LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV Exista doua aspecte in limba engleza: simplu si continuu.

In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous

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Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous

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1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.

2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.

3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.

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6. You (write) to John now? Yes. 11. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. I always (have) a rest after lunch. but he is late. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. You (go) to work every day? Yes. I (dream) every night. 10. 7. You (like) this book? 8. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 14. 15. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). as I (not want) to miss the first act. 9. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 12. as usual. I always (write) to him on his birthday. of course. You (dream) at night? Yes. 13. I (be). 16. except Saturdays and Sundays. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. 18. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 4 .

Adesea citesc carti englezesti. Ea isi face bagajul. Ce carte citesti? 10. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. Ex. 14. forma II. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat. 6. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. forma III – participiul trecut. Iarna ninge. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. You (know) what time is it? 4. 2. Nu-mi place cafeaua.Paste Tense. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. 19. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. 3. Ex. 17. merge pe jos. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 16. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata. 4. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. 8. 20. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. 9. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . 7. B. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate.19. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Eu nu studiez seara.

Este timpul de naratiune.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. Ex. terminata. cu perfectul compus. Yesterday I went for a walk. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. cu imperfectul.) 6 . Se traduce. I was watching TV. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. Se traduce. de obicei. Ex.) Last year I travelled to England. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta. This time yesterday. de obicei. terminata.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.

4. I own two umbrellas. sora lui privea la televizor. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. Ex. 1.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. Este. 10. 7. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. 4. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). I like to have a coffee in the morning. 8. 1. You drink too much. He translated the text. 6. 2. I met John.Adesea. 6. de asemenea. While I was crossing the street. 8. 3. 5. 2. I always make cakes on Sundays. I enjoyed travelling. You ask too many questions. He came home late. You speak English well. 7 . 7. Ex. He thought about you. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. 9. He changed his library book every day. in plina desfasurare. That sounds interesting. in aceeasi fraza. 3. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. He meets John on Sundays. ele aratând actiuni paralele. (In timp ce John citea. este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. While John was reading. 5. In acest caz. his sister was watching TV. 9. He forbade her to do this. I play football. I hated him. They drank all the wine. 10. I sold my car. We worked very hard. intr-un moment trecut. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). In aceasta situatie.

mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola. This time last Sunday. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. 8 . When I (enter) the classroom. 2. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. someone (ring up). Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. 12. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. 1. I talk on the phone. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. 4. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. 16. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. 19. As I (write). When I (arrive). 2. 10. he (have) an accident. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. 9. 20. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. 8. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. When you (come in). 9. While he (learn) to drive. 18. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. 4. 15. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche. 5. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. the teacher (write) on the blackboard.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. 6. 7. 3. 5. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. I (watch) a film on TV. she (have) dinner. 1. 10. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. he (work) in a bank. 11. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. When I first (meet) him.

Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. timp de).) I have known John for two years.) I haven’t seen John since September. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. 9 . eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. 22. I have seen two films this week. C. incepând din) si for (de. this month.) arata o actiune trecuta.) I have known John since 1990. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni.21. this year. this week. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. I haven’t seen John for two months. la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. • Ex. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din. • Ex. In acest caz.

Ex. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". I lost my umbrella yesterday. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. ora 10 a. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. • Ex. I didn’t get up early this morning. I must buy a new one. intereseaza in prezent. dintr-un motiv sau altul. intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. always. Ex. seldom. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. already.m. just. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. se foloseste Past Simple.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". De asemenea. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. arata o actiune trecuta. I haven’t got up early this morning. terminata. In acest caz.m. I must buy a new one. ever. Ex. Ex. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week. ora 2 p. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . care are rezultate in prezent sau care. never. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela.

(Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. fie cu perfectul compus. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. He hasn’t returned home yet. I am tired because I have been working all day. It has been raining for three hours. 11 . in functie de context. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". we shall have floods. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut. If it doesn’t stop soon. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. I have never been to England. care continua in prezent.) I haven’t seen him lately. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. cu accent pe durata. I have often been to England. He has not (hasn’t) been working. sa continue si in viitor. (Ploua de trei ore. Ex. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. yet (in propozitii negative). Ex. Daca nu se opreste in curând.) Dupa cum se poate observa.No.) De asemene. Yes. intre un moment trecut si prezent. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. vom avea inundatii. Ex. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.

We (know) each other for several years. 7. 12. The radio (play) since 7 a. He (not come) home yet. Ever since that woman came to work here. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 12 . How long you (live) here? 22. 10. 18. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. You ever (drive) a car? 17. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. I (lend) him some money today. I (buy) a new house. I (cook) all the morning. 5. 3. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. 4. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. 8. 5. No. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. You must come and see it. 21. I already (see) this film. He just (leave) home.m. When are you going to do it? 12. 11. Would you like a cake? 7. I’m tired of it. 2. 9. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. 11. I (water) the flowers. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. I (not be) to the seaside this year. You (water) the flowers? 3. It’s time we woke him up. thank you. she (try) to make trouble. 4. He (not go) to bed yet. 10. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 2. It (not rain) since December.1. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. I (live) here for one year. 16. I just (have) one. 15. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. He always (rely on) his friend. 1. 6.

10. 12.Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). 6. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 . La ce te-ai uitat? 15. You (see) your mother this week? No. 9. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. El este ministru de doi ani. 7. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. I am not out of work now. 18. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. Ninge de doua ore. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. 1. 14. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. 4. You (not see) it anywhere? No. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. 9. I (get) a job last month. Un copil a spart geamul. 10. I haven’t. 8. 13. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. 11. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. 11. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. 1. 3. Nu am mers la vot. When you (use) it last? 2. 16. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. A fost un accident. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. I (lose) my pen. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. De când mi-am cumparat masina. 7. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. You (be) out of work long? 5. 4. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. 8. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum.

l-am luat la ora 8. dar. Da. Afirmativ I had worked. Da. ca si Present Perfect. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul. Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 25.) When you rang me up. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. terminasem de scris temele. (Când mi-ai telefonat. 23. Afirmativ I had been working. a plecat acum o ora. A plecat John? 20. un verb de relatie. am petrecut o luna aici. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . acum doi ani. in acest caz. Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". D. I had finished writing my homework. Da. la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. Este. 21. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. Ex.19.) Ca sens. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute.

Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. they drank some coffee. 9. 2. 8. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. She said she already (be) to England. When I left home. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. I (return) from school. 15 . When we met them. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. Ex. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. 4. 7. it (rain) for one hour. 4. mother (cook) for two hours. De asemenea. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile. When she sat for the exam. s-a plictisit. 1. 6. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. 3. 2. ea batea la masina de o ora. (Când el a intrat in camera. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. 3. 10. she had been typing for one hour. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1.) He said it had been raining for three days. she (study) the subject for a week. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour.) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes.) Dupa cum se observa. he got bored. When he entered the room. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. After they (finish) dinner. At 3 o’clock on Friday. When I arrived home. 5. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it.

5. When I called on her unexpectedly. somebody told us it (rain) for hours. 2. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. After we (walked) for an hour. 9. 6. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). she felt chilly. 3. she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. 10. 7. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. When I (find out) he (get married). 8. 6. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. 5. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. When I rang her up. 3. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 10. she (write) letters for one hour. When we arrived at Sinaia. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. we (climb) for 7 hours. 1. 4. When she decided to have a rest. 9. 2. we (realize) we (lose) our way. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. 8. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. a inmânat-o profesorului. 16 . am mers la culcare. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 1. When we reached the top. After John (leave). 4. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 5. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. I realized she (have) a party. she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 7. 6. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours.

