5 .1 I n t r odu ct i on .

I f w e sl i de or t r y t o sl i de a b ody over a su r f ace t h e m ot i on i s r esi st ed b y a b on di n g b et w een t h e b o dy an d t h e su r f ace.
T h i s r esi st ance i s r ep r esen t ed b y a si n gl e f or ce an d i s cal l ed f r i ct i on .
T h e f or ce of f r i ct i on i s p ar al l el t o t h e su r f ace an d op p osi t e t o t h e di r ect i on of i n t en ded m ot i on .
5 .2 T yp es of Fr i ct i on .
( 1) St at i c f r i ct i on : T h e op p osi n g f or ce t h at com es i n t o p l ay w h en on e b ody t en ds t o m ove over t h e su r f ace of an ot h er ,
b u t t h e act u al m ot i on h as yet n ot st ar t ed i s cal l ed st at i c f r i ct i on .
( i ) I f ap p l i ed f or ce i s P an d t h e b od y r em ai n s at r est t h en st at i c f r i ct i on F = P.
( i i ) I f a body i s at r est and no pul l i ng f or ce i s act i ng on i t , f or ce of f r i ct i on on i t i s zer o.
( i i i ) St at i c f r i ct i on i s a sel f - adj u st i n g f or ce b ecau se i t ch an ges i t sel f i n accor dan ce w i t h t h e
ap p l i ed f or ce.
( 2) L i m i t i n g f r i ct i on : I f t h e ap p l i ed f or ce i s i n cr eased t h e f or ce of st at i c f r i ct i on al so
i n cr eases. I f t h e ap p l i ed f or ce exceeds a cer t ai n ( m axi m u m ) val u e, t h e b ody st ar t s m ovi n g. T h i s m axi m u m val u e of st at i c f r i ct i on
u p t o w h i ch b ody d oes n ot m ove i s cal l ed l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on .
( i ) T h e m agn i t u de of l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een an y t w o b odi es i n con t act i s di r ect l y pr op or t i on al t o t h e n or m al r eact i on
b et w een t h em .
R F
l
· or R F
s l
 =
( i i ) D i r ect i on of t h e f or ce of l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on i s al w ays op p osi t e t o t h e di r ect i on i n w h i ch on e b ody i s at t h e ver ge of
m ovi n g over t h e ot h er
( i i i ) Coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on : ( a)
s
 i s cal l ed coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on an d def i n ed as t h e r at i o of f or ce of l i m i t i n g
f r i ct i on an d n or m al r eact i on
R
F
s
= 
( b ) D i m en si on : ] [
0 0 0
T L M
( c) U n i t : I t h as n o u n i t .
( d) V al u e of
s
 l i es i n b et w een 0 an d 1
( e) V al u e of  dep en ds on m at er i al an d n at u r e of su r f aces i n con t act t h at m ean s w h et h er dr y or w et ; r ou gh or sm oot h
p ol i sh ed or n on - p ol i sh ed.
( f ) V al u e of  does n ot dep en d u p on ap p ar en t ar ea of con t act .
( 3) K i n et i c or dyn am i c f r i ct i on : I f t h e ap p l i ed f or ce i s i n cr eased f u r t h er an d set s t h e b ody i n m ot i on , t h e f r i ct i on
op p osi n g t h e m ot i on i s cal l ed ki n et i c f r i ct i on .
( i ) Ki n et i c f r i ct i on dep en ds u p on t h e n or m al r eact i on .
R F
k
· or R F
k k
 = w h er e
k
 i s cal l ed t h e coef f i ci en t of k i n et i c f r i ct i on
( i i ) V al u e of
k
 dep en ds u p on t h e n at u r e of su r f ace i n con t act .
( i i i ) Ki n et i c f r i ct i on i s al w ays l esser t h an l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on
l k
F F <
s k
  <
i .e. coef f i ci en t of ki n et i c f r i ct i on i s al w ays l ess t h an coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on . T h u s w e r equ i r e m or e f or ce t o st ar t a
m ot i on t h an t o m ai n t ai n i t agai n st f r i ct i on . T h i s i s b ecau se on ce t h e m ot i on st ar t s act u al l y ; i n er t i a of r est h as b een over com e.
P
R
F
m g

A l so w hen m ot i on h as act u al l y st ar t ed, i r r egu l ar i t i es of on e su r f ace h ave l i t t l e t i m e t o get l ocked agai n i n t o t h e i r r egu l ar i t i es of
t h e ot h er su r f ace.
( i v) T yp es of k i n et i c f r i ct i on
( a) Sl i di n g f r i ct i on : T h e op p osi n g f or ce t h at com es i n t o pl ay w h en on e b ody i s act u al l y sl i di n g over t h e sur f ace of t h e
ot h er b ody i s cal l ed sl i di n g f r i ct i on . e.g. A f l at b l ock i s m ovi n g over a h or i zon t al t ab l e.
( b ) Rol l i n g f r i ct i on : W h en ob j ect s su ch as a w h eel ( di sc or r i n g) , sp h er e or a cyl i n der r ol l s over a su r f ace, t h e f or ce of
f r i ct i on com es i n t o p l ay i s cal l ed r ol l i n g f r i ct i on .
 Rol l i n g f r i ct i on i s di r ect l y p r op or t i on al t o t h e n or m al r eact i on ( R) an d i n ver sel y p r op or t i on al t o t h e r adi u s ( r ) of t h e
r ol l i n g cyl i n der or w h eel .

r
R
F
r rolling
 =
r
 i s cal l ed coef f i ci ent of r ol l i n g f r i ct i on. It w oul d have t he di m en si ons of l en gt h an d w oul d be m easur ed i n m et r e.
 Rol l i n g f r i ct i on i s of t en qu i t e sm al l as com p ar ed t o t h e sl i di n g f r i ct i on . T h at i s w h y h eavy l oads ar e t r an sp or t ed b y
p l aci n g t h em on car t s w i t h w h eel s.
 I n r ol l i n g t h e su r f aces at con t act do n ot r u b each ot h er .
 T h e vel oci t y of p oi n t of con t act w i t h r esp ect t o t h e su r f ace r em ai n s zer o al l t h e t i m es al t h ou gh t h e cen t r e of t h e
w h eel m oves f or w ar d.
5 .3 G r ap h Bet w een A p p l i ed For ce an d For ce of Fr i ct i on.
( 1) Par t O A of t h e cu r ve r ep r esen t s st at i c f r i ct i on ) (
s
F . I t s val u e i n cr eases l i n ear l y w i t h t h e ap p l i ed f or ce
( 2) A t p oi n t A t h e st at i c f r i ct i on i s m axi m u m . T h i s r epr esen t l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on
) (
l
F .
( 3) Beyon d A , t h e f or ce of f r i ct i on i s seen t o decr ease sl i ght l y. T h e p or t i on BC of
t h e cu r ve t h er ef or e r ep r esent s t h e ki n et i c f r i ct i on ) (
k
F .
( 4 ) A s t h e p or t i on BC of t h e cu r ve i s p ar al l el t o x- axi s t her ef or e ki n et i c f r i ct i on
does n ot ch an ge w i t h t h e ap p l i ed f or ce, i t r em ai n s con st an t , w h at ever b e t h e ap p l i ed
f or ce.
5 .4 Fr i ct i on i s a C au se of M ot i on .
I t i s a gen er al m i scon cep t i on t h at f r i ct i on al w ays op p oses t h e m ot i on . No d ou b t f r i ct i on op p oses t h e m ot i on of a m ovi n g
b ody b u t i n m an y cases i t i s al so t h e cau se of m ot i on . For exam p l e :
( 1) I n m ovi n g, a p er son or veh i cl e p u sh es t h e gr ou n d b ackw ar ds ( act i on ) an d t he r ou gh su r f ace of gr ou n d r eact s an d
exer t s a f or w ar d f or ce du e t o f r i ct i on w h i ch cau ses t h e m ot i on . I f t h er e h ad b een n o f r i ct i on t h er e w i l l b e sl i p p i n g an d n o
m ot i on .





( 2) I n cycl i n g, t h e r ear w heel m oves b y t h e f or ce com m u n i cat ed t o i t b y p edal l i n g w h i l e f r on t w h eel m oves b y i t sel f . So,
w h en p edal l i n g a b i cycl e, t h e f or ce exer t ed b y r ear w h eel on gr ou n d m akes f or ce of f r i ct i on act on i t i n t h e f or w ar d di r ect i on
( l i ke w al ki n g) . Fr on t w h eel m ovi n g b y i t sel f exp er i en ce f or ce of f r i ct i on i n b ackw ar d di r ect i on ( l i k e r ol l i n g of a b al l ) . [ H ow ever ,
i f p edal l i n g i s st op p ed b ot h w h eel s m ove b y t h em sel ves an d so exp er i en ce f or ce of f r i ct i on i n b ackw ar d di r ect i on .]





W h i l e p edal l i n g Pedal l i n g i s st op ed
Act i on
Fr i ct i on

A
C B
F
l F
k
F
o
r
c
e

o
f

f
r
i
c
t
i
o
n

Ap p l i ed f or ce

O
F
s


( 3) I f a b ody i s p l aced i n a veh i cl e w h i ch i s accel er at i n g, t h e f or ce of f r i ct i on i s t h e cau se of m ot i on of t h e b ody al on g w i t h
t h e veh i cl e ( i .e., t h e b ody w i l l r em ai n at r est i n t h e accel er at i n g veh i cl e u n t i l ). mg ma
s
 < I f t h er e h ad b een n o f r i ct i on
b et w een b ody an d veh i cl e t h e b ody w i l l n ot m ove al on g w i t h t h e veh i cl e.





Fr om t h ese exam p l es i t i s cl ear t h at w i t h ou t f r i ct i on m ot i on can n ot b e st ar t ed, st op p ed or t r an sf er r ed f r om on e b ody t o t h e
ot h er .
Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on f u n d am en t al s of f r i ct i on
Pr ob l em 1. I f a l ad d er w ei gh i n g 25 0N i s p l aced agai n st a sm oot h ver t i cal wal l h avi n g coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een i t an d f l oor i s
0 .3, t h en w h at i s t h e m axi m u m f or ce of f r i ct i on avai l ab l e at t h e p oi n t of cont act b et w een t h e l ad d er an d t h e f l oor
( a) 75 N ( b ) 5 0 N ( c) 35 N ( d ) 25 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) M axi m u m f or ce of f r i ct i on N R F
s l
75 250 3 . 0 = × = = 
Pr ob l em 2 . O n t h e hor i zon t al su r f ace of a t r u ck (  = 0.6 ) , a b l ock of m ass 1 k g i s p l aced . I f t h e t r u ck i s accel er at i n g at t h e r at e of
5 m / sec
2
t h en f r i ct i on al f or ce on t h e b l ock w i l l b e [ C BSE PM T 2 0 0 1]
( a) 5 N ( b ) 6 N ( c) 5 .8 8 N ( d ) 8 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) Li m i t i n g f r i ct i on N mg R
s s
88 . 5 8 . 9 1 6 . 0 = × × = = =  
W h en t r u ck accel er at es i n f or w ar d d i r ect i on at t h e r at e of
2
/ 5 s m a p seu d o f or ce ) (ma of 5 N w or k s on b l ock i n b ack
w ar d d i r ect i on . H er e t h e m agn i t u d e of p seu d o f or ce i s l ess t h an l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on So, st at i c f r i ct i on w or k s i n b et w een t h e
b l ock an d t h e su r f ace of t h e t r u ck an d as w e k n ow , st at i c f r i ct i on = Ap p l i ed f or ce = 5N.
Pr ob l em 3 . A b l ock of m ass 2 k g i s k ep t on t h e f l oor . Th e coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on i s 0 .4 . I f a f or ce F of 2.5 N i s ap p l i ed on t h e
b l ock as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e, t h e f r i ct i on al f or ce b et w een t h e b l ock an d t h e f l oor w i l l b e [ M P PET 2 0 0 0 ]
( a) 2.5 N
( b ) 5 N
( c) 7.8 4 N
( d ) 10 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) Ap p l i ed f or ce = 2.5 N and l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on = m g = 0 .4 × 2 × 9 .8 = 7.8 4 N
As ap p l i ed f or ce i s l ess t h an l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on . So, f or t h e gi ven con d i t i on st at i c f r i ct i on w i l l w or k .
St at i c f r i ct i on on a b od y = Ap p l i ed f or ce = 2.5 N.
Pr ob l em 4 . A b l ock A w i t h m ass 10 0 k g i s r est i n g on anot h er b l ock B of m ass 20 0 k g. As sh ow n i n f i gu r e a hor i zont al r op e t i ed t o a
w al l h ol d s i t . T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B i s 0 .2 w h i l e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een B and t h e gr ou nd i s
0 .3. T h e m i n i m u m r eq u i r ed f or ce F t o st ar t m ovi n g B w i l l b e [ RPET 19 9 9 ]
( a) 9 0 0 N
( b ) 10 0 N
( c) 110 0 N
( d ) 120 0 N
Sol u t i on : ( c) T w o f r i ct i on al f or ce w i l l w or k on b l ock B.

