This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
In general, timpurile simple se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe actiunea propriu-zisa, iar timpurile continue se folosesc atunci când accentul se pune pe durata actiunii, pe perioada de timp in care aceasta are loc. In explicarea intrebuintarii timpurilor continue se va intâlni formularea „actiune in plina desfasurare". Aceasta inseamna ca actiunea a inceput inainte de momentul la care se face referire si va continua dupa acel moment. Exista un numar de verbe in limba engleza care nu se folosesc la forma continua, deoarece ideea de durata e inclusa in continutul lor semantic. Ex. to want, to like, to dislike, to understand, to owe, to matter, to love, to hate, to belong, to believe, to remember, to know. A. Present Tense Simple Afirmativ Negativ I work I do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work He/she/it works He/she/it does not (doesn’t) work We work We do not (don’t) work You work You do not (don’t) work They work They do not (don’t) work Interogativ Do I work? Do we work? Do you work? Do you work? Does he/she/it work? Do they work? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune regulata, obisnuita, in perioada prezenta. Ex. What do you do? (Cu ce te ocupi?) I am a student. What time do you usually have breakfast? Present Tense Continuous
Se conjuga verbul „to be" la timpul prezent si se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I am working We are working. You are working You are working He/she/it is working They are working Negativ I am not working. You are not (aren’t) working. He/she/it is not (isn’t) working. We are not (aren’t) working. You are not (aren’t) working. They are not (aren’t) working. Interogativ Am I working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Is he/she/it working? Are they working? Present Tense Simple se foloseste pentru a arata o actiune in plina desfasurare in momentul prezent. Ex. Where are you going? I am going to school. De asemenea poate arata o actiune care se desfasoara pe timp limitat in perioada prezenta. Ex.: I go to school by bus this week. My father is taking me in his car. Uneori se poate folosi timpul Present Tense Continuous cu adverbul always, pentru a arata o actiune repetata. In acest caz, exista o conotatie afectiva (nemultumire) sau actiunea respectiva este caracteristica pentru acea persoana. Ex. You are always losing your things. You are always grumbling when I ask you to help me in the kitchen. Exercitii cu Present Simple si Present Continuous
1. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Simple) la interogativ si negativ: Nota: Verbul „to have", atunci când nu inseamna „a avea, a poseda", ci este parte dintr-o expresie (to have breakfast, to have a shower, to have a party), formeaza negativul si interogativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului „to do". 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I love my brother. She talks too much. I understand you. You play the piano very well. I always believe you. He remembers my phone number. They live in Bucharest. He has a hot bath every day. I trust my friend. I have lunch at one o’clock.
2. Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii (Present Continuous) la negativ si interogativ: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. It is raining. I am having a walk. He is telling the truth. You are typing a letter. They are swimming in the river. My friend is wearing a new dress. My mother is resting. We are studying English. Ann is knitting. The child is learning to play the piano.
3. Puneti verbele din paranteze la Present Simple sau la Present Continuous: 1. 2. 3. tea. 4. 5. I (not go) shopping because it (rain). What you (do) on Sundays? He usually (drink) coffee but now he (drink) In England it often (rain). I (not like) that boy.
of course. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. You (write) to John now? Yes. but he is late. 9. 12. I always (have) a rest after lunch.6. 10. Who you (wait) for? I (wait) for John. except Saturdays and Sundays. as usual. 7. I can’t answer the phone now because I (cook). You (go) to work every day? Yes. Why you (smoke) so much? 17. The manager can’t receive you now as he (have) an interview. 18. 14. I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (like) this book? 8. How you usually (get) to work? I usually (go) by bus. 13. I (be). 4 . Where you (hurry)? To the theatre. 15. You (dream) at night? Yes. but now I (take) a taxi because I am late. She always (borrow) books from me and never (remember) to give them back. 16. 11. I (dream) every night. as I (not want) to miss the first act.
Eu nu studiez seara. 19. forma II. B. What you (think) of? I (think) of my mother just now. Ea isi face bagajul. Ex. 3. 17.Paste Tense. 6. forma III – participiul trecut. De ce deschizi fereastra? 15. Cui ii telefonezi? 13. Nu-mi place cafeaua. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. 16. La ce ora se scoala John dimineata? 11. Când merg la mare imi place sa inot mult. Ce faci tu in zilele libere? 12. Cât de des le scrii parintilor tai? 18. to speak – spoke – spoken Afirmativ 5 . Clientul tocmai isi alege o pereche de pantofi. 8. merge pe jos. 9. Acum imi fac temele la engleza. Past Tense Simple Past Tense Simple se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei – ed in cazul verbelor regulate. Duminica el nu se scoala devreme. Ce carte citesti? 10. Past Tense trebuie invatat din tabelul de verbe neregulate care indica cele trei forme de baza ale verbului: forma I – infinitiv. 2. El nu merge la scoala cu metroul. Ex. Ce faci? Citesti sau privesti la televizor? 5. to work – worked Daca verbul este neregulat.19. 7. 14. Iarna ninge. Secretara tocmai bate la masina un referat. 4. 20. You (know) what time is it? 4. Adesea citesc carti englezesti. Ea merge la cumparaturi sâmbata.
efectuata intr-o perioada de timp trecuta.) Past Tense Continuous Se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to be" la trecut (Past Tense) si adaugarea formei -ing a verbului de conjugat. Interogativ Was I working? Were we working? Were you working? Were you working? Was he/she/it working? Were they working? Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment din trecut. (Ieri am mers al plimbare. cu perfectul compus. (Ieri pe vremea asta priveam la televizor. Se traduce.) Last year I travelled to England. terminata. Afirmativ I was working We were working You were working You were working He/she/it was working They were working Negativ I was not working We were not working You were not working You were not working He/she/it was not working They were not working Formele prescurtate sunt: was not – wasn’t I wasn’t working. Past Tense Simple arata o actiune trecuta. Ex. de obicei.) 6 . Este timpul de naratiune. (Anul trecut am calatorit in Anglia.worked I/you/he/she/it/we/they spoke Negativ work I/you/he/she/it/we/they did not speak Interogativ work? Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they speak? Forma prescurtata a lui did not este didn’t (I didn’t work). de obicei. This time yesterday. terminata. Se traduce. cu imperfectul. Ex. were not – weren’t They weren’t working. I was watching TV. Yesterday I went for a walk.
I like to have a coffee in the morning. 4. I always make cakes on Sundays. They drank all the wine. Este. ambele verbe se traduc cu imperfectul. verbul la Past Continuous (tradus cu imperfectul). 8. ele aratând actiuni paralele. He translated the text. 10. 7 . Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la negativ si interogativ: 1. I sleep until 9 o’clock every day. in plina desfasurare. 5. In acest caz. 5. de asemenea. Ex. He came home late. I own two umbrellas. 1. 3. I sold my car. We worked very hard. He changed his library book every day. In aceasta situatie. I hated him. 7. 9. sora lui privea la televizor. While I was crossing the street. 8. He thought about you.) Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple: 1. Ex. He meets John on Sundays. 10. I play football. He forbade her to do this. 9. 6.Adesea. I met John. 1. (In timp ce John citea. in aceeasi fraza. 2. While John was reading. 3. posibil sa apara intr-o fraza timpul Past Continuous in mod repetat. That sounds interesting. You ask too many questions. his sister was watching TV. 6. 4. You drink too much. reprezinta fundalul de timp pe care se petrece actiunea exprimata de Past Simple (tradus cu perfectul compus). este posibil sa apara un verb folosit la Past Continuous si un verb folosit la Past Simple. 7. I enjoyed travelling. You speak English well. intr-un moment trecut. 2.
I talk on the phone. 18. 2. El a dat primul examen saptamâna trecuta. Acum doua zile am cazut si mi-am rupt piciorul. While he (learn) to drive. 4. Când te-ai intors de la munte? 13. Duminica trecuta prietenii mei au jucat sah. I (watch) a film on TV. 10. 7. 8 . 10. he (work) in a bank. Când ai cumparat acest televizor? 14. When I first (meet) him. Ieri nu am mers la bazinul de inot. 2. Ce faceai martea trecuta la ora 7 dimineata? 8. Ieri mi-am pierdut manusile. he (have) an accident. As I (write). 19. Ei au ascuns imediat cartile si si-au scos manualele de scoala. 11. 16. Saptamâna trecuta am fost bolnav si nu am mers la scoala. 1. Ieri m-am sculat devreme. This time last Sunday. When I (enter) the classroom. 9. 3. Where you (go) when I (meet) you? 6. Ieri pe vremea asta ploua. 20. Batea un vânt puternic când am iesit din casa. He suddenly (realize) that he (not wear) his glasses. 8. M-am sculat târziu ieri dimineata. 5. 12. 1. mi-am luat micul dejun si apoi am plecat la scola.Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Tense Simple sau Continuous: 1. When I (arrive). someone (ring up). 4. she (have) dinner. Ai dormit bine noaptea trecuta? 3. Ma pregateam sa merg la facultate. Baietii jucau carti când l-au auzit pe tatal lor intrând in casa. Soarele nu a apus la ora 8 aseara. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. What you (do) this time yesterday? 7. the teacher (write) on the blackboard. 15. 5. Unde ti-ai petrecut concediul vara trecuta? 17. When you (come in). 9. 6. In timp ce imi cautam pasaportul am gasit aceasta fotografie veche.
I haven’t seen John for two months. (Il cunosc pe John din 1990. (Nu l-am vazut pe John din septembrie. Present Perfect Simple Timpul Present Perfect Simple se formeaza prin conjugarea verbului „to have" la prezent. efectuata intr-o perioada de timp neterminata. Timpul Present Perfect Simple se foloseste in urmatoarele situatii: arata o actiune inceputa in trecut care continua pâna in prezent. I have seen two films this week.21. this week. folosirea lui este insotita de adverbe precum: today. In acest caz. Cu acest sens se folosesc de obicei prepozitiile since (din.) I haven’t seen John since September. (Il cunosc pe John de doi ani. • Ex. 9 . la care se adauga forma a treia (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. eu conduceam masina spre Sinaia. Afirmativ I have worked We have worked You have worked You have worked He/she/it has worked They have worked Negativ I have not (haven’t) worked. Cine a câstigat meciul alaltaieri? In timp ce ploua. (Nu l-am vazut pe John de doua luni. Interogativ Have I worked? Has he/she/it worked? Timpul Present Perfect este un timp de relatie. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. El arata o legatura intre trecut si momentul prezent. C.) I have known John for two years.) arata o actiune trecuta. this year. timp de). incepând din) si for (de. • Ex. this month.) I have known John since 1990. 22.
intrucât „when" reprezinta un moment precizat in trecut. terminata.(Am vazut doua filme saptamâna aceasta. Ex. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela. never. daca se mentioneaza momentul trecut in care a avut loc actiunea care intereseaza in prezent sau care are rezultate in prezent. In acest caz.m. Trebuie sa-mi cumpar una noua. just. daca aceasta este in cursul diminetii (pâna la ora 12) sau dupa amiaza. care are rezultate in prezent sau care. Have you ever been to England? (Ai fost vreodata in Anglia?) 10 . always. se foloseste Past Simple. ora 2 p.m. I didn’t get up early this morning. ora 10 a. I must buy a new one. When did you see Hamlet? I saw it last week.) Trebuie precizat faptul ca. folosirea timpului verbal este conditionata de momentul in care se face afirmatia. already.) Daca adverbul de timp este „this morning". Nu m-am sculat devreme azi dimineata. • Ex. Traducerea celor doua propozitii in limba româna este identica. Timpul Present Perfect nu poate fi folosit cu un adverb de timp precizat in trecut. De asemenea. intereseaza in prezent. Se foloseste cu adverbe de timp neprecizat care leaga trecutul de prezent. nu se poate folosi timpul Present Perfect. daca se pune o intrebate referitoare la trecut care incepe cu „when". Ex. Ex. arata o actiune trecuta. I must buy a new one. nu mai poate fi folosit timpul Present Perfect. Have you seen Hamlet? (Ai vazut Hamlet?) I have lost my umbrella . I lost my umbrella yesterday. Ex. Adverbe de timp neprecizat care se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb: often. ever. seldom. I haven’t got up early this morning. dintr-un motiv sau altul.
Adverbe de timp neprecizat care stau la sfârsitul propozitiei: lately. se poate traduce cu prezentul sau cu perfectul compus din limba româna. I am tired because I have been working all day.No. we shall have floods. yet (in propozitii negative). fie cu perfectul compus.) I haven’t seen him lately.) De asemene. (Nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp. (Sunt obosit pentru ca am muncit toata ziua. (El nu s-a intors inca acasa. He hasn’t returned home yet. care continua in prezent. sa continue si in viitor. Present Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Present Perfect Simple al verbului „to be".) Dupa cum se poate observa. vom avea inundatii. Ex. I have never been to England. I have often been to England. If it doesn’t stop soon. in functie de context. Daca nu se opreste in curând. Ex. It has been raining for three hours. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Yes. Ex. intre un moment trecut si prezent. (Ploua de trei ore.) Ca si Present Perfect Simple. Afirmativ I have been working We have been working You have been working You have been working He/she/it has been working They have been working Negativ I have not (haven’t) been working. cu accent pe durata. timpul Present Perfect Simple se traduce in româneste fie cu prezentul. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Folositi Present Perfect Simple in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. 11 . He has not (hasn’t) been working. Interogativ Have I been working? Has he been working? Timpul Present Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare. poate arata probabilitatea ca actiunea inceputa in trecut.
You ever (drive) a car? 17. thank you. I (shop) all day and I want to have a rest now. 10. It (not rain) since December. Ever since that woman came to work here. I (ask) you to clean your room for two days. It’s time we woke him up. 1. I (live) here for one year. I’m tired of it. 10. I (water) the flowers. 7. He (not come) home yet. I (lend) him some money today. I (not be) to the seaside this year. You (water) the flowers? 3. I (buy) a new house. Would you like a cake? 7. 6. 15. Why you (be) in the garden so long? 9. 21. He always (rely on) his friend. The radio (play) since 7 a. He (fish) for two hours but he (catch) nothing yet. 4. 16. 9. 8. 2. 5. 12 . she (try) to make trouble. 12. 2.m. How long you (wear) glasses? 6. You (visit) the Village Museum? 13. 3. I (cook) all the morning. 5. Where you (be)? I (be) to the market. When are you going to do it? 12. I just (have) one. We (know) each other for several years. You ever (eat) caviar? 14. How many dishes you (cook)? 8. You (read) Sorescu’s last book? 19. 4. You (pay) the telephone bill? 20. 18. He just (leave) home. How long you (live) here? 22. 11.1. No. He (not go) to bed yet. He (sleep) for 10 hours now. You must come and see it. Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous in locul infinitivelor din paranteze: 1. There isn’t any train service because the engine – drivers (go) on strike. I (not write) to my friend for three months. 11. I already (see) this film.
