did he translate? 10. He met. Did I sell? 6. You drank. You spoke. 5. he was-learning. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 20. Exercitiul 2: 1. I played. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. I was writing. What were you doing last Tuesday. 7. He didn’t translate. This time yesterday it was raining. I didn’t sell. 2. 4. 6. 8. I got up late yesterday morning. 10. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 4. Did they drink? 3. We didn’t work. Exercitiul 4: 1. I like to swim a lot. 16. the teacher was writing. Did he change? 5. Yesterday I lost 75 . he was working. Did I enjoy? 9. 17. he had. 2. 5. Did you sleep well last night? 3.

Exercitiul 4: 1. He hasn’t gone. I have lent. While it was raining. we left. It has been raining. I haven’t written. 14. 8. she has been trying. I was. 9. He sat for his first exam last week. He has been sleeping. 3. 10. We have known. Have you ever eaten? 13. I have lost. Have you ever tried? I tried. I have just had. I have been cooking. Exercitiul 2: l. have you been. 7. She has changed. Exercitiul 3: I. 14. He has just left. 7. 11 . Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 20. I5. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. he has caught. 8. He has been a Minister for 76 . I have already seen. Have you been. 2. How long have you been learning English? 5. 5. 17. I got. 4. He has been.my gloves. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. have you been wearing? 6. 2. He has always relied. I haven’t been. 9. 4. 13. I have been doing. The radio has been playing. 6. 5. Have you watered? 3. I didn’t succeed. have you cooked? 7. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. I have been watering. 1t hasn’t rained. He hasn’t come. I got up. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. Yesterday I got up early. 10. I have been wearing. He has been fishing. I returned. 8. I saw. 6. 16. I have been asking. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. Have you lived? I have lived. Have you seen? she left. Have you visited? 12. 10. The child has been playing. 17. I was driving to Sinaia. 5. The weather has got warmer lately. Have you ever driven? 16. the engine – drivers have gone. I have’ been shopping. 19. I have bought. 9. 18. Have you been? I have been. began. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. 4. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. 3. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 4. 6. Have you paid? 19. Have you read? 18.

I spent a month here. we had lost. had left. I called. she told. 4. I had met. 9. had spread. Since I bought a car. had not told. 8. She had just gone out. I entered. congratulated. she had already been. We have walked 10 km so far. 5. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. he went. 18. 8. 10. had been having. 6. 10. he went. they had finished. I had returned. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 3. she had been studying. 5. he 77 . 13. I have seldom walked to my office. 19. Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. they had been waiting. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. we had been walking. Exercitiul 3: 1. I found out. 2. We must replace it. 2. he had visited. 20. had been cooking. 3. 7. she had been cleaning and dusting. we asked. 9. she had been writing. 9. What did you look at? It was an accident. he had caught. 6. we realized. 15. it had been raining. two years ago. I had it at 8 o’clock. I was sorry I had hurt him. I rang him up. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. had been climbing. he left an hour ago. he told. had eaten. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. it had been raining. 12. 11. Have you been to this town before? Yes. she had not passed. had been speaking. 8. 7. Exercitiul 2: 1. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. 7. 4. 3. it had been raining. had been swimming. 4. We have been walking since 3 o clock. had listened. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. 5. he had learned/he had been learning. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 6. he had been. 9. 2. he had got married. 2. A child has broken the window. 10. Has John left? Yes. they had been. 8.two years. 14. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. he had thought. 3. It has been snowing for two hours.