BG AB
f f F + = g m m g m
B A BG a AB
) ( + + =  
= 0 .2 × 100 × 10 + 0 .3 ( 30 0 ) × 10
= 20 0 + 9 0 0 = 1100 N. ( Th i s i s t h e r eq u i r ed m i n i m u m f or ce)
m a

s
m g
a
F
A
B
F
f
A B

A
B
F
f
B

Gr ou n

Pr ob l em 5 . A 20 k g b l ock i s i n i t i al l y at r est on a r ou gh hor i zont al su r f ace. A h or i zon t al f or ce of 75 N i s r eq u i r ed t o set t h e b l ock i n
m ot i on . Af t er i t i s i n m ot i on , a h or i zont al f or ce of 6 0 N i s r eq u i r ed t o k eep t h e b l ock m ovi n g w i t h con st an t sp eed . T h e
coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on i s [ AM U 19 9 9 ]
( a) 0 .38 ( b ) 0 .4 4 ( c) 0 .52 ( d ) 0 .6 0
Sol u t i on : ( a) Coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on 38 . 0
8 . 9 20
75
=
×
= =
R
F
l
S
 .
Pr ob l em 6 . A b l ock of m ass M i s p l aced on a r ou gh f l oor of a l i f t . T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e b l ock an d t h e f l oor i s .
W h en t h e l i f t f al l s f r eel y, t h e b l ock i s p u l l ed h or i zon t al l y on t h e f l oor . W hat w i l l b e t h e f or ce of f r i ct i on
( a)  M g ( b )  M g/ 2 ( c) 2 M g ( d ) Non e of t h ese
Sol u t i on : ( d) W h en t h e l i f t m oves d ow n w ar d w i t h accel er at i on 'a' t h en ef f ect i ve accel er at i on d u e t o gr avi t y
g' = g – a
0 ' = ÷ = g g g [ As t h e l i f t f al l s f r eel y, so a = g]
So f or ce of f r i ct i on 0 ' = = mg 
5 .5 A dvan t ages an d D i sadvan t ages of Fr i ct i on.
( 1) A d van t ages of f r i ct i on
( i ) W al ki n g i s p ossi b l e du e t o f r i ct i on .
( i i ) T w o b ody st i cks t oget h er du e t o f r i ct i on .
( i i i ) Br ake w or ks on t h e b asi s of f r i ct i on .
( i v) W r i t i n g i s n ot p ossi b l e w i t h ou t f r i ct i on .
( v) T h e t r an sf er of m ot i on f r om on e p ar t of a m ach i n e t o ot h er p ar t t h r ou gh b el t s i s p ossi b l e b y f r i ct i on .
( 2) D i sadvan t ages of f r i ct i on
( i ) Fr i ct i on al w ays op p oses t h e r el at i ve m ot i on b et w een an y t w o b odi es i n con t act . T h er ef or e ext r a en er gy h as t o b e sp en t
i n over com i n g f r i ct i on . T h i s r edu ces t h e ef f i ci en cy of m ach i n e.
( i i ) Fr i ct i on cau ses w ear an d t ear of t h e p ar t s of m ach i n er y i n con t act . T h us t h ei r l i f et i m e r edu ces.
( i i i ) Fr i ct i on al f or ce r esu l t i n t h e p r odu ct i on of h eat , w h i ch cau ses dam age t o t h e m ach i n er y.
5 .6 M et h ods of C h an gi n g Fr i ct i on.
W e can r edu ce f r i ct i on
( 1) By p ol i sh i n g.
( 2) By l u b r i cat i on .
( 3) By p r op er sel ect i on of m at er i al .
( 4 ) By st r eam l i n i n g t h e sh ap e of t h e b ody.
( 5) By u si n g b al l b ear i n g.
A l so w e can i n cr ease f r i ct i on b y t h r ow i n g som e san d on sl i p p er y gr ou n d. I n t h e m an u f act u r i n g of t yr es, syn t h et i c r u bb er
i s p r ef er r ed b ecau se i t s coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on w i t h t h e r oad i s l ar ger .
5 .7 A n gle of Fr i ct i on .
A n gl e of f r i ct i on m ay b e def i n ed as t h e an gl e w h i ch t h e r esu l t an t of l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on an d n or m al r eact i on m akes w i t h t h e
n or m al r eact i on .
By def i n i t i on an gl e  i s cal l ed t h e an gl e of f r i ct i on

R
F
=  tan
t an  =  [ A s w e kn ow  =
R
F
]
P
R
F
m g

S

or ) ( tan
1
 
÷
=
H en ce coef f i ci en t of l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on i s equ al t o t an gen t of t h e an gl e of f r i ct i on .
5 .8 Resu l t an t For ce Exer t ed b y Su r f ace on Bl ock.
I n t h e ab ove f i gu r e r esu l t an t f or ce
2 2
R F S + =

2 2
) ( ) ( mg mg S + = 
1
2
+ =  mg S
w h en t h er e i s n o f r i ct i on ) 0 ( =  S w i l l b e m i n i m u m i .e., S = m g
H en ce t h e r an ge of S can b e gi ven b y, 1
2
+ s s  mg S mg
5 .9 A n gl e of Rep ose.
A n gl e of r ep ose i s def i n ed as t h e an gl e of t h e i n cl i n ed p l an e w i t h h or i zon t al su ch t h at a b ody p l aced on i t i s j u st b egi n s
t o sl i de.
By def i n i t i on  i s cal l ed t h e an gl e of r ep ose.
I n l i m i t i n g con di t i on  sin mg F =
an d  cos mg R =
So  tan =
R
F

   tan tan = = =
R
F
[ A s w e kn ow   tan = =
R
F
]
T h u s t he coef f i ci en t of l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on i s equ al t o t h e t an gen t of an gl e of r ep ose.
A s w el l as   = i .e. an gl e of r ep ose = an gl e of f r i ct i on .
Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on an gl e of f r i ct i on and an gl e of r ep ose
Pr ob l em 7 . A body of 5 k g w ei ght k ept on a r ough i n cl i ned pl an e of an gl e 30
o
st ar t s sl i d i n g w i t h a con st ant vel oci t y. Th en t h e
coef f i ci ent of f r i ct i on i s ( assu m e g = 10 m / s
2
) [ JI PM ER 2 0 0 2 ]
( a) 3 / 1 ( b ) 3 / 2 ( c) 3 ( d ) 3 2
Sol u t i on : ( a) H er e t h e gi ven an gl e i s cal l ed t h e an gl e of r ep ose
So,
3
1
30 tan = =
o

Pr ob l em 8 . T h e u p p er h al f of an i n cl i n ed p l an e of i n cl i n at i on  i s p er f ect l y sm oot h w h i l e t h e l ow er hal f i s r ou gh . A b od y st ar t i n g
f r om t h e r est at t op com es b ack t o r est at t h e b ot t om i f t h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on f or t h e l ow er hal f i s gi ven
( a)  = si n  ( b )  = cot  ( c)  = 2 cos  ( d )  = 2 t an 
Sol u t i on : ( d) For u p p er h al f b y t h e eq u at i on of m ot i on as u v 2
2 2
+ =
2 / ) sin ( 2 0
2 2
l g v  + =  sin gl = [ As ] sin , 2 / , 0  g a l s u = = =
For l ow er h al f
) cos (sin 2 0
2
   ÷ + = g u l / 2 [ As ) cos (sin , 2 / , 0    ÷ = = = g a l s v ]
¬ ) cos (sin sin 0     ÷ + = gl gl [ As f i nal vel oci t y of u pper hal f wi l l be equal t o t he i ni t i al vel oci t y of l ower hal f ]
¬    cos sin 2 = ¬   tan 2 =
5 .10 C al cu l at i on of N ecessar y For ce i n D i f f er en t C on dit i on s.
I f W = w ei gh t of t h e b ody,  = an gl e of f r i ct i on , = =   tan coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on
t h en w e can cal cu l at e n ecessar y f or ce f or d i f f er en t con d i t i on i n t h e f ol l ow i n g m an n er :
( 1) M i n i m u m p u l l i n g f or ce P at an an gl e  f r om t h e h or i z on t al
R
m g cos 


F
m g si n 
m g
P

Sm oot h
Rou gh

By r esol vi n g P i n h or i zon t al an d ver t i cal di r ect i on ( as sh ow n i n f i gu r e)
For t h e con di t i on of equ i l i b r i u m
 cos P F = an d  sin P W R ÷ =
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u e i n R F  =
) sin ( cos    P W P ÷ =
¬ ) sin (
cos
sin
cos 


 P W P ÷ = [ A s   tan = ]
¬
) ( cos
sin
 

÷
=
W
P
( 2) M i n i m u m p u sh i n g f or ce P at an an gl e  f r om t h e h or i z on t al
By Resol vi n g P i n h or i zon t al an d ver t i cal d i r ect i on ( as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e)
For t h e con di t i on of equ i l i b r i u m
 cos P F = an d  sin P W R + =
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u e i n R F  =
¬ ) sin ( cos    P W P + =
¬ ) sin (
cos
sin
cos 


 P W P + = [ A s   tan = ]
¬
) ( cos
sin
 

+
=
W
P
( 3) M i n i m u m p u l l i n g f or ce P t o m ove t h e b ody u p an i n cl i n ed p l an e
By Resol vi n g P i n t h e di r ect i on of t h e p l an e an d p er p en d i cu l ar t o t h e p l an e ( as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e)
For t h e con di t i on of equ i l i b r i u m
  cos sin W P R = +
  sin cos P W R ÷ =
an d   cos sin P W F = +
  sin cos W P F ÷ =
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u es i n R F  = an d sol vi n g w e get
) ( cos
) ( sin
 
 
÷
+
=
W
P
( 4) M inimum for ce on body in downw ar d dir ect ion along t he sur face of inclined plane t o st ar t it s m ot ion
By Resol vi n g P i n t h e di r ect i on of t h e p l an e an d p er p en d i cu l ar t o t h e p l an e ( as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e)
For t h e con di t i on of equ i l i b r i u m
  cos sin W P R = +
   sin cos P W R ÷ =
an d   sin cos W P F + =
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u es i n R F  = an d
R
P si n 
P cos F
W
P

R
P si n 
P cos F
W

P


R + P si n 
W cos

F + W si n 
P cos

P


F
R + P si n 
P cos
+
W si n 
W cos

W

sol vi n g w e get

) ( cos
) sin(
 
 
÷
÷
=
W
P
( 5) M i n i m u m f or ce t o avoi d sl i di n g a b ody dow n an i n cl i n ed p l an e
By Resol vi n g P i n t h e di r ect i on of t h e p l an e an d p er p en d i cu l ar t o t h e p l an e ( as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e)
For t h e con di t i on of equ i l i b r i u m
  cos sin W P R = +
  sin cos P W R ÷ =
an d   sin cos W F P = +
  cos sin P W F ÷ =
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u es i n R F  = an d sol vi n g w e get

(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
=
) ( cos
) ( sin
 
 
W P
( 6 ) M i n i m u m f or ce f or m ot i on an d i t s di r ect i on
Let t h e f or ce P b e ap p l i ed at an an gl e  w i t h t h e h or i zon t al .
By r esol vi n g P i n h or i zon t al an d ver t i cal di r ect i on ( as sh ow n i n f i gu r e)
For ver t i cal equ i l i b r i u m
mg P R = +  sin
 sin P mg R ÷ = ….( i )
an d f or h or i zon t al m ot i on
F P >  cos
i .e. R P   > cos ….( i i )
Su b st i t u t i n g val u e of R f r om ( i ) i n ( i i )
) sin ( cos    P mg P ÷ >

  

sin cos +
>
mg
P ….( i i i )
For t h e f or ce P t o b e m i n i m u m ) sin (cos    + m u st b e m axi m u m i .e.
0 ] sin [cos = +   
 d
d
¬ 0 cos sin = + ÷   
  = tan
or friction of angle ) ( tan
1
= =
÷
 
i .e. For m i n i m u m val u e of P i t s an gl e f r om t h e h or i zon t al sh ou l d b e equ al t o an gl e of f r i ct i on
A s   = tan so f r om t h e f i gu r e
2
1
sin