Mergem pe jos de la ora 3. Cine te-a invatat sa vorbesti engleza atât de bine? 2. Am stat acasa si nu am regretat nici o clipa.Folositi Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple in locul infinitivelor: 1. 8. 7. Nu am mers la vot. 4. You (not see) it anywhere? No. 18. she (leave) for Brasov a week ago. Am mers pe jos 10 km pâna acum. De cât timp inveti engleza? 5. 6. I (get) a job last month. De când mi-am cumparat masina. 14. Your ever (try) to give up smoking? Yes. I (lose) my pen. The child (play) the piano since I (return) from school. 3. Ninge de doua ore. I (wear) my hair long since I (be) a little girl. 12. M-am gândit adesea sa-mi iau carnet de conducere. When you (use) it last? 2. Ai vazut ziarul de azi? 13 . 1. He (be) very ill since the holidays (begin). 1. Traduc un text de doua ore si nu l-am terminat inca. 11. 13. Trebuie sa-l inlocuim. El este ministru de doi ani. 9. am mers arareori pe jos la slujba. 7. Un copil a spart geamul. 4. She (change) a lot since I (see) her last. 11. 10. It (rain) since we (leave) Bucharest. I (do) a lot of work since I (get up) in the morning. A fost un accident. 8. Unde ti-ai petrecut vacanta anul acesta? 3. You (be) out of work long? 5. El a scris numai doua scrisori de când a plecat in strainatate. Cu cine ai votat la ultimele alegeri? 17. I haven’t. La ce te-ai uitat? 15. I (try) last year but I (not succeed). Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Tense Simple sau Present Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 10. 6. You (see) your mother this week? No. I am not out of work now. 9. 16. Vremea s-a incalzit in ultimul timp.
la care se adauga forma III (past participle) a verbului de conjugat. este vorba de o relatie intre doua momente trecute. Past Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu verbul „to have" la Past Tense Simple. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) worked. Ti-ai luat deja micul dejun? 22. Negativ I had not (hadn’t) been working. dar. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. (Ieri la ora 9 luasem micul dejun. Past Perfect Continuous Se formeaza cu Past Perfect Simple al verbului „to be". un verb de relatie. Ai mai fost in acest oras? 24. D. ca si Present Perfect. l-am luat la ora 8. 23. Da.) When you rang me up. Da. I had finished writing my homework. Afirmativ I had been working. in acest caz. Se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul sau perfectul compus. Ei lucreaza la aceasta casa de un an si nu au terminato inca. 21. terminasem de scris temele. 25.) Ca sens. (Când mi-ai telefonat. A plecat John? 20. Interogativ Had I been working? 14 . Arata o actiune trecuta care a avut loc inaintea unei alte actiuni sau a unui moment din trecut. acum doi ani. a plecat acum o ora. Ex. Da. Afirmativ I had worked.19. Interogativ Had I worked? Acest timp are aceeasi forma la toate persoanele. am petrecut o luna aici. Este. Yesterday at 9 o’clock I had had breakfast. echivalentul in limba româna al acestui timp este mai mult ca perfectul.
Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Continuous: 1. she had been typing for one hour. When she sat for the exam. acest timp se poate traduce cu mai mult ca perfectul. We were shocked to hear she (not pass) the exam.Aceste forme se pastreaza la toate persoanele. perfectul compus sau imperfectul din limba româna. He told me he (catch) some fish on that day. At 3 o’clock on Friday. (Când el a intrat in camera. 2. s-a plictisit. De asemenea. 3. mother (cook) for two hours. 7. She said she already (be) to England. 4. (Dupa ce John privise (a privit) la televizor 10 minute. 1. they (wait) for the bus for half an hour. 1. She discovered her child (not tell) the truth. When we met them. they drank some coffee.) Dupa cum se observa. The child (eat) all the cakes before his mother became aware of it. I (return) from school. Ex. ea batea la masina de o ora. 9. 3. After they (finish) dinner. When I arrived home. he got bored. Past Perfect Continuous poate prelua functiile lui Present Perfect Cotinuous in propozitia secundara. 10. 4. The fire (spread) to the next building when the firemen arrived. când in aceeasi fraza in propozitia principala se afla un verb la Past Tense. He asked me whether I (meet) John before. (El a spus ca ploua de trei zile.) He said it had been raining for three days. 5. When I left home. she (study) the subject for a week. Exercitii cu Past Simple si Continuous Puneti verbele din paranteze la Past Perfect Simple: 1. 15 .) After John had been watching TV for 10 minutes. Timpul Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente trecute. The house was much smaller then he (think) at first. it (rain) for one hour. 6. 8. 2. When he entered the room.
somebody told us it (rain) for hours. 7. we (realize) we (lose) our way. she (write) letters for one hour. 9. When I (find out) he (get married). she (tell) me they (be) friends for five years. We (ask) him what countries he (visit). am mers la culcare. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau Past Tense Simple: 1. 1. Puneti verbele din paranteza la Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous sau la Past Tense Simple: 1. After we (walked) for an hour.5. He (learn) English for two years before he (go) to England for the first time. 5. When she decided to have a rest. 7. After John (leave). 2. The river became deeper after it (rain) heavily for a few hours. El nu facuse nimic inainte de a-mi cere mie sfatul. 10. De indata ce a terminat de scris lucrarea. mi-am dat seama ca imi lasasem poseta acasa. 6. The professor (speak) for 10 minutes when I (enter) the hall. When I called on her unexpectedly. 8. After John (listen to) the news bulletin. After Jane (swim) for half an hour. 10. he (go) downstairs to have dinner. 2. De indata ce au plecat musafirii. 3. 9. She just (go) out when I (call at) her house. I realized she (have) a party. I (ring up) him and (congratulate) him. When we arrived at Sinaia. When I rang her up. 4. He (tell) me he (be) to the theatre the day before. 16 . she (clean) and (dust) for 5 hours. 4. 8. we (climb) for 7 hours. When we reached the top. El mi-a multumit pentru ceea ce facusem pentru el. 5. 1. a inmânat-o profesorului. Mi-a parut rau ca il jignisem. 3. 6. she felt chilly. 6. Când am ajuns la statia de autobuz.
will la persoana II si III. se foloseste numai „shall". iar pentru „will not" este won’t. Negativ 17 . They will be going. 9. Acest timp arata o actiune viitoare obisnuita. Interogativ Shall I go? Shall we go? Will you go? Will you go? Will he/she/it/ go? Will they go? Trebuie remarcat faptul ca la interogativ persoana I. Afirmativ I (shall) will be going. Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Nu ti-am telefonat pentru ca am crezut ca plecasesi in strainatate. Future Tense Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will la persoana I. You will be going. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. 8. You will be going. (Il voi intâlni saptamâna viitoare. Ei au calatorit in multe tari dupa ce s-au casatorit. E.) Future Continuous Se formeaza cu viitorul simplu al verbului „to be". Afirmativ I (shall) will go We (shall) will go You will go You will go He/she/it will go They will go Negativ I (shall) will not go We (shall) will not go You will not go You will not go He/she/it will not go They will not go Forma scurta pentru „shall not" este shan’t. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. I (shall) will meet him next week. Ex. We (shall) will be going. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul vorbea la telefon de o jumatate de ora.7. He/she/it will be going. 10. Ei mi-au spus ca locuiau in Franta din 1980.
) Se traduce cu viitorul din limba româna. Afirmativ I (shall) will have gone. (Mâine la ora trei voi calatori spre Anglia. Interogativ Shall I have gone? Shall we have gone? Will you have gone? Will you have gone? Will he/she/it have gone? Will they have gone? Acest timp arata o actiune anterioara unei alte actiuni sau unui moment viitor. Interogativ Shall I be going? Shall we be going? Will you be going? Will you be going? Will he/she/it be going? Will they be going? Acest timp arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. You will not be going. We (shall) will not be going. He/she/it will not be going. He/she/it will not have gone. Ex. la care se adauga infinitivul trecut al verbului de conjugat. (have + forma III). You will not have gone. They will not have gone. Se traduce cu timpul viitor anterior din limba româna. They will have gone. Negativ I (shall) will not have gone. By three o’clock tomorrow.I (shall) will not be going. We (shall) will have gone. (Mâine pâna la ora trei voi fi ajuns la Predeal. You will have gone. Ex. He/she/it will have gone. You will have gone. You will not have gone. They will not be going.) Future Perfect Continuous 18 . You will not be going. Future Perfect Simple Se formeaza cu shall sau will. I will have reached Predeal. We (shall) will not have gone. At three o’clock. I will be travelling to England.
Se traduce cu viitorul simplu sau cu viitorul anterior din limba româna. Arata o actiune in plina desfasurare intre doua momente viitoare. I will have been studying for three hours. nu se pune problema folosirii lui a interogativ decât in intrebari disjunctive. the next day. Ex. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. When you come home. Este un timp rar folosit. (El a spus ca va intârzia. Afirmativ I (should) would go We (should) would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would go Negativ I (should) would not go We (should) would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forma scurta de la „should not" este shouldn’t. Este un timp sestul de rar folosit.) Intrucât nu poate fi intâlnit decât in propozitii secundare (dupa un verb la timpul trecut in propozitia principala). 19 . atunci când in principala se afla un verb la trecut. Future-in-the-Past Continuous Se formeaza cu Future-in-the-Past Simple al verbului „to be". I (shall) will have been going. Ex. he would be travelling to England.Se formeaza cu Future Perfect al verbului „to be". Când vei veni tu acasa. voi studia (voi fi studiat) de trei ore. Ex. Future-in-the-Past Simple Se formeaza cu should (persoana I) sau would (toate persoanele). I should (would) be going. He said he would be late. Preia functiile lui Future Tense Continuous intr-o propozitie secundara. iar cea de la „would not" este wouldn’t. He said that at 3 o’clock. la care se adauga infinitivul verbului de conjugat. la care se adauga forma -ing a verbului de conjugat. Acest timp este folosit in concordanta timpurilor pentru a arata o actiune posterioara unui moment sau unei actiuni din trecut.
Arata de asemenea o intentie sau o probabilitate. 10. I am meeting John this morning. bine stabilit. I (remember) this day all my life. un aranjament prealabil pentru viitorul apropiat. You (not find) a solution if you don’t know the whole truth. I am going to read this book. 6. 20 . • Ex. I am sure I (succeed). 2. You (recognize) him when you see him? 4. 5. Arata o intentie. 7. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Simple: 1. (Voi citi/am de gând sa citesc aceasta carte. (Il intâlnesc/il voi intâlni pe John in dimineata aceasta. I leave for London tomorrow. (Plec/voi pleca la Londra mâine. I (know) the results in three days’ time. 8.) Expresia „to be going to" + infinitiv.(El a spus ca in ziua urmatoare.) It is going to rain. You (remember) to post my letter? 9. I am sure you (like) this book. Intr-un astfel de context. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Continuous: 1. 3. • Ex.) Alte mijloace de exprimare a viitorului Present Simple + adverb de timp viitor. I hope I (pass) the exam. He (be) pleased if you invite him. la ora 3. va calatori spre Anglia. 1. You (be) in London tomorrow.) Present Continuous + adverb de timp viitor. arata un program precis. • Ex.
You (need) the vacuum cleaner tomorrow or may I borrow it? 5. 2. 8. He (study) all day tomorrow. ea va fi terminat curatenia in casa. 7. you (see) all the exhibits in the museum. I (swim) in the sea. 4. it probably (rain). I (finish) reading the newspapers by lunch time. Pâna anul viitor pe vremea aceasta. If we don’t hurry. I (have) breakfast. Voi vizita târgul international. When you reach Sinaia. 3. voi fi vazut acest film de 5 ori. By the beginning of next week. I am sure when I arrive home. When I take the exam. I (work) at the office till late at night. Tomorrow morning at 8 o’clock. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future Perfect Simple sau Continuous: 1. 2. By the time you come home. Pâna la sfârsitul lunii. This time next day. one hundred thousand people (spend) their holidays at the seaside. Trenul va fi plecat inainte de a ajunge noi la gara. 21 . the baby (cry). Traduceti in limba engleza folosind unul din tipurile de viitor: 1. I (pay off) all my debts. Ce faci mâine dimineata la ora 11? 3. 10. I (cook) for two hours.m. 6. 8. Am cumparat o masina de scris si voi invata sa bat. 5. I (read) all the books on the bibliography list. the sun (rise) before we reach the beach. we (take) our exam. 9. they (be married) for 25 years. 5. 10. Don’t ring her up at 8 o’clock p.1. I (work) on this paper for a month. Don’t expect me home for dinner. 3. By 5 o’clock. In a week’s time. 6. 4. Next year. 4. vor fi economisit 5 milioane. 2. Let’s hurry to the beach. She (watch) TV. By the end of the month. 7. 3. 4. 9. Pâna la ora 1. 7. This time next month. By the end of the season. we (climb) the mountain. 6. The sun (rise) in 10 minutes.
desigur. un timp „present" Present Tense Simple. Present Perfect Simple. un timp „past" Past Tense Simple. Past Tense Continuous. a) Past Tense – actiune simultana – Past Tense He said he was ill. El va studia in biblioteca luni de la ora 1 la 5. Past Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice alt timp „past" Ex. mâine. Ce inseamna „un timp adecvat" se va vedea in continuare. ei vor avea ultima ora de engleza. Vineri. E un obiect frumos. Propozitia principala 1.) b) Past Tense – actiune anterioara – Past Perfect 22 . intre orele 12 si 1.) He said he was going to school. (El a spus ca merge la scola. Present Tense Continuous. Present Perfect Continuous Propozitia secundara Orice timp cerut de sens Propozitia principala 2.8. ci in fraze. Din cauza grevei soferilor de autobuze multa lume va merge pe jos la slujba. Ea consta in aceea ca folosirea unui anumit timp in propozitia principala obliga la folosirea unui timp adecvat in propozitia secundara. 9. (El a spus ca este bolnav. nu in propozitii. Past Perfect Simple. Uite ce am cumparat la o licitatie! 12. 11. 10. Unde il vei pune? LECTIA II CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR Concordanta timpurilor se aplica.
(Ea i-a promis mamei sale ca o va ajuta. un timp „future" Teoretic se poate folosi orice timp cerut de sens. Ex. (Ea a spus ca uitase unde si-a pus ochelarii. dupa care (in temporala sau conditionala) se intrebuinteaza Past Tense (pentru simultaneitate) sau Past Perfect (pentru anterioritate). Future-in-thePast se poate folosi numai o singura data.) Nota 1: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundara cu actiunea anterioara celei din principala.) He said he would buy a car if he had money. (Am ajuns acasa dupa ce incetase ploaia. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada când va avea timp. She said she had forgotten where she had put her glasses.) I arrived home after it had stopped raining. He said he would come to see me when he had time. (El a spus ca va pleca a doua zi.) Nota 2: Daca intr-o fraza exista doua propozitii secundare cu actiune posterioara celei din principala. Ex. dintre care una este temporala sau conditionala.) He said he would come to see me after he had finished work. cu exceptia propozitii temporale sau conditionale. (El a spus ca va cumpara o masina daca va avea bani.) 1.) c) Past Tense – actiunea posterioara – Future-in-the-Past He said he would leave the next day. se poate folosi Past Perfect in mod repetat. (El a spus ca va veni sa ma vada dupa ce va termina lucrul.) She promised her mother she would help her.He said he had returned home a week before. care nu pot include un verb la viitor. (El a spus ca se intorsese acasa cu o saptamâna inainte. Situatiile cel mai des intâlnite sunt urmatoarele: 23 .
(Voi citi aceasta carte când voi avea timp. Nota: In limba engleza contemporana. Când propozitia secundara este comparativa. Future – actiune anterioara – Present Perfect I will go to England after I have received a visa. 3. The book I am reading now was given to me by my brother. Last year I worked more than I have done this year. Ex. Este posibil ca ceea ce apare acum ca tendinta. Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor 24 . Ex.a. sfatuim pe vorbitorii români de limba engleza sa respecte regulile de concordanta a timpurilor asa cum sunt prezentate mai sus. când propozitia secundara este atributiva.) Exceptii de la concordanta timpurilor când propozitia secundara exprima un adevar general valabil. 2. se poate observa uneori o oarecare tendinta de a nu se respecta concordanta timpurilor atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. (Voi merge in Anglia dupa ce voi obtine viza. cu timpul. Ex. (Voi fi terminat de studiat când vei veni tu acasa.) b. Profesorul le-a spus elevilor ca apa fierbe la 100 oC.) I will have finished studying when you come home. Pentru moment insa. Cartea pe care o citesc acum mi-a fost data de fratele meu. Se poate intâlni. de exemplu. Anul trecut am muncit mai mult decât anul acesta. sa ajunga regula. Future – actiune simultana – Present I will read this book when I have time. 1. The teacher told the pupils water boils at 100 oC. o formulare de tipul: „He said he loves me".
Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Future-inthe-Past. 9. They said they (remain) at the seaside for another week.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Tense Simple sau Continuous). we (dig) in the garden for an hour. When I arrived. I was not sure if you (speak) English. He realized he (not remember) John’s phone number. He just (leave) home when he came across John. he was tired because he (travel) for three days. she saw the sun (shine) brightly. 3. având in vedere faptul ca propozitia secundara exprima o actiune posterioara celei din principala: 1. 4. tinând seama de relatia de anterioritate exprimata de verbul din propozitia principala sau din cea secundara: 1. 10. 1. the concert already (begin). When he finally reached London. She didn’t even say thank you after all I (do) for her. 5. Looking out of the window. I congratulated him. He didn’t admit that he (steal) the book. 6. 1. 8. They didn’t know that I (play) football. Yesterday I bought a new umbrella because I (lose) my old one. It was clear they (talk) business again. When it started to rain. I understood you (be) a painter. I didn’t think that book to be a nice birthday present for you because I (read) it and I (not enjoy) it. 2. She told me his name after he (leave). 5. 8. 9. He was in a hurry because he (want) to catch the train. He asked me if I usually (read) that newspaper. 25 . 10. 7. I believed you (be) at the seaside. 3. 4. You didn’t tell me you (have to) type this report. 1. After I (hear) the news. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect (Past Perfect Simple sau Continuous). 6. având in vedere simultaneitatea actiunilor din propozitia principala si cea secundara: 1. 7. 2.
15. The train will have left before we (reach) the station. 11. 7. 6. 3. I was sue the performance (be cancelled). this beach will become very crowded. 3. 9. 13.2. I will never forget what you just (tell ) me. 12. We shall start dinner as soon as the guests (arrive). 4. He will write to me after he (arrive) in England. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Present Simple sau Present Perfect Simple: 1. 5. 14. 7. You will get a shock when you (see) the mess in that room. we supposed prices (go up). 5. He was sure he (pass) the exam and he promised he (give) a party afterwards. 16. she will take a job as a secretary. As wages had gone up. 17. When I heard the main actor was ill. I shall have typed all the letters. 1. After he (repair) the car. 6. I will lend it to you. 10. he will drive to Sinaia. 8. 8. He hoped he (finish) reading the book in two days. I thought you soon (have) a holiday. too. 9. Your mother will be upset when she (notice) you (break) the vase. As soon as the holidays (begin). When their first baby (be born). I will go on playing the piano till he (tell) me to stop. He promised he (drive) me home. We all believed he (win) the competition. You will be surprised when you (see) how well she (look). 10. You will be surprised when you (see) how much she (change). they will have been married for five years. I was not sure I (remain) at home that evening. He believed the strike (end) very soon. 2. I will pay my debts after I (receive) my salary. By the time you (finish) translating the text. When I (finish) the book. 26 . I will buy a car when I (have) enough money. 4. After she (learn) to type.
I found out that yoga (be) a very useful practice. 5. In 1998. 19. 8. 7. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. The book I (read) in the last few days was lent to me by John. 6. 5. 8. 2. 10. I will do it when I (want) to. Last year I earned more money than I (earn) in the next five years. 6. I wasn’t aware German (be) such a difficult language. I (not decide) yet. You won’t be able to speak about this book till you (read) it. Last night I met the couple who soon (move) next door to me. 27 . When we (go) to see them last night. 4. 2. you will feel better. They (know) each other for a long time before they finally got married.18. respectând toate regulile de concordanta a timpurilor. The teacher told the pupils what the capital of Mexico (be). Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I didn’t know at what temperature this metal (melt). I will come as soon as I (finish) my work. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another before they (be) introduced. 4. the Romanians travelled less than they (do) this year. 9. He was very upset because I (be) late. 20. not before. Last year you spoke English less fluently than you (do) now. 6. 3. precum si exceptiile: 1. 5. 9. Last night I (read) the book which you (read) now. 7. tinând seama de exceptiile de la concordanta timpurilor: 1. He told me he never (see) the sea. After you (drink) a coffee. they said they (listen to) music since 5 o’clock. When you asked me where I (spend) my holidays. they were listening to music. I hoped it (not rain) when I (arrive) at the beach. 3. He told me hibernating animal (not eat) in winter.
Tata imi va da un cadou dupa ce voi lua examenul. 6. You will never know how much I (suffer). He said he (have to) write down my address as he (not remember) it otherwise. I did not know that you (wear) glasses since childhood. I hoped the company where I (work) (not go) bankrupt. A week ago. he (trust) his son and he (not expect) such a thing to happen. Nu mi-am amintit ca ne cunoscusem cu un an inainte. he decided he (change) his job. He discovered to his horror that he (eat) the worms in the cherries. 9. we (drink) coffee and brandy. I (be) very hungry because I (not eat) anything all day. 2. Era foarte suparat ca isi pierduse dictionarul si nu era sigur ca va gasi unul nou in librarii. 11. 11.10. Iti voi spune adevarul dupa ce il voi afla eu insami. 7. Nu am stat acasa sa te astept pentru ca nu stiam când vei veni. LECTIA III 28 . 7. 12. 3. 20. 19. When I finally arrived home. I-am promis ca ii voi scrie când voi ajunge la Londra. M-a intrebat câte litere sunt in alfabetul chinez si nu am putut sa-I raspund. Stiam ca esti in Bucuresti. Hotul nu si-a dat seama ca politia il urmarea de o saptamâna. 16. 13. Secretara mi-a spus ca directorul este ocupat. 15. 12. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. my friends told me there (be) many small houses and narrow streets in Padua. He was very tired and he (hope) he (have) time to rest that afternoon. 18. 5. 14. 8. 17. Masina pe cae o voi cumpara va fi importata din Germania. 4. I was surprised that his son (fail) the exam. After having visited Italy. After we have finished dinner. Politistul ma va intreba ce am vazut in timpul accidentul. 10.
MODUL CONDITIONAL SI FRAZELE CONDITIONALE Present Conditional (conditional prezent) Se formeaza cu should si would la persoana I si would la persoanele II si III. Past Conditional (conditional trecut) Se traduce cu should/would la care se adauga infinitivul trecut (have + forma III a verbului de conjugat). Afirmativ I should/would go We should/would go You would go You would go He/she/it would go They would not go Negativ I should/would not go We should/would not go You would not go You would not go He/she/it would not go They would not go Forme prescurtate: shouldn’t. ar merge etc. Interogativ Should I go? Should we go? Would you go? Would you go? Would he/she/it go? Would they go? Se traduce cu conditionalul prezent din limba româna (as merge.). ai merge. wouldn’t. la care se adauga infinitivul prezent al verbului de conjugat. Afirmativ I should/would have gone You would have gone He/she/it would have gone We should/would have gone You would have gone They would have gone 29 .
ai fi mers. (As sta acasa daca ar ploua. unde 30 .) I will stay at home if it rains. Frazele conditionale (If-Clauses) Exista trei tipuri de fraze conditionale: Tipul 1 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Future Present I will go to the seaside if the weather is fine. (As merge la mare daca vremea ar fi buna. (Voi merge la mare daca vremea va fi buna. ar fi mers etc.) Tipul 2 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Present Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense I would go to the seaside if the weather were fine. cu exceptia verbului „to be".) Nota 1: Trebuie sa se tina seama ca subjonctivul folosit in propozitia secundara are forma lui Past Tense Simple la toate verbele.Negativ I should/would not have gone You would not have gone He/she/it would not have gone We should/would not have gone You would not have gone They would not have gone Interogativ Should I have gone? Should we have gone? Would you have gone? Would you have gone? Would he/she/it have gone? Would they have gone? Se traduce cu conditionalul trecut din limba româna (as fi mers.) I would stay at home if it rained.). (Voi sta acasa daca va ploua.
Ex.) Nota 4: Atunci când if este urmat de un verb auxiliar (ex. If the police should find out the truth. noi am fi amendati. should se traduce cu: in caz ca. supposing he is late? (Ce vom face presupunând ca el intârzie?) o if not poate fi inlocuit cu unless I won’t go shopping unless you come with me. we would be fined. (In caz ca politia ar afla adevarul/ Daca s-ar intâmpla ca politia sa afle adevarul. In acest caz. Ex. atunci când actiunea din secundara este posibila. In caz ca telefoneaza. spune-I ca nu sunt acasa. in loc de Present Simple. What shall we do. in case. should poate fi folosit in secundara la tipul 2 de fraza conditionala. tell her I am out. If she should ring up. had. Tipul 3 Propozitia principala Propozitia secundara Past Conditional Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Perfect I would have gone to the seaside if the weather had been fine. De asemenea.) I would have stayed at home if it had rained. I won’t go shopping if you don’t come with me. should). Acest tip de secundara este adesea combinat cu imperativul. Nota 3: should + infinitiv poate fi folosit la tipul 1. providing. were. (As fi mers la mare daca vremea ar fi fost buna. suppose. supposing. (As fi stat acasa daca ar fi plouat. este posibila 31 .se intâlneste forma „were" la toate persoanele.) Nota 2: – if poate fi inlocuit de provided (that). dar improbabila. daca s-ar intâmpla ca.
If I won the lottery. If it (go on) raining. 3. If I (move) to the country-side. we shall have floods. If he were more careful. 7. Ex. Where you (go) if you had a holiday? 32 . I would ring him up. 7. What would you do if you (be) Prime Minister? 6. If she finds out what has happened. 10. – if he were here – were he here – if it had rained – had it rained – if he should come – should he come Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. You (buy) this house if you had money? 4. If you (take) a dog. 4. 9. she (be) very angry. you will have to look after it. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect.omiterea lui if. you (not pass) the exam. If I tell you something. If I (know) his phone-number. If you don’t hurry. he (take) a pill. you (not find) me at home. you (be) late. 2. 1. I (not do) this. I (greet) him. If I see him. Unless you study more. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 2: 1. 9. si in acest caz se inverseaza ordinea subiect – auxiliar. 5. you (promise) to keep it a secret? 6. I (lend) you the book if you promise to return it in time. he (not make) so many mistakes. Should he have a headache. I (buy) it. 8. 10. I (buy) a car. 1. Were I in your place. If I (give up) smoking. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 1: 1. would you visit me? 3. Unless you come at 6. 8. If I like the dress. I would be nervous. 2. 5.
2. 7. Daca ar ploua. 7. tinând seama ca se poate intâlni oricare dintre cele 3 tipuri de fraze conditionale: 1. 6. If I (see) him. If I (know) you had no driving licence. 9. I wouldn’t have come unless you (invite) me. 10. Had I learned English grammar. He (tell) you if you had asked him. 3. If you had taken my advice. Dacaar fi plouat. 6. I would go home immediately. I wouldn’t have come with you in your car. 5.Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. Ai prinde trenul daca ai lua un taxi. strazile ar fi ude. If you (drive) more carefully. Vei prinde trenul daca vei lua un taxi. 4. 8. he would never have known. If you had known English. 3. tinând seama de faptul ca fraza conditionala este de tipul 3: 1. 1. It (be) better if you had waited. he would have gone home. 4. I (answer) it. 1. You (be) sick if you eat so much. you (read) Shakespeare in the original. 5. I (not make) so many mistakes in my translation. I would have succeeded. 1. he (get) a bar of chocolate. strazile ar fi fost ude. If he had written a letter to me. 10. 4. He will be at the airport in time if he (leave) now. I (answer) the phone. 2. If he (realize) it was so late. I would speak to him. If the child is good. strazile vor fi ude. 33 . Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul corect. I (answer) your question if I can. Ai fi prins trenul daca ai fi luat un taxi. 2. 3. Traduceti in limba engleza: Daca va ploua. 5. you wouldn’t have an accident. 1. If I (not tell) him. 6. If I (work) harder. 9. If I (be) you. 8. Had I been at home. He would have been arrested if he (try) to leave the country. you (not get) into trouble.
9. 5. 1. 8. 7. LECTIA IV VORBIREA DIRECTA SI INDIRECTA Vorbirea directa: John said: „She is not at home" Vorbirea indirecta: John said she was not at home. As mai croseta un pulover daca as mai avea lâna. Mi-ar placea mai mult piesa daca ar fi mai scurta. Daca cina nu va fi gata la timp. voi mânca la un restaurant. mi-ar fi fost frig. 10. 11. I-ai da? 3. 12. 8. Il vei vedea daca il vei astepta. trebuie respectate o serie de reguli. 1. Pentru a trece o propozitie de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta. Mamaia ar fi un loc ideal pentru o vacanta daca n-ar fi atât de multi oameni acolo. Te vei supara daca iti voi lua creionul? Te-ai supara daca ti-as lua creionul? Te-ai fi suparat daca ti-as fi luat creionul? Ce vei face daca il vei intâlni pe John? Ce-ai face daca l-ai intâlni pe John? Ce-ai fi facut daca l-ai fi intâlnit pe John? Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Atunci când verbul din propozitia principala este la trecut. 6. in propozitia secundara se schimba timpurile dupa cum urmeaza: Present past Present perfect past perfect 34 . Voi fi dezamagit daca nu voi afla adevarul. Ce s-ar fi intâmplat daca ai fi condus cu viteza mare? 4. ceea ce se intâmpla in majoritatea cazurilor. Nu vom merge la plimbare daca nu va sta ploaia. 9. Daca un cersetor ti-ar cere bani.7. 10. 2. Daca n-ai fi inchis fereastra.
He said he had been working hard. He said: „She gave me a book". Se schimba o serie de cuvinte in functie de sens. today that day yesterday the day before/the previous day the day before yesterday two days before tomorrow the next day/the following day the day after tomorrow in two days’ time 35 . He said she had given him a book. 2. o 1. Se schimba pronumele.Past past perfect Future future-in-the-past Ex. He said he had been ill. – He said „I am ill". o He said „I was ill". Ex. He said he was ill. He said „I have been working hard. o He said „I will do the exercise". He said he would do the exercise. Ex. in functie de sens.
36 . 3. He said: „I am going to do this traslation tomorrow". He said: „I might be late" He said he might be late." He said if it had rained he would have stayed at home. 1. I would have stayed at home. I will stay at home. o tipurile 2 si 3 nu se schimba: "If it rained. Ex. He said he was going to do that translation the next day. might ramân neschimbate la vorbirea indirecta." He said if it rained he would stay at home. "If it had rained. ought to. He said he would be at home on that day. He said: „I’ll be at home today". I would stay at home.next week the next/the following week two years ago two years before now then this that these those here there Ex. Frazele conditionale sunt trecute la vorbirea indirecta in modul urmator: o tipul 1 devine tipul 2: "If it rains. should. could." He said if itrained he would stay at home. Verbele modale would.
Intrebarile generale se introduc cu if sau whether (daca). Intrebarile speciale se introduc cu cuvântul interogativ respectiv. Intrebari Exista doua tipuri de intrebari: generale si speciale. Incorect: He asked me what was the time. 3. on holiday. I saw this film a week ago. Last year I spent my holiday at the seaside. 1. Ex. Afirmatii: cu that (care se poate omite) Ex. I will go shopping right now. Intrebarile generale sunt cele care incep cu un verb. He asked me if I liked music. Ex. 4. Ex. Intrucât aceasta propozitie incepe cu un cuvânt interogativ.Modalitati de introducere a propozitiilor secundare in vorbirea indirecta 1. 3. He said (that) he was ill. He asked me where I had been. He said „Don’t go out" He told me not to go out. 37 . Treceti urmatoarele afirmatii de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said „I will leave for London tomorrow". Comenzi: cu infinitivul (afirmativ sau negativ) Ex. 2. trebuie acordata atentie ordinei cuvintelor din propozitia secundara. He asked me: „What is the time?" Corect: He asked me what the time was. Ex. iar raspunsul poate fi da sau nu. ceea ce este o greseala. exista tentatia de a folosi ordinea cuvintelor din propozitiile interogative. I think it’s going to rain tomorrow. He said (that) he would leave for London the next day. 5. Where have you been? I’ve been away. He said: „I am ill". He said „Go out". He told me to go out. In cazul intrebarilor speciale trecute la vorbirea indirecta. 2. The weather was fine yesterday. Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta 1.