8. She will be watching.handed it to the teacher. 2. 6. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. I shall/will have been cooking. He will be. I shall/will have paid off. 3. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 10. Exercitiul 3: 1. Because of 78 . 9. 7. 3. 8. between twelve and one o’clock. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. You will have seen. 4. I shall/will pass. I shall/will succeed. I shall/will have been working. 7. will have risen. 7. 6. As soon as the guests had left. will/shall will be climbing. Wil1 you remember? 9. 2. By this time next year. 2. 2. When I arrived at the bus stop. they will be having their last English class. Will you recognize? 4. I realized I had left my bag at home. 7. I shall/will know. 4. 3. 9. I shall/will have finished. 6. 10. You will be. 8. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. will be crying. Will you be needing? 5. 8. 10. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. 3. I shall/will be working. 5. You will like. 9. 6. 5. 5. 4. it will probably be raining. 6. You will not/won’t find. 5. I shall/will have read 8. We shall/will have taken. I shall/will remember. 4. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. 10. Exercitiut 2: 1. I shall/will be swimming. Exercitiul 4: 1. wilt be rising. will have spent. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. I shall/will have saved five million lei. they will have been married. On Friday. I shall/will be having. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. I went to bed. He will be studying. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times.

Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. he has arrived. 10. he had just left. she looks. 20. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. is born. 14. 9. 9. you were. 5. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. he tells. I had done. he would pass. 4. 3. 6. 9. 8. 16. we had been digging. 2. he had left. prices would go up. she has changed. 4. he would win. I usually read. I have received. 4. 7. 8. you spoke. you see. 12. had already begun. we reach. he would give. I had heard. 10. begin. was shining. 3. 9. they would remain. I had lost. you finish. she notices you have broken. I played/I was playing. you have drunk. they have been. he would finish. did not remember. 2. he had stolen. 8. you see. 11. You had to type. I would remain. 6. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. 3. you have read. 7. he had been travelling. arrive. I had read. 19. would be cancelled. 10. I have. he wanted. you see. 7. 13. 5. 15. he has repaired. 4. 17. 10. she has learnt. you were. 5. Exercitiul 5: 79 . 18. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. Exercitiul 2: 1. 2. you would soon have. I had not enjoyed. 5. I finish. would end.the strike of the bus – drivers. 3. he would drive. 10. you have just told. 9. 6. 8. they were talking. Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. 2.

10. 5. 11. 19. 12. 5. you are reading. 4. he had eaten. it would not be raining when I arrived. I finish. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 8. do not eat. you had been wearing. I had not decided. 5. 9. 6. 2. 7. they had known. 4. you will be. 10. will soon move. 18. I have been reading. 8. they had been listening. he had not expected. 3. he hoped.1. 2. will you promise? 6. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. he would have. I will greet 2. I will buy. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. 6. 3. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 6. 13. I read. I knew you were in Bucharest. 8. I would spend. I will lend. 16. 3. he had never seen. 17. I work/I worked. 9. is. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. is. 3. Exercitiul 7: l. you take. I had not eaten. there are. had failed. they have done. 20. 4. 7. it goes on. melts. 2. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. Exercitiul 6: 1. you will not find. I have suffered. 7. 12. 10. she will be. you do. 10. I was. 4. he would change. 11. he would not remember. Exercitiul 2: 80 . He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. would not go. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. 9. we went. 14. 7. you will not pass. is. I was. he trusted. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. he had to write. I will earn/will be earning. 5. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. we will drink. 15. 8. 9. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I want.

3. you will be. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. You will see him if you wait. If a beggar asked you for money. 6. the streets would be wet. I will answer. 9. I were. I would have answered. 2. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. I gave up. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. I wouldn’t do.1. 5. 8. 5. he had realized. 4. 5. What would you do if you meet John? 12. you wouldn’t have got. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 10. the streets will be wet. 4. I knew. I would not have made. 6. 3. I would have answered. 10. 2. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. he would have told. 8. he had tried. 3. 8. I had worked. 6. LECTIA IV 81 . I would buy. 6. the streets would have been wet. 9. he will get. 9. If it rained. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. If it rains. Would you buy? 4. 6. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 3. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. Exercitiul 4: l. 7. 2. 7. he would take. I saw. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. If dinner is not ready in time. 7. you would have read. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. would you give him some? 3. 4. he leaves. 8. It would have been. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 10. I moved. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. 5. I had not told. 5. 2. Exercitiul 5: 1. you had invited. 10. you had driven. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 9. 7. I had known. I will eat at a restaurant. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. you were. he would not make. 7. If it had rained. 2.