+
= an d
2
1
1
cos


+
=
By su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u e i n equ at i on ( i i i )

2
2
2
1 1
1




+
+
+
>
mg
P
2
1 

+
>
mg


2
min
1 

+
=
mg
P


1
2
1  +

F + P cos
R + P si n 
W si n 

W cos
W
R + P si n 
P cos
F
m g
P



P

Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on f or ce agai n st f r i ct i on
Pr ob l em 9 . W h at i s t h e m axi m u m val u e of t h e f or ce F su ch t h at t h e b l ock sh ow n i n t h e ar r an gem en t , d oes n ot m ove
( 3 2 / 1 =  ) [ I I T - JEE ( Scr een i n g) 2 0 0 3 ]

( a) 20 N
( b ) 10 N
( c) 12 N
( d ) 15 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) Fr i ct i on al f or ce R f  =
¬ ) 60 sin ( 60 cos F W F + = 
¬ ( ) 60 sin 3
3 2
1
60 cos F g F + =
¬ N F 20 = .
Pr ob l em 10 . A b l ock of m ass m r est s on a r ou gh h or i zont al su r f ace as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e. Coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e b l ock
an d t h e su r f ace i s . A f or ce F = m g act i n g at an gl e  w i t h t h e ver t i cal si d e of t h e b l ock p u l l s i t . I n w h i ch of t h e
f ol l ow i n g cases t h e b l ock can b e p u l l ed al on g t h e su r f ace
( a)   > tan
( b )   > cot
( c)   > 2 / tan
( d )   > 2 / cot
Sol u t i on : ( d) For p u l l i n g of b l ock f P >
¬ R mg   > sin ¬ ) cos ( sin    mg mg mg ÷ >
¬ ) cos 1 ( sin    ÷ >
¬ |
.
|

\
|
>
2
sin 2
2
cos
2
sin 2
2


 
¬ 

> |
.
|

\
|
2
cot
5 .11 A ccel er at i on of a Bl ock A gai n st Fr i ct i on.
( 1) A ccel er at i on of a b l ock on h or i z on t al su r f ace
W h en b ody i s m ovi n g u n der ap p l i cat i on of f or ce P, t h en ki n et i c f r i ct i on op p oses i t s m ot i on .
Let a i s t h e n et accel er at i on of t h e b od y
Fr om t h e f i gu r e

k
F P ma ÷ =

m
F P
a
k
÷
=
( 2) A ccel er at i on of a b l ock d ow n a r ou gh i n cl i n ed p l an e
W h en an gl e of i n cl i n ed p l an e i s m or e t h an an gl e of r ep ose, t h e b ody p l aced on t h e i n cl i n ed p l an e sl i des dow n w i t h an
accel er at i on a.
Fr om t h e f i gu r e F mg ma ÷ =  sin
¬ R mg ma   ÷ = sin
¬    cos sin mg mg ma ÷ =
A ccel er at i on ] cos [sin    ÷ = g a
N ot e :  For f r i ct i on l ess i n cl i n ed p l an e 0 =   sin g a = .
R
P
F
k
m g
m a

F
m g si n 

m g cos
m g
R
m a
6 0
o

F
m = \3k g

m
m g = F
R
F cos 6 0 °
f
W +F si n 6 0 °
R+m g cos
m g si n  =p
f
m g

( 3) Ret ar dat i on of a b l ock u p a r ou gh i n cl i n ed p l an e
W h en an gl e of i n cl i n ed p l an e i s l ess t h an an gl e of r ep ose, t h en f or t h e u p w ar d m ot i on
F mg ma + =  sin
   cos sin mg mg ma + =
Ret ar dat i on ] cos [sin    + = g a
N ot e :  For f r i ct i on l ess i n cl i n ed p l an e 0 =   sin g a =

Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on accel er at i on agai n st f r i ct i on
Pr ob l em 11. A b od y of m ass 10 k g i s l yi n g on a r ou gh p l an e i n cl i n ed at an an gl e of 30
o
t o t h e h or i zont al an d t h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on
i s 0 .5 . T h e m i n i m u m f or ce r eq u i r ed t o p u l l t h e b ody u p t h e p l an e i s [ JI PM ER 2 0 0 0 ]
( a) 9 14 N ( b ) 9 1.4 N ( c) 9 .14 N ( d ) 0 .9 14 N
Sol u t i on : ( b) ) cos (sin    + = mg F N 4 . 91 ) 30 cos 5 . 0 30 (sin 8 . 9 10 = + × =
Pr ob l em 12 . A b l ock of m ass 10 k g i s p l aced on a r ou gh hor i zon t al su r f ace h avi n g coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on  = 0 .5 . I f a hor i zon t al f or ce
of 10 0 N i s act i n g on i t , t h en accel er at i on of t h e b l ock w i l l b e [ AI I M S 2 0 0 2 ]
( a) 0 .5 m / s
2
( b ) 5 m / s
2
( c) 10 m / s
2
( d ) 15 m / s
2

Sol u t i on : ( b)
mass
friction kinetic – force Applied
= a
10
10 10 5 . 0 100 × × ÷
= = 5 m / s
2
.
Pr ob l em 13 . A body of w ei ght 6 4 N i s p u sh ed w i t h j u st enou gh f or ce t o st ar t i t m ovi ng acr oss a hor i zon t al f l oor and t h e sam e f or ce
cont i nu es t o act af t er war d s. I f t h e coef f i ci ent s of st at i c and dynam i c f r i ct i on ar e 0.6 and 0 .4 r esp ect i vel y, t h e accel er at i on of
t h e bod y w i l l b e ( Accel er at i on du e t o gr avi t y = g) [ E AM C ET 2 0 0 1]
( a)
4 . 6
g
( b ) 0 .6 4 g ( c)
32
g
( d ) 0 .2 g
Sol u t i on : ( d) Li m i t i n g f r i ct i on = R F
s l
 = ¬ 6 4 = 0 .6 m g ¬ m =
g 6 . 0
64
.
Accel er at i on =
body of the Mass
friction Kinetic – force Applied
=
m
mg
K
 ÷ 64
=
g 6 . 0
64
6 . 0
64
4 . 0 64 × ÷
= 0 .2g
Pr ob l em 14 . I f a b l ock m ovi n g u p at
o
30 =  w i t h a vel oci t y 5 m / s, st op s af t er 0 .5 sec, t h en w h at i s  [ C PM T 19 9 5 ]
( a) 0 .5 ( b ) 1.25

( c) 0 .6 ( d ) Non e of t h ese
Sol u t i on : ( c) Fr om at u v ÷ = ¬ 0 at u ÷ =
a
u
t =
f or u p w ar d m ot i on on an i n cl i n ed p l an e ) cos (sin    + = g a
) cos (sin    +
=
g
u
t
Su b st i t u t i n g t h e val u e of sec 5 . 0 , 30 = = t
o
 an d s m u / 5 = , w e get 6 . 0 = 
5 .12 W or k D on e A gai n st Fr i ct i on.
( 1) W or k d on e over a r ou gh i n cl i n ed su r f ace
I f a b ody of m ass m i s m oved u p on a r ou gh i n cl i n ed p l an e t h r ou gh di st an ce s, t h en
W or k don e = f or ce × di st an ce
= m a × s
= m g [ si n  +  cos ] s
] cos [sin    + = s mg


m g si n  + F

m g cos
m g
R
m a

m g si n  + F

m g cos
m g
R
m a
s

( 2) W or k d on e over a h or i z on t al su r f ace
I n t h e ab ove exp r essi on i f w e p u t  = 0 t h en
W or k don e = f or ce × di st an ce
= F × s
=  m g s
I t i s cl ear t h at w or k don e dep en ds u p on
( i ) W ei gh t of t h e b ody.
( i i ) M at er i al an d n at u r e of su r f ace i n con t act .
( i i i ) D i st an ce m oved.
Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on w or k d on e agai n st f r i ct i on
Pr ob l em 15 . A b ody of m ass 5k g r est s on a r ou gh h or i zon t al su r f ace of coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on 0 .2. Th e b od y i s p u l l ed t h r ou gh a
d i st an ce of 10 m b y a h or i zont al f or ce of 25 N. T h e k i n et i c en er gy acq u i r ed b y i t i s ( g = 10 m s
2
)
[ E AM C ET ( M ed.) 2 0 0 0 ]
( a) 330 J ( b ) 15 0 J ( c) 10 0 J ( d ) 5 0 J
Sol u t i on : ( b) Ki n et i c en er gy acq u i r ed b y b ody = T ot al w or k d on e on t h e b od y – W or k d on e agai n st f r i ct i on
= mgS S F  ÷ × = 25 × 10 – 0.2 × 5 × 10 ×10 = 25 0 – 10 0 = 15 0 J.
Pr ob l em 16 . 30 0 Jou l e of w or k i s d on e i n sl i d i n g a 2 k g. b l ock u p an i n cl i n ed p l an e t o a h ei gh t of 10 m et er s. T ak i n g val u e of
accel er at i on d u e t o gr avi t y ‘ g’ t o b e 10 m / s
2
, w or k don e agai n st f r i ct i on i s [ M P PM T 2 0 0 2 ]
( a) 10 0 J ( b ) 20 0 J ( c) 30 0 J ( d ) Zer o
Sol u t i on : ( a) W or k d on e agai n st gr avi t y = m gh = 2 × 10 × 10 = 200 J
W or k d on e agai n st f r i ct i on = T ot al w or k don e – W or k don e agai nst gr avi t y = 300 – 200 = 100 J.
Pr ob l em 17 . A b l o ck o f m ass 1 k g sl i d es d o w n o n a r ou gh i n cl i n ed p l an e o f i n cl i n at i o n 6 0
o
st ar t i n g f r o m i t s t op . I f t h e
co ef f i ci en t

o f k i n et i c f r i ct i o n i s 0 .5 an d l en gt h o f t h e p l an e i s 1 m , t h en w o r k d on e agai n st f r i ct i on i s ( T ak e g = 9 .8
m / s
2
) [ AFM C 2 0 0 0 ; KC ET ( En gg./ M ed.) 2 0 0 1]
( a) 9 .8 2 J ( b ) 4 .9 4 J ( c) 2.4 5 J ( d ) 1.9 6 J
Sol u t i on : ( c)
2
1
8 . 9 1 5 . 0 . cos × × × = = S mg W   = 2.4 5 J.
Pr ob l em 18 . A b l ock of m ass 50 k g sl i d es over a h or i zon t al d i st an ce of 1 m . I f t h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h ei r su r f aces i s 0 .2,
t h en w or k don e agai n st f r i ct i on i s [ C BSE PM T 19 9 9 , 2 0 0 0 ; AI I M S 2 0 0 0 ; BH U 20 0 1]
( a) 9 8 J ( b ) 72J ( c) 5 6 J ( d ) 34 J
Sol u t i on : ( a) J mgS W 98 1 8 . 9 50 2 . 0 = × × × = =  .
5 .13 M ot i on of T w o Bod i es O n e Rest i n g on t h e O t h er .
W h en a b ody A of m ass m i s r est i n g on a b ody B of m ass M t h en t w o con di t i on s ar e p ossi b l e
( 1) A f or ce F i s ap p l i ed t o t h e u p p er b od y, ( 2) A f or ce F i s ap p l i ed t o t h e l ow er b ody
W e w i l l d i scu ss ab ove t w o cases on e b y on e i n t h e f ol l ow i n g m an n er :
( 1) A f or ce F i s ap p l i ed t o t h e u p p er b ody, t h en f ol l ow i n g f ou r si t u at i on s ar e p ossi b l e
( i ) W h en t h er e i s n o f r i ct i on
( a) T h e b ody A w i l l m ove on b od y B w i t h accel er at i on ( F/ m ) .
m F a
A
/ =
( b ) T h e b ody B w i l l r em ai n at r est
0 =
B
a
( c) I f L i s t h e l en gt h of B as sh ow n i n f i gu r e A w i l l f al l f r om B af t er t i m e t

F
mL
a
L
t
2 2
= =
(
¸
(

¸

= = F/m a t a and
2
1
s As
2

( ii ) I f fr ict ion is pr esent bet ween A and B only and applied for ce is less t han lim it ing fr ict ion ( F < F
l
)
P
F

m g
R
s
F
m
A
M
B
L

( F = Appl ied f or ce on t he upper body, F
l
= l i m it i ng f r ict i on bet ween A and B, F
k
= Kinet i c f r ict i on bet w een A and B)
( a) T h e b ody A w i l l n ot sl i de on b od y B t i l l
l
F F < i .e. mg F
s
 <
( b ) Com b i n ed syst em ( m + M ) w i l l m ove t oget h er w i t h com m on accel er at i on
m M
F
a a
B A
+
= =
( ii i) I f fr ict ion is pr esent bet w een A and B only and applied for ce is gr eat er t han lim it ing fr ict ion ( F > F
l
)


I n t h i s con di t i on t h e t w o b odi es w i l l m ove i n t h e sam e di r ect i on ( i .e. of ap p l i ed f or ce) b ut w i t h di f f er en t accel er at i on .
H er e f or ce of ki n et i c f r i ct i on mg
k
 w i l l op p ose t h e m ot i on of A w h i l e w i l l cau se t h e m ot i on of B.