Will you help me. John left for Sinaia two days ago. 4. 9. 10. 11. please! Read the text. 8. please? Can you come to tea this afternoon? Has the train left? Do you know what this word means? Was your mother at home? Did you buy this book yesterday? Did you drink coffee every day? Were you at the library yesterday? 38 . 7. I am very busy today. 4. 2. 10. 7. 3. I will buy a car next year. 3. I am going to have a nap this afternoon. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari generale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: „Will you be at home tomorrow?" He asked me if I would be at home the next day. 6. 8. 5. 5. If I had been at home. please! Write me a letter when you get to England! Don’t cross the street on a red light! Be careful with my books! Don’t smoke so much! Take this pill! Don’t interrupt me when I am speaking! Ring me up when you arrive home! 3. If I have enough money. 7. Don’t drive so fast! Open the door. I went to England two years ago. 2. 6. Treceti urmatoarele comenzi la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut) Model: He said: „Come in!" He told (asked. 1. 8. 12. I don’t remember where I have bought this dictionary. 1.6. 2. 9. I would have answered the phone. ordered) me to come in.
Ex. In limba româna. trecerea de la diateza activa la diateza pasiva se face prin transformarea complementului direct in subiect. la care se adauga forma III (participiul trecut) a verbului de conjugat. Ex.9. 11. 4. 2. 8. 1. complementul 39 . I have been asked. In limba engleza. 7. 10. 3. Activ: Directorul m-a chemat pe mine. Do you live in London for a long time? Can you speak English? Would you like a cake? Could you lend me a book. in unele cazuri. 5. please? 4. 6. 12. complementul indirect si. I will be asked. 10. Pasiv: Eu am fost chemat de director. I had been asked. Treceti urmatoarele intrebari speciale la vorbirea indirecta (verbul introductiv este la trecut): Model: He said: „When did you come back?" He asked me when I had come back. How long have you been learning English? What are you going to do tomorrow? How long does it take you to reach your office? When will you be back? Where will you spend your weekend? Who is this man? Why is it so dark in this room? When did the rain stop? Which of these cakes do you prefer? How did you travel? LECTIA V Pasivul se formeaza conjugând verbul to be la timpul cerut de sens. exista trei tipuri de complemente care pot deveni subiect in transformarea de la activ la pasiv: complementul direct. 9. I am asked. I was asked.
punctuality este un complement prepozitional. Desigur. In multe cazuri. His coworkers must do something for him. The noise frightened me. Ex. 5. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: They will finish the work today. de la sfârsitul propozitiei. In this office punctuality is insisted on. A specialist will repair my TV set. He has found your bag. 9. iar complementul indirect este him. Complement direct Subiect A book was given to him. 8. 4. 2. (by me) In propozitia: In this office they insist on punctuality. poate deveni subiect in cazul folosirii diatezei pasive: In this office punctuality is insisted on (by them). 40 . Exercitii cu diateza pasiva 1. Nota: Se poate folosit aspectul continuu al diatezei pasive numai la Present Tense si Past Tense. (by me) Complement indirect Subiect He was given a book. Ex. my flat is being painted. my flat was being painted. 3. de asemenea. Ex. While I am in hospital. Someone has found the missing child. 1. subiectul va fi trecut la cazul nominativ. Activ: She looked after the child. I will invite my friend to a party.prepozitional. Ambele complemente pot deveni subiecte in cazul trecerii la pasiv. Unde complementul direct este a book. care. 6. Activ: I gave him a book. 7. People play football all over the world. Pasiv: The child was looked after (by her). pasivul se foloseste atunci când nu este important cine face actiunea. In aceste situatii. se omite formularea by. While I was in hospital. Un alt exemplu de complement prepozitional care poate deveni subiect. They are building a new house round the corner.
8. The jury awarded the Romanian film director the Great Prize. 5. They didn’t look after the children properly. 3. 9. I have lent John two of my books. 5. 6. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele propozitii care cuprind combinatii verb+prepozitie: 1. 9. The policeman will show us the way. Don’t speak until someone speaks to you. 2. The doctor prescribed some pills to the patient. 2. They will give me a reward. 4. 4. He hasn’t slept in his bed. They set fire to the shed. My friend doesn’t always tell me the truth. 8. 6. Has someone repaired the TV set? Will you write the letter in ink? Haven’t they told you to be here at 6 o’clock? Did the tornado frighten you? Will someone tell him the details? Have you fed the dog? Did the sight of the accident shock him? Did they tell you about the meeting? Do you think they will turn down your request? 41 . 6. We objected to his proposal. 3. Burglars broke into the house. transformând atât complementul direct cât si cel indirect in subiecte: 1. 5. 7.10. 3. They have given me a nice present. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva: 1. 3. 7. The teacher asked me a difficult question. The guide showed the museum to the tourists. 2. We laughed at John. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la diateza pasiva in doua feluri. They were building a new supermarket in that district last month. We called for the doctor. 2. 7. when I passed by. 9. 8. 4. We couldn’t account for his odd behaviour. 10. 4. I teach them English.
Cursul profesorului a fost ascultat de toti studentii. 6. A reception was held in his honour. English is spoken all over the world. 11. 14. 6. The climber was finally discovered by the rescue party. This painting is admired by all the visitors of the museum. Gasiti subiecte acolo unde este necesar: 1. The pupils will be told where to sit. Treceti urmatoarele propozitii de la diateza pasiva la diateza activa. Scrisoarea va fi pusa la posta cât mai curând posibil. 9. Când a ajuns acasa si-a dat seama ca I se furase portofelul. In acest hotel se vorbesc limbi straine.10. Would you have finished your work sooner if your colleagues hadn’t interrupted you? 5. Nu s-a auzit nimic despre el de când a plecat la Constanta. I was recommended a very good doctor. 13. 5. 6. 8. Muzeul a fost inchis pentru reparatii. 4. LECTIA VI 42 . 5. He hates being made fun of. Sensurile cuvintelor noi trebuie cautate in dictionar. These books mustn’t be taken away. Se construiesc multe blocuri noi in cartierul nostru. Acest timbru nu a fost bine lipit pe plic. 10. This book will soon be forgotten. 7. 7. 9. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Aceasta informatie treuie tratata confidential. 2. Ni s-a cerut sa aratam pasapoartele. 3. 4. 12. This house has been built out of stone and cement. America a fost descoperita la sfârsitul secolului al XVlea. 8. 3. Evenimentul a fost comentat de toate ziarele. 15. 10. Ni se vor da instructiuni detaliate in privinta referatului. Ni s-au spus lucruri foarte interesante la conferinta. 2.
Ex. Can is a model verb. can’t Ex. may. Could you help me? Ai putea sa ma ajuti? 1. would. Ex.) • Nu primesc s la persoana III singular. could. N-am putut sa vin la tine ieri. (Pot sa fac aceasta. • Nu au toate timpurile. Ex. a fi in stare Ex. Caracteristici generale • Nu primesc to inaintea lor si dupa ele: Ex. I can do this. will.VERBELE MODALE Can. conditional prezent al verbului can Negativ: could not (couldn’t) Interogativ: Could I ? Could you? etc. Can = infinitiv. shall. Can are sensul de a putea.) Spre deosebire de: I want to do this. prezent Negativ: cannot. ought to. prezent. He can speak English. should. I couldn’t come to you yesterday. (Vreau sa fac aceasta. Se folosesc inlocuitori. He cannot (can’t) speak English. Ex. Can you make this translation? Could=Past Tense. must. I cannot (can’t) make this translation. • Nu formeaza negativul si interogativul cu „to do". Interogativ: Can I? Can you? etc. Pentru conditionalul trecut se foloseste could + infinitivul trecut 43 . need. might. I can make this traslation.
You can’t/couldn’t have seen John in the street. I can swim. a avea permisiunea Ex. Voi sti sa conduc masina dupa ce voi lua câteva lectii. can poate fi folosit cu sensul lui may de „a avea permisiunea". (Stiu sa inot. Arata o anumita abilitate fizica sau intelectuala. you may. (Stiu sa vorbesc engleza. The sun hasn’t set yet. pot/am permisiunea sa iau masina ta? 4. Ex. He could have been here in time. May 1. poti. timpurile se folosesc ca la punctul 1 (could pentru Past Tense si conditionalul prezent. inlocuitorul to be able to pentru celelalte timpuri. se foloseste infinitivul trecut. (Da. El e in strainatate. Can’t/couldn’t – nu se poate sa. N-am putut sa-ti telefonez saptamâna aceasta.) Cu acest sens. 2. Ex. mayn’t 44 . He is abroad. I haven’t been able to ring you up this week. Ex. Voi putea veni la tine mâine.). It can’t/couldn’t be 9 o’clock.Ex. 3. In vorbirea familiara. Ex. Ex. Nu se poate sa-l fi vazut pe John pe strada. Ar fi putut sa fie aici in timp. May I smoke in this room? Pot/am permisiunea sa fumez in aceasta camera? Yes. nu e posibil sa. I will tbe able to drive a car after I have taken a few lessons. Se traduce cu a sti sa. Ex. Pentru celelalte timpuri se foloseste inlocuitorul to be able to.) I can speak English. Father.) Negativ: may not. are sensul de a putea. Nu se poate sa fie ora 9. can I take your car? Tata. Soarele nu a apus inca. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut cu acest sens. I will be able to come to you tomorrow.
se adauga infinitivul trecut.Interogativ: May I? May you? May = infinitiv. Pentru celelalte timpuri se folosesc inlocuitorii: to be allowed to. Trebuie sa plec acasa. mustn’t Interogativ: Must I? Must you? Must = infinitiv. S-a facut târziu. Ex. dar se foloseste numai dupa un alt verb la trecut (vorbire indirecta). Ex. Must A trebui Ex. Ex. He may/might be at home now. I had to finish the traslation yesterday. Ex. Ai fi putut sa imi scrii o scrisoare când erai in Anglia. De ce nu ti-ai luat haina? S-ar fi putut sa racesti. s-ar putea sa ploua. ideea de trecut este redata prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Voi putea/mi se va permite sa fumez in camera aceea. Pentru redarea ideii de trecut. Telefoneaza-I lui John. May/might pot exprima un repros. I must go home. I will have to finish the translation tomorrow. Se foloseste inlocuitorul to have to. I will be allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. You might have written me a letter when you were in England. 1. I was allowed/permitted to smoke in that room. to be permitted to. 45 . Ai putea sa ma ajuti când sunt la nevoie. May/Might – s-ar putea sa Ex. Am putut/mi s-a permis sa fumez in camera aceea. He said I might smoke in that room. You may/might help me when I am in need. It may/might rain. prezent Nu are alte timpuri. A trebuit sa termin traducerea ieri. S-ar putea sa fie acasa acum. Ia-ti umbrela. prezent Cu acest sens exista timpul might care reda ideea de trecut. 2. Take your umbrella. Cu acest sens. Negativ: must not. Why didn’t you take your coat? You may/might have caught a cold. 3. Ring up John. It’s got late. Ex. Ex.
Va trebui sa termin traducerea mâine. Trebuie mentionat faptul ca inlocuitorul lui must, to have to formeaza interogativul si negativul cu ajutorul auxiliarului to do. Ex. I didn’t have to finish the translation yesterday.
De asemenea, poate avea sensul probabil ca:
Ex. It must be late. Let’s go home. Probabil ca e târziu. Hai sa mergem acasa. John must be at home now. Let’s call on him. Probabil ca John e acasa acum. Hai sa-l vizitam. Cu acest sens, ideea de trecut se reda prin adaugarea infinitivului trecut. Ex. I was asleep when you arrived home last night. It must have been late. Eu dormeam când ai venit tu aseara. Probabil ca era târziu.
Need Exista doua verbe: To need: verb obisnuit, notional, cu sensul de a avea nevoie
Ex. He doesn’t need this book. El nu are nevoie de aceasta carte.
Need: verb modal, cu sensul de a fi nevoie
Ca verb modal, need se foloseste numai la interogativ si negativ. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? E nevoie sa fiu aici la ora 1? No, you needn’t. Nu, nu e nevoie. Pentru a raspunde afirmativ la intrebarea de mai sus, se foloseste verbul must. Ex. Need I be here at one o’clock? Yes, you must! (Da, trebuie!)
Pentru exprimarea ideii de trecut a verbului need, exista 2 posibilitati: Daca actiunea nu era necesara, dar a fost facuta, se foloseste needn’t + infinitivul trecut.
Ex. You needn’t have watered the flowers. Couldn’t you see it was going to rain? Nu era nevoie sa uzi florile. N-ai vazut ca urma sa ploua? Daca actiunea nu era necesara si nu a fost facuta, se foloseste didn’t need + infinitivul
Ex. We didn’t need to do this exercise. The teacher told us it was too easy for us. Nu a fost nevoie sa facem acest exercitiu. Profesorul ne-a spus ca e prea usor pentru noi. Nota: Nu trebuie confundat need not cu must not. Need not se traduce cu „nu e nevoie". Must not se traduce cu „nu trebuie". Ex. You needn’t drive so fast; we have enough time. Nu e nevoie sa conduci atât de repede; avem destul timp. You mustn’t drive so fast; there is a speed limit here. Nu trebuie sa conduci atât de repede; aici e limita de viteza. Should, Ought to Ambele verbe indica o actiune corecta, o obligatie morala, o recomandare. Se traduc cu: ar trebui sa, ar fi cazul sa, ar fi bine sa. Ex. You should/ought to help your mother with housework. Ar trebui sa o ajuti pe mama ta la treburile casei. Pentru a reda ideea de trecut, se adauga infinitivul trecut. Ex. You should not/ought not to have been so rude to him. Nu ar fi trebuit sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Shall Folosit cu persoana I, shall indica viitorul. Folosit cu persoana I, interogativ, poate indica, de asemenea, solicitarea unui sfat, o oferta sau o sugestie. Ex. Which dress shall I buy? Ce rochie sa cumpar? Shall I wait for you?
Sa te astept? Shall we meet at one o’clock? Sa ne intâlnim la ora 1? Folosit cu persoanele II si III, shall poate arata o promisiune, o obligatie sau o amenintare care provin de la cel care vorbeste. Ex. Mother to child: You shall have a bicycle if you pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Vei avea o bicicleta daca vei lua examenul. Mother to child: You shall not get any pocket-money if you don’t pass the exam. Mama spune copilului: Nu vei mai primi nici un ban de buzunar daca nu vei lua examenul. Will, Would
Formula de politete, cerere politicoasa:
Will you/would you sit down? Will you/would you help me with my translation, please?
A voi (cu sens extins la obiecte):
This child will/would not do what I say. Acest copil nu vrea sa faca ce-I spun. This radio won’t work.
Actiune repetata: - in perioada prezenta My mother will sit for hours watching TV. Mama mea obisnuieste sa stea ore intregi privind la televizor.
When I was a child, my mother would read me fairy tales. Când eram copil, mama obisnuia sa-mi citeasca povesti.
Presupunere: se traduce in limba româna cu o fi.
Exercitii cu verbe modale Treceti urmatoarele propozitii la Past Tense Simple si Future Tense Simple. 6. Must you be so rude? She can read and write at the age of five. 17. 4. 2. O fi sora ei. You may not smoke in this room. in timp ce la interogativ si negativ se poate conjuga atât ca un verb obisnuit cât si ca modal. Can you help me? You mustn’t do this . 19. 1. She can play the piano very well. Nota: In afara de „would". 10. ideea de actiune repetata in trecut se poate exprima cu „used to". care are numai forma de trecut. Used to eate un verb semi-modal. You may leave earlier. folosind inlocuitorii verbelor modale respective. 8. 12.This girl looks very much like Jane. 16. This child may have another cake. She will be her sister. O fi ajuns la Paris pâna acum. Can Jane type very quickly? Can you speak Chinese? Everybody may borrow books from this library. He can swim very well. 5. I must go soon. 14. When I was a child. acolo unde este necesar: 1. Se poate folosi cu infinitivul trecut: He will have reached Paris by now. 18. She can lend you that book. 20. 15. I must look up the words in the dictionary. Un alt verb semi-modal este dare (a indrazni) care se conjuga la afirmativ ca un verb obisnuit. 3. 7. May I walk on the grass? He may not come in wearing dirty boots. I cannot translate ten pages a day. I must learn English. You may not speak to your mother like that. 13. 11. Aceasta fata seamana foarte bine cu Jane. my mother used to read me fairy tales. 49 . 9. Ex.