I (shall) will meet him next week. E. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna.7. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. Negativ 17 . You will be going. 10. He/she/it will be going. They will be going.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". 8. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. 9. iar pentru „will not" este won’t. Ex. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. will la persoana II si III. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980. se foloseste numai „shall". Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. We (shall) will be going. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. You will be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I.

He/she/it will not be going. You will have gone. You will not be going. By three o’clock tomorrow. You will have gone. (have + forma III). (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. We (shall) will not have gone. I will be travelling to England. I will have reached Predeal. You will not have gone. They will not be going. At three o’clock. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. You will not have gone. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. He/she/it will not have gone.) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. We (shall) will not be going. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. You will not be going.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 .I (shall) will not be going. Ex. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. They will have gone. Ex. We (shall) will have gone. He/she/it will have gone. They will not have gone.

la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut. Este un timp rar folosit. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. He said that at 3 o’clock. He said he would be late. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit. Ex. atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. When you come home. I should (would) be going. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. he would be travelling to England. Ex. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. Când vei veni tu acasa. I (shall) will have been going. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. (El a spus ca va intârzia. 19 . the next day. Ex. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". I will have been studying for three hours. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore.

I am sure I (succeed). Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. va calatori spre Anglia. 7. You (remember) to post my letter? 9.) It is going to rain. I (remember) this day all my life. 6. I am going to read this book.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. 10. I (know) the results in three days’ time.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. bine stabilit. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv. I leave for London tomorrow. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. You (be) in London tomorrow. 1. 8. • Ex. 2. He (be) pleased if you invite him.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare. Arata o intentie. la ora 3. 3. 20 . I hope I (pass) the exam. 5. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. arata un program precis. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. I am meeting John this morning. I am sure you (like) this book. • Ex. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. Intr-un astfel de context. • Ex. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1.

6. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. I (have) breakfast. I (pay off) all my debts. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. Voi vizita târgul international. 4. 4. I (swim) in the sea. 2.1. If we don’t hurry. 3. You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. By the end of the season. we (climb) the mountain. 10. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 5. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. I (work) on this paper for a month. Pâna la ora 1. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. Let’s hurry to the beach. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. 6. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. we (take) our exam. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes. I (cook) for two hours. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. it probably (rain). She (watch) TV. they (be married) for 25 years. 9. 3. 4. By the beginning of next week. 7. When you reach Sinaia. 9. In a week’s time. I am sure when I arrive home. 7. By the end of the month. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. 2. 2. the baby (cry). This time next month. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. When I take the exam. 8. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. 8. 7.m. Don’t expect me home for dinner. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p. 10. 21 . 5. By the time you come home. By 5 o’clock. I (work) at the office till late at night. He (study) all day tomorrow. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. 4. Next year. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. 6. 3. This time next day.

E un obiect frumos. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. 10. mâine. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. Past Tense Continuous. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2. (El a spus ca merge la scola. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. 9. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. (El a spus ca este bolnav. Past Perfect Simple. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica. Present Perfect Simple. desigur. intre orele 12 si 1. Vineri. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . Propozitia principala 1. Present Tense Continuous. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex.8.) He said he was going to school. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. 11. ci in fraze. nu in propozitii.

(El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. He said he would come to see me when he had time. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. Ex.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani. Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data.) She promised her mother she would help her.He said he had returned home a week before. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. (Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala. Ex.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale.) 1.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 . She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.

Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. de exemplu. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. când propozitia secundara este atributiva. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me". Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC. Ex. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. 2. 3. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. Se poate intâlni. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu.a.) I will have finished studying when you come home. (Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. sa ajunga regula.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 1. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus.) b. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 . Pentru moment insa. Ex. Ex. cu timpul.

she saw the sun (shine) brightly. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. 1. I congratulated him. 9. 25 . 6. 10. I was not sure if you (speak) English. 8. 9. 7. 8. 1. After I (hear) the news. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. When it started to rain. She told me his name after he (leave). They didn’t know that I (play) football. we (dig) in the garden for an hour. 10. He just (leave) home when he came across John. 1. Looking out of the window. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). 7. 3. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 5. I understood you (be) a painter. 3. 5. 2. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. When I arrived. the concert already (begin). tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. It was clear they (talk) business again. 2. 6. 4. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. When he finally reached London. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 4.

3. After she (learn) to type. 7. 6. 16. 4. 2. He promised he (drive) me home. 6. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. 26 . 8. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 5. 14. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. he will drive to Sinaia. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. this beach will become very crowded. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). 10. 8. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. We all believed he (win) the competition. 9. 5. As soon as the holidays (begin). We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). When I (finish) the book. 10. As wages had gone up. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). 7. 3. 13. 9. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). we supposed prices (go up). When their first baby (be born). they will have been married for five years. I shall have typed all the letters. 11. I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. 15. He believed the strike (end) very soon. After he (repair) the car. too. she will take a job as a secretary.2. 4. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. By the time you (finish) translating the text. 12. 17. I will lend it to you. When I heard the main actor was ill. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 1. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening.

You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. 7. 9. 2. 8. 5. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). you will feel better. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. 7. I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. 20. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). 27 . He was very upset because I (be) late. 19. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. I (not decide) yet. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. not before. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter. 3. they were listening to music. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. He told me he never (see) the sea. 10. In 1998. 6. precum si exceptiile: 1. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married.18. 6. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 9. 2. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. 4. 5. 4. When we (go) to see them last night. 3. 6. After you (drink) a coffee. 5. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. I will do it when I (want) to. 8.

Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. we (drink) coffee and brandy. 6. After having visited Italy. 19. 5. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. 11. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 12. 18. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 7.10. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. When I finally arrived home. 2. 9. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. he decided he (change) his job. 17. 10. After we have finished dinner. 14. You will never know how much I (suffer). 15. 20. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. 4. 16. LECTIA III 28 . 11. 13. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. 8. A week ago. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 12. 3. 7. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra.

ai merge.). wouldn’t.MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 . Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). ar merge etc. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t.

) I would stay at home if it rained.) I will stay at home if it rains. (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers. ai fi mers. unde 30 . ar fi mers etc.) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele.). cu exceptia verbului „to be". (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna.

spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. What shall we do. If she should ring up. daca s-ar intâmpla ca.se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele. dar improbabila. we would be fined. If the police should find out the truth. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. in loc de Present Simple. in case. supposing. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. tell her I am out.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. noi am fi amendati. suppose. De asemenea. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. had. In acest caz. In caz ca telefoneaza. este posibila 31 . Ex. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. providing. should). Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. were. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). Ex. should se traduce cu: in caz ca.

8. If she finds out what has happened. I (buy) it. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect.omiterea lui if. If I like the dress. If you (take) a dog. If I (give up) smoking. I would be nervous. I (not do) this. 9. 7. he (not make) so many mistakes. Should he have a headache. you (not find) me at home. If I (know) his phone-number. I would ring him up. 9. 2. 5. If I (move) to the country-side. 3. you (not pass) the exam. If I tell you something. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . If I see him. I (greet) him. If it (go on) raining. If he were more careful. Ex. I (buy) a car. would you visit me? 3. he (take) a pill. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. 5. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. 10. she (be) very angry. 10. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. you (be) late. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. Unless you come at 6. 7. 2. 4. Unless you study more. 1. If I won the lottery. 1. 8. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. we shall have floods. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. you will have to look after it. Were I in your place. If you don’t hurry.