A k
a m F F = ÷
i .e.
m
F F
a
k
A
÷
=

m
mg F
a
k
A
) (  ÷
=
Fr ee b od y d i agr am of A

B k
a M F =
i .e.
M
F
a
k
B
=

M
mg
a
k
B

=
Fr ee b od y d i agr am of B

N ot e :  A s b ot h t h e b odi es ar e m ovi n g i n t h e sam e di r ect i on .
A ccel er at i on of b ody A r el at i ve t o B w i l l b e
mM
M m mg MF
a a a
k
B A
) ( + ÷
= ÷ =


So, A w i l l f al l f r om B af t er t i m e
) (
2 2
M m mg MF
ML m
a
L
t
k
+ ÷
= =


( i v) I f t h er e i s f r i ct i on b et w een B an d f l oor
( w h er e g m M F
l
) ( + ' = '  = l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een B an d f l oor , F
k
= ki n et i c f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B)
B w i l l m ove on l y i f
l k
F F ' > an d t h en
B l k
a M F F = ' ÷
H ow ever i f B does n ot m ove t h en st at i c f r i ct i on w i l l w or k ( n ot l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on )
b et w een b ody B an d t h e f l oor i .e. f r i ct i on f or ce = ap p l i ed f or ce ( = F
k
) n ot
l
F' .
( 2) A f or ce F i s ap p l i ed t o t h e l ow er b od y, t h en f ol l ow i n g f ou r si t u at i on s ar e
p ossi b l e
( i ) W h en t h er e i s n o f r i ct i on
( a) B w i l l m ove w i t h accel er at i on ( F/ M ) w h i l e A w i l l r em ai n at r est ( r el at i ve t o
gr ou n d) as t h er e i s n o p u l l i n g f or ce on A .
|
.
|

\
|
=
M
F
a
B
an d 0 =
A
a
( b ) A s r el at i ve t o B, A w i l l m ove b ackw ar ds w i t h accel er at i on ( F/ M ) an d so w i l l f al l f r om i t i n t i m e t .

F
ML
a
L
t
2 2
= =
( i i ) I f f r i ct i on i s p r esen t b et w een A an d B on l y an d F < F
l

( w h er e F' = Pseu do f or ce on b od y A an d F
l
= l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een b ody A an d B)
( a) Bot h t h e b ody w i l l m ove t oget h er w i t h com m on accel er at i on
m M
F
a
+
=
( b ) Pseu do f or ce on t h e b ody A ,
M m
mF
ma F
+
= = ' an d mg F
s l
 =
( c)
l
F F < ' ¬ mg
M m
mF
s
 <
+
¬ g M m F
s
) ( + < 
F
m
A
M
B
L
F A
F
k
m a
A
F
K
M a
B
B
F
K
M a
B
B
F
l
'

So b ot h b odi es w i l l m ove t oget h er w i t h accel er at i on
M m
F
a a
B A
+
= = i f g M m F
s
] [ + < 
( i i i ) I f f r i ct i on i s p r esen t b et w een A an d B on l y an d F > F
l

( w h er e F
l
' = 
s
( m + M ) g = l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een b ody B an d su r f ace)
Bot h t h e b ody w i l l m ove w i t h di f f er en t accel er at i on . H er e f or ce of ki n et i c f r i ct i on mg
k
 w i l l op p ose t h e m ot i on of B
w h i l e w i l l cau se t h e m ot i on of A .

mg ma
k A
 =
i .e. g a
k A
 =
Fr ee b od y d i agr am of A

B k
Ma F F = ÷
i .e.
M
mg F
a
k
B
] [  ÷
=

Fr ee b od y d i agr am of B

N ot e :  A s b ot h t h e b odi es ar e m ovi n g i n t h e sam e di r ect i on
A ccel er at i on of b ody A r el at i ve t o B w i l l b e

(
¸
(

¸
+ ÷
÷ = ÷ =
M
M m g F
a a a
k
B A
) ( 

Negat i ve si gn i m p l i es t h at r el at i ve t o B, A w i l l m ove b ackw ar ds an d w i l l f al l i t af t er t i m e

) (
2 2
M m g F
ML
a
L
t
k
+ ÷
= =


( i v) I f t h er e i s f r i ct i on b et w een B an d f l oor : T h e syst em w i l l m ove on l y i f
'
l
F F > t h en r ep l aci n g F b y
l
F F ' ÷ . T he
en t i r e case ( i i i ) w i l l b e val i d.
H ow ever i f
l
F F ' < t h e syst em w i l l n ot m ove an d f r i ct i on b et w een B an d f l oor w i l l b e F w h i l e b et w een A an d B i s zer o.
Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on b od y r est i n g on anot h er
Pr ob l em 19 . A 4 k g b l ock A i s p l aced on t h e t op of a 8 k g b l ock B w hi ch r est s on a sm oot h t ab l e. A j u st sl i ps on B wh en a f or ce of 12 N
i s ap p l i ed on A. Th en t h e m axi m u m hor i zont al f or ce on B t o m ak e bot h A and B m ove t oget h er , i s
( a) 12 N ( b ) 24 N ( c) 36 N ( d ) 4 8 N
Sol u t i on : ( c) M axi m u m f r i ct i on i .e. l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B,
l
F = 12 N.
I f F i s t h e m axi m u m val u e of f or ce ap p l i ed on l ow er b od y su ch t hat bot h b od y m ove t oget h er
I t m ean s Pseu d o f or ce on u p p er b od y i s j u st eq u al t o l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on

l
F F = ' ¬ = |
.
|

\
|
+ M m
F
m 12
8 4
4
= |
.
|

\
|
+
F . 36 N F =
Pr ob l em 2 0 . A b od y A of m ass 1 k g r est s on a sm oot h su r f ace. An ot h er bod y B of m ass 0 .2 k g i s p l aced over A as sh ow n . T h e
coef f i ci en t of st at i c f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B i s 0 .15 . B w i l l b egi n t o sl i d e on A i f A i s p u l l ed w i t h a f or ce gr eat er t h an
( a) 1.76 4 N
( b ) 0 .176 4 N
( c) 0 .3 N
( d ) I t w i l l n ot sl i d e f or an y F
Sol u t i on : ( a) B w i l l b egi n t o sl i d e on A i f Pseu d o f or ce i s m or e t h an l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on

l
F F > ' ¬ R
M m
F
m
s
 > |
.
|

\
|
+
¬ mg
M m
F
m 15 . 0 > |
.
|

\
|
+
N F 764 . 1 >
Pr ob l em 2 1. A b l ock A of m ass 2 k g r est s on anot h er b l ock B of m ass 8 kg w h i ch r est s on a h or i zon t al f l oor . T h e coef f i ci en t of
f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B i s 0 .2, wh i l e t hat b et w een B and f l oor i s 0 .5. W h en a h or i zont al f or ce of 25 N i s ap p l i ed on t h e
b l ock B, t h e f or ce of f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B i s [ I I T - JEE 19 9 3 ]
A
B

A
F
k
m a
A F
K
M a
B
B
F


( a) Zer o ( b ) 3.9 N ( c) 5 .0 N ( d ) 4 9 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) Li m i t i n g f r i ct i on b et w een t h e b l ock B an d t h e su r f ace
R F
BS BS
.  = ( ) g M m + = 5 . 0 10 ) 8 2 ( 5 . 0 + = N 50 =
b u t t h e ap p l i ed f or ce i s 25 N so t h e l ow er b l ock w i l l n ot m ove i .e. t h er e i s n o p seu d o
f or ce on u p p er b l ock A. H en ce t h er e w i l l b e n o f or ce of f r i ct i on b et w een A an d B.
5 .14 M ot i on of an I n sect i n t he Rou gh Bow l.
T h e i n sect cr aw l u p t h e b ow l u p t o a cer t ai n h ei gh t h on l y t i l l t h e com p on en t of i t s w ei gh t al on g t h e b ow l i s b al an ced b y
l i m i t i n g f r i ct i on al f or ce.
Let m = m ass of t h e i n sect , r = r adi u s of t h e b ow l ,  = coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on
f or l i m i t i n g con di t i on at p oi n t A
 cos mg R = ......( i ) an d  sin mg F
l
= ......( i i )
D i vi di n g ( i i ) b y ( i )
  = =
R
F
l
tan | | R F
l
 = As
 =
÷
y
y r
2 2
or
2
1  +
=
r
y
So
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷ = ÷ =
2
1
1
1

r y r h ,
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷ =
2
1
1
1

r h
Pr ob l em 2 2 . An i n sect cr aw l s u p a h em i sp h er i cal su r f ace ver y sl ow l y ( see t he f i gu r e) . T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e i n sect
an d t h e su r f ace i s 1/ 3. I f t h e l i n e j oi n i n g t h e cen t r e of t h e h em i sp h er i cal su r f ace t o t h e i n sect m ak es an an gl e  w i t h t h e
ver t i cal , t h e m axi m u m p ossi b l e val u e of  i s gi ven b y [ I I T - JEE ( Scr een i n g) 2 0 0 1]
( a) 3 cot = 
( b ) 3 tan = 
( c) 3 sec = 
( d ) 3 cosec = 
Sol u t i on : ( a) Fr om t h e ab ove exp r essi on , f or t h e eq u i l i b r i u m   sin and cos mg F mg R = = .
Su b st i t u t i n g t h ese val u e i n R F  = w e get   = tan or 3
1
cot = =

 .
5 .15 M i n i m u m M ass H u n g Fr om t he St r i n g t o Ju st St ar t t h e M ot ion .
( 1) W h en a m ass m
1
p l aced on a r ou gh h or i z on t al p l an e : A n ot h er m ass
2
m h u n g f r om t h e st r i n g con n ect ed b y p u l l ey,
t h e t en si on ( T ) p r odu ced i n st r i n g w i l l t r y t o st ar t t h e m ot i on of m ass
1
m .
A t l i m i t i n g con di t i on

l
F T =
¬ R g m  =
2

¬ g m g m
1 2
 =

1 2
m m  = t h i s i s t h e m i n i m u m val u e of
2
m t o st ar t t h e m ot i on .
N ot e :  I n t h e ab ove con di t i on Coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on
1
2
m
m
= 
( 2) W h en a m ass m
1
p l aced on a r ou gh i n cl i n ed p l an e : A n ot h er m ass
2
m h u n g f r om t h e st r i n g con n ect ed b y p u l l ey, t h e
t en si on ( T ) p r odu ced i n st r i n g w i l l t r y t o st ar t t h e m ot i on of m ass
1
m .
A t l i m i t i n g con di t i on
For g m T m
2 2
= ...... ( i )
For F g m T m + =  sin
1 1
¬ R g m T   + = sin
1

¬    cos sin
1 1
g m g m T + = ......( i i )
Fr om equ at i on ( i ) an d ( i i ) ] cos [sin
1 2
   + = m m
F
l
m g si n 
m g
m g cos
A

R
r
O


y
h
m
2
m
1
T
R
m
1
g
F
1
T
m
2


R
T
m
1
g si n  + F
m
1
g

T
m
2
g
m
1
m
1
g

8 k g
2k g
25 N
A
B
Su r f ace

t h i s i s t h e m i n i m u m val u e of
2
m t o st ar t t h e m ot i on
N ot e :  I n t h e ab ove con di t i on Coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on

(
¸
(

¸

÷ = 

 tan
cos
1
2
m
m


Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on h u n g m ass
Pr ob l em 2 3 . T w o b l ock s of m ass
1
M an d
2
M ar e con n ect ed w i t h a st r i n g p assi n g o ver a p u l l ey as sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e. T h e b l ock
1
M l i es on a h or i zon t al su r f ace. T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e b l ock M
1
an d h or i zon t al su r f ace i s . T h e syst em
accel er at es. W h at add i t i onal m ass m sh ou l d b e p l aced on t h e b l ock
1
M so t h at t h e syst em d oes n ot accel er at e
( a)