You might pay more attention to your work. He must be in the garden at this time of the day. He …reach the Moon and walk there. 17. You must have forgotten to lock the door. He ought to tell me the truth. 11. holidays will be very different. He …even drive on its surface. You can’t be pleased with this piece of news. 4. It can’t be easy to learn Chinese. 3. 20. You shouldn’t go to bed so late. 10. It must be difficult to climb this mountain. 14. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind must + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: 1. 3. 4. 15. 9. 12. It can’t be too late. John could be a winner. 6. Model: He probably speaks English well. 5. You might change your mind about that. You might write to me more often. You needn’t do this. You probably forgot to lock the door. there is plenty in the fridge. He must be delayed at the office. 5. But one still …breathe without extra oxygen and one certainly …stay there very long. It might rain. John must be ill. 8. 1. When we … fly there as easily as we fly to other countries of the world. 1. 2. 19. You can’t see a bear in this part of the country. 50 . He should go to school everyday. 18. 7. Man …travel through space now. Completati spatiile goale cu can sau can’t: 1. He must speak English well. 16. 13. You should visit your sick friend in hospital. 2. He may be at home.Redati ideea de trecut in urmatoarele propozitii folosind infinitivul trecut in loc de infinitivul prezent: 1. He needn’t buy milk.
You have probably forgotten his address. She is probably a very good doctor. but I doubt it. Perhaps he has done the exercise correctly. 6. He was probably late. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind may + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: Perhaps it snows in the mountains. 2. I don’t believe you were right. I have bought his latest book. 7. perhaps it will rain. 1. 4. He is probably older than he looks. A good knowledge of English is likely to help you a lot in your career. You probably left your umbrella in the shop. 5. Perhaps she has returned the book to you and you have lent it to someone else. 6. 5. Take your umbrella. 8. 7. 3.1. 8. You probably knew the lesson very well to get a 10. 9. perhaps it is a good one. It is possible that he was right but I don’t think so. Perhaps she was out when you rang her up. I think she was angry with you. Perhaps it snowed in the mountains It may/might have snowed in the mountains. You can’t have been right. He probably came home very early. 10. He probably thinks I am wrong. It may/might snow in the mountains. 3. 10. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind can’t + infinitivul prezent sau infinitivul trecut: Model: I don’t believe you are right. 4. 6. This is probably the best Romanian film of the year. 5. It probably took a long time to finish this translation. 2. Don’t wait. 9. It is possible that I come home early. You can’t be right. 51 . It is possible for her to be very late.
… you help me solve this problem? 3. I don’t believe it was his fault. He …read for hours on end. He always made mistakes because he …never take any advice. 1. You…water the flowers. 9. People … speak during the concert. Completati spatiile goale cu shall sau will: 1. I …hurry up in order not to miss the train. Completati spatiile goale cu should sau would: 1. I don’t believe she has got so fat. 5. You …not expect everybody to obey you. 8. You … take sleeping pills too often. The sky is clear. 8. 4. 5. You … worry about money.1. You … take an umbrella. I don’t believe she has learnt English in two months. You …make a noise or the baby will wake up. 2. The visitors … feed the animals in the Zoo. 7. 1. My child …play with the cat for hours on end. 2. 8. they are addictive. it will soon start raining. One …buy a ticket for a slow train in advance. please? 7. I don’t think the weather will change. 3. I … return the books before the 1st of September. I’ll give you as much as you want. 10. I don’t think this is a true story. I don’t believe it is his fault. I don’t think he is at the office so late at night. I don’t think you will miss the train if you hurry. 9. 3. I …read one book a day. You …not go to bed so late at night. 9. I …wear my hair long. 6. Completati spatiile goale cu mustn’t sau needn’t : 1. 5. 7. 9. 4. 6. 6. 10. One … travel by bus without paying the fare. …you be so kind and pass me the salt. You …not eat so many sweets if you don’t want to get fat. When I was a teenager. 10. When I was young. 4. 52 . I don’t believe that he has passed the exam. 2. I don’t believe she has married that awful man.
you …re-type it. I promise you not …be disturbed. … you correct my exercise. I …(be) in the garden. I …(answer) the questions. I …(buy) a new map of London as I already had one. He …(be) at home. which was very convenient. You …(lend) him so many books. 9. 8. You …(see) Anna yesterday. I wrote him a letter. he will never read them all. You …do this whether you like it or not. 6. can’t sau needn’t + infinitivul trecut: 1. It’ll get stale. You…(lend) him your text – book. 2. I am sorry you wasted your time. The child … (leave) home. 5. The light was on in his room. 10. 3. 8. You …(wait) for me. 10. for once? This …be John’s house. 6. 3. please? This letter is full of mistakes. 53 . 4.Completati spatiile goale cu didn’t need to sau needn’t have + forma III a verbului: 1. I locked the door and took the key with me. 7. She …write an article for this magazine every week. 3. You …(buy) so much bread. He has one of his own. He …(swim) across the Danube. Go to sleep. 10. he is a very poor swimmer. he is a nice boy. 9. 4. We …(wait) too long. 6. 2. It …(take) you a long time to knit this dress. She is away. 7. the road is dry.2. If you win the contest. he was back soon. 9. This door … not unlock. 5. but I forgot it was Sunday. I …(see) him for that. I …(leave) it on the bus. which would have saved me a lot of work. I …(answer) the questions. 5. I haven’t got my bag with me. I …(get up) so early today. 11. you…get a nice present. John …(do) such a thing. 7. Completati spatiile goale cu must. I didn’t hear the phone. It …(rain) here. because the teacher won’t have time to read it all. 4. …you tell me the truth. 8. 10. The student …(write) such a long composition.
17. 9. Nu se poate sa fi fost acasa aseara. te-ar putea ajuta un hamal. 19. Nu stiu sa crosetez. 20. Profesorul mi-a spus ca pot sa lipsesc de la ora urmatoare. E nevoie sa urcam la cabana pe jos? 15. Nu." "Yes. Nu e nevoie sa-ti cari singura bagajul in gara.12. 16. 6. 8. Nu a fost nevoie sa spun „multumesc" când am aflat ora exacta formând 958 intrucât stiam ca informatia e inregistrata pe banda. Toata lumea sa fie prezenta la sedinta. Stiam sa cânt la pian când eram copil. 5. 2. 11. putem lua autobuzul sau telefericul. 21. Ai putea sa-mi telefonezi mai des când stii ca sunt bolnav. Nu a fost nevoie sa-I telefonez lui Jane ca sa vorbesc cu ea pentru ca urma sa vina la mine peste o jumatate de ora. Sunt sigur ca voi putea gasi timp sa te ajut. 10. Toti studentii pot si trebuie sa scrie aceasta lucrare. Probabil ca eram inca la facultate. 54 . Ti-am telefonat si nu a raspuns nimeni." "His family consider he should. Nu era nevoie sa-mi faci cafea. 18. 4. Trebuie sa-mi schimb pantofii când intru in casa pentru ca sunt plini de noroi. 1. 7. 13. but he himself believes he needn’t. Ar fi trebuit sa citesc bibliografia pentru acest seminar. Nu se poate ca profesorul sa fi fost multumit de acest raspuns. 3. Va trebui sa ma ajuti mai mult astazi. 14. Ar trebui ca toti copiii sa faca treburi in casa. am baut deja doua astazi. folosind verbe modale sau inlocuitori ai acestora: 1. Va trebui sa plec curând." Traduceti in limba engleza. Incercati sa gasiti un sens urmatorului dialog: "Do you think he will?" "I think he might. 12.
24. Fie ce-o fi. Apare in propozitii exclamative. may. God forgive you! Fie ca Domnul sa te ierte! Curse this fog! Blestemata fie aceasta ceata! b. Unde mergem acum? 28. Ex. might. Poate fi intâlnit in poezia clasica. Ex. dar el nu a vrut sa vina la telefon. Shakespeare: „If this be error"… If this is error Byron: „Though the hart be still as loving" …the heart is 55 . 26. Long live the king! Traiasca regele. 23. 1. Nu aveti voie sa vorbiti in timpul examenului. o incuiasem chiar eu. Come what may. ar fi inlocuit cu prezentul. Mâine va trebui sa pun scrisoarea la posta. Nu se poate sa fi gasit usa deschisa. Iti promit ca vei avea cartea mâine. De asemenea. 29. o urare. would + infinitiv. LECTIA VII MODUL SUBJONCTIV In engleza contemporana. exista echivalenti de subjonctiv care constau in verbele should. Vreti. 27. El apare cu forme de infinitiv. in engleza contemporana. de Past Tense si de Past Perfect.22. Ar fi trebuit sa insisti. in situatii in care. Am cerut sa vorbesc cu directorul. Subjonctiv cu forma de infinitiv a. va rog. exprimând o lozinca. subjonctivul nu are formele lui proprii. sa astepti câteva minute? 30. De ce ai vorbit atât de tare? 25. o dorinta sau un blestem.
Mi-as dori sa ma fi nascut in Anglia. to recommend. Everybody leave the hall. I wish I had been born in England. Ex. It is desirable that we finish the translation first. • I wish (mi-as dori. I recommended that his proposal be accepted. to insist. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Perfect.c. Este imposibil ca el sa faca aceasta. • Ex. Somebody bring me a glass of water. it is desirable that. It is impossible that he do this. it is likely that. Am recomandat ca propunerea lui sa fie acceptata. Ex. Nota: Verbul to be la subjonctivul du forma de Past Tense. Poate fi folosit ca o modalitate de a da ordine. Ex. to order Ex. It is necessary that you be present. Daca dorinta se refera la un moment anterior. se foloseste subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. e) Dupa verbe ca: to propose. I wish I were in England now. to suggest. Cineva sa-mi aduca un pahar cu apa. Este de dorit ca noi sa terminam intâi traducerea. Subjonctiv cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: Apare dupa urmatoarele expresii: a. to demand. 56 . bine ar fi sa) Daca dorinta se refera la momentul prezent. E necesar ca tu sa fii prezent. 1. Mi-as dori sa fiu in Anglia acum. d. The doctor insisted that I keep indoors. Toata lumea sa paraseasca sala. Dupa constructii de tipul: it is impossible that. apare ca were la toate persoanele. to urge. Doctorul a insistat ca eu sa stau acasa. it is necessary that.
In exemplul de mai sus. de parca) even if/even though (chiar daca) Ex. a. It is high time you began to study seriously. If only I lived to be a hundred! Bine ar fi sa traiesc pâna la o suta de ani! c) As if/though (ca si cum. se foloseste would. fie cel cu forma de infinitiv. It is necessary that you should be present. In cazul in care persoana care isi exprima preferinta este aceeasi cu cea care face actiunea. a.) Ex. Ex. • Ex. se poate folosi fie subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense. Mi-as dori sa inceteze ploaia. It is impossible that he should do this. (Era de mult timpul. I would sooner stay at home tonight. It is time the child went to bed. it is necessary that. E timpul sa mearga copilul la culcare. d)It is time. 57 . Echivalenti de subjonctiv should – ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (1-d) se poate folosi dupa constructii de tipul: It is impossible that. ca echivalent de subjonctiv. Vorbesti engleza de parca ai fi englez. I would sooner you stayed at home tonight. 1. Era de mult timpul sa incepi sa studiezi serios. (E timpul. persoana care isi exprima preferinta este diferita de cea care face actiunea. I would sooner I stayed at home tonight.) It is high time. I wish it would stop raining.Daca dorinta se refera la un moment viitor. You speak English as if you were an Englishman. As prefera sa stai acasa in seara asta. Ex. I would sooner/rather (as prefera sa…) Ex. Vorbesti engleza ca si cum ai fi trait in Anglia. b) If only – are aproximativ acelasi sens cu I wish Ex. It is desirable that we should finish the translation first. You speak English as if you had lived in England.
It is impossible that he should have done this. I am afraid lest he should fail the exam. Nota: In engleza contemporana exista tendinta de a se omite should dupa lest si de a se folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. • Ex. a. Mi-e teama ca nu cumva sa piarda examenul. I recommend that his proposal should be accepted. • Dupa conjunctia lest (ca nu cumva sa) Ex. to insist. How should I know where he is now? De unde sa stiu unde este el acum? I don’t see why you should be so rude to him. la fel ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv (vezi 1-e). in aceasta situatie should este urmat de infinitivul trecut. fie ca se foloseste in limba engleza subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. may. might 58 . fie in vorbirea indirecta. Hurry up lest you should miss the train. Exista o situatie in care nu se poate folosi subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. Intrebari introduse prin how. • Ex. Hurry up lest you miss the train. to urge.when. fie in vorbirea direca. The doctor insisted that I should stay indoors. to demand. De asemenea. why. Este vorba de cazul când propozitia secundara exprima o actiune anterioara celei din principala.Acest tip de constructii se traduc la fel (vezi 1-d). Nu vad de ce sa fii atât de nepoliticos cu el. Dupa cum se observa. should poate aparea dupa verbe ca: to propose. Ex.ci este necesara introducerea lui should. Ex. Este imposibil ca el sa fi facut aceasta. to recommend. fie ca se foloseste should ca echivalent de subjonctiv. to suggest. where. Grabeste-te ca nu cumva sa pierzi trenul.
to be afraid Ex. you have no right to do this. Oricine ai fi. • Dupa so that. Dupa cum reiese din exemplele de mai sus. Am invatat serios ca sa trec examenul. wherever. etc. I was afraid that he might fail the exam. • Ex. Este posibil ca el sa ajunga aici la timp. I hope that he may pass the exam. whenever. no matter when. It is possible that he may be here in time. whichever. Study hard so that/in order that you may pass the exam. whatever sau dupa formulele echivalente no matter who. Era posibil ca el sa fi ajuns aici la timp. Sper ca el sa treaca examenul. • Dupa to hope. however. it was possible Ex. Wherever I may/might be. May success attend you! Fie ca succesul sa fie cu tine! May you live long and be happy! Fie sa traiesti mult si sa fii fericit. iti voi telefona. • Dupa it is possible. iar daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul trecut. Dupa whoever. may poate aparea in lozinci si urari: Ex. I studied hard so that/in order that I might pass the exam. I will ring you up. daca verbul din propozitia principala este la timpul prezent.Ca si subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv. in order that Ex. in secundara se foloseste might. Mi-era teama sa nu cada la examen. nu ai dreptul sa faci asta. It was possible that he might be here in time. 59 . you have no right to do this. Invata serios ca sa treci examenul. Whoever you may/might be. No matter who you may/might be. Oriunde as fi. in secundara se foloseste may.
I am sorry books are so expensive. Ex. 60 . astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Tense (afirmativ sau negativ): 1. 4. I regret I have only one child. I regret I have no children. 1. I wish I might borrow your car. I am sorry you live so far away. I wish I could speak English. Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. 1. 5. 2. I am sorry my friend is ill. I am sorry I can’t play the piano. Mi-as dori sa pot/sa am permisiunea de a imprumuta masina ta. I regret I can’t go to the concert. 3. I wish I hadn’t lost my umbrella. verbele respective aduc in propozitie si sensul lor initial. 6. I am sorry I don’t live in Bucharest. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. I am sorry you had an accident. Model: I am sorry/I regret the weather isn’t fine. 9. 7. 8.Nota: Dupa cum se poate observa. 10. I wish the weather were fine. echivalentii de subjonctiv sunt la origine verbe modale. Mi-as dori sa pot vorbi engleza/sa fiu in stare sa vorbesc engleza. I am sorry it rains so often. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + Past Perfect (afirmativ sau negativ): Model: I am sorry I lost my umbrella. 1. Exisa situatii când se pot folosi si alte verbe modale decât cele expuse in acest capitol ca echivalenti de subjonctiv. I regret I am not a student. iar in aceste cazuri.