I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. you wouldn’t have an accident. 33 . 2. strazile ar fi ude.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I (answer) it. 9. 5. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 1. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. he would have gone home. 8. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. 1. 3. 4. 3. It (be) better if you had waited. 8. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. I would go home immediately. If you had known English. strazile ar fi fost ude. 2. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 7. If I (know) you had no driving licence. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. If the child is good. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. If I (work) harder. strazile vor fi ude. You (be) sick if you eat so much. 9. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. 6. 6. 3. I would speak to him. you (not get) into trouble. I would have succeeded. 4. 2. 7. 1. 5. 10. Daca ar ploua. If I (see) him. I (answer) the phone. he (get) a bar of chocolate. If he (realize) it was so late. 6. I (answer) your question if I can. Had I learned English grammar. If you had taken my advice. If you (drive) more carefully. If he had written a letter to me. If I (be) you. Dacaar fi plouat. Had I been at home. 10. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 4. 5. 1. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. If I (not tell) him. he would never have known.

6. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra. 5. 10. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 .7. voi mânca la un restaurant. 8. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. 11. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. 8. 9. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. 7. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani. 12. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. mi-ar fi fost frig. 10. 2. 1. 1. I-ai da? 3. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. 9. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home.

o 1. Ex. o He said „I will do the exercise". in functie de sens. – He said „I am ill". He said he was ill. 2. Ex. He said he had been ill. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. He said: „She gave me a book". o He said „I was ill". He said she had given him a book. He said he had been working hard.Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. Se schimba pronumele. He said he would do the exercise. He said „I have been working hard.

 He said he was going to do that translation the next day. "If it had rained. Ex. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. should." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. 3. He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late. I would stay at home. I will stay at home. 1. could. He said: „I’ll be at home today". Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains.next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex." He said if itrained he would stay at home. ought to.  He said he would be at home on that day. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta. Verbele modale would. 36 . I would have stayed at home." He said if it rained he would stay at home. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow".

Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. 3. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. 1. Ex. Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. Ex. on holiday. He said: „I am ill". Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex.  He said (that) he was ill. 37 . He asked me if I liked music. ceea ce este o greseala. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. Where have you been? I’ve been away. Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". 5. 2. I will go shopping right now. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. He said „Go out". I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. He said „Don’t go out"  He told me not to go out.Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Ex. 2. He asked me where I had been. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. 3. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale.  He told me to go out. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. Ex. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. 4. I saw this film a week ago. The weather was fine yesterday.

If I had been at home. 9. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. 12. I will buy a car next year. 7. 7. 4. 8. 3. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 2. 8.6. please! Read the text. 6. 10. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 9. 4. 11. I went to England two years ago. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 1. 6. Will you help me. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. I would have answered the phone. 8. 2. 2. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. I am very busy today. 5. 1. If I have enough money. ordered) me to come in. 3. 7. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. 10. 5.

I will be asked. 12. In limba româna. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. please? 4. Ex. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens.9. Ex. 10. 1. complementul 39 . Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. 4. 3. 9. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. 5. 10. 8. I have been asked. I was asked. 6. complementul indirect si. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. in unele cazuri. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. 11. In limba engleza. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. I am asked. I had been asked. 2. 7.

8. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. punctuality este un complement prepozitional. 40 . Complement direct  Subiect A book was given to him. In aceste situatii. Someone has found the missing child. People play football all over the world. Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. 1. While I am in hospital. 3. (by me) Complement indirect  Subiect He was given a book. They are building a new house round the corner. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. Unde complementul direct este a book. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today. Ex. 7. de asemenea. iar complementul indirect este him. Desigur. my flat was being painted. 5. Activ: She looked after the child. 9. 2. 6. Activ: I gave him a book. A specialist will repair my TV set. Ex. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. His coworkers must do something for him. Ex. my flat is being painted. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). The noise frightened me. He has found your bag. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. I will invite my friend to a party. While I was in hospital. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. care. In this office punctuality is insisted on.prepozitional. 4. In multe cazuri. pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. se omite formularea by.

They have given me a nice present. 8. 6. They set fire to the shed. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 8. 3. 3. 7. 5. 4. 9. 3. 2. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. The policeman will show us the way. 7. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. We objected to his proposal. 4. 6. 5. We called for the doctor. 4. 5. when I passed by. 7. 3. 6. 9. The teacher asked me a difficult question. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. He hasn’t slept in his bed. 2. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. We laughed at John.10. They will give me a reward. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 4. 8. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. I teach them English. 10. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 2. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. 2. I have lent John two of my books. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. They didn’t look after the children properly. Burglars broke into the house. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 9.

6. This book will soon be forgotten. 12. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa.10. These books mustn’t be taken away. 11. The pupils will be told where to sit. 7. 5. This house has been built out of stone and cement. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. I was recommended a very good doctor. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. 3. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. 9. 2. 13. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. 4. 9. A reception was held in his honour. 3. 5. English is spoken all over the world. Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 10. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. 8. 10. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 7. 4. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea. 14. 2. 15. 8. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. LECTIA VI 42 . 6. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. 6. He hates being made fun of. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential.

I cannot (can’t) make this translation. Ex. He cannot (can’t) speak English. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. would. shall. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. I can make this traslation.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. Ex. Ex. need.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. should. must. Can = infinitiv. Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. prezent Negativ: cannot. can’t Ex. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. will. prezent. could. Ex. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do".VERBELE MODALE Can. Can are sensul de a putea. may. might. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. Se folosesc inlocuitori. a fi in stare Ex. I can do this. (Pot sa fac aceasta. He can speak English. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 . Can is a model verb. • Nu au toate timpurile. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. ought to.

He could have been here in time. Ex. Voi putea veni la tine mâine. 3. It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to. a avea permisiunea Ex. Ex. Ex. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. I can swim. 2. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. can I take your car? Tata. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. nu e posibil sa. (Da. May 1. se foloseste infinitivul trecut.). poti. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea".) I can speak English. (Stiu sa inot. mayn’t 44 . pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. El e in strainatate. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week.) Cu acest sens. you may. are sensul de a putea. Ex.) Negativ: may not. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. Soarele nu a apus inca. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta. Ex. I will be able to come to you tomorrow. Ex. Se traduce cu a sti sa. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. In vorbirea familiara. He is abroad. The sun hasn’t set yet. Father.Ex.

It’s got late. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. I must go home. 45 . S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. Ex. 1. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. Take your umbrella. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Negativ: must not. 3. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ia-ti umbrela. to be permitted to. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. s-ar putea sa ploua.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Ex. He said I might smoke in that room. Ring up John. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. Ex. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Must A trebui Ex. Telefoneaza-I lui John. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. Ex. Trebuie sa plec acasa. Cu acest sens. It may/might rain. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. S-a facut târziu. Ex. You may/might help me when I am in need. He may/might be at home now. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. May/might pot exprima un repros. 2.

Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
2.

De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:

Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.

Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie

Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.

Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie

Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)

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Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.

Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul

Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?

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Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would

Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:

Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?

A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):

This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.

Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
o

in trecut

When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.

Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.

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9. 18.This girl looks very much like Jane. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". 8. my mother used to read me fairy tales. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. 12. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. He can swim very well. O fi sora ei. 19. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. This child may have another cake. 1. acolo unde este necesar: 1. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. When I was a child. Ex. 2. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. 13. 10. I must learn English. care are numai forma de trecut. I cannot translate ten pages a day. She can play the piano very well. 17. 5. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. You may not smoke in this room. She will be her sister. 14. 6. 20. Nota: In afara de „would". 3. I must go soon. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . You may leave earlier. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. 15. I must look up the words in the dictionary. You may not speak to your mother like that. 7. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. 11. She can lend you that book. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. 16. 4. 49 .

He should go to school everyday. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. 2. 8. You might change your mind about that. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. holidays will be very different. John could be a winner. It might rain. 13. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 20. He needn’t buy milk. 15. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. John must be ill. You probably forgot to lock the door. 5. 14. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. 10. 12. 1. 5. 6. 4. 2. 50 . It can’t be too late. He may be at home. 9. 3. 18. Man …travel through space now. 16. 11. You must have forgotten to lock the door. He …even drive on its surface. He ought to tell me the truth. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 4. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. He must speak English well. there is plenty in the fridge. 7. 1. 3. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. You might write to me more often. 17. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. He must be delayed at the office. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1. Model: He probably speaks English well. 19.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. You needn’t do this. You might pay more attention to your work.

He probably thinks I am wrong. You can’t be right. 9. 10. 10. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 4. He was probably late. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 2. I have bought his latest book. I think she was angry with you. You can’t have been right. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. I don’t believe you were right. 8. It is possible for her to be very late. perhaps it is a good one. but I doubt it. 3. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. He is probably older than he looks. 5.1. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. You have probably forgotten his address. She is probably a very good doctor. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. Don’t wait. 5. 7. He probably came home very early. 7. It is possible that I come home early. 1. 3. 6. 6. 6. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. 51 . 8. Take your umbrella. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 5. It may/might snow in the mountains. 2. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. perhaps it will rain. 9. 4. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up.

4. 9. I’ll give you as much as you want. 8. 1. 4. People … speak during the concert. 2. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 10.1. I don’t believe it is his fault. I don’t think the weather will change. 8. I … return the books before the 1st of September. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. You … worry about money. I don’t believe she has married that awful man. I …read one book a day. I …wear my hair long. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. 5. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. 52 . 6. I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. You…water the flowers. please? 7. You … take sleeping pills too often. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. When I was a teenager. I don’t think this is a true story. 7. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. 9. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. 7. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 3. The sky is clear. 1. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. 2. I don’t believe she has got so fat. You … take an umbrella. He …read for hours on end. 3. When I was young. 6. 8. You …not go to bed so late at night. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. 4. 9. 2. … you help me solve this problem? 3. it will soon start raining. 10. 6. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. they are addictive. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. I don’t believe it was his fault. 5. 5. 10. 9. You …not expect everybody to obey you.

… you correct my exercise. 7. 2. I …(get up) so early today. We …(wait) too long. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. 3. 3.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. 7. I wrote him a letter. you…get a nice present. 4. He has one of his own. but I forgot it was Sunday. he will never read them all. This door … not unlock. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. You …(see) Anna yesterday. he is a very poor swimmer. I promise you not …be disturbed. The child … (leave) home. She is away. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. you …re-type it. which was very convenient. 9. I locked the door and took the key with me. He …(be) at home. 9. 9. …you tell me the truth. I …(be) in the garden. I am sorry you wasted your time. Completati spatiile goale cu must. I …(answer) the questions. please? This letter is full of mistakes. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. The light was on in his room. 10. The student …(write) such a long composition. You …(buy) so much bread. You …do this whether you like it or not. 3. I haven’t got my bag with me. 4. which would have saved me a lot of work. John …(do) such a thing. 8. 11. You …(wait) for me. 6. 5. the road is dry. he was back soon. You …(lend) him so many books. 7. he is a nice boy. I …(leave) it on the bus. 53 . for once? This …be John’s house.2. 5. It …(rain) here. 6. I didn’t hear the phone. 10. She …write an article for this magazine every week. 6. I …(answer) the questions. 10. 8. He …(swim) across the Danube. 2. You…(lend) him your text – book. 4. I …(see) him for that. 10. It’ll get stale. Go to sleep. 5. 8. If you win the contest.

Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. 8. 14. 19." "His family consider he should. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. but he himself believes he needn’t. 20. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Nu. 4. 18. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. 13. 6. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. am baut deja doua astazi. 1. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 12." Traduceti in limba engleza. 54 . Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. 7. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. 10. 3. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara. 5. 16. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal." "Yes. Nu stiu sa crosetez. Va trebui sa plec curând. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. 11. 9. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora.12. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 21. 2. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. 17. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare.

Ex. Apare in propozitii exclamative. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. in engleza contemporana. might. o urare. exprimând o lozinca. 24. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. va rog. Long live the king! Traiasca regele.22. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. would + infinitiv. De asemenea. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. o dorinta sau un blestem. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. 23. Fie ce-o fi. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. 29. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. Come what may. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. 26. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect. Ex. may. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. 27. in situatii in care. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. Unde mergem acum? 28. 1. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. o incuiasem chiar eu. Vreti. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti.

Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. to recommend. Ex. Ex. to demand. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. 1. it is necessary that. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. • Ex. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. to suggest. I wish I had been born in England. it is desirable that. apare ca were la toate persoanele. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. it is likely that. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a.c. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. d. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. to insist. It is necessary that you be present. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect. • I wish (mi-as dori. It is impossible that he do this. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. I wish I were in England now. to urge. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Ex. to order Ex. Everybody leave the hall. 56 . Somebody bring me a glass of water.

I wish it would stop raining. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. In exemplul de mai sus. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. a. Ex.) Ex. I would sooner stay at home tonight. It is time the child went to bed. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. Ex. It is high time you began to study seriously. 57 . In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex.) It is high time. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. a. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. (E timpul. Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. d)It is time. it is necessary that. (Era de mult timpul. • Ex. 1. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. It is necessary that you should be present. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. You speak English as if you had lived in England. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. It is impossible that he should do this. se foloseste would.

might 58 . la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). Hurry up lest you should miss the train. • Ex. Intrebari introduse prin how. fie in vorbirea direca. fie in vorbirea indirecta. Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. a. in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul. to suggest. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. • Ex. to demand. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. It is impossible that he should have done this. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. to urge. Dupa cum se observa.ci este necesara introducerea lui should.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). Ex. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. De asemenea. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. may. Hurry up lest you miss the train. why. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. to insist. where. Ex. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta.when. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. to recommend.

59 . in order that Ex. Dupa whoever. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. to be afraid Ex. • Dupa so that. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. No matter who you may/might be.Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. It is possible that he may be here in time. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. however. no matter when. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. you have no right to do this. It was possible that he might be here in time. • Dupa to hope. etc. • Dupa it is possible. in secundara se foloseste might. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. Wherever I may/might be. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. I will ring you up. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. • Ex. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. it was possible Ex. wherever. iti voi telefona. Oricine ai fi. Whoever you may/might be. whichever. you have no right to do this. in secundara se foloseste may. Oriunde as fi. whenever. I hope that he may pass the exam.