1 2
M M ÷

( b )
1
2
M
M
÷


( c)

1
2
M
M ÷
( d )  ) (
1 2
M M ÷
Sol u t i on : ( b) By com p ar i n g t h e gi ven con d i t i on w i t h gen er al exp r essi on

1
2
M m
M
+
=  ¬

2
1
M
M m = + ¬
1
2
M
M
m ÷ =


Pr ob l em 2 4 . T h e coef f i ci en t of k i n et i c f r i ct i on i s 0.0 3 i n t h e d i agr am wh er e m ass kg m 20
2
= and kg m 4
1
= . T h e accel er at i on of
t h e b l ock sh al l b e ) 10 (
2 ÷
= ms g
( a) 1.8
2 ÷
ms
( b ) 0 .8
2 ÷
ms
( c) 1.4
2 ÷
ms
( d ) 0 .4
2 ÷
ms
Sol u t i on : ( c) Let t h e accel er at i on of t h e syst em i s a
Fr om t h e F.B.D . of
2
m
a m F T
2
= ÷ ¬ a m g m T
2 2
= ÷ 
¬ a T 20 10 20 03 . 0 = × × ÷ ¬ a T 20 6 = ÷ .....( i )
Fr om t h e FBD of
1
m
a m T g m
1 1
= ÷
¬ a T 4 10 4 = ÷ × ¬ a T 4 40 = ÷ ....( i i )
Sol vi n g ( i ) and ( i i ) . / 4 . 1
2
s m a =
5 .16 M axi m u m Len gt h of H u n g C hai n .
A u n i f or m ch ai n of l en gt h l i s p l aced on t h e t ab l e i n su ch a m an n er t h at i t s ' l p ar t i s h an gi n g over t h e edge of t ab l e w i t h
ou t sl i di n g. Si n ce t h e ch ai n h ave u n i f or m l i n ear den si t y t h er ef or e t h e r at i o of m ass or r at i o of l en gt h f or an y p ar t of t h e ch ai n
w i l l b e equ al .
W e kn ow
table the on lying mass
table the from hanging mass
1
2
= =
m
m
 [ Fr om ar t i cl e 5.15]
For t h i s exp r essi on w e can r ew r i t e ab ove exp r essi on i n t h e f ol l ow i n g m an n er
M
2
M
1
m

m
1

m
2
20 k g

T

T

4 k g

T F
m
2
m
2
a
T
F
m
1
m
1
g
m
1
a

table the on lying length
table the from hanging length
=  [ As chai n have uni f or m l i n ear densi t y]

l l
l
' ÷
'
= 
b y sol vi n g
) 1 ( +
= '

 l
l
Pr ob l em 2 5 . A h eavy u n i f or m chai n l i es on a h or i zont al t ab l e t op . I f t h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e chai n and t h e t ab l e su r f ace
i s 0 .25 , t h en t h e m axi m u m f r act i on of t h e l en gt h of t h e ch ai n t h at can han g over on e ed ge of t h e t abl e i s
( a) 20 % ( b ) 25% ( c) 35 % ( d ) 15 %
Sol u t i on : ( a) Fr om t h e exp r essi on l l
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
'


l |
.
|

\
|
+
=
1 25 . 0
25 . 0
[ As  = 0 .25 ]
¬ l l
25 . 1
25 . 0
' =
5
l
= = 20 % of t h e l en gt h of t h e ch ai n .

5 .17 C oef f i ci en t of Fr i ct i on Bet w een Body an d W edge .
A b ody sl i des on a sm oot h w edge of an gl e  an d i t s t i m e of descen t i s t .






I f t h e sam e w edge m ade r ou gh t h en t i m e t aken b y i t t o com e dow n b ecom es n t i m es m or e ( i .e. n t )
T h e l en gt h of p at h i n b ot h t h e cases ar e sam e.
For sm oot h w edge

2
2
1
at t u S + =

2
) sin (
2
1
t g S  = .....( i )
and 0 As [ = u ] sin g a =
For r ou gh w edge
2
2
1
at t u S + =
2
) ( ) cos (sin
2
1
nt g S    ÷ = .....( i i )
)] cos (sin and 0 As [    ÷ = = g a u
Fr om equ at i on ( i ) an d ( i i )
2
) sin (
2
1
t g  =
2
) ( ) cos (sin
2
1
nt g    ÷
¬
2
) cos (sin sin n     ÷ =
¬
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
2
1
1 tan
n
 
Pr ob l em 2 6 . A b od y t ak es j u st t w i ce t h e t i m e as l on g t o sl i d e d ow n a p l an e i n cl i n ed at 30
o
t o t h e hor i zon t al as i f t h e p l an e w er e
f r i ct i on l ess. T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een t h e b od y an d t h e p l an e i s [ JI PM ER 19 9 9 ]
( a)
4
3
( b ) 3 ( c)
3
4
( d )
4
3

Sol u t i on : ( a) |
.
|

\
|
÷ = |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2 2
2
1
1 30 tan
1
1 tan
n
 
4
3
= .

5 .18 St op p i n g of Bl ock D u e t o Fr i ct i on .
( 1) O n h or i z on t al r oad
( i ) D i st an ce t r avel l ed b ef or e com i n g t o r est : A b l ock of m ass m i s m ovi n g i n i t i al l y w i t h vel oci t y u on a r ou gh su r f ace an d
du e t o f r i ct i on i t com es t o r est af t er cover i n g a di st an ce S.
Ret ar di n g f or ce R ma F  = =

S
Sm oot h w edge

S
Rou gh w edge
v = 0
S
u
l 
( l – l  )

¬ mg ma  =
g a  = .
Fr om aS u v 2
2 2
÷ = ¬ S g u  2 0
2
÷ = ] , 0 [As g a v  = =

g
u
S
 2
2
=
or
g m
P
S
2
2
2
= [ A s m om en t u m P = m u ]
( i i ) T i m e t aken t o com e t o r est
Fr om equ at i on t a u v ÷ = ¬ t g u  ÷ = 0 ] , 0 As [ g a v  = =

g
u
t

=
( i i i ) For ce of f r i ct i on act i n g on t h e b od y
W e kn ow , F = m a
So,
t
u v
m F
) ( ÷
=

t
mu
F = [ A s v = 0 ]
mg F  =
(
¸
(

¸

=
g
u
t

As
( 2) O n i n cl i n ed r oad : W h en b l ock st ar t s w i t h vel oci t y u i t s ki n et i c en er gy w i l l b e con ver t ed i n t o p ot en t i al en er gy an d
som e p ar t of i t goes agai n st f r i ct i on an d af t er t r avel l i n g di st an ce S i t com es t o r est i .e. v = 0 .
A n d w e kn ow t h at r et ar dat i on ] cos [sin    + = g a
By su b st i t u t i n g t h e val u e of v an d a i n t h e f ol l ow i n g equ at i on
S a u v 2
2 2
÷ =
¬ S g u ] cos [sin 2 0
2
   + ÷ =

) cos (sin 2
2
   +
=
g
u
S
Sam p l e p r ob l em s b ased on m ot i on of b ody on r ou gh su r f ace
Pr ob l em 2 7 . A m ar b l e b l ock of m ass 2 k g l yi n g on i ce w h en gi ven a vel oci t y of 6 m / s i s st op p ed b y f r i ct i on i n 10 s. T h en t h e
coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on i s [ AI EEE 2 0 0 3 ]
( a) 0 .0 1 ( b ) 0 .02 ( c) 0 .0 3 ( d ) 0 .0 6
Sol u t i on : ( d) at u v ÷ = 0 = ÷ = t g u 
06 . 0
10 10
6
=
×
= =
gt
u
 .
Pr ob l em 2 8 . A 2 k g m ass st ar t s f r om r est on an i n cl i n ed sm oot h su r f ace w i t h i n cl i n at i on 30
o
an d l en gt h 2 m . H ow m u ch w i l l i t t r avel
b ef or e com i n g t o r est on a su r f ace w i t h coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on 0 .25 [ U PSE AT 2 0 0 3 ]
( a) 4 m ( b ) 6 m ( c) 8 m ( d ) 2 m
Sol u t i on : ( a) aS u v 2
2 2
+ = 2 30 sin 2 0 × × + = g
20 = v
Let i t t r avel d i st an ce ‘ S’ b ef or e com i n g t o r est
. 4
10 25 . 0 2
20
2
2
m
g
v
S =
× ×
= =


u
v = 0
S


5 .19 St op p i n g of T w o Bl ocks D u e t o Fr i ct i on .
W h en t w o m asses com p r essed t ow ar ds each ot h er an d su dden l y r el eased t h en en er gy acqu i r ed b y each bl ock w i l l b e
di ssi p at ed agai n st f r i ct i on an d f i n al l y b l ock com es t o r est
i .e., F × S = E [ W h er e F = Fr i ct i on , S = D i st an ce cover ed b y b l ock, E = I n i t i al k i n et i c en er gy of t h e b l ock]
¬
m
P
S F
2
2
= × [ W h er e P = m om en t u m of b l ock]
¬
m
P
S mg
2
2
= ×  [ A s F =  m g]
¬
g m
P
S
2
2
2
=
I n a gi ven con d i t i on P an d  ar e sam e f or b ot h t h e b l ocks.
So
2
1
m
S ·
2
1
2
2
1
(
¸
(

¸

=
m
m
S
S

5 .2 0 V el oci t y at t h e Bot t om of Rou gh W edge.
A b ody of m ass m w h i ch i s p l aced at t h e t op of t h e w edge ( of h ei gh t h ) st ar t s m ovi n g dow n w ar d on a r ou gh i n cl i n ed
p l an e.
Loss of en er gy du e t o f r i ct i on = FL ( W or k agai n st f r i ct i on )
PE at p oi n t A = m gh
KE at p oi n t B =
2
2
1
mv
By t h e l aw of con ser vat i on of en er gy
i .e. FL mgh mv ÷ =
2
2
1

) (
2
FL mgh
m
v ÷ =
5 .2 1 St i ck i n g of a Bl ock W i t h A cceler at ed C ar t .
W h en a car t m oves w i t h som e accel er at i on t ow ar d r i gh t t h en a p seu do f or ce ( m a) act s on b l ock t ow ar d l ef t .
T h i s f or ce ( m a) i s act i on f or ce b y a b l ock on car t .
Now b l ock w i l l r em ai n st at i c w .r .t . b l ock. I f f r i ct i on f or ce mg R > 
¬ mg ma >  ] As [ ma R =
¬

g
a >


g
a =
min

T h i s i s t h e m i n i m u m accel er at i on of t h e car t so t h at b l ock does n ot f al l .
an d t h e m i n i m u m f or ce t o h ol d t h e b l ock t oget h er

min min
) ( a m M F + =


g
m M F ) (
min
+ =
5 .2 2 St i cki n g of a Per son W i t h t h e W all of Rot or .
m
1
A

m
1
B

m
2
m
2
S
1
S
2

M
a
F
CART
m
F
m g
m R m a
u = 0
L
m
m
B
A
v
h

A p er son w i t h a m ass m st an ds i n con t act agai n st t h e w al l of a cyl i n dr i cal dr u m ( r ot or ) . T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on
b et w een t h e w al l an d t h e cl ot h i n g i s .
I f Rot or st ar t s r ot at i n g ab ou t i t s axi s, t h en p er son t h r ow n aw ay f r om t h e cen t r e du e t o cen t r i f u gal f or ce at a p ar t i cu l ar
sp eed w , t h e p er son st u ck t o t h e w al l even t h e f l oor i s r em oved, b ecau se f r i ct i on f or ce b al an ces i t s w ei gh t i n t h i s con di t i on .
Fr om t h e f i gu r e.
Fr i ct i on f or ce ( F) = w ei gh t of p er son ( m g)
¬ R = m g
¬ mg F
c
=  [ H er e, F
c
= cen t r i f u gal f or ce]
¬ mg r m =
2
min
 

r
g

 =
min

Sam p l e p r ob l em s ( M i scel l an eou s)
Pr ob l em 2 9 . A m ot or cycl e i s t r avel l i n g on a cu r ved t r ack of r ad i u s 500 m i f t h e coef f i ci ent of f r i ct i on b et w een r oad and t yr es i s 0.5 . Th e
sp eed avoi di n g sk i ddi n g w i l l be [ M H C ET ( M ed.) 2 0 0 1]
( a) 5 0 m / s ( b ) 75 m / s ( c) 25 m / s ( d ) 35 m / s
Sol u t i on : ( a) . / 50 10 500 5 . 0 s m rg v = × × = = 
Pr ob l em 3 0 . A h or i zon t al f or ce of 10 N i s n ecessar y t o j u st h ol d a b l ock st at i on ar y agai n st a w al l . T h e coef f i ci en t of f r i ct i on b et w een
t h e b l ock an d t h e w al l i s 0 .2. T h e w ei gh t of t h e b l ock i s [ AI EEE 2 0 0 3 ]
( a) 2 N
( b ) 20 N
( c) 5 0 N
( d ) 10 0 N
Sol u t i on : ( a) For eq u i l i b r i u m
W ei gh t ( W ) = For ce of f r i ct i on ( F)
10 2 . 0 × = = R W  = 2N