He said the weather had been fine the day before. 7. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He said he had gone to England two years before. He asked me if my mother had been at home. 12. 12. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 10. 11. He said she would go shopping right then. 8. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He asked me if the train had left. 7. He asked me if I would help him. 5. 6. 2. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 8. 6. 5. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He told me to be careful with his books. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 4. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 11. He told me to read that text. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 3. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 3. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 7. He said he had seen that film a week before. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. 9. 8.English. He asked me if I would like a cake. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. 4. 3. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He asked me how long I had been learning . He said he was very busy on that day. 9. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. 10. 2. He asked me when I 82 . He told me to take that pill. 2. He asked me if I could lend him a book. He told me to open the door. 3. Exercitiul 2: 1. 5. 9. He told me not to smoke so much. 2. 4.

8. 4. 7. The work will be finished today (by them). He asked me when the rain had stopped. 6. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 5. I was frightened by the noise. 7. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 7. 8. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. We will be shown the way by the policeman. 3. 10. 3. A reward will be given to me (by them). 6. 6. 10. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). 4. 10. 5. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. 9. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Something must be done for him by his coworkers. He asked me who that man was. He asked me how I had travelled. English is taught to them (by me). 2. Football is played all over the world. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor).would be back. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. 9. They are taught English (by me). 9. A new house is being built round the corner (by them). when I passed by. 5. The missing child has been found (by someone). LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. A nice present has been given to me (by them). Your bag has been found (by him). I will be given a reward (by them). Exercitiul 3: 83 . He asked me why it was so dark in that room. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. John has been lent two of my books (by me). 8. Exercitiul 2: 1. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 2. I have been given a nice present (by them).

Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. People mustn’t take away these books. 6. 7. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. The house was broken into (by burglars). People will soon forget this book. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. 4. 7. 5. 5. 9. 7. 2. 3. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. 10. 4. 3. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 11. They have built this house out of stone and cement. 5. Fire was set to the shed (by them). The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. Has the dog been fed? 7.: 3. We were asked to show our passports. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 8. 6. Detailed 84 . 2. 4. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. He hates people making fun of him. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. 10. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. Exercitiul 4: 1. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. John was laughed at (by us). Will the letter be written in ink? 3. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 6. 2. 8. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 8. People speak English all over the world. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). We were told very interesting things at the conference. 9. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. Exercitiul 6: l. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. The doctor was called for (by us). His proposal was objected to (by us). The rescue party finally discovered the climber. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. Were you told about the meeting? 9.1. 9. They held a reception in his honour.

11. 15. I will have to look up. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. 4. I will have to learn. She will be able to lend. 6. I couldn’t translate. You should have visited. 14. 12. He could read and write. You needn’t have done. He will be able to swim. He ought to have told. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 7. He may have been. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. He must have been. You might have paid. I had to look up. She could play. 7. She will be able to play. Many new blocks are being built in our district. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. Exercitiul 2: 1. You might have changed. 17. 4. 2. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 13. He needn’t have bought. She could lend. You won’t have to do. 9. It must 85 . The museum was closed for repairs. 8. I will have to go. 13. I won t be able to translate. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. 3 It might have rained. 15. 14. 12. 10. 15. It can’t have been. 13. 14. You can’t have been. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 2. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. John must have been. 3. He must have been delayed. She will be able to read and write. 5. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. He should have gone. You didn’t have to do. He could swim. I had to learn. You might have written. 8. 10. I had to go. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow.instructions will be given to us about the paper. 16. He was not allowed/permitted to come. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 16. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 5. 18. The child was allowed/permitted to have. 19. You can’t have seen. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 12. 6. It can t have been.