60 . I am sorry you had an accident. I regret I can’t go to the concert. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. 1. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 1. I wish I could speak English. I wish I might borrow your car. 10. 6. Ex. I am sorry it rains so often. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1. 8. 2. I regret I have no children. I am sorry you live so far away. iar in aceste cazuri. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. 7. 4. 1. I am sorry books are so expensive. I wish the weather were fine. 9.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 3. I regret I have only one child. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I am sorry my friend is ill. 5. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I regret I am not a student. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza.

5. 1. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 3. 8. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 4. 10. 3. I regret you didn’t win the competition. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. I am sorry I was late for the party. I was sorry you had got a fine. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. 6. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 8. 9. You behave as if you (own) the place.2. 4. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 1. 7. 10. 10. 6. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. It’s time we (go) home. I wish he would take my advice. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 11. 4. 5. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. 2. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. 9. 61 . 1. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. 5. I would rather you (close) that window. I was sorry you were out when I called. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. 7. 3. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. 9. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. 7. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. 8. 2. 6.

Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 4. 2. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. 20. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. am putea merge la plaja! 6. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young. 18. 17. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 16. 62 . Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. 5. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. 13. 9. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. As prefera sa mergi la teatru.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. If only I (become) a millionaire. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 12. As prefera sa merg la teatru. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. 10. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. 14. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 15. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. 14. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna. 16. 13. 11. 3. 17.

20. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 8. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. 5. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. 7. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . 7. 8. 2. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 8. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. 6. 2. 4. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. 8. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 4. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 3. 6. la tara. 5. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. 9. 3. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte.19. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte.

nu te pot crede. Oricât te-ai stradui. 12. I wish my car (not break down) last week. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 9. Oricând te vei intoarce. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be). He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 7. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 2. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 9. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. 11. 5. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. 4. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras. 3. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. 8. 15. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. 7. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 6. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. 64 . nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. 2. Oricare ar fi motivul. Orice mi-ai spune. 10. The road is wet. 6. 13. 3.1. 5. 14. 8. 1. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 4. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. you should remember your own phone number. 10.

I wish I (be) there when it happened. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. I have such a boring job. 19. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). Infinitivul poate avea aspect. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. 17. All success (attend) you! 18. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 . Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing.16. diateza si timpuri. I wish I (find) another.

(L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think. to allow.) He ordered the door to be locked. to dislike. Ex. to expect. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. to watch.) I let him go out and play. to suppose. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. I consider him to be a good student. to hear. to order.) d. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want.) 66 . to cause. to consider. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to believe. (Consider ca el este un bun student. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to hate.Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate.) c. Ex. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make. (L-am facut sa invete engleza. I want you to go now. to know. to understand. Ex. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. Ex. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. in cazul verbelor neregulate. to wish. verbe exprimând un ordin. Ex. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). I’d like him to come with me. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa. to like.) b. I made him study English.) I want John to do this. to feel. I saw him leave the room. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a.

to prove. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. He proved to be a good journalist.) 67 .) f. to make. He is considered to be a good student. a.) 1. Ex. to appear o la diateza activa: Ex.) They declared him to be the man of the year. Ex. He is said to be a good writer. Ex. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. He admitted the news to be false. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. to expect. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. to count upon/on . (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. I rely on you to do this.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. The news was considered to be false. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. to declare. to consider. to admit. to suppose. to hear. They declared him to be the man of the year. to know. to believe. He was made to study English. He was declared to be the man of the year. He considered the news to be false. I consider him to be a good student.I expected him to come in time. to seem. b.) e. to turn out. I made him study English. verbe declarative: to state. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist. to say. cu verbele: to happen.

1. de obicei.) It is necessary for me to go there. (E usor sa fac asta. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina.) It is impossible for him to come.) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. I will tell him where you are.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. 1. It is necessary that I (should) go there.) If I happen to meet him. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. a. 68 . Ex. She is sure to come in time.) This remains for him to decide. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala. It is easy for me to do this. ii voi spune unde esti. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex.I happened to meet him in the street. Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time". (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. It is impossible that I (should) come. (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. Ex.

) I heard her singing. (Orele fiind terminate. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired. to smell. vom merge la plaja. precum si cu verbele to find. 3. Ex: The classes being over. (Daca vremea va permite.) I will have my hair done.to hear. to watch. Ex. am mers acasa. we went home. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând.) 2.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu. to leave. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. (Am auzit-o cântând. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare.) Weather permitting. we shall go to the beach.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 .) She was heard singing. (El a fost vazut plecând. (Voi merge sa ma coafez.) I left / found her crying. Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând.

11. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui. 6. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. 3. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect. I had my bedroom window broken. 4. 13. 1. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 5. 4. 2. This is a valuable piece of advice. This is a good book. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. 6. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. 70 . I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. 2. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. We should have a heart to heart talk. 10. Ex. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul.subiect. 15. She had two sons killed in the war. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. The time has come. 14. I cam make it. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. You should take it. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. 8. I-am privit jucând fotbal. You should bear it in mind. This fact is important. You should read it. 5. 3. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. I can’t solve it. This problem is too difficult. 2. 12. The people were impatient. 9. The match was about to begin. Cred ca el e un sot bun. This translation is easy for me to make. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. 7.

It’s time you started learning foreign languages. They heard him repeat it several times. 4. cold. 8. 1. 2. She was thought to be a gifted child. I didn’t want her to miss the train. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It is important that you should come to the office. We should do it now.7. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 9. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing. 6. 8. 8. 9. 4. It’s time we met again. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. They said she was ill. It is important to know the truth. 2. I can’t believe she said that. It is possible that I might buy a car. 10. It is impossible that he should have said that. Expected that he would resign. 9. It is advisable that you should resign. 3. 1. I have closed the window. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 6. I thought she was unable to win the contest. 3. 3. I ordered a taxi. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 7. It is necessary that he be present. 4. 71 . 10. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. 5. This is a strange thing. at once. It was proved that she was a liar. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock. Everybody. 7. It is sure they have had an argument. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 5.

Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. The mud having ruined my shoes. The river having risen in the night. 2. 7. 5. I had to change them. The decision being taken in my favour. The rain having stopped. 3. Weather permitting. 8. I saw the plane landing. we hurried to the beach. The concert being over. The dog was heard barking. I went shopping. The plane having taken off. 72 . I went home relaxed. I found her digging in the garden. 2. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. the audience left the hali. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. I saw her lying on the beach. 10. The letter being written. I stopped smoking. 3. 9. The sun having risen. we were seared about having floods. 10. 6. 10. l. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. She heard the hunters shooting. we sat down to dinner. 4. 5. I saw the peasants working in the field. 5. I found the boy breaking the window. 7.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. She heard the baby crying. I could hear her typing. I went to post it. 8. 6. 4. Everybody being at home. I saw her fainting. I heard the child breaking the vase. 9. 6.

CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .

They don’t live.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. 20. It isn’t raining. do you do? 3. Ann isn’t knitting. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. The child isn’t learning. 4. always borrow/is always borrowing. go. 11. 3. Do you go? 16. 12. am taking. are you hurrying? I don’t want. it is raining. 15. is drinking. Are you typing? 5. Do they live? 8. My mother isn’t resting. don’t understand. What do you do on your free days? 12. remembers. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. Does he have? 9. he is having. Is my mother resting? 8. 5. Are they swimming? 6. I don’t understand. They aren’t swimming. Now I am doing my homework in English. speaks. drinks. 10. You aren’t typing. Is he telling? 4. Is my friend wearing? 7. 2. 13. What book are you reading? 10. On Sundays. I don’t always believe. I do not study in the evening. My friend isn’t wearing. The secretary is just typing a report. Do I love? 2. he walks. Do you dream? I dream 9. He doesn’t have. She doesn’t talk. write. I don’t have. Do I always believe? 6. I am not going. are you waiting? I am waiting. Whom are you ringing up? 13. 1 don’t like. Does he remember? 7. Do I understand? 4. He doesn’t remember. Why 74 . 9. Are we studying? 9. 18. 14. 14. am. Are you writing. are you thinking? I am thinking. 2. Do you play? 5. 4. it often rains. Am I having? 3. Do you like? 8. You don’t play. I don’t love. I am not having. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. 19. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. I don’t trust. 6. He isn’t telling. 1 am cooking. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. We aren’t studying. I don’t like coffee. Is Ann knitting? 10. Do I trust? 10. Do you usually get. he doesn’t get up early. 7. He doesn’t go to school by underground. Do you smoke? 17. Does she talk? 3. 6. I always have. 7. Is it raining? 2. She goes shopping on Saturdays. It snows in winter. 8.

I often read English books. 10. He didn’t think. 5. I played. 3. 2. 4. 1 liked. Last Sunday. 8. he had. They didn’t drink. I got up late yesterday morning. You spoke. 6. Did I enjoy? 9. someone rang up. You asked. I was watching. When did you buy this TV set? 12. He didn’t forbid. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 8. Yesterday I lost 75 . You drank. the teacher was writing. 6.are you opening the window? I5. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. he was-learning. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. What were you doing last Tuesday. I owned. Did I hate? 4. Did they drink? 3. While I was looking for my passport. my friends played chess. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Did he come? 8. 2. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. Exercitiul 4: 1. She is packing her luggage. 16. This time yesterday it was raining. 3. Last night. Exercitiul 2: 1. I met. he realized. he wasn’t wearing. 17. 19. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. We didn’t work. When did you return from the mountains? 11. He didn’t change. Did I sell? 6. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 10. I like to swim a lot. I always made. 4. He didn’t come. 20. Did he think? 2. I didn’t sell. Did he translate? 10. 9. were you doing? 7. I slept. 7. 5. Yesterday. I entered. He didn’t translate. 10. When I go to the seaside. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. I arrived. 8. Did he change? 5. He met. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. I was writing. he was working. you came in. 6. were you going. 9. 7. I didn’t enjoy. 4. she was having. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. 2. 9. Did we work? 7. That sounded. I was talking. I didn’t hate. 1 first met. I found this old photo. 5.

10. 4. 18. 8. The weather has got warmer lately. I have lent. Have you ever driven? 16. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. I have been cooking. 9. I didn’t succeed. Have you visited? 12. 4. he has caught. I have been asking. I have been watering. He has been sleeping. 19. 10. Have you ever tried? I tried. I returned. I haven’t written. Yesterday I got up early. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. I got up. we left. I saw. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. I have bought. It has been raining. I have just had. I was. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. Have you paid? 19. 5. 3. While it was raining. I have lost. 17. have you cooked? 7. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. have you been wearing? 6. He has been fishing. 6. 11 . Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. He has been. 2. 9. the engine – drivers have gone. Exercitiul 2: l. 5. 16. 20. 8. Exercitiul 3: I. 14. We have known. I had breakfast and then I left for school. 8. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. Have you been. I got. The radio has been playing. 17. 7. 7. Have you been? I have been. I was driving to Sinaia. Have you ever eaten? 13. 1t hasn’t rained. He has been a Minister for 76 . 4. 13. 2. I have been wearing. He has just left. Have you watered? 3. The child has been playing. she has been trying. 6.my gloves. I have’ been shopping. Have you read? 18. began. Have you lived? I have lived. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. She has changed. I have been doing. 9. 14. 4. 5. have you been. I5. How long have you been learning English? 5. He hasn’t gone. I have already seen. He has always relied. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. He hasn’t come. Have you seen? she left. 10. He sat for his first exam last week. 3. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. I haven’t been.

13. 12. 2. 20. he went. 8. we had lost. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. we asked. had been speaking. 2. 14. I had met. had listened. 8. 3. 19. I had returned. 4. I found out. he had been. congratulated. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. Exercitiul 4: 1. I have seldom walked to my office. 9. 9. had not told. It has been snowing for two hours. I rang him up. Exercitiul 3: 1. they had been waiting. had been swimming. we had been walking. he left an hour ago. Exercitiul 2: 1. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. had been cooking. she had already been. 5. they had finished. He thanked me for what I had done for him. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. 2. 5. it had been raining. 11. 10. 10. What did you look at? It was an accident. he told. 3. 3. 6. I was sorry I had hurt him. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. he had caught. she had been studying. he 77 . She had just gone out. 9. had spread. had been climbing. 6. I spent a month here. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 18. had been having. 8.two years. it had been raining. 7. 6. 7. they had been. it had been raining. two years ago. I had it at 8 o’clock. she told. 4. he had learned/he had been learning. 5. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. 10. he had thought. 10. I entered. I called. 7. he had got married. she had not passed. we realized. Has John left? Yes. Since I bought a car. 4. 2. 7. had left. We have walked 10 km so far. he had visited. We have been walking since 3 o clock. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. 15. she had been cleaning and dusting. 9. 3. Have you been to this town before? Yes. she had been writing. 8. had eaten. We must replace it. A child has broken the window. he went.

7. 10. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. She will be watching. 2. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice. 5. 3. 8. Exercitiul 4: 1. it will probably be raining. As soon as the guests had left. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. We shall/will have taken. I realized I had left my bag at home. they will have been married. 5. 7. Will you recognize? 4. I shall/will be working. I shall/will have paid off. 6. will have risen. 8. will be crying. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 4. Exercitiul 3: 1. 6. You will not/won’t find. I shall/will have saved five million lei. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. You will have seen. 7. 4. 9. 10. I shall/will pass. Wil1 you remember? 9. You will like. 6. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type.handed it to the teacher. between twelve and one o’clock. I shall/will have read 8. 4. Because of 78 . 5. 6. I shall/will be having. I shall/will have finished. 9. 3. 9. Exercitiut 2: 1. I shall/will remember. wilt be rising. 4. 2. 2. they will be having their last English class. Will you be needing? 5. On Friday. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. 8. 10. will/shall will be climbing. will have spent. I shall/will have been working. When I arrived at the bus stop. I shall/will know. 6. I shall/will have been cooking. I shall/will succeed. He will be. By this time next year. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 3. 10. He will be studying. You will be. 5. 7. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. 7. I shall/will be swimming. 8. 2. 3. I went to bed.

you have drunk. 18. 15. 8. did not remember. they have been. he would finish. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. I would remain. is born. 10. 20. he has repaired. she has learnt. you would soon have. begin. I have. you see. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4. 4.the strike of the bus – drivers. 2. Exercitiul 4: 1. 8. 7. they were talking. 9. I had lost. Exercitiul 2: 1. he would drive. 9. 5. was shining. 14. 19. would be cancelled. I had heard. 9. I finish. 8. he would give. 7. 6. 10. we reach. 8. 5. 10. 10. she looks. I had read. prices would go up. he had just left. You had to type. 3. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. he had been travelling. he wanted. 10. 2. he tells. 6. we had been digging. 16. you spoke. I had not enjoyed. he would win. 4. you were. I had done. you finish. 5. he has arrived. arrive. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 2. 4. 9. I played/I was playing. you were. he had left. 17. 9. 2. 12. I usually read. would end. 7. 3. he would pass. Exercitiul 5: 79 . 5. had already begun. you have just told. I have received. you have read. 7. you see. 3. she notices you have broken. they would remain. you see. 11. 3. he had stolen. 13. 6. she has changed. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. 6.