Pr ob l em 3 1. A b od y of m ass 2 k g i s k ep t b y p r essi n g t o a ver t i cal w al l b y a f or ce of 10 0 N. T h e f r i ct i on b et w een w al l an d b ody i s 0 .3.
T h en t h e f r i ct i on al f or ce i s eq u al t o [ O r i ssa JEE 2 0 0 3 ]
( a) 6 N ( b ) 20 N ( c) 6 0 0 N ( d ) 70 0 N
Sol u t i on : ( b) For t h e gi ven con d i t i on St at i c f r i ct i on = Ap p l i ed f or ce = W ei gh t of bod y = 2 × 10 = 20 N.
Pr ob l em 3 2 . A f i r em an o f m ass 6 0 k g sl i d es d o w n a p o l e. H e i s p r essi n g t h e p o l e w i t h a f o r ce o f 6 0 0 N . T h e co ef f i ci en t o f
f r i ct i o n b et w een t h e h an d s an d t h e p o l e i s 0 .5 , w i t h w h at ac cel er at i o n w i l l t h e f i r em an sl i d e d o w n ( g = 10 m / s
2
)
( a) 1 m / s
2
( b ) 2.5 m / s
2
( c) 10 m / s
2
( d ) 5 m / s
2

Sol u t i on : ( d) Fr i ct i on = R = 0 .5 × 6 00 = 300 N, W ei gh t = 6 00 N
m a = W – F ¬
60
300 600 ÷
=
÷
=
m
F W
a

2
/ 5 s m a =

Pr ob l em 3 3 . T h e syst em sh ow n i n t h e f i gu r e i s i n eq u i l i b r i u m . T h e m axi m u m val u e of W , so t hat t h e m axi m u m val u e of st at i c
f r i ct i on al f or ce on 10 0 k g. b od y i s 4 50 N, w i l l b e
( a) 10 0 N
F
C
R
F

m g

W
4 5
o
10 0 k g

10 N
10 N
F
R
W
6 0 0 N
F
R
W

( b ) 250 N


( c) 4 5 0 N
( d ) 10 0 0 N
Sol u t i on : ( c) For ver t i cal eq u i l i b r i u m W T
o
= 45 sin
1

o
W
T
45 sin
1
=
For h or i zont al eq u i l i b r i u m
o
T T 45 cos
1 2
=
o
o
W
45 cos
45 sin
= = W
an d f or t h e cr i t i cal con d i t i on T
2
= F
W = T
2
= F = 4 50 N

W
T
1
4 5
o

T
1
cos 4 5
o
T
2

F
T
1
si n 4 5
o

 Rolling friction is often quite small as compared to the sliding friction. (b) Rolling friction : When objects such as a wheel (disc or ring). It is a general misconception that friction always opposes the motion.  Rolling friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction (R) and inversely proportional to the radius (r) of the rolling cylinder or wheel. Its value increases linearly with the applied force (2) At point A the static friction is maximum.3 Graph Between Applied Force and Force of Friction. (iv) Types of kinetic friction (a) Sliding friction : The opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually sliding over the surface of the other body is called sliding friction.] While pedalling Pedalling is stoped . For example : (1) In moving. If there had been no friction there will be slipping and no motion. Friction  Action (2) In cycling. It would have the dimensions of length and would be measured in metre. This represent limiting friction (3) Beyond A.g. (4) As the portion BC of the curve is parallel to x-axis therefore kinetic friction does not change with the applied force. That is why heavy loads are transported by placing them on carts with wheels. irregularities of one surface have little time to get locked again into the irregularities of the other surface. A flat block is moving over a horizontal table. 5.  In rolling the surfaces at contact do not rub each other. The portion BC of the curve therefore represents the kinetic friction (Fk ) . the rear wheel moves by the force communicated to it by pedalling while front wheel moves by itself. e. when pedalling a bicycle. So. sphere or a cylinder rolls over a surface. the force of friction is seen to decrease slightly. (1) Part OA of the curve represents static friction (Fs ) . A B Fs Fl Fk C O Applied force 5. No doubt friction opposes the motion of a moving body but in many cases it is also the cause of motion. if pedalling is stopped both wheels move by themselves and so experience force of friction in backward direction. the force exerted by rear wheel on ground makes force of friction act on it in the forward direction (like walking). Force of friction (Fl ) . Front wheel moving by itself experience force of friction in backward direction (like rolling of a ball). a person or vehicle pushes the ground backwards (action) and the rough surface of ground reacts and exerts a forward force due to friction which causes the motion. whatever be the applied force.Also when motion has actually started. Frolling   r R r  r is called coefficient of rolling friction.  The velocity of point of contact with respect to the surface remains zero all the times although the centre of the wheel moves forward. it remains constant.4 Friction is a Cause of Motion. [However. the force of friction comes into play is called rolling friction.

Here the magnitude of pseudo force is less than limiting friction So. The minimum required force F to start moving B will be [RPET 1999] (a) 900 N (b) 100 N (c) 1100 N (d) 1200 N A B F Solution : (c) Two frictional force will work on block B. Problem 3. for the given condition static friction will work. Sample problems based on fundamentals of friction Problem 1. Solution : (a) Limiting friction   s R   smg  0 .88 N (d) 8 N Problem 2. If a force F of 2. So.6). stopped or transferred from one body to the other.84 N As applied force is less than limiting friction. the frictional force between the block and the floor will be [MP PET 2000] (a) 2.4 × 2 × 9.8 = 7. If a ladder weighing 250N is placed against a smooth vertical wall having coefficient of friction between it and floor is 0.e.5 N and limiting friction = mg = 0. 3  250  75 N On the horizontal surface of a truck ( = 0. the body will remain at rest in the accelerating vehicle until ma   s mg ).3.3 (300) × 10 = 200 + 900 = 1100N.8  5 . static friction = Applied force = 5N.5 N (b) 5 N (c) 7.(3) If a body is placed in a vehicle which is accelerating. The coefficient of static friction is 0.88 N When truck accelerates in forward direction at the rate of 5 m / s 2 a pseudo force (ma ) of 5N works on block in back ward direction.. a smg ma From these examples it is clear that without friction motion cannot be started. a block of mass 1 kg is placed. If there had been no friction between body and vehicle the body will not move along with the vehicle. The coefficient of friction between A and B is 0.5 N. (This is the required minimum force) fAB fB A B Groun F .84 N (d) 10 N F Solution : (a) Applied force = 2. Problem 4. If the truck is accelerating at the rate of 5m/sec2 then frictional force on the block will be [CBSE PMT 2001] (a) 5 N (b) 6 N (c) 5. A block A with mass 100 kg is resting on another block B of mass 200 kg. A block of mass 2 kg is kept on the floor. As shown in figure a horizontal rope tied to a wall holds it.3. then what is the maximum force of friction available at the point of contact between the ladder and the floor (a) 75 N Solution : (a) (b) 50 N (c) 35 N (d) 25 N Maximum force of friction Fl   s R  0 . Static friction on a body = Applied force = 2.5 N is applied on the block as shown in the figure.2 while coefficient of friction between B and the ground is 0. static friction works in between the block and the surface of the truck and as we know. F  f AB  f BG   AB m a g   BG (m A  m B )g = 0.2 × 100 × 10 + 0. the force of friction is the cause of motion of the body along with the vehicle (i.4.6  1  9 .

(2) Disadvantages of friction (i) Friction always opposes the relative motion between any two bodies in contact. (iv) Writing is not possible without friction. A horizontal force of 75 N is required to set the block in motion. This reduces the efficiency of machine.52 (d) 0. which causes damage to the machinery.Problem 5. What will be the force of friction (a)  Mg (b)  Mg/2 (c) 2 Mg (d) None of these Solution : (d) When the lift moves down ward with acceleration 'a' then effective acceleration due to gravity g' = g – a  g'  g  g  0 [As the lift falls freely. (4) By streamlining the shape of the body. 5. A block of mass M is placed on a rough floor of a lift.60 Solution : (a) Coefficient of static friction  S  Problem 6.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Friction. R 20  9 .8 (c) 0. The coefficient of friction between the block and the floor is . When the lift falls freely. (ii) Two body sticks together due to friction. a horizontal force of 60 N is required to keep the block moving with constant speed. (iii) Brake works on the basis of friction. Thus their lifetime reduces. Also we can increase friction by throwing some sand on slippery ground.7 Angle of Friction. 38 . (2) By lubrication.6 Methods of Changing Friction. (v) The transfer of motion from one part of a machine to other part through belts is possible by friction. We can reduce friction (1) By polishing.38 (b) 0. Therefore extra energy has to be spent in over coming friction. (5) By using ball bearing. By definition angle  is called the angle of friction F tan   R  tan  =  F [As we know  ] R S F R  P mg . (1) Advantages of friction (i) Walking is possible due to friction. The coefficient of static friction is [AMU 1999] (a) 0. (3) By proper selection of material. (iii) Frictional force result in the production of heat. 5. A 20 kg block is initially at rest on a rough horizontal surface. Angle of friction may be defined as the angle which the resultant of limiting friction and normal reaction makes with the normal reaction. (ii) Friction causes wear and tear of the parts of machinery in contact. synthetic rubber is preferred because its coefficient of friction with the road is larger. After it is in motion.44 Fl 75   0 . so a = g] So force of friction  mg '  0 5. the block is pulled horizontally on the floor. In the manufacturing of tyres.

In the above figure resultant force S  F 2  R 2 S  (mg ) 2  (mg ) 2 S  mg  2  1 when there is no friction (  0 ) S will be minimum i.8 Resultant Force Exerted by Surface on Block. mg  S  mg  2  1 5.e. Then the coefficient of friction is (assume g = 10 m/s2) [JIPMER 2002] (a) 1 / 3 (b) 2 / 3 Here the given angle is called the angle of repose So.9 Angle of Repose. In limiting condition F  mg sin  and So  R F R  mg cos  F  tan  R mg sin    mg mg cos  F F    tan   tan  [As we know    tan  ] R R Thus the coefficient of limiting friction is equal to the tangent of angle of repose.  = angle of friction.e. A body starting from the rest at top comes back to rest at the bottom if the coefficient of friction for the lower half is given (a)  = sin  (b)  = cot  (c)  = 2 cos  (d)  = 2 tan  For upper half by the equation of motion v 2  u 2  2 as v 2  0 2  2(g sin  )l / 2  gl sin  [As u  0. angle of repose = angle of friction. If W = weight of the body. s  l / 2. Angle of repose is defined as the angle of the inclined plane with horizontal such that a body placed on it is just begins to slide. A body of 5 kg weight kept on a rough inclined plane of angle 30o starts sliding with a constant velocity.   tan 30 o  1 3 (c) 3 (d) 2 3 Solution : (a) Problem 8.or   tan 1 ( ) Hence coefficient of limiting friction is equal to tangent of the angle of friction..10 Calculation of Necessary Force in Different Conditions. Sample problems based on angle of friction and angle of repose Problem 7. s  l / 2. a  g sin  ] Smooth Rough Solution : (d) For lower half 0  u  2 g(sin    cos  ) l /2 [As v  0. The upper half of an inclined plane of inclination  is perfectly smooth while the lower half is rough. a  g (sin    cos  ) ] 2  0  gl sin   gl(sin    cos  ) [As final velocity of upper half will be equal to the initial velocity of lower half]  2 sin    cos     2 tan  5.   tan   coefficient of friction then we can calculate necessary force for different condition in the following manner : (1) Minimum pulling force P at an angle  from the horizontal  P . 5. As well as    i. S = mg Hence the range of S can be given by. By definition  is called the angle of repose.