9. 1. I regretted you couldn’t come to me yesterday. 10. I regret you won’t come on holiday with me. 11. I am sorry he will be away for such a long time. I would rather you (not waste) your time! I am cold. 6. 4. 5. 10. I was sorry you had got a fine. I am sorry they will not sign the contract. 7. 3. 3. 3. I regretted the weather was bad when I was on holiday. I am sorry you won’t take a driving licence. 8. 6. You behave as if you (own) the place. 9. If only my telephone (work)! I wish I (not catch) a cold on the trip yesterday. I am sorry he won’t accept my proposal. I regret I won’t be able to read Goethe in the original. Don’t treat me as if I (be) a child. I am sorry I was late for the party. I regret I won’t spend my holiday in England. 1. 61 . 5. I would rather you (close) that window. 2. 5. I am sorry I didn’t win the Great Prize. 1.2. 2. If only I (be) in Italy now! I wish I (enter) the faculty last year. 8. 7. 8. 4. I’d rather I (stay) at home and (watch) TV. I am sorry I had no money to buy that painting. I am sorry you were delayed at the office. 10. 7. I regret I won’t have a phone in my new flat. 4. I was sorry you were out when I called. 6. I regret he will stay in hospital so long. Puneti verbele din paranteze la forma corecta de subjonctiv: 1. I am sorry I will get fat when giving up smoking. It is high time you (start) studying for your exam. I regret you didn’t win the competition. Transformati urmatoarele propozitii. It’s time we (go) home. I wish he would take my advice. 9. astfel incât sa inceapa cu I wish + would + infinitiv scurt: Model: I am sorry he will not take my advice.
If only I (become) a millionaire. It’s time I (get) a promotion! 12. If only I (not forget) his phone number! 18. 11. Mi-as dori sa incetezi cu zgomotul acela chiar in acest moment. 18. E timpul sa-mi inapoiezi banii pe care ti I-am imprumutat. 62 . 12. 10. Bine ar fi sa fii mai ordonata! 5. 4. 14. As prefera sa mergi la teatru. 16. I would rather he (tell) me the truth. He would rather his daughter (not get married) so young.He wishes he (have) a good English teacher in the next academic year. As prefera sa ma scol mai devreme. 13. 2. 5. 16. Ce pacat ca nu mai sunt tânar! 8. I would marry you even if you (be) a pauper. As prefera sa te scoli mai devreme. Bine ar fi sa nu fi facut atâtea greseli la lucrarea de control. 20. Ti-ai dori sa fi fost invitata la petrecerea lui John? 7. Vorbesti ca si cum ai fi suparata pe mine. 17. Ea arata de parca ar fi manechin. He wishes his book (become) a best-seller! 19. E ora 10! Nu crezi ca era demult timpul sa te scoli si sa te apuci de lucru? 15. am putea merge la plaja! 6. As prefera sa merg la teatru. 15. El mi-a vorbit ca si cum nu se intâmplase nimic intre noi. 13. Ea se poarta cu el de parca ar fi sotul ei. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de Past Tense sau Past Perfect: 1. It’s high time he (take) a job and (stop) living on his parents. 3. 14. 17. 9. Ce pacat ca ploua! Daca n-ar ploua. Mi-as dori sa incetezi sa te mai vaicaresti pentru ca am si eu necazurile mele. Era demult timpul sa incepi sa citesti cartile cerute pentru examenul de literatura româna.
19. Este necesar sa fii informat despre ce se intâmpla in tara. 2. El a sugerat ca noi sa cumparam aceasta casa. 9. Stiu ca tu ti-ai dori sa-ti petreci vacanta intr-o tabara. 8. 8. dar eu prefer sa mergi la bunicul. 7. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de sobjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent sau trecut: 1. Este important ca tu sa stii engleza bine. Directorul a cerut ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta la ora Prietenul meu a insistat sa merg cu el la concert. Am sugerat sa-l alegem presedinte. Mama a hotarât ca noi sa stam acasa. Directorul a propus ca eu sa lucrez in alt sector. Este imposibil ca el sa se fi intors atât de devreme. 20. la tara. Era ciudat ca el sa nu fi citit aceasta carte. 6. 8. Jane si-ar dori sa-mi petrec sfârsitul de saptamâna cu ea. 5. Este probabil ca fiul meu sa fi luat examenul. Este foarte important ca acest contract sa fie semnat foarte curând. 2. Insist ca tu sa accepti aceasta slujba. Este imposibil ca el sa se intoarca atât de devreme. 6. 3. 3. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv may sau might + infinitivul prezent: 63 . Traduceti in limba engleza folosind subjonctivul cu forma de infinitiv sau echivalentul de subjonctiv should + infinitivul prezent: 1. 6. 8. 4. Profesorul sugereaza ca noi sa citim aceasta carte. 7. Este enervant ca tu sa fi uitat sa-mi aduci cartea inapoi. 4. Vrei sa spui ca este probabil sa ne petrecem concediul in Bucuresti? 10. Este necesar sa fiu prezent la aceasta sedinta? 7. 5.
Oricare ar fi motivul. I’d rather you (retire) as soon as possible. I propose that we (leave) by the 9 o’clock train. 10. I have to work hard so that my company (prosper). 1. I suggested that we (take) a taxi. 5. El a intrat in casa fara zgomot. Oricât te-ai stradui. Da-te la o parte ca sa vad (astfel incât sa pot vedea) ecranul. 6. 6. It is desirable that they (divorce) immediately. It is strange that she (leave) the lights on when she left the town. I closed the window lest (get) too cold. I closed the window so that it (not get) too cold. 10. I wish my car (not break down) last week. 2. 3. The road is wet. She speaks about her son as if he (be) a genius. 4. 3. Oricând te vei intoarce. Am facut un imprumut ca sa (astfel incât sa) pot sa-mi cumpar casa. Vorbeste mai tare ca sa te aud (asfel incât sa te pot auzi). 9. 64 . 4. Orice mi-ai spune. 11. 12. astfel incât sa nu-l aud eu. 2. I’ve told you everything so that you (understand) my position. 8. drive carefully lest you (have) an accident. Inlocuiti infinitivele din paranteze cu unul dintre tipurile de subjonctiv sau cu un echivalent de subjonctiv: 1. 15. 8. you should remember your own phone number. nu te pot crede. nu ar trebui sa ma minti. No matter how/however absent – minded you (be).1. Oricine ti-ar fi spus asta despre mine. 13. nu ar fi trebuit sa crezi. eu voi fi acasa si te voi astepta. 9. 14. 7. It is impossible that my sister (tell) this to you yesterday. He throws money away as if he (be) a rich man. 7. nu poti câstiga un astfel de concurs. 5. Este posibil ca ea sa fie plecata din oras.
19. If only I (have) a brother or a sister! LECTIA VIII MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE In limba engleza. diateza si timpuri. Participiul prezent si gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza. I wish I (find) another. Atât participiul prezent cât si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call – calling). I wish I (be) there when it happened. I have such a boring job. Infinitivul poate avea aspect. Diateza activa o o nedefinit: calling perfect: having called Diateza pasiva o o nedefinit: being called perfect: having been called 65 . 17.16. The doctor recommended that the patient (have) an operation. modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele: infinitivul. forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul trecut. All success (attend) you! 18. Diateza activa o o o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling Diateza pasiva o o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called infinitiv perfect: to have been called Forma -ing.
I want you to go now. (Vreau ca John sa faca aceasta. (Consider ca el este un bun student. Ex. Acuzativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. I consider him to be a good student. verbe exprimând perceptia mentala: to think.) 66 . to order.) d. I made him study English. (El a ordonat sa se incuie usa.) I want John to do this. (L-am lasat sa iasa afara sa joace fotbal. (As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine. Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). (L-am facut sa invete engleza. Adverbe exprimând dorinta sau vointa: to want.) I let him go out and play. verbe exprimând un ordin. to allow.Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate. to believe.) He ordered the door to be locked. Verbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to). to consider. verbe exprimând perceptia senzoriala: to see. to watch. to expect. to dislike. to feel. to suppose. (L-am vazut ca paraseste camera/parasind camera. to wish. to like.) b. I saw him leave the room. I’d like him to come with me. to hear. Ex. o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to make.) c. (Vreau ca tu sa pleci acum. to hate. Ex. el reprezinta forma a III-a: o o to call – called – called to go – went – gone Constructii cu infinitivul 1. in cazul verbelor neregulate. Ex. to know.) Exista câteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii: a. to cause. to understand. Ex.
to appear o la diateza activa: Ex. He proved to be a good journalist. to hear. He admitted the news to be false. (Se spune ca el este un bun scriitor. to expect. to make. He was made to study English. to declare. He is said to be a good writer. to say. They declared him to be the man of the year. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see.) 67 .) f.) 1.) Sunt situatii in care Nominativul cu Infinitivut exprima o formulare pasiva a Acuzativului cu Infinitiv: Ex. He is considered to be a good student. (M-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp. (Ma bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta. to consider. cu verbele: to happen.I expected him to come in time. to believe. to admit. to count upon/on . b.) e. (Ei l-au declarat a fi omul anului. I made him study English. (El a recunoscut ca stirile erau false. I rely on you to do this. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rely upon/on. Ex. to suppose. verbe declarative: to state. I consider him to be a good student. to seem. to know. Nominativ cu infinitiv Consta dintr-un subiect in nominativ + un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa + un verb la infinitiv. to turn out. The news was considered to be false. He considered the news to be false. He was declared to be the man of the year. to prove. Ex. Ex. a. (El s-a dovedit a fi un bun jurnalist.) They declared him to be the man of the year.
Daca vrem sa traducem expresia personala: „Ea e sigura ca va veni la timp" o redam in modul urmator: „She is sure the she will come in time".) Nota: Ultimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si cu ajutorul subjonctivului. (E sigur ca ea va veni la timp. Constructii cu participiul prezent Acuzativ cu participiu Se foloseste cu verbe exprimând perceptie senzorial: to see. (E usor sa fac asta. cu expresiile: to be sure / likely / unlikely / certain Ex. ii voi spune unde esti. It is impossible that I (should) come. Ex.) If I happen to meet him. It is necessary that I (should) go there. Ex. 1.I happened to meet him in the street.) It is impossible for him to come. It is easy for me to do this.) Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o expresie personala care se traduce in româneste cu o expresie impersonala.) This remains for him to decide. 68 . (S-a intâmplat sa-l intâlnesc pe strada. (Daca se va intâmpla sa-l intâlnesc. (Este necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.) It is necessary for me to go there. She is sure to come in time. (Este imposibil ca el sa vina. (Aceasta ramâne sa o decida el. For – phrase Consta din propozitia for + un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ + un verb la infinitiv. de obicei. tradusa cu o expresie personala in limba engleza. a. 1.) Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca expresia impersonala din limba româna se intâmpla sa este. I will tell him where you are.
precum si cu verbele to find. am mers acasa.) Constructie cu participiul trecut Este formata din verbul to have sau to get + un complement + participiul trecut. (Trebuie sa-mi dau pantofii la reparat. aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu Acuzativul cu Infinitiv.) I heard her singing.) 2. Nominativ cu Participiu Este pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu: Ex: He was seen leaving. (El a fost vazut plecând. 3. (Daca vremea va permite. (Orele fiind terminate.) Weather permitting.) I will have my hair done. I saw him leaving (L-am vazut plecând. (Ea a fost auzita cântând. In timp ce I saw her leaving se poate traduce numai Am vazut-o plecând. Ex. Ex: I must have/get mz shoes repaired.to hear. we went home. to watch. to leave. vom merge la plaja.) In cazul verbelor de perceptie. to smell.) Aceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de 69 . Diferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea propriuzisa. (Am lasat-o / gasit-o plângând. (Am auzit-o cântând. (Voi merge sa ma coafez. we shall go to the beach. Astfel: I saw her leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am vazut-o plecând. Ex: The classes being over. in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in desfasurare.) She was heard singing. Nominativul absolut Este o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu.) I left / found her crying.
70 . This fact is important. Ex. 12. Ma bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani. 6. Stiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat. We should have a heart to heart talk. This is a good book. 5. 4. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina. You should bear it in mind. L-am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui. I had my bedroom window broken. 3. This translation is easy for me to make. The time has come. You should read it. 14. 5. I-au fost ucisi doi fii in razboi. I can’t solve it. El voia ca eu sa-l ajut. Am auzit-o certându-si copilul. 3. 7. 10. 4. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia Acuzativ cu Infinitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu: 1. M-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme. 2. 15. 8. I-am privit jucând fotbal. I cam make it. 9. Exercitii cu constructiile verbale 1. The people were impatient. The match was about to begin. She had two sons killed in the war. Mama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: This translation is easy. El m-a facut sa pierd trenul. Cineva mi-a spart geamul din dormitor. Ea m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intâmplase. John a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.subiect. You should take it. 1. Cred ca el e un sot bun. Am vazut câtiva copii jucându-se in parc. Inteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna. 2. This problem is too difficult. 13. 2. 11. 6. This is a valuable piece of advice. Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul persoanei exprimate de subiect.
2. 3. Expected that he would resign. I thought she was unable to win the contest. It’s time we met again. 8. at once. It is possible that I might buy a car. It is advisable that you should resign. She was thought to be a gifted child. It was proved that she was a liar. It is impossible that he should have said that. I don’t want you to catch a This is the main thing. 7. It is necessary that he be present. 10. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia „for-phrase": Model: It is important that I should know the truth. Everybody. 1. cold. I have closed the window. 10. They heard him repeat it several times. 1. 3. I didn’t want her to miss the train. 8. 7. 4.7. 2. 3. 9. It is sure they have had an argument. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia Nominativ cu Infinitiv. 6. 9. It is possible that the plane might be delayed. It seemed that she was satisfied with me. 4. 5. It is recommendable that you should read this book. 8. I can’t believe she said that. It’s time you started learning foreign languages. I ordered a taxi. 71 . It is important to know the truth. 9. They said she was ill. This is a strange thing. 6. 5. We should do it now. It is necessary that you should study the matter seriously. It is important that you should come to the office. People believed he was a brilliant surgeon. Folositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate: Model: Her parents thought she was a gifted child. 4. It is expected that he will arrive at 2 o’clock.
The dog was heard barking. She heard the baby crying. I went to post it. I heard the child breaking the vase. The river having risen in the night. the audience left the hali. I found her digging in the garden. 5. 5. The plane having taken off. 2. 7. 5. 4. 10. 3. 4. I stopped smoking. 6. The rain having stopped.It happened that she made three spelling mistakes in her letter. Weather permitting. 8. we hurried to the beach. I went home relaxed. The decision being taken in my favour. we were seared about having floods. 72 . I saw her lying on the beach. 2. 9. we sat down to dinner. She heard the hunters shooting. we shall climb to the top of the mountain. I went shopping. I saw her fainting. I had to change them. 9. 6. The concert being over. The mud having ruined my shoes. Treceti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii Acuzativ cu Participiu. The sun having risen. Everybody being at home. I could hear her typing. 10. I saw the plane landing. 10. 6. Traduceti in limba româna urmatoarele propozitii cu constructia Nominativul absolut: 1. 8. I found the boy breaking the window. l. 7. The letter being written. I saw the peasants working in the field. transformându-le in Nominativ cu Participiu: Model: I heard the dog barking. 3.
CHEIA EXERCITIILOR LECTIA I TIMPURILE MODULUI INDICATIV 73 .
Is my friend wearing? 7. write. always borrow/is always borrowing. I am not having. don’t understand. She goes shopping on Saturdays. 4. I don’t love. Do you like? 8. 7. 11. I don’t like coffee. 8. it often rains. 3. 9. I don’t trust. The secretary is just typing a report. Are we studying? 9. Is he telling? 4. Is Ann knitting? 10. You don’t play. Are you typing? 5. I do not study in the evening. Does he have? 9. are you waiting? I am waiting. Do I love? 2. It isn’t raining. Do you smoke? 17. Ann isn’t knitting. is drinking. am taking. Is my mother resting? 8. 4. am. We aren’t studying. speaks. 6. Do you go? 16. I don’t understand. Are you writing. My friend isn’t wearing. 6. he doesn’t get up early. Do I understand? 4. do you do? 3. I don’t always believe. Do you play? 5. Why 74 . drinks. At what time does John get up in the morning? 11. What are you doing? Are you reading or watching TV? 5. 12. are you hurrying? I don’t want.Exercitii cu Present Simple si Continuous Exercitiul l: 1. He doesn’t remember. He doesn’t have. 1 am cooking. Do you usually get. 14. he walks. She doesn’t talk. Do I trust? 10. he is having. What do you do on your free days? 12. 1 don’t like. It snows in winter. They don’t live. Is the child learning? Exercitiul 3: l. The child isn’t learning. Does she talk? 3. He doesn’t go to school by underground. Do they live? 8. 2. 20. What book are you reading? 10. Does he remember? 7. 13. 7. Is it raining? 2. Do you dream? I dream 9. 15. I always have. 19. are you thinking? I am thinking. Are they swimming? 6. Do I always believe? 6. 14. go. They aren’t swimming. Whom are you ringing up? 13. Do you know? Exercitiul 4: l. On Sundays. 5. Do I have? Exercitiul 2: l. 10. I don’t have. He isn’t telling. Now I am doing my homework in English. remembers. it is raining. Am I having? 3. I am not going. My mother isn’t resting. 2. 18. You aren’t typing.