14. 9. I have been reading. 10. 18. 4. 5. 3. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. Exercitiul 7: l. they had known. you will not find. 6.1. I want. will soon move. I was. we will drink. 4. 20. we went. I had not decided. had failed. I will lend. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. you do. 3. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. I will greet 2. 3. he would change. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. 8. 7. 4. 8. 6. 19. they had been listening. 12. 10. 7. you will be. 11. 10. 10. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 8. she will be. 9. I knew you were in Bucharest. I will earn/will be earning. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. 15. 2. 12. 2. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. you are reading. 13. melts. 9. would not go. 5. you will not pass. I was. 9. 11. there are. I read. 7. they have done. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. he had not expected. I will buy. he would not remember. 7. will you promise? 6. 2. I work/I worked. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. I have suffered. 6. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. Exercitiul 6: 1. it goes on. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. do not eat. I had not eaten. he had eaten. 4. you take. he had never seen. it would not be raining when I arrived. is. 3. you had been wearing. he had to write. he hoped. he trusted. Exercitiul 2: 80 . 17. he would have. 5. is. 16. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 5. 8. is. I would spend. I finish.

10. 9. 2. Would you buy? 4. 10. 8. 6. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. LECTIA IV 81 . the streets would have been wet. I wouldn’t do. 5. If it had rained. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. 6. the streets will be wet. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 5. If a beggar asked you for money. you had driven. I would not have made. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. I moved. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. If dinner is not ready in time. you would have read. the streets would be wet. 9. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. 2. 6. 8. 4. he would have told. 4. If it rains. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. You will see him if you wait.1. you had invited. he will get. 7. you were. If it rained. he had realized. I would have answered. I knew. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool. Exercitiul 5: 1. 2. 3. 10. 3. 5. 6. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. I had worked. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 2. What will you do if you meet John? 11. would you give him some? 3. you wouldn’t have got. I gave up. What would you do if you meet John? 12. 8. 7. 3. he leaves. I will answer. I had not told. 9. It would have been. 7. 4. I would have answered. he would not make. I had known. 6. 3. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. 10. I were. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. 2. I saw. 5. 9. I will eat at a restaurant. he had tried. Exercitiul 4: l. I would buy. 7. he would take. 5. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 8. 7. I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. you will be.

He asked me if the train had left. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. Exercitiul 2: 1. He told me to be careful with his books. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He told me to read that text. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 7. 12. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 9. 2. 5. 10. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. He said the weather had been fine the day before.English. 5. 4. 2. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He said he had seen that film a week before. 9. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 2. He told me to take that pill. 6. He said she would go shopping right then. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. 12. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He told me to open the door. He said he was very busy on that day. 6. Exercitiul 4: 1. 4. He told me not to smoke so much. 7. 3. 7. 3. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 4. He said he had gone to England two years before. 3. 4. He asked me how long I had been learning . 9. 2. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He asked me if I would like a cake. 11. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. Exercitiul 3: 1. 8. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. 8. 10. 3. 11. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. He asked me when I 82 . 6. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 8. He asked me if I would help him. 5. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before.

The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). The missing child has been found (by someone). A nice present has been given to me (by them). I have been given a nice present (by them). 5. 9. 5. A reward will be given to me (by them). He asked me why it was so dark in that room. 8. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 3. English is taught to them (by me). 5. 8. Your bag has been found (by him). Something must be done for him by his coworkers. 2. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). 10. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month.would be back. My friend will be invited to a party (by me). Exercitiul 2: 1. 9. They are taught English (by me). Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). 7. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). The work will be finished today (by them). A new house is being built round the corner (by them). We will be shown the way by the policeman. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. John has been lent two of my books (by me). Exercitiul 3: 83 . He asked me when the rain had stopped. 10. 7. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). when I passed by. 3. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. 6. He asked me who that man was. 8. I will be given a reward (by them). 10. 4. 6. Football is played all over the world. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). I was frightened by the noise. The way will be shown to us by the policeman. He asked me where I would spend my weekend. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 7. 9. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. He asked me how I had travelled. 2. 6. 4.

8. 2. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. John was laughed at (by us). Exercitiul 4: 1. Has the TV set been repaired? 2.: 3. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). His proposal was objected to (by us). Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. 8. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. He hates people making fun of him. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 6. 9. We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. Fire was set to the shed (by them). 6. 2. 10. The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 4. Has the dog been fed? 7. 7. Detailed 84 . They held a reception in his honour. 6. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. The doctor was called for (by us). This piece of information must be treated confidentially.1. People will soon forget this book. They have built this house out of stone and cement. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel. 9. 4. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 4. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. Exercitiul 6: l. 5. We were told very interesting things at the conference. 8. 10. The house was broken into (by burglars). 2. 11. My friend recommended me a very good doctor. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. 3. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. People speak English all over the world. 7. 3. People mustn’t take away these books. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 5. 5. 9. Were you told about the meeting? 9. The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. 7. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. We were asked to show our passports. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen.

He could read and write. You might have paid. 8. Many new blocks are being built in our district. 14. I had to go. 2. He must have been delayed. 14. 13. It must 85 . 7. 13. He will be able to swim. 12. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. It can’t have been. John must have been. 15. She will be able to lend. He could swim.instructions will be given to us about the paper. 4. 2. You might have changed. 8. 15. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. 14. 3. You won’t have to do. 17. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. You didn’t have to do. 3 It might have rained. He ought to have told. He should have gone. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. You needn’t have done. 6. You can’t have been. 13. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. I had to learn. She could lend. 15. 7. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. 4. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. You should have visited. 18. I will have to learn. The museum was closed for repairs. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. 5. 6. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. I will have to look up. 12. 5. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. 16. She could play. I had to look up. He needn’t have bought. I couldn’t translate. 19. I won t be able to translate. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. 11. You might have written. 16. 10. He may have been. He must have been. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. The child was allowed/permitted to have. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. 12. It can t have been. She will be able to read and write. 9. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. I will have to go. He was not allowed/permitted to come. You can’t have seen. You were allowed/permitted to leave. 10. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. She will be able to play. Exercitiul 2: 1.