By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure) For the condition of equilibrium F  P cos  and R  W  P sin  R P sin F P cos By substituting these value in F  R P cos    (W  P sin  )  sin  P cos   (W  P sin  ) [As   tan  ] cos  W  W sin  P cos (   ) (2) Minimum pushing force P at an angle  from the horizontal By Resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in the figure) For the condition of equilibrium F  P cos  P  and R  W  P sin  By substituting these value in F  R   P cos    (W  P sin  ) P cos   sin  (W  P sin  ) [As   tan  ] cos  F R P cos  W sin  P cos (   ) P sin W (3) Minimum pulling force P to move the body up an inclined plane By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) For the condition of equilibrium R  P sin   W cos   F + W sin  P R + P sin P cos  and  R  W cos   P sin  F  W sin   P cos  F  P cos   W sin    W cos By substituting these values in F  R and solving we get P W sin (   ) cos (   ) (4) Minimum force on body in downward direction along the surface of inclined plane to start its motion By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) For the condition of equilibrium R  P sin   W cos  P R + P sin F P cos + W sin  and R  W cos   P sin  F  P cos   W sin   By substituting these values in F  R and    W W cos .

e.(ii) F R + P sin P cos Substituting value of R from (i) in (ii)  mg cos    sin  ….(iii) mg For the force P to be minimum (cos    sin  ) must be maximum i. By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure) For vertical equilibrium P R  P sin   mg   R  mg  P sin  ….solving we get P W sin(   ) cos (   ) (5) Minimum force to avoid sliding a body down an inclined plane By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure) For the condition of equilibrium R  P sin   W cos  P R + P sin F + P cos   and  R  W cos   P sin  P cos   F  W sin  F  W sin   P cos   W sin   W W cos By substituting these values in F  R and solving we get  sin (   )  P W    cos (   )  (6) Minimum force for motion and its direction Let the force P be applied at an angle  with the horizontal.e. For minimum value of P its angle from the horizontal should be equal to angle of friction As tan    so from the figure sin   By substituting these value in equation (iii) P and cos   1 1 2 1 2   mg 1 1 2   2   mg 1 2  1 1 2  Pmin  mg 1 2 .(i) and for horizontal motion P cos   F i. d [cos    sin  ]  0   sin    cos   0 d  or tan      tan 1 ( )  angle of friction  1 2 i. P cos   R P cos    (mg  P sin  ) P ….e.

the body placed on the inclined plane slides down with an acceleration a. From the figure   ma  mg sin   F ma  mg sin   R ma  mg sin    mg cos  R ma F mg sin    mg mg cos  Acceleration a  g [sin    cos  ] Note :  For frictionless inclined plane   0  a  g sin  . 1 2 3  3 g  F sin 60  W+F sin 60° Problem 10. Let a is the net acceleration of the body From the figure Fk R ma P ma  P  Fk  a P  Fk m mg (2) Acceleration of a block down a rough inclined plane When angle of inclined plane is more than angle of repose. In which of the following cases the block can be pulled along the surface (a) tan    mg = F (b) cot    m  (c) tan  / 2   (d) cot  / 2   Solution : (d) For pulling of block P  f  mg sin   R  mg sin    (mg  mg cos  )  sin    (1  cos  )  2 sin f R+mg cos mg sin  =p       cos    2 sin 2   cot     2 2 2  2 mg 5. then kinetic friction opposes its motion. A block of mass m rests on a rough horizontal surface as shown in the figure. does not move ( 1/2 3 ) (a) (b) (c) (d) Solution : (a) 20 N 10 N 12 N 15 N F 60 o [IIT-JEE (Screening) 2003] m = 3kg Frictional force f  R  F cos 60  (W  F sin 60 ) f R F cos 60°  F cos 60   F  20 N . Coefficient of friction between the block and the surface is . (1) Acceleration of a block on horizontal surface When body is moving under application of force P. . A force F = mg acting at angle  with the vertical side of the block pulls it.11 Acceleration of a Block Against Friction.Sample problems based on force against friction Problem 9. What is the maximum value of the force F such that the block shown in the arrangement.

6 and 0. the acceleration of the body will be (Acceleration due to gravity = g) [EAMCET 2001] (a) g 6 .5 sec. A body of weight 64 N is pushed with just enough force to start it moving across a horizontal floor and the same force continues to act afterwards.4  0.5 (b) 1. 6 g Problem 14. stops after 0.4 (b) 0.2 g Solution : (d) Limiting friction = Fl   s R  64 = 0.2g 64 Mass of the body m 0.4 N (c) 9.5.5 cos 30 )  91 .5. then for the upward motion ma  mg sin   F R ma ma  mg sin    mg cos  Retardation a  g [sin    cos  ] mg sin  + F Note :  For frictionless inclined plane   0  a  g sin    mg mg cos Sample problems based on acceleration against friction Problem 11. we get   0 .(3) Retardation of a block up a rough inclined plane When angle of inclined plane is less than angle of repose. Solution : (c) If a block moving up at   30 o with a velocity 5 m/s.14 N (d) 0. 6 Acceleration = = = = 0. A body of mass 10 kg is lying on a rough plane inclined at an angle of 30o to the horizontal and the coefficient of friction is 0. then acceleration of the block will be [AIIMS 2002] (a) 0.6 (d) None of these From v  u  at  0  u  at  t  for upward motion on an inclined plane a  g(sin    cos  ) Substituting the value of   30 o .5 sec and u  5m / s .914 N F  mg (sin    cos  )  10  9.5  10  10  = 5m/s2. Solution : (b) a Applied force – kinetic friction 100  0 . 6 5. mass 10 Problem 13. (1) Work done over a rough inclined surface If a body of mass m is moved up on a rough inclined plane through distance s.12 Work Done Against Friction. If a horizontal force of 100 N is acting on it. If the coefficients of static and dynamic friction are 0. 0 .25 u a t  u g(sin    cos  ) [CPMT 1995] (c) 0.6 m g  m = 64 Applied force – Kinetic friction 64   K mg 64  0 . t  0 .64 g (c) 64 .4 respectively. then Work done = force  distance = ma  s = mg [sin +  cos ]s  mg s [sin    cos  ] mg sin  + F R ma s   mg mg cos .4 N A block of mass 10 kg is placed on a rough horizontal surface having coefficient of friction  = 0.5 m/s2 (b) 5 m/s2 (c) 10 m/s2 (d) 15 m/s2 Problem 12. then what is  (a) 0. 8 (sin 30  0 . The minimum force required to pull the body up the plane is [JIPMER 2000] (a) 914 N Solution : (b) (b) 91.6 g g 32 (d) 0.

When a body A of mass m is resting on a body B of mass M then two conditions are possible (1) A force F is applied to the upper body.2.2 × 5 × 10 ×10 = 250 – 100 = 150 J. (c) 2. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0. then work done against friction is [CBSE PMT 1999. The kinetic energy acquired by it is (g = 10 ms2) [EAMCET (Med. The body is pulled through a distance of 10m by a horizontal force of 25 N. A body of mass 5kg rests on a rough horizontal surface of coefficient of friction 0. (2) A force F is applied to the lower body We will discuss above two cases one by one in the following manner : (1) A force F is applied to the upper body.(2) Work done over a horizontal surface In the above expression if we put  = 0 then Work done = force  distance =Fs =  mg s It is clear that work done depends upon (i) Weight of the body. (ii) Material and nature of surface in contact. 2 Solution : (a) Problem 17.45J (d) 1.8  1  98 J .13 Motion of Two Bodies One Resting on the Other. aA  F / m (b) The body B will remain at rest aB  0 (c) If L is the length of B as shown in figure A will fall from B after time t 2L 2mL 1 2     As s  2 a t and a  F/m  a F   (ii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is less than limiting friction (F < Fl) t m A B F L M . work done against friction is [MP PMT 2002] (a) 100 J (b) 200 J (c) 300 J (d) Zero Work done against gravity = mgh = 2 × 10 × 10 = 200J Work done against friction = Total work done – Work done against gravity = 300 – 200 = 100J./Med. mg s F R P Sample problems based on work done against friction Problem 15. AIIMS 2000.5 and length of the plane is 1 m. 300 Joule of work is done in sliding a 2 kg. If the coefficient of friction between their surfaces is 0.8 m/s2) [AFMC 2000. 8  Problem 18.S  0 . Taking value of acceleration due to gravity ‘g’ to be 10 m/s2. BHU 2001] (a) 98 J (b) 72J (c) 56 J (d) 34 J Solution : (a) W  mgS  0.94 J 1 = 2. A block of mass 1 kg slides down on a rough inclined plane of inclination 60 o starting from its top. A block of mass 50 kg slides over a horizontal distance of 1 m.) 2001] (a) 9. block up an inclined plane to a height of 10 meters. then following four situations are possible (i) When there is no friction (a) The body A will move on body B with acceleration (F/m). 2000.5  1  9 . KCET (Engg. 5.2.) 2000] (a) 330 J Solution : (b) (b) 150 J (c) 100 J (d) 50 J Kinetic energy acquired by body = Total work done on the body – Work done against friction = F  S  mgS = 25 × 10 – 0. (iii) Distance moved. then work done against friction is (Take g = 9.45 J.82 J (b) 4. 2  50  9 .96 J Solution : (c) W  mg cos  . Problem 16.

friction force = applied force (= Fk) not Fl .e. aA  aA F  Fk m Fk Free body diagram of A maA Fk  M a B i. (2) A force F is applied to the lower body. Fk = Kinetic friction between A and B) (a) The body A will not slide on body B till F  Fl i. F  Fk  m a A i. of applied force) but with different acceleration.  t 2L  a 2 ML F (ii) If friction is present between A and B only and F < Fl (where F = Pseudo force on body A and Fl = limiting friction between body A and B) (a) Both the body will move together with common acceleration a  (b) Pseudo force on the body A.(F = Applied force on the upper body.e.e. Fk = kinetic friction between A and B) B will move only if Fk  Fl and then Fk  Fl  M a B However if B does not move then static friction will work (not limiting friction) between body B and the floor i. (c) F   Fl  F   ma  F M m mF and Fl   s mg mM mF   s mg  F   s (m  M ) g mM . M m F MaB FK B Fl A L B  F a B    and a A  0 M (b) As relative to B. A will fall from B after time t  2L  a MF   k mg (m  M ) mM 2 m ML MF   k mg (m  M ) (iv) If there is friction between B and floor (where Fl    (M  m ) g = limiting friction between B and floor. A will move backwards with acceleration (F/M) and so will fall from it in time t.e. F   s mg F M m (iii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is greater than limiting friction (F > Fl) (b) Combined system (m + M) will move together with common acceleration a A  a B  In this condition the two bodies will move in the same direction (i. F Free body diagram of B MaB FK aB  A Fk M B (F   k mg )  m   mg aB  k M Note :  As both the bodies are moving in the same direction. Acceleration of body A relative to B will be a  a A  a B  So. then following four situations are possible (i) When there is no friction (a) B will move with acceleration (F/M) while A will remain at rest (relative to ground) as there is no pulling force on A. Here force of kinetic friction  k mg will oppose the motion of A while will cause the motion of B. Fl = limiting friction between A and B.e.

e.So both bodies will move together with acceleration a A  a B  (iii) If friction is present between A and B only and F > Fl F if F   s [m  M ] g mM (where Fl = s (m + M)g = limiting friction between body B and surface) Both the body will move with different acceleration. limiting friction between A and B.2. When a horizontal force of 25 N is applied on the block B.2 kg is placed over A as shown. A body A of mass 1 kg rests on a smooth surface. while that between B and floor is 0. If F is the maximum value of force applied on lower body such that both body move together It means Pseudo force on upper body is just equal to limiting friction  F   4  F '  Fl  m    F  12  F  36 N .764 N (b) 0.5. However if F  Fl the system will not move and friction between B and floor will be F while between A and B is zero. [F   k mg ] aB  M FK Free body diagram of B MaB F B Note :  As both the bodies are moving in the same direction Acceleration of body A relative to B will be  F   k g(m  M )  a  a A  a B    M   Negative sign implies that relative to B. a A   k g Free body diagram of A A maA Fk F  Fk  Ma B i. Here force of kinetic friction  k mg will oppose the motion of B while will cause the motion of A. Then the maximum horizontal force on B to make both A and B move together. A block A of mass 2 kg rests on another block B of mass 8 kg which rests on a horizontal floor. The coefficient of static friction between A and B is 0.e. ma A  k mg i.e.15 mg F  1 . The coefficient of friction between A and B is 0. m M  4 8  Problem 20. Fl = 12 N. A will move backwards and will fall it after time t 2L  a 2 ML F   k g(m  M ) (iv) If there is friction between B and floor : The system will move only if F  Fl' then replacing F by F  Fl . B will begin to slide on A if A is pulled with a force greater than (a) 1. The entire case (iii) will be valid. A just slips on B when a force of 12 N is applied on A. 764 N m  M  m M  Problem 21. Another body B of mass 0. the force of friction between A and B is [IIT-JEE 1993] . Sample problems based on body resting on another Problem 19. is (a) 12 N Solution : (c) (b) 24 N (c) 36 N (d) 48 N Maximum friction i. A 4 kg block A is placed on the top of a 8 kg block B which rests on a smooth table.15.1764 N (c) 0.3 N (d) It will not slide for any F B A Solution : (a) B will begin to slide on A if Pseudo force is more than limiting friction  F   F  F '  Fl  m    s R  m    0 .