I entered. 1 liked. 6. What were you doing last Tuesday. Did I hate? 4. she was having. That sounded. the teacher was writing. Did you sleep well last night? 3. Exercitiul 2: 1. Did he translate? 10. He didn’t forbid. Did he come? 8. were you going. 17. 1 first met. He didn’t translate. 7. Exercitiul 4: 1. When did you return from the mountains? 11. he was-learning. 9. He didn’t think. 10. Yesterday.are you opening the window? I5. I played. You drank. 8. 10. 10. Did he think? 2. Did I enjoy? 9. I was watching. Did he forbid? Exercitiul 3: 1. he realized. my friends played chess. This time yesterday it was raining. someone rang up. 7. Did they drink? 3. 9. 2. I met. 19. I got up late yesterday morning. 8. 3. I often read English books. I didn’t sell. While I was looking for my passport. 3. the sun didn’t set at 8 o’clock. 6. You spoke. The boys were playing cards when they heard their father entering the house. 16. They hid the cards away and took out their school books. He met. I arrived. I like to swim a lot. I was talking. 20. I found this old photo. The customer is just choosing a pair of shoes. you came in. He didn’t come. Did he change? 5. You asked. 8. he was working. Yesterday I lost 75 . were you doing? 7. When I go to the seaside. Did I sell? 6. How often do you write to your parents? 18. 5. I didn’t enjoy. When did you buy this TV set? 12. he had. What are you speaking about? Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. He didn’t change. 4. I owned. Last night. 5. I didn’t hate. Did we work? 7. I was writing. I didn’t go to the swimming pool. 9. I always made. 6. 4. at 7 o’clock in the morning? I was preparing to go to the faculty. 5. They didn’t drink. I slept. 4. 2. he wasn’t wearing. 2. We didn’t work. She is packing her luggage. Last Sunday.
4. began. 14. 5. He has just left. 9. The radio has been playing. have you cooked? 7. Have you ever eaten? 13. Exercitiul 2: l. The weather has got warmer lately. I haven’t been. I was. Two days ago I fell and I broke my leg. Yesterday I got up early. 9. 6. 6. 2. 4. 8. It has been raining. 1t hasn’t rained. 7. Exercitii cu Present Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: l. 3. I have bought. 18. 4. I have been cooking. I5. we left. Have you ever tried? I tried. Have you been. the engine – drivers have gone. He hasn’t come. Have you lived? I have lived. 8. Have you paid? 19. Last week I was ill and 1 didn’t go to school. I saw. I have been watering. 20. He has been. Exercitiul 4: 1. 3. have you been. 7. she has been trying. I have lost. 11 . 6. I have just had. How long have you been learning English? 5. 8. Have you seen? she left. I have been wearing. 19. have you been wearing? 6. The child has been playing. I didn’t succeed. 4. 17. Who has taught you to speak English so well? 2. 5. A strong wind was blowing when I left the house. Where have you spent your holiday this year? 3. I returned. I have already seen. We have known. I have often thought of taking a driving licence. I have been asking. I have’ been shopping. 16. I haven’t written. 5. I got up. I got. Who won the match the day before yesterday? 20. I have lent. 10. 13. I have been doing. Exercitiul 3: I. 2. He has been a Minister for 76 . Have you visited? 12. 17. I was driving to Sinaia. 14. Have you been? I have been. Have you ever driven? 16. He has been sleeping. He hasn’t gone. Have you watered? 3. 10.my gloves. 9. haven’t you seen? did you use? 2. 10. He has been fishing. He has always relied. Have you read? 18. I had breakfast and then I left for school. he has caught. She has changed. Where did you spend your holiday last summer? 15. He sat for his first exam last week. While it was raining.
two years. we had been walking. As soon as he had finished writing the paper. They have been working on this house for a year and they haven’t finished it yet. he had learned/he had been learning. 7. 19. Has John left? Yes. 14. I have seldom walked to my office. We have walked 10 km so far. Since I bought a car. 2. 8. he had caught. Who did you vote for at the last elections? I didn’t go to vote. she told. 18. had eaten. had not told. 13. had listened. she had not passed. 5. had been climbing. 3. Exercitiul 2: 1. 10. 10. it had been raining. 9. 2. We have been walking since 3 o clock. 8. he had been. 8. I have been translating a text for two hours and I haven’t finished it yet. I spent a month here. 7. It has been snowing for two hours. 2. I had it at 8 o’clock. 7. I called. I found out. congratulated. had spread. 10. 20. had left. she had been cleaning and dusting. 3. Have you been to this town before? Yes. 3. he 77 . 10. Exercitiul 4: 1. had been speaking. we asked. What did you look at? It was an accident. he went. Have you already had breakfast? Yes. we realized. Exercitii cu Past Perfect Simple si Continuous Exercitiul 1: 1. he had visited. I was sorry I had hurt him. 15. I entered. 3. 4. 9. 5. He thanked me for what I had done for him. 12. he left an hour ago. 6. they had finished. she had already been. 8. I rang him up. two years ago. Exercitiul 3: 1. 7. they had been. 4. he had thought. he went. 4. he told. 2. it had been raining. He has written only two letters since he went abroad. I stayed at home and I haven’t regretted it for a moment! 16. We must replace it. She had just gone out. 6. Have you seen today’s newspaper? 17. 6. 9. he had got married. I had met. they had been waiting. she had been writing. had been having. we had lost. she had been studying. I had returned. it had been raining. had been cooking. 9. A child has broken the window. 5. 11. had been swimming.
8. 10. 4. I shall/will have read 8. will have spent. Will you be needing? 5. 4. On Friday. As soon as the guests had left. I shall/will have finished. 7. 3. 2. He will be. Because of 78 . By 10 o’clock she will have finished cleaning the house. I shall/will have been cooking. We shall/will have taken. 6. it will probably be raining. I went to bed. I shall/will know. 3. Wil1 you remember? 9. 9. I shall/will remember. 10. I shall/will have been working. 8. 8. They told me they had been living in France since 1980. What will you be doing tomorrow morning at 11 o’clock? I shall/will be visiting the international fair. The secretary told me the manager had been speaking on the phone for half an hour. they will have been married. 3. Exercitiut 2: 1. they will be having their last English class. You will not/won’t find. 6. Will you recognize? 4. 6. The train will have left before we arrive at the station. I shall/will have paid off. They travelled to many countries after they had got married. 7. 2. I shall/will succeed. 5. I shall/will be swimming. 5. 2. I shall/will have saved five million lei. will/shall will be climbing. He hadn’t done anything before he asked for my advice.handed it to the teacher. You will be. Exercitiul 3: 1. will have risen. I realized I had left my bag at home. 8. 10. 6. You will like. I didn’t phone you because I thought you had gone abroad. 3. Exercitii cu timpurile „Future" Exercitiul 1: 1. 6. 10. I shall/will be having. 5. I have bought a typewriter and I shall learn to type. I shall/will pass. 4. By the end of the month I shall/will have seen this film 5 times. 4. will be crying. Exercitiul 4: 1. She will be watching. 9. He will be studying. 7. 7. 9. 7. between twelve and one o’clock. 5. I shall/will be working. When I arrived at the bus stop. 2. You will have seen. wilt be rising. By this time next year.
Exercitiul 4: 1. 7. did not remember. 10. you see. 3. 3. 19. 10. he had been travelling. they would remain. 11. they were talking. you spoke. you have drunk. you finish. had already begun. You had to type. 9. they have been. 2. I have received.the strike of the bus – drivers. she notices you have broken. 16. he had stolen. he would win. He will be studying in the library on Monday from one to five o’clock. 4. 3. I had not enjoyed. 17. 8. he has repaired. 10. 2. 8. 8. I played/I was playing. 8. Exercitiul 5: 79 . is born. you would soon have. would be cancelled. you have read. 6. 9. Where will you put it? LECTIA II Exercitii cu concordanta timpurilor Exercitiul 1: 1. 5. Exercitiul 3: 1. we reach. 12. 5. he tells. he had left. he would pass. was shining. I finish. you were. would end. he would drive. 5. he wanted. 6. 13. he had just left. you were. 3. 18. she has changed. Exercitiul 2: 1. 7. 9. she looks. 15. begin. we had been digging. he would finish. 6. 5. she has learnt. 4. 20. 2. I had heard. prices would go up. many people will be going to work on foot tomorrow. I had done. 4. arrive. Look what I have bought at an auction! It’s a very beautiful object. 6. you have just told. I usually read. I have. I had read. 10. he would give. 4. 2. 7. 9. you see. 9. he has arrived. I had lost. 7. I would remain. 10. you see. 14.
would not go. we will drink. they had been listening. 2. Exercitiul 6: 1. I want. 9. 6. will soon move. I didn’t stay at home to wait for you because I didn’t know when you would come. 4. you are reading. melts. 10. 15. I knew you were in Bucharest. do not eat. I was. 8. 11. he would have.1. 4. 20. he hoped. 7. he would change. 3. I didn’t remember that we had met a year before. you will not find. 5. I have been reading. you do. Exercitiul 2: 80 . is. 6. He was very upset because he had lost his dictionary and he was not sure he would find a new one in the bookshops. they have done. she will be. LECTIA III Exercitii cu fraze conditionale Exercitiul 1: l. 11. I had not eaten. The car I will buy will be imported from Germany. 10. 10. you will be. 18. will you promise? 6. is. it would not be raining when I arrived. he would not remember. I will lend. we went. you will not pass. He asked me how many letters there are in the Chinese alphabet and I couldn’t answer him. 5. 17. 5. The secretary told me the manager was busy. 6. is. I have suffered. I promised him I would write to him when I arrived in London. I work/I worked. I will buy. 7. I will earn/will be earning. you had been wearing. I will tell you the truth after I have found it myself. I will greet 2. 9. he had eaten. The policeman will ask me what I have seen during the accident. 4. he had never seen. 8. 16. there are. 5. he had to write. 4. 8. had failed. I would spend. 7. I had not decided. I read. 19. 3. it goes on. I was. 3. Father will give me a present after I have passed the exam. 9. I finish. 8. they had known. 10. 9. 3. Exercitiul 7: l. 7. The thief did not realize that the police had been following him for a week. you take. he had not expected. 13. he trusted. 14. 2. 2. 12. 12.
10. I saw. I would buy. 6. he leaves. I will answer. 10. he had realized. 4. I will eat at a restaurant. If it had rained. I had worked. the streets would be wet. he would have told. 2. 9. 4. 5. the streets would have been wet. Would you have been angry if I had taken your pencil? 10. you had driven. I had known. Will you be angry if I take your pencil? 8. You would have caught the train if you had taken a taxi. Exercitiul 4: l. If it rains. 9. If you hadn’t shut the window I would have been cold. 2. 9. 8. 2. 7. you would have read. he had tried. 6. What would you have done if you had met John? Exercitiul 6: l. 5. the streets will be wet. 5. 6. We won’t go for a walk if the rain doesn’t stop/unless the rain stops. What would have happened if you had driven at a high speed? 4. 6. Would you buy? 4. Exercitiul 5: 1. I would not have made. What will you do if you meet John? 11. 3. You would catch the train if you took a taxi. I would have answered. 7. If dinner is not ready in time. If it rained. I would have answered. you wouldn’t have got. 2. I had not told. If a beggar asked you for money. I knew. You will catch the train if you take a taxi. 10. 7. Would you be angry if I took your pencil? 9. It would have been. 8. he will get. 7. 8. would you give him some? 3. I gave up. you had invited. 9. 3. 10. I moved. 3. would you go? Exercitiul 3: l. 8. 5. I would like the play more if it were shorter. 4. 6. you will be. 3. I were. 2. LECTIA IV 81 . I will be disappointed if I don’t find out the truth. 5. You will see him if you wait. you were. he would not make. What would you do if you meet John? 12. I wouldn’t do. Mamaia would be an ideal place for a holiday if there weren’t so many people there. he would take.1. 7. I would knit another sweater if I had more wool.
He asked me when I 82 . He told me to open the door. 3. Exercitiul 4: 1. 4. He asked me how long it took me to reach my office. Exercitiul 2: 1. 12. He told me not to smoke so much. 4. He told me to be careful with his books. He said John had left for Sinaia two days before. 6. 4. 7. He said he didn’t remember where he had bought that dictionary. He asked me if the train had left. Exercitiul 3: 1. He said the weather had been fine the day before. He said he had seen that film a week before. He asked me if I had bought that book the day before. 10. 3. 6. He asked me if I drank coffee every day. He asked me if 1 had been at the library the day before. 3. 3. 9. He asked me how long I had been learning . 7. 7. 11. He asked me if I knew what that word meant/means. 8. He asked me if I had lived in London for a long time. He told me to read that text. 11. He said he was going to have a nap that afternoon. 4. He asked me if I would like a cake. He told me to write him a letter when I got to England. He asked me what I was going to do the next day. He asked me if I could come to tea that afternoon. He told/asked/ordered me not to drive so fast. He asked me if I would help him. 9. He said he had gone to England two years before. 2. He asked me if my mother had been at home. He said if he had been at home he would have answered the phone. 5.English. 2. 5. 12. He told me not to cross the street on a red light. 10 He asked me if I could speak English. He said he was very busy on that day. He told me to ring him up when I arrived home. 6. He told me to take that pill. He asked me if I could lend him a book. 2. 2. He said if he had enough money he would buy a car the next year. He said he had spent his holiday at the seaside the year before. 5. 8. He said she would go shopping right then. 9.Exercitii cu vorbirea directa si indirecta Exercitiul 1: 1. He said he thought it was going to rain the next day. 8. He told me not to interrupt him when he was speaking. 10.
A reward will be given to me (by them). 9. 7. He asked me when the rain had stopped.would be back. 9. 5. 6. 7. A new supermarket was being built in that district last month. The tourists were shown the museum (by the guide). when I passed by. Something must be done for him by his coworkers. The work will be finished today (by them). A new house is being built round the corner (by them). He asked me who that man was. English is taught to them (by me). A difficult question was asked of me by the teacher. 6. 3. LECTIA V Exercitii cu diateza pasiva Exercitiul 1: 1. 10. He asked me how I had travelled. 8. I’m not always told the truth by my friend. Exercitiul 2: 1. The truth is not always told to me by my friend. Exercitiul 3: 83 . 8. Some pills were prescribed to the patient (by the doctor). John has been lent two of my books (by me). 4. The Great Prize was awarded to the Romanian film director (by the jury). 10. I was frightened by the noise. 4. He asked me which of those cakes I preferred. 8. The patient was prescribed some pills (by the doctor). Your bag has been found (by him). 5. They are taught English (by me). The way will be shown to us by the policeman. 10. I was asked a difficult question by the teacher. 2. I will be given a reward (by them). 9. Two of my books have been lent to John (by me). A nice present has been given to me (by them). Football is played all over the world. We will be shown the way by the policeman. 2. The Romanian film director was awarded the Great Prize (by the jury). I have been given a nice present (by them). My friend will be invited to a party (by me). He asked me where I would spend my weekend. 3. My TV set will be repaired by a specialist. 7. 6. He asked me why it was so dark in that room. The museum was shown to the tourists (by the guide). 5. The missing child has been found (by someone).