She can’t have got. 7. I may/might come home. 5. would. 4. mustn’t. It may/might be a good one. She may/might have been angry. 6. 6. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 3. 2. can. Exercitiul 8: l. He can’t be at the office. 7. She may/might have been out. 6. 7. Exercitiul 6: 1. 3. You can’t miss the train. would. 4. needn’t. 8. can. Exercitiul 7: 1. 10. 9. 2. It must have taken a long time. can’t.have been. 10. It may/might rain. 3. would. mustn’t. should. You shouldn’t have gone. 3. 2. should. S. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4: She must be a very good doctor. mustn’t. This must be the best. She may/might have returned. 5. 4. Exercitiul 4: l. He may/might have been right. 9. You must have left your umbrella. He can’t have passed. 2. 9. needn’t. 9. She can’t have married. 20. This can’t be a true story. 9. He must think. needn’t. Exercitiul 9: 86 . 5. can. 7. would. can. should. would. 2. 2. would. 7. 8. 19. can’t. The weather can’t change. 4. 10. 3. 6. needn’t. It can’t be his fault. You must have forgotten. She may/might be very late. 6. 8. 5. He must be older. 4. He may/might have done. He must have come home. 10. mustn’t. 5. 5. You must have known the lesson. She can’t have learned English. 10. Exercitiul 5: 1. needn’t. He must have been late. mustn’t. It can’t have been his fault. should. 8. 3. 6. John could have been.

10. 8. All the children ought to/should do some housework. needn’t have lent. 7. 5. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 9. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. 18. will. shall. You will have to help me more today. 5. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 7. 7. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. will. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 5. 19. will. 9. today. didn’t need to answer. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her.1. must have taken. didn’t need to see. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 10. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". needn’t have written. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. 2. needn’t have bought. must have left. didn’t need to buy. 16. 6. 2. All the students can and must write this paper. a porter could help you. 11. can’t have seen. will. 2. 4. 10. I rang you up and 87 . can’t have swum. I could play the piano when I was a child. Exercitiul 13: 1. didn’t need to wait. 10. 13. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. Exercitiul 10: 1. 12. 2. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 20. will. 4. You needn’t have made coffee for me. 6. 6. shall. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. 6. 5. shall. 3. needn’t have lent. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. can’t have rained. needn’t have answered. needn’t have waited. must have been. 8. shall. 3. No. 9. I can’t knit. must have been. 7. 3. Exercitiul 11: 1. 4. 14. Exercitiul 12: 1. I will have to leave soon. can’t have left. 8. needn’t have got up. 3. I have already drunk two. 9. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. will. 4. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. can’t have done. 17. 8.

I wish I didn’t have only one child. I wish I had won the Great Prize. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. You can’t have found the door open. I wish you would take a driving licence. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 22. I wish I could pay the piano. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. I had locked it myself 27. 3. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. you shall have the book tomorrow. I wish books weren’t so expensive. 26. 7. I wish you had won the competition. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 5. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. Will you. 4. 8. 2. 25. 6. 10. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 6. 9. 4. Where shall we go now? 28. I promise you. Exercitiul 3: 1. I wish they would sign the contract. I must have been still at the faculty. 23. I wish it didn’t rain so often. 2. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. I wish I had money to buy that painting. 8. 8. 1 wish I had children. 29. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 3. I wish I lived in Bucharest. I wish I were a student. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. I wish I could go to the concert. 88 . I wish my friend weren’t ill. S. please. You ought to/should have insisted. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 10. 7. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. 2. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish you didn’t live so far away. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. Exercitiul 2: l. You may not speak during the exam. 9.nobody answered. 3. 21. 6. 7. 5. 4. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 10. 9. 24. I wish he would accept my proposal. wait for a few minutes? 30. I wished you hadn’t got a fine.