15 Minimum Mass Hung From the String to Just Start the Motion. Hence there will be no force of friction between A and B..  5.(a) Zero Solution : (a) (b) 3.0 N (d) 49 N A B 2kg 8kg Surface 25 N Limiting friction between the block B and the surface FBS   BS . At limiting condition For m 2 For m 1  T  m2g T  m 1 g sin   F  . The insect crawl up the bowl up to a certain height h only till the component of its weight along the bowl is balanced by limiting frictional force.....9 N (c) 5..  h  r 1    1 2   Problem 22. Let m = mass of the insect. the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of mass m 1 . there is no pseudo force on upper block A. The coefficient of friction between the insect and the surface is 1/3. the maximum possible value of  is given by [IIT-JEE (Screening) 2001] (a) cot   3 (b) tan   3 (c) sec   3 (d) cosec   3  Solution : (a) From the above expression. Note (2) When a mass m1 placed on a rough inclined plane : Another mass m 2 hung from the string connected by pulley. (1) When a mass m1 placed on a rough horizontal plane : Another mass m 2 hung from the string connected by pulley.(i) Dividing (ii) by (i) F tan   l   R  r y y 2 2 and Fl  mg sin   R  r 1  2     .e..5 (2  8 )10  50 N but the applied force is 25 N so the lower block will not move i. the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of mass m 1 .... An insect crawls up a hemispherical surface very slowly (see the figure)....(ii) r As Fl y O  y Fl A R  or mg sin h mg cos mg  1 So h  r  y  r 1   1 2    1  .  = coefficient of friction for limiting condition at point A R  mg cos  . 5 m  M  g  0 .14 Motion of an Insect in the Rough Bowl. 5.R  0 ... At limiting condition T  Fl   R F1 m1 T m 2 g  R m 2 g   m1 g m :  In the above condition Coefficient of friction   2 m1 m1g T m2  m 2  m 1 this is the minimum value of m 2 to start the motion. If the line joining the centre of the hemispherical surface to the insect makes an angle  with the vertical..(ii) m1g sin  + F  m1 T  m 1 g sin   m 1 g cos  From equation (i) and (ii) m 2  m 1 [sin    cos  ] m1g . for the equilibrium R  mg cos  and F  mg sin  ... Substituting these value in F  R we get tan    or cot   1  3. r = radius of the bowl.. (i) R T T m2 m1g  m2g T  m 1 g sin   R ..

of m 2 T  F  m 2 a  T  m 2 g  m 2 a  T  0.4 ms 2 (d) 0.8 ms 2 (c) 1.(ii) F m1g 5.. 2 m 1 4 kg m2a F m2 T . The block M1 lies on a horizontal surface.. The coefficient of friction between the block M1 and horizontal surface is .03 in the diagram where mass m 2  20 kg and m1  4 kg ..16 Maximum Length of Hung Chain ..8 ms 2 T (b) 0. We know   m 2 mass hanging from the table  m1 mass lying on the table [From article 5..4 ms 2 Solution : (c) Let the acceleration of the system is a From the F.B.15]  For this expression we can rewrite above expression in the following manner . 03  20  10  20 a  T  6  20 a From the FBD of m1 m 1 g  T  m 1a  4  10  T  4 a  40  T  4 a Solving (i) and (ii) a  1. Since the chain have uniform linear density therefore the ratio of mass or ratio of length for any part of the chain will be equal. The acceleration of the block shall be (g  10 ms 2 ) 20 kg m2 T (a) 1. A uniform chain of length l is placed on the table in such a manner that its l' part is hanging over the edge of table with out sliding. What additional mass m should be placed on the block M1 so that the system does not accelerate (a) (b) M 2  M1  M2  M1  M1  m M1 (c) M 2  M2 (d) (M 2  M1 ) Solution : (b) By comparing the given condition with general expression  M2 M M  m  M1  2  m  2  M1 m  M1   Problem 24. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.D. 4 m / s . Two blocks of mass M1 and M 2 are connected with a string passing over a pulley as shown in the figure.this is the minimum value of m 2 to start the motion Note :  In the above condition Coefficient of friction  m2    tan    m 1 cos   Sample problems based on hung mass Problem 23.(i) T m1 m1 a .. The system accelerates..

25.. If the coefficient of friction between the chain and the table surface is 0. Retarding force F  ma  R S u v=0 ..(ii) [As u  0 and a  g sin  ] From equation (i) and (ii) 1 1 (g sin  ) t 2 = g (sin    cos  ) (nt ) 2 2 2 [As u  0 and a  g (sin    cos  )]   sin   (sin    cos  ) n 2 1     tan  1  2   n  Problem 26....25] 0.. A body takes just twice the time as long to slide down a plane inclined at 30o to the horizontal as if the plane were frictionless. The coefficient of friction between the body and the plane is [JIPMER 1999] (a) 3 4 (b) 3 (c) 4 3 (d) 3 4 Solution : (a) 1  1  3     tan  1  2   tan 30  1  2   ...e. For smooth wedge For rough wedge S ut  S 1 2 at 2 S ut  1 2 at 2 1 (g sin  ) t 2 2 . 1 .18 Stopping of Block Due to Friction. (1) On horizontal road (i) Distance travelled before coming to rest : A block of mass m is moving initially with velocity u on a rough surface and due to friction it comes to rest after covering a distance S. A body slides on a smooth wedge of angle  and its time of descent is t. then the maximum fraction of the length of the chain that can hang over one edge of the table is (a) 20% (b) 25% (c) 35% (d) 15% From the expression  l'      0 . 25  l'      1  l   0 . 25 l l = 20% of the length of the chain. nt) The length of path in both the cases are same. length hanging from the table [As chain have uniform linear density] length lying on the table ( l – l )   l l  l l by solving l   l (  1) Problem 25. 25  1  l      Solution : (a) [As  = 0. 25 5 5.17 Coefficient of Friction Between Body and Wedge . S Smooth wedge S Rough wedge   If the same wedge made rough then time taken by it to come down becomes n times more (i. 4 n  2    5.(i) S  1 g (sin    cos  )(nt ) 2 2 . A heavy uniform chain lies on a horizontal table top.

Then the coefficient of friction is [AIEEE 2003] (a) 0.06   u 6   0 . a  g ]  or S  [As momentum P = mu] (ii) Time taken to come to rest From equation v  u  at  0  u   g t t  u g [ As v  0. A 2 kg mass starts from rest on an inclined smooth surface with inclination 30o and length 2 m. F = ma So. 2 g 2  0 .25 [UPSEAT 2003] (a) 4 m (b) 6 m (c) 8 m (d) 2 m Solution : (a) v 2  u 2  2 aS  0  2  g sin 30  2 v 20 Let it travel distance ‘S’ before coming to rest S v2 20   4 m. gt 10  10 Problem 28. 25  10 .02 (c) 0. a   g] (iii) Force of friction acting on the body We know. F   mg And we know that retardation a  g [sin    cos  ] By substituting the value of v and a in the following equation v 2  u 2  2a S S u v=0  0  u 2  2 g [sin    cos  ] S  u2 S  2 g (sin    cos  ) Sample problems based on motion of body on rough surface Problem 27. ma   mg  From a  g . A marble block of mass 2 kg lying on ice when given a velocity of 6 m/s is stopped by friction in 10s. How much will it travel before coming to rest on a surface with coefficient of friction 0.01 Solution : (d) v  u  at  u  g t  0 (b) 0. 06 . v 2  u 2  2aS  0  u 2  2  g S S  u2 2 g P2 2 m 2 g [As v  0.e. Fm F (v  u) t mu t [As v = 0]  u   As t  g    (2) On inclined road : When block starts with velocity u its kinetic energy will be converted into potential energy and some part of it goes against friction and after travelling distance S it comes to rest i. v = 0.03 (d) 0.

S = Distance covered by block. If friction force R  mg   a ma  mg [ As R  ma ] F F M CART m g a  a min  g  ma m R  mg This is the minimum acceleration of the cart so that block does not fall.21 Sticking of a Block With Accelerated Cart.e.19 Stopping of Two Blocks Due to Friction. When a cart moves with some acceleration toward right then a pseudo force (ma) acts on block toward left. So S S1 m 2  1    2 S 2  m1  m 2 5.e.. Now block will remain static w.r. This force (ma) is action force by a block on cart. 1 mv 2  mgh  FL 2 v 2 (mgh  FL) m 5. Loss of energy due to friction = FL (Work against friction) PE at point A = mgh A u=0 m h m B v 1 KE at point B = mv 2 2 L By the law of conservation of energy i. block. When two masses compressed towards each other and suddenly released then energy acquired by each block will be dissipated against friction and finally block comes to rest i. and the minimum force to hold the block together Fmin  (M  m ) a min Fmin  (M  m ) g  5. A body of mass m which is placed at the top of the wedge (of height h) starts moving downward on a rough inclined plane.22 Sticking of a Person With the Wall of Rotor.20 Velocity at the Bottom of Rough Wedge.5. . E = Initial kinetic energy of the block] [Where P = momentum of block] A B m2 S2 m2  mg  S   S  P2 [As F =  mg] m1 S1 m1 2 m 2 g In a given condition P and  are same for both the blocks. F × S = E  FS  P2 2m P 2m 2 [Where F = Friction.t.

Solution : (b) Problem 32. Then the frictional force is equal to [Orissa JEE 2003] (a) 6 N (b) 20 N (c) 600 N (d) 700 N For the given condition Static friction = Applied force = Weight of body = 2 × 10 = 20 N. A horizontal force of 10 N is necessary to just hold a block stationary against a wall. 2  10 = 2N R F 10 N W Problem 31. The system shown in the figure is in equilibrium. The coefficient of friction between the wall and the clothing is .5. will be o (a) 100 N 100 kg 45 W .5 m/s2 (c) 10 m/s2 (d) 5 m/s2 Solution : (d) Friction = R = 0. The maximum value of W. then person thrown away from the centre due to centrifugal force at a particular speed w. Problem 30. A body of mass 2 kg is kept by pressing to a vertical wall by a force of 100 N. 5  500  10  50 m /s. A fireman of mass 60kg slides down a pole. Friction force (F) = weight of person (mg)    F R FC mg R = mg  Fc  mg 2 m  min r  mg [Here. He is pressing the pole with a force of 600 N. The weight of the block is [AIEEE 2003] (a) 2 N (b) 20 N (c) 50 N (d) 100 N 10 N Solution : (a) For equilibrium Weight (W) = Force of friction (F) W  R  0 . The friction between wall and body is 0.3. so that the maximum value of static frictional force on 100 kg.5. because friction force balances its weight in this condition.A person with a mass m stands in contact against the wall of a cylindrical drum (rotor). body is 450 N. From the figure. Weight = 600 N ma = W – F  a   a  5 m /s 2 W  F 600  300  m 60 F R W 600 N Problem 33. Fc= centrifugal force]   min  g r Sample problems (Miscellaneous) Problem 29.2. with what acceleration will the fireman slide down (g = 10 m/s 2) (a) 1 m/s2 (b) 2. The coefficient of friction between the hands and the pole is 0. the person stuck to the wall even the floor is removed. The coefficient of friction between the block and the wall is 0.5 × 600 = 300 N.) 2001] (a) 50 m/s Solution : (a) v (b) 75 m/s (c) 25 m/s (d) 35 m/s rg  0 . A motorcycle is travelling on a curved track of radius 500m if the coefficient of friction between road and tyres is 0. The speed avoiding skidding will be [MH CET (Med. If Rotor starts rotating about its axis.

(b) 250 N (c) 450 N (d) 1000 N Solution : (c) For vertical equilibrium T1 sin 45 o  W For horizontal equilibrium T 2  T1 cos 45 o  and for the critical condition T2 = F  W = T2 = F = 450 N  T1  W sin 45 o W sin 45 o F T1 sin 45o T 1 T2 45o T1 cos 45o W cos 45 o = W .

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