5. 9. Foreign languages are spoken in this hotel.1. 9. 11. People mustn’t take away these books. 4. When he arrived home he realized his wallet had been stolen. 2. Has the dog been fed? 7. 6. The rescue party finally discovered the climber. 9. Exercitiul 4: 1. The house was broken into (by burglars). The teacher will tell the pupils where to sit. Will the letter be written in ink? 3. They held a reception in his honour. 7. 4. Exercitiul 6: l. People speak English all over the world. 8. The doctor was called for (by us). 6. Has the TV set been repaired? 2. His bed hasn’t been slept in (by him). Detailed 84 . The professor’s lecture was listened to by all the students. 10. 5. 2. John was laughed at (by us). He hates people making fun of him. Was he shocked by the sight of the accident? 8. 8. Would your work have been finished sooner if you hadn’t been interrupted by your colleagues? Exercitiul 5: 1. 8. 3. 3. 5. People will soon forget this book. 7. Were you frightened by the tornado? 5. 4. His odd behaviour couldn’t be accounted for (by us). We were told very interesting things at the conference. The letter will be mailed as soon as possible. The meanings of the new words must be looked up in the dictionary. 2. 10. The children weren’t looked after properly (by them). We will be given detailed instructions about the paper. The event was commented on by all the newspapers. They have built this house out of stone and cement. This piece of information must be treated confidentially. 6. Haven’t you been told to be here at 6 o’clock? 4. All the visitors of the museum admire this painting. 7. Nothing has been heard about him since he left for Constanta. We were asked to show our passports. Fire was set to the shed (by them).: 3. Were you told about the meeting? 9. Will the details be told to him? Will he be told the details? 6. very interesting things were told to us at the conference. Do you think your request will be turned down? 10. Don’t speak until you are spoken to (by someone). My friend recommended me a very good doctor. His proposal was objected to (by us).
It can’t have been. Everybody will be allowed/permitted to borrow. The museum was closed for repairs. The child was allowed/permitted to have. Everybody was allowed/permitted to borrow. 8. 13. John must have been. He ought to have told. He needn’t have bought. You didn’t have to do. She could lend. 19. Could Jane type? Will Jane be able to type? 17. He could read and write. 12. You might have written. She will be able to read and write. 15. 18. The child will be allowed/permitted to have. 11. LECTIA VI Exercitii cu verbe modale Exercitiul 1: 1. She will be able to lend. 7. 5. I had to look up. 4. He was not allowed/permitted to come. You will be allowed/permitted to leave. Many new blocks are being built in our district. 5. America was discovered at the end of the 15th century. He must have been delayed. 8. You might have changed. You needn’t have done. Could you help? Will you be able to help? 9. 12. You were allowed/permitted to leave. I couldn’t translate. It must 85 . He could swim. 4. He will be able to swim. 16. 9. You were not allowed/permitted to smoke. He should have gone. Could he speak? Will he be able to speak? 18. It can t have been. You will not be allowed/permitted to smoke. 6. 14. 10. 3. 10. I will have to go. Did you have to be? Will you have to be? 20. 2. I will have to look up. He won’t be allowed/permitted to come. You won’t have to do. 15. I won t be able to translate. You were not allowed/permitted to speak. 15. He may have been. I had to go. You might have paid. 16. 13. 13. You won’t be allowed/permitted to speak. She could play. 3 It might have rained. 2. You can’t have seen. He must have been. This stamp hasn’t been well stuck on the envelope. 14. I had to learn. She will be able to play. 17. You can’t have been.instructions will be given to us about the paper. You should have visited. I will have to learn. 7. Exercitiul 2: 1. 14. Was I not allowed/permitted to walk? Shall I be not allowed/permitted to walk? 11. 6. 12.
would. should. She may/might be very late. would. can. 2. He may/might have done. 6. 4: She must be a very good doctor. 5. 9. John could have been. would. Exercitiul 7: 1. She may/might have been angry. She may/might have returned. S. 10. 8. mustn’t. She can’t have got. 6. 6. Exercitiul 4: l. needn’t. 19. It may/might be a good one. 10. 20. He can’t be at the office. She can’t have learned English. 5. It may/might rain. mustn’t. You must have left your umbrella. I may/might come home. 4. 2. Exercitiul 9: 86 . can’t. 9. It must have taken a long time. She can’t have married. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. would. It can’t have been his fault. 6. 5. 2. You shouldn’t have gone. 5. You must have forgotten. can. 3. 4. 7. 10. 5. can. needn’t. should. Exercitiul 8: l. 8. This can’t be a true story. He must be older. A good knowledge of English may/might help you. He may/might have been right. 9. would.have been. mustn’t. 3. 2. 10. 10. 5. He can’t have passed. 4. He must have been late. should. The weather can’t change. 8. would. 7. He must have come home. needn’t. 7. should. 7. 3. can. 4. mustn’t. You can’t miss the train. 3. mustn’t. 6. needn’t. You must have known the lesson. This must be the best. 3. 6. Exercitiul 5: 1. 9. It can’t be his fault. 9. needn’t. She may/might have been out. Exercitiul 6: 1. 7. 4. He must think. 8. 2. 2. can’t.
can’t have left. will. will. needn’t have waited. 8. 8. must have taken. 12. didn’t need to answer. I ought to/should have read the bibliography for the seminar. 3. The teacher told me I might skip the next class. All the children ought to/should do some housework. 7. Exercitiul 12: 1. must have been. Everybody shall be present at the meeting. 9. 6. 4. 8. needn’t have bought. All the students can and must write this paper.1. 3. 11. You needn’t have made coffee for me. You can’t/couldn’t have been at home last night. 5. 13. You may ring me up more often when you know I am ill. 7. 6. didn’t need to wait. 10. needn’t have lent. we may/might take the bus or the ski-lift. Exercitiul 13: 1. 6. 2. shall. will. shall. 8. 16. can’t have rained. 2. 9. I can’t knit. can’t have swum. Sensuri posibile: „Do you think he will try to enter the faculty?". shall. today. must have left. 5. 7. I rang you up and 87 . 4. I will have to leave soon. I have already drunk two. a porter could help you. will. I didn’t need to say „thank you" when I found out the exact time by dialing number 958. I could play the piano when I was a child. Need we walk up to the chalet? 15. 5. 4. as I knew the information was recorded on tape. shall. can’t have seen. I didn’t need to ring up Jane in order to speak to her. 20. You needn’t carry your luggage in the station yourself. 18. will. You will have to help me more today. I must change my shoes when I enter the house because they are full of mud. 14. needn’t have got up. 4. 19. 6. will. 5. No. 7. needn’t have written. must have been. needn’t have lent. „Do you think he will marry that girl?" etc. Exercitiul 10: 1. The teacher can’t/couldn’t have been satisfied with this answer. because she was to come to my place in half hour’s time. 1 am sure I will be able to find time to help you. 3. didn’t need to buy. 10. 2. needn’t have answered. 2. 17. can’t have done. 10. 9. didn’t need to see. Exercitiul 11: 1. 3. 10. 9.
I wish you hadn’t had an accident. I wished you had been able to come to me yesterday. I wish you hadn’t been delayed at the office. 26.nobody answered. 6. I wish it didn’t rain so often. I wish I had won the Great Prize. 2. Will you. 3. I wish you didn’t live so far away. I wish he wouldn’t be away for such a long time. 3. I wish I could go to the concert. 21. I wish I had money to buy that painting. S. I wish I didn’t have only one child. I wished you hadn’t been out when I called. 7. 1 wish I had children. 6. 8. 8. 25. Exercitiul 2: l. 22. 5. I wish I would able to read Goethe in the original. 2. I wish he wouldn’t stay in hospital so long. You ought to/should have insisted. You can’t have found the door open. 23. 10. wait for a few minutes? 30. 4. 4. I wish you had won the competition. I wish I wouldn’t get fat when giving up smoking. I wish I hadn’t been late for the party. I wish he would accept my proposal. 7. 10. please. 10. 9. I wished the weather hadn’t been bad when I was on holiday. I wish they would sign the contract. 3. I asked to speak to the manager but he wouldn’t come to the phone. 88 . 2. I wish I would have a phone in my new flat. I had locked it myself 27. I wished you hadn’t got a fine. I must have been still at the faculty. 8. 9. Exercitiul 3: 1. I wish I could pay the piano. 5. I wish I lived in Bucharest. I promise you. Where shall we go now? 28. Why did you speak so loud? Somebody might have heard you. I wish my friend weren’t ill. You may not speak during the exam. 6. I wish you would come on holiday with me. 4. 24. I wish you would take a driving licence. LECTIA VII Exercitii cu modul subjonctiv Exercitiul 1: 1. I wish books weren’t so expensive. you shall have the book tomorrow. 9. 7. Tomorrow I will have to mail the letter. I wish I would spend my holiday in England. I wish I were a student. 29.
I were. Do you wish you had been invited to John’s party? 7. 7. 13. I stayed. 19. 5. It is very important that this contract (should) be signed very soon. 20. he took. 9. 8. I would rather you went to the theatre. you didn’t waste. 9. It is impossible that he should have returned so early. Do you mean it is likely that we (should) spend our holiday in 89 . hadn’t caught a cold. 4. 6. 11. It’s 10 o’clock! Don’t you think it’s high time you got up and started working? 15. 7. 20. we went. I wish you stopped complaining because I have my own troubles. I wish/If only I were young again! 8. It was strange that she shouldn’t have read this book. he would have. 10. It is likely that my son should have passed the exam. I would rather I went/I would rather go to the theatre. 15. his daughter didn’t get married. It is impossible that he (should) return so early. I had entered. we could go to the beach. 17. 12. I were. I would become. He spoke to me as if nothing had happened between us. She looks as if she were a model. I hadn’t forgotten. It’s time you paid me back the money I lent you. I would rather you got up earlier. 17. It is important that you (should) know English well. too. S. you closed. he told. I would rather I got up/I would rather get up earlier. 14. 10. It is annoying that you should have forgotten to bring me back the book. stopped. my telephone worked. 4. Jane wishes I would spend my weekend with her. you were. 12. but I would rather you went to your grandparents in the countryside. 3. 2. 18. It is necessary that you (should) be informed about what is happening in the country. you owned. 3. It’s high time you started reading the books required for the exam in Romanian literature. 11. 19. his book would become. 6. 14. I wish/If only I hadn’t made so many mistakes in the testpaper! 2. 16. 2. She behaves to him as if he were his husband. 16. I wish/If only it didn’t rain! If it didn’t rain. 6. Exercitiul 5: l. you started. I got. watched. 8. 9. You speak as if you were angry with me.Exercitiul 4: 1. 18. I wish you stopped that noise right away! 3. I wish/If only you were tidier! 5. I know you wish you would spend your holiday in a camp. Exercitiul 6: 1. 13. 4.
Exercitiul 8: 1. he were. No matter how hard you may/might try. Whenever you may/might return. 2. she should have left. 8. 9. He entered the house noiselessly so that I might not hear him. I had. (should) have. 6. I can’t believe you. 3. may attend. should have told. you should have. He suggested that we (should) buy this house. The manager proposed that 1 (should) work in another department. 10. 8. we (should) leave. 3. 5. it should get. you can’t win such a competition. 4. 6. 4. I will be at home waiting for you. might prosper. 13. 7. 16. I would find. 5. you shouldn’t lie to me. 11. 2. My friend insisted that I (should) go to the concert with him. 14. The teacher suggests that we (should) read this book. I made a loan so that I might buy the house. It is necessary that I (should) be present at the meeting? Exercitiul 7: 1. It is possible that she might be away. they (should) divorce. he were. 10. you retired. 7. I had been. Whoever may/might have told you this about me. hadn’t broken down. 2. 12. Whatever the reason may/might be. you may/might understand. 18. 3. 17. 20. you may/might be. it might not get. 15. Mother decided that we (should) stay at home. LECTIA VIII Exercitii cu constructiile verbale Exercitiul 1: 90 . you shouldn’t have believed it. 4. Exercitiul 9: 1. 5. The manager requested that everybody (should) be present at 8 o’clock. 6. Move aside so that I may/might see the screen. 19. I insist that you (should) accept this job. 8. 9. I suggested that we (should) elect him president. Speak louder so that I may/might hear you. we should take. 7. Whatever you may/might tell me.Brasov? 10.
6. He was heard to repeat it several times. They are sure to have had an argument. It is necessary for you to study the matter seriously. This is the main thing for us to do. 8. 5. 7. 4. I think him to be a good husband. I supposed him to be able to drive a car. I watched them playing football. She made me understand what had happened. 3. This fact is important for you to bear in mind. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk. This is a good book for you to read. She seemed to be satisfied with me. It is important for you to come to the office at once. 5. 7. I rely on you to lend me some money. 3. 9. 11. It’s time for you to start learning foreign languages. I have closed the window for you not to catch a cold. He was believed to be a brilliant surgeon. 6. I heard her scold/scolding her child. 4. I saw him speaking to his friend. 1 knew him to be a very busy man. 14. 10. 3. Exercitiul 3: 1. 2. It is possible for me to buy a car. Mother would like me to become a doctor. 9.1. He made me miss the train. It is recommendable for you to read this book. 10. It’s time for us to meet again. 4. He wanted me to help him. Exercitiul 2: 1. Exercitiul 4: 1. It is necessary for him to be present. 7. 5. She (was) proved to be a liar. John admitted the fault to be his. 4. 9. 8. I saw some children playing in the park. 15. She was thought to be unable to win the contest. This is a strange thing for her to have said. 10. 9. This problem is too difficult for me to solve. The people were impatient for the match to begin. Exercitiul 5: 91 . 6. 5. It is impossible for him to have said that. It is possible for the plane to be delayed. 6. 2. 2. He was expected to resign. 8. 2. I understand her to be a very good teacher. This is a valuable piece of advice for you to take. 7. It is advisable for you to resign. He is expected to arrive at 2 o’clock. 8. She happened to make three spelling mistakes in her letter. 10. I ordered a taxi for her not to miss the train. 12. She was said to be ill. I expected you to come earlier. 3. 13.
The peasants were seen working in the field. were bore beat became began bent bit blew broke brought built been borne. 5. 6. 7. 4. 8. am plecat acasa linistit. ne era teama sa nu avem inundatii. Intrucât ploaia incetase. publicul a parasit sala. 3. She could be heard typing.1. Decizia fiind luata in favoarea mea. am mers sa o pun la posta. 4. LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE to be to bear to beat to become to begin to bend to bite to blow to break to bring to build was. vom urca pâna la vârful muntelui. 6. born beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought built 92 . She was found digging in the garden. 8. 9. neam asezat la cina. a trebuit sa-i schimb. The hunters were heard shooting. The baby was heard crying. Daca vremea va permite. Intrucât soarele rasarise. The child was heard breaking the vase. 9. Scrisoarea fiind scrisa. 10. Exercitiul 6: 1. 5. The plane was seen landing. 7. am plecat la cumparaturi. 2. Dupa ce avionul a decolat am incetat sa fumez. Intrucât noroiul imi stricase pantofii. Intrucât râul crescuse in timpul noptii. Concertul fiind terminat. 3. The boy was found breaking the window. 2. She was seen lying on the beach. 10. She was seen fainting. ne-am grabit spre plaja. Toata lumea fiind acasa.
to burn to burst to buy to catch to choose to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly burnt burst bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown 93 .
to forbid to forget to forgive to freeze to give to go to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend
forbade forgot forgave froze gave went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led leant learnt, learned left lent
forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen given gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led leant learnt, learned left lent
to let to lie to lose to make to mean to mow to meet to pay to put to read to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to set to sew to shake to shine to shoot
let lay lost made meant mowed met paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold set sewed shook shone shot
let lain lost made meant mown met paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold set sewn shaken shone shot
to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sleep to slide to smell to sow to speak to spell to spend to spill to spread to stand to stea1 to stick to stride to strike to strive to swear to sweep to swim
showed shrank shut sang sank slept slid smelt sowed spoke spelt spent spilt spread stood stole stuck strode struck strove swore swept swam
shown shrunk shut sung sunk slept slid smelt sown spoken spelt spent split spread stood stolen stuck stridden struck striven sworn swept swum
to take to teach to tell to think to throw to understand 1 took taught told thought threw understood taken taught told thought thrown understood 97 .