She may/might have been out. 6. 4. Exercitiul 7: 1. 6. 5. 5. would. He may/might have been right. 3. 3. mustn’t. 5. should. 7. Exercitiul 6: 1. 8. He must be older. 20. mustn’t. She can’t have got. 10. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. 8. can. 3. needn’t. 5. He can’t be at the office. 6. It may/might be a good one. needn’t. 19. can. You must have known the lesson. should. 4. needn’t. mustn’t. I may/might come home. You can’t miss the train. This must be the best. 8. 10. 2. needn’t. 3. You must have forgotten. 10. It may/might rain. 9. mustn’t. 7. 4. can. needn’t. 9. You shouldn’t have gone. This can’t be a true story. Exercitiul 5: 1. 6. S. 7. The weather can’t change. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 6. She can’t have learned English. 9. can. 9. 9. should.have been. Exercitiul 4: l. would. She may/might have returned. would. 5. would. 2. Exercitiul 9: 86 . Exercitiul 3: 1. It must have taken a long time. He must think. can’t. 7. You must have left your umbrella. John could have been. would. She may/might have been angry. 4. 3. 10. She can’t have married. 2. He must have come home. would. He must have been late. should. 8. 7. can’t. He can’t have passed. mustn’t. 5. 10. 3. She may/might be very late. It can’t have been his fault. 4. 6. 2. It can’t be his fault. He may/might have done. 2. Exercitiul 8: l. 2.

18. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. must have left. 19. needn’t have waited. can’t have seen. didn’t need to see. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. can’t have swum. shall. needn’t have written. 17. 10. I can’t knit. 6. 2. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 8. 3. Exercitiul 11: 1. 5. didn’t need to buy. 13. 9. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 8. 5. 7. will. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. today. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. must have taken. I have already drunk two. must have been. 9.1. You will have to help me more today. needn’t have bought. will. 3. 8. 8. will. a porter could help you. Exercitiul 10: 1. 4. needn’t have lent. 6. will. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 2. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. needn’t have lent. needn’t have got up. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. didn’t need to wait. 7. can’t have rained. 3. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. 10. 6. No. 4. 4. Exercitiul 12: 1. 7. 10. 2. needn’t have answered. 16. shall. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. 9. 11. 5. will. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". can’t have done. must have been. 3. 20. 5. didn’t need to answer. 4. 9. can’t have left. Exercitiul 13: 1. I could play the piano when I was a child. shall. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 10. You needn’t have made coffee for me. I rang you up and 87 . 7. 14. 6. will. 12. I will have to leave soon. shall. All the students can and must write this paper. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. 2. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill.

Where shall we go now? 28. 23. I wish you had won the competition. 6. I wish I had money to buy that painting. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. 2. please. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. 9. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 10. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time.nobody answered. 2. I promise you. Exercitiul 3: 1. Will you. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. 3. You can’t have found the door open. wait for a few minutes? 30. I must have been still at the faculty. 3. I wish they would sign the contract. I wish I lived in Bucharest. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. 5. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. 9. You ought to/should have insisted. I wish I were a student. 25. 5. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. 8. 10. S. I wish I could go to the concert. I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wish it didn’t rain so often. I wish you would take a driving licence. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 88 . 6. 7. Exercitiul 2: l. I wish I didn’t have only one child. I wish my friend weren’t ill. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. You may not speak during the exam. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 26. 29. 6. you shall have the book tomorrow. 9. 4. 22. I wish you didn’t live so far away. I wish books weren’t so expensive. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. 24. 10. I wish I could pay the piano. 21. 4. 2. 1 wish I had children. I wish he would accept my proposal. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. 7. I had locked it myself 27. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 8. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 8. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. 3. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. 4. 7.

I would rather you went to the theatre. his daughter didn’t get married. 19. 13. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . my telephone worked. 15. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. 7. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. you closed. 10. She looks as if she were a model. his book would become. 4. Exercitiul 5: l. 12. 20. 13. 9. I were. we could go to the beach. you were. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. 11. 16. 20. I would rather you got up earlier. 18. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. 3. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. 6. 5. 4. 12. we went. 14. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. Exercitiul 6: 1. 3. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. 8. I would become. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. you didn’t waste. 7. 17. 2. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. S. 19. 2. stopped. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. he told. I had entered. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 6. I hadn’t forgotten. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 17. 8.Exercitiul 4: 1. he took. I got. 11. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. you started. I were. You speak as if you were angry with me. 10. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. It is important that you (should) know English well. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 9. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2. you owned. too. 14. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. 6. he would have. I stayed. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 18. 16. watched. 9. hadn’t caught a cold. 4.

3. I would find. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. 7. 13. you shouldn’t have believed it. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. should have told. you can’t win such a competition. you should have. 9. she should have left. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. 5. may attend. 14. you may/might be. you shouldn’t lie to me. they (should) divorce. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . 10. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 8. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. 4. 3. hadn’t broken down. you may/might understand. 2. 18.Brasov? 10. 7. 15. 20. might prosper. 11. 6. 2. 16. it might not get. we (should) leave. it should get. Whatever the reason may/might be. 12. I insist that you (should) accept this job. Whenever you may/might return. (should) have. he were. Whatever you may/might tell me. I can’t believe you. 6. 5. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. It is possible that she might be away. 9. 4. 4. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. 17. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. 5. you retired. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. he were. we should take. 19. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. I had. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. 2. Exercitiul 9: 1. Exercitiul 8: 1. No matter how hard you may/might try. 3. 6. I had been. 8. 10. I will be at home waiting for you. 7. 8.

I saw him speaking to his friend. 5. 4. 2. The people were impatient for the match to begin. 10. 8. I rely on you to lend me some money. 9. 3. I expected you to come earlier. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. 3. She made me understand what had happened.1. 9. It is important for you to come to the office at once. She (was) proved to be a liar. She seemed to be satisfied with me. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 8. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 2. 5. He made me miss the train. 9. He wanted me to help him. 6. 7. 14. 6. 7. 4. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. I think him to be a good husband. It is possible for me to buy a car. 10. Exercitiul 5: 91 . 2. He was expected to resign. It’s time for us to meet again. I saw some children playing in the park. 8. Exercitiul 4: 1. This is the main thing for us to do. Exercitiul 2: 1. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 7. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 7. 10. 4. It is recommendable for you to read this book. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. I watched them playing football. It is advisable for you to resign. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. It is necessary for him to be present. 9. 5. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. They are sure to have had an argument. 13. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. I understand her to be a very good teacher. He was heard to repeat it several times. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. 2. 3. John admitted the fault to be his. 11. 15. 8. This is a good book for you to read. Exercitiul 3: 1. 4. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 6. 10. 6. It is impossible for him to have said that. She was said to be ill. 3. This is a strange thing for her to have said. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 12. 5. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously.

8. She could be heard typing. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. 9. 5. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. 3. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. 7. Daca vremea va permite. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. 5. 7. Intrucât ploaia incetase. Concertul fiind terminat. 2. 10. ne-am grabit spre plaja. 6. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. a trebuit sa-i schimb. Toata lumea fiind acasa. publicul a parasit sala. 9. 3. She was seen fainting. The plane was seen landing. She was seen lying on the beach. 4. 8. She was found digging in the garden. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. The boy was found breaking the window. The peasants were seen working in the field. The child was heard breaking the vase. 6. am mers sa o pun la posta. 4. Intrucât soarele rasarise.1. 10. am plecat la cumparaturi. The baby was heard crying. The hunters were heard shooting. neam asezat la cina. am plecat acasa linistit. Exercitiul 6: 1. 2. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 .

to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .

to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend

forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent

94

to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot

let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot

let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot

95

to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim

showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam

shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum

96

to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .

98 .