7. 14. 3. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. 18. 9. 20. Exercitiul 6: 1. I were. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 10. I were. 14. 12. his book would become. 8. 4. we could go to the beach. you closed. he told. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. 2. You speak as if you were angry with me. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. 7. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. 18. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 9. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. you didn’t waste. I got. She looks as if she were a model. 13. 20. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 9. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. stopped. 8. It is important that you (should) know English well. my telephone worked. 17. 4. I would rather you went to the theatre. 13. 19. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . 5. hadn’t caught a cold. he would have. S. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. his daughter didn’t get married. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. Exercitiul 5: l. I would become. 16. 15. 12. 19. 3. you started. he took. I stayed. you owned. 6. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. I would rather you got up earlier. 17. I hadn’t forgotten. 10. too. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2. 2. 4. watched. I had entered. 11. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 11. 16.Exercitiul 4: 1. 6. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 6. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. you were. we went. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles.

14. 5. 15. you can’t win such a competition. 6. I had. it should get. 2. you retired. he were. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. 8. you shouldn’t lie to me. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. Whatever you may/might tell me. he were. may attend. 9. It is possible that she might be away. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. I will be at home waiting for you. hadn’t broken down. we (should) leave. 19. No matter how hard you may/might try. 4. 13. (should) have. 4. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. it might not get. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 11. should have told. 3. 7. Whatever the reason may/might be. you should have. 20. might prosper. 3. they (should) divorce. 5. 7. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. Whenever you may/might return. I would find. you may/might be. 17. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him.Brasov? 10. 16. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. you shouldn’t have believed it. 7. 2. 10. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. Exercitiul 9: 1. 6. 10. 2. 9. I had been. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 5. 6. 12. 4. 8. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 18. we should take. she should have left. 3. you may/might understand. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 8. Exercitiul 8: 1. I can’t believe you.

12. 10. He made me miss the train. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 9. 15. She (was) proved to be a liar. 8. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. 9. I watched them playing football. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. 2. She was said to be ill. 6. I saw some children playing in the park. It is impossible for him to have said that. 14. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. It’s time for us to meet again. 7. This is the main thing for us to do. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 5. 8. Exercitiul 4: 1. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 7.1. Exercitiul 5: 91 . 2. They are sure to have had an argument. 4. She made me understand what had happened. Exercitiul 3: 1. 9. 10. 3. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 4. The people were impatient for the match to begin. 4. 6. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 7. I expected you to come earlier. 6. 5. I rely on you to lend me some money. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 3. This is a good book for you to read. 2. It is advisable for you to resign. It is necessary for him to be present. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 10. 8. 3. 3. I understand her to be a very good teacher. He wanted me to help him. He was heard to repeat it several times. It is possible for me to buy a car. 2. 5. 7. 10. It is important for you to come to the office at once. She seemed to be satisfied with me. 6. 9. 5. Exercitiul 2: 1. 11. I saw him speaking to his friend. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 13. I think him to be a good husband. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. This is a strange thing for her to have said. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. 8. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. He was expected to resign. John admitted the fault to be his. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 4.

8. 2. 3. 2. She was found digging in the garden. The boy was found breaking the window. Daca vremea va permite. The child was heard breaking the vase. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. a trebuit sa-i schimb. 9. Toata lumea fiind acasa. 6. Intrucât soarele rasarise. 7.1. am plecat acasa linistit. The plane was seen landing. Exercitiul 6: 1. She could be heard typing. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 9. Concertul fiind terminat. 6. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. She was seen lying on the beach. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. 8. am plecat la cumparaturi. am mers sa o pun la posta. neam asezat la cina. The hunters were heard shooting. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 10. 10. 7. The baby was heard crying. The peasants were seen working in the field. 4. Intrucât ploaia incetase. 4. 5. publicul a parasit sala. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 . She was seen fainting. 5. 3.

to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .

to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend

forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

94

to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot

let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot

let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot

95

to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim

showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam

shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum

96

to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .

98 .

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